Science.gov

Sample records for aerial photo analysis

  1. 80. PHOTOCOPY OF 1976 AERIAL PHOTO OF BULLFROG MINE. From ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    80. PHOTOCOPY OF 1976 AERIAL PHOTO OF BULLFROG MINE. From National Park Service Environmental Review and Analysis, Bullfrog Mine Plan of Operations, Death Valley Nat'l Monument (24 March 1976) - Bullfrog Mine, Rhyolite, Nye County, NV

  2. 81. PHOTOCOPY OF 1978 AERIAL PHOTO OF BULLFROG MINE. From ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    81. PHOTOCOPY OF 1978 AERIAL PHOTO OF BULLFROG MINE. From National Park Service Environmental Review and Analysis, BullfroG Mine Plan of Operations, Death Valley Nat'l Monument (24 August 1978) - Bullfrog Mine, Rhyolite, Nye County, NV

  3. Aerial photo SBVC1962". Photo no. 360. Low oblique aerial view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial photo -SBVC-1962". Photo no. 360. Low oblique aerial view of the campus, looking southeast. Stamped on the rear: "Ron Wilhite, Sun-Telegram photo, file, 10/22/62/ - San Bernardino Valley College, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  4. Locating buildings in aerial photos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James S.

    1994-01-01

    Algorithms and techniques for use in the identification and location of large buildings in digitized copies of aerial photographs are developed and tested. The building data would be used in the simulation of objects located in the vicinity of an airport that may be detected by aircraft radar. Two distinct approaches are considered. Most building footprints are rectangular in form. The first approach studied is to search for right-angled corners that characterize rectangular objects and then to connect these corners to complete the building. This problem is difficult because many nonbuilding objects, such as street corners, parking lots, and ballparks often have well defined corners which are often difficult to distinguish from rooftops. Furthermore, rooftops come in a number of shapes, sizes, shadings, and textures which also limit the discrimination task. The strategy used linear sequences of different samples to detect straight edge segments at multiple angles and to determine when these segments meet at approximately right-angles with respect to each other. This technique is effective in locating corners. The test image used has a fairly rectangular block pattern oriented about thirty degrees clockwise from a vertical alignment, and the overall measurement data reflect this. However, this technique does not discriminate between buildings and other objects at an operationally suitable rate. In addition, since multiple paths are tested for each image pixel, this is a time consuming task. The process can be speeded up by preprocessing the image to locate the more optimal sampling paths. The second approach is to rely on a human operator to identify and select the building objects and then to have the computer determine the outline and location of the selected structures. When presented with a copy of a digitized aerial photograph, the operator uses a mouse and cursor to select a target building. After a button on the mouse is pressed, with the cursor fully within

  5. 7. Historic aerial photo of rocket engine test facility complex, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic aerial photo of rocket engine test facility complex, June 1962. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA GRC photo number C-60674. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  6. Lake Superior water quality near Duluth from analysis of aerial photos and ERTS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherz, J. P.; Van Domelen, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    ERTS imagery of Lake Superior in the late summer of 1972 shows dirty water near the city of Duluth. Water samples and simultaneous photographs were taken on three separate days following a heavy storm which caused muddy runoff water. The water samples were analyzed for turbidity, color, and solids. Reflectance and transmittance characteristics of the water samples were determined with a spectrophotometer apparatus. This same apparatus attached to a microdensitometer was used to analyze the photographs for the approximate colors or wavelengths of reflected energy that caused the exposure. Although other parameters do correlate for any one particular day, it is only the water quality parameter of turbidity that correlates with the aerial imagery on all days, as the character of the dirty water changes due to settling and mixing.

  7. 6. Photographic copy of aerial photo of site c. 1965. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photographic copy of aerial photo of site c. 1965. Original photo on file at (PAO), NUWC, Newport, R.I. Copyright-free. - Naval Undersea Warfare Center, East side of Smith & East Streets between Columbia & South Coves, New London, New London County, CT

  8. 5. Photographic copy of aerial photo of site c. 1945. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photographic copy of aerial photo of site c. 1945. Original photo on file at Public Affairs Office (PAO), Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC), Newport, R.I. Copyright-free. - Naval Undersea Warfare Center, East side of Smith & East Streets between Columbia & South Coves, New London, New London County, CT

  9. 9. Historic aerial photo of rocket engine test facility complex, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic aerial photo of rocket engine test facility complex, June 11, 1965. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA GRC photo number C-65-1270. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  10. 8. Historic aerial photo of rocket engine test facility complex, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic aerial photo of rocket engine test facility complex, June 11, 1965. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA GRC photo number C-65-1271. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  11. Pasadena, California Anaglyph with Aerial Photo Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, DC.

    Size: 2.2 km (1.4 miles) x 2.4 km (1.49 miles) Location: 34.16 deg. North lat., 118.16 deg. West lon. Orientation: looking straight down at land Original Data Resolution: SRTM, 30 meters; Aerial Photo, 3 meters. Date Acquired: February 16, 2000 Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA

  12. Aerial Infrared Photos for Citrus Growers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blazquez, C. H.; Horn, F. W. J.

    1982-01-01

    Handbook advises on benefits and methods of aerial photography with color infrared film. Interpretation of photographs is discussed in detail. Necessary equipment for interpretation is described--light table, magnifying lenses, and microfiche viewers, for example. Advice is given on rating tree condition; identifying effects of diseases, insects, and nematodes; and evaluating effects of soil, water, and weather.

  13. 5. AERIAL PHOTO OF THE COMPONENTS TEST LABORATORY DURING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. AERIAL PHOTO OF THE COMPONENTS TEST LABORATORY DURING THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE EAST TEST AREA. 1955, FRED ORDWAY COLLECTION, U.S. SPACE AND ROCKET CENTER, HUNTSVILLE, AL. - Marshall Space Flight Center, East Test Area, Components Test Laboratory, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  14. Anaglyph of Perspective View with Aerial Photo Overlay Pasadena, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    -band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 5.8 km (3.6 miles) x 10 km (6.2 miles) Location: 34.16 deg. North lat., 118.16 deg. West lon. Orientation: Looking North Original Data Resolution: SRTM, 30 m; aerial photo, 3 m; no vertical exaggeration Date Acquired: February 16, 2000 Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA

  15. Pasadena, California Perspective View with Aerial Photo and Landsat Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 5.8 km (3.6 miles) x 10 km (6.2 miles) Location: 34.16 deg. North lat., 118.16 deg. West lon. Orientation: Looking North Original Data Resolution: SRTM, 30 meters; Landsat, 30 meters; Aerial Photo, 3 meters (no vertical exaggeration) Date Acquired: February 16, 2000

  16. Application of Digital Image Correlation Method to Improve the Accuracy of Aerial Photo Stitching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Shih-Heng; Jhou, You-Liang; Shih, Ming-Hsiang; Hsiao, Han-Wei; Sung, Wen-Pei

    2016-04-01

    Satellite images and traditional aerial photos have been used in remote sensing for a long time. However, there are some problems with these images. For example, the resolution of satellite image is insufficient, the cost to obtain traditional images is relatively high and there is also human safety risk in traditional flight. These result in the application limitation of these images. In recent years, the control technology of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is rapidly developed. This makes unmanned aerial vehicle widely used in obtaining aerial photos. Compared to satellite images and traditional aerial photos, these aerial photos obtained using UAV have the advantages of higher resolution, low cost. Because there is no crew in UAV, it is still possible to take aerial photos using UAV under unstable weather conditions. Images have to be orthorectified and their distortion must be corrected at first. Then, with the help of image matching technique and control points, these images can be stitched or used to establish DEM of ground surface. These images or DEM data can be used to monitor the landslide or estimate the volume of landslide. For the image matching, we can use such as Harris corner method, SIFT or SURF to extract and match feature points. However, the accuracy of these methods for matching is about pixel or sub-pixel level. The accuracy of digital image correlation method (DIC) during image matching can reach about 0.01pixel. Therefore, this study applies digital image correlation method to match extracted feature points. Then the stitched images are observed to judge the improvement situation. This study takes the aerial photos of a reservoir area. These images are stitched under the situations with and without the help of DIC. The results show that the misplacement situation in the stitched image using DIC to match feature points has been significantly improved. This shows that the use of DIC to match feature points can actually improve the accuracy of

  17. Object-Based Arctic Sea Ice Feature Extraction through High Spatial Resolution Aerial photos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, X.; Xie, H.

    2015-12-01

    High resolution aerial photographs used to detect and classify sea ice features can provide accurate physical parameters to refine, validate, and improve climate models. However, manually delineating sea ice features, such as melt ponds, submerged ice, water, ice/snow, and pressure ridges, is time-consuming and labor-intensive. An object-based classification algorithm is developed to automatically extract sea ice features efficiently from aerial photographs taken during the Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition in summer 2010 (CHINARE 2010) in the MIZ near the Alaska coast. The algorithm includes four steps: (1) the image segmentation groups the neighboring pixels into objects based on the similarity of spectral and textural information; (2) the random forest classifier distinguishes four general classes: water, general submerged ice (GSI, including melt ponds and submerged ice), shadow, and ice/snow; (3) the polygon neighbor analysis separates melt ponds and submerged ice based on spatial relationship; and (4) pressure ridge features are extracted from shadow based on local illumination geometry. The producer's accuracy of 90.8% and user's accuracy of 91.8% are achieved for melt pond detection, and shadow shows a user's accuracy of 88.9% and producer's accuracies of 91.4%. Finally, pond density, pond fraction, ice floes, mean ice concentration, average ridge height, ridge profile, and ridge frequency are extracted from batch processing of aerial photos, and their uncertainties are estimated.

  18. Object-based Image Classification of Arctic Sea Ice and Melt Ponds through Aerial Photos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, X.; Xie, H.; Li, Z.; Lei, R.

    2013-12-01

    The last six years have marked the lowest Arctic summer sea ice extents in the modern era, with a new record summer minimum (3.4 million km2) set on 13 September 2012. It has been predicted that the Arctic could be free of summer ice within the next 25-30. The loss of Arctic summer ice could have serious consequences, such as higher water temperature due to the positive feedback of albedo, more powerful and frequent storms, rising sea levels, diminished habitats for polar animals, and more pollution due to fossil fuel exploitation and/ or increased traffic through the Northwest/ Northeast Passage. In these processes, melt ponds play an important role in Earth's radiation balance since they strongly absorb solar radiation rather than reflecting it as snow and ice do. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the ability of predicting the sea ice/ melt pond extents and space-time evolution, which is pivotal to prepare for the variation and uncertainty of the future environment, political, economic, and military needs. A lot of efforts have been put into Arctic sea ice modeling to simulate sea ice processes. However, these sea ice models were initiated and developed based on limited field surveys, aircraft or satellite image data. Therefore, it is necessary to collect high resolution sea ice aerial photo in a systematic way to tune up, validate, and improve models. Currently there are many sea ice aerial photos available, such as Chinese Arctic Exploration (CHINARE 2008, 2010, 2012), SHEBA 1998 and HOTRAX 2005. However, manually delineating of sea ice and melt pond from these images is time-consuming and labor-intensive. In this study, we use the object-based remote sensing classification scheme to extract sea ice and melt ponds efficiently from 1,727 aerial photos taken during the CHINARE 2010. The algorithm includes three major steps as follows. (1) Image segmentation groups the neighboring pixels into objects according to the similarity of spectral and texture

  19. Environmental geophysics and sequential aerial photo study at Sunfish and Marsden Lakes, Twin Cities Army Ammunition Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Padar, C.A.; McGinnis, L.D.; Thompson, M.D.; Anderson, A.W.; Benson, M.A.; Stevanov, J.E.; Daudt, C.R.; Miller, S.F.; Knight, D.E. |

    1995-08-01

    Geophysical studies at Site H of Twin Cities Army Ammunition Plant have delineated specific areas of dumping and waste disposal. Anomalous areas noted in the geophysical data sets have been correlated with features visible in a chronological sequence of aerial photos. The photos aid in dating the anthropogenic changes and in interpreting the geophysical anomalies observed at Site H and across Sunfish Lake. Specifically, two burn cages and what has been interpreted as their surrounding debris have been delineated. The areal extent of another waste site has been defined in the southwest corner of Area H-1. Depth estimates to the top of the Area H-1 anomalies show that the anomalies lie below lake level, indicative of dumping directly into Sunfish Lake. Except for these areas along the northwestern shore, there is no evidence of waste disposal along the shoreline or within the present-day lake margins. Magnetic, electromagnetic, and ground-penetrating-radar data have pinpointed the locations of mounds, observable in aerial photos, around the first burn cage. The second burn cage and its surrounding area have also been clearly defined from aerial photos, with support from further geophysical data. Additional analysis of the data has yielded volumetric estimates of the amount of material that would need removal in the event of excavation of the anomalous areas. Magnetic and electromagnetic profiles were also run across Marsden Lake. On the basis of these data, it has been concluded that no large-scale dumping has occurred in or around Marsden Lake.

  20. Affine transformations from aerial photos to computer compatible tapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peet, F. G.; Mack, A. R.; Crosson, L. S.

    1974-01-01

    During the development of a project to estimate wheat production, it became necessary to pull data, corresponding to particular fields in a test site, off an ERTS computer compatible tape. Aerial photographs and topographic maps were on hand for the test site. A method was devised, using an affine transformation, to relate the aerial photographs or topographic maps to the tapes. One can thereby access data on the tape corresponding to regions covered by only a few pixels. The theory can be used for the registration of two tapes for the same area and for the geometric correction of images.

  1. True Ortho Generation of Urban Area Using High Resolution Aerial Photos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yong; Stanley, David; Xin, Yubin

    2016-06-01

    The pros and cons of existing methods for true ortho generation are analyzed based on a critical literature review for its two major processing stages: visibility analysis and occlusion compensation. They process frame and pushbroom images using different algorithms for visibility analysis due to the need of perspective centers used by the z-buffer (or alike) techniques. For occlusion compensation, the pixel-based approach likely results in excessive seamlines in the ortho-rectified images due to the use of a quality measure on the pixel-by-pixel rating basis. In this paper, we proposed innovative solutions to tackle the aforementioned problems. For visibility analysis, an elevation buffer technique is introduced to employ the plain elevations instead of the distances from perspective centers by z-buffer, and has the advantage of sensor independency. A segment oriented strategy is developed to evaluate a plain cost measure per segment for occlusion compensation instead of the tedious quality rating per pixel. The cost measure directly evaluates the imaging geometry characteristics in ground space, and is also sensor independent. Experimental results are demonstrated using aerial photos acquired by UltraCam camera.

  2. Spatial Feature Evaluation for Aerial Scene Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Swearingen, Thomas S; Cheriyadat, Anil M

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution aerial images are becoming more readily available, which drives the demand for robust, intelligent and efficient systems to process increasingly large amounts of image data. However, automated image interpretation still remains a challenging problem. Robust techniques to extract and represent features to uniquely characterize various aerial scene categories is key for automated image analysis. In this paper we examined the role of spatial features to uniquely characterize various aerial scene categories. We studied low-level features such as colors, edge orientations, and textures, and examined their local spatial arrangements. We computed correlograms representing the spatial correlation of features at various distances, then measured the distance between correlograms to identify similar scenes. We evaluated the proposed technique on several aerial image databases containing challenging aerial scene categories. We report detailed evaluation of various low-level features by quantitatively measuring accuracy and parameter sensitivity. To demonstrate the feature performance, we present a simple query-based aerial scene retrieval system.

  3. Integration of historical aerial and satellite photos, recent satellite images and geophysical surveys for the knowledge of the ancient Dyrrachium (Durres, Albania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malfitana, Daniele; Shehi, Eduard; Masini, Nicola; Scardozzi, Giuseppe

    2010-05-01

    The paper presents the preliminary results of an integrated multidiscipliary research project concerning the urban area of the modern Durres (ancient Dyrrachium). Here a joint Italian and Albanian researcher are starting preliminary investigations on the place of an ancient roman villa placed in the urban centre of the modern town. In a initial phase are offering interesting results the use of a rich multitemporal remote sensing data-set, historical aerial photos of 1920s and 1930s, photos of USA spy satellites of 1960s and 1970s (Corona KH-4A and KH-4B), and very high resolution satellite imagery. The historical aerial documentation is very rich and includes aerial photogrammetrich flights of two Italian Institutions: the private company SARA - Società Anonima Rilevamenti Aerofotogrammetrici in Rome (1928) and the IGM - Istituto Geografico Militare (1936, 1937 e 1941), which flew on Durres for purposes of cartographic production and military. These photos offer an image of the city before the urban expansion after the Second World War and in recent decades, progressively documented by satellite images of the 1960s-1970s and recent years. They enable a reconstruction of the ancient topography of the urban area, even with the possibility of detailed analysis, as in the case of the the Roman villa, nowadays buried under a modern garden, but also investigated with a GPR survey, in order to rebuild its plan and contextualize the villa in relation to the urban area of the ancient Dyrrachium.

  4. NEAR INFRARED AERIAL PHOTO-DETECTION OF ZOSTERA JAPONICA COMMUNITIES IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARINE INTERTIDAL HABITATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Near infrared color aerial photography (-1:7200) of Yaquina Bay, Oregon, flown at minus tides during summer months of 1997 was used to produce digital stereo ortho-photographs covering tidally exposed eelgrass habitat. GIS analysis coupled with GPS positioning of ground-truth da...

  5. Multi-Temporal Analysis of WWII Reconnaissance Photos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meixner, P.; Eckstein, M.

    2016-06-01

    There are millions of aerial photographs from the period of the Second Wold War available in the Allied archives, obtained by aerial photo reconnaissance, covering most of today's European countries. They are spanning the time from 1938 until the end of the war and even beyond. Photo reconnaissance provided intelligence information for the Allied headquarters and accompanied the bombing offensive against the German homeland and the occupied territories. One of the initial principal targets in Bohemia were the synthetized fuel works STW AG (Sudetenländische Treibstoffwerke AG) in Zaluzi (formerly Maltheuren) near Most (formerly Brück), Czech Republic. The STW AG synthetized fuel plant was not only subject to bombing raids, but a subject to quite intensive photo reconnaissance, too - long before the start of the bombing campaign. With a multi-temporal analysis of the available imagery from international archives we will demonstrate the factory build-up during 1942 and 1943, the effects of the bombing raids in 1944 and the struggle to keep the plant working in the last year of the war. Furthermore we would like to show the impact the bombings have today, in form of potential unexploded ordnance in the adjacent area of the open cast mines.

  6. Georectification of historical aerial photos to track meander change in Wood River, Klamath County, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nash, C.; Hughes, M. L.

    2010-12-01

    The Wood River in Oregon’s Upper Klamath Basin is a meandering channel draining the southeastern slopes of Crater Lake National Park. Its valley floor is heavily grazed and highly altered by a series of irrigation channels that have substantially affected the river’s spring-fed flow regime and morphology. Despite efforts to restore the river’s hydrology, very little information is available about the river’s geomorphology. Using high-resolution LIDAR data from 2004 and georectified aerial photos from 1940-2009, we analyzed meander changes along the Wood River in the geomorphic context of its valley floor and meander belt. Aerial photos were scanned to produce digital images with sub-meter pixels, then georectified with a second-order polynomial transformation. Nine or fewer ground-control points were used for each photo to achieve an overall root-mean-square error value of 0.6 - 0.7 m. The scarcity of buildings and changes in the road and fence networks over the study period required the partial use of “natural pattern matching” during photo rectification. Semi-permanent patterns of fan erosion on the upper valley floor and hydrogeomorphic wetland patterns in lower valley provided the primary bases for natural pattern matching, further aided by the use of transparency during photo overlaying. Six prototypes of meander change were identified: extension, compression, translation, rotation, compound heading, and cutoff. Of these types, extension of meanders was the most frequently occurring. However, the effects of extension were counteracted by numerous meander cutoffs, which nominally affected sinuosity, but actually shortened the channel by about 1 km, or about 3%. Cutoffs were most frequent in the upper reaches of the river, where valley slope is higher, the meander belt is wider, and accommodation space was adequate to promote relatively high initial sinuosity. In these reaches, some cutoffs appear to have initiated downstream transfers of bedload

  7. Evergreen broadleaf forest transition zone changes in Japan from 1961 to 2008 detected by aerial ortho-photos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakazono, Etsuko; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Yasuda, Masatsugu; Daimaru, Hiromu; Takeuchi, Wataru

    2016-06-01

    In order to detect the distribution change of evergreen broad-leaved trees (EBTs) in a old-growth forest on the transitional zone of cool-temperate and warm-temperate zones, we used the ortho-photo data conversed from the aerial photos. Comparing the crown map of EBTs in the 1-ha verification plot with the ground truth data of individual tree inventory, 14 out of 17 (82%) upper layer trees were found to be visually read on the aerial photo We chose two indices for detecting the distribution change of EBTs, crown number and total crown area. We made crown maps of the 20-ha plot based on ortho-photos in 1961, 1975, 1985, 2003, 2005 and 2008, and calculated crown number and total crown area for each photos. The crown number increased at a rate 0.18/year/ha from 1961 to 2000’s, and total crown area also increased at a rate 0.21% for the 20-ha plot. The total crow area increase was highly probable because errors of area in orthophotos were smaller than secular changes of the area.

  8. Forest Resource Management System by Standing Tree Volume Estimation Using Aerial Stereo Photos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiya, T.; Koizumi, H.; Wang, J.; Itaya, A.

    2012-07-01

    Forest resource management usually requires much human labour for the field survey to keep the data up-to-date especially for the mountainous area. Furthermore, forest resources start to draw more and more attention not only as lumber resources but also as biomass resources in terms of alternative energy. This paper describes a novel system for forest resource management based on threedimensional data acquired from stereo matching of aerial photographs. The proposed system consists of image analysis of aerial photograph for forest resource estimation, and a GIS system aiming at better management of the forest resources. We have built a prototype GIS system and applied it to the experiment forest in Mie prefecture, Japan.

  9. Aerial Photogrammetric Analysis of a Scree Slope and Cliff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, Greg; Galland, Olivier; Mair, Karen

    2014-05-01

    Mapping the physical features of landslide tracks provides information about factors controlling landslide movement. The increasing availability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) provides the opportunity to efficiently and cost effectively map terrain. The main goal of this field study is to create a streamlined work-flow from acquisition to interpretation for the photogrammetric analysis of landslide tracks. Here an open source software package MicMac is used for ortho-image and point-cloud creation. A series of two flights were conducted over a scree (rockfall) slope in Kolsas, Norway. The slope runs roughly 500 m north-south with a maximum width of 60 m. A cliff to the west is the source area for the scree. The cliff consists of conglomerate, basalt, and porphyry from bottom to top respectively. The grain size of boulders in the scree slope apparently varies due to lateral differences in the cliff composition. The flights were completed under cloud cover and consisted of multiple lengthwise passes over the scree field. There was a minimum of 75% overlap between images. During the first flight the altitude was roughly 100 m, the camera was positioned normal to the scree (60 degrees from horizontal), and the resolution was 2.7 cm per pixel. The second flight had an altitude of 200 m, the camera orientation was 30 degrees from horizontal, and the resolution was 4.0 cm per pixel. Using the Micmac engine, Ortho-photos and Digital Elevation Models (DEM) were created for both the scree and the cliff. This data will allow for analysis of grain-size, surface roughness, grain-shape, fracture plane orientation, as well as geological mapping. Further work will focus the quantitative assessment of the significance different camera altitudes and angles have on the results. The work-flow used in this study provides a repeatable method for aerial photogrammetric surveys of scree slopes.

  10. MAPPING GREEN MACROALGAE BLOOMS IN A PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARY VIA 35-MM AERIAL PHOTOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Summer blooms of green macroalgae (mainly Ulva spp. and Enteromorpha spp.) on intertidal mudflats of Oregon's Yaquina Bay estuary were documented using oblique 35-mm color-infrared aerial photographs taken at low tide. Costs were controlled by use of a small airplane from a loc...

  11. Base Map Analysis of Coastal Changes Using Aerial Photography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    should be sufficient for most coastal engineering needs (Everts and Czerniak , 1977). When structures are present and near inlets, river mouths, or...test at Ludlam Beach, New Jersey, the wetted bound was identifiable on 80 percent of aerial photos analyzed (Everts, DeWall, and Czerniak , 1980). c...New Jersey, analyzed by Everts, DeWall, and Czerniak (1980), provided a means to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the waterline and wetted

  12. Cost-Based Analysis of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles/Unmanned Aerial Systems in Filling the Role of Logistical Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    UAVs in the U .S . Department of D efense (D OD) inv entory as w ell as the traditional aircraft ctmently used for logistical pwposes. Then, using a...14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF Cost-benefit, Cost-based, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Unmanned Aerial Systems, UAV , UAS, PAGES Logistics, Supp01t...thesis conducts a comparative cost analysis for using unmanned aerial vehicles ( UAVs )/unmanned aerial systems (UASs) for logistical resupply purposes

  13. Effective delineation of urban flooded areas based on aerial ortho-photo imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Guindon, Bert; Raymond, Don; Hong, Gang

    2016-10-01

    The combination of rapid global urban growth and climate change has resulted in increased occurrence of major urban flood events across the globe. The distribution of flooded area is one of the key information layers for applications of emergency planning and response management. While SAR systems and technologies have been widely used for flood area delineation, radar images suffer from range ambiguities arising from corner reflection effects and shadowing in dense urban settings. A new mapping framework is proposed for the extraction and quantification of flood extent based on aerial optical multi-spectral imagery and ancillary data. This involves first mapping of flood areas directly visible to the sensor. Subsequently, the complete area of submergence is estimated from this initial mapping and inference techniques based on baseline data such as land cover and GIS information such as available digital elevation models. The methodology has been tested and proven effective using aerial photography for the case of the 2013 flood in Calgary, Canada.

  14. Computational analysis of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abudarag, Sakhr; Yagoub, Rashid; Elfatih, Hassan; Filipovic, Zoran

    2017-01-01

    A computational analysis has been performed to verify the aerodynamics properties of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The UAV-SUST has been designed and fabricated at the Department of Aeronautical Engineering at Sudan University of Science and Technology in order to meet the specifications required for surveillance and reconnaissance mission. It is classified as a medium range and medium endurance UAV. A commercial CFD solver is used to simulate steady and unsteady aerodynamics characteristics of the entire UAV. In addition to Lift Coefficient (CL), Drag Coefficient (CD), Pitching Moment Coefficient (CM) and Yawing Moment Coefficient (CN), the pressure and velocity contours are illustrated. The aerodynamics parameters are represented a very good agreement with the design consideration at angle of attack ranging from zero to 26 degrees. Moreover, the visualization of the velocity field and static pressure contours is indicated a satisfactory agreement with the proposed design. The turbulence is predicted by enhancing K-ω SST turbulence model within the computational fluid dynamics code.

  15. Comparative Analysis of the Tour Jete and Aerial with Detailed Analysis of Aerial Takeoff Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierson, Mimi; Coplin, Kim

    2006-10-01

    Whether internally as muscle tension or from external sources, forces are necessary for all motion. This research focused on athletic rotations where conditions of flight are established during takeoff. By studying reaction forces that produce torques, moments of inertia, and linear and angular differences between distinct rotations around different principle axes of the body (tour jete in ballet - longitudinal axis; aerial in gymnastics - anteroposterior axis), and by looking at the values of angular momentum in the specific mechanics of aerial takeoff, we can gain insight into possible causes of injury, flaws in technique and limitations of athletes. Results showed significant differences in the horizontal and vertical components of takeoff between the tour jete and the aerial, and a realization that torque was produced in different biomechanical planes. Both rotations showed braking forces before takeoff to counteract forward momentum and increase vertical lift, but the angle of applied force varied, and the horizontal components of velocity and force and vertical velocity as well as moment of inertia throughout flight were consistently greater for the aerial. Breakdown of aerial takeoff highlighted the relative importance of the takeoff phases, showing that completion depends fundamentally upon the rotation of the rear foot and torso twisting during takeoff rather than the last foot in contact with the ground.

  16. Analysis of cyberattacks on unmanned aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shull, Andrew M.

    With the increasing power and convenience offered by the use of embedded systems in control applications, such systems will undoubtedly continue to be developed and deployed. Recently, however, a focus on data-centric systems and developing network-enabled control systems has emerged, allowing for greater performance, safety, and resource allocation in systems such as smart power grids and unmanned military aircraft. However, this increase in connectivity also introduces vulnerabilities into these systems, potentially providing access to malicious parties seeking to disrupt the operation of those systems or to cause damage. Given the high potential cost of a failure in these systems in terms of property, sensitive information, and human safety, steps need to be taken to secure these systems. In order to analyze the vulnerabilities of unmanned aerial systems (UASs) specifically, a simulation testbed is developed to perform high-fidelity simulations of UAS operations using both software models and the actual vehicle hardware. Then, potential attacks against the control system and their corresponding intents are identified and introduced into these simulations. Failure conditions are defined, and extensive simulation of attacks in different combinations and magnitudes are performed in both software and hardware in order to identify particularly successful attacks, including attacks that are difficult to detect. From these results, vulnerabilities of the system can be determined so that appropriate remedies can be designed. Additionally, stealthy false data injection attacks against linear feedback systems are considered. The identification of these attacks is formed as an optimization problem constrained by the ability of monitoring systems to detect the attack. The optimal attack input is then determined for an example application so that the worst case system performance can be identified and, if needed, improved.

  17. Texture analysis for mapping Tamarix parviflora using aerial photographs along the Cache Creek, California.

    PubMed

    Ge, Shaokui; Carruthers, Raymond; Gong, Peng; Herrera, Angelica

    2006-03-01

    Natural color photographs were used to detect the coverage of saltcedar, Tamarix parviflora, along a 40 km portion of Cache Creek near Woodland, California. Historical aerial photographs from 2001 were retrospectively evaluated and compared with actual ground-based information to assess accuracy of the assessment process. The color aerial photos were sequentially digitized, georeferenced, classified using color and texture methods, and mosaiced into maps for field use. Eight types of ground cover (Tamarix, agricultural crops, roads, rocks, water bodies, evergreen trees, non-evergreen trees and shrubs (excluding Tamarix)) were selected from the digitized photos for separability analysis and supervised classification. Due to color similarities among the eight cover types, the average separability, based originally only on color, was very low. The separability was improved significantly through the inclusion of texture analysis. Six types of texture measures with various window sizes were evaluated. The best texture was used as an additional feature along with the color, for identifying Tamarix. A total of 29 color photographs were processed to detect Tamarix infestations using a combination of the original digital images and optimal texture features. It was found that the saltcedar covered a total of 3.96 km(2) (396 hectares) within the study area. For the accuracy assessment, 95 classified samples from the resulting map were checked in the field with a global position system (GPS) unit to verify Tamarix presence. The producer's accuracy was 77.89%. In addition, 157 independently located ground sites containing saltcedar were compared with the classified maps, producing a user's accuracy of 71.33%.

  18. An air photo analysis of an airplane crash.

    PubMed

    Rinker, J N; Garstang, J H; Edwards, D; Del Vecchio, J J

    1989-07-01

    Crash patterns-such as cut and damaged vegetation, gouges, debris scatter, burn areas, etc.,-and their spatial relations can be very effectively evaluated by the analysis of stereo aerial photographs. Results from the Canadian Aviation Safety Board's use of aerial photography in the Gander, Nfld., crash of Dec. 12, 1985, show that the technique can lend direct support to an investigation in several ways. It provides an overall perspective view of the regional relations of the crash patterns. It helps direct ground activities. In three-covered areas, it can help establish aircraft attitude and orientation. When combined with debris plots and attitude determinations, it can help establish the breakup sequence. And, when coupled to photogrammetric procedures, it can assign dimensional values to attitude, descent path, areas, lengths, etc.

  19. Guidelines for the Acquisition of Aerial Photography for Digital Photo-Interpretation of Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    the purpose of mapping SAV in the Laguna Madre Intracoastal Waterway in south Texas for the USACE Galveston District. Included within this...example, with respect to the Laguna Madre project, late fall and early winter is often the opti- mum time for acquisition of aerial photography for the...exist that are conducive to mapping. For the Laguna Madre project, ideal conditions were most probable beginning in November and extending to April

  20. Analysis and Exploitation of Automatically Generated Scene Structure from Aerial Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilosek, David R.

    The recent advancements made in the field of computer vision, along with the ever increasing rate of computational power has opened up opportunities in the field of automated photogrammetry. Many researchers have focused on using these powerful computer vision algorithms to extract three-dimensional point clouds of scenes from multi-view imagery, with the ultimate goal of creating a photo-realistic scene model. However, geographically accurate three-dimensional scene models have the potential to be exploited for much more than just visualization. This work looks at utilizing automatically generated scene structure from near-nadir aerial imagery to identify and classify objects within the structure, through the analysis of spatial-spectral information. The limitation to this type of imagery is imposed due to the common availability of this type of aerial imagery. Popular third-party computer-vision algorithms are used to generate the scene structure. A voxel-based approach for surface estimation is developed using Manhattan-world assumptions. A surface estimation confidence metric is also presented. This approach provides the basis for further analysis of surface materials, incorporating spectral information. Two cases of spectral analysis are examined: when additional hyperspectral imagery of the reconstructed scene is available, and when only R,G,B spectral information can be obtained. A method for registering the surface estimation to hyperspectral imagery, through orthorectification, is developed. Atmospherically corrected hyperspectral imagery is used to assign reflectance values to estimated surface facets for physical simulation with DIRSIG. A spatial-spectral region growing-based segmentation algorithm is developed for the R,G,B limited case, in order to identify possible materials for user attribution. Finally, an analysis of the geographic accuracy of automatically generated three-dimensional structure is performed. An end-to-end, semi-automated, workflow

  1. Parameter-Based Performance Analysis of Object-Based Image Analysis Using Aerial and Quikbird-2 Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavzoglu, T.; Yildiz, M.

    2014-09-01

    Opening new possibilities for research, very high resolution (VHR) imagery acquired by recent commercial satellites and aerial systems requires advanced approaches and techniques that can handle large volume of data with high local variance. Delineation of land use/cover information from VHR images is a hot research topic in remote sensing. In recent years, object-based image analysis (OBIA) has become a popular solution for image analysis tasks as it considers shape, texture and content information associated with the image objects. The most important stage of OBIA is the image segmentation process applied prior to classification. Determination of optimal segmentation parameters is of crucial importance for the performance of the selected classifier. In this study, effectiveness and applicability of the segmentation method in relation to its parameters was analysed using two VHR images, an aerial photo and a Quickbird-2 image. Multi-resolution segmentation technique was employed with its optimal parameters of scale, shape and compactness that were defined after an extensive trail process on the data sets. Nearest neighbour classifier was applied on the segmented images, and then the accuracy assessment was applied. Results show that segmentation parameters have a direct effect on the classification accuracy, and low values of scale-shape combinations produce the highest classification accuracies. Also, compactness parameter was found to be having minimal effect on the construction of image objects, hence it can be set to a constant value in image classification.

  2. Using aerial photography and image analysis to measure changes in giant reed populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted along the Rio Grande in southwest Texas to evaluate color-infrared aerial photography combined with supervised image analysis to quantify changes in giant reed (Arundo donax L.) populations over a 6-year period. Aerial photographs from 2002 and 2008 of the same seven study site...

  3. Automatic Line Network Extraction from Aerial Imagery of Urban Areas through Knowledge Based Image Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    Automatic Line Network Extraction from Aerial Imangery of Urban Areas Sthrough KnowledghBased Image Analysis N 04 Final Technical ReportI December...Automatic Line Network Extraction from Aerial Imagery of Urban Areas through Knowledge Based Image Analysis Accesion For NTIS CRA&I DTIC TAB 0...paittern re’ognlition. blac’kboardl oriented symbollic processing, knowledge based image analysis , image understanding, aer’ial imsagery, urban area, 17

  4. Aerial Photographic Analysis of Historic Riparian Vegetation Growth and Channel Change at Canyon de Chelly National Monument, Arizona: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadol, D. D.; Rathburn, S. L.

    2005-12-01

    Aerial photographs over the past 70 years show that a profound alteration in the channels of Canyon de Chelly National Monument has coincided with the establishment and expansion of riparian vegetation, in particular invasive tamarisk ( Tamarix ssp.) and Russian olive ( Elaeagnus angustifolia). Rectification of the air photos, using GIS, enabled detailed mapping of the extent and density of vegetation in the canyon bottom, and analysis of stream channel geometry for each photo set. Photo sets from 1934, 1989, and 2004 were used to track changes in vegetation and channel morphology through time. In 1934, scattered riparian vegetation, including cottonwood ( Populus ssp.) and willow ( Salix ssp.), covered <1% of the canyon bottom. By 2004 the full length of the channel was lined with a riparian vegetation belt, with vegetation covering as much as 40% of the canyon bottom in some 1 km long study reaches . However the width of the riparian belt was spatially discontinuous, with other study reaches having less than 10% coverage of the canyon bottom. Riparian vegetation growth has coincided with an alteration in the hydrology of the streams within the canyon. Air photos from 1934 show a wide sandy wash throughout the extent of the study area. By 1989, some reaches had narrowed, with the channel becoming a single, meandering thread, and with woody riparian vegetation well established on much of the former wash. By 2004, long reaches of the study area were single thread, and dense Russian olive and tamarisk stands filled much of the former wash. While in some reaches the channel changed from a wide braided system to a single thread, other areas remain a sandy wash. Additionally, some reaches of the channel had become deeply incised, as much as 3 meters below the 1934 floodplain, as indicated by persistent cottonwood individuals. Field work indicates that incision was still very active in 2005. However, quantitative analysis of incision through time throughout the study

  5. Metaphors of Distress: Photo-Elicitation Enhances a Discourse Analysis of Parents' Accounts.

    PubMed

    Kantrowitz-Gordon, Ira; Vandermause, Roxanne

    2016-07-01

    In research on sensitive topics, photo-elicitation can be a profound aid to data collection and interpretation processes. Photo-elicitation methods were used in this manner in a discourse analysis of parents' distress at least 6 months after preterm birth. After an initial interview, participants were asked to take digital photographs representing their distress and to return for a second interview to discuss the photographs. The elicited photo representations supported participants' engagement with their current or past distress and generated new meanings from the reappraisal of old photographs. Photo-elicitation demonstrated the embodiment of parents' distress in the child and the placement of distress in specific locations. Photographs of documents showed the power of the written word in generating and maintaining distress. Participants used existing photographs from their child's photo history to generate rich metaphors for their distress as parents. These findings have implications for enhancing interpretive health research by incorporating photo-elicitation methods.

  6. Automatic Line Network Extraction from Aerial Imagery of Urban Areas through Knowledge-Based Image Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-19

    approach for the analysis of aerial images. In this approach image analysis is performed ast three levels of abstraction, namely iconic or low-level... image analysis , symbolic or medium-level image analysis , and semantic or high-level image analysis . Domain dependent knowledge about prototypical urban

  7. A photogrammetric DEM of Greenland based on 1978-1987 aerial photos: validation and integration with laser altimetry and satellite-derived DEMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korsgaard, N. J.; Kjaer, K. H.; Nuth, C.; Khan, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Here we present a DEM of Greenland covering all ice-free terrain and the margins of the GrIS and local glaciers and ice caps. The DEM is based on the 3534 photos used in the aero-triangulation which were recorded by the Danish Geodata Agency (then the Geodetic Institute) in survey campaigns spanning the period 1978-1987. The GrIS is covered tens of kilometers into the interior due to the large footprints of the photos (30 x 30 km) and control provided by the aero-triangulation. Thus, the data are ideal for providing information for analysis of ice marginal elevation change and also control for satellite-derived DEMs.The results of the validation, error assessments and predicted uncertainties are presented. We test the DEM using Airborne Topographic Mapper (IceBridge ATM) as reference data; evaluate the a posteriori covariance matrix from the aero-triangulation; and co-register DEM blocks of 50 x 50 km to ICESat laser altimetry in order to evaluate the coherency.We complement the aero-photogrammetric DEM with modern laser altimetry and DEMs derived from stereoscopic satellite imagery (AST14DMO) to examine the mass variability of the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS). Our analysis suggests that dynamically-induced mass loss started around 2003 and continued throughout 2014.

  8. Risk and safety analysis for Florida commercial aerial application operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, John Michael

    The purpose of this study was to determine self-reported perceptions in the areas of agroterrorism, bioterrorism, chemical exposure and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) oversight. The aerial application industry has been in existence since the 1920's with a gamut of issues ranging from pesticide drift to counterterrorism. The attacks of September 11th, 2001, caused a paradigm shift in the way the United States views security and, more importantly, the prevention of malicious activity. Through the proper implementation and dissemination of educational materials dealing with industry specific concerns, it is imperative that everyone has the proper level of resources and training to effectively manage terrorist threats. This research study was designed to interpret how aerial applicators view these topics of concern and how they perceive the current threat level of terrorism in the industry. Research results were consistent, indicating that a high number of aerial applicators in the state of Florida are concerned with these topics. As a result, modifications need to be made with respect to certain variables. The aerial application industry works day in and day out to provide a professional service that helps maintain the integrity of the food and commodities that we need to survive. They are a small percentage of the aviation community that we all owe a great deal for the vital and necessary services they provide.

  9. Design, fabrication & performance analysis of an unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. I.; Salam, M. A.; Afsar, M. R.; Huda, M. N.; Mahmud, T.

    2016-07-01

    An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle was designed, analyzed and fabricated to meet design requirements and perform the entire mission for an international aircraft design competition. The goal was to have a balanced design possessing, good demonstrated flight handling qualities, practical and affordable manufacturing requirements while providing a high vehicle performance. The UAV had to complete total three missions named ferry flight (1st mission), maximum load mission (2nd mission) and emergency medical mission (3rd mission). The requirement of ferry flight mission was to fly as many as laps as possible within 4 minutes. The maximum load mission consists of flying 3 laps while carrying two wooden blocks which simulate cargo. The requirement of emergency medical mission was complete 3 laps as soon as possible while carrying two attendances and two patients. A careful analysis revealed lowest rated aircraft cost (RAC) as the primary design objective. So, the challenge was to build an aircraft with minimum RAC that can fly fast, fly with maximum payload, and fly fast with all the possible configurations. The aircraft design was reached by first generating numerous design concepts capable of completing the mission requirements. In conceptual design phase, Figure of Merit (FOM) analysis was carried out to select initial aircraft configuration, propulsion, empennage and landing gear. After completion of the conceptual design, preliminary design was carried out. The preliminary design iterations had a low wing loading, high lift coefficient, and a high thrust to weight ratio. To make the aircraft capable of Rough Field Taxi; springs were added in the landing gears for absorbing shock. An airfoil shaped fuselage was designed to allowed sufficient space for payload and generate less drag to make the aircraft fly fast. The final design was a high wing monoplane with conventional tail, single tractor propulsion system and a tail dragger landing gear. Payload was stored in

  10. Aberration measurement based on principal component analysis of aerial images of optimized marks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Guanyong; Wang, Xiangzhao; Li, Sikun; Yang, Jishuo; Xu, Dongbo

    2014-10-01

    We propose an aberration measurement technique based on principal component analysis of aerial images of optimized marks (AMAI-OM). Zernike aberrations are retrieved using a linear relationship between the aerial image and Zernike coefficients. The linear relationship is composed of the principal components (PCs) and regression matrix. A centering process is introduced to compensate position offsets of the measured aerial image. A new test mark is designed in order to improve the centering accuracy and theoretical accuracy of aberration measurement together. The new test marks are composed of three spaces with different widths, and their parameters are optimized by using an accuracy evaluation function. The offsets of the measured aerial image are compensated in the centering process and the adjusted PC coefficients are obtained. Then the Zernike coefficients are calculated according to these PC coefficients using a least square method. The simulations using the lithography simulators PROLITH and Dr.LiTHO validate the accuracy of our method. Compared with the previous aberration measurement technique based on principal component analysis of aerial image (AMAI-PCA), the measurement accuracy of Zernike aberrations under the real measurement condition of the aerial image is improved by about 50%.

  11. Comparison of analysis techniques for aerial image metrology on advanced photomask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Seolchong; Woo, Sungha; Jang, Heeyeon; Lee, Youngmo; Kim, Sangpyo; Yang, Hyunjo; Schulz, Kristian; Garetto, Anthony

    2016-05-01

    The standard method for defect disposition and verification of repair success in the mask shop is through the utilization of the aerial imaging platform, AIMSTM. The CD (Critical Dimension) deviation of the defective or repaired region as well as the pattern shift can be calculated by comparing the measured aerial images of this region to that of a reference. Through this analysis it can be determined if the defect or repaired region will be printed on the wafer under the illumination conditions of the scanner. The analysis of the measured aerial images from the AIMSTM are commonly performed manually using the analysis software available on the system or with the help of an analysis software called RV (Repair Verification). Because the process is manual, it is not standardized and is subject to operator variations. This method of manual aerial image analysis is time consuming, dependent on the skill level of the operator and significantly contributes to the overall mask manufacturing process flow. AutoAnalysis (AA), the first application available for the FAVOR® platform, provides fully automated analysis of AIMSTM aerial images [1] and runs in parallel to the measurement of the aerial images. In this paper, we investigate the initial AutoAnalysis performance compared to the conventional method using RV and its application to a production environment. The evaluation is based on the defect CD of three pattern types: contact holes, dense line and spaces and peripheral structure. The defect analysis results for different patterns and illumination conditions will be correlated and challenges in transitioning to the new approach will be discussed.

  12. Photo-Elicitation: Reflexivity on Method, Analysis, and Graphic Portraits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Veronica M.; Lahman, Maria K. E.

    2015-01-01

    In this methodological discussion, the authors detail and reflect on the processes of using photo-elicitation interviewing as a way to align with positive qualitative methodologies, to gain access to participant beliefs and values, and to highlight participant voices through their choices of words and visuals. A review of the literature and an…

  13. Automated recognition of forest patterns using aerial photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbezat, Vincent; Kreiss, Philippe; Sulzmann, Armin; Jacot, Jacques

    1996-12-01

    In Switzerland, aerial photos are indispensable tools for research into ecosystems and their management. Every six years since 1950, the whole of Switzerland has been systematically surveyed by aerial photos. In the forestry field, these documents not only provide invaluable information but also give support to field activities such as the drawing up of tree population maps, intervention planning, precise positioning of the upper forest limit, evaluation of forest damage and rates of tree growth. Up to now, the analysis of aerial photos has been carried out by specialists who painstakingly examine every photograph, which makes it a very long, exacting and expensive job. The IMT-DMT of the EPFL and Antenne romande of FNP, aware of the special interest involved and the necessity of automated classification of aerial photos, have pooled their resources to develop a software program capable of differentiating between single trees, copses and dense forests. The developed algorithms detect the crowns of the trees and the surface of the orthogonal projection. Form the shadow of each tree they calculate its height. They also determine the position of the tree in the Swiss national coordinate thanks to the implementation of a numeric altitude model. For the future, we have the prospect of many new and better uses of aerial photos being available to us, particularly where isolated stands are concerned and also when evolutions based on a diachronic series of photos have to be assessed: from timberline monitoring in the research on global change to the exploitation of wooded pastures on small surface areas.

  14. Vulnerability Analysis of HD Photo Image Viewer Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    200 words) The introduction of Microsoft’s new graphics file format, Windows Media Photo, into the mainstream market in 2006 has been one of the...the successor to the ubiquitous JPEG image format, as well as the eventual de facto standard in the digital photography market . With massive efforts...into the mainstream market in 2006 has been one of the most interesting developments in the digital world. The file format, which has since been

  15. Analysis of photo linear elements, Laramie Mountains, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackstone, D. L., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Photo linear features in the Precambrian rocks of the Laramie Mountains are delineated, and the azimuths plotted on rose diagrams. Three strike directions are dominant, two of which are in the northeast quadrant. Laramide folds in the Laramie basin to the west of the mountains appear to have the same trend, and apparently have been controlled by response of the basement along fractures such as have been measured from the imagery.

  16. Mission control of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles: a workload analysis.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Stephen R; Wickens, Christopher D; Chang, Dervon

    2005-01-01

    With unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), 36 licensed pilots flew both single-UAV and dual-UAV simulated military missions. Pilots were required to navigate each UAV through a series of mission legs in one of the following three conditions: a baseline condition, an auditory autoalert condition, and an autopilot condition. Pilots were responsible for (a) mission completion, (b) target search, and (c) systems monitoring. Results revealed that both the autoalert and the autopilot automation improved overall performance by reducing task interference and alleviating workload. The autoalert system benefited performance both in the automated task and mission completion task, whereas the autopilot system benefited performance in the automated task, the mission completion task, and the target search task. Practical implications for the study include the suggestion that reliable automation can help alleviate task interference and reduce workload, thereby allowing pilots to better handle concurrent tasks during single- and multiple-UAV flight control.

  17. On the analysis of photo-electron spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, C.-Z.; Dinh, P.M.; Reinhard, P.-G.; Suraud, E.

    2015-09-15

    We analyze Photo-Electron Spectra (PES) for a variety of excitation mechanisms from a simple mono-frequency laser pulse to involved combination of pulses as used, e.g., in attosecond experiments. In the case of simple pulses, the peaks in PES reflect the occupied single-particle levels in combination with the given laser frequency. This usual, simple rule may badly fail in the case of excitation pulses with mixed frequencies and if resonant modes of the system are significantly excited. We thus develop an extension of the usual rule to cover all possible excitation scenarios, including mixed frequencies in the attosecond regime. We find that the spectral distributions of dipole, monopole and quadrupole power for the given excitation taken together and properly shifted by the single-particle energies provide a pertinent picture of the PES in all situations. This leads to the derivation of a generalized relation allowing to understand photo-electron yields even in complex experimental setups.

  18. 59. AERIAL VIEW OF OWYHEE DAM SHOWING RINGGATE SPILLWAY. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. AERIAL VIEW OF OWYHEE DAM SHOWING RING-GATE SPILLWAY. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. Aerial photo by Glade Walker, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Pacific Northwest Region, September 29, 1989. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

  19. Phytochemical Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Salvia chloroleuca Aerial Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Salimikia, Iraj; Reza Monsef-Esfahani, Hamid; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Salek, Mehrnoosh

    2016-01-01

    Background Salvia, known as Maryam Goli in the Persian language, is an important genus that includes approximately 900 species in the Lamiaceae family. There are 58 Salvia species growing naturally in Iran, including Salvia chloroleuca Rech. f. and Allen., which grows wild in the northeastern and central parts of the country. Objectives This study was designed to determine the chemical composition, in vitro antioxidant activity, and total phenol content of various extracts of S. chloroleuca. Materials and Methods Dried aerial parts of the plant were crushed, then sequentially extracted with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. The fractions of S. chloroleuca were subjected to silica gel column chromatography and Sephedex LH-20. The antioxidant activities of these extracts were measured by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and the total phenolic contents of the extracts were evaluated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Results The separation and purification processes were carried out using different chromatographic methods. Structural elucidation was on the basis 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectral data, in comparison with that reported in the literature. The isolated compounds were salvigenin (1), luteolin (2), cirsiliol (3), β-sitosterol (4), and daucosterol (5). Ethyl acetate extract displayed the highest level of total antioxidants and total polyphenols compared to the other analyzed extracts (n-hexane and methanol). In the FRAP assay, ethyl acetate extract had the highest (230.4±10.5) FRAP value, followed by methanol (211.4 ± 8.3) and n-hexane (143.4 ± 12.04). Total phenol contents were calculated to be 13.8 ± 0.3, 58.25 ± 0.05, and 43.48 ± 0.38 mg of gallic acid/100 g in the n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts, respectively. Conclusions The above-mentioned compounds were isolated for the first time from S. chloroleuca. The antioxidant activity of this plant could be in part related to isolated flavonoids and sterols. The results of this study

  20. 26. AERIAL VIEW OF WASTE CALCINING FACILITY WITH SOLIDS STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. AERIAL VIEW OF WASTE CALCINING FACILITY WITH SOLIDS STORAGE FACILITY BEHIND. CAMERA FACING EAST. INEEL PHOTO NUMBER PHOTO 72-4571. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. 9. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT THE GEORGE C. MARSHALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT THE GEORGE C. MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER. DODD ROAD RUNS DOWN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTO. THE EAST TEST AREA IS TOWARDS THE BOTTOM OF THE PHOTO, FABRICATION, ENGINEERING AND ADMINISTRATION NEAR THE TOP OF THE PHOTO. 1961, MSFC PHOTO LAB. - Marshall Space Flight Center, East Test Area, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  2. Automatic Vehicle Trajectory Extraction for Traffic Analysis from Aerial Video Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apeltauer, J.; Babinec, A.; Herman, D.; Apeltauer, T.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a new approach to simultaneous detection and tracking of vehicles moving through an intersection in aerial images acquired by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Detailed analysis of spatial and temporal utilization of an intersection is an important step for its design evaluation and further traffic inspection. Traffic flow at intersections is typically very dynamic and requires continuous and accurate monitoring systems. Conventional traffic surveillance relies on a set of fixed cameras or other detectors, requiring a high density of the said devices in order to monitor the intersection in its entirety and to provide data in sufficient quality. Alternatively, a UAV can be converted to a very agile and responsive mobile sensing platform for data collection from such large scenes. However, manual vehicle annotation in aerial images would involve tremendous effort. In this paper, the proposed combination of vehicle detection and tracking aims to tackle the problem of automatic traffic analysis at an intersection from visual data. The presented method has been evaluated in several real-life scenarios.

  3. Hydrodynamic impact analysis and testing of an unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Isabel

    Analysis and testing have been conducted to assess the feasibility of a small UAV that can be landed in the water and recovered for continued use. Water landings may be desirable in a number of situations, for example when testing UAVs outside of the territorial waters of the US to avoid violating FAA regulations. Water landings may also be desirable when conducting surveillance missions in marine environments. Although the goal in landing is to have the UAV lightly set down on the water, rough seas or gusty winds may result in a nose-in landing where the UAV essentially impacts the surface of the water. The tested UAV is a flying wing design constructed of expanded polypropylene foam wings with a hollowed out center-section for the avionics. Acceleration data was collected by means of LIS331 3-axis accelerometers positioned at five locations, including the wingtips. This allowed conclusions to be drawn with respect to the loads experienced on impact throughout the airframe. This data was also used to find loads corresponding to the maximum decelerations experienced during impact. These loads were input into a finite element analysis model of the wing spars to determine stress in the wing spars. Upon impact, the airframe experienced high-frequency oscillation. Surprisingly, peak accelerations at the wingtips were observed at up to 15g greater than corresponding accelerations at the center of the fuselage.

  4. Aerial Image Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, Robert E.

    1987-09-01

    Aerial images produce the best stereoscopic images of the viewed world. Despite the fact that every optic in existence produces an aerial image, few persons are aware of their existence and possible uses. Constant reference to the eye and other optical systems have produced a psychosis of design that only considers "focal planes" in the design and analysis of optical systems. All objects in the field of view of the optical device are imaged by the device as an aerial image. Use of aerial images in vision and visual display systems can provide a true stereoscopic representation of the viewed world. This paper discusses aerial image systems - their applications and designs and presents designs and design concepts that utilize aerial images to obtain superior visual displays, particularly with application to visual simulation.

  5. Assessment of Glacial Area and Volume Change in Tien Shan (Central Asia) During the Last 60 years Using Geodetic, Aerial Photo, ASTER and STRM Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmichenok, V.; Aizen, V.; Surazakov, A.; Aizen, E.

