Science.gov

Sample records for aerial photography satellite

  1. Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    John Hill, a pilot and commercial aerial photographer, needed an information base. He consulted NERAC and requested a search of the latest developments in camera optics. NERAC provided information; Hill contacted the manufacturers of camera equipment and reduced his photographic costs significantly.

  2. Aerial Photography Summary Record System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1998-01-01

    The Aerial Photography Summary Record System (APSRS) describes aerial photography projects that meet specified criteria over a given geographic area of the United States and its territories. Aerial photographs are an important tool in cartography and a number of other professions. Land use planners, real estate developers, lawyers, environmental specialists, and many other professionals rely on detailed and timely aerial photographs. Until 1975, there was no systematic approach to locate an aerial photograph, or series of photographs, quickly and easily. In that year, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) inaugurated the APSRS, which has become a standard reference for users of aerial photographs.

  3. Aerial and satellite photography - A valuable tool for water quality investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherz, J. P.; Van Domelen, J. F.; Klooster, S. A.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation of surface, volume, and bottom effects in Lake Superior is conducted. The objective of the reported study is the development of a reliable technique for the monitoring and the quantification of the water quality parameters associated with volume reflectance. Basic relationships are discussed together with details concerning the equipment used in the studies, the water quality on the basis of aerial photos and satellite imagery, and the effects of oil on sky-light reflection.

  4. Identification of wild areas in southern lower Michigan. [terrain analysis from aerial photography, and satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habowski, S.; Cialek, C.

    1978-01-01

    An inventory methodology was developed to identify potential wild area sites. A list of site criteria were formulated and tested in six selected counties. Potential sites were initially identified from LANDSAT satellite imagery. A detailed study of the soil, vegetation and relief characteristics of each site based on both high-altitude aerial photographs and existing map data was conducted to eliminate unsuitable sites. Ground reconnaissance of the remaining wild areas was made to verify suitability and acquire information on wildlife and general aesthetics. Physical characteristics of the wild areas in each county are presented in tables. Maps show the potential sites to be set aside for natural preservation and regulation by the state under the Wilderness and Natural Areas Act of 1972.

  5. BOREAS Level-0 ER-2 Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominquez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), the ER-2 and other aerial photography was collected to provide finely detailed and spatially extensive documentation of the condition of the primary study sites. The ER-2 aerial photography consists of color-IR transparencies collected during flights in 1994 and 1996 over the study areas.

  6. A Classroom Simulation of Aerial Photography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Simon

    1981-01-01

    Explains how a simulation of aerial photography can help students in a college level beginning course on interpretation of aerial photography understand the interrelationships of the airplane, the camera, and the earth's surface. Procedures, objectives, equipment, and scale are discussed. (DB)

  7. 7 CFR 611.21 - Availability of aerial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611... § 611.21 Availability of aerial photography. The National Cartography and Geospatial Center obtains necessary clearance for all aerial photography for NRCS. New aerial photography of designated areas in...

  8. 7 CFR 611.21 - Availability of aerial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611... § 611.21 Availability of aerial photography. The National Cartography and Geospatial Center obtains necessary clearance for all aerial photography for NRCS. New aerial photography of designated areas in...

  9. 7 CFR 611.21 - Availability of aerial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611... § 611.21 Availability of aerial photography. The National Cartography and Geospatial Center obtains necessary clearance for all aerial photography for NRCS. New aerial photography of designated areas in...

  10. 7 CFR 611.21 - Availability of aerial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611... § 611.21 Availability of aerial photography. The National Cartography and Geospatial Center obtains necessary clearance for all aerial photography for NRCS. New aerial photography of designated areas in...

  11. 7 CFR 611.21 - Availability of aerial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611... § 611.21 Availability of aerial photography. The National Cartography and Geospatial Center obtains necessary clearance for all aerial photography for NRCS. New aerial photography of designated areas in...

  12. 77 FR 36250 - Information Collection Request; Request for Aerial Photography

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency Information Collection Request; Request for Aerial Photography... FSA Aerial Photography Program. The FSA Aerial Photography Field Office (APFO) uses the information from this form to collect the customer and photography information needed to produce and ship...