    2004-12-01

    The water-issue problems that occur during times of persistent drought are extremely important for central Asia. Despite the presence of large deserts and prairies with very low precipitation and extremely dry climates, central Asian mountains hold one of the greatest concentrations of perennial snow and ice in the mid-latitudes and constitute a vital source of water for more then 100,000,000 people living in this region. This research aims to evaluate glacial area and ice volume changes using aerial photographs from 1943, 1977, and Satellite Remote Sensing data from 2000/2003 over the Akshiirak ice-fields and Ala Archa glacierized basin in the central and northern Tien Shan to understand changes in the glacier water resources of central Asia during the last 60 years. These data were converted from WGS-84 to STRM and then to the Pulkovo 1942 (Russian) coordinate system using a 7-parameter Helmert transformation method. For vertical validation, the STRM DEM was compared to a DEM constructed with additional 5 m and 10 m contour lines digitized from 1:25000 topographic maps for low-relief, non-glacial areas. Glacier boundaries were digitized from an ASTER L1A image acquired on August 18, 2003 and orthorectified using Orthobase digital photogrammetric package with 9.5 m RMSE of 28 ground control points. To delineate glaciers in problem areas, resulting from debris-covered termini and shadows, thermal bands and true hardware-enabled stereo viewing with nadir 3N and backward-looking 3B bands was used. Digitizing accuracy of the 2003 glacier boundaries was verified from GPS field measurements of 7 glacier termini in 2002. For surface elevation comparison, a second DEM was generated from 10 m contour lines for all glaciers (424 km2) using 16 topographic maps of 1:25000 scale that were created using the aerial photographs of 1977. In 1943, the glaciers of the Akshiirak massif covered 424.7 km2 and 42.8 km2 in the Ala Archa glacierized basin. From 1943 to 1977, the glacial

  6. Spatial pattern analysis in Persian oak (Quercus brantii var. persica) forests on B&W aerial photographs.

    PubMed

    Erfanifard, Yousef; Feghhi, Jahangir; Zobeiri, Mahmoud; Namiranian, Manouchehr

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop a method to determine the spatial pattern of trees as a robust indicator to monitor changes from B&W aerial photographs in Persian oak forests of Zagros, Iran. A 500 x 600 m study area was selected in Servak forests next to Yasuj city in Kohgiluyeh-Va-BuyerAhmad Province. All the trees were tagged in the study area and the point map of stems were prepared. The spatial distribution of trees was determined as "dispersed" using nearest neighbour technique. Then the index of "C" calculated by T-square sampling method was applied to the point map of the study area in 30 systematic sample points in a 100 x 100 m network. Comparing the results of this method with the true spatial pattern of the study area showed that "C" can detect the spatial arrangement of trees. Thereafter the index was used on the air photo of the study area that was made of B&W aerial photographs. The method suggested in this study provides a suitable approach for detecting the spatial pattern of trees in Zagros forests on B&W air photos.

  7. KSC Employees Assemble for Historic Photo

    NASA Video Gallery

    Employees at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center, Fla., took a few moments to assemble for a historic aerial photo Friday outside Kennedy’s Vehicle Assembly Building. Thousands of workers stood side-b...

  8. Quantitative analysis of drainage obtained from aerial photographs and RBV/LANDSAT images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Formaggio, A. R.; Epiphanio, J. C. N.; Filho, M. V.

    1981-01-01

    Data obtained from aerial photographs (1:60,000) and LANDSAT return beam vidicon imagery (1:100,000) concerning drainage density, drainage texture, hydrography density, and the average length of channels were compared. Statistical analysis shows that significant differences exist in data from the two sources. The highly drained area lost more information than the less drained area. In addition, it was observed that the loss of information about the number of rivers was higher than that about the length of the channels.

  9. Collection and Analysis of Crowd Data with Aerial, Rooftop, and Ground Views

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-10

    and cost, as well as a brief description of the projects on which they were used. We have purchased aerial platforms, imaging systems, and flight...have purchased aerial platforms, imaging systems, and flight control systems and used them different projects that will be discussed in the following...servos Aerial Platform Long flight-time aerial paltform for imaging applications UavFactory Ltd $15,885.00 80W Onboard Generator upgrade Power

  10. Diphtheria Photos

    MedlinePlus

    ... Whooping cough Influenza (flu) Rabies Yellow fever Diphtheria Photos Photographs accompanied by text that reads "Courtesy of . . . " ... source (not IAC) for permission to reprint copyrighted photos. Warning : Some of these photos are quite graphic. ...

  11. Multidimensional analysis of autonomous aerial observation systems (AAOS) for scientific, civil, and defense applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, Mark A.; Hamill, Doris L.; Harrison, F. W.; Yetter, Jeffrey A.; Lawrence, Roland W.; Healy, Edward A.; Wright, Henry S.

    2004-12-01

    Better knowledge of the atmosphere, ocean and land are needed by a wide range of users spanning the scientific, civil and defense communities. Observations to provide this knowledge will require aerial systems with greater operational flexibility and lower life-cycle costs than are currently available. Persistent monitoring of severe storms, sampling and measurements of the Earth"s carbon cycle, wildfire monitoring/management, crop assessments, ozone and polar ice changes, and natural disaster response (communications and surveillance) are but a few applications where autonomous aerial observations can effectively augment existing measurement systems. User driven capabilities include high altitude, long range, long-loiter (days/weeks), smaller deployable sensor-ships for in-situ sampling, and sensors providing data with spectral bandwidth and high temporal and three-dimensional spatial resolution. Starting with user needs and considering all elements and activities required to acquire the needed observations leads to the definition of autonomous aerial observation systems (AAOS) that can significantly complement and extend the current Earth observation capability. In this approach, UAVs are viewed as only one, albeit important, element in a mission system and overall cost and performance for the user are the critical success factors. To better understand and meet the challenges of developing such AAOSs, a systems oriented multi-dimensional analysis has been performed that illuminates the enabling and high payoff investments that best address the needs of scientific, civil, and defense users of Earth observations. The analysis further identifies technology gaps and serves to illustrate how investments in a range of mission subsystems together can enable a new class of Earth observations.

  12. Meningococcal Photos

    MedlinePlus

    ... Podcast: Meningitis Immunization for Adolescents Meningitis Sepsis Meningococcal Photos Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir WARNING : Some of these photos might be unsuitable for children. Viewing discretion is ...

  13. A temporal and ecological analysis of the Huntington Beach Wetlands through an unmanned aerial system remote sensing perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafiq, Talha

    Wetland monitoring and preservation efforts have the potential to be enhanced with advanced remote sensing acquisition and digital image analysis approaches. Progress in the development and utilization of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) as remote sensing platforms has offered significant spatial and temporal advantages over traditional aerial and orbital remote sensing platforms. Photogrammetric approaches to generate high spatial resolution orthophotos of UAV acquired imagery along with the UAV's low-cost and temporally flexible characteristics are explored. A comparative analysis of different spectral based land cover maps derived from imagery captured using UAV, satellite, and airplane platforms provide an assessment of the Huntington Beach Wetlands. This research presents a UAS remote sensing methodology encompassing data collection, image processing, and analysis in constructing spectral based land cover maps to augment the efforts of the Huntington Beach Wetlands Conservancy by assessing ecological and temporal changes at the Huntington Beach Wetlands.

  14. Cloning and analysis of a gene cluster from Streptomyces coelicolor that causes accelerated aerial mycelium formation in Streptomyces lividans.

    PubMed Central

    Ma, H; Kendall, K

    1994-01-01

    We describe the cloning and analysis of two overlapping DNA fragments from Streptomyces coelicolor that cause aerial mycelium to appear more rapidly than usual when introduced into Streptomyces lividans on a low-copy-number plasmid vector. Colonies of S. lividans TK64 harboring either clone produce visible aerial mycelia after only 48 h of growth, rather than the usual 72 to 96 h. From deletion and sequence analysis, this rapid aerial mycelium (Ram) phenotype appears to be due to a cluster of three genes that we have designated ramA, ramB, and ramR. Both ramA and ramB potentially encode 65-kDa proteins with homology to ATP-dependent membrane-translocating proteins. A chromosomal ramB disruption mutant of S. lividans was found to be severely defective in aerial mycelium formation. ramR could encode a 21-kDa protein with significant homology to the UhpA subset of bacterial two-component response regulator proteins. The overall organization and potential proteins encoded by the cloned DNA suggest that this is the S. coelicolor homolog of the amf gene cluster that has been shown to be important for aerial mycelium formation in Streptomyces griseus. However, despite the fact that the two regions probably have identical functions, there is relatively poor homology between the two gene clusters at the DNA sequence level. Images PMID:8206859

  15. Automatic aerial image shadow detection through the hybrid analysis of RGB and HIS color space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jun; Li, Huilin; Peng, Zhiyong

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents our research on automatic shadow detection from high-resolution aerial image through the hybrid analysis of RGB and HIS color space. To this end, the spectral characteristics of shadow are firstly discussed and three kinds of spectral components including the difference between normalized blue and normalized red component - BR, intensity and saturation components are selected as criterions to obtain initial segmentation of shadow region (called primary segmentation). After that, within the normalized RGB color space and HIS color space, the shadow region is extracted again (called auxiliary segmentation) using the OTSU operation, respectively. Finally, the primary segmentation and auxiliary segmentation are combined through a logical AND-connection operation to obtain reliable shadow region. In this step, small shadow areas are removed from combined shadow region and morphological algorithms are apply to fill small holes as well. The experimental results show that the proposed approach can effectively detect the shadow region from high-resolution aerial image and in high degree of automaton.

  16. Calculated Drag of an Aerial Refueling Assembly Through Airplane Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vachon, Michael Jacob; Ray, Ronald J.

    2004-01-01

    The aerodynamic drag of an aerial refueling assembly was calculated during the Automated Aerial Refueling project at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. An F/A-18A airplane was specially instrumented to obtain accurate fuel flow measurements and to determine engine thrust. A standard Navy air refueling store with a retractable refueling hose and paradrogue was mounted to the centerline pylon of the F/A-18A airplane. As the paradrogue assembly was deployed and stowed, changes in the calculated thrust of the airplane occurred and were equated to changes in vehicle drag. These drag changes were attributable to the drag of the paradrogue assembly. The drag of the paradrogue assembly was determined to range from 200 to 450 lbf at airspeeds from 170 to 250 KIAS. Analysis of the drag data resulted in a single drag coefficient of 0.0056 for the paradrogue assembly that adequately matched the calculated drag for all flight conditions. The drag relief provided to the tanker airplane when a receiver airplane engaged the paradrogue is also documented from 35 to 270 lbf at the various flight conditions tested. The results support the development of accurate aerodynamic models to be used in refueling simulations and control laws for fully autonomous refueling.

  17. A meta-analysis of human-system interfaces in unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) swarm management.

    PubMed

    Hocraffer, Amy; Nam, Chang S

    2017-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to systematically evaluate the current state of research on human-system interfaces for users controlling semi-autonomous swarms composed of groups of drones or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). UAV swarms pose several human factors challenges, such as high cognitive demands, non-intuitive behavior, and serious consequences for errors. This article presents findings from a meta-analysis of 27 UAV swarm management papers focused on the human-system interface and human factors concerns, providing an overview of the advantages, challenges, and limitations of current UAV management interfaces, as well as information on how these interfaces are currently evaluated. In general allowing user and mission-specific customization to user interfaces and raising the swarm's level of autonomy to reduce operator cognitive workload are beneficial and improve situation awareness (SA). It is clear more research is needed in this rapidly evolving field.

  18. Aerial Explorers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg; Ippolito, Corey

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents recent results from a mission architecture study of planetary aerial explorers. In this study, several mission scenarios were developed in simulation and evaluated on success in meeting mission goals. This aerial explorer mission architecture study is unique in comparison with previous Mars airplane research activities. The study examines how aerial vehicles can find and gain access to otherwise inaccessible terrain features of interest. The aerial explorer also engages in a high-level of (indirect) surface interaction, despite not typically being able to takeoff and land or to engage in multiple flights/sorties. To achieve this goal, a new mission paradigm is proposed: aerial explorers should be considered as an additional element in the overall Entry, Descent, Landing System (EDLS) process. Further, aerial vehicles should be considered primarily as carrier/utility platforms whose purpose is to deliver air-deployed sensors and robotic devices, or symbiotes, to those high-value terrain features of interest.

  19. Analysis of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) hyperspectral remote sensing monitoring key technology in coastal wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yi; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Jingyu

    2016-01-01

    The coastal wetland, a transitional zone between terrestrial ecosystems and marine ecosystems, is the type of great value to ecosystem services. For the recent 3 decades, area of the coastal wetland is decreasing and the ecological function is gradually degraded with the rapid development of economy, which restricts the sustainable development of economy and society in the coastal areas of China in turn. It is a major demand of the national reality to carry out the monitoring of coastal wetlands, to master the distribution and dynamic change. UAV, namely unmanned aerial vehicle, is a new platform for remote sensing. Compared with the traditional satellite and manned aerial remote sensing, it has the advantage of flexible implementation, no cloud cover, strong initiative and low cost. Image-spectrum merging is one character of high spectral remote sensing. At the same time of imaging, the spectral curve of each pixel is obtained, which is suitable for quantitative remote sensing, fine classification and target detection. Aimed at the frontier and hotspot of remote sensing monitoring technology, and faced the demand of the coastal wetland monitoring, this paper used UAV and the new remote sensor of high spectral imaging instrument to carry out the analysis of the key technologies of monitoring coastal wetlands by UAV on the basis of the current situation in overseas and domestic and the analysis of developing trend. According to the characteristic of airborne hyperspectral data on UAV, that is "three high and one many", the key technology research that should develop are promoted as follows: 1) the atmosphere correction of the UAV hyperspectral in coastal wetlands under the circumstance of complex underlying surface and variable geometry, 2) the best observation scale and scale transformation method of the UAV platform while monitoring the coastal wetland features, 3) the classification and detection method of typical features with high precision from multi scale

  20. Radiometric and geometric analysis of hyperspectral imagery acquired from an unmanned aerial vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Hruska, Ryan; Mitchell, Jessica; Anderson, Matthew; Glenn, Nancy F.

    2012-09-17

    During the summer of 2010, an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) hyperspectral in-flight calibration and characterization experiment of the Resonon PIKA II imaging spectrometer was conducted at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory (INL) UAV Research Park. The purpose of the experiment was to validate the radiometric calibration of the spectrometer and determine the georegistration accuracy achievable from the on-board global positioning system (GPS) and inertial navigation sensors (INS) under operational conditions. In order for low-cost hyperspectral systems to compete with larger systems flown on manned aircraft, they must be able to collect data suitable for quantitative scientific analysis. The results of the in-flight calibration experiment indicate an absolute average agreement of 96.3%, 93.7% and 85.7% for calibration tarps of 56%, 24%, and 2.5% reflectivity, respectively. The achieved planimetric accuracy was 4.6 meters (based on RMSE).

  1. Optimal Beamforming and Performance Analysis of Wireless Relay Networks with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Jian; Lin, Min

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate a wireless communication system employing a multi-antenna unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) as the relay to improve the connectivity between the base station (BS) and the receive node (RN), where the BS-UAV link undergoes the correlated Rician fading while the UAV-RN link follows the correlated Rayleigh fading with large scale path loss. By assuming that the amplify-and-forward (AF) protocol is adopted at UAV, we first propose an optimal beamforming (BF) scheme to maximize the mutual information of the UAV-assisted dual-hop relay network, by calculating the BF weight vectors and the power allocation coefficient. Then, we derive the analytical expressions for the outage probability (OP) and the ergodic capacity (EC) of the relay network to evaluate the system performance conveniently. Finally, computer simulation results are provided to demonstrate the validity and efficiency of the proposed scheme as well as the performance analysis.

  2. Aerial multispectral surveys - from the analysis of architectural monuments to the identification of archaeological sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mario, Bottoni; Fabretti, Giuseppe; Fabretti, Maurizio

    2010-05-01

    Combined non destructive and extensive multispectral analysis (thermography, photographic infrared and air photogrammetry) can be used, as aerial surveys, to verify and integrate hypotheses based upon investigations conducted on the spot and in the archives, about the location of archaeological sites in a certain area. These techniques using specified sensors (photographic emulsions, semi conductors) enable one to record and visualize different optical phenomena, related to the wavelength of the radiations and to the thermal exchange between structures lying underground and the soil. The information obtained has an extensive characteristic that can be transferred on maps. The results are in practice continuous in the spatial dimension in a non destructive way, leaving the site perfectly undisturbed. Relating to this first survey, it may be possible to locate the most significant areas and to proceed with more punctual multispectral surveys and local excavations. The next step is to compare these results and to extend them to wider areas, establishing the significance of irregularities found with the aerial surveys and creating conclusive thematic maps. These maps will give useful indications to define the archaeological excavation or the course of highways, water mains and other structures on the terrain. This work presents the application of the method to the archaeological site of Fondo Marco Terenzio Varrone Cassino (Frosinone) under the control of the Archaeological Soprintendency of Lazio. The survey made it possible to determine the course of the water main of the town of Cassino through the archaeological area in a few months and with great reliability. Actually use of aerial thermovision demonstrated itself very useful since nineties in the analysis of the microclimatic behaviour of architectonic structures of significant dimensions, such as the dome of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence. In this situation a mathematical model had been developed aimed to

  3. Use of aerial photos and field reconnaissance to predict groundwater flow of a karst area in the Inner Bluegrass Region of Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Gremos, K.; Sendlein, L.V.A. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    Significant areas of the continental US (Kentucky included) are underlain by karstified limestone. In many of these areas agriculture is a leading business and a potential non-point source of pollution to the groundwater. A study is underway to assess the Best Management Practices (BMP) on a farm in north-central Woodford County in Kentucky. As part of the study, various computer-based decision models for integrated farm operation will be assessed. Because surface area and run off are integral parts of all of these models, diversion of surface run off through karst features such as sinkholes will modify predictions from these models. This study utilizes areal photographs to identify all sinkholes on the property and characterize their morphometric parameters such as length, width, depth, and area and distribution. Sink hole areas represent approximately 10 percent of the area and all but a few discharge within the basin monitored as part of the model. The bedrock geology and fractures of the area have been defined using fracture trace analysis and a rectified drainage linear analysis. Surface drainage patterns, spring distribution, and stream and spring discharge data have been collected. Dye tracing has identified groundwater basins whose catchment area is outside the boundaries of the study site.

  4. Development of tilt-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV): material selection and structural analysis on wing design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saharudin, M. F.

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the design of a tilting rotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), evaluation of flight loads based on the standard requirement, structural analysis to determine stress and sizing of the wing, and flight test of the UAV. The main objective is to perform structural analysis to size the UAV's wing section. The analysis shows that the structure design of the wing is safe to be used.

  5. Unmanned aerial mass spectrometer systems for in-situ volcanic plume analysis.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Jorge Andres; Pieri, David; Wright, Kenneth; Sorensen, Paul; Kline-Shoder, Robert; Arkin, C Richard; Fladeland, Matthew; Bland, Geoff; Buongiorno, Maria Fabrizia; Ramirez, Carlos; Corrales, Ernesto; Alan, Alfredo; Alegria, Oscar; Diaz, David; Linick, Justin

    2015-02-01

    Technology advances in the field of small, unmanned aerial vehicles and their integration with a variety of sensor packages and instruments, such as miniature mass spectrometers, have enhanced the possibilities and applications of what are now called unmanned aerial systems (UAS). With such technology, in situ and proximal remote sensing measurements of volcanic plumes are now possible without risking the lives of scientists and personnel in charge of close monitoring of volcanic activity. These methods provide unprecedented, and otherwise unobtainable, data very close in space and time to eruptions, to better understand the role of gas volatiles in magma and subsequent eruption products. Small mass spectrometers, together with the world's smallest turbo molecular pump, have being integrated into NASA and University of Costa Rica UAS platforms to be field-tested for in situ volcanic plume analysis, and in support of the calibration and validation of satellite-based remote sensing data. These new UAS-MS systems are combined with existing UAS flight-tested payloads and assets, such as temperature, pressure, relative humidity, SO2, H2S, CO2, GPS sensors, on-board data storage, and telemetry. Such payloads are capable of generating real time 3D concentration maps of the Turrialba volcano active plume in Costa Rica, while remote sensing data are simultaneously collected from the ASTER and OMI space-borne instruments for comparison. The primary goal is to improve the understanding of the chemical and physical properties of emissions for mitigation of local volcanic hazards, for the validation of species detection and abundance of retrievals based on remote sensing, and to validate transport models.

  6. Comparison of binary mask defect printability analysis using virtual stepper system and aerial image microscope system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, Khoi A.; Spence, Chris A.; Dakshina-Murthy, S.; Bala, Vidya; Williams, Alvina M.; Strener, Steve; Eandi, Richard D.; Li, Junling; Karklin, Linard

    1999-12-01

    As advanced process technologies in the wafer fabs push the patterning processes toward lower k1 factor for sub-wavelength resolution printing, reticles are required to use optical proximity correction (OPC) and phase-shifted mask (PSM) for resolution enhancement. For OPC/PSM mask technology, defect printability is one of the major concerns. Current reticle inspection tools available on the market sometimes are not capable of consistently differentiating between an OPC feature and a true random defect. Due to the process complexity and high cost associated with the making of OPC/PSM reticles, it is important for both mask shops and lithography engineers to understand the impact of different defect types and sizes to the printability. Aerial Image Measurement System (AIMS) has been used in the mask shops for a number of years for reticle applications such as aerial image simulation and transmission measurement of repaired defects. The Virtual Stepper System (VSS) provides an alternative method to do defect printability simulation and analysis using reticle images captured by an optical inspection or review system. In this paper, pre- programmed defects and repairs from a Defect Sensitivity Monitor (DSM) reticle with 200 nm minimum features (at 1x) will be studied for printability. The simulated resist lines by AIMS and VSS are both compared to SEM images of resist wafers qualitatively and quantitatively using CD verification.Process window comparison between unrepaired and repaired defects for both good and bad repair cases will be shown. The effect of mask repairs to resist pattern images for the binary mask case will be discussed. AIMS simulation was done at the International Sematech, Virtual stepper simulation at Zygo and resist wafers were processed at AMD-Submicron Development Center using a DUV lithographic process for 0.18 micrometer Logic process technology.

  7. Mapping temporal changes in connectivity using high-resolution aerial data and object based image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masselink, Rens; Anders, Niels; Keesstra, Saskia; Seeger, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    Within the field of geomorphology mapping has always been an important tool to interpret spatial and temporal distributions of phenomena and processes at the surface. In the field of connectivity however, although throughout the past decade many articles have been published, there are only very few that go into the mapping of connectivity. This study aimed at developing a new, automated method for mapping connectivity within agricultural catchments. The method, which is a combination of Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA) and traditional geomorphological field mapping, was applied to two agricultural catchments in Navarre, Spain, both with an area of approximately 2 sq.km. An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was used to take aerial photographs with a resolution of 6 cm, of which a DEM with a 12 cm resolution was created using structure-from-motion photogrammetry. Connectivity was mapped within the study areas using OBIA using a top down method, meaning that connectivity was mapped at different scale levels, starting at the largest scale. Firstly sub-catchments were automatically delineated, after which several characteristics and features that affect connectivity within the sub-catchments were classified, e.g. landuse, landslides, rills, gullies, riparian vegetation, changes in slope, ploughing direction etc. In two consecutive years (2013-2014) photographs were taken and connectivity of both catchments of both years will be compared. Future work will include a quantification of the mapped connectivity (highly connected years vs. low connected years), causes and consequences of these differences in connectivity, comparison to existing connectivity indices and comparison of mapped connectivity in sub-catchments and measured discharge.

  8. Mumps Photos

    MedlinePlus

    ... Links World Health Organization Medline Plus Photos of Mumps Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Photos of Mumps Virus and People Affected by Mumps Español: ...

  9. Integrated In Silico Analysis of Pathway Designs for Synthetic Photo-Electro-Autotrophy.

    PubMed

    Volpers, Michael; Claassens, Nico J; Noor, Elad; van der Oost, John; de Vos, Willem M; Kengen, Servé W M; Martins Dos Santos, Vitor A P

    2016-01-01

    The strong advances in synthetic biology enable the engineering of novel functions and complex biological features in unprecedented ways, such as implementing synthetic autotrophic metabolism into heterotrophic hosts. A key challenge for the sustainable production of fuels and chemicals entails the engineering of synthetic autotrophic organisms that can effectively and efficiently fix carbon dioxide by using sustainable energy sources. This challenge involves the integration of carbon fixation and energy uptake systems. A variety of carbon fixation pathways and several types of photosystems and other energy uptake systems can be chosen and, potentially, modularly combined to design synthetic autotrophic metabolism. Prior to implementation, these designs can be evaluated by the combination of several computational pathway analysis techniques. Here we present a systematic, integrated in silico analysis of photo-electro-autotrophic pathway designs, consisting of natural and synthetic carbon fixation pathways, a proton-pumping rhodopsin photosystem for ATP regeneration and an electron uptake pathway. We integrated Flux Balance Analysis of the heterotrophic chassis Escherichia coli with kinetic pathway analysis and thermodynamic pathway analysis (Max-min Driving Force). The photo-electro-autotrophic designs are predicted to have a limited potential for anaerobic, autotrophic growth of E. coli, given the relatively low ATP regenerating capacity of the proton pumping rhodopsin photosystems and the high ATP maintenance of E. coli. If these factors can be tackled, our analysis indicates the highest growth potential for the natural reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle and the synthetic pyruvate synthase-pyruvate carboxylate -glyoxylate bicycle. Both carbon fixation cycles are very ATP efficient, while maintaining fast kinetics, which also results in relatively low estimated protein costs for these pathways. Furthermore, the synthetic bicycles are highly thermodynamic favorable

  10. Integrated In Silico Analysis of Pathway Designs for Synthetic Photo-Electro-Autotrophy

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Elad; van der Oost, John; de Vos, Willem M.; Kengen, Servé W. M.; Martins dos Santos, Vitor A. P.

    2016-01-01

    The strong advances in synthetic biology enable the engineering of novel functions and complex biological features in unprecedented ways, such as implementing synthetic autotrophic metabolism into heterotrophic hosts. A key challenge for the sustainable production of fuels and chemicals entails the engineering of synthetic autotrophic organisms that can effectively and efficiently fix carbon dioxide by using sustainable energy sources. This challenge involves the integration of carbon fixation and energy uptake systems. A variety of carbon fixation pathways and several types of photosystems and other energy uptake systems can be chosen and, potentially, modularly combined to design synthetic autotrophic metabolism. Prior to implementation, these designs can be evaluated by the combination of several computational pathway analysis techniques. Here we present a systematic, integrated in silico analysis of photo-electro-autotrophic pathway designs, consisting of natural and synthetic carbon fixation pathways, a proton-pumping rhodopsin photosystem for ATP regeneration and an electron uptake pathway. We integrated Flux Balance Analysis of the heterotrophic chassis Escherichia coli with kinetic pathway analysis and thermodynamic pathway analysis (Max-min Driving Force). The photo-electro-autotrophic designs are predicted to have a limited potential for anaerobic, autotrophic growth of E. coli, given the relatively low ATP regenerating capacity of the proton pumping rhodopsin photosystems and the high ATP maintenance of E. coli. If these factors can be tackled, our analysis indicates the highest growth potential for the natural reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle and the synthetic pyruvate synthase–pyruvate carboxylate -glyoxylate bicycle. Both carbon fixation cycles are very ATP efficient, while maintaining fast kinetics, which also results in relatively low estimated protein costs for these pathways. Furthermore, the synthetic bicycles are highly thermodynamic

  11. Internal air flow analysis of a bladeless micro aerial vehicle hemisphere body using computational fluid dynamic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, M. N. K.; Zuradzman, M. Razlan; Hazry, D.; Khairunizam, Wan; Shahriman, A. B.; Yaacob, S.; Ahmed, S. Faiz; Hussain, Abadalsalam T.

    2014-12-01

    This paper explain the analysis of internal air flow velocity of a bladeless vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) hemisphere body. In mechanical design, before produce a prototype model, several analyses should be done to ensure the product's effectiveness and efficiency. There are two types of analysis method can be done in mechanical design; mathematical modeling and computational fluid dynamic. In this analysis, I used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) by using SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. The idea came through to overcome the problem of ordinary quadrotor UAV which has larger size due to using four rotors and the propellers are exposed to environment. The bladeless MAV body is designed to protect all electronic parts, which means it can be used in rainy condition. It also has been made to increase the thrust produced by the ducted propeller compare to exposed propeller. From the analysis result, the air flow velocity at the ducted area increased to twice the inlet air. This means that the duct contribute to the increasing of air velocity.

  12. Internal air flow analysis of a bladeless micro aerial vehicle hemisphere body using computational fluid dynamic

    SciTech Connect

    Othman, M. N. K. E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Zuradzman, M. Razlan E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Hazry, D. E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Khairunizam, Wan E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Shahriman, A. B. E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Yaacob, S. E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Ahmed, S. Faiz E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; and others

    2014-12-04

    This paper explain the analysis of internal air flow velocity of a bladeless vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) hemisphere body. In mechanical design, before produce a prototype model, several analyses should be done to ensure the product's effectiveness and efficiency. There are two types of analysis method can be done in mechanical design; mathematical modeling and computational fluid dynamic. In this analysis, I used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) by using SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. The idea came through to overcome the problem of ordinary quadrotor UAV which has larger size due to using four rotors and the propellers are exposed to environment. The bladeless MAV body is designed to protect all electronic parts, which means it can be used in rainy condition. It also has been made to increase the thrust produced by the ducted propeller compare to exposed propeller. From the analysis result, the air flow velocity at the ducted area increased to twice the inlet air. This means that the duct contribute to the increasing of air velocity.

  13. Effects of the brown seaweed Undaria pinnatifida on erythematous inflammation assessed using digital photo analysis.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammed Nurul Absar; Lee, Min-Chul; Kang, Ji-Young; Park, Nam Gyu; Fujii, Hitoshi; Hong, Yong-Ki

    2008-05-01

    The brown seaweed Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar produced potent inhibition of erythematous inflammation assessed using digital photo analysis. The analysis technique was validated by laser speckle flowgraphy and blood vessel contraction. The methanol extract suppressed erythema by 50% when applied within 1 h before or 15 min after application of phorbol myristate acetate. Erythema reduction to half-maximal values took 12 h with the extract, compared with 25 h with the vehicle. The blade part of the thallus showed the highest activity, while the northern type of U. pinnatifida had slightly higher activity than the southern type. The active constituents were stearidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. These findings reinforce the claims of the health care industry and indigenous medicine that U. pinnatifida can be used as a health food and remedy for inflammation-related symptoms.

  14. Comparative transcriptome analysis between aquatic and aerial breathing organs of Channa argus to reveal the genetic basis underlying bimodal respiration.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanliang; Feng, Shuaisheng; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Songhao; Li, Shangqi; Sun, Xiaoqing; Xu, Peng

    2016-10-01

    Aerial breathing in fish was an important adaption for successful survival in hypoxic water. All aerial breathing fish are bimodal breathers. It is intriguing that they can obtain oxygen from both air and water. However, the genetic basis underlying bimodal breathing has not been extensively studied. In this study, we performed next-generation sequencing on a bimodal breathing fish, the Northern snakehead, Channa argus, and generated a transcriptome profiling of C. argus. A total of 53,591 microsatellites and 26,378 SNPs were identified and classified. A Ka/Ks analysis of the unigenes indicated that 63 genes were under strong positive selection. Furthermore, the transcriptomes from the aquatic breathing organ (gill) and the aerial breathing organ (suprabranchial chamber) were sequenced and compared, and the results showed 1,966 genes up-regulated in the gill and 2,727 genes up-regulated in the suprabranchial chamber. A gene pathway analysis concluded that four functional categories were significant, of which angiogenesis and elastic fibre formation were up-regulated in the suprabranchial chamber, indicating that the aerial breathing organ may be more efficient for gas exchange due to its highly vascularized and elastic structure. In contrast, ion uptake and transport and acid-base balance were up-regulated in the gill, indicating that the aquatic breathing organ functions in ion homeostasis and acid-base balance, in addition to breathing. Understanding the genetic mechanism underlying bimodal breathing will shed light on the initiation and importance of aerial breathing in the evolution of vertebrates.

  15. Cost and effectiveness analysis on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) use at border security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Bahadır.

    2013-06-01

    Drones and Remotely Piloted Vehicles are types of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. UAVs began to be used with the war of Vietnam, they had a great interest when Israel used them in Bekaa Valley Operations of 1982. UAVs have been used by different countries with different aims with the help of emerging technology and investments. In this article, in the context of areas of UAV usage in national security, benefits and disadvantages of UAVs are put forward. Particularly, it has been evaluated on the basis of cost-effectiveness by focusing the use of UAV in the border security. UAVs have been studied by taking cost analysis, procurement and operational costs into consideration. Analysis of effectiveness has been done with illegal passages of people and drugs from flight times of UAVs. Although the procurement cost of the medium-level UAVs is low, its operational costs are high. For this reason, the idea of less costly alternative systems have been revealed for the border security. As the costs are reduced to acceptable level involving national security and border security in future with high-technology products in their structure, it will continue to be used in an increasing proportion.

  16. Thermal Analysis on Cryogenic Liquid Hydrogen Tank on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen; Harpster, George; Hunter, James

    2007-01-01

    Thermal analyses are performed on the liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank designed for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) powered by solar arrays and a regenerative proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. A 14-day cruise mission at a 65,000 ft altitude is considered. Thermal analysis provides the thermal loads on the tank system and the boiling-off rates of LH2. Different approaches are being considered to minimize the boiling-off rates of the LH2. It includes an evacuated multilayer insulation (MLI) versus aerogel insulation on the LH2 tank and aluminum versus stainless steel spacer rings between the inner and outer tank. The resulting boil-off rates of LH2 provided by the one-dimensional model and three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) on the tank system are presented and compared to validate the results of the three-dimensional FEA. It concludes that heat flux through penetrations by conduction is as significant as that through insulation around the tank. The tank system with MLI insulation and stainless steel spacer rings result in the lowest boiling-off rate of LH2.

  17. A perspective on the state of the art of photographic interpretation. [aerial photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Aerial photography and photographic interpretation are the cornerstone of remote sensing. Many interpretative techniques used on data from these more advanced or unconventional imaging systems are essentially extensions of techniques originally developed for the analysis of aerial photographic data. As research on the analysis and application of data from other than photographic imaging systems progresses, the role of the interpretation of aerial photography becomes more important. Any individual who wishes to practice the art of remote sensing data analysis must gain a thorough knowledge of the activities, elements and techniques of manual photographic/image interpretation. While the activities and elements of photo interpretation have remained essentially the same, technique development has continued to progress. Additional studies are proposed dealing with the basics of interactive processes.

  18. Exploration of mineral resource deposits based on analysis of aerial and satellite image data employing artificial intelligence methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, Gennady

    2013-04-01

    We propose a solution to the problem of exploration of various mineral resource deposits, determination of their forms / classification of types (oil, gas, minerals, gold, etc.) with the help of satellite photography of the region of interest. Images received from satellite are processed and analyzed to reveal the presence of specific signs of deposits of various minerals. Course of data processing and making forecast can be divided into some stages: Pre-processing of images. Normalization of color and luminosity characteristics, determination of the necessary contrast level and integration of a great number of separate photos into a single map of the region are performed. Construction of semantic map image. Recognition of bitmapped image and allocation of objects and primitives known to system are realized. Intelligent analysis. At this stage acquired information is analyzed with the help of a knowledge base, which contain so-called "attention landscapes" of experts. Used methods of recognition and identification of images: a) combined method of image recognition, b)semantic analysis of posterized images, c) reconstruction of three-dimensional objects from bitmapped images, d)cognitive technology of processing and interpretation of images. This stage is fundamentally new and it distinguishes suggested technology from all others. Automatic registration of allocation of experts` attention - registration of so-called "attention landscape" of experts - is the base of the technology. Landscapes of attention are, essentially, highly effective filters that cut off unnecessary information and emphasize exactly the factors used by an expert for making a decision. The technology based on denoted principles involves the next stages, which are implemented in corresponding program agents. Training mode -> Creation of base of ophthalmologic images (OI) -> Processing and making generalized OI (GOI) -> Mode of recognition and interpretation of unknown images. Training mode

  19. Spectroelectrochemical analysis of the mechanism of (photo)electrochemical hydrogen evolution at a catalytic interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor, Ernest; Le Formal, Florian; Mayer, Matthew T.; Tilley, S. David; Francàs, Laia; Mesa, Camilo A.; Grätzel, Michael; Durrant, James R.

    2017-02-01

    Multi-electron heterogeneous catalysis is a pivotal element in the (photo)electrochemical generation of solar fuels. However, mechanistic studies of these systems are difficult to elucidate by means of electrochemical methods alone. Here we report a spectroelectrochemical analysis of hydrogen evolution on ruthenium oxide employed as an electrocatalyst and as part of a cuprous oxide-based photocathode. We use optical absorbance spectroscopy to quantify the densities of reduced ruthenium oxide species, and correlate these with current densities resulting from proton reduction. This enables us to compare directly the catalytic function of dark and light electrodes. We find that hydrogen evolution is second order in the density of active, doubly reduced species independent of whether these are generated by applied potential or light irradiation. Our observation of a second order rate law allows us to distinguish between the most common reaction paths and propose a mechanism involving the homolytic reductive elimination of hydrogen.

  20. Spectroelectrochemical analysis of the mechanism of (photo)electrochemical hydrogen evolution at a catalytic interface

    PubMed Central

    Pastor, Ernest; Le Formal, Florian; Mayer, Matthew T.; Tilley, S. David; Francàs, Laia; Mesa, Camilo A.; Grätzel, Michael; Durrant, James R.

    2017-01-01

    Multi-electron heterogeneous catalysis is a pivotal element in the (photo)electrochemical generation of solar fuels. However, mechanistic studies of these systems are difficult to elucidate by means of electrochemical methods alone. Here we report a spectroelectrochemical analysis of hydrogen evolution on ruthenium oxide employed as an electrocatalyst and as part of a cuprous oxide-based photocathode. We use optical absorbance spectroscopy to quantify the densities of reduced ruthenium oxide species, and correlate these with current densities resulting from proton reduction. This enables us to compare directly the catalytic function of dark and light electrodes. We find that hydrogen evolution is second order in the density of active, doubly reduced species independent of whether these are generated by applied potential or light irradiation. Our observation of a second order rate law allows us to distinguish between the most common reaction paths and propose a mechanism involving the homolytic reductive elimination of hydrogen. PMID:28233785

  1. Phytochemical analysis with the antioxidant and aldose reductase inhibitory capacities of Tephrosia humilis aerial parts' extracts.

    PubMed

    Plioukas, Michael; Gabrieli, Chrysi; Lazari, Diamanto; Kokkalou, Eugene

    2016-06-01

    The aerial parts of Tephrosia humilis were tested about their antioxidant potential, their ability to inhibit the aldose/aldehyde reductase enzymes and their phenolic content. The plant material was exhaustively extracted with petroleum ether, dichloromethane and methanol, consecutively. The concentrated methanol extract was re-extracted, successively, with diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. All extracts showed significant antioxidant capacity, but the most effective was the ethyl acetate extract. As about the aldose reductase inhibition, all fractions, except the aqueous, were strong inhibitors of the enzyme, with the n-butanolic and ethyl acetate fractions to inhibit the enzyme above 75%. These findings provide support to the ethnopharmacological usage of the plant as antioxidant and validate its potential to act against the long-term diabetic complications. The phytochemical analysis showed the presence of 1,4-dihydroxy-3,4-(epoxyethano)-5-cyclohexene(1), cleroindicin E(2), lupeol(3), methyl p-coumarate(4), methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate(5), prunin(6), 5,7,2',5'-tetrahydroxyflavanone 7-rutinoside(7), protocatechuic acid(8), luteolin 7-glucoside(9), apigenin(10), naringin(11), rhoifolin(12) and luteolin 7-glucuronate(13).

  2. Radiometric and geometric analysis of hyperspectral imagery acquired from an unmanned aerial vehicle

    DOE PAGES

    Hruska, Ryan; Mitchell, Jessica; Anderson, Matthew; ...

    2012-09-17

    During the summer of 2010, an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) hyperspectral in-flight calibration and characterization experiment of the Resonon PIKA II imaging spectrometer was conducted at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory (INL) UAV Research Park. The purpose of the experiment was to validate the radiometric calibration of the spectrometer and determine the georegistration accuracy achievable from the on-board global positioning system (GPS) and inertial navigation sensors (INS) under operational conditions. In order for low-cost hyperspectral systems to compete with larger systems flown on manned aircraft, they must be able to collect data suitable for quantitative scientific analysis.more » The results of the in-flight calibration experiment indicate an absolute average agreement of 96.3%, 93.7% and 85.7% for calibration tarps of 56%, 24%, and 2.5% reflectivity, respectively. The achieved planimetric accuracy was 4.6 meters (based on RMSE).« less

  3. Design and Analysis of a Single-Camera Omnistereo Sensor for Quadrotor Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs).

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Carlos; Valenti, Roberto G; Guo, Ling; Xiao, Jizhong

    2016-02-06

    We describe the design and 3D sensing performance of an omnidirectional stereo (omnistereo) vision system applied to Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs). The proposed omnistereo sensor employs a monocular camera that is co-axially aligned with a pair of hyperboloidal mirrors (a vertically-folded catadioptric configuration). We show that this arrangement provides a compact solution for omnidirectional 3D perception while mounted on top of propeller-based MAVs (not capable of large payloads). The theoretical single viewpoint (SVP) constraint helps us derive analytical solutions for the sensor's projective geometry and generate SVP-compliant panoramic images to compute 3D information from stereo correspondences (in a truly synchronous fashion). We perform an extensive analysis on various system characteristics such as its size, catadioptric spatial resolution, field-of-view. In addition, we pose a probabilistic model for the uncertainty estimation of 3D information from triangulation of back-projected rays. We validate the projection error of the design using both synthetic and real-life images against ground-truth data. Qualitatively, we show 3D point clouds (dense and sparse) resulting out of a single image captured from a real-life experiment. We expect the reproducibility of our sensor as its model parameters can be optimized to satisfy other catadioptric-based omnistereo vision under different circumstances.

  4. Cytosolic streaming in vegetative mycelium and aerial structures of Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Bleichrodt, R; Vinck, A; Krijgsheld, P; van Leeuwen, M R; Dijksterhuis, J; Wösten, H A B

    2013-03-15

    Aspergillus niger forms aerial hyphae and conidiophores after a period of vegetative growth. The hyphae within the mycelium of A. niger are divided by septa. The central pore in these septa allows for cytoplasmic streaming. Here, we studied inter- and intra-compartmental streaming of the reporter protein GFP in A. niger. Expression of the gene encoding nuclear targeted GFP from the gpdA or glaA promoter resulted in strong fluorescence of nuclei within the vegetative hyphae and weak fluorescence in nuclei within the aerial structures. These data and nuclear run on experiments showed that gpdA and glaA are higher expressed in the vegetative mycelium when compared to aerial hyphae, conidiophores and conidia. Notably, gpdA or glaA driven expression of the gene encoding cytosolic GFP resulted in strongly fluorescent vegetative hyphae and aerial structures. Apparently, GFP streams from vegetative hyphae into aerial structures. This was confirmed by monitoring fluorescence of photo-activatable GFP (PA-GFP). In contrast, PA-GFP did not stream from aerial structures to vegetative hyphae. Streaming of PA-GFP within vegetative hyphae or within aerial structures of A. niger occurred at a rate of 10-15 μm s(-1). Taken together, these results not only show that GFP streams from the vegetative mycelium to aerial structures but it also indicates that its encoding RNA is not streaming. Absence of RNA streaming would explain why distinct RNA profiles were found in aerial structures and the vegetative mycelium by nuclear run on analysis and micro-array analysis.

  5. 45. Aerial view of station in 1944, four years after ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Aerial view of station in 1944, four years after automation and before construction of the parking lot.U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) Photo - Bodie Island Light Station, Off Highway 12, Nags Head, Dare County, NC

  6. 4. AERIAL VIEW OF GENE WASH RESERVOIR AND GENE CAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. AERIAL VIEW OF GENE WASH RESERVOIR AND GENE CAMP LOOKING SOUTHWEST. DAM AND SPILLWAY VISIBLE IN BOTTOM OF PHOTO. - Gene Wash Reservoir & Dam, 2 miles west of Parker Dam, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

  7. 25. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS AERIAL VIEW OF WASTE CALCINING FACILITY TAKEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS AERIAL VIEW OF WASTE CALCINING FACILITY TAKEN WHEN STRUCTURE WAS 99 PERCENT COMPLETE. INEEL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-60-5409. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. 2. Photocopy of aerial view of the museum, taken October ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of aerial view of the museum, taken October 26, 1966. Original photo in possession of the Philadelphia Museum of Art. - Philadelphia Museum of Art, Benjamin Franklin Parkway, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. Analysis of aerial multispectral imagery to assess water quality parameters of Mississippi water bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvin, Shane Adison

    The goal of this study was to demonstrate the application of aerial imagery as a tool in detecting water quality indicators in a three mile segment of Tibbee Creek in, Clay County, Mississippi. Water samples from 10 transects were collected per sampling date over two periods in 2010 and 2011. Temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) were measured at each point, and water samples were tested for turbidity and total suspended solids (TSS). Relative reflectance was extracted from high resolution (0.5 meter) multispectral aerial images. A regression model was developed for turbidity and TSS as a function of values for specific sampling dates. The best model was used to predict turbidity and TSS using datasets outside the original model date. The development of an appropriate predictive model for water quality assessment based on the relative reflectance of aerial imagery is affected by the quality of imagery and time of sampling.

  10. 12. Photographic copy of aerial photograph dated October 1988; Photographed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photographic copy of aerial photograph dated October 1988; Photographed by Aerial Services, Incorporated, Waterloo, Iowa; THE RATH COMPLEX FROM DIRECTLY OVERHEAD; THE PACKING PLANT BUILDINGS OCCUPY UPPER RIGHT QUADRANT OF PHOTO; 18TH STREET BRIDGE AT CENTER - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  11. 11. Photographic copy of aerial photograph dated ca. 1954; Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photographic copy of aerial photograph dated ca. 1954; Photographer unknown; Original owned by Waterloo Courier, Waterloo, Iowa; AERIAL VIEW OF RATH COMPLEX, LOOKING WEST; BEEF KILLING BUILDING (149 AND LIVESTOCK HOLDING AREAS ARE AT LEFT CENTER; FERTILIZER PLANT/STORAGE BUILDINGS ARE AT BOTTOM OF PHOTO - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  12. Automated hotspot analysis with aerial image CD metrology for advanced logic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttgereit, Ute; Trautzsch, Thomas; Kim, Min-ho; Seo, Jung-Uk; Yoon, Young-Keun; Han, Hak-Seung; Chung, Dong Hoon; Jeon, Chan-Uk; Meyers, Gary

    2014-09-01

    Continuously shrinking designs by further extension of 193nm technology lead to a much higher probability of hotspots especially for the manufacturing of advanced logic devices. The CD of these potential hotspots needs to be precisely controlled and measured on the mask. On top of that, the feature complexity increases due to high OPC load in the logic mask design which is an additional challenge for CD metrology. Therefore the hotspot measurements have been performed on WLCD from ZEISS, which provides the benefit of reduced complexity by measuring the CD in the aerial image and qualifying the printing relevant CD. This is especially of advantage for complex 2D feature measurements. Additionally, the data preparation for CD measurement becomes more critical due to the larger amount of CD measurements and the increasing feature diversity. For the data preparation this means to identify these hotspots and mark them automatically with the correct marker required to make the feature specific CD measurement successful. Currently available methods can address generic pattern but cannot deal with the pattern diversity of the hotspots. The paper will explore a method how to overcome those limitations and to enhance the time-to-result in the marking process dramatically. For the marking process the Synopsys WLCD Output Module was utilized, which is an interface between the CATS mask data prep software and the WLCD metrology tool. It translates the CATS marking directly into an executable WLCD measurement job including CD analysis. The paper will describe the utilized method and flow for the hotspot measurement. Additionally, the achieved results on hotspot measurements utilizing this method will be presented.

  13. Texture and scale in object-based analysis of subdecimeter resolution unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Imagery acquired with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has great potential for incorporation into natural resource monitoring protocols due to their ability to be deployed quickly and repeatedly and to fly at low altitudes. While the imagery may have high spatial resolution, the spectral resolution i...

  14. Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    John Hill, a pilot and commercial aerial photographer, needed an information base. He consulted NERAC and requested a search of the latest developments in camera optics. NERAC provided information; Hill contacted the manufacturers of camera equipment and reduced his photographic costs significantly.

  15. 8. AERIAL VIEW OF THE EAST TEST AREA DURING A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. AERIAL VIEW OF THE EAST TEST AREA DURING A SATURN I STATIC TEST. THIS PHOTO WAS TAKEN IN 1960 JUST PRIOR TO THE CHANGE OVER OF LAND, FACILITIES AND MISSION FROM ARMY/MICOM (MISSILE COMMAND) TO NASA/MSFC (MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER). MSFC PHOTO LAB. - Marshall Space Flight Center, East Test Area, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  16. Design and analysis of multifunctional structures for embedded electronics in unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothari, Rushabh M.

    Multifunctional structures are a new trend in the aerospace industry for the next generation structural design. Many future structures are expected to be something in addition to a load bearing structure. The design and analysis of multifunctional structures combining structural, electrical and thermal functionalities are presented here. The sandwich beam is considered as a starting point for the load bearing structure and then it is modified with a cavity to embed avionics and thermal controls. The embedded avionics inside the load bearing structure would allow weight reduction of the aerospace vehicle due to elimination of separate electronics housing, interconnects, cables etc. The cavity reduces strength of the structure so various reinforcements methods are evaluated. The result of various reinforcements and their effectiveness are presented. The current generation of electronics produce massive amount of heat. In the case of embedded electronics, the excessive heat presents a major challenge to the structural and heat transfer engineers. The embedded nature of electronics prevents the use of the classical heat dissipative methods such as fans and high velocity air flows, etc. The integrated thermal control of the electronics has been designed using passive heat transfer device and highly optimized particulate composite thermal interface material (TIM). The TIMs are used to fill the air gaps and reduce contact resistance between two surfaces, such as electronics and heat dissipators. The efficiency of TIM directly affects the overall heat transfer ability of the integrated thermal control system. The effect of the particles at micron and nano scales are studied for the particulate composite TIM. The thermal boundary resistance study for the particulate composite TIM with nano silica particles is presented in this thesis. The FEA analysis is used to model thermal boundary resistance and compared with the theoretical micromechanics model. The heat pipes are

  17. Inlining 3d Reconstruction, Multi-Source Texture Mapping and Semantic Analysis Using Oblique Aerial Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frommholz, D.; Linkiewicz, M.; Poznanska, A. M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes an in-line method for the simplified reconstruction of city buildings from nadir and oblique aerial images that at the same time are being used for multi-source texture mapping with minimal resampling. Further, the resulting unrectified texture atlases are analyzed for façade elements like windows to be reintegrated into the original 3D models. Tests on real-world data of Heligoland/ Germany comprising more than 800 buildings exposed a median positional deviation of 0.31 m at the façades compared to the cadastral map, a correctness of 67% for the detected windows and good visual quality when being rendered with GPU-based perspective correction. As part of the process building reconstruction takes the oriented input images and transforms them into dense point clouds by semi-global matching (SGM). The point sets undergo local RANSAC-based regression and topology analysis to detect adjacent planar surfaces and determine their semantics. Based on this information the roof, wall and ground surfaces found get intersected and limited in their extension to form a closed 3D building hull. For texture mapping the hull polygons are projected into each possible input bitmap to find suitable color sources regarding the coverage and resolution. Occlusions are detected by ray-casting a full-scale digital surface model (DSM) of the scene and stored in pixel-precise visibility maps. These maps are used to derive overlap statistics and radiometric adjustment coefficients to be applied when the visible image parts for each building polygon are being copied into a compact texture atlas without resampling whenever possible. The atlas bitmap is passed to a commercial object-based image analysis (OBIA) tool running a custom rule set to identify windows on the contained façade patches. Following multi-resolution segmentation and classification based on brightness and contrast differences potential window objects are evaluated against geometric constraints and

  18. Semi-automted analysis of high-resolution aerial images to quantify docks in Upper Midwest glacial lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beck, Marcus W.; Vondracek, Bruce C.; Hatch, Lorin K.; Vinje, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Lake resources can be negatively affected by environmental stressors originating from multiple sources and different spatial scales. Shoreline development, in particular, can negatively affect lake resources through decline in habitat quality, physical disturbance, and impacts on fisheries. The development of remote sensing techniques that efficiently characterize shoreline development in a regional context could greatly improve management approaches for protecting and restoring lake resources. The goal of this study was to develop an approach using high-resolution aerial photographs to quantify and assess docks as indicators of shoreline development. First, we describe a dock analysis workflow that can be used to quantify the spatial extent of docks using aerial images. Our approach incorporates pixel-based classifiers with object-based techniques to effectively analyze high-resolution digital imagery. Second, we apply the analysis workflow to quantify docks for 4261 lakes managed by the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. Overall accuracy of the analysis results was 98.4% (87.7% based on ) after manual post-processing. The analysis workflow was also 74% more efficient than the time required for manual digitization of docks. These analyses have immediate relevance for resource planning in Minnesota, whereas the dock analysis workflow could be used to quantify shoreline development in other regions with comparable imagery. These data can also be used to better understand the effects of shoreline development on aquatic resources and to evaluate the effects of shoreline development relative to other stressors.

  19. Hib Photos

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children’s Immunization Project, St. Paul, Minnesota Cerebrospinal fluid culture positive for Haemophilus influenzae , type b (Gram stain) ... b. Cellulitis of the arm proven by blood culture www.vaccineinformation.org/photos/hib_aap002.jpg Copyright ...

  20. A TOOL FOR PLANNING AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    abstract The U.S. EPAs Pacific Coastal Ecology Branch has developed a tool in the form of an Excel. spreadsheet that facilitates planning aerial photography missions. The spreadsheet accepts various input parameters such as desired photo-scale and boundary coordinates of the stud...

  1. Low-cost Tools for Aerial Video Geolocation and Air Traffic Analysis for Delay Reduction Using Google Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zetterlind, V.; Pledgie, S.

    2009-12-01

    Low-cost, low-latency, robust geolocation and display of aerial video is a common need for a wide range of earth observing as well as emergency response and security applications. While hardware costs for aerial video collection systems, GPS, and inertial sensors have been decreasing, software costs for geolocation algorithms and reference imagery/DTED remain expensive and highly proprietary. As part of a Federal Small Business Innovative Research project, MosaicATM and EarthNC, Inc have developed a simple geolocation system based on the Google Earth API and Google's 'built-in' DTED and reference imagery libraries. This system geolocates aerial video based on platform and camera position, attitude, and field-of-view metadata using geometric photogrammetric principles of ray-intersection with DTED. Geolocated video can be directly rectified and viewed in the Google Earth API during processing. Work is underway to extend our geolocation code to NASA World Wind for additional flexibility and a fully open-source platform. In addition to our airborne remote sensing work, MosaicATM has developed the Surface Operations Data Analysis and Adaptation (SODAA) tool, funded by NASA Ames, which supports analysis of airport surface operations to optimize aircraft movements and reduce fuel burn and delays. As part of SODAA, MosaicATM and EarthNC, Inc have developed powerful tools to display national airspace data and time-animated 3D flight tracks in Google Earth for 4D analysis. The SODAA tool can convert raw format flight track data, FAA National Flight Data (NFD), and FAA 'Adaptation' airport surface data to a spatial database representation and then to Google Earth KML. The SODAA client provides users with a simple graphical interface through which to generate queries with a wide range of predefined and custom filters, plot results, and export for playback in Google Earth in conjunction with NFD and Adaptation overlays.

  2. The use of large-scale aerial photography for interpreting Landsat digital data in an elk habitat-analysis project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isaacson, D. L.; Alexander, C. J.; Leckenby, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    Large-scale aerial photography was used to interpret Landsat multispectral scanner data processed through an unsupervised classifier. After scale adjustment and interpretation by application of an elk-habitat photointerpretation legend, the photographs were registered with the spectral classification, and the co-occurrence of spectral picture elements with photointerpreted habitat classes was tabulated. Analysis of the resulting table of data permitted the description of spectral classes in terms meaningful and useful to elk research and management unit in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon.

  3. 7. "AERIAL VIEW OF THE TEST AREA, DIRECTORATE OF MISSILE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. "AERIAL VIEW OF THE TEST AREA, DIRECTORATE OF MISSILE CAPTIVE TEST, EDWARDS AFB. 8 AUG 57." In upper left corner, photo no. "8462 57" cropped out: "A-AFFTC 8 AUG 57, RETL TEST AREA" This photo is a high oblique view, showing the wing of the photo plane and Test Area 1-115. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Leuhman Ridge near Highways 58 & 395, Boron, Kern County, CA

  4. An Information Requirements Analysis of Military Airlift Command (MAC) Aerial Port Operations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    16:19 (January 1985). Office of Public Affairs. Military Airlift Command Aerial Ports. United States Air Force Fact Sheet. Scott AFB IL: August 1986...the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the School of Systems and Logistics, the Air University, the United States Air Force, or the...intertheater ports are in the continental United States and are located at Travis AFB and Norton AFB, California; McChord AFB, Washington; McGuire AFB, New

  5. An Analysis of Human Causal Factors in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Accidents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    PC 306 • Fatigue ( sleep deprivation ) PC 307 • Circadian rhythm de-synchronization (e.g., jet lag or shift work) PC 308 • Motion sickness PC...AERIAL VEHICLE (UAV) ACCIDENTS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Mehmet Oncu and Suleyman Yildiz 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING /MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND

  6. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Aerial Platforms and Suitable Communication Payloads

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    signatures  Antennas for aerial platforms to enhance VHF, UHF and data communications  Effects of enemy actions on UAV operations including hacking ...HALE options for the DoD at potentially reasonable costs. Civilian companies are expressing interest in these UAVs, and social media giant Facebook ...is rumored to be targeting the company Titan Aerospace for acquisition (Perez & Constine, 2014). Facebook wants to connect rural parts of the world

  7. A Vegetation Analysis on Horn Island Mississippi, ca. 1940 using Habitat Characteristic Dimensions Derived from Historical Aerial Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeter, G. W.; Carter, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    Guy (Will) Wilburn Jeter Jr., Gregory A. Carter University of Southern Mississippi Geography and Geology Gulf Coast Geospatial Center The over-arching goal of this research is to assess habitat change over a seventy year period to better understand the combined effects of global sea level rise and storm impacts on the stability of Horn Island, MS habitats. Historical aerial photography is often overlooked as a resource for use in determining habitat change. However, the spatial information provided even by black and white imagery can give insight into past habitat composition via textural analysis. This research will evaluate characteristic dimensions; most notably patch size of habitat types using simple geo-statistics and textures of brightness values of historical aerial imagery. It is assumed that each cover type has an identifiable patch size that can be used as a unique classifier of each habitat type. Analytical methods applied to the 1940 imagery were developed using 2010 field data and USDA aerial imagery. Textural moving window methods and basic geo-statistics were used to estimate characteristic dimensions of each cover type in 1940 aerial photography. The moving window texture analysis was configured with multiple window sizes to capture the characteristic dimensions of six habitat types; water, bare sand , dune herb land, estuarine shrub land, marsh land and slash pine woodland. Coefficient of variation (CV), contrast, and entropy texture filters were used to analyze the spatial variability of the 1940 and 2010 imagery. (CV) was used to depict the horizontal variability of each habitat characteristic dimension. Contrast was used to represent the variability of bright versus dark pixel values; entropy was used to show the variation in the slash pine woodland habitat type. Results indicate a substantial increase in marshland habitat relative to other habitat types since 1940. Results also reveal each habitat-type, such as dune herb-land, marsh

  8. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Replacing the Army’s Comanche Helicopter?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This strategic research project explores the possibility of unmanned aerial vehicles replacing the Comanche Helicopter in its doctrinal missions...capabilities of unmanned aerial vehicles , and analyzes unmanned aerial vehicles capabilities against those aviation critical tasks. This research will...Army’s current helicopters, this analysis reveals that unmanned aerial vehicles can only perform 67% of the reconnaissance critical tasks, 50% of the

  9. Analysis of the impact of spatial resolution on land/water classifications using high-resolution aerial imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Enwright, Nicholas M.; Jones, William R.; Garber, Adrienne L.; Keller, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Long-term monitoring efforts often use remote sensing to track trends in habitat or landscape conditions over time. To most appropriately compare observations over time, long-term monitoring efforts strive for consistency in methods. Thus, advances and changes in technology over time can present a challenge. For instance, modern camera technology has led to an increasing availability of very high-resolution imagery (i.e. submetre and metre) and a shift from analogue to digital photography. While numerous studies have shown that image resolution can impact the accuracy of classifications, most of these studies have focused on the impacts of comparing spatial resolution changes greater than 2 m. Thus, a knowledge gap exists on the impacts of minor changes in spatial resolution (i.e. submetre to about 1.5 m) in very high-resolution aerial imagery (i.e. 2 m resolution or less). This study compared the impact of spatial resolution on land/water classifications of an area dominated by coastal marsh vegetation in Louisiana, USA, using 1:12,000 scale colour-infrared analogue aerial photography (AAP) scanned at four different dot-per-inch resolutions simulating ground sample distances (GSDs) of 0.33, 0.54, 1, and 2 m. Analysis of the impact of spatial resolution on land/water classifications was conducted by exploring various spatial aspects of the classifications including density of waterbodies and frequency distributions in waterbody sizes. This study found that a small-magnitude change (1–1.5 m) in spatial resolution had little to no impact on the amount of water classified (i.e. percentage mapped was less than 1.5%), but had a significant impact on the mapping of very small waterbodies (i.e. waterbodies ≤ 250 m2). These findings should interest those using temporal image classifications derived from very high-resolution aerial photography as a component of long-term monitoring programs.

  10. Alcohol, Sex and Illegal Activities: An Analysis of Selected Facebook Central Photos in Fifty States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Sandy White; Smith, Zachary; Driver, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to evaluate the central photos of 150 students in 50 states participating in Facebook for evidence of alcohol consumption, illegal activities and portrayal of sexually inappropriate behaviors (including nudity or partial nudity). Because the media has frequently reported evidence of these behaviors in…

  11. Images of Democracy: An Analysis of Photos Published during and after Argentine Military Rule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Jeffrey Alan

    Noting that efforts of governments to control newspapers are more problematic where news photographs are concerned, a study compared the news photos printed in an English-language Argentinian newspaper during and after a period of totalitarian rule. The study sample was a simulated "week" of issues, consisting of one day from each month…

  12. An Analysis of Fuel Cell Options for an All-electric Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohout, Lisa L.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2007-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the performance characteristics of both PEM and SOFC-based fuel cell systems for an all-electric high altitude, long endurance Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Primary and hybrid systems were considered. Fuel options include methane, hydrogen, and jet fuel. Excel-based models were used to calculate component mass as a function of power level and mission duration. Total system mass and stored volume as a function of mission duration for an aircraft operating at 65 kft altitude were determined and compared.

  13. A Comparative Analysis of the Photo-Protective Effects of Soy Isoflavones in Their Aglycone and Glucoside Forms

    PubMed Central

    Iovine, Barbara; Iannella, Maria Luigia; Gasparri, Franco; Giannini, Valentina; Monfrecola, Giuseppe; Bevilacqua, Maria Assunta

    2012-01-01

    Isoflavones exist in nature predominantly as glucosides such as daidzin or genistin and are rarely found in their corresponding aglycone forms daidzein and genistein. The metabolism and absorption of isoflavones ingested with food is well documented, but little is known about their use as topical photo-protective agents. The aim of this study was to investigate in a comparative analysis the photo-protective effects of isoflavones in both their aglycone and glucoside forms. In human skin fibroblasts irradiated with 60 mJ/cm2 ultraviolet B (UVB), we measured the expression levels of COX-2 and Gadd45, which are involved in inflammation and DNA repair, respectively. We also determined the cellular response to UVB-induced DNA damage using the comet assay. Our findings suggest that both the isoflavone glucosides at a specific concentration and combination with an aglycone mixture exerted an anti-inflammatory and photo-protective effect that prevented 41% and 71% of UVB-induced DNA damage, respectively. The advantages of using either isoflavone glucosides or an aglycone mixture in applications in the field of dermatology will depend on their properties and their different potential uses. PMID:23211668

  14. A comparative analysis of the photo-protective effects of soy isoflavones in their aglycone and glucoside forms.

    PubMed

    Iovine, Barbara; Iannella, Maria Luigia; Gasparri, Franco; Giannini, Valentina; Monfrecola, Giuseppe; Bevilacqua, Maria Assunta

    2012-12-04

    Isoflavones exist in nature predominantly as glucosides such as daidzin or genistin and are rarely found in their corresponding aglycone forms daidzein and genistein. The metabolism and absorption of isoflavones ingested with food is well documented, but little is known about their use as topical photo-protective agents. The aim of this study was to investigate in a comparative analysis the photo-protective effects of isoflavones in both their aglycone and glucoside forms. In human skin fibroblasts irradiated with 60 mJ/cm2 ultraviolet B (UVB), we measured the expression levels of COX-2 and Gadd45, which are involved in inflammation and DNA repair, respectively. We also determined the cellular response to UVB-induced DNA damage using the comet assay. Our findings suggest that both the isoflavone glucosides at a specific concentration and combination with an aglycone mixture exerted an anti-inflammatory and photo-protective effect that prevented 41% and 71% of UVB-induced DNA damage, respectively. The advantages of using either isoflavone glucosides or an aglycone mixture in applications in the field of dermatology will depend on their properties and their different potential uses.

  15. [A Method for Protein Photo-cross-linking in Living Cells Facilitating Analysis of Physiological Interactions of Proteins].

    PubMed

    Hino, Nobumasa

    2015-01-01

    In living cells, most proteins form complexes with other proteins to exert their functions. Since protein functions are regulated in response to changes in the cellular environment, the components of the complexes can vary; therefore, proteins often interact in a weak and transient manner. To capture such labile protein interactions, we have developed a method for photo-cross-linking of proteins directly interacting in mammalian cells; this method involves expansion of the genetic code and site-specific incorporation of photoreactive amino acids into proteins. Upon cross-linking, protein complexes are stabilized by a covalent bond and can be readily isolated from cell extracts without the problems usually associated with simple affinity purification methods such as co-immunoprecipitation. Photo-cross-linkers have another benefit: they react exclusively with molecules within a range defined by the linker length. This property becomes useful for determining the binding interface of two proteins because the linkers can be introduced in a site-directed manner with our method. In this review, we first describe the expansion of the genetic code of mammalian cells for the incorporation of non-natural amino acids into proteins. Then, we introduce our recent applications and developments of the cross-linking method: identification of intracellular binding partners of the signaling protein growth factor receptor binding protein 2; analysis of the binding between membrane proteins on the cell surface; and a novel photoreactive amino acid that enables wide-ranging photo-cross-linking.

  16. Experimental analysis on classification of unmanned aerial vehicle images using the probabilistic latent semantic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Wenbin; Tang, Hong

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, we present a novel algorithm to classify UAV images through the image annotation which is a semi-supervised method. During the annotation process, we first divide whole image into different sizes of blocks and generate suitable visual words which are the K-means clustering centers or just pixels in small size image block. Then, given a set of image blocks for each semantic concept as training data, learning is based on the Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis (PLSA). The probability distributions of visual words in every document can be learned through the PLSA model. The labeling of every document (image block) is done by computing the similarity of its feature distribution to the distribution of the training documents with the Kullback-Leibler (K-L) divergence. Finally, the classification of the UAV images will be done by combining all the image blocks in every block size. The UAV images using in our experiments was acquired during Sichuan earthquake in 2008. The results show that smaller size block image will get better classification results.

  17. Weakly-Supervised Multimodal Kernel for Categorizing Aerial Photographs.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yingjie; Zhang, Luming; Liu, Zhenguang; Nie, Liqiang; Li, Xuelong

    2016-12-14

    Accurately distinguishing aerial photographs from different categories is a promising technique in computer vision. It can facilitate a series of applications such as video surveillance and vehicle navigation. In the paper, a new image kernel is proposed for effectively recognizing aerial photographs. The key is to encode high-level semantic cues into local image patches in a weakly-supervised way, and integrate multimodal visual features using a newly-developed hashing algorithm. The flowchart can be elaborated as follows. Given an aerial photo, we first extract a number of graphlets to describe its topological structure. For each graphlet, we utilize color and texture to capture its appearance, and a weakly-supervised algorithm to capture its semantics. Thereafter, aerial photo categorization can be naturally formulated as graphlet-to-graphlet matching. As the number of graphlets from each aerial photo is huge, to accelerate matching, we present a hashing algorithm to seamlessly fuze the multiple visual features into binary codes. Finally, an image kernel is calculated by fast matching the binary codes corresponding to each graphlet. And a multi-class SVM is learned for aerial photo categorization. We demonstrate the advantage of our proposed model by comparing it with state-of-the-art image descriptors. Moreover, an in-depth study of the descriptiveness of the hash-based graphlet is presented.

  18. Analysis of polymerization with photo-Fries rearrangement in liquid crystal displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizusaki, Masanobu; Enomoto, Satoshi; Hara, Yuki; Kikuchi, Hideo; Yamada, Yuichiro

    2013-05-01

    Polymer-sustained-alignment liquid crystal display has high potential for low power consumption, fast response, and low level of image sticking. In this study, we clarified the mechanism for a formation of a polymer layer with polymerization of the monomer 2,6-dimethacryloyl-oxy-naphthalene (2,6-DMANaph) without initiators under UV light exposure. Experimental results revealed that the polymerization of 2,6-DMANaph occurred with the generation of radicals from the monomer as reactive intermediates of a photo-Fries rearrangement. It took about 20 min for 0.5 wt. % of the monomer in the LC to convert to the polymer, indicating that the generation of the radicals derived from the reactive intermediates of the photo-Fries rearrangement is effective for the formation of the polymer layer. Voltage holding ratio of the LC cell having the polymer layer formed from the monomer 2,6-DMANaph was over 99%, which was comparably high value.

  19. Identification of wild areas in southern lower Michigan. [terrain analysis from aerial photography, and satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habowski, S.; Cialek, C.

    1978-01-01

    An inventory methodology was developed to identify potential wild area sites. A list of site criteria were formulated and tested in six selected counties. Potential sites were initially identified from LANDSAT satellite imagery. A detailed study of the soil, vegetation and relief characteristics of each site based on both high-altitude aerial photographs and existing map data was conducted to eliminate unsuitable sites. Ground reconnaissance of the remaining wild areas was made to verify suitability and acquire information on wildlife and general aesthetics. Physical characteristics of the wild areas in each county are presented in tables. Maps show the potential sites to be set aside for natural preservation and regulation by the state under the Wilderness and Natural Areas Act of 1972.

  20. Detection and spatiotemporal analysis of methane ebullition on thermokarst lake ice using high-resolution optical aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, P. R.; Grosse, G.; Anthony, K. M. Walter; Meyer, F. J.

    2016-01-01

    Thermokarst lakes are important emitters of methane, a potent greenhouse gas. However, accurate estimation of methane flux from thermokarst lakes is difficult due to their remoteness and observational challenges associated with the heterogeneous nature of ebullition. We used high-resolution (9-11 cm) snow-free aerial images of an interior Alaskan thermokarst lake acquired 2 and 4 days following freeze-up in 2011 and 2012, respectively, to detect and characterize methane ebullition seeps and to estimate whole-lake ebullition. Bubbles impeded by the lake ice sheet form distinct white patches as a function of bubbling when lake ice grows downward and around them, trapping the gas in the ice. Our aerial imagery thus captured a snapshot of bubbles trapped in lake ice during the ebullition events that occurred before the image acquisition. Image analysis showed that low-flux A- and B-type seeps are associated with low brightness patches and are statistically distinct from high-flux C-type and hotspot seeps associated with high brightness patches. Mean whole-lake ebullition based on optical image analysis in combination with bubble-trap flux measurements was estimated to be 174 ± 28 and 216 ± 33 mL gas m-2 d-1 for the years 2011 and 2012, respectively. A large number of seeps demonstrated spatiotemporal stability over our 2-year study period. A strong inverse exponential relationship (R2 > = 0.79) was found between the percent of the surface area of lake ice covered with bubble patches and distance from the active thermokarst lake margin. Even though the narrow timing of optical image acquisition is a critical factor, with respect to both atmospheric pressure changes and snow/no-snow conditions during early lake freeze-up, our study shows that optical remote sensing is a powerful tool to map ebullition seeps on lake ice, to identify their relative strength of ebullition, and to assess their spatiotemporal variability.

  1. Mapping Urban Ecosystem Services Using High Resolution Aerial Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilant, A. N.; Neale, A.; Wilhelm, D.

    2010-12-01

    Ecosystem services (ES) are the many life-sustaining benefits we receive from nature: e.g., clean air and water, food and fiber, cultural-aesthetic-recreational benefits, pollination and flood control. The ES concept is emerging as a means of integrating complex environmental and economic information to support informed environmental decision making. The US EPA is developing a web-based National Atlas of Ecosystem Services, with a component for urban ecosystems. Currently, the only wall-to-wall, national scale land cover data suitable for this analysis is the National Land Cover Data (NLCD) at 30 m spatial resolution with 5 and 10 year updates. However, aerial photography is acquired at higher spatial resolution (0.5-3 m) and more frequently (1-5 years, typically) for most urban areas. Land cover was mapped in Raleigh, NC using freely available USDA National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP) with 1 m ground sample distance to test the suitability of aerial photography for urban ES analysis. Automated feature extraction techniques were used to extract five land cover classes, and an accuracy assessment was performed using standard techniques. Results will be presented that demonstrate applications to mapping ES in urban environments: greenways, corridors, fragmentation, habitat, impervious surfaces, dark and light pavement (urban heat island). Automated feature extraction results mapped over NAIP color aerial photograph. At this scale, we can look at land cover and related ecosystem services at the 2-10 m scale. Small features such as individual trees and sidewalks are visible and mappable. Classified aerial photo of Downtown Raleigh NC Red: impervious surface Dark Green: trees Light Green: grass Tan: soil

  2. Fault Tolerance Analysis of L1 Adaptive Control System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamoorthy, Kiruthika

    Trajectory tracking is a critical element for the better functionality of autonomous vehicles. The main objective of this research study was to implement and analyze L1 adaptive control laws for autonomous flight under normal and upset flight conditions. The West Virginia University (WVU) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle flight simulation environment was used for this purpose. A comparison study between the L1 adaptive controller and a baseline conventional controller, which relies on position, proportional, and integral compensation, has been performed for a reduced size jet aircraft, the WVU YF-22. Special attention was given to the performance of the proposed control laws in the presence of abnormal conditions. The abnormal conditions considered are locked actuators (stabilator, aileron, and rudder) and excessive turbulence. Several levels of abnormal condition severity have been considered. The performance of the control laws was assessed over different-shape commanded trajectories. A set of comprehensive evaluation metrics was defined and used to analyze the performance of autonomous flight control laws in terms of control activity and trajectory tracking errors. The developed L1 adaptive control laws are supported by theoretical stability guarantees. The simulation results show that L1 adaptive output feedback controller achieves better trajectory tracking with lower level of control actuation as compared to the baseline linear controller under nominal and abnormal conditions.

  3. Aerial color infrared photography applications to citriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blazquez, C. H.; Horn, F. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Results of a one-year experimental study on the use of aerial color infrared photography in citrus grove management are presented. It is found that the spring season, when trees are in flush (have young leaves), is the best season to photograph visible differences between healthy and diseased trees. It is also shown that the best photography can be obtained with a 12-in. focal length lens. The photographic scale that allowed good photo interpretation with simple inexpensive equipment was 1 in. = 330 ft. The use of a window-overlay transparency method allowed rapid photo interpretation and data recording in computer-compatible forms. Aerial color infrared photography carried out during the spring season revealed a more accurate status of tree condition than visual inspection.

  4. aerial and ground measurements of emissions from agricultural and forest burns

    EPA Science Inventory

    This poster describes our measurement capabilities, particularly as they relate to interests within Region 7. Aerial instrumentation systems are discussed and field measurement campaigns are described in text and photos.

  5. 95. ARAIV. Aerial view of ML1. Shows test and control ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    95. ARA-IV. Aerial view of ML-1. Shows test and control buildings, berms, fencing. March 14, 1963. Ineel photo no. 63-1666. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. Comparison of SLAR images and small-scale, low-sun aerial photographs.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, M. M.

    1971-01-01

    A comparison of side-looking airborne radar (SLAR) images and black and white aerial photos of similar scale and illumination of an area in the Mojave Desert of California shows that aerial photos yield far more information about geology than do SLAR images because of greater resolution, tonal range, and geometric fidelity, and easier use in stereo. Nevertheless, radar can differentiate some materials or surfaces that aerial photos cannot; thus, they should be considered as complementary, rather than competing tools in geologic investigations. The most significant advantage of SLAR, however, is its freedom from the stringent conditions of weather, date, and time that are required by small-scale aerial photos taken with a specified direction and angle of illumination. Indeed, in low latitudes, SLAR is the only way to obtain small-scale images with low illumination from certain directions; moreover, in areas of nearly continuous cloudiness, radar may be the only practical source of small-scale images.

  7. Aerodynamic analysis and simulation of a twin-tail tilt-duct unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdollahi, Cyrus

    The tilt-duct vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) concept has been around since the early 1960s; however, to date the design has never passed the research phase and development phase. Nearly 50 years later, American Dynamics Flight Systems (ADFS) is developing the AD-150, a 2,250lb weight class unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) configured with rotating ducts on each wingtip. Unlike its predecessor, the Doak VZ-4, the AD-150 features a V tail and wing sweep -- both of which affect the aerodynamic behavior of the aircraft. Because no aircraft of this type has been built and tested, vital aerodynamic research was conducted on the bare airframe behavior (without wingtip ducts). Two weeks of static and dynamic testing were performed on a 3/10th scale model at the University of Maryland's 7' x 10' low speed wind tunnel to facilitate the construction of a nonlinear flight simulator. A total of 70 dynamic tests were performed to obtain damping parameter estimates using the ordinary least squares methodology. Validation, based on agreement between static and dynamic estimates of the pitch and yaw stiffness terms, showed an average percent error of 14.0% and 39.6%, respectively. These inconsistencies were attributed to: large dynamic displacements not encountered during static testing, regressor collinearity, and, while not conclusively proven, differences in static and dynamic boundary layer development. Overall, the damping estimates were consistent and repeatable, with low scatter over a 95% confidence interval. Finally, a basic open loop simulation was executed to demonstrate the instability of the aircraft. As a result, it is recommended that future work be performed to determine trim points and linear models for controls development.

  8. Geomorphic Evidence of Coseismic Coastline Changes in Southern Miura Peninsula Associated with the Recent Kanto Earthquakes: Analysis of the LIDAR Data, air Photos and Topo Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Kumaki, Y.; Satake, K.

    2011-12-01

    In order to study geomorphic evidence related to the past Kanto earthquakes, we analyzed LIDAR data, air photos and topographical maps, and traced uplifted marine terraces during the recent earthquakes including the 1923 and 1703 earthquakes. Tokyo Metropolitan Area's well-documented earthquake history is dominated by the 1703 and 1923 great Kanto earthquakes, that were resulted from the subducting Philippine Sea plate. Around the source region of the past Kanto earthquakes, Miura and Boso Peninsulas are located facing the Sagami Bay. The average recurrence interval of Kanto earthquake has been estimated on basis of the seismological, geodetic, geological and gemorophological data. The Earthquake Research Committee [2004] proposed that there are types of earthquakes with the recurrence intervals of 200-400 years, and about 2300 years. They produced different amounts of uplift at Boso Peninsula, but the uplifts of Miura Peninsula are similar. The uplift amounts of Miura Peninsula have been estimated about 1.5 m in 1923 and 1703, from the wave-cut-benches, -notches and the distribution of fossil remains along the coast [Matsuda et al. (1978), Shishikura et al. (2007)]. The coastline just before the 1923 earthquakes can be restored from the old topographical map. By using it, the coseismic uplifts associated with the 1923 and 1703 earthquakes may be more accurately estimated. The air photos we used are by 1946 U.S. forces photography and 1963/1966 Geographical Survey Institute photography; the topographical maps are 1:25,000 topographical maps measured in 1921 and 1:20,000 topographical maps of the Meiji period. In addition, we made a high-density (50 cm mesh) digital elevations map by aerial measurements of the Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR). In Miura Peninsula, three additional steps of marine terrace surface are formed at 7 to 20 m above MSL, at ~5200,~3300 and ~1500 cal. BC, and these are called Nobi 1, 2 and 3 in order from top [Kumaki, 1985; 14C Age was

  9. Creating Photo Illustrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Bradley

    2003-01-01

    Explains the uses of photo illustrations. Notes that the key to developing a successful photo illustration is collaborative planning. Outlines the following guidelines for photo illustrations: never set up a photograph to mimic reality; create only abstractions with photo illustrations; clearly label photo illustrations; and never play photo…

  10. 25. Aerial photograph dated 20 June 1942, showing north end ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Aerial photograph dated 20 June 1942, showing north end of Gould Island from the northeast (caption on photo is in error). Shop and power plant under construction at left, firing pier under construction at far right. Photo courtesy of Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Newport, Rhode Island. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  11. Aerial Images from AN Uav System: 3d Modeling and Tree Species Classification in a Park Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gini, R.; Passoni, D.; Pinto, L.; Sona, G.

    2012-07-01

    The use of aerial imagery acquired by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is scheduled within the FoGLIE project (Fruition of Goods Landscape in Interactive Environment): it starts from the need to enhance the natural, artistic and cultural heritage, to produce a better usability of it by employing audiovisual movable systems of 3D reconstruction and to improve monitoring procedures, by using new media for integrating the fruition phase with the preservation ones. The pilot project focus on a test area, Parco Adda Nord, which encloses various goods' types (small buildings, agricultural fields and different tree species and bushes). Multispectral high resolution images were taken by two digital compact cameras: a Pentax Optio A40 for RGB photos and a Sigma DP1 modified to acquire the NIR band. Then, some tests were performed in order to analyze the UAV images' quality with both photogrammetric and photo-interpretation purposes, to validate the vector-sensor system, the image block geometry and to study the feasibility of tree species classification. Many pre-signalized Control Points were surveyed through GPS to allow accuracy analysis. Aerial Triangulations (ATs) were carried out with photogrammetric commercial software, Leica Photogrammetry Suite (LPS) and PhotoModeler, with manual or automatic selection of Tie Points, to pick out pros and cons of each package in managing non conventional aerial imagery as well as the differences in the modeling approach. Further analysis were done on the differences between the EO parameters and the corresponding data coming from the on board UAV navigation system.

  12. Enhanced photo-fermentative H2 production using Rhodobacter sphaeroides by ethanol addition and analysis of soluble microbial products

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Biological fermentation routes can provide an environmentally friendly way of producing H2 since they use renewable biomass as feedstock and proceed under ambient temperature and pressure. In particular, photo-fermentation has superior properties in terms of achieving high H2 yield through complete degradation of substrates. However, long-term H2 production data with stable performance is limited, and this data is essential for practical applications. In the present work, continuous photo-fermentative H2 production from lactate was attempted using the purple non-sulfur bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides KD131. As a gradual drop in H2 production was observed, we attempted to add ethanol (0.2% v/v) to the medium. Results As continuous operation went on, H2 production was not sustained and showed a negligible H2 yield (< 0.5 mol H2/mol lactateadded) within two weeks. Electron balance analysis showed that the reason for the gradual drop in H2 production was ascribed to the increase in production of soluble microbial products (SMPs). To see the possible effect of ethanol addition, a batch test was first conducted. The presence of ethanol significantly increased the H2 yield from 1.15 to 2.20 mol H2/mol lactateadded, by suppressing the production of SMPs. The analysis of SMPs by size exclusion chromatography showed that, in the later period of fermentation, more than half of the low molecular weight SMPs (< 1 kDa) were consumed and used for H2 production when ethanol had been added, while the concentration of SMPs continuously increased in the absence of ethanol. It was found that the addition of ethanol facilitated the utilization of reducing power, resulting in an increase in the cellular levels of NAD+ and NADP+. In continuous operation, ethanol addition was effective, such that stable H2 production was attained with an H2 yield of 2.5 mol H2/mol lactateadded. Less than 15% of substrate electrons were used for SMP production, whereas 35% were used in

  13. Analysis of the reasons for accidents and of protective measures against induced voltage on aerial electrical transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Misrikhanov, M. Sh.; Mirzaabdullaev, A. O.

    2009-01-15

    The problem of safety during work on aerial transmission lines under an induced voltage is examined. Results are presented from a study of the causes of accidents over the last 20 years in electrical grids in this country. A determination of different levels of induced voltage on disconnected aerial transmission lines as a function of their grounding scheme is proposed. The order of magnitudes for each level are given, along with approximate expressions for calculating them.

  14. Simulation analysis of LER and dose tradeoffs for EUV resists with photo-decomposable quenchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattarai, Suchit; Neureuther, Andrew R.; Naulleau, Patrick P.

    2013-04-01

    The SuMMIT stochastic simulator has been used to conduct a simulation study of photo-decomposable quencher (PDQ) based EUV resists and performance comparison between PDQ resists and conventional quencher (regQ) resists analyzed from the standpoint of dose and LER metrics. The dose and LER Tradeoffs have been analyzed as a function of base loading, base diffusion lengths and relative deprotection/quenching rates. About 3.5% LER improvements with PDQ has been predicted at a dose of 15 mJ/cm2 with base loaded at 20% of PAG loading, for 25 nm half-pitch line-space patterns. Dose savings of 2 mJ/cm2 and LER improvement of 0.1 nm between regQ and PDQ resists are predicted with a base diffusion length equal to the acid diffusion length of 10 nm, and base loaded at 30% of PAG loading. Dose improvements of 1 mJ/cm2 for equal regQ and PDQ LERs of 3.5 nm is possible at a deprotection rate that is half as fast as the acid/base quenching rate of 10 nm3/s. Improvement in the deprotection gradient is found to be the dominant factor behind lower PDQ LERs, while the difference in deprotection noise between conventional quenchers and PDQs is found to be marginal.

  15. Design and Analysis of a Single-Camera Omnistereo Sensor for Quadrotor Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) †

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Carlos; Valenti, Roberto G.; Guo, Ling; Xiao, Jizhong

    2016-01-01

    We describe the design and 3D sensing performance of an omnidirectional stereo (omnistereo) vision system applied to Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs). The proposed omnistereo sensor employs a monocular camera that is co-axially aligned with a pair of hyperboloidal mirrors (a vertically-folded catadioptric configuration). We show that this arrangement provides a compact solution for omnidirectional 3D perception while mounted on top of propeller-based MAVs (not capable of large payloads). The theoretical single viewpoint (SVP) constraint helps us derive analytical solutions for the sensor’s projective geometry and generate SVP-compliant panoramic images to compute 3D information from stereo correspondences (in a truly synchronous fashion). We perform an extensive analysis on various system characteristics such as its size, catadioptric spatial resolution, field-of-view. In addition, we pose a probabilistic model for the uncertainty estimation of 3D information from triangulation of back-projected rays. We validate the projection error of the design using both synthetic and real-life images against ground-truth data. Qualitatively, we show 3D point clouds (dense and sparse) resulting out of a single image captured from a real-life experiment. We expect the reproducibility of our sensor as its model parameters can be optimized to satisfy other catadioptric-based omnistereo vision under different circumstances. PMID:26861351

  16. Agricultural cropland mapping using black-and-white aerial photography, Object-Based Image Analysis and Random Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogels, M. F. A.; de Jong, S. M.; Sterk, G.; Addink, E. A.

    2017-02-01

    Land-use and land-cover (LULC) conversions have an important impact on land degradation, erosion and water availability. Information on historical land cover (change) is crucial for studying and modelling land- and ecosystem degradation. During the past decades major LULC conversions occurred in Africa, Southeast Asia and South America as a consequence of a growing population and economy. Most distinct is the conversion of natural vegetation into cropland. Historical LULC information can be derived from satellite imagery, but these only date back until approximately 1972. Before the emergence of satellite imagery, landscapes were monitored by black-and-white (B&W) aerial photography. This photography is often visually interpreted, which is a very time-consuming approach. This study presents an innovative, semi-automated method to map cropland acreage from B&W photography. Cropland acreage was mapped on two study sites in Ethiopia and in The Netherlands. For this purpose we used Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) and a Random Forest classification on a set of variables comprising texture, shape, slope, neighbour and spectral information. Overall mapping accuracies attained are 90% and 96% for the two study areas respectively. This mapping method increases the timeline at which historical cropland expansion can be mapped purely from brightness information in B&W photography up to the 1930s, which is beneficial for regions where historical land-use statistics are mostly absent.

  17. Analysis of photo-stimulation and microwave stimulation effects on EEG signal using Higuchi's fractal dimension method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipping, T.; Olejarczyk, E.; Parts, M.

    2004-07-01

    The microwave radiation effects on EEG-signal have been studied by comparison with photo-stimulaton. The study of photos-stimulation effects at 16 Hz frequency and microwave radiation stimulation effects at 450 MHz modulated with 7 Hz frequency show fractal dimension increase.

  18. Evaluation of DSMs generated from multi-temporal aerial photographs using emerging structure from motion-multi-view stereo technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiguro, Satoshi; Yamano, Hiroya; Oguma, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-01

    An accuracy assessment of digital surface models (DSMs) generated from archived aerial photographs using the structure from motion-multi-view stereo (SfM-MVS) technique was carried out. A four-step accuracy-assessment procedure was adopted using aerial photography from eight periods, as follows. Step 1: generate a DSM and orthophoto from digital aerial photographs taken in 2013 and ground control points (GCPs) measured by GNSS. Step 2: assess the accuracy of the DSM by comparison with altitude measured by leveling survey. Step 3: generate other historical DSMs and orthophotos from historical aerial photographs using GCPs extracted from the DSM of 2013. Step 4: assess the accuracy of all historical DSMs by comparing with the leveling survey. Then re-calculate the accuracy of historical DSMs by reducing the inherent error in the 2013 DSM. The DSM based on the aerial photographs taken in 2013 was generated with a resolution of 48.2 cm. The residual height error of the GCPs was 15.4 cm. Validation against the altitudes of 171 points revealed that this DSM has a height root-mean-square-error (RMSE) of 24.1 cm and is 9.2 cm lower than the leveling data on average. Even using US military photos with unconfirmed detailed specifications, the model can measure the altitude with an RMSE value of 121.5 cm. It appears therefore that analysis by SfM-MVS can give comparable measurement accuracy to traditional aerial photogrammetry. The low cost and high accuracy obtained with archived aerial photographs are worthy of special mention.

  19. Aerial radiation surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Jobst, J.

    1980-01-01

    A recent aerial radiation survey of the surroundings of the Vitro mill in Salt Lake City shows that uranium mill tailings have been removed to many locations outside their original boundary. To date, 52 remote sites have been discovered within a 100 square kilometer aerial survey perimeter surrounding the mill; 9 of these were discovered with the recent aerial survey map. Five additional sites, also discovered by aerial survey, contained uranium ore, milling equipment, or radioactive slag. Because of the success of this survey, plans are being made to extend the aerial survey program to other parts of the Salt Lake valley where diversions of Vitro tailings are also known to exist.

  20. Automatic Analysis and Classification of the Roof Surfaces for the Installation of Solar Panels Using a Multi-Data Source and Multi-Sensor Aerial Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, L.; Lagüela, S.; Picon, I.; González-Aguilera, D.

    2015-02-01

    A low-cost multi-sensor aerial platform, aerial trike, equipped with visible and thermographic sensors is used for the acquisition of all the data needed for the automatic analysis and classification of roof surfaces regarding their suitability to harbour solar panels. The geometry of a georeferenced 3D point cloud generated from visible images using photogrammetric and computer vision algorithms, and the temperatures measured on thermographic images are decisive to evaluate the surfaces, slopes, orientations and the existence of obstacles. This way, large areas may be efficiently analysed obtaining as final result the optimal locations for the placement of solar panels as well as the required geometry of the supports for the installation of the panels in those roofs where geometry is not optimal.

  1. Analysis of the Assignment Scheduling Capability for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (ASC-U) Simulation Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instruction, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed...combine an efficient experimental design, exploratory modeling, and data analysis to examine 514 variations of a scenario involving five UAV classes and...combine an efficient experimental design, exploratory modeling, and data analysis to examine 514 variations of a scenario involving five UAV classes

  2. 9. Photographic copy of aerial photograph of NUWC, 1993, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photographic copy of aerial photograph of NUWC, 1993, view northwest. Original color negative no. 093(L)-09212.32 on file at photo lab at NUWC, Newport, R.I. Copyright-free. - Naval Undersea Warfare Center, East side of Smith & East Streets between Columbia & South Coves, New London, New London County, CT

  3. 24. Aerial photograph dated 22 April 1942, showing Gould Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Aerial photograph dated 22 April 1942, showing Gould Island from the northeast. Complex under construction includes shop building (large rectangle at north end of island, and firing pier (at far right). Photo courtesy of Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Newport, Rhode Island. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  4. 26. Aerial photograph dated 20 June 1942, showing north end ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Aerial photograph dated 20 June 1942, showing north end of Gould Island from the southwest. At upper left is firing pier. Shop building and power plant under construction at center. Photo courtesy of Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Newport, Rhode Island. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  5. AERIAL VIEW OF MAIN PROCESSING BUILDING SHOWING CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW OF MAIN PROCESSING BUILDING SHOWING CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS AND EXCAVATION FOR LABORATORY ON LEFT. INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-51-1759. Unknown Photographer, 3/28/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. A Spreadsheet-based GIS tool for planning aerial photography

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.EPA's Pacific Coastal Ecology Branch has developed a tool which facilitates planning aerial photography missions. This tool is an Excel spreadsheet which accepts various input parameters such as desired photo-scale and boundary coordinates of the study area and compiles ...

  7. 10. AERIAL VIEW OF THE EAST TEST AREA. DODD ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. AERIAL VIEW OF THE EAST TEST AREA. DODD ROAD RUNS TOP TO BOTTOM, JUST LEFT OF CENTER. THE STATIC TEST TOWER IS TOWARD THE BOTTOM RIGHT, THE REDSTONE INTERIM TEST STAND IS TOWARD THE TOP LEFT. 1961, MSFC PHOTO LAB. - Marshall Space Flight Center, East Test Area, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  8. 2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING WEST, SHOWING RADAR SITE IN UPPER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING WEST, SHOWING RADAR SITE IN UPPER LEFT, BARRACKS IN MIDDLE, AND LAUNCH AREA IN LOWER PORTION OF PHOTO Everett Weinreb, photographer, April 1988 - Los Pinetos Nike Missile Site, Santa Clara Road, Los Angeles National Forest, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 16. AERIAL VIEW OF BIG DALTON DAM TAKEN ON 2161962 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. AERIAL VIEW OF BIG DALTON DAM TAKEN ON 2-16-1962 BY L.A. COUNTY PUBLIC WORKS PHOTOGRAPHER SINGER. PHOTO SHOWS THE RESERVOIR NEAR FULL CAPACITY AND WATER BEING RELEASED ON THE DOWNSTREAM SIDE. - Big Dalton Dam, 2600 Big Dalton Canyon Road, Glendora, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. 15. AERIAL VIEW OF BIG TUJUNGA DAM TAKEN ON FEBRUARY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. AERIAL VIEW OF BIG TUJUNGA DAM TAKEN ON FEBRUARY 17, 1962, BY L.A. COUNTY PUBLIC WORKS PHOTOGRAPHER WEBB. PHOTO SHOWS THE RESERVOIR NEAR FULL CAPACITY AND WATER BEING RELEASED ON THE DOWNSTREAM SIDE. - Big Tujunga Dam, 809 West Big Tujunga Road, Sunland, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 1. Aerial view looking south at Dry Docks 2 and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Aerial view looking south at Dry Docks 2 and 3. A battleship (possibly the USS PENNSYLVANIA or USS ARIZONA) is in Dock 3. Future Dry Dock 4 site and Point Avisadero is in the upper right corner of photo (1935). Photographer unknown. - Hunters Point Naval Shipyard, Drydock No. 4, East terminus of Palou Avenue, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  12. 10. Historic view, Pier 10. Aerial view to east, 1943. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic view, Pier 10. Aerial view to east, 1943. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 8685, USN #SQA466, 8/17/43 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Pier 10, Between Piers 9 & 11 along Mystic River on Charlestown Waterfront at eastern edge of Charlestown Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  13. Weed mapping in early-season maize fields using object-based analysis of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images.

    PubMed

    Peña, José Manuel; Torres-Sánchez, Jorge; de Castro, Ana Isabel; Kelly, Maggi; López-Granados, Francisca

    2013-01-01

    The use of remote imagery captured by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) has tremendous potential for designing detailed site-specific weed control treatments in early post-emergence, which have not possible previously with conventional airborne or satellite images. A robust and entirely automatic object-based image analysis (OBIA) procedure was developed on a series of UAV images using a six-band multispectral camera (visible and near-infrared range) with the ultimate objective of generating a weed map in an experimental maize field in Spain. The OBIA procedure combines several contextual, hierarchical and object-based features and consists of three consecutive phases: 1) classification of crop rows by application of a dynamic and auto-adaptive classification approach, 2) discrimination of crops and weeds on the basis of their relative positions with reference to the crop rows, and 3) generation of a weed infestation map in a grid structure. The estimation of weed coverage from the image analysis yielded satisfactory results. The relationship of estimated versus observed weed densities had a coefficient of determination of r(2)=0.89 and a root mean square error of 0.02. A map of three categories of weed coverage was produced with 86% of overall accuracy. In the experimental field, the area free of weeds was 23%, and the area with low weed coverage (<5% weeds) was 47%, which indicated a high potential for reducing herbicide application or other weed operations. The OBIA procedure computes multiple data and statistics derived from the classification outputs, which permits calculation of herbicide requirements and estimation of the overall cost of weed management operations in advance.

  14. Weed Mapping in Early-Season Maize Fields Using Object-Based Analysis of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Images

    PubMed Central

    Peña, José Manuel; Torres-Sánchez, Jorge; de Castro, Ana Isabel; Kelly, Maggi; López-Granados, Francisca

    2013-01-01

    The use of remote imagery captured by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) has tremendous potential for designing detailed site-specific weed control treatments in early post-emergence, which have not possible previously with conventional airborne or satellite images. A robust and entirely automatic object-based image analysis (OBIA) procedure was developed on a series of UAV images using a six-band multispectral camera (visible and near-infrared range) with the ultimate objective of generating a weed map in an experimental maize field in Spain. The OBIA procedure combines several contextual, hierarchical and object-based features and consists of three consecutive phases: 1) classification of crop rows by application of a dynamic and auto-adaptive classification approach, 2) discrimination of crops and weeds on the basis of their relative positions with reference to the crop rows, and 3) generation of a weed infestation map in a grid structure. The estimation of weed coverage from the image analysis yielded satisfactory results. The relationship of estimated versus observed weed densities had a coefficient of determination of r2=0.89 and a root mean square error of 0.02. A map of three categories of weed coverage was produced with 86% of overall accuracy. In the experimental field, the area free of weeds was 23%, and the area with low weed coverage (<5% weeds) was 47%, which indicated a high potential for reducing herbicide application or other weed operations. The OBIA procedure computes multiple data and statistics derived from the classification outputs, which permits calculation of herbicide requirements and estimation of the overall cost of weed management operations in advance. PMID:24146963

  15. Building Information Modelling (BIM) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technologies in infrastructure construction project management and delay and disruption analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacanas, Yiannis; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Agapiou, Athos; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos

    2015-06-01

    Time in infrastructure construction projects has always been a fundamental issue as early as from the inception of a project, during the construction process and often after the completion and delivery. In a typical construction contract time related matters such as the completion date and possible delays are among the most important issues that are dealt with by the contract provisions. In the event of delay there are usually provisions for extension of time award to the contractor with possible reimbursement for the extra cost and expenses caused by this extension of time to the contract duration. In the case the contractor is not entitled to extension of time, the owner will be possibly entitled to amounts as compensation for the time prohibited from using his development. Even in the event of completion within the time agreed, under certain circumstances a contractor may have claims for reimbursement for extra costs incurred due to induced acceleration measures he had to take in order to mitigate disruption effects caused to the progress of the works by the owner or his representatives. Depending on the size of the project and the agreement amount, these reimbursement sums may be extremely high. Therefore innovative methods with the exploitation of new technologies for effective project management for the avoidance of delays, delay analysis and mitigation measures are essential; moreover, methods for collecting efficiently information during the construction process so that disputes regarding time are avoided or resolved in a quick and fair manner are required. This paper explores the state of art for existing use of Building Information Modelling (BIM) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) technologies in the construction industry in general. Moreover the paper considers the prospect of using BIM technology in conjunction with the use of UAV technology for efficient and accurate as-built data collection and illustration of the works progress during an

  16. Two-dimensional appraisal of geomorphic control on braidplain and in-channel structural connectivity of a braided-wandering river from aerial photos (case study the Belá River, Slovakia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidová, Anna; Lehotský, Milan

    2014-05-01

    Throughout the Europe, reductions in the extent of braided river reaches have occurred since the end of the 19th century and throughout the 20th century. This is a particular study priority of present braided rivers, because they are unique natural entities and rich ecosystems. Understanding the temporal and spatial connectivity that has characterised braidplain and channel behaviour will give crucial information about the evolution and management decisions of this type of rivers. The aim of the contribution is to understand how the spatial connectivity has developed on the Belá River (23.6 km, average annual discharge 6.8 m3 s-1 at mouth, Strahler ord. 5, as a laterally unconfined, gravel-bed river with braided-wandering pattern situated in the North of Slovakia); evaluate how time-spatial linkages of channel and floodplain landforms have been affected by recent large flood events and local factors. Four geomorphological coupling levels of the structural connectivity for seven time periods, using aerial photography (1949-2009) have been investigated: i. valley slope/low terraces-braidplain; ii. channel-channel level; iii. channel-bank level; iiii. bar-channel bed level. Each time horizon has been selected to be representative for estimation linkages changes after large flood event. The development of geomorphological structural connectivity is examined by documenting sequential changes in braidplain width, channel planform (braided and wandering indices), bar and bank attached erosion/accretion areas as parameters reflecting four types of connectivity. The changes in the structural connectivity is expressed in the three-point ordinal scale (1. increasing; 2. unchanging; 3. decreasing) as well as in the map expression of river reaches zonation. Generally, the width of braidplain with decreasing trend refers to long term decoupling valley slope/terraces-braidplain linkages. This trend is prove also by decreasing of the braidplain area. The values of braided indices

  17. Computer-Assisted Analysis of Near-Bottom Photos for Benthic Habitat Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    navigated survey platform greatly increases the efficiency of image analysis and provides new insight about the relationships between benthic organisms...increase in the efficiency of image analysis for benthic habitat studies, and provides the opportunity to assess small scale spatial distribution of

  18. Data and analysis procedures for improved aerial applications mission performance. [agricultural aircraft wing geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, B. J.; Morris, D. K.; Razak, K.

    1979-01-01

    An analysis procedure is given and cases analyzed for the effects of wing geometry on lateral transport of a variety of agricultural particles released in the wake of an agricultural airplane. The cases analyzed simulate the release of particles from a fuselage centerline-mounted dry material spreader; however, the procedure applies to particles released anywhere along the wing span. Consideration is given to the effects of taper ratio, aspect ratio, wing loading, and deflected flaps. It is noted that significant lateral transport of large particles can be achieved using high-lift devices positioned to create a strong vortex near the location of particle release.

  19. Analysis of intensity and spatial patterns of public use in natural treatment systems using geotagged photos from social media.

    PubMed

    Ghermandi, Andrea

    2016-11-15

    Patterns of public use in 273 natural treatment systems worldwide are investigated by means of geotagged data from two popular photo-sharing websites, using spatial analysis and regression techniques. Standardized Major Axis (SMA) regression is found to perform better than other univariate calibration models in terms of goodness of fit with reported visitation frequencies and predictive accuracy, and is used to predict visitation rates in 139 systems that are associated with at least one geotagged photograph. High visitation rates are found in free-water surface (FWS) constructed wetlands and mixed pond-constructed wetlands systems, as well as systems treating surface water or stormwater runoff. Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques are used to map hot and cold spots of public use in two highly visited systems. Binomial logit regression reveals that the probability to be associated with at least one geotagged photograph is a function of system size, system type, and influent water quality. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for the evaluation of public use in multifunctional ecologically engineered systems as well as the applicability of the proposed methodology to other natural and man-made ecosystems.

  20. [Limitations of landscape pattern analysis based on landscape indices: a case study of Lize-jian wetland in Yilan of Taiwan Province, China].

    PubMed

    Lin, Meng-lung; Cao, Yu; Wang, Shin

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the Lizejian wetland landscape patterns in northeastern Taiwan of China were established by landscape indices and aerial photo interpretation, and a parallel analysis was made on them. The results showed that landscape indices could only indicate the landscape geometric characteristics of the wetland at patch and landscape levels, but could not present its spatial and functional characteristics observed from aerial photos. Combining aerial photo interpretation with landscape indices could be helpful to the holistic understanding of Lizejian wetland' s landscape structure and function, and improve the landscape pattern analysis. The new method for assessing landscape structure from a holistic point of view would play an important role in future landscape ecology research.

  1. Some field observations on OSI aerial photography scales

    SciTech Connect

    Geil, R.

    1981-03-16

    The US, UK and USSR are attempting to negotiate a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) in Geneva. One of the verification procedures presently proposed provides for the possibility of conducting an On-Site Inspection (OSI) if a violation is suspected. According to the terms of the draft treaty, the OSI team would be provided with either (1) stereoscopic aerial photographs with a scale of 1:2,500, or equivalent topographic maps (US version) or (2) a large scale aerial photograph (USSR version). In order to gain a better understanding of the aerial photograph issue, EG and G was asked to take stereoscopic aerial photographs of two areas at the NTS at four different scales, 1:2,500, 1:5,000, 1:10,000 and 1:25,000. The purpose of this paper is to present some field observations on the use for OSI type purposes of these different scale photos.

  2. Meningococcus Disease Photos

    MedlinePlus

    ... of hands and lower extremities due to meningococcemia http://www.vaccineinformation.org/photos/menicdc001.jpg Courtesy Centers ... female with gangrene of feet due to meningococcemia http://www.vaccineinformation.org/photos/menicdc002.jpg Courtesy Centers ...

  3. Tetanus (Lockjaw) Photos

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccination Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus Elimination Tetanus (Lockjaw) Photos Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir WARNING: Some ... be unsuitable for children. Viewing discretion is advised. Photos of the Disease and Images of People Affected ...

  4. Photos of Shingles

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Shingles Immunization Action Coalition Chickenpox Q&As Photos of Shingles Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... be unsuitable for children. Viewing discretion is advised. Photos of People with Shingles Shingles rash on the ...

  5. GC-MS analysis of the essential oils, and the isolation of phenylpropanoid derivatives from the aerial parts of Pimpinella aurea.

    PubMed

    Delazar, Abbas; Biglari, Fahimeh; Esnaashari, Solmaz; Nazemiyeh, Hossein; Talebpour, Amir-Hossein; Nahar, Lutfun; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2006-10-01

    A combination of vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) and preparative thin layer chromatography (PTLC) of the dichloromethane extract of the aerial parts of the Iranian plant Pimpinella aurea afforded two phenylpropanoids, erythro-1'-(4-methoxyphenyl)-propan-1',2'-diol (1) and erythro-1'-[4-(sec-butyl)-phenyl]-propan-1',2'-diol (2), the latter being a natural product. The structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic means. The antioxidant properties of these compounds were assessed by the DPPH assay. The GC-MS analysis of the essential oils of P. aurea provided a chemical profile that was significantly different from the previously published reports.

  6. Remote sensing for precision agriculture: Within-field spatial variability analysis and mapping with aerial digital multispectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalapillai, Sreekala

    2000-10-01

    Advances in remote sensing technology and biological sensors provided the motivation for this study on the applications of aerial multispectral remote sensing in precision agriculture. The feasibility of using high-resolution multispectral remote sensing for precision farming applications such as soil type delineation, identification of crop nitrogen levels, and modeling and mapping of weed density distribution and yield potential within a crop field was explored in this study. Some of the issues such as image calibration for variable lighting conditions and soil background influence were also addressed. Intensity normalization and band ratio methods were found to be adequate image calibration methods to compensate for variable illumination and soil background influence. Several within-field variability factors such as growth stage, field conditions, nutrient availability, crop cultivar, and plant population were found to be dominant in different periods. Unsupervised clustering of color infrared (CIR) image of a field soil was able to identify soil mapping units with an average accuracy of 76%. Spectral reflectance from a crop field was highly correlated to the chlorophyll reading. A regression model developed to predict nitrogen stress in corn identified nitrogen-stressed areas from nitrogen-sufficient areas with a high accuracy (R2 = 0.93). Weed density was highly correlated to the spectral reflectance from a field. One month after planting was found to be a good time to map spatial weed density. The optimum range of resolution for weed mapping was 4 m to 4.5 m for the remote sensing system and the experimental field used in this study. Analysis of spatial yield with respect to spectral reflectance showed that the visible and NIR reflectance were negatively correlated to yield and crop population in heavily weed-infested areas. The yield potential was highly correlated to image indices, especially to normalized brightness. The ANN model developed for one of the

  7. Photo-oxidation catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Pitts, J. Roland; Liu, Ping; Smith, R. Davis

    2009-07-14

    Photo-oxidation catalysts and methods for cleaning a metal-based catalyst are disclosed. An exemplary catalyst system implementing a photo-oxidation catalyst may comprise a metal-based catalyst, and a photo-oxidation catalyst for cleaning the metal-based catalyst in the presence of light. The exposure to light enables the photo-oxidation catalyst to substantially oxidize absorbed contaminants and reduce accumulation of the contaminants on the metal-based catalyst. Applications are also disclosed.

  8. Waste site characterization through digital analysis of historical aerial photographs at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Eglin Air Force Base

    SciTech Connect

    Van Eeckhout, E.; Pope, P.; Wells, B.; Rofer, C.; Martin, B.

    1995-05-01

    Historical aerial photographs are used to provide a physical history and preliminary mapping information for characterizing hazardous waste sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Eglin Air Force Base. The examples cited show how imagery was used to accurately locate and identify previous activities at a site, monitor changes that occurred over time, and document the observable of such activities today. The methodology demonstrates how historical imagery (along with any other pertinent data) can be used in the characterization of past environmental damage.

  9. Photo-patterned free-standing hydrogel microarrays for massively parallel protein analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncombe, Todd A.; Herr, Amy E.

    2015-03-01

    Microfluidic technologies have largely been realized within enclosed microchannels. While powerful, a principle limitation of closed-channel microfluidics is the difficulty for sample extraction and downstream processing. To address this limitation and expand the utility of microfluidic analytical separation tools, we developed an openchannel hydrogel architecture for rapid protein analysis. Designed for compatibility with slab-gel polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) reagents and instruments, we detail the development of free-standing polyacrylamide gel (fsPAG) microstructures supporting electrophoretic performance rivalling that of microfluidic platforms. Owing to its open architecture - the platform can be easily interfaced with automated robotic controllers and downstream processing (e.g., sample spotters, immunological probing, mass spectroscopy). The fsPAG devices are directly photopatterened atop of and covalently attached to planar polymer or glass surfaces. Due to the fast < 1 hr design-prototype-test cycle - significantly faster than mold based fabrication techniques - rapid prototyping devices with fsPAG microstructures provides researchers a powerful tool for developing custom analytical assays. Leveraging the rapid prototyping benefits - we up-scale from a unit separation to an array of 96 concurrent fsPAGE assays in 10 min run time driven by one electrode pair. The fsPAGE platform is uniquely well-suited for massively parallelized proteomics, a major unrealized goal from bioanalytical technology.

  10. Model building with wind and water: Friedrich Ahlborn's photo-optical flow analysis.

    PubMed

    Hinterwaldner, Inge

    2015-02-01

    Around 1900, several experimenters investigated turbulences in wind tunnels or water basins by creating visualizations. One of them, the German zoologist Friedrich Ahlborn (1858-1937), was familiar with the works by his contemporaries but he struck a new path. He combined three different kinds of photographs taken at the same time and showed the same situation in his water trough-but each in a different way. With this first basic operation, Ahlborn heuristically opened up a previously non-existent space for experimentation, analysis, and recombination. He generated an astonishing diversity of information by adopting the tactics of 'inversions' in which he interpreted one part of the experimental setup, or its results, in different ways. Between the variants of the 'autographs' which he developed, he defined areas of intersection to be able to translate results from individual records into each other. To this end, Ahlborn created other sets of visual artifacts such as drawn diagrams, three-dimensional wire frame constructions, and clay reliefs. His working method can be described as a cascading array of successive modeling steps, as elaborated by Eric Winsberg (1999), or of inscriptions in Bruno Latour's words (Latour, 1986). By examining Ahlborn's procedures closely we propose conceptualizations for the experimenter's various operations.

  11. An Analysis of Unique Aerial Photographs of Atmospheric Eddies in Marine Stratocumulus Clouds Downwind of Complex Terrain Along the California Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, B. M.; Herbster, C. G.; Mosher, F. R.

    2013-12-01

    stratified flow. Attempting to analyze and understand the very small scale meteorological features in this case brings to light a variety of issues of increasing importance to modern meteorology and modeling of atmospheric flows near complex terrain. Fig. 1 Aerial photograph of stratocumulus cloud vortex just north of Santa Cruz Island on July 16, 2006 at 11:26 PDT (18:26 UTC), viewing toward the southwest. Photo by 'KB' courtesy of Capt. Peter Weiss of SkyWest Airlines.