  13. Infrared film for aerial photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, William H.

    1979-01-01

    Considerable interest has developed recently in the use of aerial photographs for agricultural management. Even the simplest hand-held aerial photographs, especially those taken with color infrared film, often provide information not ordinarily available through routine ground observation. When fields are viewed from above, patterns and variations become more apparent, often allowing problems to be spotted which otherwise may go undetected.

  14. A TOOL FOR PLANNING AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    abstract The U.S. EPAs Pacific Coastal Ecology Branch has developed a tool in the form of an Excel. spreadsheet that facilitates planning aerial photography missions. The spreadsheet accepts various input parameters such as desired photo-scale and boundary coordinates of the stud...

  15. Aerial color infrared photography applications to citriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blazquez, C. H.; Horn, F. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Results of a one-year experimental study on the use of aerial color infrared photography in citrus grove management are presented. It is found that the spring season, when trees are in flush (have young leaves), is the best season to photograph visible differences between healthy and diseased trees. It is also shown that the best photography can be obtained with a 12-in. focal length lens. The photographic scale that allowed good photo interpretation with simple inexpensive equipment was 1 in. = 330 ft. The use of a window-overlay transparency method allowed rapid photo interpretation and data recording in computer-compatible forms. Aerial color infrared photography carried out during the spring season revealed a more accurate status of tree condition than visual inspection.

  16. Whitecap coverage from aerial photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, R. W.

    1970-01-01

    A program for determining the feasibility of deriving sea surface wind speeds by remotely sensing ocean surface radiances in the nonglitter regions is discussed. With a knowledge of the duration and geographical extent of the wind field, information about the conventional sea state may be derived. The use of optical techniques for determining sea state has obvious limitations. For example, such means can be used only in daylight and only when a clear path of sight is available between the sensor and the surface. However, sensors and vehicles capable of providing the data needed for such techniques are planned for the near future; therefore, a secondary or backup capability can be provided with little added effort. The information currently being sought regarding white water coverage is also of direct interest to those working with passive microwave systems, the study of energy transfer between winds and ocean currents, the aerial estimation of wind speeds, and many others.

  17. Shutter/aperture settings for aerial photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, H. E.; Perry, L.

    1976-01-01

    Determination of aerial camera shutter and aperture settings to produce consistently high-quality aerial photographs is a task complicated by numerous variables. Presented in this article are brief discussions of each variable and specific data which may be used for the systematic control of each. The variables discussed include sunlight, aircraft altitude, subject and season, film speed, and optical system. Data which may be used as a base reference are included, and encompass two sets of sensitometric specifications for two film-chemistry processes along with camera-aircraft parameters, which have been established and used to produce good exposures. Information contained here may be used to design and implement an exposure-determination system for aerial photography.

  18. BOREAS Level-0 C-130 Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominguez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), C-130 and other aerial photography was collected to provide finely detailed and spatially extensive documentation of the condition of the primary study sites. The NASA C-130 Earth Resources aircraft can accommodate two mapping cameras during flight, each of which can be fitted with 6- or 12-inch focal-length lenses and black-and-white, natural-color, or color-IR film, depending upon requirements. Both cameras were often in operation simultaneously, although sometimes only the lower resolution camera was deployed. When both cameras were in operation, the higher resolution camera was often used in a more limited fashion. The acquired photography covers the period of April to September 1994. The aerial photography was delivered as rolls of large format (9 x 9 inch) color transparency prints, with imagery from multiple missions (hundreds of prints) often contained within a single roll. A total of 1533 frames were collected from the C-130 platform for BOREAS in 1994. Note that the level-0 C-130 transparencies are not contained on the BOREAS CD-ROM set. An inventory file is supplied on the CD-ROM to inform users of all the data that were collected. Some photographic prints were made from the transparencies. In addition, BORIS staff digitized a subset of the tranparencies and stored the images in JPEG format. The CD-ROM set contains a small subset of the collected aerial photography that were the digitally scanned and stored as JPEG files for most tower and auxiliary sites in the NSA and SSA. See Section 15 for information about how to acquire additional imagery.

  19. Change Detection using 75-year Aerial Photo and Satellite Data Sets, Inexpensive Means to Obtain 6 cm Resolution Data, and Developing Opportunities for Community-oriented Remote Sensing through Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rango, A.; Laliberte, A.; Winters, C.; Steele, C. M.; Browning, D. M.