  12. Personal Photo Enhancement Using Internet Photo Collections.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chenxi; Gao, Jizhou; Wang, Oliver; Georgel, Pierre; Yang, Ruigang; Davis, James; Frahm, Jan-Michael; Pollefeys, Marc

    2013-04-26

    Given the growth of Internet photo collections we now have a visual index of all major cities and tourist sites in the world. However, it is still a difficult task to capture that perfect shot with your own camera when visiting these places, especially when your camera itself has limitations, such as a limited field of view. In this paper, we propose a framework to overcome the imperfections of personal photos of tourist sites using the rich information provided by large scale Internet photo collections. Our method deploys state-of-the-art techniques for constructing initial 3D models from photo collections. The same techniques are then used to register personal photos to these models, allowing us to augment personal 2D images with 3D information. This strong available scene prior allows us to address a number of traditionally challenging image enhancement techniques, and achieve high quality results using simple and robust algorithms. Specifically, we demonstrate automatic foreground segmentation, mono-to-stereo conversion, the field of view expansion, photometric enhancement, and additionally automatic annotation with geo-location and tags. Our method clearly demonstrates some possible benefits of employing the rich information contained in on-line photo databases to efficiently enhance and augment one’s own personal photos.

  13. Aerial robotic data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Hayes, D.W.; Pendergast, M.M.; Corban, J.E.

    1993-12-31

    A small, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), equipped with sensors for physical and chemical measurements of remote environments, is described. A miniature helicopter airframe is used as a platform for sensor testing and development. The sensor output is integrated with the flight control system for real-time, interactive, data acquisition and analysis. Pre-programmed flight missions will be flown with several sensors to demonstrate the cost-effective surveillance capabilities of this new technology.

  14. Electron cyclotron resonance plasma photos.

    PubMed

    Rácz, R; Biri, S; Pálinkás, J

    2010-02-01

    In order to observe and study systematically the plasma of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources (ECRIS) we made a high number of high-resolution visible light plasma photos and movies in the ATOMKI ECRIS Laboratory. This required building the ECR ion source into an open ECR plasma device, temporarily. An 8MP digital camera was used to record photos of plasmas made from Ne, Ar, and Kr gases and from their mixtures. We studied and recorded the effect of ion source setting parameters (gas pressure, gas composition, magnetic field, and microwave power) to the shape, color, and structure of the plasma. The analysis of the photo series gave us many qualitative and numerous valuable physical information on the nature of ECR plasmas.

  15. Electron cyclotron resonance plasma photos

    SciTech Connect

    Racz, R.; Palinkas, J.; Biri, S.

    2010-02-15

    In order to observe and study systematically the plasma of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources (ECRIS) we made a high number of high-resolution visible light plasma photos and movies in the ATOMKI ECRIS Laboratory. This required building the ECR ion source into an open ECR plasma device, temporarily. An 8MP digital camera was used to record photos of plasmas made from Ne, Ar, and Kr gases and from their mixtures. We studied and recorded the effect of ion source setting parameters (gas pressure, gas composition, magnetic field, and microwave power) to the shape, color, and structure of the plasma. The analysis of the photo series gave us many qualitative and numerous valuable physical information on the nature of ECR plasmas.

  16. Quantification of coastline and key morphology changes over time in Northern Florida Bay, using high resolution shape analysis and aerial photographs

    SciTech Connect

    El-awawdeh, R.T.; Full, W.E.

    1996-10-01

    The study area includes fifty-one keys (islands) located in the north-central portion of the Florida Bay, south of the Everglades coastline and the coastline itself using aerial photography. These keys consisted of Quaternary unconsolidated fine-grained, calcareous mud overlaying Pleistocene rocks of the Miami Limestone. This region is sensitive to environmental changes caused by variations in the amount of fresh water flushing through the Everglades, by human influences such as channel dredging, and by strong storms. The primary purpose of this study is to identify and quantify morphologic changes in the keys and along the coastline over the last fifty to sixty years and to relate theses changes to the aforementioned processes. Well defined key-shape changes were found and quantified using aerial photographs of Deer, Cluett and Pelican Keys. These changes defined using three different shape analysis methods: Fourier two-dimensional shape analysis, Fractals in closed form, and the Zahn-Roskies algorithm in closed form. For the coastlines, Fractals in open form and the Zahn-Roskies in open form quantified shape differences. The observed changes were likely related to changes in sediment deposition throughout the bay due caused by environmental changes related to alterations of the bay`s natural drainage by artificial channel formation and storm deposition. The coastline remained essentially the same except for some minor changes around Alligator Bay attributed to mangrove expansion and sediment buildup due to storms. 19 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Geomatics techniques applied to time series of aerial images for multitemporal geomorphological analysis of the Miage Glacier (Mont Blanc).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perotti, Luigi; Carletti, Roberto; Giardino, Marco; Mortara, Giovanni

    2010-05-01

    The Miage glacier is the major one in the Italian side of the Mont Blanc Massif, the third by area and the first by longitudinal extent among Italian glaciers. It is a typical debris covered glacier, since the end of the L.I.A. The debris coverage reduces ablation, allowing a relative stability of the glacier terminus, which is characterized by a wide and articulated moraine apparatus. For its conservative landforms, the Miage Glacier has a great importance for the analysis of the geomorphological response to recent climatic changes. Thanks to an organized existing archive of multitemporal aerial images (1935 to present) a photogrammetric approach has been applied to detect recent geomorphological changes in the Miage glacial basin. The research team provided: a) to digitize all the available images (still in analogic form) through photogrammetric scanners (very low image distortions devices) taking care of correctly defining the resolution of the acquisition compared to the scale mapping images are suitable for; b) to import digitized images into an appropriate digital photogrammetry software environment; c) to manage images in order, where possible, to carried out the stereo models orientation necessary for 3D navigation and plotting of critical geometric features of the glacier. Recognized geometric feature, referring to different periods, can be transferred to vector layers and imported in a GIS for further comparisons and investigations; d) to produce multi-temporal Digital Elevation Models for glacier volume changes; e) to perform orthoprojection of such images to obtain multitemporal orthoimages useful for areal an planar terrain evaluation and thematic analysis; f) to evaluate both planimetric positioning and height determination accuracies reachable through the photogrammetric process. Users have to known reliability of the measures they can do over such products. This can drive them to define the applicable field of this approach and this can help them to

  18. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) associated DTM quality evaluation and hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Mei-Jen; Chen, Shao-Der; Chao, Yu-Jui; Chiang, Yi-Lin; Chang, Kuo-Jen

    2014-05-01

    Taiwan, due to the high seismicity and high annual rainfall, numerous landslides triggered every year and severe impacts affect the island. Concerning to the catastrophic landslides, the key information of landslide, including range of landslide, volume estimation and the subsequent evolution are important when analyzing the triggering mechanism, hazard assessment and mitigation. Thus, the morphological analysis gives a general overview for the landslides and been considered as one of the most fundamental information. We try to integrate several technologies, especially by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and multi-spectral camera, to decipher the consequence and the potential hazard, and the social impact. In recent years, the remote sensing technology improves rapidly, providing a wide range of image, essential and precious information. Benefited of the advancing of informatics, remote-sensing and electric technologies, the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry mas been improve significantly. The study tries to integrate several methods, including, 1) Remote-sensing images gathered by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and by aerial photos taken in different periods; 2) field in-situ geologic investigation; 3) Differential GPS, RTK GPS and Ground LiDAR field in-site geoinfomatics measurements; 4) Construct the DTMs before and after landslide, as well as the subsequent periods using UAV and aerial photos; 5) Discrete element method should be applied to understand the geomaterial composing the slope failure, for predicting earthquake-induced and rainfall-induced landslides displacement. First at all, we evaluate the Microdrones MD4-1000 UAV airphotos derived Digital Terrain Model (DTM). The ground resolution of the DSM point cloud of could be as high as 10 cm. By integrated 4 ground control point within an area of 56 hectares, compared with LiDAR DSM and filed RTK-GPS surveying, the mean error is as low as 6cm with a standard deviation of 17cm. The quality of the

  19. Perceptually Guided Photo Retargeting.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yingjie; Zhang, Luming; Hong, Richang; Nie, Liqiang; Yan, Yan; Shao, Ling

    2016-04-22

    We propose perceptually guided photo retargeting, which shrinks a photo by simulating a human's process of sequentially perceiving visually/semantically important regions in a photo. In particular, we first project the local features (graphlets in this paper) onto a semantic space, wherein visual cues such as global spatial layout and rough geometric context are exploited. Thereafter, a sparsity-constrained learning algorithm is derived to select semantically representative graphlets of a photo, and the selecting process can be interpreted by a path which simulates how a human actively perceives semantics in a photo. Furthermore, we learn the prior distribution of such active graphlet paths (AGPs) from training photos that are marked as esthetically pleasing by multiple users. The learned priors enforce the corresponding AGP of a retargeted photo to be maximally similar to those from the training photos. On top of the retargeting model, we further design an online learning scheme to incrementally update the model with new photos that are esthetically pleasing. The online update module makes the algorithm less dependent on the number and contents of the initial training data. Experimental results show that: 1) the proposed AGP is over 90% consistent with human gaze shifting path, as verified by the eye-tracking data, and 2) the retargeting algorithm outperforms its competitors significantly, as AGP is more indicative of photo esthetics than conventional saliency maps.

  20. Identification of disrupted surfaces due to military activity at the Ft. Irwin National Training Center: An aerial photograph and satellite image analysis

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, L.E.; Marsh, S.E.; Lee, C.

    1996-07-01

    Concern for environmental management of our natural resources is most often focused on the anthropogenic impacts placed upon these resources. Desert landscapes, in particular, are fragile environments, and minimal stresses on surficial materials can greatly increase the rate and character of erosional responses. The National Training Center, Ft. Irwin, located in the middle of the Mojave Desert, California, provides an isolated study area of intense ORV activity occurring over a 50-year period. Geomorphic surfaces, and surficial disruption from two study sites within the Ft. Irwin area were mapped from 1947, 1:28,400, and 1993 1:12,000 black and white aerial photographs. Several field checks were conducted to verify this mapping. However, mapping from black and white aerial photography relies heavily on tonal differences, patterns, and morphological criteria. Satellite imagery, sensitive to changes in mineralogy, can help improve the ability to distinguish geomorphic units in desert regions. In order to assess both the extent of disrupted surfaces and the surficial geomorphology discemable from satellite imagery, analysis was done on SPOT panchromatic and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral imagery acquired during the spring of 1987 and 1993. The resulting classified images provide a clear indication of the capabilities of the satellite data to aid in the delineation of disrupted geomorphic surfaces.

  1. Terrestrial and Aerial Laser Scanning Data Integration Using Wavelet Analysis for the Purpose of 3D Building Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Kedzierski, Michal; Fryskowska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Visualization techniques have been greatly developed in the past few years. Three-dimensional models based on satellite and aerial imagery are now being enhanced by models generated using Aerial Laser Scanning (ALS) data. The most modern of such scanning systems have the ability to acquire over 50 points per square meter and to register a multiple echo, which allows the reconstruction of the terrain together with the terrain cover. However, ALS data accuracy is less than 10 cm and the data is often incomplete: there is no information about ground level (in most scanning systems), and often around the facade or structures which have been covered by other structures. However, Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) not only acquires higher accuracy data (1–5 cm) but is also capable of registering those elements which are incomplete or not visible using ALS methods (facades, complicated structures, interiors, etc.). Therefore, to generate a complete 3D model of a building in high Level of Details, integration of TLS and ALS data is necessary. This paper presents the wavelet-based method of processing and integrating data from ALS and TLS. Methods of choosing tie points to combine point clouds in different datum will be analyzed. PMID:25004157

  2. Terrestrial and aerial laser scanning data integration using wavelet analysis for the purpose of 3D building modeling.

    PubMed

    Kedzierski, Michal; Fryskowska, Anna

    2014-07-07

    Visualization techniques have been greatly developed in the past few years. Three-dimensional models based on satellite and aerial imagery are now being enhanced by models generated using Aerial Laser Scanning (ALS) data. The most modern of such scanning systems have the ability to acquire over 50 points per square meter and to register a multiple echo, which allows the reconstruction of the terrain together with the terrain cover. However, ALS data accuracy is less than 10 cm and the data is often incomplete: there is no information about ground level (in most scanning systems), and often around the facade or structures which have been covered by other structures. However, Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) not only acquires higher accuracy data (1-5 cm) but is also capable of registering those elements which are incomplete or not visible using ALS methods (facades, complicated structures, interiors, etc.). Therefore, to generate a complete 3D model of a building in high Level of Details, integration of TLS and ALS data is necessary. This paper presents the wavelet-based method of processing and integrating data from ALS and TLS. Methods of choosing tie points to combine point clouds in different datum will be analyzed.

  3. AERIAL METHODS OF EXPLORATION

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The development of photointerpretation techniques for identifying kimberlite pipes on aerial photographs is discussed. The geographic area considered is the Daldyn region, which lies in the zone of Northern Taiga of Yakutiya.

  4. Mask degradation monitoring with aerial mask inspector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Wen-Jui; Fu, Yung-Ying; Lu, Shih-Ping; Jiang, Ming-Sian; Lin, Jeffrey; Wu, Clare; Lifschitz, Sivan; Tam, Aviram

    2013-06-01

    As design rule continues to shrink, microlithography is becoming more challenging and the photomasks need to comply with high scanner laser energy, low CDU, and ever more aggressive RETs. This give rise to numerous challenges in the semiconductor wafer fabrication plants. Some of these challenges being contamination (mainly haze and particles), mask pattern degradation (MoSi oxidation, chrome migration, etc.) and pellicle degradation. Fabs are constantly working to establish an efficient methodology to manage these challenges mainly using mask inspection, wafer inspection, SEM review and CD SEMs. Aerial technology offers a unique opportunity to address the above mask related challenges using one tool. The Applied Materials Aera3TM system has the inherent ability to inspect for defects (haze, particles, etc.), and track mask degradation (e.g. CDU). This paper focuses on haze monitoring, which is still a significant challenge in semiconductor manufacturing, and mask degradation effects that are starting to emerge as the next challenge for high volume semiconductor manufacturers. The paper describes Aerial inspector (Aera3) early haze methodology and mask degradation tracking related to high volume manufacturing. These will be demonstrated on memory products. At the end of the paper we take a brief look on subsequent work currently conducted on the more general issue of photo mask degradation monitoring by means of an Aerial inspector.

  5. Detection of object motion regions in aerial image pairs with a multilayer markovian model.

    PubMed

    Benedek, Csaba; Szirányi, Tamás; Kato, Zoltan; Zerubia, Josiane

    2009-10-01

    We propose a new Bayesian method for detecting the regions of object displacements in aerial image pairs. We use a robust but coarse 2-D image registration algorithm. Our main challenge is to eliminate the registration errors from the extracted change map. We introduce a three-layer Markov random field (L(3)MRF) model which integrates information from two different features, and ensures connected homogenous regions in the segmented images. Validation is given on real aerial photos.

  6. Photo interpretation key to Michigan land cover/use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enslin, W. R.; Hudson, W. D.; Lusch, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    A set of photo interpretation keys is presented to provide a structured approach to the identification of land cover/use categories as specified in the Michigan Resource Inventory Act. The designated categories are urban and; built up lands; agricultural lands; forest land; nonforested land; water bodies; wetlands; and barren land. The keys were developed for use with medium scale (1:20,000 to 1:24,000) color infrared aerial photography. Although each key is generalized in that it relies only upon the most distinguishing photo characteristics in separating the various land cover/use categories, additional interpretation characteristics, distinguishing features and background material are given.

  7. 27. Aerial photograph dated 14 October 1943 taken directly over ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Aerial photograph dated 14 October 1943 taken directly over Gould Island. Completed complex shown at north end of the island (to right in photograph), including power plant, shop, frame approach, firing pier, and small harbor formed by finger pier off east side of firing pier. Photo courtesy of Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Newport, Rhode Island. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  8. 29. Aerial photograph (1973) looking south across Gould Island. Firing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Aerial photograph (1973) looking south across Gould Island. Firing pier (still possessing third and fourth levels) in foreground. Pitched roof extending from south end of firing pier marks location of frame approach between pier and shop building (center rear) and power plant (to right of shop). Photo courtesy of Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Newport, Rhode Island. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  9. 28. Undated aerial photograph taken prior to removal of third ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Undated aerial photograph taken prior to removal of third and fourth levels of firing pier in the 1980s. View looking northwest shows harbor serving the firing pier, with craft berthed alongside the recovery dock and finger pier. Photo courtesy of Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Newport, Rhode Island. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  10. 46. ARAI. Aerial view of ARAI buildings as they looked ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. ARA-I. Aerial view of ARA-I buildings as they looked in 1981. From left to right, buildings are tank (ARA-727), contaminated waste storage tank (ARA-629), trailer, hot cell building (ARA-626), fuel oil storage tank (ARA-728), guard house (ARA-628), shop and maintenance building (ARA-627), and two trailers. Ineel photo no. 81-297. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. LOFT complex, aerial view taken on same on same day ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOFT complex, aerial view taken on same on same day as HAER photo ID-33-E-376. Camera facing south. Note curve of rail track toward hot shop (TAN-607). Earth shielding on control building (TAN-630) is partly removed, showing edge of concrete structure. Great southern butte on horizon. Date: 1975. INEEL negative no. 75-3693 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. 18. 1978 aerial view to east of west ends of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. 1978 aerial view to east of west ends of Bergen Hill tunnels. Tunnel openings from right to left: Bergen Hill Open Cut (Erie Ry.), Old Bergen Hill Tunnel (Erie Ry.), two tunnels built by Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad (later Erie-Lackawanna Railroad). Photo by Jack E. Boucher, 1978. - Erie Railway, Bergen Hill Open Cut, Palisade Avenue to Tonnele Avenue, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  13. Twenty years of Belgian North Sea aerial surveillance: a quantitative analysis of results confirms effectiveness of international oil pollution legislation.

    PubMed

    Lagring, Ruth; Degraer, Steven; de Montpellier, Géraldine; Jacques, Thierry; Van Roy, Ward; Schallier, Ronny

    2012-03-01

    Over the years many policy measures have been taken to prevent illegal oil discharges from ships, like the MARPOL 73/78 Convention (1983) and the Bonn Agreement (1969/1983). However, the number of discharges remained high, leading to chronic oiling of seabirds and sensitive coastlines, therefore further measures were taken. The aim of this study is to quantify the effectiveness of two key legislative regulations: the IMO-designation of the North Sea as MARPOL Special Area which took effect in 1999, and the adoption of the EU Directive on Port Reception Facilities in 2000. Under study is the heavily navigated Belgian Surveillance Area, monitored since 1991, characterised by shallow waters with ecologically important sandbanks. The aerial surveillance data from 1991 to 2010 show a stepwise decrease in ship-source oil pollution. Three time periods can be distinguished with two turning points coinciding with the actual implementation of these key legislative measures, confirming their effectiveness.

  14. Antioxidant capacity and amino acid analysis of Caralluma adscendens (Roxb.) Haw var. fimbriata (wall.) Grav. & Mayur. aerial parts.

    PubMed

    Maheshu, Vellingiri; Priyadarsini, Deivamarudhachalam Teepica; Sasikumar, Jagathala Mahalingam

    2014-10-01

    Caralluma adscendens (Roxb.) Haw var. fimbriata (wall.) Grav. & Mayur. is a traditional food consumed as vegetable or pickle in arid regions of India and eaten during famines. In Indian traditional medicine, the plant is used to treat diabetes, inflammation and etc. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties (DPPH, TEAC, TAA, FRAP, OH˙ and NO˙ radical scavenging activities) of the different extracts from aerial parts. The levels of total phenolics and flavonoids of the extracts were also determined. The extracts were found to have different levels of antioxidant properties in the test models used. Methanol and water extracts had good total phenolic and flavonoid contents showed potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. The antioxidant activity was correlated well with the amount of total phenolics present in the extracts. The extracts and its components may be used as an additive in food preparations and nutraceuticals.

  15. Aerial Photography Summary Record System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1998-01-01

    The Aerial Photography Summary Record System (APSRS) describes aerial photography projects that meet specified criteria over a given geographic area of the United States and its territories. Aerial photographs are an important tool in cartography and a number of other professions. Land use planners, real estate developers, lawyers, environmental specialists, and many other professionals rely on detailed and timely aerial photographs. Until 1975, there was no systematic approach to locate an aerial photograph, or series of photographs, quickly and easily. In that year, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) inaugurated the APSRS, which has become a standard reference for users of aerial photographs.

  16. Using high-resolution digital aerial imagery to map land cover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieck, J.J.; Robinson, Larry

    2014-01-01

    The Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) has used aerial photography to map land cover/land use on federally owned and managed lands for over 20 years. Until recently, that process used 23- by 23-centimeter (9- by 9-inch) analog aerial photos to classify vegetation along the Upper Mississippi River System, on National Wildlife Refuges, and in National Parks. With digital aerial cameras becoming more common and offering distinct advantages over analog film, UMESC transitioned to an entirely digital mapping process in 2009. Though not without challenges, this method has proven to be much more accurate and efficient when compared to the analog process.

  17. High-resolution MALDI-TOF MS study on analysis of low-molecular-weight products from photo-oxidation of poly(3-hexylthiophene).

    PubMed

    Mizukado, Junji; Sato, Hiroaki; Chen, Liang; Suzuki, Yasumasa; Yamane, Shogo; Aoyama, Yoshinori; Suda, Hiroyuki

    2015-08-01

    High-resolution matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF MS) was used for the analysis of the low-molecular-weight products from the photo-oxidation of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) in solution and thin film. Eight new peak series were observed in the low-mass range of the mass spectra of the products degraded in solution, and the formulas of the eight components were determined from the accurate mass. From SEC/MALDI-TOF MS, two components were identified as the degraded products, and the other six components were derived from the fragmentation of the degraded products during the MALDI process. A mechanism for the formation of these components was proposed on the basis of the results of MALDI-TOF MS. For the thin film degradation, a part of products in the solution degradation were observed, which supports that the oxidation of P3HT in solution and thin film proceeded in the same mechanism. This study shows that high-resolution MALDI-TOF MS is effective for the analysis of the low-molecular-weight products from P3HT photo-oxidation and expected to be feasible for the degradation analyses of other polymers. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Application of Ni-63 photo and corona discharge ionization for the analysis of chemical warfare agents and toxic wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stach, J.; Adler, J.; Brodacki, M.; Doring, H.-R.

    1995-01-01

    Over the past decade, advances in instrumental design and refinements in the understanding of ion molecule reactions at atmospheric pressure enabled the application of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) as a simple inexpensive and sensitive analytical method for the detection of organic trace compounds. Positive and negative gas-phase ions for ion mobility spectrometry have been produced by a variety of methods, including photo-ionization, laser multi photon ionization, surface ionization, corona discharge ionization. The most common ion source used in ion mobility spectrometry is a radioactive Ni-63 foil which is favored due to simplicity, stability, convenience, and high selectivity. If reactant ions like (H2O(n)H)(+) or (H2O(n)O2)(-) dominate in the reaction region, nearly all kinds of compounds with a given proton or electron affinity; are ionized. However, the radioactivity of the Ni-63 foil is one disadvantage of this ion source that stimulates the development and application of other ionization techniques. In this paper, we report analyses of old chemical warfare agents and toxic wastes using Bruker RAID ion mobility spectrometers. Due to the modular construction of the measuring cell, the spectrometers can be equipped with different ion sources. The combined use of Ni-63, photo- and corona discharge ionization allows the identification of different classes of chemical compounds and yields in most cases comparable results.

  19. Analysis of subthreshold photo-leakage current in ZnO thin-film transistors using indium-ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamada, Yudai; Fujita, Shizuo; Hiramatsu, Takahiro; Matsuda, Tokiyoshi; Furuta, Mamoru; Hirao, Takashi

    2010-11-01

    Mechanism of photo-leakage current in the ZnO TFTs has been analyzed by comparison between the light irradiated TFTs and indium (In) ion implanted TFTs where the selected areas of the channel region were irradiated or implanted. In case of the TFT with In ion implantation at a source region, the positive charge of ionized donors at the source region lowered the potential barrier at the source electrode and increased leakage current even at a dark condition due to carrier injection from the source into the channel region. In case of light irradiation of the ZnO TFT, similar phenomenon was observed due to the hole accumulation at the source region. From the analogy of the leakage properties, it is confirmed that the photo-leakage current is mainly due to the accumulation of holes near the source electrode, which lowers the potential barrier for the carrier injection from the source to the channel region, contributing to the generation of the leakage current.

  20. Performance analysis of RF-sputtered ZnO/Si heterojunction UV photodetectors with high photo-responsivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Satyendra Kumar; Hazra, Purnima; Tripathi, Shweta; Chakrabarti, P.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, structural, electrical and ultraviolet photodetection parameters of RF sputtered-ZnO/Si heterojunction diodes are analyzed. In this work, ZnO thin film was deposited on bare Si substrate as well as Si substrate coated with ultrathin ZnO seed layer to exhibit the effect of seed layer on device performance. AFM image of as-grown ZnO films have exhibited the uniform growth ZnO film over the whole Si substrate with average roughness of 3.2 nm and 2.83 nm for ZnO with and without seed layer respectively. Stronger peak intensity along (002) direction, as shown in XRD spectra confirm that ZnO film grown on ZnO seed layer is having more stable wurtzite structure. Ti/Al point contacts were deposited on top of the ZnO film and a layer of Al was deposited on bottom of Si substrate for using as ohmic contacts for further device characterization at dark and under UV light of 365 nm wavelength. This process is repeated for both the films sequentially. The photo-responsivity of our proposed devices is calculated as 0.34 A/W for seed layer-mediated devices and 0.26 A/W for devices without seed layer. These values are very high as compare to the reported value of photo-responsivity for same kind of ZnO/Si heterojunction device prototypes prepared by other techniques.

  1. The Alfred Nobel rocket camera. An early aerial photography attempt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingemar Skoog, A.

    2010-02-01

    Alfred Nobel (1833-1896), mainly known for his invention of dynamite and the creation of the Nobel Prices, was an engineer and inventor active in many fields of science and engineering, e.g. chemistry, medicine, mechanics, metallurgy, optics, armoury and rocketry. Amongst his inventions in rocketry was the smokeless solid propellant ballistite (i.e. cordite) patented for the first time in 1887. As a very wealthy person he actively supported many Swedish inventors in their work. One of them was W.T. Unge, who was devoted to the development of rockets and their applications. Nobel and Unge had several rocket patents together and also jointly worked on various rocket applications. In mid-1896 Nobel applied for patents in England and France for "An Improved Mode of Obtaining Photographic Maps and Earth or Ground Measurements" using a photographic camera carried by a "…balloon, rocket or missile…". During the remaining of 1896 the mechanical design of the camera mechanism was pursued and cameras manufactured. In April 1897 (after the death of Alfred Nobel) the first aerial photos were taken by these cameras. These photos might be the first documented aerial photos taken by a rocket borne camera. Cameras and photos from 1897 have been preserved. Nobel did not only develop the rocket borne camera but also proposed methods on how to use the photographs taken for ground measurements and preparing maps.

  2. Landslide inventory in a rugged forested watershed: a comparison between air-photo and field survey data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brardinoni, Francesco; Slaymaker, Olav; Hassan, Marwan A.

    2003-09-01

    Landslide inventories are routinely compiled by means of aerial photo interpretation (API). When examining photo pairs, the forest canopy (notably in old-growth forest) hides a population of "not visible" landslides. In the present study, we attempt to estimate how important is the contribution of landslides not detectable from aerial photographs to the global mass of sediment production from mass failures on forested terrain of the Capilano basin, coastal British Columbia. API was coupled with intensive fieldwork for identification and measurement of all landslides. A 30-year framework was adopted. We show that "not visible" landslides can represent up to 85% of the total number of failures and account for 30% of the volume of debris mobilised. Such percentages display high sub-basin variability with rates of sediment production varying by one order of magnitude between two sub-basins of the study area. This is explained qualitatively by GIS-based analysis of slope frequency distributions, drainage density, and spatial distribution of surficial materials. Such observations find further support in the definitions of transport-limited and supply-limited basins. As a practical consideration to land managers, we envisage that supplementary fieldwork for landslide identification is mandatory in transport-limited systems only. Fieldwork has demonstrated that gully-related failures have a greater importance than one could expect from API.

  3. Analysis of Service Records Management Systems for Rescue and Retention of Cultural Resource Documents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    General Astronomical and Chronometric Support General Avionics Records General Contract and Special Financing Records General Contracting Records...quarters Mechanical details (drawings) Aerial (photos/ photography ) Full-scale maps Roads Building maintenance files Storm damage Many of same in...photo, hous photo Still photography files - original 25- 1vv1 See footnote.32 INFORMATION MANAGEMENT contract award, photo, hous photo Still

  4. Aerial Explorers and Robotic Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg

    2004-01-01

    A unique bio-inspired approach to autonomous aerial vehicle, a.k.a. aerial explorer technology is discussed. The work is focused on defining and studying aerial explorer mission concepts, both as an individual robotic system and as a member of a small robotic "ecosystem." Members of this robotic ecosystem include the aerial explorer, air-deployed sensors and robotic symbiotes, and other assets such as rovers, landers, and orbiters.

  5. An attempt at a product vibrational analysis of a photo-induced chemical reaction by means of time-resolved (e, 2e) electron momentum spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, M.; Nakazawa, H.; Zhu, C. Y.; Takahashi, M.

    2015-09-01

    We report on a new attempt at an analysis of the vibrational state distributions in the products of a photo-induced chemical reaction. The experiment was performed by using time- resolved electron momentum spectroscopy (TR-EMS) for the products produced by the three- body photodissociation dynamics of the deuterated acetone molecule at 195 nm. It has been found from a comparison between the experiment and associated theoretical calculations that future TR-EMS measurements with improved statistics could be useful for the vibrational analysis of reaction products, in cases when effects of molecular vibration on their electron momentum densities are large enough so as to be noticeable in the binding energy spectra.

  6. Aerial of the VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Even in this aerial view at KSC, the Vehicle Assembly Building is imposing. In front of it is the Launch Control Center. In the background is the Rotation/Processing Facility, next to the Banana Creek. In the foreground is the Saturn Causeway that leads to Launch Pads 39A and 39B.

  7. Aerial photographic reproductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1971-01-01

    Geological Survey vertical aerial photography is obtained primarily for topographic and geologic mapping. Reproductions from this photography are usually satisfactory for general use. Because reproductions are not stocked, but are custom processed for each order, they cannot be returned for credit or refund.

  8. Analysis of Biophysical Mechanisms of Gilgai Microrelief Formation in Dryland Swelling Soils Using Ultra-High Resolution Aerial Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krell, N.; DeCarlo, K. F.; Caylor, K. K.

    2015-12-01

    Microrelief formations ("gilgai"), which form due to successive wetting-drying cycles typical of swelling soils, provide ecological hotspots for local fauna and flora, including higher and more robust vegetative growth. The distribution of these gilgai suggests a remarkable degree of regularity. However, it is unclear to what extent the mechanisms that drive gilgai formation are physical, such as desiccation-induced fracturing, or biological in nature, namely antecedent vegetative clustering. We investigated gilgai genesis and pattern formation in a 100 x 100 meter study area with swelling soils in a semiarid grassland at the Mpala Research Center in central Kenya. Our ongoing experiment is composed of three 9m2 treatments: we removed gilgai and limited vegetative growth by herbicide application in one plot, allowed for unrestricted seed dispersal in another, and left gilgai unobstructed in a control plot. To estimate the spatial frequencies of the repeating patterns of gilgai, we obtained ultra-high resolution (0.01-0.03m/pixel) images with an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) from which digital elevation models were also generated. Geostatistical analyses using wavelet and fourier methods in 1- and 2-dimensions were employed to characterize gilgai size and distribution. Preliminary results support regular spatial patterning across the gilgaied landscape and heterogeneities may be related to local soil properties and biophysical influences. Local data on gilgai and fracture characteristics suggest that gilgai form at characteristic heights and spacing based on fracture morphology: deep, wide cracks result in large, highly vegetated mounds whereas shallow cracks, induced by animal trails, are less correlated with gilgai size and shape. Our experiments will help elucidate the links between shrink-swell processes and gilgai-vegetation patterning in high activity clay soils and advance our understanding of the mechanisms of gilgai formation in drylands.

  9. A Quantitative Analysis of Flight Feather Replacement in the Moustached Tree Swift Hemiprocne mystacea, a Tropical Aerial Forager

    PubMed Central

    Rohwer, Sievert; Wang, Luan-Keng

    2010-01-01

    The functional life span of feathers is always much less than the potential life span of birds, so feathers must be renewed regularly. But feather renewal entails important energetic, time and performance costs that must be integrated into the annual cycle. Across species the time required to replace flight feather increases disproportionately with body size, resulting in complex, multiple waves of feather replacement in the primaries of many large birds. We describe the rules of flight feather replacement for Hemiprocne mystacea, a small, 60g tree swift from the New Guinea region. This species breeds and molts in all months of the year, and flight feather molt occurs during breeding in some individuals. H. mystacea is one to be the smallest species for which stepwise replacement of the primaries and secondaries has been documented; yet, primary replacement is extremely slow in this aerial forager, requiring more than 300 days if molt is not interrupted. We used growth bands to show that primaries grow at an average rate of 2.86 mm/d. The 10 primaries are a single molt series, while the 11 secondaries and five rectrices are each broken into two molt series. In large birds stepwise replacement of the primaries serves to increase the rate of primary replacement while minimizing gaps in the wing. But stepwise replacement of the wing quills in H. mystacea proceeds so slowly that it may be a consequence of the ontogeny of stepwise molting, rather than an adaptation, because the average number of growing primaries is probably lower than 1.14 feathers per wing. PMID:20644642

  10. Photos of Pertussis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Prevention Adults Parents-to-be Babies & Children Preteens & Teens Travelers Healthcare Personnel Frequently Asked Questions Photos ... Pregnant Women For Parents of Young Children For Preteens & Teens For Adults For Spanish Speakers Publications Related ...

  11. Aerial Orthophoto and Airborne Laser Scanning as Monitoring Tools for Land Cover Dynamics: A Case Study from the Milicz Forest District (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szostak, Marta; Wezyk, Piotr; Tompalski, Piotr

    2013-04-01

    The paper presents the results from the study concerning the application of airborne laser scanning (ALS) data and derived raster products like the digital surface model (DSM) and the digital terrain model (DTM) for the assessment of the degree of change of the land use based on the forest succession example. Simultaneously, an automated method of ALS data processing was developed based on the normalized (nDSM) and cadastral GIS information. Besides delivering precise information on forest succession, ALS technology is an excellent tool for time-changes spatial analyses. Usage of the ALS data can support the image interpretation process decreasing the subjectivity of the operator. In parallel, a manual vectorization and object classification (object-based image analysis—OBIA) were performed; both based on aerial orthophoto and ALS data. By using integrated ALS point clouds and digital aerial images, one can obtain fast OBIA processing and the determination of areas where the land cover has changed. The Milicz District (central west part of Poland) was chosen as the test site where ALS was to be performed in 2007, together with the digital aerial photos (Vexcel camera; pixel 0.15 m; CIR). The aerial photos were then processed to a CIR orthophoto. The area of study consisted of 68 private parcels (some of them were abandoned; 68.57 ha; scanned cadastral maps from the local survey office; land use information) in the direct neighbourhood of the State Forest, on which a forest succession could often be observed. The operator vectorized forest (trees and shrubs) succession areas on the 2D CIR orthophoto. They were then compared with the results from the OBIA and GIS analysis, based on the normalized digital surface model. The results showed that areas with high vegetation cover were three times larger than the official land cover database (cadastral maps).

  12. Aerial Orthophoto and Airborne Laser Scanning as Monitoring Tools for Land Cover Dynamics: A Case Study from the Milicz Forest District (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szostak, Marta; Wezyk, Piotr; Tompalski, Piotr

    2014-06-01

    The paper presents the results from the study concerning the application of airborne laser scanning (ALS) data and derived raster products like the digital surface model (DSM) and the digital terrain model (DTM) for the assessment of the degree of change of the land use based on the forest succession example. Simultaneously, an automated method of ALS data processing was developed based on the normalized (nDSM) and cadastral GIS information. Besides delivering precise information on forest succession, ALS technology is an excellent tool for time-changes spatial analyses. Usage of the ALS data can support the image interpretation process decreasing the subjectivity of the operator. In parallel, a manual vectorization and object classification (object-based image analysis—OBIA) were performed; both based on aerial orthophoto and ALS data. By using integrated ALS point clouds and digital aerial images, one can obtain fast OBIA processing and the determination of areas where the land cover has changed. The Milicz District (central west part of Poland) was chosen as the test site where ALS was to be performed in 2007, together with the digital aerial photos (Vexcel camera; pixel 0.15 m; CIR). The aerial photos were then processed to a CIR orthophoto. The area of study consisted of 68 private parcels (some of them were abandoned; 68.57 ha; scanned cadastral maps from the local survey office; land use information) in the direct neighbourhood of the State Forest, on which a forest succession could often be observed. The operator vectorized forest (trees and shrubs) succession areas on the 2D CIR orthophoto. They were then compared with the results from the OBIA and GIS analysis, based on the normalized digital surface model. The results showed that areas with high vegetation cover were three times larger than the official land cover database (cadastral maps).

  13. 3D exploitation of large urban photo archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Peter; Snavely, Noah; Anderson, Ross

    2010-04-01

    Recent work in computer vision has demonstrated the potential to automatically recover camera and scene geometry from large collections of uncooperatively-collected photos. At the same time, aerial ladar and Geographic Information System (GIS) data are becoming more readily accessible. In this paper, we present a system for fusing these data sources in order to transfer 3D and GIS information into outdoor urban imagery. Applying this system to 1000+ pictures shot of the lower Manhattan skyline and the Statue of Liberty, we present two proof-of-concept examples of geometry-based photo enhancement which are difficult to perform via conventional image processing: feature annotation and image-based querying. In these examples, high-level knowledge projects from 3D world-space into georegistered 2D image planes and/or propagates between different photos. Such automatic capabilities lay the groundwork for future real-time labeling of imagery shot in complex city environments by mobile smart phones.

  14. A Spherical Aerial Terrestrial Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, Christopher J.

    This thesis focuses on the design of a novel, ultra-lightweight spherical aerial terrestrial robot (ATR). The ATR has the ability to fly through the air or roll on the ground, for applications that include search and rescue, mapping, surveillance, environmental sensing, and entertainment. The design centers around a micro-quadcopter encased in a lightweight spherical exoskeleton that can rotate about the quadcopter. The spherical exoskeleton offers agile ground locomotion while maintaining characteristics of a basic aerial robot in flying mode. A model of the system dynamics for both modes of locomotion is presented and utilized in simulations to generate potential trajectories for aerial and terrestrial locomotion. Details of the quadcopter and exoskeleton design and fabrication are discussed, including the robot's turning characteristic over ground and the spring-steel exoskeleton with carbon fiber axle. The capabilities of the ATR are experimentally tested and are in good agreement with model-simulated performance. An energy analysis is presented to validate the overall efficiency of the robot in both modes of locomotion. Experimentally-supported estimates show that the ATR can roll along the ground for over 12 minutes and cover the distance of 1.7 km, or it can fly for 4.82 minutes and travel 469 m, on a single 350 mAh battery. Compared to a traditional flying-only robot, the ATR traveling over the same distance in rolling mode is 2.63-times more efficient, and in flying mode the system is only 39 percent less efficient. Experimental results also demonstrate the ATR's transition from rolling to flying mode.

  15. AERIAL SHOWING COMPLETED REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITY (CPP627) ADJOINING FUEL PROCESSING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL SHOWING COMPLETED REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITY (CPP-627) ADJOINING FUEL PROCESSING BUILDING AND EXCAVATION FOR HOT PILOT PLANT TO RIGHT (CPP-640). INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-60-1221. J. Anderson, Photographer, 3/22/1960 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. 94. ARAIV. Aerial view of ML1 area. Camera facing north. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    94. ARA-IV. Aerial view of ML-1 area. Camera facing north. Reactor test building is in center of view. Walking path and utility lines connect test building. Berm lies between. Road curves to left and continues to GCRE complex. Ineel photo no. 79-4707. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. 2. AERIAL VIEW EXUSS HORNET CVS12 LOOKING PORT TO STARBOARD, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW EX-USS HORNET CVS-12 LOOKING PORT TO STARBOARD, THREE MINECRAFT MORRED ALONGSIDE ON PORT AFT QUARTER. OTHER INACTIVE SHIPS IN BACKGROUND, PUGET SOUND NAVEL SHIPYARD TO LEFT SIDE OF PHOTO. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  18. 10. AERIAL VIEW OF CROSSCUT FACILITY SITE, SHOWING STEAM/DIESEL PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. AERIAL VIEW OF CROSSCUT FACILITY SITE, SHOWING STEAM/DIESEL PLANT BUILDING, RUNNING GENERALLY ACROSS PHOTO, AND INDIAN BEND POND IN UPPER RIGHT CORNER. November 7, 1955 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  19. 3. EXUSS HORNET CVS12 AERIAL VIEW FROM STARBOARD AFT QUARTER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EX-USS HORNET CVS-12 AERIAL VIEW FROM STARBOARD AFT QUARTER, EX-USS ORISKANY CV-34 RIGHT SIDE OF PHOTO, EX-USS JERSEY BB-62 AND OTHER INACTIVE SHIPS MOORED ACROSS PIER FROM HORNET. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  20. Training set size, scale, and features in Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis of very high resolution unmanned aerial vehicle imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lei; Cheng, Liang; Li, Manchun; Liu, Yongxue; Ma, Xiaoxue

    2015-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) has been used increasingly for natural resource applications in recent years due to their greater availability and the miniaturization of sensors. In addition, Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) has received more attention as a novel paradigm for remote sensing earth observation data. However, GEOBIA generates some new problems compared with pixel-based methods. In this study, we developed a strategy for the semi-automatic optimization of object-based classification, which involves an area-based accuracy assessment that analyzes the relationship between scale and the training set size. We found that the Overall Accuracy (OA) increased as the training set ratio (proportion of the segmented objects used for training) increased when the Segmentation Scale Parameter (SSP) was fixed. The OA increased more slowly as the training set ratio became larger and a similar rule was obtained according to the pixel-based image analysis. The OA decreased as the SSP increased when the training set ratio was fixed. Consequently, the SSP should not be too large during classification using a small training set ratio. By contrast, a large training set ratio is required if classification is performed using a high SSP. In addition, we suggest that the optimal SSP for each class has a high positive correlation with the mean area obtained by manual interpretation, which can be summarized by a linear correlation equation. We expect that these results will be applicable to UAV imagery classification to determine the optimal SSP for each class.

  1. 42. Photocopy of photograph (from PhotoArt Commercial Studios photograph, 1978, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Photocopy of photograph (from Photo-Art Commercial Studios photograph, 1978, in Burlington Northern correspondence files) AERIAL VIEW FROM WEST SHOWING NEW DRYDOCK BEGINNING PASSAGE OF SOUTH DRAW OPENING - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  2. 36. Photocopy of photograph (from PhotoArt Commercial Studios photograph, 1978, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Photocopy of photograph (from Photo-Art Commercial Studios photograph, 1978, in Burlington Northern correspondence files) AERIAL VIEW FROM WEST, MARQUAM BIRDGE AND DOWNTOWN PORTLAND IN BACKGROUND - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  3. The Use of Field Trips in Air-Photo Interpretation and Remote-Sensing Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giardino, John Richard; Fish, Ernest Bertley

    1986-01-01

    Advocates the use of field trips for improving students' image-interpretation abilities. Presents guidelines for developing a field trip for an aerial-photo interpretation class or a remote-sensing class. Reviews methodology employed, content emphasis, and includes an exercise that was used on a trip. (ML)

  4. Use of low-altitude aerial photography to identify submersed aquatic macrophytes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Donald W.; Manny, Bruce A.; Brown, Charles L.; Jaworski, Eugene

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of using low-altitude aerial photography to identify beds of submersed macrophytes is demonstrated. True color aerial photos and collateral ground survey information for submersed aquatic macrophyte beds at 10 sites in the St.Clair-Detroit River system were obtained in September 1978. Using the photos and collateral ground survey information, a dichotomous key was developed for the identification of six classes - beds of five genera of macrophytes and one substrate type. A test was prepared to determine how accurately photo interpreters could identify the six classes. The test required an interpreter to examine an unlabeled, outlined area on photographs and identify it using the key. Six interpreters were tested. One pair of interpreters was trained in the interpretation of a variety of aerial photos, a second pair had field experience in the collection and identification of submersed macrophytes in the river system, and a third pair had neither training in the interpretation of aerial photos nor field experience. The criteria that we developed were applied equally well by the interpretors, regardless of their training or experience. Overall accuracy (i.e., omission errors) of all six classes combined was 68% correct, whereas, overall accuracy of individual classes ranged from 50 to 100% correct. Mapping accuracy (i.e. omission and commission errors) of individual classes ranged from 36 to 75%. Although the key developed for this study has only limited application outside the context of the data and sites examined in this study, it is concluded that low-altitude aerial photography, together with limited amounts of collateral ground survey information, can be used to economically identify beds of submersed macrophytes in the St. Clair-Detroit River system and other similar water bodies.

  5. Identification and measurement of shrub type vegetation on large scale aerial photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driscoll, R. S.

    1970-01-01

    Important range-shrub species were identified at acceptable levels of accuracy on large-scale 70 mm color and color infrared aerial photographs. Identification of individual shrubs was significantly higher, however, on color infrared. Photoscales smaller than 1:2400 had limited value except for mature individuals of relatively tall species, and then only if crown margins did not overlap and sharp contrast was evident between the species and background. Larger scale photos were required for low-growing species in dense stands. The crown cover for individual species was estimated from the aerial photos either with a measuring magnifier or a projected-scale micrometer. These crown cover measurements provide techniques for earth-resource analyses when used in conjunction with space and high-altitude remotely procured photos.

  6. Long and short-term spatial processes analysis of an acacia tree population using a single aerial photograph with near infra-red band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacson, Sivan; Blumberg, Dan G.; Rachmilevitch, Shimon; Ephrath, Jhonathan E.

    2014-05-01

    Hyper-arid zones are characterized by highly sparse vegetation cover. Monitoring vegetation dynamics in hyper-arid zones is important because any reduction in the vegetation cover in these areas can lead to a considerable reduction in the carrying capacity of the ecological system. Remote sensing expands the spatial and temporal database and is thus a powerful tool for long-term monitoring in arid zones, where access is limited and long-term ground data are rarely available. The main goal of this research was to study both the long-term and short-term spatial processes affecting the acacia population, by using information from a single, three bands color infrared (CIR) aerial photograph (green, red and near infrared). CIR images enable us to obtain information about photosynthetically active biomass by using vegetation indices such as NDVI. A map of individual acacia trees that was extracted from a CIR aerial photograph of Wadi Ktora allowed us to examine the distribution pattern of the trees size and foliage health status (NDVI). Tree size distribution was used as an indicator of long-term (decades) geo-hydrologic spatial processes effecting the acacia population. The tree health status distribution was used as an indicator for short-term (months to a few years) geo-hydrologic spatial processes, such as the paths of recent flashfloods events. Comparison of the tree size distribution and NDVI values distribution enabled us to differentiate between long-term and short-term processes that brought the population to its present state. The spatial analysis revealed that both the tree size and NDVI distribution patterns were significantly clustered, suggesting that the processes responsible for tree size and tree health status do have a spatial expression. Furthermore, each of the attributes has a different distribution and unique clustering location. We suggest that the lack of spatial correlation between tree size and health status is a result of spatial

  7. An Automated Approach to Agricultural Tile Drain Detection and Extraction Utilizing High Resolution Aerial Imagery and Object-Based Image Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansen, Richard A.

    Subsurface drainage from agricultural fields in the Maumee River watershed is suspected to adversely impact the water quality and contribute to the formation of harmful algal blooms (HABs) in Lake Erie. In early August of 2014, a HAB developed in the western Lake Erie Basin that resulted in over 400,000 people being unable to drink their tap water due to the presence of a toxin from the bloom. HAB development in Lake Erie is aided by excess nutrients from agricultural fields, which are transported through subsurface tile and enter the watershed. Compounding the issue within the Maumee watershed, the trend within the watershed has been to increase the installation of tile drains in both total extent and density. Due to the immense area of drained fields, there is a need to establish an accurate and effective technique to monitor subsurface farmland tile installations and their associated impacts. This thesis aimed at developing an automated method in order to identify subsurface tile locations from high resolution aerial imagery by applying an object-based image analysis (OBIA) approach utilizing eCognition. This process was accomplished through a set of algorithms and image filters, which segment and classify image objects by their spectral and geometric characteristics. The algorithms utilized were based on the relative location of image objects and pixels, in order to maximize the robustness and transferability of the final rule-set. These algorithms were coupled with convolution and histogram image filters to generate results for a 10km2 study area located within Clay Township in Ottawa County, Ohio. The eCognition results were compared to previously collected tile locations from an associated project that applied heads-up digitizing of aerial photography to map field tile. The heads-up digitized locations were used as a baseline for the accuracy assessment. The accuracy assessment generated a range of agreement values from 67.20% - 71.20%, and an average

  8. Photo-responsive polymeric micelles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu; Dong, Ruijiao; Zhu, Xinyuan; Yan, Deyue

    2014-09-07

    Photo-responsive polymeric micelles have received increasing attention in both academic and industrial fields due to their efficient photo-sensitive nature and unique nanostructure. In view of the photo-reaction mechanism, photo-responsive polymeric micelles can be divided into five major types: (1) photoisomerization polymeric micelles, (2) photo-induced rearrangement polymeric micelles, (3) photocleavage polymeric micelles, (4) photo-induced crosslinkable polymeric micelles, and (5) photo-induced energy conversion polymeric micelles. This review highlights the recent advances of photo-responsive polymeric micelles, including the design, synthesis and applications in various biomedical fields. Especially, the influence of different photo-reaction mechanisms on the morphology, structure and properties of the polymeric micelles is emphasized. Finally, the possible future directions and perspectives in this emerging area are briefly discussed.

  9. Favourable uranium-phosphate exploration trends guided by the application of statistical factor analysis technique on the aerial gamma spectrometric data in Syrian desert (Area-1), Syria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asfahani, J.; Al-Hent, R.; Aissa, M.

    2016-02-01

    A scored lithological map including 10 radiometric units is established through applying factor analysis approach to aerial spectrometric data of Area-1, Syrian desert, which includes Ur, eU, eTh, K%, eU/eTh, eU/K%, and eTh/K%. A model of four rotated factors F1, F2, F3, and F4 is adapted for representing 234,829 data measured points in Area-1, where 86% of total data variance is interpreted. A geological scored pseudo-section derived from the lithological scored map is established and analyzed in order to show the possible stratigraphic and structural traps for uranium occurrences associated with phosphate deposits in the studied Area-1. These identified traps presented in this paper need detailed investigation and must be necessarily followed and checked by ground validations and subsurface well logging, in order to locate the anomalous uranium occurrences and explore with more confidence and certitude their characteristics as a function of depth.

  10. Acquisition, Visualization and Analysis of Photo Real 3D Virtual Geology at High Accuracy: Oblique, Close Range Data Acquisition From the Ground With Digital Cameras, Terrestrial Laser Scanners and GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X.; Aiken, C. L.

    2005-12-01

    uses real photos for the surfaces. Petroleum companies have been the major user of these models utilizing them in 3D stereo in their CAVE (CAVE Automatic Visualization Environment) systems for virtual field trips and integrated analysis of reservoir characterization analogs. They are also being incorporated in short courses and UTD courses such as structural geology before, during and after field trips to the sites. One of our models has been used by a visual effects group for a film for television. We will display several examples of these models at this meeting in a Geowall 3D stereo system using powerful and cost effective open source software.

  11. Chemical fingerprint and simultaneous determination of alkaloids and flavonoids in aerial parts of genus Peganum indigenous to China based on HPLC-UV: application of analysis on secondary metabolites accumulation.

    PubMed

    Wen, Fangfang; Cheng, Xuemei; Liu, Wei; Xuan, Min; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Xin; Shan, Meng; Li, Yan; Teng, Liang; Wang, Zhengtao; Wang, Changhong

    2014-12-01

    The aerial parts of genus Peganum are officially used in traditional Chinese medicine. The paper aims to establish a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for fingerprint analysis and simultaneous determination of three alkaloids and two flavonoids in aerial parts of genus Peganum, and to analyze accumulative difference of secondary metabolites in inter-species, individuals of plants, inter-/intra-population and from different growing seasons. HPLC analysis was performed on a C18 column with gradient elution using 0.1% trifloroacetic acid and acetonitrile as mobile phase and detected at 265 nm, by conventional methodology validation. For fingerprint analysis, the RSDs of relative retention time and relative peak area of the characteristic peaks were within 0.07-0.78 and 0.94-9.09%, respectively. For simultaneous determination of vasicine, harmaline, harmine, deacetylpeganetin and peganetin, all calibration curves showed good linearity (r > 0.9990) within the test range. The relative standard deviations of precision, repeatability and stability test did not exceed 2.37, 2.68 and 2.67%, respectively. The average recoveries for the five analytes were between 96.47 and 101.20%. HPLC fingerprints play a minor role in authenticating and differentiating the herbs of different species of genus Peganum. However, the secondary metabolites levels of alkaloids and flavonoids in aerial parts of genus Peganum rely on species-, habitat-, and growth season-dependent accumulation.

  12. 53. Historic American Buildings Survey Photo by Slevin Photo Taken: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Historic American Buildings Survey Photo by Slevin Photo Taken: April 1908 RUINS OF MISSION QUANDRANGLE - Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Rio Road & Lausen Drive, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Monterey County, CA

  13. Defense Science Board Study on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-02-01

    Defense Science Board Study on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicles February 2004 Office...COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defense Science Board Study on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicles 5a. CONTRACT...the Defense Science Board Task Force on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicles I am pleased to forward the final report of

  14. Environmental geophysics and sequential air photo study at Sunfish Lake Twin Cities Army Ammunition Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Padar, C.A.; McGinnis, L.D.; Thompson, M.D.; Anderson, A.W.

    1996-11-01

    Geophysical and air photo studies at the Twin Cities Army Ammunition Plant (TCAAP), Minnesota, were conducted to establish a chronology of dumping and waste disposal. This study was undertaken to aid in the assessment of the amount of remediation needed to reclaim a wetland area. An integrated analysis of electromagnetic, magnetic and ground-penetrating RADAR (GPR) measurements over a 25-acre site, provided the information necessary to define waste disposal events. These events are observed on a sequence of aerial photos taken between 1940 and 1993. The former southwestern embayment of the lake, filled in during the original construction of the base, has been clearly defined. Two burn cages and their surrounding debris have been delineated. The areal extent of another waste site has been defined along the northern shoreline. Depth estimates determined from EM-61 analysis, and depths to original lake bottom, derived from GPR, have yielded volumetric estimates of the amount of material that would need removal if excavation is required. Magnetic and electromagnetic data have pinpointed the locations of mounds, observed from historical air photos. Except for these areas along the Northwestern shore, there is no evidence of waste disposal along the shoreline or within the present-day lake margins. The ability to date the anomalous regions is significant, in that different production demands upon TCAAP, during the time periods of WWII, The Korean War, and The Vietnam Conflict, have resulted in different types of waste. The ability to categorize areas with distinct time periods of operation and waste disposal can greatly aid the environmental cleanup effort with regard to the type of contaminants that might be expected at these poorly documented disposal sites.

  15. A Cost Benefit Analysis of Fire Scout Vertical Takeoff and Landing Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (VTUAV) Operator Alternatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    48 Daniel Jurta et al. MQ-8B Fire Scout UAV Manning Cost Benefit Analysis. EMBA Project Report...December 8, 2012). 36 The exact cost of this training is difficult to ascertain, but a Naval Postgraduate School Executive MBA ( EMBA ) Capstone...57 Daniel Jurta et al. MQ-8B Fire Scout UAV Manning Cost Benefit Analysis. EMBA Project Report, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey: Naval

  16. Old Sepia Photos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    The author has always been fascinated by old photographs. As she looks at them, she wonders about the people. Who were they? What were their lives like? Where was this photo taken? A moment in time is frozen forever, for all to see. Inspired by old photographs, the author describes how her fifth-grade classes made their own "photographs" by…

  17. Making "Photo" Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doto, Julianne; Golbeck, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Collecting data and analyzing the results of experiments is difficult for children. The authors found a surprising way to help their third graders make graphs and draw conclusions from their data: digital photographs. The pictures bridged the gap between an abstract graph and the plants it represented. With the support of the photos, students…

  18. 2. AERIAL VIEW OF MINUTEMAN SILOS. Low oblique aerial view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW OF MINUTEMAN SILOS. Low oblique aerial view (original in color) of the two launch silos, covered. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Missile Silo Type, Test Area 1-100, northeast end of Test Area 1-100 Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  19. Combined aerial and ground technique for assessing structural heat loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, William C.; Schott, John R.

    1994-03-01

    The results of a combined aerial and ground-based structural heat loss survey are presented. The aerial imagery was collected by a thermal IR line scanner. Enhanced quantitative analysis of the imagery gives the roof heat flow and insulation level. The ground images were collected by a video van and converted to still frames stored on a video disk. A computer based presentation system retrieves the images and other information indexed by street address for screening and dissemination to owners. We conclude that the combined aerial and ground survey effectively discriminates between well insulated and poorly insulated structures, and that such a survey is a cost-effective alternative to site audits.

  20. Aerial Video Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    When Michael Henry wanted to start an aerial video service, he turned to Johnson Space Center for assistance. Two NASA engineers - one had designed and developed TV systems in Apollo, Skylab, Apollo- Soyuz and Space Shuttle programs - designed a wing-mounted fiberglass camera pod. Camera head and angles are adjustable, and the pod is shaped to reduce vibration. The controls are located so a solo pilot can operate the system. A microprocessor displays latitude, longitude, and bearing, and a GPS receiver provides position data for possible legal references. The service has been successfully utilized by railroads, oil companies, real estate companies, etc.

  1. D City Transformations by Time Series of Aerial Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adami, A.

    2015-02-01

    Recent photogrammetric applications, based on dense image matching algorithms, allow to use not only images acquired by digital cameras, amateur or not, but also to recover the vast heritage of analogue photographs. This possibility opens up many possibilities in the use and enhancement of existing photos heritage. The research of the original figuration of old buildings, the virtual reconstruction of disappeared architectures and the study of urban development are some of the application areas that exploit the great cultural heritage of photography. Nevertheless there are some restrictions in the use of historical images for automatic reconstruction of buildings such as image quality, availability of camera parameters and ineffective geometry of image acquisition. These constrains are very hard to solve and it is difficult to discover good dataset in the case of terrestrial close range photogrammetry for the above reasons. Even the photographic archives of museums and superintendence, while retaining a wealth of documentation, have no dataset for a dense image matching approach. Compared to the vast collection of historical photos, the class of aerial photos meets both criteria stated above. In this paper historical aerial photographs are used with dense image matching algorithms to realize 3d models of a city in different years. The models can be used to study the urban development of the city and its changes through time. The application relates to the city centre of Verona, for which some time series of aerial photographs have been retrieved. The models obtained in this way allowed, right away, to observe the urban development of the city, the places of expansion and new urban areas. But a more interesting aspect emerged from the analytical comparison between models. The difference, as the Euclidean distance, between two models gives information about new buildings or demolitions. As considering accuracy it is necessary point out that the quality of final

  2. Automatic digital photo-book making system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wiley; Teo, Patrick; Muzzolini, Russ

    2010-02-01

    The diversity of photo products has grown more than ever before. A group of photos are not only printed individually, but also can be arranged in specific order to tell a story, such as in a photo book, a calendar or a poster collage. Similar to making a traditional scrapbook, digital photo book tools allow the user to choose a book style/theme, layouts of pages, backgrounds and the way the pictures are arranged. This process is often time consuming to users, given the number of images and the choices of layout/background combinations. In this paper, we developed a system to automatically generate photo books with only a few initial selections required. The system utilizes time stamps, color indices, orientations and other image properties to best fit pictures into a final photo book. The common way of telling a story is to lay the pictures out in chronological order. If the pictures are proximate in time, they will coincide with each other and are often logically related. The pictures are naturally clustered along a time line. Breaks between clusters can be used as a guide to separate pages or spreads, thus, pictures that are logically related can stay close on the same page or spread. When people are making a photo book, it is helpful to start with chronologically grouped images, but time alone wont be enough to complete the process. Each page is limited by the number of layouts available. Many aesthetic rules also apply, such as, emphasis of preferred pictures, consistency of local image density throughout the whole book, matching a background to the content of the images, and the variety of adjacent page layouts. We developed an algorithm to group images onto pages under the constraints of aesthetic rules. We also apply content analysis based on the color and blurriness of each picture, to match backgrounds and to adjust page layouts. Some of our aesthetic rules are fixed and given by designers. Other aesthetic rules are statistic models trained by using

  3. MATtrack: A MATLAB-Based Quantitative Image Analysis Platform for Investigating Real-Time Photo-Converted Fluorescent Signals in Live Cells.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Jane; Woods, Elena; Scholz, Dimitri; Hall, William W; Gautier, Virginie W

    2015-01-01

    We introduce here MATtrack, an open source MATLAB-based computational platform developed to process multi-Tiff files produced by a photo-conversion time lapse protocol for live cell fluorescent microscopy. MATtrack automatically performs a series of steps required for image processing, including extraction and import of numerical values from Multi-Tiff files, red/green image classification using gating parameters, noise filtering, background extraction, contrast stretching and temporal smoothing. MATtrack also integrates a series of algorithms for quantitative image analysis enabling the construction of mean and standard deviation images, clustering and classification of subcellular regions and injection point approximation. In addition, MATtrack features a simple user interface, which enables monitoring of Fluorescent Signal Intensity in multiple Regions of Interest, over time. The latter encapsulates a region growing method to automatically delineate the contours of Regions of Interest selected by the user, and performs background and regional Average Fluorescence Tracking, and automatic plotting. Finally, MATtrack computes convenient visualization and exploration tools including a migration map, which provides an overview of the protein intracellular trajectories and accumulation areas. In conclusion, MATtrack is an open source MATLAB-based software package tailored to facilitate the analysis and visualization of large data files derived from real-time live cell fluorescent microscopy using photoconvertible proteins. It is flexible, user friendly, compatible with Windows, Mac, and Linux, and a wide range of data acquisition software. MATtrack is freely available for download at eleceng.dit.ie/courtney/MATtrack.zip.

  4. MATtrack: A MATLAB-Based Quantitative Image Analysis Platform for Investigating Real-Time Photo-Converted Fluorescent Signals in Live Cells

    PubMed Central

    Courtney, Jane; Woods, Elena; Scholz, Dimitri; Hall, William W.; Gautier, Virginie W.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce here MATtrack, an open source MATLAB-based computational platform developed to process multi-Tiff files produced by a photo-conversion time lapse protocol for live cell fluorescent microscopy. MATtrack automatically performs a series of steps required for image processing, including extraction and import of numerical values from Multi-Tiff files, red/green image classification using gating parameters, noise filtering, background extraction, contrast stretching and temporal smoothing. MATtrack also integrates a series of algorithms for quantitative image analysis enabling the construction of mean and standard deviation images, clustering and classification of subcellular regions and injection point approximation. In addition, MATtrack features a simple user interface, which enables monitoring of Fluorescent Signal Intensity in multiple Regions of Interest, over time. The latter encapsulates a region growing method to automatically delineate the contours of Regions of Interest selected by the user, and performs background and regional Average Fluorescence Tracking, and automatic plotting. Finally, MATtrack computes convenient visualization and exploration tools including a migration map, which provides an overview of the protein intracellular trajectories and accumulation areas. In conclusion, MATtrack is an open source MATLAB-based software package tailored to facilitate the analysis and visualization of large data files derived from real-time live cell fluorescent microscopy using photoconvertible proteins. It is flexible, user friendly, compatible with Windows, Mac, and Linux, and a wide range of data acquisition software. MATtrack is freely available for download at eleceng.dit.ie/courtney/MATtrack.zip. PMID:26485569

  5. Intelligent peak deconvolution through in-depth study of the data matrix from liquid chromatography coupled with a photo-diode array detector applied to pharmaceutical analysis.

    PubMed

    Arase, Shuntaro; Horie, Kanta; Kato, Takashi; Noda, Akira; Mito, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Yanagisawa, Toshinobu

    2016-10-21

    Multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) method was investigated for its potential to accelerate pharmaceutical research and development. The fast and efficient separation of complex mixtures consisting of multiple components, including impurities as well as major drug substances, remains a challenging application for liquid chromatography in the field of pharmaceutical analysis. In this paper we suggest an integrated analysis algorithm functioning on a matrix of data generated from HPLC coupled with photo-diode array detector (HPLC-PDA) and consisting of the mathematical program for the developed multivariate curve resolution method using an expectation maximization (EM) algorithm with a bidirectional exponentially modified Gaussian (BEMG) model function as a constraint for chromatograms and numerous PDA spectra aligned with time axis. The algorithm provided less than ±1.0% error between true and separated peak area values at resolution (Rs) of 0.6 using simulation data for a three-component mixture with an elution order of a/b/c with similarity (a/b)=0.8410, (b/c)=0.9123 and (a/c)=0.9809 of spectra at peak apex. This software concept provides fast and robust separation analysis even when method development efforts fail to achieve complete separation of the target peaks. Additionally, this approach is potentially applicable to peak deconvolution, allowing quantitative analysis of co-eluted compounds having exactly the same molecular weight. This is complementary to the use of LC-MS to perform quantitative analysis on co-eluted compounds using selected ions to differentiate the proportion of response attributable to each compound.

  6. Physical controls and patterns of recruitment on the Drôme River (SE France): An analysis based on a chronosequence of high resolution aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piegay, H.; Stella, J. C.; Raepple, B.

    2014-12-01

    Along with the recent recognition of the role of vegetation in influencing channel hydraulics, and thus fluvial morphology comes the need for scientific research on vegetation recruitment and its control factors. Flood disturbance is known to create a suitable physical template for the establishment of woody pioneers. Sapling recruitment patterns and underlying physical controls were investigated on a 5 km braided reach of the Drôme River in South-eastern France, following the 2003 50-year flood event. The approach was based on the analysis of a chronosequence of high resolution aerial images acquired yearly between 2005 and 2011, complemented by airborne LiDAR data and field observations. The study highlights how physical complexity induced by natural variations in hydro-climatic and consequently hydro-geomorphic conditions facilitates variable patterns of recruitment. The initial post-flood vegetative units, which covered up to 10% of the total active channel area in 2005, was seen to double within six years. The variability of hydro-climatic conditions was reflected in the temporal and spatial patterns of recruitment, with a pronounced peak of vegetation expansion in 2007 and a decreasing trend following higher flows in 2009. Recruitment was further seen to be sustained in a variety of geomorphic units, which showed different probabilities and patterns of recruitment. Active channels were the prominent geomorphic unit in terms of total biomass development, while in-channel wood units showed the highest probability for recruitment. Vegetation recruitment understanding is becoming crucial for predicting fluvial system evolution in different hydroclimatic contexts. Applied, these findings may contribute to improve efforts made in the field of flood risk management, as well as restoration planning.

  7. Analysis of material entrainment with an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and simulation of the debris-flow event at the Sattelbach torrent - Austria, 2013.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheidl, Christian; Schraml, Klaus; Moser, Markus; Hübl, Johannes

    2014-05-01

    In summer 2013, a disastrous debris-flow destroyed several houses and infrastructure facilities on the fan of the Sattelbach catchment located in the district of St. Johann im Pongau, Salzburg (Austria). Fortunately, no damage to persons could be registered. The debris flow was triggered by shallow landslides within the upper catchment, mobilizing in total approximately 4,000 m3 of debris. However, the volume of the debris-flow event at the fan was documented with 12,000 m3, whereas a maximum discharge of 380 m3/s was estimated near the fan apex. Witnesses reported only one big wave passing the fan area, which seems to be out of character for a typical Alpine debris-flow event showing such high discharge. For the later, one would suppose multiple smaller waves. Due to the fact of evolving material entrainment resulted in one big wave, the debris-flow event at the Sattelbach catchment was chosen as case study to analyze mass bulking. For this reason, an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was used to establish a digital terrain model (DTM) of the whole reach after the event. This terrain model was then compared to a LiDAR DTM, showing the topographical situation before the event. Based on the analyzed mass bulking along the whole reach, numerical simulations were performed using the DAN3D (Dynamic Analysis of Landslides in Three Dimensions) code. The DAN3D model allows selection between different rheologies as well as the implementation of entrainment. The study will show the applicability of UAV's in small and steep catchments and will test DAN 3D a debris-flow simulation tool with an implemented mass-bulking model.

  8. Aerial view of the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, shown in this aerial view looking east, sprawls across 70 acres on Florida's Space Coast. It is located off State Road 405, NASA Parkway, six miles inside the Space Center entrance. SR 405 can be seen at the top left of the photo. In the foreground is the display of rockets that have played a significant role in the growth of the space program. Just above that, left to right, can be seen the Theater Complex, Space Flight Exhibit Building and Spaceport Central. Other buildings clustered at the center are the Cafeteria, Souvenir Sales Building, and Ticket Pavilion. To the left of the Theater Complex are the Astronaut Memorial, the Post Show Dome, and the Shuttle/Gantry mockup. Not seen in the photo is the Center for Space Education.

  9. Locating waterfowl observations on aerial surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, W.I.; Hodges, J.I.; Stehn, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    We modified standard aerial survey data collection to obtain the geographic location for each waterfowl observation on surveys in Alaska during 1987-1993. Using transect navigation with CPS (global positioning system), data recording on continuously running tapes, and a computer data input program, we located observations with an average deviation along transects of 214 m. The method provided flexibility in survey design and data analysis. Although developed for geese nesting near the coast of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, the methods are widely applicable and were used on other waterfowl surveys in Alaska to map distribution and relative abundance of waterfowl. Accurate location data with GIS analysis and display may improve precision and usefulness of data from any aerial transect survey.

  10. Chemical fingerprint analysis and quantitative determination of pregnanes from aerial parts of caralluma species using HPLC-UV and identification by LC-ESI-TOF

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A HPLC method is developed for the quantitative determination of five pregnane derivatives from aerial parts of Caralluma species and dietary supplements. The method is validated for linearity, repeatability, limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ). The limits of detection and l...

  11. Highly reproducible SERS detection in sequential injection analysis: real time preparation and application of photo-reduced silver substrate in a moving flow-cell.

    PubMed

    El-Zahry, Marwa R; Genner, Andreas; Refaat, Ibrahim H; Mohamed, Horria A; Lendl, Bernhard

    2013-11-15

    This paper reports an improved way for performing highly reproducible surface enhanced Raman scattering of different analytes using an automated flow system. The method uses a confocal Raman microscope to prepare SERS active silver spots on the window of a flow cell by photo-reduction of silver nitrate in the presence of citrate. Placement of the flow cell on an automated x and y stages of the Raman microscope allows to prepare a fresh spot for every new measurement. This procedure thus efficiently avoids any carry over effects which might result from adsorption of the analyte on the SERS active material and enables highly reproducible SERS measurements. For reproducible liquid handling the used sequential injection analysis system as well as the Raman microscope was operated by the flexible LabVIEW based software ATLAS developed in our group. Quantitative aspects were investigated using Cu(PAR)2 as a model analyte. Concentration down to 5×10(-6) M provided clear SERS spectra, a linear concentration dependence of the SERS intensities at 1333 cm(-1) was obtained from 5×10(-5) to 1×10(-3) with a correlation coefficient r=0.999. The coefficient of variation of the method Vxo was found to be 5.6% and the calculated limit of detection 1.7×10(-5) M. The results demonstrate the potential of SERS spectroscopy to be used as a molecular specific detector in aqueous flow systems.

  12. A platform for on-site environmental analysis of explosives using high performance liquid chromatography with UV absorbance and photo-assisted electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Marple, Ronita L; Lacourse, William R

    2005-04-30

    High-performance liquid chromatography with photo-assisted electrochemical detection (HPLC-PAED) is used in conjunction with ultraviolet absorbance (UV) detection for determining explosives in environmental samples. The system utilizes an on-line solid-phase extraction technique for sample pretreatment (i.e., fractionation and concentration), thus reducing the required ground water sample size from 1L to 2mL and minimizing sample handling. Limits of detection for explosives using solid-phase extraction and PAED range from 0.0007 to 0.4mug/L, well below those achieved with UV detection for several important explosives (e.g., RDX). The method has demonstrated good accuracy, precision, and recovery for all tested explosives, thus proving that the method is suitable for evaluation of explosives in ground water with competitive advantages over the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 8330. A system adaptable for the on-site environmental analysis of explosives has been developed and validated.

  13. Lens system for a photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Young, Charles E.; Pellin, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    A lens system in a photo ion spectrometer for manipulating a primary ion beam and ionized atomic component. The atomic components are removed from a sample by a primary ion beam using the lens system, and the ions are extracted for analysis. The lens system further includes ionization resistant coatings for protecting the lens system.

  14. Lens system for a photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

    1990-11-27

    A lens system in a photo ion spectrometer for manipulating a primary ion beam and ionized atomic component is disclosed. The atomic components are removed from a sample by a primary ion beam using the lens system, and the ions are extracted for analysis. The lens system further includes ionization resistant coatings for protecting the lens system. 8 figs.

  15. Why Do Photo Finish Images Look Weird?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregorcic, Bor; Planinsic, Gorazd

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with effects that appear on photographs of rotating objects when taken by a photo finish camera, a rolling shutter camera or a computer scanner. These effects are very similar to Roget's palisade illusion. A simple quantitative analysis of the images is also provided. The effects are explored using a computer scanner in a way that…

  16. Comparison of satellite and air photo based landslide susceptibility maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weirich, Frank; Blesius, Leonhard

    2007-07-01

    Landslide susceptibility maps can be prepared in a variety of ways. Many geoscientists favour the use of an overlay model approach in which several map layers are combined by some arithmetic rules to determine the potential for sliding in an area or region. The resulting susceptibility maps, although based on a subjective weighting of relevant factors, can often be of high accuracy and utility. In order to obtain the relevant input data for this type of analysis, remotely sensed data are often used. To date, susceptibility mapping, just as the mapping of historic and individual landslides, has tended to require higher-resolution imagery. This has somewhat limited the application of landslide susceptibility mapping. While high-resolution air photo or satellite imagery is superior to lower resolution imagery for the purpose of mapping of historic and individual landslides, such higher levels of resolution may not be required for the development of landslide susceptibility maps. In order to determine if medium-resolution satellite imagery, such as SPOT or ASTER, could provide the needed data for landslide susceptibility mapping, a comparison was undertaken of landslide susceptibility model output resulting from the use of stereo NAPP aerial photography versus the use of data obtained from stereo SPOT imagery. The test area selected for this study consisted of two watersheds, Pena Canyon and Big Rock Canyon, situated west of Santa Monica, California, USA, along the Pacific Coast Highway. Both watersheds have a long and well-documented history of landslide activity and sufficient geologic variability and complexity to provide a good test site. The specific overlay model used in this evaluation required input data consistent with the needs of many other models of this type. The model output derived from the two different data sources and presented here in the form of susceptibility maps were virtually identical. Statistical and difference analysis confirmed that both

  17. Aerial thermography for energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Thermal infrared scanning from an aircraft is a convenient and commercially available means for determining relative rates of energy loss from building roofs. The need to conserve energy as fuel costs makes the mass survey capability of aerial thermography an attractive adjunct to community energy awareness programs. Background information on principles of aerial thermography is presented. Thermal infrared scanning systems, flight and environmental requirements for data acquisition, preparation of thermographs for display, major users and suppliers of thermography, and suggested specifications for obtaining aerial scanning services were reviewed.

  18. Detection and damage assessment of citrus tree losses with aerial color infrared photography /ACIR/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blazquez, C. H.; Horn, F. W., Jr.; Edwards, G. J.

    1981-01-01

    Detection and disease damage assessment of citrus tree losses in a Florida citrus grove were made by establishing a registration (grove site location) coordinate system, developing a damage assessment system, and testing sequential aerial color infrared (ACIR) photography at the scale of 1 in. = 333 ft (2.5 cm = 100 m) during the winter, spring, and summer seasons of 1978 and spring of 1979. Spring photography was the easiest to photo interpret, showed the greatest differences between healthy and diseased trees, and had the least shadow and background interference for photo interpretation. Trees showing slight disease damage were detected in ACIR before they were found in ground surveys.

  19. Statistical analysis on activation and photo-bleaching of step-wise multi-photon activation fluorescence of melanin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Zetong; Lai, Zhenhua; Zhang, Xi; Yin, Jihao; DiMarzio, Charles A.

    2015-03-01

    Melanin is regarded as the most enigmatic pigments/biopolymers found in most organisms. We have shown previously that melanin goes through a step-wise multi-photon absorption process after the fluorescence has been activated with high laser intensity. No melanin step-wise multi-photon activation fluorescence (SMPAF) can be obtained without the activation process. The step-wise multi-photon activation fluorescence has been observed to require less laser power than what would be expected from a non-linear optical process. In this paper, we examined the power dependence of the activation process of melanin SMPAF at 830nm and 920nm wavelengths. We have conducted research using varying the laser power to activate the melanin in a point-scanning mode for multi-photon microscopy. We recorded the fluorescence signals and position. A sequence of experiments indicates the relationship of activation to power, energy and time so that we can optimize the power level. Also we explored regional analysis of melanin to study the spatial relationship in SMPAF and define three types of regions which exhibit differences in the activation process.

  20. Early aerial photography and contributions to Digital Earth - The case of the 1921 Halifax air survey mission in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werle, D.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents research into the military and civilian history, technological development, and practical outcomes of aerial photography in Canada immediately after the First World War. The collections of early aerial photography in Canada and elsewhere, as well as the institutional and practical circumstances and arrangements of their creation, represent an important part of remote sensing heritage. It is argued that the digital rendition of the air photos and their representation in mosaic form can make valuable contributions to Digital Earth historic inquiries and mapping exercises today. An episode of one of the first urban surveys, carried out over Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1921, is highlighted and an air photo mosaic and interpretation key is presented. Using the almost one hundred year old air photos and a digitally re-assembled mosaic of a substantial portion of that collection as a guide, a variety of features unique to the post-war urban landscape of the Halifax peninsula are analysed, illustrated, and compared with records of past and current land use. The pan-chromatic air photo ensemble at a nominal scale of 1:5,000 is placed into the historical context with contemporary thematic maps, recent air photos, and modern satellite imagery. Further research opportunities and applications concerning early Canadian aerial photography are outlined.

  1. Aerial Refueling Clearance Process Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-21

    08-2014 2. REPORT TYPE Guidance Document 3. DATES COVERED 2008-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Aerial Refueling Clearance Process Guide Attachment: Aerial...ATP-3.3.4.2 covers general operational procedures for AR and national/organizational SRDs cover data and procedures specific to their AR platforms...Receptacle, Probe/Drogue, and BDA Kit. 3.1.3 The items for assessment consideration cover several areas of interface for both the tanker and the

  2. Using occupancy models to accommodate uncertainty in the interpretation of aerial photograph data: status of beaver in Central Oregon, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearl, Christopher A.; Adams, Michael J.; Haggerty, Patricia K.; Urban, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    Beavers (Castor canadensis) influence habitat for many species and pose challenges in developed landscapes. They are increasingly viewed as a cost-efficient means of riparian habitat restoration and water storage. Still, information on their status is rare, particularly in western North America. We used aerial photography to evaluate changes in beaver occupancy between 1942–1968 and 2009 in upper portions of 2 large watersheds in Oregon, USA. We used multiple observers and occupancy modeling to account for bias related to photo quality, observers, and imperfect detection of beaver impoundments. Our analysis suggested a slightly higher rate of beaver occupancy in the upper Deschutes than the upper Klamath basin. We found weak evidence for beaver increases in the west and declines in eastern parts of the study area. Our study presents a method for dealing with observer variation in photo interpretation and provides the first assessment of the extent of beaver influence in 2 basins with major water-use challenges. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Combining Amine-Reactive Cross-Linkers and Photo-Reactive Amino Acids for 3D-Structure Analysis of Proteins and Protein Complexes.

    PubMed

    Lössl, Philip; Sinz, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    During the last 15 years, the combination of chemical cross-linking and high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) has matured into an alternative approach for analyzing 3D-structures of proteins and protein complexes. Using the distance constraints imposed by the cross-links, models of the protein or protein complex under investigation can be created. The majority of cross-linking studies are currently conducted with homobifunctional amine-reactive cross-linkers. We extend this "traditional" cross-linking/MS strategy by adding complementary photo-cross-linking data. For this, the diazirine-containing unnatural amino acids photo-leucine and photo-methionine are incorporated into the proteins and cross-link formation is induced by UV-A irradiation. The advantage of the photo-cross-linking strategy is that it is not restricted to lysine residues and that hydrophobic regions in proteins can be targeted, which is advantageous for investigating membrane proteins. We consider the strategy of combining cross-linkers with orthogonal reactivities and distances to be ideally suited for maximizing the amount of structural information that can be gained from a cross-linking experiment.

  4. Beach monitoring using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: results of a multi-temporal study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casella, Elisa; Rovere, Alessio; Casella, Marco; Pedroncini, Andrea; Ferrari, Marco; Vacchi, Matteo; Firpo, Marco

    2015-04-01

    The application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and photogrammetry techniques in earth sciences is flourishing. In this study, we show how we applied small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to the study of topographic changes of a beach in Italy, NW Mediterranean Sea. We surveyed the same stretch of coastline three times in 5 months, obtaining ortophotos and digital elevation models of the beach using a structure from motion approach. We then calculated the difference in beach topography between each time step, and we related topography changes to both human and natural modifications of the beach morphology that can be inferred from aerial photos or wave data. We conclude that small drones have the potential to open new possibilities for beach monitoring studies, and can be successfully employed for multi-temporal monitoring studies at relatively low cost.

  5. Array I Photo Imagery Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    stereo scan Ssearcn, was -ated 2s oeina: Detectaole i-I - rti iy Detectac’e 1 - ’ ion etectaole .A ’Ile Ŕ" rating means that one is capable of detecting...tures on a ohotograph. Another term "minimum ground seoaration ," :cmes into context for tnis iiscussion. This is the ininimum distance oetween oJects...at ions sroula be notedi: 1. The brightness of the mine to be resolved; 2. The uniformity of the target background; and 3. The extent of the uniform

  6. Efficient photo-catalytic degradation of malachite green using nickel tungstate material as photo-catalyst.

    PubMed

    Helaïli, N; Boudjamaa, A; Kebir, M; Bachari, K

    2017-01-10

    The present study focused on the evaluation of photo-catalytic and photo-electrochemical properties of the photo-catalyst based on nickel tungstate material prepared by a nitrate method through the degradation of malachite green (MG) dye's. The effect of catalyst loading and dye concentration was examined. Physico-chemical, optical, electrical, electrochemical, and photo-electrochemical properties of the prepared material were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), BET analysis, optical reflectance diffuse (DR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDX), electrical conductivity, cyclic voltammetry (CV), current intensity, mott-shottky, and nyquist. XRD revealed the formation of monoclinic structure with a small particle size. BET surface area of the sample was around 10 m(2)/g. The results show that the degradation of MG was more than 80%, achieved after 3 h of irradiation at pH 4.6 and with a catalyst loading of 75 mg. Also, it was found that the dye photo-degradation obeyed the pseudo-first order kinetic via Langmuir Hinshelwood model.

  7. Dynamics of aerial target pursuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, S.

    2015-12-01

    During pursuit and predation, aerial species engage in multitasking behavior that involve simultaneous target detection, tracking, decision-making, approach and capture. The mobility of the pursuer and the target in a three dimensional environment during predation makes the capture task highly complex. Many researchers have studied and analyzed prey capture dynamics in different aerial species such as insects and bats. This article focuses on reviewing the capture strategies adopted by these species while relying on different sensory variables (vision and acoustics) for navigation. In conclusion, the neural basis of these capture strategies and some applications of these strategies in bio-inspired navigation and control of engineered systems are discussed.

  8. Geologic terrain mapping from earth-satellite and ultra-high aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, R. B.

    1970-01-01

    A proposal is made for mapping from aerial photographs from the EROS program. Three kinds of maps (geomorphic or landform, soil, and surficial deposit) are being prepared at 1:250,000 scale for an 8000-square-mile area between Tucson and Ajo, Arizona. Nine cameras used on NASA mission 101 provided color, color infrared, and multispectral air photos from about 60,000 feet above the terrain and with photo scales ranging from 1:60,000 to 1:240,000. This area was selected because it provides a good sample of desert terrain and is suited for improving and testing the photointerpretive techniques for mapping geologic terrain features with small-scale photos.

  9. Predictors of photo naming: Dutch norms for 327 photos.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zeshu; Stiegert, Julia

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, we report naming latencies and norms for 327 photos of objects in Dutch. We provide norms for eight psycholinguistic variables: age of acquisition, familiarity, imageability, image agreement, objective and subjective visual complexity, word frequency, word length in syllables and letters, and name agreement. Furthermore, multiple regression analyses revealed that the significant predictors of photo-naming latencies were name agreement, word frequency, imageability, and image agreement. The naming latencies, norms, and stimuli are provided as supplemental materials.

  10. 'Unlocking the archive': Using photogrammetry of historic aerial photographs to extend the record of glacier change on the Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Lucy; Fox, Adrian

    2014-05-01

    Changes to glacier fronts and ice shelves and glacier acceleration are well documented, but there is almost no data on mass changes for the more than 400 glaciers on the Antarctic Peninsula. Current research demonstrates that the Antarctic Peninsula is contributing to sea-level change at a similar rate to that of other fast-changing near-polar or large mountain-glacier environments such as Iceland, Patagonia and Alaska (Hock, 2009). Forecasting the future impacts of the Antarctic Peninsula ice sheet on sea level will require a much improved understanding of 20th Century and contemporary glacier mass changes. Satellite data has been used to calculate these changes over the last three decades, but methods to quantify this over a longer time scale have eluded researchers. However, there is an archive of aerial photography of the Antarctic Peninsula dating back to the 1940s, this has been largely ignored due to the range of technical problems associated with deriving quantitative data from historic aerial photographs. This presentation demonstrates how advances in photogrammetric processing and capture of modern aerial photography have allowed this archive to be 'unlocked'. Accurate photogrammetric reconstruction from aerial photographs traditionally requires known ground control points acquired in the field; in remote and inaccessible areas, such as the Antarctic Peninsula, this is often impossible and so has restricted the use of photogrammetric analysis of the available aerial photography. A method for providing control for historic photos without fieldwork on the ground, by linking them to a newly acquired, highly accurate photogrammetric model adjusted through direct kinematic GPS positioning of the camera was developed by Fox and Cziferszky (2008), and this is now being applied to a number of glaciers across the Antarctic Peninsular using Intergraph Photogrammetry Suite (Erdas LPS 2013) software. This presentation will outline the photogrammetric workflow and

  11. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of the essential oil from the aerial parts of Pimpinella junoniae Ceb. & Ort., gathered in La Gomera, Canary Islands, Spain.

    PubMed

    Velasco-Negueruela, A; Pérez-Alonso, M J; Pérez de Paz, P L; Paúl-Palá, J; Sanz, J

    2003-09-05

    The essential oil from the aerial parts of Pimpinella junoniae Ceb. & Ort., growing in La Gomera, Canary Islands, Spain, was studied by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and 43 constituents were identified. The major components were found to be alpha-zingiberene (20.6%), alpha-pinene (17.9%), (E)-beta-farnesene (9.3%), ar-curcumene (7.4%), beta-phellandrene (7.0%), beta-bisabolene (6.1%) and epoxypseudoisoeugenyl 2-methylbutyrate (6.0%). The decomposition product of epoxypseudoisoeugenol derivatives, 5-methoxy-2-methylbenzofuran (5.7%), moderate amounts of other arylpropanoids with the pseudoisoeugenol skeleton (total percentage, 5.2%) and other compounds such as beta-sesquiphellandrene (3.0%), cis-beta-guaiene (1.5%), alpha-phellandrene (1.5%) and alpha-bisabolol (1.3%), were also found.

  12. Aerial Refueling Clearance Initiation Request

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-14

    and receiver agencies. The AR Clearance Initiation Request document recognizes the requirement for definitive aerial refueling agreements between...include directions for the development or content of these contractual agreements. 15. –SUBJECT TERMS See Document Terms and Definitions , Page 8 16...7 Terms and Definitions

  13. Reconnaissance mapping from aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeden, H. A.; Bolling, N. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Engineering soil and geology maps were successfully made from Pennsylvania aerial photographs taken at scales from 1:4,800 to 1:60,000. The procedure involved a detailed study of a stereoscopic model while evaluating landform, drainage, erosion, color or gray tones, tone and texture patterns, vegetation, and cultural or land use patterns.

  14. Factors influencing efficiency of laser wireless power transmission system for micro unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoguang; Hua, Wenshen; Liu, Xun

    2014-12-01

    Micro unmanned aerial vehicle, mostly powered by electricity, plays an important role in many military and civil applications, e.g. military detection, communication relay et al. But restricted endurance ability severely limits its applications. To solve the problem, laser wireless power transmission system is proposed. However, overall efficiency of the system is quite low. This paper describes basic structure of laser wireless power transmission system and its working process. The system consists of two major modules: a high power laser source transmitting energy and a photovoltaic receiver converting optical energy into electricity. Then factors influencing efficiency of the system are analyzed. It suggests that electro-optical efficiency of laser, atmospheric impact on laser beam and photo-electric efficiency of photovoltaic receiver play significant role in overall efficiency of the system. Atmospheric impact on laser beam mostly derived from refraction, absorption, scattering and turbulence effects, leads to drop in energy and quality of laser beam. Efficiency of photovoltaic receiver is affected by photovoltaic materials. In addition, matching degree between intensity distribution of laser beam and layout of photovoltaic receiver also obviously influence efficiency of photovoltaic receiver. Experiment results suggest that under non-uniform laser beam illumination, efficiency of photovoltaic receiver mostly depends on layout of photovoltaic receiver. Through optimizing the layout of photovoltaic receiver based on intensity distribution of laser beam, output power is significantly improved. The analysis may help to take corresponding measures to alleviate negative effects of these factors and improve performance of laser wireless power transmission system.

  15. D Surface Generation from Aerial Thermal Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodaei, B.; Samadzadegan, F.; Dadras Javan, F.; Hasani, H.

    2015-12-01

    Aerial thermal imagery has been recently applied to quantitative analysis of several scenes. For the mapping purpose based on aerial thermal imagery, high accuracy photogrammetric process is necessary. However, due to low geometric resolution and low contrast of thermal imaging sensors, there are some challenges in precise 3D measurement of objects. In this paper the potential of thermal video in 3D surface generation is evaluated. In the pre-processing step, thermal camera is geometrically calibrated using a calibration grid based on emissivity differences between the background and the targets. Then, Digital Surface Model (DSM) generation from thermal video imagery is performed in four steps. Initially, frames are extracted from video, then tie points are generated by Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) algorithm. Bundle adjustment is then applied and the camera position and orientation parameters are determined. Finally, multi-resolution dense image matching algorithm is used to create 3D point cloud of the scene. Potential of the proposed method is evaluated based on thermal imaging cover an industrial area. The thermal camera has 640×480 Uncooled Focal Plane Array (UFPA) sensor, equipped with a 25 mm lens which mounted in the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The obtained results show the comparable accuracy of 3D model generated based on thermal images with respect to DSM generated from visible images, however thermal based DSM is somehow smoother with lower level of texture. Comparing the generated DSM with the 9 measured GCPs in the area shows the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) value is smaller than 5 decimetres in both X and Y directions and 1.6 meters for the Z direction.

  16. Comparative analysis of trace contaminants in leachates before and after a pre-oxidation using a solar photo-Fenton reaction.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Elisangela M R; Mota, Francisco S; Vilar, Vítor J P; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2013-09-01

    Sanitary landfill leachates are a complex mixture of high-strength organic and inorganic persistent contaminants, which constitute a serious environmental problem. In this study, trace contaminants present in leachates were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector before and after a pre-oxidation step using a solar photo-Fenton process. More than 40 organic compounds were detected and identified as benzene (0.09 ± 0.07 mg L(-1)), trichlorophenol (TCP) (0.18 ± 0.12 mg L(-1)), phthalate esters (Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)) (DBP: 0.47 ± 0.01 mg L(-1); BBP: 0.36 ± 0.02 mg L(-1); DEHP: 0.18 ± 0.01 mg L(-1)), among others. Toluene, pentachlorophenol, dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, and Di-n-octyl phthalate were never detected in any of the samples. After the photo-Fenton treatment process, TCP decreased to levels below its detection limit, benzene concentration increased approximately three times, and DBP concentration decreased about 77 % comparatively to the raw leachate sample. The solar photo-Fenton process was considered to be very efficient for the treatment of sanitary landfill leachates, leading to the complete elimination of 24 of the detected micropollutants to levels below their respective detection limits and low to significant abatement of seven other organic compounds, thus resulting in an increase of the leachate biodegradability.

  17. Estimating soil organic carbon using aerial imagery and soil surveys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Widespread implementation of precision agriculture practices requires low-cost, high-quality, georeferenced soil organic carbon (SOC) maps, but currently these maps require expensive sample collection and analysis. Widely available aerial imagery is a low-cost source of georeferenced data. After til...

  18. Use of aerial thermography in Canadian energy conservation programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cihlar, J.; Brown, R. J.; Lawrence, G.; Barry, J. N.; James, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    Recent developments in the use of aerial thermography in energy conservation programs within Canada were summarized. Following a brief review of studies conducted during the last three years, methodologies of data acquisition, processing, analysis and interpretation was discussed. Examples of results from an industrial oriented project were presented and recommendations for future basic work were outlined.

  19. Use of archive aerial photography for monitoring black mangrove populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted on the south Texas Gulf Coast to evaluate archive aerial color-infrared (CIR) photography combined with supervised image analysis techniques to quantify changes in black mangrove [Avicennia germinans (L.) L.] populations over a 26-year period. Archive CIR film from two study si...

  20. A new diterpenoid from the aerial parts of Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Hua; Li, Wen; Qiu, Rui-Xia; Jiang, Miao-Miao; Li, Guo-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    One new and seven known diterpenoids were isolated from the aerial parts of Andrographis paniculata, and their structures elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and spectrometric analysis, as well as chemical methods. The in vitro antiviral activities of these compounds against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) were assayed.

  1. Aerial view of the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center Visitor Center, shown in this aerial view looking south, sprawls across 70 acres on Florida's Space Coast , and is located off State Road 405, NASA Parkway, six miles inside the Space Center entrance. SR 405 can be seen at the bottom of the photo. Just above the roadway, from left can be seen the Shuttle/Gantry mockup; the Post Show Dome; the Astronaut Memorial; and to the far right, the Center for Space Education. Behind the Memorial are a cluster of buildings that include the Theater Complex, Cafeteria, Space Flight Exhibit Building, Souvenir Sales Building, Spaceport Central, and Ticket Pavilion. At the upper right are various rockets that have played a significant role in the growth of the space program.

  2. Aerial view of the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, shown in this aerial view looking south, sprawls across 70 acres on Florida's Space Coast. It is located off State Road 405, NASA Parkway, six miles inside the Space Center entrance. SR 405 can be seen at the bottom of the photo. Just above the roadway, from left, can be seen the Shuttle/Gantry mockup, the Post Show Dome, the Astronaut Memorial, and to the far right, the Center for Space Education. Behind the Memorial are a cluster of buildings that include the Theater Complex, Cafeteria, Space Flight Exhibit Building, Souvenir Sales Building, Spaceport Central, and Ticket Pavilion. At the upper right of the site is a display of rockets that have played a significant role in the growth of the space program. Parking lots span the width of the complex on the south side.

  3. CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW OF "COLD" NORTH HALF OF MTR COMPLEX. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW OF "COLD" NORTH HALF OF MTR COMPLEX. CAMERA FACING EASTERLY. FOREGROUND CORNER CONTAINS OIL STORAGE TANKS. WATER TANKS AND WELL HOUSES ARE BEYOND THEM TO THE LEFT. LARGE LIGHT-COLORED BUILDING IN CENTER OF VIEW IS STEAM PLANT. DEMINERALIZER AND WATER STORAGE TANK ARE BEYOND. SIX-CELL COOLING TOWER AND ITS PUMP HOUSE ARE ABOVE IT IN VIEW. SERVICE BUILDINGS INCLUDING CANTEEN ARE ON NORTH SIDE OF ROAD. "EXCLUSION" AREA IS BEYOND ROAD. COMPARE LOCATION OF EXCLUSION-AREA GATE WITH PHOTO ID-33-G-202. INL NEGATIVE NO. 3608. Unknown Photographer, 10/30/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. Aerial view of the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center Visitor Center, shown in this aerial view looking northwest, sprawls across 70 acres on Florida's Space Coast and is located off State Road 405, NASA Parkway, six miles inside the Space Center entrance. SR 405 can be seen at the top of the photo (left to right). Just below the roadway, from left, can be seen the Center for Space Education, the Theater Complex, Astronaut Memorial, the Post Show Dome, and Shuttle/Gantry mockup. In front of the theater complex are a cluster of buildings that include the Cafeteria, Space Flight Exhibit Building, Souvenir Sales Building, Spaceport Central, and Ticket Pavilion. At the left of the complex are various rockets that have played a significant role in the growth of the space program. Beyond the roadway can be seen the Banana River.

  5. Acoustic enhancement for photo detecting devices

    SciTech Connect

    Thundat, Thomas G; Senesac, Lawrence R; Van Neste, Charles W

    2013-02-19

    Provided are improvements to photo detecting devices and methods for enhancing the sensitivity of photo detecting devices. A photo detecting device generates an electronic signal in response to a received light pulse. An electro-mechanical acoustic resonator, electrically coupled to the photo detecting device, damps the electronic signal and increases the signal noise ratio (SNR) of the electronic signal. Increased photo detector standoff distances and sensitivities will result.

  6. Removal of antibiotic cloxacillin by means of electrochemical oxidation, TiO2 photocatalysis, and photo-Fenton processes: analysis of degradation pathways and effect of the water matrix on the elimination of antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Serna-Galvis, Efraim A; Giraldo-Aguirre, Ana L; Silva-Agredo, Javier; Flórez-Acosta, Oscar A; Torres-Palma, Ricardo A

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluates the treatment of the antibiotic cloxacillin (CLX) in water by means of electrochemical oxidation, TiO2 photocatalysis, and the photo-Fenton system. The three treatments completely removed cloxacillin and eliminated the residual antimicrobial activity from synthetic pharmaceutical wastewater containing the antibiotic, commercial excipients, and inorganic ions. However, significant differences in the degradation routes were found. In the photo-Fenton process, the hydroxyl radical was involved in the antibiotic removal, while in the TiO2 photocatalysis process, the action of both the holes and the adsorbed hydroxyl radicals degraded the pollutant. In the electrochemical treatment (using a Ti/IrO2 anode in sodium chloride as supporting electrolyte), oxidation via HClO played the main role in the removal of CLX. The analysis of initial by-products showed five different mechanistic pathways: oxidation of the thioether group, opening of the central β-lactam ring, breakdown of the secondary amide, hydroxylation of the aromatic ring, and decarboxylation. All the oxidation processes exhibited the three first pathways. Moreover, the aromatic ring hydroxylation was found in both photochemical treatments, while the decarboxylation of the pollutant was only observed in the TiO2 photocatalysis process. As a consequence of the degradation routes and mechanistic pathways, the elimination of organic carbon was different. After 480 and 240 min, the TiO2 photocatalysis and photo-Fenton processes achieved ∼45 and ∼15 % of mineralization, respectively. During the electrochemical treatment, 100 % of the organic carbon remained even after the antibiotic was treated four times the time needed to degrade it. In contrast, in all processes, a natural matrix (mineral water) did not considerably inhibit pollutant elimination. However, the presence of glucose in the water significantly affected the degradation of CLX by means of TiO2 photocatalysis.

  7. Aerial Photographs and Satellite Images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    Photographs and other images of the Earth taken from the air and from space show a great deal about the planet's landforms, vegetation, and resources. Aerial and satellite images, known as remotely sensed images, permit accurate mapping of land cover and make landscape features understandable on regional, continental, and even global scales. Transient phenomena, such as seasonal vegetation vigor and contaminant discharges, can be studied by comparing images acquired at different times. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), which began using aerial photographs for mapping in the 1930's, archives photographs from its mapping projects and from those of some other Federal agencies. In addition, many images from such space programs as Landsat, begun in 1972, are held by the USGS. Most satellite scenes can be obtained only in digital form for use in computer-based image processing and geographic information systems, but in some cases are also available as photographic products.

  8. An Analysis of the Influence of Flight Parameters in the Generation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Orthomosaicks to Survey Archaeological Areas

    PubMed Central

    Mesas-Carrascosa, Francisco-Javier; Notario García, María Dolores; Meroño de Larriva, Jose Emilio; García-Ferrer, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the configuration and technical specifications of a multi-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) using a red–green–blue (RGB) sensor for the acquisition of images needed for the production of orthomosaics to be used in archaeological applications. Several flight missions were programmed as follows: flight altitudes at 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 m above ground level; two forward and side overlap settings (80%–50% and 70%–40%); and the use, or lack thereof, of ground control points. These settings were chosen to analyze their influence on the spatial quality of orthomosaicked images processed by Inpho UASMaster (Trimble, CA, USA). Changes in illumination over the study area, its impact on flight duration, and how it relates to these settings is also considered. The combined effect of these parameters on spatial quality is presented as well, defining a ratio between ground sample distance of UAV images and expected root mean square of a UAV orthomosaick. The results indicate that a balance between all the proposed parameters is useful for optimizing mission planning and image processing, altitude above ground level (AGL) being main parameter because of its influence on root mean square error (RMSE). PMID:27809293

  9. Analysis of near-surface relative humidity in a wind turbine array boundary layer using an instrumented unmanned aerial system and large-eddy simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adkins, Kevin; Elfajri, Oumnia; Sescu, Adrian

    2016-11-01

    Simulation and modeling have shown that wind farms have an impact on the near-surface atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) as turbulent wakes generated by the turbines enhance vertical mixing. These changes alter downstream atmospheric properties. With a large portion of wind farms hosted within an agricultural context, changes to the environment can potentially have secondary impacts such as to the productivity of crops. With the exception of a few observational data sets that focus on the impact to near-surface temperature, little to no observational evidence exists. These few studies also lack high spatial resolution due to their use of a limited number of meteorological towers or remote sensing techniques. This study utilizes an instrumented small unmanned aerial system (sUAS) to gather in-situ field measurements from two Midwest wind farms, focusing on the impact that large utility-scale wind turbines have on relative humidity. Results are also compared to numerical experiments conducted using large eddy simulation (LES). Wind turbines are found to differentially alter the relative humidity in the downstream, spanwise and vertical directions under a variety of atmospheric stability conditions.

  10. Automatic identification of agricultural terraces through object-oriented analysis of very high resolution DSMs and multispectral imagery obtained from an unmanned aerial vehicle.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Varela, R A; Zarco-Tejada, P J; Angileri, V; Loudjani, P

    2014-02-15

    Agricultural terraces are features that provide a number of ecosystem services. As a result, their maintenance is supported by measures established by the European Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). In the framework of CAP implementation and monitoring, there is a current and future need for the development of robust, repeatable and cost-effective methodologies for the automatic identification and monitoring of these features at farm scale. This is a complex task, particularly when terraces are associated to complex vegetation cover patterns, as happens with permanent crops (e.g. olive trees). In this study we present a novel methodology for automatic and cost-efficient identification of terraces using only imagery from commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) cameras on board unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Using state-of-the-art computer vision techniques, we generated orthoimagery and digital surface models (DSMs) at 11 cm spatial resolution with low user intervention. In a second stage, these data were used to identify terraces using a multi-scale object-oriented classification method. Results show the potential of this method even in highly complex agricultural areas, both regarding DSM reconstruction and image classification. The UAV-derived DSM had a root mean square error (RMSE) lower than 0.5 m when the height of the terraces was assessed against field GPS data. The subsequent automated terrace classification yielded an overall accuracy of 90% based exclusively on spectral and elevation data derived from the UAV imagery.

  11. An Analysis of the Influence of Flight Parameters in the Generation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Orthomosaicks to Survey Archaeological Areas.

    PubMed

    Mesas-Carrascosa, Francisco-Javier; Notario García, María Dolores; Meroño de Larriva, Jose Emilio; García-Ferrer, Alfonso

    2016-11-01

    This article describes the configuration and technical specifications of a multi-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) using a red-green-blue (RGB) sensor for the acquisition of images needed for the production of orthomosaics to be used in archaeological applications. Several flight missions were programmed as follows: flight altitudes at 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 m above ground level; two forward and side overlap settings (80%-50% and 70%-40%); and the use, or lack thereof, of ground control points. These settings were chosen to analyze their influence on the spatial quality of orthomosaicked images processed by Inpho UASMaster (Trimble, CA, USA). Changes in illumination over the study area, its impact on flight duration, and how it relates to these settings is also considered. The combined effect of these parameters on spatial quality is presented as well, defining a ratio between ground sample distance of UAV images and expected root mean square of a UAV orthomosaick. The results indicate that a balance between all the proposed parameters is useful for optimizing mission planning and image processing, altitude above ground level (AGL) being main parameter because of its influence on root mean square error (RMSE).

  12. GC-MS analysis and in vitro antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of essential oil from aerial parts of endemic Thymus spathulifolius Hausskn. et Velen.

    PubMed

    Ceylan, Ramazan; Zengin, Gokhan; Uysal, Sengul; Ilhan, Veli; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Kandemir, Ali; Anwar, Farooq

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities and chemical composition of the hydro-distilled essential oil (0.35% yield) from aerial parts of Thymus spathulifolius. Antioxidant capacity of the oil was assessed by different methods including free radical scavenging (DPPH and ABTS), reducing power (FRAP and CUPRAC) and phosphomolybdenum assay. Inhibitory activities were analyzed against acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and tyrosinase. Twenty-one constituents were identified representing 97.2% of the total oil with thymol (50.5%), borneol (16.7%) and carvacrol (7.7%) as the major components. The essential oil exhibited good antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 3.82 and 0.22 mg/mL determined by free radical scavenging DPPH and ABTS, respectively. EC50 values of FRAP and CUPRAC were found to be 0.12 and 0.34 mg/mL, respectively. The results of the present study support the uses of T. spathulifolius essential oil as a source of natural antioxidants and bioactivities for functional foods and phytomedicines.

  13. Telemetry of Aerial Radiological Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    H. W. Clark, Jr.

    2002-10-01

    Telemetry has been added to National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA's) Aerial Measuring System (AMS) Incident Response aircraft to accelerate availability of aerial radiological mapping data. Rapid aerial radiological mapping is promptly performed by AMS Incident Response aircraft in the event of a major radiological dispersal. The AMS airplane flies the entire potentially affected area, plus a generous margin, to provide a quick look at the extent and severity of the event. The primary result of the AMS Incident Response over flight is a map of estimated exposure rate on the ground along the flight path. Formerly, it was necessary to wait for the airplane to land before the map could be seen. Now, while the flight is still in progress, data are relayed via satellite directly from the aircraft to an operations center, where they are displayed and disseminated. This permits more timely utilization of results by decision makers and redirection of the mission to optimize its value. The current telemetry capability can cover all of North America. Extension to a global capability is under consideration.

  14. Integration of historical aerial photography and a geographic information system to evaluate the impact of human activities in a cypress-tupelo swamp

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, J.R.; Burkhalter, S.; Althausen, J.D.; Narumalani, S.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1993-12-31

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a 78,000 ha Department of Energy (DOE) facility that borders the Savannah River in the south-west portion of South Carolina. It includes a 3,800 ha cypress-tupelo swamp where commercial lumbering activities took place prior to the purchase of the land by the federal government in 1951. Since then, the DOE commenced nuclear production operations which resulted in the release of thermal effluent into the streams entering the Savannah River swamp system. The thermal effluent also had an impact on the swamp through the creation of sedimentation deltas. The purpose of this research is to identify areas of anthropogenic impact on the swamp and to delineate any areas that may still be considered pristine. Large-scale historical aerial photography of the swamp for 1938, 1943, 1951, and 1973 were photo-interpreted and used to develop a geographic information system (GIS) database. Logging features such as haul lines, drag points, harvest areas and roads were identified from black-and-white aerial photographs (1938-1973) and converted into a digital format. Sediment deltas were interpreted from 1976, 1981 and 1988 color aerial photography. Geometric transformations and GIS data analysis operations were performed to delineate areas impacted by man`s activities over the 48-year time period. Only 1391 ha of swamp can still can be considered pristine. Approximately 63% of the swamp has been altered from its original state, either by logging practices or the effects of sediment loading from thermal effluent. This method of mapping the pristine areas of the swamp allows SRS environmental scientists the opportunity to have a priori knowledge about undisturbed swamp forest environments, which they may use as a baseline for restoration or wetland mitigation projects.

  15. The INGV photos on Flickr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anzidei, Marco; Felli, Concetta; D'Addezio, Giuliana

    2015-04-01

    In May 2012, right after the M=5.9 Emilia earthquake, was launched the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) photographic gallery on Flickr (https://www.flickr.com/photos/ingv/), to improve the INGV communication strategy. The main goals of this initiative were to inform society of the main ongoing research activities, new scientific discoveries, seismic, volcanic and environmental monitoring and key events at INGV. Specifically, to communicate through photos new results of scientific research in seismology, volcanology and environment, to enhance awareness of the earth sciences and related natural hazard in society. At this time, after about two and a half years from the beginning, have been published about 550 downloadable original photos on Flickr, collected in 45 albums. These were all shot by INGV researchers, technologists and technicians, during field surveys, seismic or volcanic emergencies or key events. Besides the INGV seismic and volcanic monitoring centers, photos document the effects of (i) main recent earthquakes in Italy; (ii) main volcanic eruptions in Italy and worldwide, (iii) Mediterranean sea and ocean tsunamis; (iv) environmental changes and monitoring activities and finally (vi) main events at INGV. Presently, the total number of views is over 2.277.000 with main peaks often in relationships with relevant Italian or worldwide earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. The most popular Photo (San Carlo, Emilia earthquake) has been viewed more than 56,000 times. Because each photo includes a brief scientific description and often is linked to press communicates launched by the INGV press office and to geophysical and geological publications, we believe that this initiative has increased people's awareness of the INGV activity and its role in society, contributing to the scientific outreach of researcher's work. .

  16. Air Photo Analysis, Photo Interpretation Logic, and Feature Extraction,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    direction. Of the dune formations, * they are likely to have the most coarse particle-size distribution. Moderate winds are associated with barchane dunes...broadleaf shrubland, cereal grain crop, interstate, truss bridge, barchane hill, windblown silt Composition mixed hardwood forest, cement concrete i 2...mudflows, and tears; certain landforms that are direct indicators of materials or conditions ( barchan dunes, drumlins, colluvial slopes, etc.); and some

  17. Complete Photo-production Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    D'Angelo, A.; Bartalini, O.; Fantini, A.; Schaerf, C.; Vegna, V.; Ardashev, K.; Bade, C.; Hicks, K.; Kizilgul, S.; Lucas, M.; Mahon, J.; Bellini, V.; Blecher, M.; Bocquet, J.-P.; Lleres, A.; Rebreyend, D.; Capogni, M.; Caracappa, A.; Kistner, O. C.; Miceli, L.

    2011-10-24

    The extraction of resonance parameters from meson photo-reaction data is a challenging effort, that would greatly benefit from the availability of several polarization observables, measured for each reaction channel on both proton and neutron targets. In the aim of obtaining such complete experiments, polarized photon beams and targets have been developed at facilities, worldwide. We report on the latest results from the LEGS and GRAAL collaborations, providing single and double polarization measurements on pseudo-scalar meson photo-production from the nucleon.

  18. Microprobe sampling--photo ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry for in situ chemical analysis of pyrolysis and combustion gases: examination of the thermo-chemical processes within a burning cigarette.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Romy; Streibel, Thorsten; Liu, Chuan; McAdam, Kevin; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2012-02-10

    A microprobe sampling device (μ-probe) has been developed for in situ on-line photo ionization mass spectrometric analysis of volatile chemical species formed within objects consisting of organic matter during thermal processing. With this approach the chemical signature occurring during heating, pyrolysis, combustion, roasting and charring of organic material within burning objects such as burning fuel particles (e.g., biomass or coal pieces), lit cigarettes or thermally processed food products (e.g., roasting of coffee beans) can be investigated. Due to its dynamic changes between combustion and pyrolysis phases the cigarette smoking process is particularly interesting and has been chosen as first application. For this investigation the tip of the μ-probe is inserted directly into the tobacco rod and volatile organic compounds from inside the burning cigarette are extracted and real-time analyzed as the glowing front (or coal) approaches and passes the μ-probe sampling position. The combination of micro-sampling with photo ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PI-TOFMS) allows on-line intrapuff-resolved analysis of species formation inside a burning cigarette. Monitoring volatile smoke compounds during cigarette puffing and smoldering cycles in this way provides unparalleled insights into formation mechanisms and their time-dependent change. Using this technique the changes from pyrolysis conditions to combustion conditions inside the coal of a cigarette could be observed directly. A comparative analysis of species formation within a burning Kentucky 2R4F reference cigarette with μ-probe analysis reveals different patterns and behaviors for nicotine, and a range of semi-volatile aromatic and aliphatic species.