    2010-12-01

    Some governmental research sites have been in existence for as many as 100 years with ground photography used for documentation starting in the early 1900s(e.g., at the USDA Jornada Experimental Range(JER)(783 km2) in south central New Mexico) If ground photography is properly documented when acquired, it can be used as a baseline for later re-photography assessments of change or for providing historical perspective. The JER historical ground photographic data base contains 3148 scenes and is available from a number of photographic archives. For long-term change detection, earth resources satellites (starting in 1972) have been valuable, but their usefulness can be enhanced when combined with data from vertical aerial photography programs begun in the mid 1930s by USDA (and other agency/aerial photo contractors). This historic aerial photography is generally an untapped data resource. Most of these aerial photos have approximately 1-2 m spatial resolution but are scattered in numerous archives around the United States. For the JER, we have been able to locate and obtain 5500 individual aerial photos which have been indispensable in evaluating vegetation change, locating treatment legacies on the landscape, and assessing rangeland treatment effectiveness. All the acquired aerial photos have been digitized and stored in the JER data base. We have also been exploring the use of small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to provide hyperspatial aerial photos at about 6 cm spatial resolution to complement the 1-2 m resolution aerial photos. The areas covered by these individual UAV photos are only about 215 x 160 m, so in order to cover larger areas we have had to develop our own methods for mosaicing and analysis. In four years of flying the UAV, we have obtained about 15,000 images over JER and other western rangelands. This method is very cost effective because we are able to use an inexpensive 10 megapixel consumer-grade digital camera on the UAV as opposed to more

  20. Aerial photography summary record system - five years later.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lauterborn, T.J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the APSRS, an automated information system for conventional aerial photography projects, established after the formation of the National Cartographic Information Center in the US Geological Survey in 1974. -after Author

  1. Kite Aerial Photography (KAP) as a Tool for Field Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    Kite aerial photography (KAP) is proposed as a creative tool for geography field teaching and as a medium to approach the complexity of readily available geodata. The method can be integrated as field experiment, surveying technique or group activity. The acquired aerial images can instantaneously be integrated in geographic information systems…

  2. Review of the SAFARI 2000 RC-10 Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Jeff; Shelton, Gary; Annegarn, Harrold; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This presentation will review the aerial photography collected by the NASA ER-2 aircraft during the SAFARI (Southern African Regional Science Initiative) year 2000 campaign. It will include specifications on the camera and film, and will show examples of the imagery. It will also detail the extent of coverage, and the procedures to obtain film products from the South African government. Also included will be some sample applications of aerial photography for various environmental applications, and its use in augmenting other SAFARI data sets.

  3. Maps--Map Reading and Aerial Photography. [2 Units].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haakonsen, Harry O., Ed.

    Included in this set of materials are two units: (1) Maps and Map Reading and (2) Aerial Photography. Each unit includes student guide sheets, reference material, and tape script. A set of 35mm slides and audiotapes are usually used with the materials. The unit on Maps and Map Reading is designed to develop map reading skills and the use of these…

  4. A Spreadsheet-based GIS tool for planning aerial photography

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.EPA's Pacific Coastal Ecology Branch has developed a tool which facilitates planning aerial photography missions. This tool is an Excel spreadsheet which accepts various input parameters such as desired photo-scale and boundary coordinates of the study area and compiles ...

  5. Use of archive aerial photography for monitoring black mangrove populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted on the south Texas Gulf Coast to evaluate archive aerial color-infrared (CIR) photography combined with supervised image analysis techniques to quantify changes in black mangrove [Avicennia germinans (L.) L.] populations over a 26-year period. Archive CIR film from two study si...

  6. Aerial Photographs and Satellite Images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    Photographs and other images of the Earth taken from the air and from space show a great deal about the planet's landforms, vegetation, and resources. Aerial and satellite images, known as remotely sensed images, permit accurate mapping of land cover and make landscape features understandable on regional, continental, and even global scales. Transient phenomena, such as seasonal vegetation vigor and contaminant discharges, can be studied by comparing images acquired at different times. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), which began using aerial photographs for mapping in the 1930's, archives photographs from its mapping projects and from those of some other Federal agencies. In addition, many images from such space programs as Landsat, begun in 1972, are held by the USGS. Most satellite scenes can be obtained only in digital form for use in computer-based image processing and geographic information systems, but in some cases are also available as photographic products.