  19. Mapping trees outside forests using high-resolution aerial imagery: a comparison of pixel- and object-based classification approaches.

    PubMed

    Meneguzzo, Dacia M; Liknes, Greg C; Nelson, Mark D

    2013-08-01

    Discrete trees and small groups of trees in nonforest settings are considered an essential resource around the world and are collectively referred to as trees outside forests (ToF). ToF provide important functions across the landscape, such as protecting soil and water resources, providing wildlife habitat, and improving farmstead energy efficiency and aesthetics. Despite the significance of ToF, forest and other natural resource inventory programs and geospatial land cover datasets that are available at a national scale do not include comprehensive information regarding ToF in the United States. Additional ground-based data collection and acquisition of specialized imagery to inventory these resources are expensive alternatives. As a potential solution, we identified two remote sensing-based approaches that use free high-resolution aerial imagery from the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) to map all tree cover in an agriculturally dominant landscape. We compared the results obtained using an unsupervised per-pixel classifier (independent component analysis-[ICA]) and an object-based image analysis (OBIA) procedure in Steele County, Minnesota, USA. Three types of accuracy assessments were used to evaluate how each method performed in terms of: (1) producing a county-level estimate of total tree-covered area, (2) correctly locating tree cover on the ground, and (3) how tree cover patch metrics computed from the classified outputs compared to those delineated by a human photo interpreter. Both approaches were found to be viable for mapping tree cover over a broad spatial extent and could serve to supplement ground-based inventory data. The ICA approach produced an estimate of total tree cover more similar to the photo-interpreted result, but the output from the OBIA method was more realistic in terms of describing the actual observed spatial pattern of tree cover.

  20. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Master Plan, 1993.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    PHOTOGRAPH THIS SHEET AND RETURN To DTIC-FDAC DTIC 70A DOCUMENT PROCESSMING I~ SlEW -, mmllamm LOAN DOCUMENT DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES (UAV...11 B. Program Executive Officer for Cruise Missiles 3 and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (PEO[CU...69 I ! I I ivI -- UAV 1993 MASTER PLAN U I EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 3 A. OVERVIEW Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)* can make significant

  1. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Young, Charles E.; Pellin, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting for quantitative analysis ions of selected atomic components of a sample. A lens system is configured to provide a slowly diminishing field region for a volume containing the selected atomic components, enabling accurate energy analysis of ions generated in the slowly diminishing field region. The lens system also enables focusing on a sample of a charged particle beam, such as an ion beam, along a path length perpendicular to the sample and extraction of the charged particles along a path length also perpendicular to the sample. Improvement of signal to noise ratio is achieved by laser excitation of ions to selected autoionization states before carrying out quantitative analysis. Accurate energy analysis of energetic charged particles is assured by using a preselected resistive thick film configuration disposed on an insulator substrate for generating predetermined electric field boundary conditions to achieve for analysis the required electric field potential. The spectrometer also is applicable in the fields of SIMS, ISS and electron spectroscopy.

  2. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

    1989-08-08

    A method and apparatus are described for extracting for quantitative analysis ions of selected atomic components of a sample. A lens system is configured to provide a slowly diminishing field region for a volume containing the selected atomic components, enabling accurate energy analysis of ions generated in the slowly diminishing field region. The lens system also enables focusing on a sample of a charged particle beam, such as an ion beam, along a path length perpendicular to the sample and extraction of the charged particles along a path length also perpendicular to the sample. Improvement of signal to noise ratio is achieved by laser excitation of ions to selected auto-ionization states before carrying out quantitative analysis. Accurate energy analysis of energetic charged particles is assured by using a preselected resistive thick film configuration disposed on an insulator substrate for generating predetermined electric field boundary conditions to achieve for analysis the required electric field potential. The spectrometer also is applicable in the fields of SIMS, ISS and electron spectroscopy. 8 figs.

  3. A Photo Contest: Everybody Wins!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Cathryn

    1996-01-01

    Profiles the winners of a national photography contest for students who are deaf and includes the prize-winning photographs. Information is provided on how to sponsor a photography contest, including choosing the theme, size range, contestants, and timelines for exhibition. Ways to have the photos judged and exhibited are also addressed. (CR)

  4. Low Cost Surveying Using AN Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, M.; Agüera, F.; Carvajal, F.

    2013-08-01

    Traditional manned airborne surveys are usually expensive and the resolution of the acquired images is often limited. The main advantage of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) system acting as a photogrammetric sensor platform over more traditional manned airborne system is the high flexibility that allows image acquisition from unconventional viewpoints, the low cost in comparison with classical aerial photogrammetry and the high resolution images obtained. Nowadays there is a necessity for surveying small areas and in these cases, it is not economical the use of normal large format aerial or metric cameras to acquire aerial photos, therefore, the use of UAV platforms can be very suitable. Also the large availability of digital cameras has strongly enhanced the capabilities of UAVs. The use of digital non metric cameras together with the UAV could be used for multiple applications such as aerial surveys, GIS, wildfire mapping, stability of landslides, crop monitoring, etc. The aim of this work was to develop a low cost and accurate methodology in the production of orthophotos and Digital Elevation Models (DEM). The study was conducted in the province of Almeria, south of Spain. The photogrammetric flight had an altitude of 50 m over ground, covering an area of 5.000 m2 approximately. The UAV used in this work was the md4-200, which is an electronic battery powered quadrocopter UAV developed by Microdrones GmbH, Germany. It had on-board a Pextax Optio A40 digital non metric camera with 12 Megapixels. It features a 3x optical zoom lens with a focal range covering angles of view equivalent to those of 37-111 mm lens in 35 mm format. The quadrocopter can be programmed to follow a route defined by several waypoints and actions and it has the ability for vertical take off and landing. Proper flight geometry during image acquisition is essential in order to minimize the number of photographs, avoid areas without a good coverage and make the overlaps homogeneous. The flight

  5. Feasibility of determining flat roof heat losses using aerial thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, R. L.; Jack, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The utility of aerial thermography for determining rooftop heat losses was investigated experimentally using several completely instrumented test roofs with known thermal resistances. Actual rooftop heat losses were obtained both from in-situ instrumentation and aerial thermography obtained from overflights at an altitude of 305 m. In general, the remotely determined roof surface temperatures agreed very well with those obtained from ground measurements. The roof heat losses calculated using the remotely determined roof temperature agreed to within 17% of those calculated from 1/R delta T using ground measurements. However, this agreement may be fortuitous since the convective component of the heat loss is sensitive to small changes in roof temperature and to the average heat transfer coefficient used, whereas the radiative component is less sensitive. This, at this time, it is felt that an acceptable quantitative determination of roof heat losses using aerial thermography is only feasible when the convective term is accurately known or minimized. The sensitivity of the heat loss determination to environmental conditions was also evaluated. The analysis showed that the most reliable quantitative heat loss determinations can probably be obtained from aerial thermography taken under conditions of total cloud cover with low wind speeds and at low ambient temperatures.

  6. Processed 1938 aerial photography for selected areas of the lower Colorado River, southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norman, Laura M.; Gishey, Michael; Gass, Leila; Yanites, Brian; Pfeifer, Edwin; Simms, Ron; Ahlbrandt, Ray

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiated a study of the Lower Colorado River to derive temporal-change characteristics from the predam period to the present. In this report, we present summary information on accomplishments under a USGS task for the Department of the Interior's Landscapes in the West project. We discuss our preliminary results in compiling a digital database of geospatial information on the Lower Colorado River and acquisition of data products, and present a geospatial digital dataset of 1938 aerial photography of the river valley. The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (BOR)'s, Resources Management Office in Boulder City, Nev., provided historical aerial photographs of the river valley from the Hoover Dam to the United States-Mexican border, with some exclusions. USGS authors scanned and mosaicked the photographs, registered the photo mosaics, and created metadata describing each mosaic series, all 15 of which are presented here.

  7. The use of photo-mosaics, bathymetry and sensor data into geographic information system for site description and faunal distribution analysis at the Menez Gwen Hydrothermal vent field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcon, Y.; Sahling, H.; Bohrmann, G.

    2012-04-01

    The Menez Gwen hydrothermal vent is located on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at a depth of about 800m. Although it has been the focus of several expeditions and studies, the sites of active venting at Menez Gwen are still under described, and it is not possible to get a global picture of the sites from the published data. Exploration of deep-sea environments is commonly performed using remotely operated vehicles (ROV) equipped with sensors, cameras and powerful lights. But strong attenuation of light in the deep-sea constrains visual surveys to be carried out from a few meters only above the seafloor, thus limiting the extent of the field of view. Moreover, ROV-mounted positioning systems usually lack accuracy and cannot be relied on for accurate relative positioning of sensor measurements, samplings, and features of interest. Such limitations are hindrances for many applications. In particular, site description or mapping of deep-sea benthic fauna over an area of study usually requires lengthy surveys, and reliability of navigation data becomes a major issue. Also, studying small-scale spatial variations of a physicochemical parameter needs positions of sensor measurements or samplings to be known precisely. To overcome this problem, maps of the seafloor can be generated in the form of geo-referenced video- or photo-mosaics. Mosaics are constructed by assembling overlapping images together into a larger image of the scene. To reduce the effects of drift in the navigation data, the construction of the mosaics uses robust feature detection and mapping capabilities to precisely relate consecutive images together. After geo-referencing in a Geographic Information System (GIS), points of measurements and sampling can be accurately pinpointed onto the mosaics to allow for spatial analyses. During cruise M82/3 to the Menez Gwen hydrothermal vent system, high-resolution photo-mosaics of several sites of hydrothermal activity were constructed and geo-referenced into GIS systems

  8. Collecting Inexpensive High Resolution Aerial and Stereo Images of Small- to Mid-Scale Geomorphic and Tectonic Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheelwright, R. J.; White, W. S.; Willis, J. B.

    2010-12-01

    Methods for collecting accurate, mm- to cm-scale stereoscopic aerial imagery of both small- and mid-scale geomorphic features are developed for a one-time cost of under $1500. High resolution aerial images are valuable for documenting and analyzing small- to mid-scale geomorphic and tectonic features. However, collecting images of mid-scale features such as landslides, rock glaciers, fault scarps, and cinder cones is expensive and makes studies that rely on high resolution repeat imagery prohibitive for undergraduate geology departments with limited budgets. In addition to cost, collecting images of smaller scale geomorphic features such as gravel bars is often impeded by overhanging vegetation or other features in the immediate environment that make impractical the collection of aerial images using standard airborne techniques. The methods provide high resolution stereo photos suitable for image processing and stereographic analysis; the images are potentially suitable for change analyses, velocity tracking, and construction of lidar-resolution digital elevation models. We developed two techniques. The technique suitable for small-scale features (such as gravel bars) utilizes two Nikon D3000 digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) cameras attached to a system of poles that suspends the cameras at a height of 4 meters with a variable camera separation of 0.6 to 0.9 m. The poles are oriented such that they do not appear in the photographs. The cameras are simultaneously remotely activated to collect stereo pairs at a resolution of 64 pixels/cm2 (pixel length is 1.2 mm). Ground control on the images is provided by pegs placed 5 meters apart, GPS positioning, and a meter-stick included in each photograph. Initial photo data gathered of a gravel bar on the Henry’s Fork of the Snake River, north of Rexburg, Idaho is sharp and readily segmented using the MatLab-based CLASTS image processing algorithm. The technique developed for imaging mid-scale features (such as cinder

  9. Unmanned aerial vehicles in astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biondi, Federico; Magrin, Demetrio; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Farinato, Jacopo; Greggio, Davide; Dima, Marco; Gullieuszik, Marco; Bergomi, Maria; Carolo, Elena; Marafatto, Luca; Portaluri, Elisa

    2016-07-01

    In this work we discuss some options for using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for daylight alignment activities and maintenance of optical telescopes, relating them to a small numbers of parameters, and tracing which could be the schemes, requirements and benefits for employing them both at the stage of erection and maintenance. UAVs can easily reach the auto-collimation points of optical components of the next class of Extremely Large Telescopes. They can be equipped with tools for the measurement of the co-phasing, scattering, and reflectivity of segmented mirrors or environmental parameters like C2n and C2T to characterize the seeing during both the day and the night.

  10. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

    1989-12-26

    A charged particle spectrometer is described for performing ultrasensitive quantitative analysis of selected atomic components removed from a sample. Significant improvements in performing energy and angular refocusing spectroscopy are accomplished by means of a two dimensional structure for generating predetermined electromagnetic field boundary conditions. Both resonance and non-resonance ionization of selected neutral atomic components allow accumulation of increased chemical information. A multiplexed operation between a SIMS mode and a neutral atomic component ionization mode with EARTOF analysis enables comparison of chemical information from secondary ions and neutral atomic components removed from the sample. An electronic system is described for switching high level signals, such as SIMS signals, directly to a transient recorder and through a charge amplifier to the transient recorder for a low level signal pulse counting mode, such as for a neutral atomic component ionization mode. 12 figs.

  11. Photo ion spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Young, Charles E.; Pellin, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    A charged particle spectrometer for performing ultrasensitive quantitative analysis of selected atomic components removed from a sample. Significant improvements in performing energy and angular refocusing spectroscopy are accomplished by means of a two dimensional structure for generating predetermined electromagnetic field boundary conditions. Both resonance and non-resonance ionization of selected neutral atomic components allow accumulation of increased chemical information. A multiplexed operation between a SIMS mode and a neutral atomic component ionization mode with EARTOF analysis enables comparison of chemical information from secondary ions and neutral atomic components removed from the sample. An electronic system is described for switching high level signals, such as SIMS signals, directly to a transient recorder and through a charge amplifier to the transient recorder for a low level signal pulse counting mode, such as for a neutral atomic component ionization mode.

  12. Face photo-sketch synthesis and recognition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaogang; Tang, Xiaoou

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel face photo-sketch synthesis and recognition method using a multiscale Markov Random Fields (MRF) model. Our system has three components: 1) given a face photo, synthesizing a sketch drawing; 2) given a face sketch drawing, synthesizing a photo; and 3) searching for face photos in the database based on a query sketch drawn by an artist. It has useful applications for both digital entertainment and law enforcement. We assume that faces to be studied are in a frontal pose, with normal lighting and neutral expression, and have no occlusions. To synthesize sketch/photo images, the face region is divided into overlapping patches for learning. The size of the patches decides the scale of local face structures to be learned. From a training set which contains photo-sketch pairs, the joint photo-sketch model is learned at multiple scales using a multiscale MRF model. By transforming a face photo to a sketch (or transforming a sketch to a photo), the difference between photos and sketches is significantly reduced, thus allowing effective matching between the two in face sketch recognition. After the photo-sketch transformation, in principle, most of the proposed face photo recognition approaches can be applied to face sketch recognition in a straightforward way. Extensive experiments are conducted on a face sketch database including 606 faces, which can be downloaded from our Web site (http://mmlab.ie.cuhk.edu.hk/facesketch.html).

  13. Atomic Scale Analysis of the Enhanced Electro- and Photo-Catalytic Activity in High-Index Faceted Porous NiO Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Meng; Han, Ali; Wang, Xijun; Ro, Yun Goo; Kargar, Alireza; Lin, Yue; Guo, Hua; Du, Pingwu; Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Jingyu; Dayeh, Shadi A.; Xiang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Catalysts play a significant role in clean renewable hydrogen fuel generation through water splitting reaction as the surface of most semiconductors proper for water splitting has poor performance for hydrogen gas evolution. The catalytic performance strongly depends on the atomic arrangement at the surface, which necessitates the correlation of the surface structure to the catalytic activity in well-controlled catalyst surfaces. Herein, we report a novel catalytic performance of simple-synthesized porous NiO nanowires (NWs) as catalyst/co-catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The correlation of catalytic activity and atomic/surface structure is investigated by detailed high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) exhibiting a strong dependence of NiO NW photo- and electrocatalytic HER performance on the density of exposed high-index-facet (HIF) atoms, which corroborates with theoretical calculations. Significantly, the optimized porous NiO NWs offer long-term electrocatalytic stability of over one day and 45 times higher photocatalytic hydrogen production compared to commercial NiO nanoparticles. Our results open new perspectives in the search for the development of structurally stable and chemically active semiconductor-based catalysts for cost-effective and efficient hydrogen fuel production at large scale. PMID:25707903

  14. Detection of Aspens Using High Resolution Aerial Laser Scanning Data and Digital Aerial Images

    PubMed Central

    Säynäjoki, Raita; Packalén, Petteri; Maltamo, Matti; Vehmas, Mikko; Eerikäinen, Kalle

    2008-01-01

    The aim was to use high resolution Aerial Laser Scanning (ALS) data and aerial images to detect European aspen (Populus tremula L.) from among other deciduous trees. The field data consisted of 14 sample plots of 30 m × 30 m size located in the Koli National Park in the North Karelia, Eastern Finland. A Canopy Height Model (CHM) was interpolated from the ALS data with a pulse density of 3.86/m2, low-pass filtered using Height-Based Filtering (HBF) and binarized to create the mask needed to separate the ground pixels from the canopy pixels within individual areas. Watershed segmentation was applied to the low-pass filtered CHM in order to create preliminary canopy segments, from which the non-canopy elements were extracted to obtain the final canopy segmentation, i.e. the ground mask was analysed against the canopy mask. A manual classification of aerial images was employed to separate the canopy segments of deciduous trees from those of coniferous trees. Finally, linear discriminant analysis was applied to the correctly classified canopy segments of deciduous trees to classify them into segments belonging to aspen and those belonging to other deciduous trees. The independent variables used in the classification were obtained from the first pulse ALS point data. The accuracy of discrimination between aspen and other deciduous trees was 78.6%. The independent variables in the classification function were the proportion of vegetation hits, the standard deviation of in pulse heights, accumulated intensity at the 90th percentile and the proportion of laser points reflected at the 60th height percentile. The accuracy of classification corresponded to the validation results of earlier ALS-based studies on the classification of individual deciduous trees to tree species. PMID:27873799

  15. Photogrammetry and photo interpretation applied to analyses of cloud cover, cloud type, and cloud motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, P. A.

    1972-01-01

    A determination was made of the areal extent of terrain obscured by clouds and cloud shadows on a portion of an Apollo 9 photograph at the instant of exposure. This photogrammetrically determined area was then compared to the cloud coverage reported by surface weather observers at approximately the same time and location, as a check on result quality. Stereograms prepared from Apollo 9 vertical photographs, illustrating various percentages of cloud coverage, are presented to help provide a quantitative appreciation of the degradation of terrain photography by clouds and their attendant shadows. A scheme, developed for the U.S. Navy, utilizing pattern recognition techniques for determining cloud motion from sequences of satellite photographs, is summarized. Clouds, turbulence, haze, and solar altitude, four elements of our natural environment which affect aerial photographic missions, are each discussed in terms of their effects on imagery obtained by aerial photography. Data of a type useful to aerial photographic mission planners, expressing photographic ground coverage in terms of flying height above terrain and camera focal length, for a standard aerial photograph format, are provided. Two oblique orbital photographs taken during the Apollo 9 flight are shown, and photo-interpretations, discussing the cloud types imaged and certain visible geographical features, are provided.

  16. Approximate Dynamic Programming and Aerial Refueling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    were values derived from “AFPAM 10-1403, AIR MOBILITY PLANNING FACTORS” used by the US Air Force when making gross calculations of aerial refueling...Aerial Refueling. U.S. Centennial of Flight Commision. centennialofflight.gov/essay/EvolutionofT echnology /refueling?Tech22.htm. 20003. 5 [6] DOD Needs

  17. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire. (a) This account shall include the original cost of bare line wire and other material used in...

  18. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire. (a) This account shall include the original cost of bare line wire and other material used in...

  19. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire. (a) This account shall include the original cost of bare line wire and other material used in...

  20. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire. (a) This account shall include the original cost of bare line wire and other material used in...

  1. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire. (a) This account shall include the original cost of bare line wire and other material used in...

  2. BOREAS Level-0 ER-2 Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominquez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), the ER-2 and other aerial photography was collected to provide finely detailed and spatially extensive documentation of the condition of the primary study sites. The ER-2 aerial photography consists of color-IR transparencies collected during flights in 1994 and 1996 over the study areas.

  3. Astronomical Methods in Aerial Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beij, K Hilding

    1925-01-01

    The astronomical method of determining position is universally used in marine navigation and may also be of service in aerial navigation. The practical application of the method, however, must be modified and adapted to conform to the requirements of aviation. Much of this work of adaptation has already been accomplished, but being scattered through various technical journals in a number of languages, is not readily available. This report is for the purpose of collecting under one cover such previous work as appears to be of value to the aerial navigator, comparing instruments and methods, indicating the best practice, and suggesting future developments. The various methods of determining position and their application and value are outlined, and a brief resume of the theory of the astronomical method is given. Observation instruments are described in detail. A complete discussion of the reduction of observations follows, including a rapid method of finding position from the altitudes of two stars. Maps and map cases are briefly considered. A bibliography of the subject is appended.

  4. Establishment of an in silico phototoxicity prediction method by combining descriptors related to photo-absorption and photo-reaction.

    PubMed

    Haranosono, Yu; Kurata, Masaaki; Sakaki, Hideyuki

    2014-08-01

    One of the mechanisms of phototoxicity is photo-reaction, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation following photo-absorption. We focused on ROS generation and photo-absorption as key-steps, because these key-steps are able to be described by photochemical properties, and these properties are dependent on chemical structure. Photo-reactivity of a compound is described by HOMO-LUMO Gap (HLG), generally. Herein, we showed that HLG can be used as a descriptor of the generation of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, the maximum-conjugated π electron number (PENMC), which we found as a descriptor of photo-absorption, could also predict in vitro phototoxicity. Each descriptor could predict in vitro phototoxicity with 70.0% concordance, but there was un-predicted area found (gray zone). Interestingly, some compounds in each gray zone were not common, indicating that the combination of two descriptors could improve prediction potential. We reset the cut-off lines to define positive zone, negative zone and gray zone for each descriptor. Thereby we overlapped HLG and PENMC in a graph, and divided the total area to nine zones with cut-off lines of each descriptor. The rules to prediction were decided to achieve the best concordance, and the concordances were improved up to 82.8% for self-validation, 81.6% for cross-validation. We found common properties among false positive or negative compounds, photo-reactive structure and photo-allergenic, respectively. In addition, our method could be adapted to compounds rich in structural diversity using only chemical structure without any statistical analysis and complicated calculation.

  5. A novel aerosol mass spectrometric approach - Analysis of the organic molecular signature of PM by coupling of thermal EC/OC-carbon analysis to photo-ionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, R.; Grabowski, J.; Streibel, T.; Sklorz, M.; Chow, J.

    2012-12-01

    Carbonaceous material in airborne particulate matter (PM) is of increasing interest e.g. due to its adverse health effects and its potential influence on the climate. Its analytical assessment on a molecular level is still very challenging. Hence, analysis of carbonaceous fractions for many studies is often solely carried out by determining sum parameters such as the overall content of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) as well as the total carbon content, TC (sum of OC and EC). The used thermal procedure, however, allows getting additional interesting information: By defining different thermal OC fractions (i.e. temperature steps) also information on the refractory properties of the carbonaceous material is obtained. In this context it is particularly interesting to investigate the release and formation behaviors of the molecular species responsible for the different OC and EC fractions. Thus after initial promising results of pre-studies [1,2] in the current work an EC/OC carbon analyzer (Model DRI 2000) and a homebuilt photo-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PI-TOFMS) were hyphenated and applied to investigate individual organic compounds especially from the different OC fractions. The carbon analyzer enables the stepwise heating of PM loaded filter samples and provides the sum values of the "carbon" release ("Improve protocol" [2]: OC1 - 120 °C, OC2 - 250°C, OC3 - 450°C OC4 - 550°C). With the on-line coupled PI-TOFMS evolved organic compounds, as released during the thermal program, are detectable in real time. This is possible by MS with soft photo ionization methods (SPI - single photon ionization and REMPI - resonance-enhanced multi photon ionization). Soft ionization suppresses fragmentation upon the ionization step and generates molecular signatures in the MS. The EC/OC-analyzer-PI-TOFMS instrument was applied to several types of PM samples, such as ambient aerosol, emission samples (gasoline/diesel car, wood combustion) or

  6. The photo-instrument as a health care intervention.

    PubMed

    Sitvast, J E; Abma, T A

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study is to describe how hermeneutic photography and one application of hermeneutic photography in particular, namely the photo-instrument, can be used as a health care intervention that fosters meaning (re-)construction of mental illness experiences. Studies into the ways how patients construct meaning in illness narratives indicate that aesthetic expressions of experiences may play an important role in meaning making and sharing. The study is part of a larger research project devoted to understanding the photostories that result from groups of psychiatric patients using the photo-instrument. Within a focused ethnography approach we employed a qualitative design of a single case study. Text analysis of photostories was combined with observational data. Data were analyzed using hermeneutic theory. Participant observations were used for triangulation and complementarity. The interaction and collaboration between health care professionals and patients in the context of a photo group emerged as core concept that underlies the photo-instrument. The interaction triggered a reframing of meaning in the patient's illness narrative that offered new perspectives on positive identity growth. The role of visualizing meaning in images was found to lend a dynamic power to the process and triggered a dialectic between real life circumstances and imagination played out in the context of situated action. The findings suggest that a positive reframing of meaning in illness narratives is facilitated by the photo-instrument.

  7. GIS for mapping waterfowl density and distribution from aerial surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, W.I.; Stehn, R.A.; Balogh, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    We modified standard aerial survey data collection to obtain the geographic location for each waterfowl observation on surveys in Alaska during 1987-1993. Using transect navigation with CPS (global positioning system), data recording on continuously running tapes, and a computer data input program, we located observations with an average deviation along transects of 214 m. The method provided flexibility in survey design and data analysis. Although developed for geese nesting near the coast of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, the methods are widely applicable and were used on other waterfowl surveys in Alaska to map distribution and relative abundance of waterfowl. Accurate location data with GIS analysis and display may improve precision and usefulness of data from any aerial transect survey.

  8. Application of portable gas chromatography-photo ionization detector combined with headspace sampling for field analysis of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene in soils.

    PubMed

    Zhou, You-Ya; Yu, Ji-Fang; Yan, Zeng-Guang; Zhang, Chao-Yan; Xie, Ya-Bo; Ma, Li-Qiang; Gu, Qing-Bao; Li, Fa-Sheng

    2013-04-01

    A method based on headspace (HS) sampling coupling with portable gas chromatography (GC) with photo ionization detector (PID) was developed for rapid determination of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) in soils. Optimal conditions for HS gas sampling procedure were determined, and the influence of soil organic matter on the recovery of BTEX from soil was investigated using five representative Chinese soils. The results showed that the HS-portable-GC-PID method could be effectively operated at ambient temperature, and the addition of 15 ml of saturated NaCl solution in a 40-ml sampling vial and 60 s of shaking time for sample solution were optimum for the HS gas sampling procedure. The recoveries of each BTEX in soils ranged from 87.2 to 105.1 %, with relative standard deviations varying from 5.3 to 7.8 %. Good linearity was obtained for all BTEX compounds, and the detection limits were in the 0.1 to 0.8 μg kg(-1) range. Soil organic matter was identified as one of the principal elements that affect the HS gas sampling of BTEX in soils. The HS-portable-GC-PID method was successfully applied for field determination of benzene and toluene in soils of a former chemical plant in Jilin City, northeast China. Considering its satisfactory repeatability and reproducibility and particular suitability to be operated in ambient environment, HS sampling coupling with portable GC-PID is, therefore, recommended to be a suitable screening tool for rapid on-site determination of BTEX in soils.

  9. Photo-Healable Metallosupramolecular Polymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-09

    access to a wider variety of photo-healable coatings. (a) Papers published in peer-reviewed journals (N/A for none) Enter List of papers submitted or...published that acknowledge ARO support from the start of the project to the date of this printing. List the papers, including journal references, in the...Jeong J. Wie, John P. Swanson, Frederick L. Beyer, Michael E. Mackay, Stuart J. Rowan. Influence of Metal Ion and Polymer Core on the Melt Rheology of

  10. The Lee Harvey Oswald backyard photos: real or fake?

    PubMed

    Farid, Hany

    2009-01-01

    Ever since the assassination of US President Kennedy, numerous theories have circulated purporting that Lee Harvey Oswald, the accused assassin, acted as part of a larger criminal conspiracy. It has been suggested, for example, that incriminating photographs of Oswald were manipulated, and hence evidence of a broader plot. Specifically, it has been argued that the lighting and shadows in these photos are physically impossible. Because the visual system is often unable to reliably judge 3-D geometry and lighting, a detailed 3-D analysis of the Oswald photos to determine if claims of tampering are warranted.

  11. De novo regeneration of Scrophularia yoshimurae Yamazaki (Scrophulariaceae) and quantitative analysis of harpagoside, an iridoid glucoside, formed in aerial and underground parts of in vitro propagated and wild plants by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Sagare, A P; Kuo, C L; Chueh, F S; Tsay, H S

    2001-11-01

    A protocol for de novo regeneration and rapid micropropagation of Scrophularia yoshimurae (Scrophulariaceae) has been developed. Multiple shoot development was achieved by culturing the shoot-tip, leaf-base, stem-node and stem-internode explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 4.44 microM N6-benzyladenine (BA) and 1.07 microM alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Stem-node and shoot-tip explants showed the highest response (100%) followed by stem-internode (74.4%) and leaf-base (7.7%) explants. The shoots were multiplied by subculturing on the same medium used for shoot induction. Shoots were rooted on growth regulator-free MS basal medium and the plantlets were transplanted to soil and acclimatized in the growth chamber. The content of harpagoside, a quantitatively predominant iridoid glycoside, in different plant material was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The analysis revealed that the content of harpagoside in the aerial and underground parts of S. yoshimurae was significantly higher than the marketed crude drug (underground parts of Scrophularia ningpoensis).

  12. Multi-temporal image analysis of historical aerial photographs and recent satellite imagery reveals evolution of water body surface area and polygonal terrain morphology in Kobuk Valley National Park, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Necsoiu, Marius; Dinwiddie, Cynthia L.; Walter, Gary R.; Larsen, Amy; Stothoff, Stuart A.

    2013-06-01

    Multi-temporal image analysis of very-high-resolution historical aerial and recent satellite imagery of the Ahnewetut Wetlands in Kobuk Valley National Park, Alaska, revealed the nature of thaw lake and polygonal terrain evolution over a 54-year period of record comprising two 27-year intervals (1951-1978, 1978-2005). Using active-contouring-based change detection, high-precision orthorectification and co-registration and the normalized difference index, surface area expansion and contraction of 22 shallow water bodies, ranging in size from 0.09 to 179 ha, and the transition of ice-wedge polygons from a low- to a high-centered morphology were quantified. Total surface area decreased by only 0.4% during the first time interval, but decreased by 5.5% during the second time interval. Twelve water bodies (ten lakes and two ponds) were relatively stable with net surface area decreases of ≤10%, including four lakes that gained area during both time intervals, whereas ten water bodies (five lakes and five ponds) had surface area losses in excess of 10%, including two ponds that drained completely. Polygonal terrain remained relatively stable during the first time interval, but transformation of polygons from low- to high-centered was significant during the second time interval.

  13. Digital computer processing of peach orchard multispectral aerial photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    Several methods of analysis using digital computers applicable to digitized multispectral aerial photography, are described, with particular application to peach orchard test sites. This effort was stimulated by the recent premature death of peach trees in the Southeastern United States. The techniques discussed are: (1) correction of intensity variations by digital filtering, (2) automatic detection and enumeration of trees in five size categories, (3) determination of unhealthy foliage by infrared reflectances, and (4) four band multispectral classification into healthy and declining categories.

  14. AERIAL PHOTO INTERPRETATION FOR SITE CHARACTERIZATION, ENVIRONMENTAL PHOTOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION CENTER (EPIC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC) is a field station of the Landscape Ecology Branch (LEB), Environmental Sciences Division - Las Vegas, Office of Research and Development EPIC provides remote sensing technical support to help the Agency achieve its mult...

  15. Aerial photo shows smoke-laden and burned woods at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Smoke rising from the smoldering brush on Kennedy Space Center illustrates the hazardous fire conditions that exist throughout Central Florida. The site is between Kennedy Parkway North and the Indian River.

  16. Methodological Preliminaries to the Development of an Expert System for Aerial Photo Interpretation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    Barchan dunes 1f3.2.6.1 humid climate lf3.3 Loess plain lf3.3.1 Young 1f3.3.2 Old lf3.3.3 humid climate Landforms 4 Tundra landforms 1f4.1 Perennial...grass- land. forested 13.2.5.2 arid climate Implies barren 11f3.2.6 Barchan dunes distinct crescent shapes asymmetrical slopes broad ridges and horns

  17. Two neutron correlations in photo-fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, D. S.; Kosinov, O.; Forest, T.; Burggraf, J.; Stave, S.; Warren, G.; Starovoitova, V.

    2016-09-01

    A large body of experimental work has established the strong kinematical correlation between fission fragments and fission neutrons. Here, we report on the progress of investigations of the potential for strong two neutron correlations arising from the nearly back-to-back nature of the two fission fragments that emit these neutrons in the photo-fission process. In initial measurements, a pulsed electron linear accelerator was used to generate bremsstrahlung photons that impinged upon an actinide target, and the energy and opening angle distributions of coincident neutrons were measured using a large acceptance neutron detector array. A planned comprehensive set of measurements of two neutron correlations in the photo-fission of actinides is expected to shed light on several fundamental aspects of the fission process including the multiplicity distributions associated with the light and heavy fission fragments, the nuclear temperatures of the fission fragments, and the mass distribution of the fission fragments as a function of energy released. In addition to these measurements providing important nuclear data, the unique kinematics of fission and the resulting two neutron correlations have the potential to be the basis for a new tool to detect fissionable materials. A key technical challenge of this program arises from the need to perform coincidence measurements with a low duty factor, pulsed electron accelerator. This has motivated the construction of a large acceptance neutron detector array, and the development of data analysis techniques to directly measure uncorrelated two neutron backgrounds.

  18. Two neutron correlations in photo-fission

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, D. S.; Kosinov, O.; Forest, T.; Burggraf, J.; Stave, S.; Warren, G.; Starovoitova, V.

    2016-01-01

    A large body of experimental work has established the strong kinematical correlation between fission fragments and fission neutrons. Here, we report on the progress of investigations of the potential for strong two neutron correlations arising from the nearly back-to-back nature of the two fission fragments that emit these neutrons in the photo-fission process. In initial measurements, a pulsed electron linear accelerator was used to generate bremsstrahlung photons that impinged upon an actinide target, and the energy and opening angle distributions of coincident neutrons were measured using a large acceptance neutron detector array. A planned comprehensive set of measurements of two neutron correlations in the photo-fission of actinides is expected to shed light on several fundamental aspects of the fission process including the multiplicity distributions associated with the light and heavy fission fragments, the nuclear temperatures of the fission fragments, and the mass distribution of the fission fragments as a function of energy released. In addition to these measurements providing important nuclear data, the unique kinematics of fission and the resulting two neutron correlations have the potential to be the basis for a new tool to detect fissionable materials. A key technical challenge of this program arises from the need to perform coincidence measurements with a low duty factor, pulsed electron accelerator. This has motivated the construction of a large acceptance neutron detector array, and the development of data analysis techniques to directly measure uncorrelated two neutron backgrounds.

  19. Amphiphilic Imbalance and Stabilization of Block Copolymer Micelles on-Demand through Combinational Photo-Cleavage and Photo-Crosslinking.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Youpeng; Li, Guo; Liu, Zhaotie; Liu, Zhongwen; Jiang, Jinqiang

    2017-01-01

    An amphiphilic block copolymer of poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly((N-methacryloxy phthalimide)-co-(7-(4-vinyl-benzyloxyl)-4-methylcoumarin)) (PEO45 -b-P(MAPI36 -co-VBC4 )) is designed to improve the micellar stability during the photo-triggered release of hydrophobic cargoes. Analysis of absorption and emission spectra, solution transmittance, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy supports that polymer micelles of PEO45 -b-P(MAPI36 -co-VBC4 ) upon the combinational irradiation of 365 and 254 nm light can be solubilized through the photolysis of phthalimide esters and simultaneously crosslinked via the partially reversible photo-dimerization of coumarins. The photo-triggered release experiment shows that the leakage of doxorubicin molecules from crosslinked micelles can be predictably regulated by controlling the irradiation time of 365 and 254 nm light.

  20. MEMS Based Micro Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Niranjan; Köhler, Elof; Enoksson, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Designing a flapping wing insect robot requires understanding of insect flight mechanisms, wing kinematics and aerodynamic forces. These subsystems are interconnected and their dependence on one another affects the overall performance. Additionally it requires an artificial muscle like actuator and transmission to power the wings. Several kinds of actuators and mechanisms are candidates for this application with their own strengths and weaknesses. This article provides an overview of the insect scaled flight mechanism along with discussion of various methods to achieve the Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) flight. Ongoing projects in Chalmers is aimed at developing a low cost and low manufacturing time MAV. The MAV design considerations and design specifications are mentioned. The wings are manufactured using 3D printed carbon fiber and are under experimental study.

  1. COCOA: tracking in aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Saad; Shah, Mubarak

    2006-05-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are becoming a core intelligence asset for reconnaissance, surveillance and target tracking in urban and battlefield settings. In order to achieve the goal of automated tracking of objects in UAV videos we have developed a system called COCOA. It processes the video stream through number of stages. At first stage platform motion compensation is performed. Moving object detection is performed to detect the regions of interest from which object contours are extracted by performing a level set based segmentation. Finally blob based tracking is performed for each detected object. Global tracks are generated which are used for higher level processing. COCOA is customizable to different sensor resolutions and is capable of tracking targets as small as 100 pixels. It works seamlessly for both visible and thermal imaging modes. The system is implemented in Matlab and works in a batch mode.

  2. How To Obtain Aerial Photographs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) maintains an informational data base of aerial photographic coverage of the United States and its territories that dates back to the 1940?s. This information describes photographic projects from the USGS, other Federal, State, and local government agencies, and commercial firms. The pictures on this page show a part of a standard 9- by 9-inch photograph and the results obtained by enlarging the original photograph two and four times. Compare the size of the Qualcomm Stadium, Jack Murphy Field, in San Diego, Calif, and the adjacent parking lot and freeways shown at the different scales. USGS Earth Science Information Center (ESIC) representatives will assist you in locating and ordering photographs. Please submit the completed checklist and a marked map showing your area of interest to any ESIC.

  3. Automatic Orientation and Mosaicking of Archived Aerial Photography Using Structure from Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, J. A.

    2016-03-01

    Aerial photography has been acquired regularly for topographic mapping since the decade of 1930. In Portugal there are several archives of aerial photos in national mapping institutes, as well as in local authorities, containing a total of nearly one hundred thousand photographs, mainly from the 1940s, 1950s and some from 1930s. These data sets provide important information about the evolution of the territory, for environment and agricultural studies, land planning, and many other examples. There is an interest in making these aerial coverages available in the form of orthorectified mosaics for integration in a GIS. The orthorectification of old photographs may pose several difficulties. Required data about the camera and lens system used, such as the focal distance, fiducial marks coordinates or distortion parameters may not be available, making it difficult to process these data in conventional photogrammetric software. This paper describes an essentially automatic methodology for orientation, orthorectification and mosaic composition of blocks of old aerial photographs, using Agisoft Photoscan structure from motion software. The operation sequence is similar to the processing of UAV imagery. The method was applied to photographs from 1947 and 1958, provided by the Portuguese Army Geographic Institute. The orientation was done with GCPs collected from recent orthophototos and topographic maps. This may be a difficult task, especially in urban areas that went through many changes. Residuals were in general below 1 meter. The agreement of the orthomosaics with recent orthophotos and GIS vector data was in general very good. The process is relatively fast and automatic, and can be considered in the processing of full coverages of old aerial photographs.

  4. Unmanned aerial survey of elephants.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Cédric; Lejeune, Philippe; Lisein, Jonathan; Sawadogo, Prosper; Bouché, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The use of a UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System) was tested to survey large mammals in the Nazinga Game Ranch in the south of Burkina Faso. The Gatewing ×100™ equipped with a Ricoh GR III camera was used to test animal reaction as the UAS passed, and visibility on the images. No reaction was recorded as the UAS passed at a height of 100 m. Observations, made on a set of more than 7000 images, revealed that only elephants (Loxodonta africana) were easily visible while medium and small sized mammals were not. The easy observation of elephants allows experts to enumerate them on images acquired at a height of 100 m. We, therefore, implemented an aerial strip sample count along transects used for the annual wildlife foot count. A total of 34 elephants were recorded on 4 transects, each overflown twice. The elephant density was estimated at 2.47 elephants/km(2) with a coefficient of variation (CV%) of 36.10%. The main drawback of our UAS was its low autonomy (45 min). Increased endurance of small UAS is required to replace manned aircraft survey of large areas (about 1000 km of transect per day vs 40 km for our UAS). The monitoring strategy should be adapted according to the sampling plan. Also, the UAS is as expensive as a second-hand light aircraft. However the logistic and flight implementation are easier, the running costs are lower and its use is safer. Technological evolution will make civil UAS more efficient, allowing them to compete with light aircraft for aerial wildlife surveys.

  5. Unmanned Aerial Survey of Elephants

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Cédric; Lejeune, Philippe; Lisein, Jonathan; Sawadogo, Prosper; Bouché, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The use of a UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System) was tested to survey large mammals in the Nazinga Game Ranch in the south of Burkina Faso. The Gatewing ×100™ equipped with a Ricoh GR III camera was used to test animal reaction as the UAS passed, and visibility on the images. No reaction was recorded as the UAS passed at a height of 100 m. Observations, made on a set of more than 7000 images, revealed that only elephants (Loxodonta africana) were easily visible while medium and small sized mammals were not. The easy observation of elephants allows experts to enumerate them on images acquired at a height of 100 m. We, therefore, implemented an aerial strip sample count along transects used for the annual wildlife foot count. A total of 34 elephants were recorded on 4 transects, each overflown twice. The elephant density was estimated at 2.47 elephants/km2 with a coefficient of variation (CV%) of 36.10%. The main drawback of our UAS was its low autonomy (45 min). Increased endurance of small UAS is required to replace manned aircraft survey of large areas (about 1000 km of transect per day vs 40 km for our UAS). The monitoring strategy should be adapted according to the sampling plan. Also, the UAS is as expensive as a second-hand light aircraft. However the logistic and flight implementation are easier, the running costs are lower and its use is safer. Technological evolution will make civil UAS more efficient, allowing them to compete with light aircraft for aerial wildlife surveys. PMID:23405088

  6. The DOE ARM Aerial Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Hubbe, John M.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Mei, Fan; Chand, Duli; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Andrews, Elisabeth; Biraud, S.; McFarquhar, Greg

    2014-05-01

    The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a climate research user facility operating stationary ground sites that provide long-term measurements of climate relevant properties, mobile ground- and ship-based facilities to conduct shorter field campaigns (6-12 months), and the ARM Aerial Facility (AAF). The airborne observations acquired by the AAF enhance the surface-based ARM measurements by providing high-resolution in-situ measurements for process understanding, retrieval-algorithm development, and model evaluation that are not possible using ground- or satellite-based techniques. Several ARM aerial efforts were consolidated into the AAF in 2006. With the exception of a small aircraft used for routine measurements of aerosols and carbon cycle gases, AAF at the time had no dedicated aircraft and only a small number of instruments at its disposal. In this "virtual hangar" mode, AAF successfully carried out several missions contracting with organizations and investigators who provided their research aircraft and instrumentation. In 2009, AAF started managing operations of the Battelle-owned Gulfstream I (G-1) large twin-turboprop research aircraft. Furthermore, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided funding for the procurement of over twenty new instruments to be used aboard the G-1 and other AAF virtual-hangar aircraft. AAF now executes missions in the virtual- and real-hangar mode producing freely available datasets for studying aerosol, cloud, and radiative processes in the atmosphere. AAF is also engaged in the maturation and testing of newly developed airborne sensors to help foster the next generation of airborne instruments.

  7. Mapping forest canopy gaps using air-photo interpretation and ground surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fox, T.J.; Knutson, M.G.; Hines, R.K.

    2000-01-01

    Canopy gaps are important structural components of forested habitats for many wildlife species. Recent improvements in the spatial accuracy of geographic information system tools facilitate accurate mapping of small canopy features such as gaps. We compared canopy-gap maps generated using ground survey methods with those derived from air-photo interpretation. We found that maps created from high-resolution air photos were more accurate than those created from ground surveys. Errors of omission were 25.6% for the ground-survey method and 4.7% for the air-photo method. One variable of inter est in songbird research is the distance from nests to gap edges. Distances from real and simulated nests to gap edges were longer using the ground-survey maps versus the air-photo maps, indicating that gap omission could potentially bias the assessment of spatial relationships. If research or management goals require location and size of canopy gaps and specific information about vegetation structure, we recommend a 2-fold approach. First, canopy gaps can be located and the perimeters defined using 1:15,000-scale or larger aerial photographs and the methods we describe. Mapped gaps can then be field-surveyed to obtain detailed vegetation data.

  8. Long-term monitoring of a large landslide by using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, Gerald; Schraml, Klaus; Mansberger, Reinfried; Hübl, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    Currently UAVs become more and more important in various scientific areas, including forestry, precision farming, archaeology and hydrology. Using these drones in natural hazards research enables a completely new level of data acquisition being flexible of site, invariant in time, cost-efficient and enabling arbitrary spatial resolution. In this study, a rotary-wing Mini-UAV carrying a DSLR camera was used to acquire time series of overlapping aerial images. These photographs were taken as input to extract Digital Surface Models (DSM) as well as orthophotos in the area of interest. The "Pechgraben" area in Upper Austria has a catchment area of approximately 2 km². Geology is mainly dominated by limestone and sandstone. Caused by heavy rainfalls in the late spring of 2013, an area of about 70 ha began to move towards the village in the valley. In addition to the urgent measures, the slow-moving landslide was monitored approximately every month over a time period of more than 18 months. A detailed documentation of the change process was the result. Moving velocities and height differences were quantified and validated using a dense network of Ground Control Points (GCP). For further analysis, 14 image flights with a total amount of 10.000 photographs were performed to create multi-temporal geodata in in sub-decimeter-resolution for two depicted areas of the landslide. Using a UAV for this application proved to be an excellent choice, as it allows short repetition times, low flying heights and high spatial resolution. Furthermore, the UAV acts almost weather independently as well as highly autonomously. High-quality results can be expected within a few hours after the photo flight. The UAV system performs very well in an alpine environment. Time series of the assessed geodata detect changes in topography and provide a long-term documentation of the measures taken in order to stop the landslide and to prevent infrastructure from damage.

  9. Overview of NASA aerial applications research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, B. J.

    1978-01-01

    Aerial applications research conducted by NASA seeks improvements in environmental safety, fuel efficiency, and aircraft productivity and safety. From 1976 to 1978, NASA studied the technology needs of the aerial applications industry and developed in-house research capabilities for meeting those needs. This paper presents the research plans developed by NASA. High potential appears to exist for near term contributions to the industry from existing NASA research capabilities in drift reduction, stall departure safety, and dry materials dispersal system technology. A brief, annotated bibliography is included listing documents recently produced as a result of NASA aerial applications research efforts.

  10. 7 CFR 611.21 - Availability of aerial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611... § 611.21 Availability of aerial photography. The National Cartography and Geospatial Center obtains necessary clearance for all aerial photography for NRCS. New aerial photography of designated areas in...

  11. Photo-switchable membrane and method

    DOEpatents

    Marshall, Kenneth L; Glowacki, Eric

    2013-05-07

    Switchable gas permeation membranes in which a photo-switchable low-molecular-weight liquid crystalline (LC) material acts as the active element, and a method of making such membranes. Different LC eutectic mixtures were doped with mesogenic azo dyes and infused into track-etched porous membranes with regular cylindrical pores. Photo-induced isothermal phase changes in the imbibed mesogenic material afforded large, reversible changes in the permeability of the photo-switchable membrane to nitrogen. For example, membranes imbibed with a photo-switchable cyanobiphenyl LC material demonstrated low permeability in the nematic state, while the photo-generated isotropic state demonstrated a 16.times.-greater sorption coefficient. Both states obey a high linear sorption behavior in accordance with Henry's Law. In contrast, membranes imbibed with a photo-switchable phenyl benzoate LC material showed the opposite permeability behavior to the biphenyl-imbibed membrane, along with nonlinear sorption behavior.

  12. Astronauts Capture Moon Illusion Photo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Many odd looking moon photos have been captured over the years by astronauts aboard the International Space Station. Even so, this photograph, taken by the crew over Russia on May 11, 2003, must have come as a surprise. The moon which is really a quarter of a million miles away, appears to be floating inside the Earth's atmosphere. The picture is tricky because of its uneven lighting. With the sun's elevation angle at only 6 degrees, night is falling on the left side of the image while it is still broad daylight on the right side. This gradient of sunlight is the key to the illusion.

  13. Future Role of Aerial Platforms at Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutts, J. A.; Pauken, M.; Hall, J. L.; Baines, K. H.; Grimm, R.

    2017-02-01

    This paper reviews the brief experience with deploying aerial platforms at Venus, the various mission concepts that have been proposed over the last three decades, and a vision for their application through 2050.

  14. Rangeland monitoring with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have great potential for rangeland management applications, such as monitoring vegetation change, developing grazing strategies, determining rangeland health, and assessing remediation treatment effectiveness. UAVs have several advantages: they can be deployed quickly...

  15. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITY (CPP627). INL PHOTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITY (CPP-627). INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-54-12573. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 10/20/1954 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITY (CPP627). INL PHOTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITY (CPP-627). INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-54-12124. Unknown Photographer, 9/21/1954 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. Bibliographic description of photo database : The case study of "EXPO '90", The Photo Museum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamio, Tatsuo

    Advanced electronic technology enables to convert image information such as photos into the digital form and store the resulting data on to computers. Thus we have seen the movement toward constructing photo databases. One of the examples is the photo database exhibited at the Photo Museum of "EXPO '90" which will be held at Osaka in this coming April. Even image information database such as photos we have to still rely on languages when retrieving them. However, there exist different aspects from document information database so that we need to have much discussion on how to prepare guidelines or standards for bibliographic description of photo databases. Taking the Photo Museum as the case study this paper considers the photo databases. The bibliographic elements are categorized into four items; photographing behavior, photographing technique, title and subject. Particularly, subject category which can be searching keys, consists of sense information, subject class and keywords.

  18. BVA members wow judges in photo competition.

    PubMed

    2016-09-03

    Earlier this year, BVA ran its inaugural photo competition, giving members the opportunity to showcase the work of the veterinary profession and the animals and wildlife they encounter. Standing out from over 400 high-quality entries, judges picked the images reproduced in this month's BVA News as the winning and highly commended photos. To see all the entries and hear from the winners, visit www.bva.co.uk/vet-photos-2016/. There will be another photo competition in 2017 with more categories to be announced.

  19. Clinical therapeutic effect of intense pulse light PhotoDerm for vascular dermatosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Li-Jun; Xu, Li-Wei; Li, Ying-Yi; Yang, Ji-Qing; Qi, Jia-Xue

    2008-12-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical therapeutic effect of intense pulsed light PhotoDerm (IPL PhotoDerm) for vascular dermatosis and analysis the possible factors affecting the therapeutic effect. Methods: Treat all blank kinds of vascular dermatosis 85 cases with IPL PhotoDerm, observe the therapeutic effect and no obvious side-effects of vascular dermatosis. Results: The cure rate of telangiectasis, arterial spider nevus, strawberry nevus, avermrus uemongioma and nevus flammeus with IPL PhotoDerm is respective 76.5%, 91.7%, 88.9%, 27.8%, 15%, and the cure rate in three times is respective 35.3%, 91.7%, 66.7%, 5.6% and 5%. 6 eases appear pigmentation, pigment subsidence or atrophic scar. Conclusion: The therapeutic effect of vascular dermatosis with IPL PhotoDerm is satisfying, and the no obvious side-effects is less.

  20. In silico analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of endophytic bacteria, isolated from the aerial parts and seeds of important agricultural crops.

    PubMed

    Bredow, C; Azevedo, J L; Pamphile, J A; Mangolin, C A; Rhoden, S A

    2015-08-19

    Because of human population growth, increased food production and alternatives to conventional methods of biocontrol and development of plants such as the use of endophytic bacteria and fungi are required. One of the methods used to study microorganism diversity is sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, which has several advantages, including universality, size, and availability of databases for comparison. The objective of this study was to analyze endophytic bacterial diversity in agricultural crops using published papers, sequence databases, and phylogenetic analysis. Fourteen papers were selected in which the ribosomal 16S rRNA gene was used to identify endophytic bacteria, in important agricultural crops, such as coffee, sugar cane, beans, corn, soybean, tomatoes, and grapes, located in different geographical regions (America, Europe, and Asia). The corresponding 16S rRNA gene sequences were selected from the NCBI database, aligned using the Mega 5.2 program, and phylogenetic analysis was undertaken. The most common orders present in the analyzed cultures were Bacillales, Enterobacteriales, and Actinomycetales and the most frequently observed genera were Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and Microbacterium. Phylogenetic analysis showed that only approximately 1.56% of the total sequences were not properly grouped, demonstrating reliability in the identification of microorganisms. This study identified the main genera found in endophytic bacterial cultures from plants, providing data for future studies on improving plant agriculture, biotechnology, endophytic bacterium prospecting, and to help understand relationships between endophytic bacteria and their interactions with plants.

  1. Reliable aerial thermography for energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, J. R.; Bowman, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    A method for energy conservation, the aerial thermography survey, is discussed. It locates sources of energy losses and wasteful energy management practices. An operational map is presented for clear sky conditions. The map outlines the key environmental conditions conductive to obtaining reliable aerial thermography. The map is developed from defined visual and heat loss discrimination criteria which are quantized based on flat roof heat transfer calculations.

  2. CFD Simulation of Aerial Crop Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Zamri; Qiang, Kua Yong; Mohd, Sofian; Rosly, Nurhayati

    2016-11-01

    Aerial crop spraying, also known as crop dusting, is made for aerial application of pesticides or fertilizer. An agricultural aircraft which is converted from an aircraft has been built to combine with the aerial crop spraying for the purpose. In recent years, many studies on the aerial crop spraying were conducted because aerial application is the most economical, large and rapid treatment for the crops. The main objective of this research is to study the airflow of aerial crop spraying system using Computational Fluid Dynamics. This paper is focus on the effect of aircraft speed and nozzle orientation on the distribution of spray droplet at a certain height. Successful and accurate of CFD simulation will improve the quality of spray during the real situation and reduce the spray drift. The spray characteristics and efficiency are determined from the calculated results of CFD. Turbulence Model (k-ɛ Model) is used for the airflow in the fluid domain to achieve a more accurate simulation. Furthermore, spray simulation is done by setting the Flat-fan Atomizer Model of Discrete Phase Model (DPM) at the nozzle exit. The interaction of spray from each flat-fan atomizer can also be observed from the simulation. The evaluation of this study is validation and grid dependency study using field data from industry.

  3. Combining Human Computing and Machine Learning to Make Sense of Big (Aerial) Data for Disaster Response.

    PubMed

    Ofli, Ferda; Meier, Patrick; Imran, Muhammad; Castillo, Carlos; Tuia, Devis; Rey, Nicolas; Briant, Julien; Millet, Pauline; Reinhard, Friedrich; Parkan, Matthew; Joost, Stéphane

    2016-03-01

    Aerial imagery captured via unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is playing an increasingly important role in disaster response. Unlike satellite imagery, aerial imagery can be captured and processed within hours rather than days. In addition, the spatial resolution of aerial imagery is an order of magnitude higher than the imagery produced by the most sophisticated commercial satellites today. Both the United States Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the European Commission's Joint Research Center (JRC) have noted that aerial imagery will inevitably present a big data challenge. The purpose of this article is to get ahead of this future challenge by proposing a hybrid crowdsourcing and real-time machine learning solution to rapidly process large volumes of aerial data for disaster response in a time-sensitive manner. Crowdsourcing can be used to annotate features of interest in aerial images (such as damaged shelters and roads blocked by debris). These human-annotated features can then be used to train a supervised machine learning system to learn to recognize such features in new unseen images. In this article, we describe how this hybrid solution for image analysis can be implemented as a module (i.e., Aerial Clicker) to extend an existing platform called Artificial Intelligence for Disaster Response (AIDR), which has already been deployed to classify microblog messages during disasters using its Text Clicker module and in response to Cyclone Pam, a category 5 cyclone that devastated Vanuatu in March 2015. The hybrid solution we present can be applied to both aerial and satellite imagery and has applications beyond disaster response such as wildlife protection, human rights, and archeological exploration. As a proof of concept, we recently piloted this solution using very high-resolution aerial photographs of a wildlife reserve in Namibia to support rangers with their wildlife conservation efforts (SAVMAP project, http://lasig.epfl.ch/savmap ). The

  4. The evaluation of unmanned aerial system-based photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning to generate DEMs of agricultural watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouédraogo, Mohamar Moussa; Degré, Aurore; Debouche, Charles; Lisein, Jonathan

    2014-06-01

    (Agisoft PhotoScan) and DEMMCM (MicMac), respectively, with spatial resolutions of 1 × 1 m. Comparing the DEMs with the 1098 GCPs showed that the DEMTLS was the most accurate data product, with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 4.5 cm, followed by the DEMMCM and the DEMPSC, which had RMSE values of 9.0 and 13.9 cm, respectively. The DEMPSC had absolute errors along the border of the study area that ranged from 15.0 to 52.0 cm, indicating the presence of systematic errors. Although the derived DEMMCM was accurate, an error analysis along a transect showed that the errors in the DEMMCM data tended to increase in areas of lower elevation. Compared with TLS, UAS is a promising tool for data collection because of its flexibility and low operational cost. However, improvements are needed in the photogrammetric processing of the aerial photographs to remove non-linear distortions.

  5. From the air to digital landscapes: generating reach-scale topographic models from aerial photography in gravel-bed rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vericat, Damià; Narciso, Efrén; Béjar, Maria; Tena, Álvaro; Brasington, James; Gibbins, Chris; Batalla, Ramon J.

    2014-05-01

    subsequently applied in the lab using Agisoft PhotoScan, photographs are aligned and a 3d point cloud is generated. GCPs are used to geo-register all point clouds. This task may be time consuming since GCPs need to be identified in at least two of the pictures. A first automatic identification of GCPs positions is performed in the rest of the photos, although user supervision is necessary. Preliminary results show as geo-registration errors between 0.08 and and 0.10 meters can be obtained. The number of GCPs is being degraded and the quality of the point cloud assessed based on check points (the extracted GCPs). A critical analysis of GCPs density and scene locations is being performed (results in preparation). The results show that automated digital photogrammetry may provide new opportunities in the acquisition of topographic data at multiple temporal and spatial scales, being competitive with other more expensive techniques that, in turn, may require much more time to acquire field observations. SfM offers new opportunities to develop event-scale terrain models of fluvial systems suitable for hydraulic modelling and to study topographic change in highly dynamic environments.

  6. Unmanned aerial systems for photogrammetry and remote sensing: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colomina, I.; Molina, P.

    2014-06-01

    We discuss the evolution and state-of-the-art of the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) in the field of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (PaRS). UAS, Remotely-Piloted Aerial Systems, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles or simply, drones are a hot topic comprising a diverse array of aspects including technology, privacy rights, safety and regulations, and even war and peace. Modern photogrammetry and remote sensing identified the potential of UAS-sourced imagery more than thirty years ago. In the last five years, these two sister disciplines have developed technology and methods that challenge the current aeronautical regulatory framework and their own traditional acquisition and processing methods. Navety and ingenuity have combined off-the-shelf, low-cost equipment with sophisticated computer vision, robotics and geomatic engineering. The results are cm-level resolution and accuracy products that can be generated even with cameras costing a few-hundred euros. In this review article, following a brief historic background and regulatory status analysis, we review the recent unmanned aircraft, sensing, navigation, orientation and general data processing developments for UAS photogrammetry and remote sensing with emphasis on the nano-micro-mini UAS segment.

  7. Use of aerial photography to inventory aquatic vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Donald W.; Brown, Charles L.; Manny, Bruce A.

    1988-01-01

    This study demonstrates the feasibility of using low-altitude aerial photography to inventory submersed macrophytes in the connecting channels of the Great Lakes. For this purpose, we obtained aerial color transparencies and collateral ground truth information about submersed vegetation at 160 stations within four study sites in the St. Clair and Detroit rivers, September 17 to October 4, 1984. Photographs were interpreted by five test subjects to determine with what accuracy they could detect beds of submersed macrophytes, and the precision of delineating the extent of such vegetation beds. The interpreters correctly determined the presence or absence of vegetation 80% of the time (range 73-86%). Differences between individuals were statistically significant. Determination of the presence or absence of macrophytes depended partly on their relative abundance and water clarity. Analysis of one photograph from each of the four study sites revealed that photointerpreters delineated between 35 and 75 ha of river bottom covered by vegetation. This wide range indicates that individuals should be tested to assess their relative capability and be trained before they are employed to delineate plant beds in large-scale inventories. Within limits, low-altitude aerial photography, combined with collateral ground truth information, can be used to determine the presence or absence and delineate the extent of submersed macrophytes in connecting channels of the Great Lakes.

  8. Studies on an aerial propellant transfer space plane (APTSP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayan, N.; Biju Kumar, K. S.; Gupta, Anish Kumar; Kashyap, Akhilesh Kumar; Venkatraman, Kartik; Mathew, Joseph; Mukunda, H. S.

    2004-04-01

    This paper presents a study of a fully reusable earth-to-orbit launch vehicle concept with horizontal take-off and landing, employing a turbojet engine for low speed, and a rocket for high-speed acceleration and space operations. This concept uses existing technology to the maximum possible extent, thereby reducing development time, cost and effort. It uses the experience in aerial filling of military aircrafts for propellant filling at an altitude of 13 km at a flight speed of M=0.85. Aerial filling of propellant reduces the take-off weight significantly thereby minimizing the structural weight of the vehicle. The vehicle takes off horizontally and uses turbojet engines till the end of the propellant filling operation. The rocket engines provide thrust for the next phase till the injection of a satellite at LEO. A sensitivity analysis of the mission with respect to rocket engine specific impulse and overall vehicle structural factor is also presented in this paper. A conceptual design of space plane with a payload capability of 10 ton to LEO is carried out. The study shows that the realization of an aerial propellant transfer space plane is possible with limited development of new technology thus reducing the demands on the finances required for achieving the objectives.

  9. Building population mapping with aerial imagery and GIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ural, Serkan; Hussain, Ejaz; Shan, Jie

    2011-12-01

    Geospatial distribution of population at a scale of individual buildings is needed for analysis of people's interaction with their local socio-economic and physical environments. High resolution aerial images are capable of capturing urban complexities and considered as a potential source for mapping urban features at this fine scale. This paper studies population mapping for individual buildings by using aerial imagery and other geographic data. Building footprints and heights are first determined from aerial images, digital terrain and surface models. City zoning maps allow the classification of the buildings as residential and non-residential. The use of additional ancillary geographic data further filters residential utility buildings out of the residential area and identifies houses and apartments. In the final step, census block population, which is publicly available from the U.S. Census, is disaggregated and mapped to individual residential buildings. This paper proposes a modified building population mapping model that takes into account the effects of different types of residential buildings. Detailed steps are described that lead to the identification of residential buildings from imagery and other GIS data layers. Estimated building populations are evaluated per census block with reference to the known census records. This paper presents and evaluates the results of building population mapping in areas of West Lafayette, Lafayette, and Wea Township, all in the state of Indiana, USA.

  10. Automated Aerial Refueling Hitches a Ride on AFF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Jennifer L.; Murray, James E.; Bever, Glenn; Campos, Norma V.; Schkolnik, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    The recent introduction of uninhabited aerial vehicles [UAVs (basically, remotely piloted or autonomous aircraft)] has spawned new developments in autonomous operation and posed new challenges. Automated aerial refueling (AAR) is a capability that will enable UAVs to travel greater distances and loiter longer over targets. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, in cooperation with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR), the Naval Air Force Pacific Fleet, and the Air Force Research Laboratory, rapidly conceived and accomplished an AAR flight research project focused on collecting a unique, high-quality database on the dynamics of the hose and drogue of an aerial refueling system. This flight-derived database would be used to validate mathematical models of the dynamics in support of design and analysis of AAR systems for future UAVs. The project involved the use of two Dryden F/A-18 airplanes and an S-3 hose-drogue refueling store on loan from the Navy. In this year-long project, which was started on October 1, 2002, 583 research maneuvers were completed during 23 flights.

  11. Endurance bounds of aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Aaron M.; Kroninger, Christopher M.

    2014-06-01

    Within the past few years micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) have received much more attention and are starting to proliferate into military as well as civilian roles. However, one of the major drawbacks for this technology currently, has been their poor endurance, usually below 10 minutes. This is a direct result of the inefficiencies inherent in their design. Often times, designers do not consider the various components in the vehicle design and match their performance to the desired mission for the vehicle. These vehicles lack a prescribed set of design guidelines or empirically derived design equations which often limits their design to selection of commercial off-the-shelf components without proper consideration of their affect on vehicle performance. In the current study, the design space for different vehicle configurations has been examined including insect flapping, avian flapping, rotary wing, and fixed wing, and their performance bounds are established. The propulsion system typical of a rotary wing vehicle is analyzed to establish current baselines for efficiency of vehicles at this scale. The power draw from communications is analyzed to determine its impact on vehicle performance. Finally, a representative fixed wing MAV is examined and the effects of adaptive structures as a means for increasing vehicle endurance and range are examined. This paper seeks to establish the performance bounds for micro air vehicles and establish a path forward for future designs so that efficiency may be maximized.

  12. Unmanned Aerial Systems in the Process of Juridical Verification of Cadastral Border

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijsdijk, M.; van Hinsbergh, W. H. M.; Witteveen, W.; ten Buuren, G. H. M.; Schakelaar, G. A.; Poppinga, G.; van Persie, M.; Ladiges, R.

    2013-08-01

    Quite often in the verification of cadastral borders, owners of the parcels involved are not able to make their attendance at the appointed moment in time. New appointments have to be made in order to complete the verification process, and as a result often costs and throughput times grow beyond what is considered to be acceptable. To improve the efficiency of the verification process an experiment was set up that refrains from the conventional terrestrial methods for border verification. The central research question was formulated as "How useful are Unmanned Aerial Systems in the juridical verification process of cadastral borders of ownership at het Kadaster in the Netherlands?". For the experiment, operational evaluations were executed at two different locations. The first operational evaluation took place at the Pyramid of Austerlitz, a flat area with a 30 m high pyramid built by troops of Napoleon, with low civilian attendance. Two subsequent evaluations were situated in a small neighbourhood in the city of Nunspeet, where the cadastral situation recently changed, resulting from twenty new houses that were build. Initially a mini-UAS of the KLPD was used to collect photo datasets with less than 1 cm spatial resolution. In a later stage the commercial service provider Orbit Gis was hired. During the experiment four different software packages were used for processing the photo datasets into accurate geo-referenced ortho-mosaics. In this article more details will be described on the experiments carried out. Attention will be paid to the mini-UAS platforms (AscTec Falcon 8, Microdrone MD-4), the cameras used, the photo collection plan, the usage of ground control markers and the calibration of the camera's. Furthermore the results and experiences of the different used SFM software packages (Visual SFM/Bundler, PhotoScan, PhotoModeler and the Orbit software) will be shared.

  13. Interpretation of mopane woodlands using air photos with implications on satellite image classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebego, Reuben J. G.; Arnberg, Wolter

    2002-11-01

    Delineation of stands of Colophospermum mopane is carried out on aerial photographs for the area around Palapye, Botswana. The purpose of this study was to evaluate aerial photos as ground truth material for satellite image classification, and to assess the quality of an existing vegetation map around the study area. Colophospermum mopane can be accurately mapped using colour infrared (CIR) photographs. The study shows that CIR photography can be used for accurately mapping the distribution of mopane. This material can therefore, be used as a reliable tool for ground truthing vegetation classification of satellite images, as well as for monitoring the distribution of the species. The only pre-existing vegetation map over the study area is checked against a visually interpreted map for consistency of the level of detail. A close-up view of pictures of scanned CIR air photos are used to study tree shadow characteristics of Savannah vegetation. Results from this investigation are used to explain the concept of the darkening effect, prevalent on Savannah environments. A model is presented to show the effect of tree shadows on brightness values and on NDVI measured by satellites.

  14. Time delay for aerial ammonia concentration measurements in livestock buildings.

    PubMed

    Rom, Hans Benny; Zhang, Guo-Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Correct measurements of ammonia concentration in air still present considerable challenges. The high water solubility and polarity can cause it to adsorb on surfaces in the entire sampling system, including sampling lines, filters, valves, pumps and instruments, causing substantial measuring errors and time delays. To estimate time delay characteristics of a Photo Acoustic Multi Gas Monitor 1312 and a Multi Point Sampler continuous measurement of aerial ammonia concentrations at different levels was performed. In order to obtain reproducible data, a wind tunnel was used to generate selected concentrations inside and a background concentration representing the air inlet of the tunnel. Four different concentration levels (0.8 ppm, 6.2 ppm, 9.7 ppm and 13.7 ppm) were used in the experiments, with an additional outdoor concentration level as background. The results indicated a substantial time delay when switching between the measuring positions with high and low concentration and vice versa. These properties may course serious errors for estimation of e.g. gas emissions whenever more than one measuring channel is applied. To reduce the measurement errors, some suggestions regarding design of the measurement setup and measuring strategies were presented.

  15. The design of aerial camera focusing mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Changchang; Yang, Hongtao; Niu, Haijun

    2015-10-01

    In order to ensure the imaging resolution of aerial camera and compensating defocusing caused by the changing of atmospheric temperature, pressure, oblique photographing distance and other environmental factor [1,2], and to meeting the overall design requirements of the camera for the lower mass and smaller size , the linear focusing mechanism is designed. Through the target surface support, the target surface component is connected with focusing driving mechanism. Make use of precision ball screws, focusing mechanism transforms the input rotary motion of motor into linear motion of the focal plane assembly. Then combined with the form of linear guide restraint movement, the magnetic encoder is adopted to detect the response of displacement. And the closed loop control is adopted to realize accurate focusing. This paper illustrated the design scheme for a focusing mechanism and analyzed its error sources. It has the advantages of light friction and simple transmission chain and reducing the transmission error effectively. And this paper also analyses the target surface by finite element analysis and lightweight design. Proving that the precision of focusing mechanism can achieve higher than 3um, and the focusing range is +/-2mm.

  16. Soil microbial response to photo-degraded C60 fullerenes.

    PubMed

    Berry, Timothy D; Clavijo, Andrea P; Zhao, Yingcan; Jafvert, Chad T; Turco, Ronald F; Filley, Timothy R

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies indicate that while unfunctionalized carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) exhibit very low decomposition rates in soils, even minor surface functionalization (e.g., as a result of photochemical weathering) may accelerate microbial decay. We present results from a C60 fullerene-soil incubation study designed to investigate the potential links between photochemical and microbial degradation of photo-irradiated C60. Irradiating aqueous (13)C-labeled C60 with solar-wavelength light resulted in a complex mixture of intermediate products with decreased aromaticity. Although addition of irradiated C60 to soil microcosms had little effect on net soil respiration, excess (13)C in the respired CO2 demonstrates that photo-irradiating C60 enhanced its degradation in soil, with ∼ 0.78% of 60 day photo-irradiated C60 mineralized. Community analysis by DGGE found that soil microbial community structure was altered and depended on the photo-treatment duration. These findings demonstrate how abiotic and biotic transformation processes can couple to influence degradation of CNMs in the natural environment.

  17. Text, photo, and line extraction in scanned documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkilinc, M. Sezer; Jaber, Mustafa; Saber, Eli; Bauer, Peter; Depalov, Dejan

    2012-07-01

    We propose a page layout analysis algorithm to classify a scanned document into different regions such as text, photo, or strong lines. The proposed scheme consists of five modules. The first module performs several image preprocessing techniques such as image scaling, filtering, color space conversion, and gamma correction to enhance the scanned image quality and reduce the computation time in later stages. Text detection is applied in the second module wherein wavelet transform and run-length encoding are employed to generate and validate text regions, respectively. The third module uses a Markov random field based block-wise segmentation that employs a basis vector projection technique with maximum a posteriori probability optimization to detect photo regions. In the fourth module, methods for edge detection, edge linking, line-segment fitting, and Hough transform are utilized to detect strong edges and lines. In the last module, the resultant text, photo, and edge maps are combined to generate a page layout map using K-Means clustering. The proposed algorithm has been tested on several hundred documents that contain simple and complex page layout structures and contents such as articles, magazines, business cards, dictionaries, and newsletters, and compared against state-of-the-art page-segmentation techniques with benchmark performance. The results indicate that our methodology achieves an average of ˜89% classification accuracy in text, photo, and background regions.

  18. Archive of post-Hurricane Isabel coastal oblique aerial photographs collected during U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 03CCH01 from Ocean City, Maryland, to Fort Caswell, North Carolina and Inland from Waynesboro to Redwood, Virginia, September 21 - 23, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Subino, Janice A.; Morgan, Karen L.M.; Krohn, M. Dennis; Dadisman, Shawn V.

    2013-01-01

    On September 21 - 23, 2003, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey along the Atlantic coast from Ocean City, Md., to Fort Caswell, N.C., and inland oblique aerial photographic survey from Waynesboro to Redwood, Va., aboard a Navajo Piper twin-engine airplane. The coastal survey was conducted at an altitude of 500 feet (ft) and approximately 1,000 ft offshore. For the inland photos, the aircraft tried to stay approximately 500 ft above the terrain. These coastal photos were used to document coastal changes like beach erosion and overwash caused by Hurricane Isabel, while the inland photos looked for potential landslides caused by heavy rains. The photos may also be used as baseline data for future coastal change analysis. The USGS and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) surveyed the impact zone of Hurricane Isabel to better understand the changes in vulnerability of the Nation’s coasts to extreme storms (Morgan, 2009). This report serves as an archive of photographs collected during the September 21 - 23, 2003, post-Hurricane Isabel coastal and inland oblique aerial survey along with associated survey maps, KML files, navigation files, digital Field Activity Collection System (FACS) logs, and Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata. Refer to the Acronyms page for expansions of all acronyms and abbreviations used in this report. The USGS St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center (SPCMSC) assigns a unique identifier to each cruise or field activity. For example, 03CCH01 tells us the data were collected in 2003 for the Coastal Change Hazards (CCH) study and the data were collected during the first field activity for that project in that calendar year. Refer to http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/infobank/programs/html/definition/activity.html for a detailed description of the method used to assign the ID number. The photographs provided here are Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG

  19. Integration of aerial imaging and variable-rate technology for site-specific aerial herbicide application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As remote sensing and variable rate technology are becoming more available for aerial applicators, practical methodologies on effective integration of these technologies are needed for site-specific aerial applications of crop production and protection materials. The objectives of this study were to...

  20. Partnering with Families through Photo Collages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacigalupa, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the implementation and benefits of a photo-based family communication method called Daily Explorations. Daily Explorations are one- to two-page photo collages that are annotated with meaningful explanations of children's play and e-mailed to parents every day. The process, described in more detail in this article, is a…

  1. Using Participatory Photo Novels to Teach Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Das, Kallol

    2012-01-01

    Teaching the restless young generation business students of today is not easy. Furthermore, the traditional lecture method has failed miserably to engage the business students and deliver significant learning. The author presents a discussion on the photo novel as an attractive communication medium and the participatory photo novel as an…

  2. Photo-induced Defects in Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redfield, David; Bube, Richard H.

    2006-03-01

    1. Introduction: metastable defects; 2. III-V compounds: DX2 and EL2 centers; 3. Other crystalline materials; 4. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon: properties of defects; 5. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon: photo-induced defect kinetics and processes; 6. Other amorphous semiconductors; 7. Photo-induced defect effects in devices; References; Index.

  3. A Snapshot of Photo Editing Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolkan, J.V.

    2004-01-01

    Plenty of digital imaging professionals claim that Adobe's Photoshop CS is the best photo editing application money can buy. This document reviews Adobe's Photoshop CS and its worthy competitors. In addition to Adobe, the following programs are reviewed in this document: (1) Adobe Photoshop Elements 2.0; (2) Arcsoft PhotoImpression; (3) Jasc Paint…

  4. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of an Aerial Microalga Trentepohlia jolithus: Pathway Description and Gene Discovery for Carbon Fixation and Carotenoid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qianqian; Liu, Jianguo; Zhang, Litao; Liu, Qian

    2014-01-01

    Background Algae in the order Trentepohliales have a broad geographic distribution and are generally characterized by the presence of abundant β-carotene. The many monographs published to date have mainly focused on their morphology, taxonomy, phylogeny, distribution and reproduction; molecular studies of this order are still rare. High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology provides a powerful and efficient method for transcript analysis and gene discovery in Trentepohlia jolithus. Methods/Principal Findings Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing generated 55,007,830 Illumina PE raw reads, which were assembled into 41,328 assembled unigenes. Based on NR annotation, 53.28% of the unigenes (22,018) could be assigned to gene ontology classes with 54 subcategories and 161,451 functional terms. A total of 26,217 (63.44%) assembled unigenes were mapped to 128 KEGG pathways. Furthermore, a set of 5,798 SSRs in 5,206 unigenes and 131,478 putative SNPs were identified. Moreover, the fact that all of the C4 photosynthesis genes exist in T. jolithus suggests a complex carbon acquisition and fixation system. Similarities and differences between T. jolithus and other algae in carotenoid biosynthesis are also described in depth. Conclusions/Significance This is the first broad transcriptome survey for T. jolithus, increasing the amount of molecular data available for the class Ulvophyceae. As well as providing resources for functional genomics studies, the functional genes and putative pathways identified here will contribute to a better understanding of carbon fixation and fatty acid and carotenoid biosynthesis in T. jolithus. PMID:25254555

  5. #fitspo on Instagram: A mixed-methods approach using Netlytic and photo analysis, uncovering the online discussion and author/image characteristics.

    PubMed

    Santarossa, Sara; Coyne, Paige; Lisinski, Carly; Woodruff, Sarah J

    2016-11-15

    The #fitspo 'tag' is a recent trend on Instagram, which is used on posts to motivate others towards a healthy lifestyle through exercise/eating habits. This study used a mixed-methods approach consisting of text and network analysis via the Netlytic program (N = 10,000 #fitspo posts), and content analysis of #fitspo images (N = 122) was used to examine author and image characteristics. Results suggest that #fitspo posts may motivate through appearance-mediated themes, as the largest content categories (based on the associated text) were 'feeling good' and 'appearance'. Furthermore, #fitspo posts may create peer influence/support as personal (opposed to non-personal) accounts were associated with higher popularity of images (i.e. number of likes/followers). Finally, most images contained posed individuals with some degree of objectification.

  6. High voltage photo switch package module

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, James S; Sanders, David M; Hawkins, Steven A; Sampayan, Stephen E

    2014-02-18

    A photo-conductive switch package module having a photo-conductive substrate or wafer with opposing electrode-interface surfaces, and at least one light-input surface. First metallic layers are formed on the electrode-interface surfaces, and one or more optical waveguides having input and output ends are bonded to the substrate so that the output end of each waveguide is bonded to a corresponding one of the light-input surfaces of the photo-conductive substrate. This forms a waveguide-substrate interface for coupling light into the photo-conductive wafer. A dielectric material such as epoxy is then used to encapsulate the photo-conductive substrate and optical waveguide so that only the metallic layers and the input end of the optical waveguide are exposed. Second metallic layers are then formed on the first metallic layers so that the waveguide-substrate interface is positioned under the second metallic layers.

  7. A perceptual metric for photo retouching

    PubMed Central

    Kee, Eric; Farid, Hany

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, advertisers and magazine editors have been widely criticized for taking digital photo retouching to an extreme. Impossibly thin, tall, and wrinkle- and blemish-free models are routinely splashed onto billboards, advertisements, and magazine covers. The ubiquity of these unrealistic and highly idealized images has been linked to eating disorders and body image dissatisfaction in men, women, and children. In response, several countries have considered legislating the labeling of retouched photos. We describe a quantitative and perceptually meaningful metric of photo retouching. Photographs are rated on the degree to which they have been digitally altered by explicitly modeling and estimating geometric and photometric changes. This metric correlates well with perceptual judgments of photo retouching and can be used to objectively judge by how much a retouched photo has strayed from reality. PMID:22123980

  8. Looking for an old aerial photograph

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    Attempts to photograph the surface of the Earth date from the 1800's, when photographers attached cameras to balloons, kites, and even pigeons. Today, aerial photographs and satellite images are commonplace. The rate of acquiring aerial photographs and satellite images has increased rapidly in recent years. Views of the Earth obtained from aircraft or satellites have become valuable tools to Government resource planners and managers, land-use experts, environmentalists, engineers, scientists, and a wide variety of other users. Many people want historical aerial photographs for business or personal reasons. They may want to locate the boundaries of an old farm or a piece of family property. Or they may want a photograph as a record of changes in their neighborhood, or as a gift. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) maintains the Earth Science Information Centers (ESIC?s) to sell aerial photographs, remotely sensed images from satellites, a wide array of digital geographic and cartographic data, as well as the Bureau?s wellknown maps. Declassified photographs from early spy satellites were recently added to the ESIC offerings of historical images. Using the Aerial Photography Summary Record System database, ESIC researchers can help customers find imagery in the collections of other Federal agencies and, in some cases, those of private companies that specialize in esoteric products.

  9. Aerial Vehicle Surveys of other Planetary Atmospheres and Surfaces: Imaging, Remote-sensing, and Autonomy Technology Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Gregory; Ippolito, Corey; Alena, Rick

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to review the anticipated imaging and remote-sensing technology requirements for aerial vehicle survey missions to other planetary bodies in our Solar system that can support in-atmosphere flight. In the not too distant future such planetary aerial vehicle (a.k.a. aerial explorers) exploration missions will become feasible. Imaging and remote-sensing observations will be a key objective for these missions. Accordingly, it is imperative that optimal solutions in terms of imaging acquisition and real-time autonomous analysis of image data sets be developed for such vehicles.

  10. Transductive face sketch-photo synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nannan; Tao, Dacheng; Gao, Xinbo; Li, Xuelong; Li, Jie

    2013-09-01

    Face sketch-photo synthesis plays a critical role in many applications, such as law enforcement and digital entertainment. Recently, many face sketch-photo synthesis methods have been proposed under the framework of inductive learning, and these have obtained promising performance. However, these inductive learning-based face sketch-photo synthesis methods may result in high losses for test samples, because inductive learning minimizes the empirical loss for training samples. This paper presents a novel transductive face sketch-photo synthesis method that incorporates the given test samples into the learning process and optimizes the performance on these test samples. In particular, it defines a probabilistic model to optimize both the reconstruction fidelity of the input photo (sketch) and the synthesis fidelity of the target output sketch (photo), and efficiently optimizes this probabilistic model by alternating optimization. The proposed transductive method significantly reduces the expected high loss and improves the synthesis performance for test samples. Experimental results on the Chinese University of Hong Kong face sketch data set demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method by comparing it with representative inductive learning-based face sketch-photo synthesis methods.

  11. How taking photos increases enjoyment of experiences.

    PubMed

    Diehl, Kristin; Zauberman, Gal; Barasch, Alixandra

    2016-08-01

    Experiences are vital to the lives and well-being of people; hence, understanding the factors that amplify or dampen enjoyment of experiences is important. One such factor is photo-taking, which has gone unexamined by prior research even as it has become ubiquitous. We identify engagement as a relevant process that influences whether photo-taking will increase or decrease enjoyment. Across 3 field and 6 lab experiments, we find that taking photos enhances enjoyment of positive experiences across a range of contexts and methodologies. This occurs when photo-taking increases engagement with the experience, which is less likely when the experience itself is already highly engaging, or when photo-taking interferes with the experience. As further evidence of an engagement-based process, we show that photo-taking directs greater visual attention to aspects of the experience one may want to photograph. Lastly, we also find that this greater engagement due to photo-taking results in worse evaluations of negative experiences. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. USGS Releases New Digital Aerial Products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) has initiated distribution of digital aerial photographic products produced by scanning or digitizing film from its historical aerial photography film archive. This archive, located in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, contains thousands of rolls of film that contain more than 8 million frames of historic aerial photographs. The largest portion of this archive consists of original film acquired by Federal agencies from the 1930s through the 1970s to produce 1:24,000-scale USGS topographic quadrangle maps. Most of this photography is reasonably large scale (USGS photography ranges from 1:8,000 to 1:80,000) to support the production of the maps. Two digital products are currently available for ordering: high-resolution scanned products and medium-resolution digitized products.

  13. Detection of linear features in aerial images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Rui

    Over the past decades, considerable progress had been made to develop automatic image interpretation tools in remote sensing. However, there is still a gap between the results and the requirements for accuracy and robustness. Noisy aerial image interpretation, especially for low resolution images, is still difficult. In this thesis, we propose a fully automatic system for linear feature detection in aerial images. We present how the system works on the application of extraction and reconstruction of road and pipeline networks. The work in this thesis is divided by three parts: line detection, feature interpretation, and feature tracking. An improved Hough transform based on orientation information is introduced for the line detection. We explore the Markov random field model and Bayesian filtering for feature interpretation and tracking. Experimental results show that our proposed system is robust and effective to deal with low resolution aerial images.

  14. Shutter/aperture settings for aerial photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, H. E.; Perry, L.

    1976-01-01

    Determination of aerial camera shutter and aperture settings to produce consistently high-quality aerial photographs is a task complicated by numerous variables. Presented in this article are brief discussions of each variable and specific data which may be used for the systematic control of each. The variables discussed include sunlight, aircraft altitude, subject and season, film speed, and optical system. Data which may be used as a base reference are included, and encompass two sets of sensitometric specifications for two film-chemistry processes along with camera-aircraft parameters, which have been established and used to produce good exposures. Information contained here may be used to design and implement an exposure-determination system for aerial photography.

  15. The Development and Flight Testing of an Aerially Deployed Unmanned Aerial System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Andrew

    An investigation into the feasibility of aerial deployed unmanned aerial vehicles was completed. The investigation included the development and flight testing of multiple unmanned aerial systems to investigate the different components of potential aerial deployment missions. The project consisted of two main objectives; the first objective dealt with the development of an airframe capable of surviving aerial deployment from a rocket and then self assembling from its stowed configuration into its flight configuration. The second objective focused on the development of an autopilot capable of performing basic guidance, navigation, and control following aerial deployment. To accomplish these two objectives multiple airframes were developed to verify their completion experimentally. The first portion of the project, investigating the feasibility of surviving an aerial deployment, was completed using a fixed wing glider that following a successful deployment had 52 seconds of controlled flight. Before developing the autopilot in the second phase of the project, the glider was significantly upgraded to fix faults discovered in the glider flight testing and to enhance the system capabilities. Unfortunately to conform to outdoor flight restrictions imposed by the university and the Federal Aviation Administration it was required to switch airframes before flight testing of the new fixed wing platform could begin. As a result, an autopilot was developed for a quadrotor and verified experimentally completely indoors to remain within the limits of governing policies.

  16. Antimicrobial biflavonoids from the aerial parts of Ouratea sulcata.

    PubMed

    Pegnyemb, Dieudonné Emmanuel; Mbing, Josephine Ngo; de Théodore Atchadé, Alex; Tih, Raphael Ghogomu; Sondengam, Beiban Lucas; Blond, Alain; Bodo, Bernard

    2005-08-01

    Investigation of the aerial parts of Ouratea sulcata led to the isolation of a biflavonoid named sulcatone A, together with the known compounds, 3-hydroxy-2,3-dihydroapigenyl-[I-4',O,II-3']-dihydrokaempferol, amentoflavone, lophirone A, agathisflavone, stigmasterol and stigmasteryl-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside. The structure of the compound was assigned as apigenyl-[I-4',O,II-3']-dihydrokaempferol, by means of spectroscopic analysis. Sulcatone A and 3-hydroxy-2,3-dihydroapigenyl-[I-4',O,II-3']-dihydrokaempferol exhibited significant in vitro antimicrobial activities against a range of microorganisms.

  17. Aerial Measuring System (AMS) Baseline Surveys for Emergency Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, C

    2012-06-04

    Originally established in the 1960s to support the Nuclear Test Program, the AMS mission is to provide a rapid and comprehensive worldwide aerial measurement, analysis, and interpretation capability in response to a nuclear/radiological emergency. AMS provides a responsive team of individuals whose processes allow for a mission to be conducted and completed with results available within hours. This presentation slide-show reviews some of the history of the AMS, summarizes present capabilities and methods, and addresses the value of the surveys.

  18. AERIAL OF VISITORS INFORMATION CENTER [VIC] & ROCKET GARDEN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    AERIAL OF VISITORS INFORMATION CENTER [VIC] & ROCKET GARDEN KSC-373C-0556.20 116-KSC-373C-556.20, P-01622-B, ARCHIVE-04455 Aerial view of Easter crowds at Visitors Information Center, Kennedy Space Center, Florida.

  19. Ground cover estimated from aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerbermann, A. H.; Cuellar, J. A.; Wiegand, C. L.

    1976-01-01

    Estimates of per cent ground cover made by ground observers were compared with independent estimates made on the basis of low-altitude (640-1219 m) aerial photographs of the same fields. Standard statistical simple correlation and linear regression analyses revealed a high correlation between the two estimation methods. In crops such as grain, sorghum, corn, and forage sorghum, in which the broadest part of the leaf canopy is near the top of the plant, there was a tendency to overestimate the per cent ground cover from aerial photographs.

  20. Advanced Image Processing of Aerial Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodell, Glenn; Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-ur; Hines, Glenn

    2006-01-01

    Aerial imagery of the Earth is an invaluable tool for the assessment of ground features, especially during times of disaster. Researchers at the NASA Langley Research Center have developed techniques which have proven to be useful for such imagery. Aerial imagery from various sources, including Langley's Boeing 757 Aries aircraft, has been studied extensively. This paper discusses these studies and demonstrates that better-than-observer imagery can be obtained even when visibility is severely compromised. A real-time, multi-spectral experimental system will be described and numerous examples will be shown.

  1. Aerial Robotic System for Transportation and Logistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Kakuya; Hashimoto, Naohisa; Komoriya, Kiyoshi

    The status quo of a research on a novel aerial robotic system for transportation and logistics is presented. Under a new concept for an aerial robotic transportation system, three-Dimensional Transportation Robots (3DTR) were constructed with twin turbojet engines equipped by high performance noise reduction system and a flexibly jointed delta wing controlled by 2-axis actuators. This vehicle is also stable in the air due to its pendulum structure. The first flight was successfully conducted on November 22, 2005. Flight examination of 3DTR indicates its short take-off and landing (STOL) capability.

  2. MicroProbe Small Unmanned Aerial System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland, Geoffrey; Miles, Ted

    2012-01-01

    The MicroProbe unmanned aerial system (UAS) concept incorporates twin electric motors mounted on the vehicle wing, thus enabling an aerodynamically and environmentally clean nose area for atmospheric sensors. A payload bay is also incorporated in the fuselage to accommodate remote sensing instruments. A key feature of this concept is lightweight construction combined with low flying speeds to minimize kinetic energy and associated hazards, as well as maximizing spatial resolution. This type of aerial platform is needed for Earth science research and environmental monitoring. There were no vehicles of this type known to exist previously.

  3. Noise from aerial bursts of fireworks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maglieri, D. J.; Henderson, H. R.

    1973-01-01

    A study was made recording the pressure time histories of the aerial bursts of mortars of various sizes launched during an actual fireworks display. The peak overpressure and duration of blast noise as well as the energy spectral density are compared with the characteristics of a blasting cap and of an F-104 aircraft at a Mach number of 1.4 and an altitude of 42,000 ft. Noise levels of the fireworks aerial bursts peaked 15 decibels below levels deemed damaging to hearing.

  4. Metrically preserving the USGS aerial film archive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moe, Donald; Longhenry, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Since 1972, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, has provided fi lm-based products to the public. EROS is home to an archive of 12 million frames of analog photography ranging from 1937 to the present. The archive contains collections from both aerial and satellite platforms including programs such as the National High Altitude Program (NHAP), National Aerial Photography Program (NAPP), U.S. Antarctic Resource Center (USARC), Declass 1(CORONA, ARGON, and LANYARD), Declass 2 (KH-7 and KH-9), and Landsat (1972 – 1992, Landsat 1–5).

  5. Laser Doppler velocimeter aerial spray measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalay, A. D.; Eberle, W. R.; Howle, R. E.; Shrider, K. R.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental research program for measuring the location, spatial extent, and relative concentration of airborne spray clouds generated by agricultural aircraft is described. The measurements were conducted with a ground-based laser Doppler velocimeter. The remote sensing instrumentation, experimental tests, and the results of the flight tests are discussed. The cross section of the aerial spray cloud and the observed location, extent, and relative concentration of the airborne particulates are presented. It is feasible to use a mobile laser Doppler velocimeter to track and monitor the transport and dispersion of aerial spray generated by an agricultural aircraft.

  6. Photo induced surface heparin immobilization.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Y; Matsuda, T

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a novel method providing durable layering of heparin immobilized hydrogels on fabricated devices. The preparation method is based on photochemistry of a dithiocarbamate group that is dissociated into a highly reactive radical pair upon ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. By taking advantage of characteristics of the photo generated radicals, hydrogel formation and its fixation onto a substrate surface were attained. The immobilization of heparin onto poly(ethylene terephtalate) was demonstrated. First, a mixed aqueous solution containing a photoreactive water soluble poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide-covinylbenzyl N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate) and heparin was coated on the substrate. Subsequent UV irradiation resulted in the simultaneous formation of a heparin immobilized hydrogel and its chemical fixation onto the substrate. No delamination was found after vigorous washing with water. Significant inhibition of platelet adhesion and markedly prolonged blood coagulation times were observed, which are apparently derived from the surface hydrogel, and from released and chemically fixed surface heparin. Thus, it is expected that the photochemical method developed here provides potent antithrombogenicity to artificial organs.

  7. Developing Photo Activated Localization Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Harald

    2015-03-01

    Photo Activated Localization Microscopy, PALM, acquires super-resolution images by activating a subset of activatable fluorescent labels and estimating the center of the each molecular label to sub-diffractive accuracy. When this process is repeated thousands of times for different subsets of molecules, then an image can be rendered from all the center coordinates of the molecules. I will describe the circuitous story of its development that began with another super-resolution technique, NSOM, developed by my colleague Eric Betzig, who imaged single molecules at room temperature, and later we spectrally resolved individual luminescent centers of quantum wells. These two observations inspired a generalized path to localization microscopy, but that path was abandoned because no really useful fluorescent labels were available. After a decade of nonacademic industrial pursuits and the subsequent freedom of unemployment, we came across a class of genetically expressible fluorescent proteins that were switchable or convertible that enabled the concept to be implemented and be biologically promising. The past ten years have been very active with many groups exploring applications and enhancements of this concept. Demonstrating significant biological relevance will be the metric if its success.

  8. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles DOD’s Acquisition Efforts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles : Hunter System Is Not Appropriate for Navy Fleet Use (GAO/NSIAD-96-2, Dec. 1, 1995). Unmanned Aerial Vehicles : Maneuver...System Schedule Includes Unnecessary Risk (GAO/NSIAD-95-161, Sept. 15, 1995). Unmanned Aerial Vehicles : No More Hunter Systems...Should Be Bought Until Problems are Fixed (GAO/NSIAD-95-52, Mar. 1, 1995). Unmanned Aerial Vehicles : Performance of Short-Range System in Question

  9. An innovative aerial assessment of Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem mountain pine beetle-caused whitebark pine mortality.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, William W; Logan, Jesse A; Kern, Wilson R

    2013-03-01

    An innovative aerial survey method called the Landscape Assessment System (LAS) was used to assess mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae)-caused mortality of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) across the species distribution in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE; 894 774 ha). This large-scale implementation of the LAS method consisted of 8673 km of flight lines, along which 4653 geo-tagged, oblique aerial photos were captured at the catchment level (a subset of 12-digit USGS hydrologic units) and geographic information system (GIS) processed. The Mountain Pine Beetle-caused Mortality Rating System, a landscape-scale classification system designed specifically to measure the cumulative effects of recent and older MPB attacks on whitebark pine, was used to classify mortality with a rating from 0 to 6 based on the amount of red (recent attack) and gray (old attack) trees visible. The approach achieved a photo inventory of 79% of the GYE whitebark pine distribution. For the remaining 21%, mortality levels were estimated based on an interpolated surface. Results that combine the photo-inventoried and interpolated mortality indicate that nearly half (46%) of the GYE whitebark pine distribution showed severe mortality (3-4 or 5.3-5.4 rating), 36% showed moderate mortality (2-2.9 rating), 13% showed low mortality (1-1.9 rating), and 5% showed trace levels of mortality (0-0.9). These results reveal that the proliferation of MPB in the subalpine zone of the GYE due to climate warming has led to whitebark pine mortality that is more severe and widespread than indicated from either previous modeling research or USDA Forest Service Aerial Detection surveys. Sixteen of the 22 major mountain ranges of the GYE have experienced widespread moderate-to-severe mortality. The majority of catchments in the other six mountain ranges show low-to-moderate mortality. Refugia from MPB outbreaks, at least for now, also exist and correspond to locations that have colder

  10. Electrochemical immobilization of Fluorescent labelled probe molecules on a FTO surface for affinity detection based on photo-excited current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haruyama, Tetsuya; Wakabayashi, Ryo; Cho, Takeshi; Matsuyama, Sho-taro

    2011-10-01

    Photo-excited current can be generated at a molecular interface between a photo-excited molecules and a semi-conductive material in appropriate condition. The system has been recognized for promoting photo-energy devices such as an organic dye sensitized solar-cell. The photo-current generated reactions are totally dependent on the interfacial energy reactions, which are in a highly fluctuated interfacial environment. The authors investigated the photo-excited current reaction to develop a smart affinity detection method. However, in order to perform both an affinity reaction and a photo-excited current reaction at a molecular interface, ordered fabrications of the functional (affinity, photo-excitation, etc.) molecules layer on a semi-conductive surface is required. In the present research, we would like to present the fabrication and functional performance of photo-excited current-based affinity assay device and its application for detection of endocrine disrupting chemicals. On the FTO surface, fluorescent pigment labelled affinity peptide was immobilized through the EC tag (electrochemical-tag) method. The modified FTO produced a current when it was irradiated with diode laser light. However, the photo current decreased drastically when estrogen (ES) coexisted in the reaction solution. In this case, immobilized affinity probe molecules formed a complex with ES and estrogen receptor (ER). The result strongly suggests that the photo-excited current transduction between probe molecule-labelled cyanine pigment and the FTO surface was partly inhibited by a complex that formed at the affinity oligo-peptide region in a probe molecule on the FTO electrode. The bound bulky complex may act as an impediment to perform smooth transduction of photo-excited current in the molecular interface. The present system is new type of photo-reaction-based analysis. This system can be used to perform simple high-sensitive homogeneous assays.

  11. AMS/NRCan Joint Survey Report: Aerial Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Wasiolek, Piotr; Stampahar, Jez; Malchow, Rusty; Stampahar, Tom; Lukens, Mike; Seywerd, Henry; Fortin, Richard; Harvey, Brad; Sinclair, Laurel

    2014-12-31

    In January 2014 the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Aerial Measuring System (AMS) and the Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) Nuclear Emergency Response project conducted a series of joint surveys at a number of locations in Nevada including the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The goal of this project was to compare the responses of the two agencies’ aerial radiation detection systems and data analysis techniques. This test included varied radioactive surface contamination levels and isotopic composition experienced at the NNSS and the differing data processing techniques utilized by the respective teams. Because both teams used the commercial aerial radiation detection systems from Radiation Solutions, Inc., the main focus of the campaign was to investigate the data acquisition techniques, data analysis, and ground-truth verification. The NRCan system consisted of four 4" × 4" × 16" NaI(Tl) scintillator crystals of which two were externally mounted in a modified commercial cargo basket certified for the Eurocopter AS350; the NNSA AMS system consisted of twelve 2" × 4" × 16" NaI(Tl) crystals in externally mounted dedicated pods. For NRCan, the joint survey provided an opportunity to characterize their system’s response to extended sources of various fission products at the NNSS. Since both systems play an important role in their respective countries’ national framework of radiological emergency response and are subject to multiple mutual cooperation agreements, it was important for each country to obtain more thorough knowledge of how they would employ these important assets and define the roles that they would each play in an actual response.

  12. System for interactive management of aerial imaging campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wypych, Tom; Kuester, Falko

    We present a system to enable real time management of interchangeable imaging platforms aboard commodity unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to improve interactivity during aerial imaging campaigns. We argue that this improvement in interactivity enables powerful immediate-mode inspection by the ground operator, and implements a more intuitive, flexible, and ultimately useful control interface to aerial imaging systems.

  13. 47 CFR 32.6431 - Aerial wire expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aerial wire expense. 32.6431 Section 32.6431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6431 Aerial wire expense. This account shall include expenses associated with aerial wire....

  14. 47 CFR 32.6431 - Aerial wire expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aerial wire expense. 32.6431 Section 32.6431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6431 Aerial wire expense. This account shall include expenses associated with aerial wire....

  15. 47 CFR 32.6431 - Aerial wire expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aerial wire expense. 32.6431 Section 32.6431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6431 Aerial wire expense. This account shall include expenses associated with aerial wire....

  16. 47 CFR 32.6431 - Aerial wire expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aerial wire expense. 32.6431 Section 32.6431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6431 Aerial wire expense. This account shall include expenses associated with aerial wire....

  17. 47 CFR 32.6431 - Aerial wire expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aerial wire expense. 32.6431 Section 32.6431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6431 Aerial wire expense. This account shall include expenses associated with aerial wire....

  18. Multifunctional aerial display through use of polarization-processing display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Keitaro; Ito, Shusei; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu

    2017-02-01

    We have realized a multifunctional aerial display. An aerial image of a polarization-processing display is formed through aerial imaging by retro-reflection. By changing the polarization modulation patterns, we can switch between a three-layered display and a secure display.

  19. 77 FR 36250 - Information Collection Request; Request for Aerial Photography

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency Information Collection Request; Request for Aerial Photography... FSA Aerial Photography Program. The FSA Aerial Photography Field Office (APFO) uses the information from this form to collect the customer and photography information needed to produce and ship...

  20. A way to the Photo Master Expert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagaki, Toshihiko

    After the author presided over the photographer's group for 15 years or more, the author met with the Photo Master certificate examination. And the author took the certificate examination, and was authorized as a Photo Master Expert in 2005. In this report, the outline how photographic technology has been mastered in order to adapt the photographer's group to the great change of photography from film to digital and how the contents of the activity of a photographer's group have changed is described. And the progress which took the Photo Master certificate examination as a good opportunity to prove the achievement level of those activities is described. And as a photographic activity after Photo Master Expert authorization, the shooting method of mural painting in the royal tomb of Amenophis III is described.

  1. a Fast Approach for Stitching of Aerial Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, A.; El-Sheimy, N.

    2016-06-01

    The last few years have witnessed an increasing volume of aerial image data because of the extensive improvements of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). These newly developed UAVs have led to a wide variety of applications. A fast assessment of the achieved coverage and overlap of the acquired images of a UAV flight mission is of great help to save the time and cost of the further steps. A fast automatic stitching of the acquired images can help to visually assess the achieved coverage and overlap during the flight mission. This paper proposes an automatic image stitching approach that creates a single overview stitched image using the acquired images during a UAV flight mission along with a coverage image that represents the count of overlaps between the acquired images. The main challenge of such task is the huge number of images that are typically involved in such scenarios. A short flight mission with image acquisition frequency of one second can capture hundreds to thousands of images. The main focus of the proposed approach is to reduce the processing time of the image stitching procedure by exploiting the initial knowledge about the images positions provided by the navigation sensors. The proposed approach also avoids solving for all the transformation parameters of all the photos together to save the expected long computation time if all the parameters were considered simultaneously. After extracting the points of interest of all the involved images using Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) algorithm, the proposed approach uses the initial image's coordinates to build an incremental constrained Delaunay triangulation that represents the neighborhood of each image. This triangulation helps to match only the neighbor images and therefore reduces the time-consuming features matching step. The estimated relative orientation between the matched images is used to find a candidate seed image for the stitching process. The pre-estimated transformation

  2. Obtaining biophysical measurements of woody vegetation from high resolution digital aerial photography in tropical and arid environments: Northern Territory, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staben, G. W.; Lucieer, A.; Evans, K. G.; Scarth, P.; Cook, G. D.

    2016-10-01

    Biophysical parameters obtained from woody vegetation are commonly measured using field based techniques which require significant investment in resources. Quantitative measurements of woody vegetation provide important information for ecological studies investigating landscape change. The fine spatial resolution of aerial photography enables identification of features such as trees and shrubs. Improvements in spatial and spectral resolution of digital aerial photographic sensors have increased the possibility of using these data in quantitative remote sensing. Obtaining biophysical measurements from aerial photography has the potential to enable it to be used as a surrogate for the collection of field data. In this study quantitative measurements obtained from digital aerial photography captured at ground sampling distance (GSD) of 15 cm (n = 50) and 30 cm (n = 52) were compared to woody biophysical parameters measured from 1 ha field plots. Supervised classification of the aerial photography using object based image analysis was used to quantify woody and non-woody vegetation components in the imagery. There was a high correlation (r ≥ 0.92) between all field measured woody canopy parameters and aerial derived green woody cover measurements, however only foliage projective cover (FPC) was found to be statistically significant (paired t-test; α = 0.01). There was no significant difference between measurements derived from imagery captured at either GSD of 15 cm and 30 cm over the same field site (n = 20). Live stand basal area (SBA) (m2 ha-1) was predicted from the aerial photographs by applying an allometric equation developed between field-measured live SBA and woody FPC. The results show that there was very little difference between live SBA predicted from FPC measured in the field or from aerial photography. The results of this study show that accurate woody biophysical parameters can be obtained from aerial photography from a range of woody vegetation

  3. Intermodulation electrostatic force microscopy for imaging surface photo-voltage

    SciTech Connect

    Borgani, Riccardo Forchheimer, Daniel; Thorén, Per-Anders; Haviland, David B.; Bergqvist, Jonas; Inganäs, Olle

    2014-10-06

    We demonstrate an alternative to Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy for imaging surface potential. The open-loop, single-pass technique applies a low-frequency AC voltage to the atomic force microscopy tip while driving the cantilever near its resonance frequency. Frequency mixing due to the nonlinear capacitance gives intermodulation products of the two drive frequencies near the cantilever resonance, where they are measured with high signal to noise ratio. Analysis of this intermodulation response allows for quantitative reconstruction of the contact potential difference. We derive the theory of the method, validate it with numerical simulation and a control experiment, and we demonstrate its utility for fast imaging of the surface photo-voltage on an organic photo-voltaic material.

  4. Photo-thermo-refractive glasses: Crystallization mechanism for optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francois-Saint-Cyr, Hugues Gilbert

    Due to their ability to undergo a refractive index change (Deltan) induced by appropriate UV irradiation and thermal development, Photo-Thermo-Refractive (PTR) glass is a candidate material for use in optical applications such as hologram recording, optical data storage, or spectral filters. Although this refractive index modulation (Deltan) has been characterized in terms of its optical ramifications, glass scientists are working to understand more clearly the underlying mechanisms associated with the photo-induced crystallization process. Despite numerous difficulties such as the insulating nature of PTR glass, low concentration levels of photosensitive species, nanometer size of the resulting crystalline phase, and reactivity of these crystals to ion and electron beam radiation and temperature, characterization techniques have been successfully used, resulting in an improved understanding of the photo-induced crystallization mechanism. Results of absorption spectroscopy, interferometry, thermal analysis, x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy have allowed detailing a self-consistent mechanism to describe the multiple steps of this complex process. The photo-induced crystallization process has been experimentally verified, step-by-step. Additionally, the evolution of the heterogeneous phase has been quantified. Sodium fluoride precipitates that resulted from bulk crystallization were determined to be less than 0.25% of the total volume and were within the range of 8 to 14 nm in size. Experiments combining interferometry and x-ray diffraction analyses of glasses heterogeneously crystallized at 520°C for 1 hour led to a linear correlation between (Deltan) decrement and UV exposure doses. A kinetic study of the heterogeneous crystallization using thermal analysis revealed an exponential decay law linking the activation energy for heterogeneous crystallization as a function of the UV dose for given heat-treatments.

  5. All new custom path photo book creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wiley; Muzzolini, Russ

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we present an all new custom path to allow consumers to have full control to their photos and the format of their books, while providing them with guidance to make their creation fast and easy. The users can choose to fully automate the initial creation, and then customize every page. The system manage many design themes along with numerous design elements, such as layouts, backgrounds, embellishments and pattern bands. The users can also utilize photos from multiple sources including their computers, Shutterfly accounts, Shutterfly Share sites and Facebook. The users can also use a photo as background, add, move and resize photos and text - putting what they want where they want instead of being confined to templates. The new path allows users to add embellishments anywhere in the book, and the high-performance platform can support up to 1,000 photos per book and up to 25 pictures per page. The path offers either Smart Autofill or Storyboard features allowing customers to populate their books with photos so they can add captions and customize the pages.

  6. Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and GPS Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, B.

    1995-01-01

    It is proposed that a small fleet of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) be used over a period of years to monitor the rise of pressure surfaces caused by the hypothesized rise in average temperature of the troposphere due to global warming. Global Positioning Satellite System (GPS) receivers would be used for the precise tracking required.

  7. Converting aerial imagery to application maps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the last couple of years in Agricultural Aviation and at the 2014 and 2015 NAAA conventions, we have written about and presented both single-camera and two-camera imaging systems for use on agricultural aircraft. Many aerial applicators have shown a great deal of interest in the imaging systems...

  8. The Art and Science of Aerial Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kegel, Susan

    2006-01-01

    The author is always looking for ways to see connections and to adapt experiences across different subjects. Combining art with other disciplines helps keep students engaged, even the really analytical and verbal learners. Aerial perspective is an art technique, a scientific principle, and a vehicle for introducing Chinese painting and…

  9. Sea Ice Mapping using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solbø, S.; Storvold, R.

    2011-12-01

    Mapping of sea ice extent and sea ice features is an important task in climate research. Since the arctic coastal and oceanic areas have a high probability of cloud coverage, aerial platforms are superior to satellite measurements for high-resolution optical measurements. However, routine observations of sea ice conditions present a variety of problems using conventional piloted aircrafts. Specially, the availability of suitable aircrafts for lease does not cover the demand in major parts of the arctic. With the recent advances in unmanned aerial systems (UAS), there is a high possibility of establishing routine, cost effective aerial observations of sea ice conditions in the near future. Unmanned aerial systems can carry a wide variety of sensors useful for characterizing sea-ice features. For instance, the CryoWing UAS, a system initially designed for measurements of the cryosphere, can be equipped with digital cameras, surface thermometers and laser altimeters for measuring freeboard of ice flows. In this work we will present results from recent CryoWing sea ice flights on Svalbard, Norway. The emphasis will be on data processing for stitching together images acquired with the non-stabilized camera payload, to form high-resolution mosaics covering large spatial areas. These data are being employed to map ice conditions; including ice and lead features and melt ponds. These high-resolution mosaics are also well suited for sea-ice mechanics, classification studies and for validation of satellite sea-ice products.

  10. Aerial Scene Recognition using Efficient Sparse Representation

    SciTech Connect

    Cheriyadat, Anil M

    2012-01-01

    Advanced scene recognition systems for processing large volumes of high-resolution aerial image data are in great demand today. However, automated scene recognition remains a challenging problem. Efficient encoding and representation of spatial and structural patterns in the imagery are key in developing automated scene recognition algorithms. We describe an image representation approach that uses simple and computationally efficient sparse code computation to generate accurate features capable of producing excellent classification performance using linear SVM kernels. Our method exploits unlabeled low-level image feature measurements to learn a set of basis vectors. We project the low-level features onto the basis vectors and use simple soft threshold activation function to derive the sparse features. The proposed technique generates sparse features at a significantly lower computational cost than other methods~\\cite{Yang10, newsam11}, yet it produces comparable or better classification accuracy. We apply our technique to high-resolution aerial image datasets to quantify the aerial scene classification performance. We demonstrate that the dense feature extraction and representation methods are highly effective for automatic large-facility detection on wide area high-resolution aerial imagery.

  11. "A" Is for Aerial Maps and Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Reese H.; Delahunty, Tina

    2007-01-01

    The technology of satellite imagery and remote sensing adds a new dimension to teaching and learning about maps with elementary school children. Just a click of the mouse brings into view some images of the world that could only be imagined a generation ago. Close-up aerial pictures of the school and neighborhood quickly catch the interest of…

  12. 47 CFR 32.2421 - Aerial cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the original cost of single or paired conductor cable, wire and other associated material used in... cable or aerial wire as well as the cost of other material used in construction of such plant... cost of optical fiber cable and other associated material used in constructing a physical path for...

  13. 17. INTERIOR OF BATHROOM SHOWING TOILET AT EXTREME PHOTO LEFT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. INTERIOR OF BATHROOM SHOWING TOILET AT EXTREME PHOTO LEFT, SINK, MIRROR AND ELECTRIC LIGHT AT LEFT PHOTO CENTER, OPEN AND CLOSED BUILT-IN CABINETRY AT PHOTO CENTER AND THE BATHTUB AT EXTREME PHOTO RIGHT. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  14. High Resolution Urban Land Cover Mapping Using NAIP Aerial Photography and Image Processing for the USEPA National Atlas of Sustainability and Ecosystem Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilant, A. N.; Baynes, J.; Dannenberg, M.

    2012-12-01

    The US EPA National Atlas for Sustainability is a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application that allows users to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services in a specific region. The Atlas provides users with a visual method for interpreting ecosystem services and understanding how they can be conserved and enhanced for a sustainable future. The Urban Atlas component of the National Atlas will provide fine-scale information linking human health and well-being to environmental conditions such as urban heat islands, near-road pollution, resource use, access to recreation, drinking water quality and other quality of life indicators. The National Land Cover Data (NLCD) derived from 30 m scale 2006 Landsat imagery provides the land cover base for the Atlas. However, urban features and phenomena occur at finer spatial scales, so higher spatial resolution and more current LC maps are required. We used 4 band USDA NAIP imagery (1 m pixel size) and various classification approaches to produce urban land cover maps with these classes: impervious surface, grass and herbaceous, trees and forest, soil and barren, and water. Here we present the remote sensing methods used and results from four pilot cities in this effort, highlighting the pros and cons of the approach, and the benefits to sustainability and ecosystem services analysis. Example of high resolution land cover map derived from USDA NAIP aerial photo. Compare 30 m and 1 m resolution land cover maps of downtown Durham, NC.

  15. Photo-induced morphological winding and unwinding motion of nanoscrolls composed of niobate nanosheets with a polyfluoroalkyl azobenzene derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabetani, Yu; Takamura, Hazuki; Uchikoshi, Akino; Hassan, Syed Zahid; Shimada, Tetsuya; Takagi, Shinsuke; Tachibana, Hiroshi; Masui, Dai; Tong, Zhiwei; Inoue, Haruo

    2016-06-01

    Photo-responsive nanoscrolls can be successfully fabricated by mixing a polyfluoroalkyl azobenzene derivative and a niobate nanosheet, which is exfoliated from potassium hexaniobate. In this study, we have found that the photo-responsive nanoscroll shows a morphological motion of winding and unwinding, which is basically due to the nanosheet sliding within the nanoscroll, by efficient photo-isomerization reactions of the intercalated azobenzene in addition to the interlayer distance change of the nanoscrolls. The relative nanosheet sliding of the nanoscroll is estimated to be ca. 280 nm from the AFM morphology analysis. The distance of the sliding motion is over 20 times that of the averaged nanosheet sliding in the azobenzene/niobate hybrid film reported previously. Photo-responsive nanoscrolls can be expected to be novel photo-activated actuators and artificial muscle model materials.Photo-responsive nanoscrolls can be successfully fabricated by mixing a polyfluoroalkyl azobenzene derivative and a niobate nanosheet, which is exfoliated from potassium hexaniobate. In this study, we have found that the photo-responsive nanoscroll shows a morphological motion of winding and unwinding, which is basically due to the nanosheet sliding within the nanoscroll, by efficient photo-isomerization reactions of the intercalated azobenzene in addition to the interlayer distance change of the nanoscrolls. The relative nanosheet sliding of the nanoscroll is estimated to be ca. 280 nm from the AFM morphology analysis. The distance of the sliding motion is over 20 times that of the averaged nanosheet sliding in the azobenzene/niobate hybrid film reported previously. Photo-responsive nanoscrolls can be expected to be novel photo-activated actuators and artificial muscle model materials. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1. Photo-isomerization reaction of nanoscrolls. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr02177h

  16. Topographic and Air-Photo Lineaments in Various Locations Related to Geothermal Exploration in Colorado

    DOE Data Explorer

    Zehner, Richard

    2012-02-01

    Title: Topographic and Air-Photo Lineaments in Various Locations Related to Geothermal Exploration in Colorado Tags: Colorado, lineaments, air-photo, geothermal Summary: These line shapefiles trace apparent topographic and air-photo lineaments in various counties in Colorado. It was made in order to identify possible fault and fracture systems that might be conduits for geothermal fluids, as part of a DOE reconnaissance geothermal exploration program. Description: Geothermal fluids commonly utilize fault and fractures in competent rocks as conduits for fluid flow. Geothermal exploration involves finding areas of high near-surface temperature gradients, along with a suitable “plumbing system” that can provide the necessary permeability. Geothermal power plants can sometimes be built where temperature and flow rates are high. This line shapefile is an attempt to use desktop GIS to delineate possible faults and fracture orientations and locations in highly prospective areas prior to an initial site visit. Geochemical sampling and geologic mapping could then be centered around these possible faults and fractures. To do this, georeferenced topographic maps and aerial photographs were utilized in an existing GIS, using ESRI ArcMap 10.0 software. The USA_Topo_Maps and World_Imagery map layers were chosen from the GIS Server at server.arcgisonline.com, using a UTM Zone 13 NAD27 projection. This line shapefile was then constructed over that which appeared to be through-going structural lineaments in both the aerial photographs and topographic layers, taking care to avoid manmade features such as roads, fence lines, and utility right-of-ways. Still, it is unknown what actual features these lineaments, if they exist, represent. Although the shapefiles are arranged by county, not all areas within any county have been examined for lineaments. Work was focused on either satellite thermal infrared anomalies, known hot springs or wells, or other evidence of geothermal systems

  17. Forensic aerial photography: projected 3-D exhibits facilitating rapid environmental justice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Robert A.

    2009-02-01

    Forensic stereoscopic analysis of historical aerial photography is successfully identifying the causes of environmental degradation, including erosion and unlawful releases of hazardous wastes into the environment. The photogrammetric evidence can successfully pinpoint the specific locations of undocumented hazardous waste landfills and other types of unlawful releases of chemicals and wastes into the environment, providing location data for targeted investigation, characterization, and subsequent remediation. The findings of these studies are being effectively communicated in a simple, memorable, and compelling way by projecting the three-dimensional (3-D) sequences of historical aerial photography utilizing polarized 3-D presentation methods.

  18. Matching forensic sketches to mug shot photos.

    PubMed

    Klare, Brendan F; Li, Zhifeng; Jain, Anil K

    2011-03-01

    The problem of matching a forensic sketch to a gallery of mug shot images is addressed in this paper. Previous research in sketch matching only offered solutions to matching highly accurate sketches that were drawn while looking at the subject (viewed sketches). Forensic sketches differ from viewed sketches in that they are drawn by a police sketch artist using the description of the subject provided by an eyewitness. To identify forensic sketches, we present a framework called local feature-based discriminant analysis (LFDA). In LFDA, we individually represent both sketches and photos using SIFT feature descriptors and multiscale local binary patterns (MLBP). Multiple discriminant projections are then used on partitioned vectors of the feature-based representation for minimum distance matching. We apply this method to match a data set of 159 forensic sketches against a mug shot gallery containing 10,159 images. Compared to a leading commercial face recognition system, LFDA offers substantial improvements in matching forensic sketches to the corresponding face images. We were able to further improve the matching performance using race and gender information to reduce the target gallery size. Additional experiments demonstrate that the proposed framework leads to state-of-the-art accuracys when matching viewed sketches.

  19. Cooperative Surveillance and Pursuit Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Unattended Ground Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Las Fargeas, Jonathan; Kabamba, Pierre; Girard, Anouck

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of path planning for a team of unmanned aerial vehicles performing surveillance near a friendly base. The unmanned aerial vehicles do not possess sensors with automated target recognition capability and, thus, rely on communicating with unattended ground sensors placed on roads to detect and image potential intruders. The problem is motivated by persistent intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance and base defense missions. The problem is formulated and shown to be intractable. A heuristic algorithm to coordinate the unmanned aerial vehicles during surveillance and pursuit is presented. Revisit deadlines are used to schedule the vehicles' paths nominally. The algorithm uses detections from the sensors to predict intruders' locations and selects the vehicles' paths by minimizing a linear combination of missed deadlines and the probability of not intercepting intruders. An analysis of the algorithm's completeness and complexity is then provided. The effectiveness of the heuristic is illustrated through simulations in a variety of scenarios. PMID:25591168

  20. Cooperative surveillance and pursuit using unmanned aerial vehicles and unattended ground sensors.

    PubMed

    Las Fargeas, Jonathan; Kabamba, Pierre; Girard, Anouck

    2015-01-13

    This paper considers the problem of path planning for a team of unmanned aerial vehicles performing surveillance near a friendly base. The unmanned aerial vehicles do not possess sensors with automated target recognition capability and, thus, rely on communicating with unattended ground sensors placed on roads to detect and image potential intruders. The problem is motivated by persistent intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance and base defense missions. The problem is formulated and shown to be intractable. A heuristic algorithm to coordinate the unmanned aerial vehicles during surveillance and pursuit is presented. Revisit deadlines are used to schedule the vehicles' paths nominally. The algorithm uses detections from the sensors to predict intruders' locations and selects the vehicles' paths by minimizing a linear combination of missed deadlines and the probability of not intercepting intruders. An analysis of the algorithm's completeness and complexity is then provided. The effectiveness of the heuristic is illustrated through simulations in a variety of scenarios.

  1. Segmentation and Reconstruction of Buildings with Aerial Oblique Photography Point Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, P.; Li, Y. C.; Hu, W.; Ding, X. B.

    2015-06-01

    Oblique photography technology as an excellent method for 3-D city model construction has brought itself to large-scale recognition and undeniable high social status. Tilt and vertical images with the high overlaps and different visual angles can produce a large number of dense matching point clouds data with spectral information. This paper presents a method of buildings reconstruction with stereo matching dense point clouds from aerial oblique images, which includes segmentation of buildings and reconstruction of building roofs. We summarize the characteristics of stereo matching point clouds from aerial oblique images and outline the problems with existing methods. Then we present the method for segmentation of building roofs, which based on colors and geometrical derivatives such as normal and curvature. Finally, a building reconstruction approach is developed based on the geometrical relationship. The experiment and analysis show that the methods are effective on building reconstruction with stereo matching point clouds from aerial oblique images.

  2. Application of Technical Measures and Software in Constructing Photorealistic 3D Models of Historical Building Using Ground-Based and Aerial (UAV) Digital Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarnowski, Aleksander; Banaszek, Anna; Banaszek, Sebastian

    2015-12-01

    Preparing digital documentation of historical buildings is a form of protecting cultural heritage. Recently there have been several intensive studies using non-metric digital images to construct realistic 3D models of historical buildings. Increasingly often, non-metric digital images are obtained with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). Technologies and methods of UAV flights are quite different from traditional photogrammetric approaches. The lack of technical guidelines for using drones inhibits the process of implementing new methods of data acquisition. This paper presents the results of experiments in the use of digital images in the construction of photo-realistic 3D model of a historical building (Raphaelsohns' Sawmill in Olsztyn). The aim of the study at the first stage was to determine the meteorological and technical conditions for the acquisition of aerial and ground-based photographs. At the next stage, the technology of 3D modelling was developed using only ground-based or only aerial non-metric digital images. At the last stage of the study, an experiment was conducted to assess the possibility of 3D modelling with the comprehensive use of aerial (UAV) and ground-based digital photographs in terms of their labour intensity and precision of development. Data integration and automatic photo-realistic 3D construction of the models was done with Pix4Dmapper and Agisoft PhotoScan software Analyses have shown that when certain parameters established in an experiment are kept, the process of developing the stock-taking documentation for a historical building moves from the standards of analogue to digital technology with considerably reduced cost.

  3. Object and activity detection from aerial video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Se, Stephen; Shi, Feng; Liu, Xin; Ghazel, Mohsen

    2015-05-01

    Aerial video surveillance has advanced significantly in recent years, as inexpensive high-quality video cameras and airborne platforms are becoming more readily available. Video has become an indispensable part of military operations and is now becoming increasingly valuable in the civil and paramilitary sectors. Such surveillance capabilities are useful for battlefield intelligence and reconnaissance as well as monitoring major events, border control and critical infrastructure. However, monitoring this growing flood of video data requires significant effort from increasingly large numbers of video analysts. We have developed a suite of aerial video exploitation tools that can alleviate mundane monitoring from the analysts, by detecting and alerting objects and activities that require analysts' attention. These tools can be used for both tactical applications and post-mission analytics so that the video data can be exploited more efficiently and timely. A feature-based approach and a pixel-based approach have been developed for Video Moving Target Indicator (VMTI) to detect moving objects at real-time in aerial video. Such moving objects can then be classified by a person detector algorithm which was trained with representative aerial data. We have also developed an activity detection tool that can detect activities of interests in aerial video, such as person-vehicle interaction. We have implemented a flexible framework so that new processing modules can be added easily. The Graphical User Interface (GUI) allows the user to configure the processing pipeline at run-time to evaluate different algorithms and parameters. Promising experimental results have been obtained using these tools and an evaluation has been carried out to characterize their performance.

  4. Comparative Assessment of Very High Resolution Satellite and Aerial Orthoimagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrafiotis, P.; Georgopoulos, A.

    2015-03-01

    This paper aims to assess the accuracy and radiometric quality of orthorectified high resolution satellite imagery from Pleiades-1B satellites through a comparative evaluation of their quantitative and qualitative properties. A Pleiades-B1 stereopair of high resolution images taken in 2013, two adjacent GeoEye-1 stereopairs from 2011 and aerial orthomosaic (LSO) provided by NCMA S.A (Hellenic Cadastre) from 2007 have been used for the comparison tests. As control dataset orthomosaic from aerial imagery provided also by NCMA S.A (0.25m GSD) from 2012 was selected. The process for DSM and orthoimage production was performed using commercial digital photogrammetric workstations. The two resulting orthoimages and the aerial orthomosaic (LSO) were relatively and absolutely evaluated for their quantitative and qualitative properties. Test measurements were performed using the same check points in order to establish their accuracy both as far as the single point coordinates as well as their distances are concerned. Check points were distributed according to JRC Guidelines for Best Practice and Quality Checking of Ortho Imagery and NSSDA standards while areas with different terrain relief and land cover were also included. The tests performed were based also on JRC and NSSDA accuracy standards. Finally, tests were carried out in order to assess the radiometric quality of the orthoimagery. The results are presented with a statistical analysis and they are evaluated in order to present the merits and demerits of the imaging sensors involved for orthoimage production. The results also serve for a critical approach for the usability and cost efficiency of satellite imagery for the production of Large Scale Orthophotos.

  5. Shake rattle and roll: the bony labyrinth and aerial descent in squamates.

    PubMed

    Boistel, Renaud; Herrel, Anthony; Lebrun, Renaud; Daghfous, Gheylen; Tafforeau, Paul; Losos, Jonathan B; Vanhooydonck, Bieke

    2011-12-01

    Controlled aerial descent has evolved many times independently in vertebrates. Squamates (lizards and snakes) are unusual in that respect due to the large number of independent origins of the evolution of this behavior. Although some squamates such as flying geckos of the genus Ptychozoon and the flying dragons of the genus Draco show obvious adaptations including skin flaps or enlarged ribs allowing them to increase their surface area and slow down their descent, many others appear unspecialized. Yet, specializations can be expected at the level of the sensory and neural systems allowing animals to maintain stability during controlled aerial descent. The vestibular system is a likely candidate given that it is an acceleration detector and is well-suited to detect changes in pitch, roll and yaw. Here we use conventional and synchrotron μCT scans to quantify the morphology of the vestibular system in squamates able to perform controlled aerial descent compared to species characterized by a terrestrial or climbing life style. Our results show the presence of a strong phylogenetic signal in the data with the vestibular system in species from the same family being morphologically similar. However, both our shape analysis and an analysis of the dimensions of the vestibular system showed clear differences among animals with different life-styles. Species able to perform a controlled aerial descent differed in the position and shape of the inner ear, especially of the posterior ampulla. Given the limited stability of squamates against roll and the fact that the posterior ampulla is tuned to changes in roll this suggests an adaptive evolution of the vestibular system in squamates using controlled aerial descent. Future studies testing for similar differences in other groups of vertebrates known to use controlled aerial descent are needed to test the generality of this observation.

  6. Grab a coffee: your aerial images are already analyzed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garetto, Anthony; Rademacher, Thomas; Schulz, Kristian

    2015-07-01

    For over 2 decades the AIMTM platform has been utilized in mask shops as the standard for actinic review of photomask sites in order to perform defect disposition and repair review. Throughout this time the measurement throughput of the systems has been improved in order to keep pace with the requirements demanded by a manufacturing environment, however the analysis of the sites captured has seen little improvement and remained a manual process. This manual analysis of aerial images is time consuming, subject to error and unreliability and contributes to holding up turn-around time (TAT) and slowing process flow in a manufacturing environment. AutoAnalysis, the first application available for the FAVOR® platform, offers a solution to these problems by providing fully automated data transfer and analysis of AIMTM aerial images. The data is automatically output in a customizable format that can be tailored to your internal needs and the requests of your customers. Savings in terms of operator time arise from the automated analysis which no longer needs to be performed. Reliability is improved as human error is eliminated making sure the most defective region is always and consistently captured. Finally the TAT is shortened and process flow for the back end of the line improved as the analysis is fast and runs in parallel to the measurements. In this paper the concept and approach of AutoAnalysis will be presented as well as an update to the status of the project. A look at the benefits arising from the automation and the customizable approach of the solution will be shown.

  7. A field evaluation of small-scale forest resource aerial photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, J.; Meyer, M.

    1977-01-01

    An earlier study under somewhat clinical laboratory conditions has suggested the possibility of using smaller scales of forest photography without serious information loss. The present paper subjects this idea to a rigorous field test by a number of experienced user-cooperators. Various combinations of summer black-and-white infrared and color infrared aerial photography at scales of 1:15,840, 1:24,000, 1:31,680, and 1:80,000 were taken over forested portions of Minnesota. Major conclusions are that 1:15,840 is the preferred working photo scale, and that instead of 1:15,840 a scale of 1:20,000 is considered an acceptable substitute.

  8. Photogrammetric 3D skull/photo superimposition: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Valeria; Lubelli, Sergio; De Donno, Antonio; Inchingolo, Alessio; Lavecchia, Fulvio; Introna, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    The identification of bodies through the examination of skeletal remains holds a prominent place in the field of forensic investigations. Technological advancements in 3D facial acquisition techniques have led to the proposal of a new body identification technique that involves a combination of craniofacial superimposition and photogrammetry. The aim of this study was to test the method by superimposing various computerized 3D images of skulls onto various photographs of missing people taken while they were still alive in cases when there was a suspicion that the skulls in question belonged to them. The technique is divided into four phases: preparatory phase, 3d acquisition phase, superimposition phase, and metric image analysis 3d. The actual superimposition of the images was carried out in the fourth step. and was done so by comparing the skull images with the selected photos. Using a specific software, the two images (i.e. the 3D avatar and the photo of the missing person) were superimposed. Cross-comparisons of 5 skulls discovered in a mass grave, and of 2 skulls retrieved in the crawlspace of a house were performed. The morphologyc phase reveals a full overlap between skulls and photos of disappeared persons. Metric phase reveals that correlation coefficients of this values, higher than 0.998-0,997 allow to confirm identification hypothesis.

  9. Evaluating HDR photos using Web 2.0 technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Guoping; Mei, Yujie; Duan, Jiang

    2011-01-01

    High dynamic range (HDR) photography is an emerging technology that has the potential to dramatically enhance the visual quality and realism of digital photos. One of the key technical challenges of HDR photography is displaying HDR photos on conventional devices through tone mapping or dynamic range compression. Although many different tone mapping techniques have been developed in recent years, evaluating tone mapping operators prove to be extremely difficult. Web2.0, social media and crowd-sourcing are emerging Internet technologies which can be harnessed to harvest the brain power of the mass to solve difficult problems in science, engineering and businesses. Paired comparison is used in the scientific study of preferences and attitudes and has been shown to be capable of obtaining an interval-scale ordering of items along a psychometric dimension such as preference or importance. In this paper, we exploit these technologies for evaluating HDR tone mapping algorithms. We have developed a Web2.0 style system that enables Internet users from anywhere to evaluate tone mapped HDR photos at any time. We adopt a simple paired comparison protocol, Internet users are presented a pair of tone mapped images and are simply asked to select the one that they think is better or click a "no difference" button. These user inputs are collected in the web server and analyzed by a rank aggregation algorithm which ranks the tone mapped photos according to the votes they received. We present experimental results which demonstrate that the emerging Internet technologies can be exploited as a new paradigm for evaluating HDR tone mapping algorithms. The advantages of this approach include the potential of collecting large user inputs under a variety of viewing environments rather than limited user participation under controlled laboratory environments thus enabling more robust and reliable quality assessment. We also present data analysis to correlate user generated qualitative

  10. 3D Modelling of Inaccessible Areas using UAV-based Aerial Photography and Structure from Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obanawa, Hiroyuki; Hayakawa, Yuichi; Gomez, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    In hardly accessible areas, the collection of 3D point-clouds using TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanner) can be very challenging, while airborne equivalent would not give a correct account of subvertical features and concave geometries like caves. To solve such problem, the authors have experimented an aerial photography based SfM (Structure from Motion) technique on a 'peninsular-rock' surrounded on three sides by the sea at a Pacific coast in eastern Japan. The research was carried out using UAS (Unmanned Aerial System) combined with a commercial small UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) carrying a compact camera. The UAV is a DJI PHANTOM: the UAV has four rotors (quadcopter), it has a weight of 1000 g, a payload of 400 g and a maximum flight time of 15 minutes. The camera is a GoPro 'HERO3 Black Edition': resolution 12 million pixels; weight 74 g; and 0.5 sec. interval-shot. The 3D model has been constructed by digital photogrammetry using a commercial SfM software, Agisoft PhotoScan Professional®, which can generate sparse and dense point-clouds, from which polygonal models and orthophotographs can be calculated. Using the 'flight-log' and/or GCPs (Ground Control Points), the software can generate digital surface model. As a result, high-resolution aerial orthophotographs and a 3D model were obtained. The results have shown that it was possible to survey the sea cliff and the wave cut-bench, which are unobservable from land side. In details, we could observe the complexity of the sea cliff that is nearly vertical as a whole while slightly overhanging over the thinner base. The wave cut bench is nearly flat and develops extensively at the base of the cliff. Although there are some evidences of small rockfalls at the upper part of the cliff, there is no evidence of very recent activity, because no fallen rock exists on the wave cut bench. This system has several merits: firstly lower cost than the existing measuring methods such as manned-flight survey and aerial laser

  11. Seeing photos makes us read between the lines: the influence of photos on memory for inferences.

    PubMed

    Henkel, Linda A

    2012-01-01

    Three studies examined how photos accompanying stories could contribute to people drawing inferences about outcomes from the stories and subsequently claiming that they had read what had actually only been inferred. Subjects read short stories designed to induce inferences about their conclusions (e.g., "Sabrina dropped the delicate vase" invites the inference that the vase broke) accompanied by a photo depicting the likely conclusion (the broken vase), a photo depicting a detail of the story but not the conclusion (the vase before it was dropped), or no photo. Results showed that seeing photographs consistent with inferred conclusions led people to falsely claim that they read those conclusions. Photo-boosted inferences were held with high confidence and were robust over time. Falsely recalled inferences were sometimes accompanied by false claims to have seen a photo depicting the inferred events when another photo or no photo had actually be seen. These findings support the source monitoring framework's prediction that people can mistakenly attribute their internally generated inferences about what occurred to externally derived sources when they have photographic "evidence" consistent with the inferred conclusions.

  12. Application of high resolution images from unmanned aerial vehicles for hydrology and rangeland science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rango, A.; Vivoni, E. R.; Anderson, C. A.; Perini, N. A.; Saripalli, S.; Laliberte, A.

    2012-12-01

    A common problem in many natural resource disciplines is the lack of high-enough spatial resolution images that can be used for monitoring and modeling purposes. Advances have been made in the utilization of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in hydrology and rangeland science. By utilizing low flight altitudes and velocities, UAVs are able to produce high resolution (5 cm) images as well as stereo coverage (with 75% forward overlap and 40% sidelap) to extract digital elevation models (DEM). Another advantage of flying at low altitude is that the potential problems of atmospheric haze obscuration are eliminated. Both small fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft have been used in our experiments over two rangeland areas in the Jornada Experimental Range in southern New Mexico and the Santa Rita Experimental Range in southern Arizona. The fixed-wing UAV has a digital camera in the wing and six-band multispectral camera in the nose, while the rotary-wing UAV carries a digital camera as payload. Because we have been acquiring imagery for several years, there are now > 31,000 photos at one of the study sites, and 177 mosaics over rangeland areas have been constructed. Using the DEM obtained from the imagery we have determined the actual catchment areas of three watersheds and compared these to previous estimates. At one site, the UAV-derived watershed area is 4.67 ha which is 22% smaller compared to a manual survey using a GPS unit obtained several years ago. This difference can be significant in constructing a watershed model of the site. From a vegetation species classification, we also determined that two of the shrub types in this small watershed(mesquite and creosote with 6.47 % and 5.82% cover, respectively) grow in similar locations(flat upland areas with deep soils), whereas the most predominant shrub(mariola with 11.9% cover) inhabits hillslopes near stream channels(with steep shallow soils). The positioning of these individual shrubs throughout the catchment using

  13. Photo-Regeneration of Severed Gel Using Photo-Controlled Radical Polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Awaneesh; Kuksenok, Olga; Johnson, Jeremiah A.; Balazs, Anna C.

    Using the framework of dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulation, we developed a novel computational model that enables photo-regeneration of the gel matrix when a significant portion of the material is severed. We considered photo-controlled radical polymerization (photo-CRP) within polymer networks with embedded iniferters (initiators for the photo-CRP reaction). These iniferters turn on the polymerization process in the presence of light with monomers and cross-linkers in the solution. This ''photo-growth'' allow us to effectively regenerate severed gels under the application of light. The growth process can be turned off once the polymerization is near completion, which forms a new cross-linked gel that resembles the uncut material. The polymerization rate can be modulated by altering the light intensity.

  14. Semantic photo books: leveraging blogs and social media for photo book creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabbath, Mohamad; Sandhaus, Philipp; Boll, Susanne

    2011-03-01

    Recently, we observed a substantial increase in the users' interest in sharing their photos online in travel blogs, social communities and photo sharing websites. An interesting aspect of these web platforms is their high level of user-media interaction and thus a high-quality source of semantic annotations: Users comment on the photos of each others, add external links to their travel blogs, tag each other in the social communities and add captions and descriptions to their photos. However, while those media assets are shared online, many users still highly appreciate the representation of these media in appealing physical photo books where the semantics are represented in form of descriptive text, maps, and external elements in addition to their related photos. Thus, in this paper we aim at fulfilling this need and provide an approach for creating photo books from Web 2.0 resources. We concentrate on two kinds of online shared media as resources for printable photo books: (a) Blogs especially travel blogs (b) Social community websites like Facebook which witness a rapidly growing number of shared media elements including photos. We introduce an approach to select media elements including photos, geographical maps and texts from both blogs and social networks semi-automatically, and then use these elements to create a printable photo book with an appealing layout. Because the selected media elements can be too many for the resulting book, we choose the most proper ones by exploiting content based, social based, and interactive based criteria. Additionally we add external media elements such as geographical maps, texts and externally hosted photos from linked resources. Having selected the important media, our approach uses a genetic algorithm to create an appealing layout using aesthetical rules, such as positioning the photo with the related text or map in a way that respects the golden ratio and symmetry. Distributing the media over the pages is done by

  15. Georeferencing the Large-Scale Aerial Photographs of a Great Lakes Coastal Wetland: A Modified Photogrammetric Method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, Marilyn K.; Kowalski, Kurt P.; Grapentine, Joel L.

    2010-01-01

    The geocontrol template method was developed to georeference multiple, overlapping analog aerial photographs without reliance upon conventionally obtained horizontal ground control. The method was tested as part of a long-term wetland habitat restoration project at a Lake Erie coastal wetland complex in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge. As in most coastal wetlands, annually identifiable ground-control features required to georeference photo-interpreted data are difficult to find. The geocontrol template method relies on the following four components: (a) an uncontrolled aerial photo mosaic of the study area, (b) global positioning system (GPS) derived horizontal coordinates of each photo’s principal point, (c) a geocontrol template created by the transfer of fiducial markings and calculated principal points to clear acetate from individual photographs arranged in a mosaic, and (d) the root-mean-square-error testing of the system to ensure an acceptable level of planimetric accuracy. Once created for a study area, the geocontrol template can be registered in geographic information system (GIS) software to facilitate interpretation of multiple images without individual image registration. The geocontrol template enables precise georeferencing of single images within larger blocks of photographs using a repeatable and consistent method.

  16. Detection of Tampering Inconsistencies on Mobile Photos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hong; Kot, Alex C.

    Fast proliferation of mobile cameras and the deteriorating trust on digital images have created needs in determining the integrity of photos captured by mobile devices. As tampering often creates some inconsistencies, we propose in this paper a novel framework to statistically detect the image tampering inconsistency using accurately detected demosaicing weights features. By first cropping four non-overlapping blocks, each from one of the four quadrants in the mobile photo, we extract a set of demosaicing weights features from each block based on a partial derivative correlation model. Through regularizing the eigenspectrum of the within-photo covariance matrix and performing eigenfeature transformation, we further derive a compact set of eigen demosaicing weights features, which are sensitive to image signal mixing from different photo sources. A metric is then proposed to quantify the inconsistency based on the eigen weights features among the blocks cropped from different regions of the mobile photo. Through comparison, we show our eigen weights features perform better than the eigen features extracted from several other conventional sets of statistical forensics features in detecting the presence of tampering. Experimentally, our method shows a good confidence in tampering detection especially when one of the four cropped blocks is from a different camera model or brand with different demosaicing process.

  17. Photo-Geomorphology of Coastal Landforms, Cat Island, Bahamas. Volume II,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The report provides the aerial imagery used in the analysis of the coastal landforms of Cat Island in the east-central Bahama Islands. Interpretive...published volume Coastal Landform of Cat Island, Bahamas: A Study of Holocene Accretionary Topography and Sea-Level Change but may also serve as an

  18. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Produce High-Resolution Seasonally-Relevant Imagery for Classifying Wetland Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcaccio, J. V.; Markle, C. E.; Chow-Fraser, P.

    2015-08-01

    With recent advances in technology, personal aerial imagery acquired with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has transformed the way ecologists can map seasonal changes in wetland habitat. Here, we use a multi-rotor (consumer quad-copter, the DJI Phantom 2 Vision+) UAV to acquire a high-resolution (< 8 cm) composite photo of a coastal wetland in summer 2014. Using validation data collected in the field, we determine if a UAV image and SWOOP (Southwestern Ontario Orthoimagery Project) image (collected in spring 2010) differ in their classification of type of dominant vegetation type and percent cover of three plant classes: submerged aquatic vegetation, floating aquatic vegetation, and emergent vegetation. The UAV imagery was more accurate than available SWOOP imagery for mapping percent cover of submergent and floating vegetation categories, but both were able to accurately determine the dominant vegetation type and percent cover of emergent vegetation. Our results underscore the value and potential for affordable UAVs (complete quad-copter system < 3,000 CAD) to revolutionize the way ecologists obtain imagery and conduct field research. In Canada, new UAV regulations make this an easy and affordable way to obtain multiple high-resolution images of small (< 1.0 km2) wetlands, or portions of larger wetlands throughout a year.

  19. Encoding and analyzing aerial imagery using geospatial semantic graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Jean-Paul; Strip, David R.; McLendon, William C.; Parekh, Ojas D.; Diegert, Carl F.; Martin, Shawn Bryan; Rintoul, Mark Daniel

    2014-02-01

    While collection capabilities have yielded an ever-increasing volume of aerial imagery, analytic techniques for identifying patterns in and extracting relevant information from this data have seriously lagged. The vast majority of imagery is never examined, due to a combination of the limited bandwidth of human analysts and limitations of existing analysis tools. In this report, we describe an alternative, novel approach to both encoding and analyzing aerial imagery, using the concept of a geospatial semantic graph. The advantages of our approach are twofold. First, intuitive templates can be easily specified in terms of the domain language in which an analyst converses. These templates can be used to automatically and efficiently search large graph databases, for specific patterns of interest. Second, unsupervised machine learning techniques can be applied to automatically identify patterns in the graph databases, exposing recurring motifs in imagery. We illustrate our approach using real-world data for Anne Arundel County, Maryland, and compare the performance of our approach to that of an expert human analyst.

  20. Bactericidal Action of Photo-Irradiated Aqueous Extracts from the Residue of Crushed Grapes from Winemaking.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, Mana; Sheng, Hong; Tada, Mika; Mokudai, Takayuki; Oizumi, Satomi; Kamachi, Toshiaki; Niwano, Yoshimi

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies revealed that photo-irradiation of polyphenols could exert bactericidal action via reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, the photo-irradiation-induced bactericidal activity of the aqueous extract from the residue of crushed grapes from winemaking was investigated in relation to ROS formation. Staphylococcus aureus suspended in the extract was irradiated with LED light at 400 nm. This solution killed the bacteria, and a 3-4 log and a >5-log reduction of the viable counts were observed within 10 and 20 min, respectively. LED light irradiation alone also killed the bacteria, but the viable counts were 2-4 log higher than those of the photo-irradiated extract. In contrast, almost no change occurred in the suspension without LED irradiation. When hydroxyl radical scavengers were added to the suspension, the bactericidal effect of the photo-irradiated extract was attenuated. Furthermore, electron spin resonance analysis demonstrated that hydroxyl radicals were generated by the photo-irradiation of the extract. The present study suggests that polyphenolic compounds in the extract exert bactericidal activity via hydroxyl radical formation upon photo-irradiation.

  1. Environmental assessment of different photo-Fenton approaches for commercial reactive dye removal.

    PubMed

    García-Montaño, Julia; Ruiz, Nilbia; Muñoz, Iván; Domènech, Xavier; García-Hortal, José A; Torrades, Francesc; Peral, José

    2006-11-16

    An environmental study using life cycle assessment (LCA) has been applied to three bench-scale wastewater treatments for Cibacron Red FN-R hetero-bireactive dye removal: artificial light photo-Fenton process, solar driven photo-Fenton process and artificial light photo-Fenton process coupled to a biological treatment. The study is focused on electricity and chemicals consumption, transports and atmosphere and water emissions generated by the different processes involved. Results show that the artificial light photo-Fenton process is the worst treatment in terms of environmental impact. On the other hand, both solar driven and coupled to biological photo-Fenton processes reduce significantly the environmental damage, although none can be identified as the best in all impact categories. The major environmental impact is attributed to the H2O2 consumption and to the electrical energy consumption to run the UVA lamp. An economic analysis of the different photo-Fenton processes has also been performed and the results are discussed together with those obtained from the environmental assessment.

  2. Aerial organ anatomy of Smilax syphilitica (Smilacaceae).

    PubMed

    Silva, João Marcelo; Andreata, Regina Helena Potsch; Appezzato-da-Glória, Beatriz

    2012-09-01

    Smilax L. in Brazil is represented by 32 taxa and it is a taxonomically difficult genus because the plants are dioecious and show wide phenotypic variation. The analysis and use of leaf anatomy characters is recognized as a frequently successful taxonomic method to distinguish between individual taxon, when floral material is absent or minute differences in flowers and foliage exist such as in Smilax. The aim of this study was to characterize the anatomical features of the aerial organs in Smilax syphilitica collected from the Atlantic Rainforest, in Santa Teresa-ES and the Smilax aff. syphilitica from the Amazon Rainforest, in Manaus, Brazil. For this, a total of three samples of Smilax were collected per site. Sample leaves and stems were fixed with FAA 50, embedded in historesin, sectioned on a rotary microtome, stained and mounted in synthetic resin. Additionally, histochemical tests were performed and cuticle ornamentation was analyzed with standard scanning electron microscopy. S. syphilitica and S. aff. syphilitica differed in cuticle ornamentation, epidermal cell arrangement and wall thickness, stomata type and orientation, calcium oxalate crystal type, and position of stem thorns. Leaf blades of S. syphilitica from the Amazon Rainforest have a network of rounded ridges on both sides, while in S. aff. syphilitica, these ridges are parallel and the spaces between them are filled with numerous membranous platelets. Viewed from the front, the epidermal cells of S. syphilitica have sinuous walls (even more pronounced in samples from the Amazon); while in S. aff. syphilitica, these cells are also sinuous but elongated in the cross-section of the blade and arranged in parallel. Stomata of S. syphilitica are paracytic, whereas in S. aff. syphilitica, are both paracytic and anisocytic, and their polar axes are directed towards the mid-vein. Calcium oxalate crystals in S. syphilitica are prisms, whereas in S. aff. syphilitica, crystal sand. Thorns occur in nodes and

  3. Locating chimpanzee nests and identifying fruiting trees with an unmanned aerial vehicle.

    PubMed

    van Andel, Alexander C; Wich, Serge A; Boesch, Christophe; Koh, Lian Pin; Robbins, Martha M; Kelly, Joseph; Kuehl, Hjalmar S

    2015-10-01

    Monitoring of animal populations is essential for conservation management. Various techniques are available to assess spatiotemporal patterns of species distribution and abundance. Nest surveys are often used for monitoring great apes. Quickly developing technologies, including unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can be used to complement these ground-based surveys, especially for covering large areas rapidly. Aerial surveys have been used successfully to detect the nests of orang-utans. It is unknown if such an approach is practical for African apes, which usually build their nests at lower heights, where they might be obscured by forest canopy. In this 2-month study, UAV-derived aerial imagery was used for two distinct purposes: testing the detectability of chimpanzee nests and identifying fruiting trees used by chimpanzees in Loango National Park (Gabon). Chimpanzee nest data were collected through two approaches: we located nests on the ground and then tried to detect them in UAV photos and vice versa. Ground surveys were conducted using line transects, reconnaissance trails, and opportunistic sampling during which we detected 116 individual nests in 28 nest groups. In complementary UAV images we detected 48% of the individual nests (68% of nest groups) in open coastal forests and 8% of individual nests (33% of nest groups) in closed canopy inland forests. The key factor for nest detectability in UAV imagery was canopy openness. Data on fruiting trees were collected from five line transects. In 122 UAV images 14 species of trees (N = 433) were identified, alongside 37 tree species (N = 205) in complementary ground surveys. Relative abundance of common tree species correlated between ground and UAV surveys. We conclude that UAVs have great potential as a rapid assessment tool for detecting chimpanzee presence in forest with open canopy and assessing fruit tree availability. UAVs may have limited applicability for nest detection in closed canopy forest.

  4. Tracking molecular dynamics without tracking: image correlation of photo-activation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandžić, Elvis; Rossy, Jérémie; Gaus, Katharina

    2015-03-01

    Measuring protein dynamics in the plasma membrane can provide insights into the mechanisms of receptor signaling and other cellular functions. To quantify protein dynamics on the single molecule level over the entire cell surface, sophisticated approaches such as single particle tracking (SPT), photo-activation localization microscopy (PALM) and fluctuation-based analysis have been developed. However, analyzing molecular dynamics of fluorescent particles with intermittent excitation and low signal-to-noise ratio present at high densities has remained a challenge. We overcame this problem by applying spatio-temporal image correlation spectroscopy (STICS) analysis to photo-activated (PA) microscopy time series. In order to determine under which imaging conditions this approach is valid, we simulated PA images of diffusing particles in a homogeneous environment and varied photo-activation, reversible blinking and irreversible photo-bleaching rates. Further, we simulated data with high particle densities that populated mobile objects (such as adhesions and vesicles) that often interfere with STICS and fluctuation-based analysis. We demonstrated in experimental measurements that the diffusion coefficient of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) fused to PAGFP in live COS-7 cells can be determined in the plasma membrane and revealed differences in the time-dependent diffusion maps between wild-type and mutant Lck in activated T cells. In summary, we have developed a new analysis approach for live cell photo-activation microscopy data based on image correlation spectroscopy to quantify the spatio-temporal dynamics of single proteins.

  5. U.S. Unmanned Aerial Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-03

    decades for crop dusting and other agricultural purposes.84 Historically, UAS were predominately operated by DoD in support of combat operations in...advocates state that in order for UAS to take an active role in homeland security, law enforcement, aerial surveying, crop dusting, and other...isn’t ready for.93 The issue of when and how UAS will be allowed to operate in U.S. airspace continues to evolve, and continues to be of interest

  6. Twenty-First-Century Aerial Mining

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    of Deer Island, the approaches open up into three deepwater channels and then into unrestricted waters. Using traditional aerial mine-laying...Boston’s inner harbor, showing two lucrative choke points—the channels south of Logan International or the Deer Island channel in the lower right. Areas...electric submarines yet leave commercial shipping unaffected. Some straits, such as Gibraltar, Lombok, or the Bab el Mandeb ( Red Sea) are too deep for

  7. Docetaxel-induced photo-recall phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Droitcourt, Catherine; Le Hô, Hélêne; Adamski, Henri; Le Gall, François; Dupuy, Alain

    2012-08-01

    Photo-recall phenomenon is a phototoxic eruption occurring on areas of previous ultraviolet-induced solar erythema following a systemic administration of a drug. It has been mostly described with methotrexate but remains rare with other antineoplastic drugs. We describe a case of docetaxel-induced photo-recall skin rash in a woman treated for a non-small-cell lung cancer. Although the patient has refused to receive a second infusion, chemotherapy can be carried on with photoprotection and the use of topical and/or systemic corticosteroids. In contrast, radiation recall is a well-known reaction by oncologists, most of them may not be aware of a similar phenomenon called photo-recall phenomenon. Recognizing this entity may avoid misdiagnosing a drug allergy and should avoid inappropriate decisions of drug discontinuation.

  8. Toxicity reduction of photo processing wastewaters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, W.

    1992-01-01

    The photo processing industry can be characterized by treatment processes and subsequent silver recovery. The effluents generated all contain various amounts of silver. The objectives of this study were to determine toxicity of photo processing effluents and to explore their toxicity mitigation. Six samples, from small shops to a major photo processing center, were studied. Two samples (I and VI) were found to be extremely toxic, causing 100 and 99% inhibition of duckweed frond reproduction, respectively, and were used for subsequent toxicity reduction experiments. Lime and sodium sulfide were effective for the toxicity reduction of Sample VI; both reduced its toxicity to negligible. Sample I was far more toxic and was first diluted to 2.2% and then treated with 0.5 g lime/100 mL, reducing toxicity from 100% to 12% inhibition.

  9. Prooxidative Potential of Photo-Irradiated Aqueous Extracts of Grape Pomace, a Recyclable Resource from Winemaking Process.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, Mana; Nakashima, Takuji; Kamachi, Toshiaki; Niwano, Yoshimi

    2016-01-01

    Our previous study revealed that aqueous extract of grape pomace obtained from a winemaking process could exert bactericidal action upon photo-irradiation via reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. In the present study, we focused on chemical composition and prooxidative profile of the extract. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) analysis showed that polyphenolic compounds including catechin monomers, dimers, trimers, and polyphenolic glucosides were contained. The polyphenol rich fraction used for the LC-ESI-MS analysis generated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) upon photo-irradiation possibly initiated by photo-oxidation of phenolic hydroxyl group. That is, reduction of dissolved oxygen by proton-coupled electron transferred from the photo-oxidized phenolic hydroxyl group would form H2O2. The resultant H2O2 was then photolyzed to generate hydroxyl radical (•OH). The prooxidative profile of the extract in terms of •OH generation pattern upon photo-irradiation was similar to that of grape seed extract (GSE) as an authentic polyphenol product and (+)-catechin as a pure polyphenolic compound, and in all the three samples •OH generation could be retained during photo-irradiation for at least a couple of hours. The prooxidant activity of the photo-irradiated extract indicated by •OH yield was more potent than that of the photo-irradiated GSE and (+)-catechin, and this was well reflected in their bactericidal activity in which the photo-irradiated extract could kill the bacteria more efficiently than did the photo-irradiated GSE and (+)-catechin.

  10. Prooxidative Potential of Photo-Irradiated Aqueous Extracts of Grape Pomace, a Recyclable Resource from Winemaking Process

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Takuji; Kamachi, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Our previous study revealed that aqueous extract of grape pomace obtained from a winemaking process could exert bactericidal action upon photo-irradiation via reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. In the present study, we focused on chemical composition and prooxidative profile of the extract. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) analysis showed that polyphenolic compounds including catechin monomers, dimers, trimers, and polyphenolic glucosides were contained. The polyphenol rich fraction used for the LC-ESI-MS analysis generated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) upon photo-irradiation possibly initiated by photo-oxidation of phenolic hydroxyl group. That is, reduction of dissolved oxygen by proton-coupled electron transferred from the photo-oxidized phenolic hydroxyl group would form H2O2. The resultant H2O2 was then photolyzed to generate hydroxyl radical (•OH). The prooxidative profile of the extract in terms of •OH generation pattern upon photo-irradiation was similar to that of grape seed extract (GSE) as an authentic polyphenol product and (+)-catechin as a pure polyphenolic compound, and in all the three samples •OH generation could be retained during photo-irradiation for at least a couple of hours. The prooxidant activity of the photo-irradiated extract indicated by •OH yield was more potent than that of the photo-irradiated GSE and (+)-catechin, and this was well reflected in their bactericidal activity in which the photo-irradiated extract could kill the bacteria more efficiently than did the photo-irradiated GSE and (+)-catechin. PMID:27341398

  11. Inertial instrument system for aerial surveying

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, R.H.; Chapman, W.H.; Hanna, W.F.; Mongan, C.E.; Hursh, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    An inertial guidance system for aerial surveying has been developed under contract to the U.S. Geological Survey. This prototype system, known as the aerial profiling of terrain (APT) system, is designed to determine continuously the positions of points along an aircraft flight path, or the underlying terrain profile, to an accuracy of + or - 0.5 ft (15 cm) vertically and + or - 2 ft (61 cm) horizontally. The system 's objective thus is to accomplish, from a fixed-wing aircraft, what would traditionally be accomplished from ground-based topographic surveys combined with aerial photography and photogrammetry. The two-part strategy for measuring the terrain profile entails: (1) use of an inertial navigator for continuous determination of the three-coordinate position of the aircraft, and (2) use of an eye-safe pulsed laser profiler for continuous measurement of the vertical distance from aircraft to land surface, so that the desired terrain profile can then be directly computed. The APT system, installed in a DeHavilland Twin Otter aircraft, is typically flown at a speed of 115 mph (105 knots) at an altitude of 2,000 ft (610 m) above the terrain. Performance-evaluation flights have shown that the vertical and horizontal accuracy specifications are met. (USGS)

  12. Localization of aerial broadband noise by pinnipeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Marla M.; Schusterman, Ronald J.; Southall, Brandon L.; Kastak, David

    2004-05-01

    Although many pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses) emit broadband calls on land as part of their communication system, few studies have addressed these animals' ability to localize aerial broadband sounds. In this study, the aerial sound localization acuities of a female northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), a male harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and a female California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) were measured in the horizontal plane. The stimulus was broadband white noise that was band pass filtered between 1.2 and 15 kHz. Testing was conducted in a hemi-anechoic chamber using a left/right forced choice procedure to measure the minimum audible angle (MAA) for each subject. MAAs were defined as half the angular separation of two sound sources bisected by a subject's midline that corresponded to 75% correct discrimination. MAAs were 4.7°, 3.6°, and 4.2° for the northern elephant seal, harbor seal, and California sea lion, respectively. These results demonstrate that individuals of these pinniped species have sound localization abilities comparable to the domestic cat and rhesus macaque. The acuity differences between our subjects were small and not predicted by head size. These results likely reflect the relatively acute general abilities of pinnipeds to localize aerial broadband signals.

  13. Remotely deployable aerial inspection using tactile sensors

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, C. N.; Cao, J.; Pierce, S. G.; Dobie, G.; Summan, R.; Sullivan, J. C.; Pipe, A. G.

    2014-02-18

    For structural monitoring applications, the use of remotely deployable Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) inspection platforms offer many advantages, including improved accessibility, greater safety and reduced cost, when compared to traditional manual inspection techniques. The use of such platforms, previously reported by researchers at the University Strathclyde facilitates the potential for rapid scanning of large areas and volumes in hazardous locations. A common problem for both manual and remote deployment approaches lies in the intrinsic stand-off and surface coupling issues of typical NDE probes. The associated complications of these requirements are obviously significantly exacerbated when considering aerial based remote inspection and deployment, resulting in simple visual techniques being the preferred sensor payload. Researchers at Bristol Robotics Laboratory have developed biomimetic tactile sensors modelled on the facial whiskers (vibrissae) of animals such as rats and mice, with the latest sensors actively sweeping their tips across the surface in a back and forth motion. The current work reports on the design and performance of an aerial inspection platform and the suitability of tactile whisking sensors to aerial based surface monitoring applications.

  14. Orientation Strategies for Aerial Oblique Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedemann, A.; Moré, J.

    2012-07-01

    Oblique aerial images become more and more distributed to fill the gap between vertical aerial images and mobile mapping systems. Different systems are on the market. For some applications, like texture mapping, precise orientation data are required. One point is the stable interior orientation, which can be achieved by stable camera systems, the other a precise exterior orientation. A sufficient exterior orientation can be achieved by a large effort in direct sensor orientation, whereas minor errors in the angles have a larger effect than in vertical imagery. The more appropriate approach is by determine the precise orientation parameters by photogrammetric methods using an adapted aerial triangulation. Due to the different points of view towards the object the traditional aerotriangulation matching tools fail, as they produce a bunch of blunders and require a lot of manual work to achieve a sufficient solution. In this paper some approaches are discussed and results are presented for the most promising approaches. We describe a single step approach with an aerotriangulation using all available images; a two step approach with an aerotriangulation only of the vertical images plus a mathematical transformation of the oblique images using the oblique cameras excentricity; and finally the extended functional model for a bundle block adjustment considering the mechanical connection between vertical and oblique images. Beside accuracy also other aspects like efficiency and required manual work have to be considered.

  15. Localization of aerial broadband noise by pinnipeds.

    PubMed

    Holt, Marla M; Schusterman, Ronald J; Southall, Brandon L; Kastak, David

    2004-05-01

    Although many pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses) emit broadband calls on land as part of their communication system, few studies have addressed these animals' ability to localize aerial broadband sounds. In this study, the aerial sound localization acuities of a female northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), a male harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and a female California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) were measured in the horizontal plane. The stimulus was broadband white noise that was band pass filtered between 1.2 and 15 kHz. Testing was conducted in a hemi-anechoic chamber using a left/right forced choice procedure to measure the minimum audible angle (MAA) for each subject. MAAs were defined as half the angular separation of two sound sources bisected by a subject's midline that corresponded to 75% correct discrimination. MAAs were 4.7 degrees, 3.6 degrees, and 4.2 degrees for the northern elephant seal, harbor seal, and California sea lion, respectively. These results demonstrate that individuals of these pinniped species have sound localization abilities comparable to the domestic cat and rhesus macaque. The acuity differences between our subjects were small and not predicted by head size. These results likely reflect the relatively acute general abilities of pinnipeds to localize aerial broadband signals.

  16. Aerial vehicles collision avoidance using monocular vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balashov, Oleg; Muraviev, Vadim; Strotov, Valery

    2016-10-01

    In this paper image-based collision avoidance algorithm that provides detection of nearby aircraft and distance estimation is presented. The approach requires a vision system with a single moving camera and additional information about carrier's speed and orientation from onboard sensors. The main idea is to create a multi-step approach based on a preliminary detection, regions of interest (ROI) selection, contour segmentation, object matching and localization. The proposed algorithm is able to detect small targets but unlike many other approaches is designed to work with large-scale objects as well. To localize aerial vehicle position the system of equations relating object coordinates in space and observed image is solved. The system solution gives the current position and speed of the detected object in space. Using this information distance and time to collision can be estimated. Experimental research on real video sequences and modeled data is performed. Video database contained different types of aerial vehicles: aircrafts, helicopters, and UAVs. The presented algorithm is able to detect aerial vehicles from several kilometers under regular daylight conditions.

  17. Detection of unmanned aerial vehicles using a visible camera system.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shuowen; Goldman, Geoffrey H; Borel-Donohue, Christoph C

    2017-01-20

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) flown by adversaries are an emerging asymmetric threat to homeland security and the military. To help address this threat, we developed and tested a computationally efficient UAV detection algorithm consisting of horizon finding, motion feature extraction, blob analysis, and coherence analysis. We compare the performance of this algorithm against two variants, one using the difference image intensity as the motion features and another using higher-order moments. The proposed algorithm and its variants are tested using field test data of a group 3 UAV acquired with a panoramic video camera in the visible spectrum. The performance of the algorithms was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curves. The results show that the proposed approach had the best performance compared to the two algorithmic variants.

  18. Animation of Mapped Photo Collections for Storytelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Hideyuki; Arikawa, Masatoshi

    Our research goal is to facilitate the sharing of stories with digital photographs. Some map websites now collect stories associated with peoples' relationships to places. Users map collections of places and include their intangible emotional associations with each location along with photographs, videos, etc. Though this framework of mapping stories is important, it is not sufficiently expressive to communicate stories in a narrative fashion. For example, when the number of the mapped collections of places is particularly large, it is neither easy for viewers to interpret the map nor is it easy for the creator to express a story as a series of events in the real world. This is because each narrative, in the form of a sequence of textual narratives, a sequence of photographs, a movie, or audio is mapped to just one point. As a result, it is up to the viewer to decide which points on the map must be read, and in what order. The conventional framework is fairly suitable for mapping and expressing fragments or snapshots of a whole story and not for conveying the whole story as a narrative using the entire map as the setting. We therefore propose a new framework, Spatial Slideshow, for mapping personal photo collections and representing them as stories such as route guidances, sightseeing guidances, historical topics, fieldwork records, personal diaries, and so on. It is a fusion of personal photo mapping and photo storytelling. Each story is conveyed through a sequence of mapped photographs, presented as a synchronized animation of a map and an enhanced photo slideshow. The main technical novelty of this paper is a method for creating three-dimensional animations of photographs that induce the visual effect of motion from photo to photo. We believe that the proposed framework may have considerable significance in facilitating the grassroots development of spatial content driven by visual communication concerning real-world locations or events.

  19. Fullerene assemblies toward photo-energy conversions.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yanfei; Nakanishi, Takashi

    2014-04-28

    Manipulating molecular interaction and assembly for developing various functional nanostructures with controlled dimensionality, morphology and tailored properties is currently a research focus in molecular science and materials chemistry. Particularly, the self-organization of fullerenes (i.e. C60) to form various functional assemblies has received intense interest since it can provide excellent optoelectronic properties for photo-energy conversion-induced applications such as solar cells and field effect transistors (FET). In this perspective, we describe our recent efforts toward the development in the area of fullerene molecular design and assemblies aimed at improving the photoconductivity and photo-energy (electric and thermal) conversion systems.

  20. Aerial target recognition using MRA, GVF snakes, and polygon approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhen Z.; Zhang, Taiyi; Xu, Jian

    2003-04-01

    The traditional method to extract target contour from aerial target image is changing the aerial image into a gray level image with multiple thresholds or binary image with single threshold. From the edge of target, contour can be extracted according to the changed value. The traditional method is useful only when contrast between target and background is in the proper degree. Snakes are curves defined within an image domain that can move under the influence of internal force coming from within the curve itself and external forces are defined so that the snake will conform to an object boundary or other desired features within an image. Snakes have been proved an effective method and widely used in image processing and computer vision. Snakes synthesize parametric curves within an image domain and allow them to move toward desired edges. Particular advantages of the GVF(Gradient Vector Flow) snakes over a traditional snakes are its insensitivity to initialization and its ability to move into boundary concavities. Its initializations can be inside, outside, or across the object"s boundary. The GVF snake does not need prior knowledge about whether to shrink or expand toward the boundary. This increased capture range is achieved through a diffusion process that does not blur the edges of themselves. Affected by the light from different incident angle, the brightness of aerial target surface changed greatly in a complicate mode. So the GVF snakes is not fast, accurate and effective all the time for this kind of images. A new contour extracting method, GVF Snakes Combined with wavelet multi-resolution Analysis is proposed in this paper. In this algorithm, bubble wavelet is used iteratively to do the multi resolution analysis in the order of degressive scale before GVF Snakes is used every time to extract accurate contour of target. After accurate contour is extracted, polygon approximation is used to extract characteristics to realize the recognition of aerial target