  7. Rockets and Aerial Photography: a High-school Research Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunter, R.; Watanabe, S.; Saba, M.

    2008-12-01

    Building and launching a rocket was a great opportunity to learn more deeply several topics of high-school physics. Pressure, action and reaction, speed and acceleration, terminal velocity, air drag and several other physics concepts and laws were explored during the building and launching of an amateur experimental rocket that was also used for aerial photography. This project was also a great opportunity to experience the excitement of scientific research.

  8. Aerial Photography: Use in Detecting Simulated Insect Defoliation in Corn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, H. C.; Latham, R.; Meyer, M. P.

    1973-01-01

    Artificial defoliation in corn was used to explore the usefulness of aerial photography in detecting crop insect infestations. Defoliation on the top of plants was easily detected, while that on the base was less so. Aero infrared film with Wratten 89B filter gave the best results, and morning flights at the scale of 1:15840 are recommended. Row direction, plant growth stage, and time elapse since defoliation were not important factors.

  9. Digital computer processing of peach orchard multispectral aerial photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    Several methods of analysis using digital computers applicable to digitized multispectral aerial photography, are described, with particular application to peach orchard test sites. This effort was stimulated by the recent premature death of peach trees in the Southeastern United States. The techniques discussed are: (1) correction of intensity variations by digital filtering, (2) automatic detection and enumeration of trees in five size categories, (3) determination of unhealthy foliage by infrared reflectances, and (4) four band multispectral classification into healthy and declining categories.

  10. Aerial photography for sensing plant anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.; Cardenas, R.; Hart, W. G.

    1970-01-01

    Changes in the red tonal response of Kodak Ektrachrome Infrared Aero 8443 film (EIR) are often incorrectly attributed solely to variations in infrared light reflectance of plant leaves, when the primary influence is a difference in visible light reflectance induced by varying chlorophyll contents. Comparisons are made among aerial photographic images of high- and low-chlorophyll foliage. New growth, foot rot, and boron and chloride nutrient toxicites produce low-chlorophyll foliage, and EIR transparency images of light red or white compared with dark-red images of high-chlorophyll foliage. Deposits of the sooty mold fungus that subsists on the honeydew produced by brown soft scale insects, obscure the citrus leaves' green color. Infected trees appear as black images on EIR film transparencies compared with red images of healthy trees.

  11. Use of aerial photography to inventory aquatic vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Donald W.; Brown, Charles L.; Manny, Bruce A.

    1988-01-01

    This study demonstrates the feasibility of using low-altitude aerial photography to inventory submersed macrophytes in the connecting channels of the Great Lakes. For this purpose, we obtained aerial color transparencies and collateral ground truth information about submersed vegetation at 160 stations within four study sites in the St. Clair and Detroit rivers, September 17 to October 4, 1984. Photographs were interpreted by five test subjects to determine with what accuracy they could detect beds of submersed macrophytes, and the precision of delineating the extent of such vegetation beds. The interpreters correctly determined the presence or absence of vegetation 80% of the time (range 73-86%). Differences between individuals were statistically significant. Determination of the presence or absence of macrophytes depended partly on their relative abundance and water clarity. Analysis of one photograph from each of the four study sites revealed that photointerpreters delineated between 35 and 75 ha of river bottom covered by vegetation. This wide range indicates that individuals should be tested to assess their relative capability and be trained before they are employed to delineate plant beds in large-scale inventories. Within limits, low-altitude aerial photography, combined with collateral ground truth information, can be used to determine the presence or absence and delineate the extent of submersed macrophytes in connecting channels of the Great Lakes.

  12. ASSESSING THE ACCURACY OF SATELLITE-DERIVED LAND COVER CLASSIFICATION USING HISTORICAL AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY, DIGITAL ORTHOPHOTO QUADRANGLES, AND AIRBORNE VIDEO DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the rapidly growing archives of satellite remote sensing imagery now span decades' worth of data, there is increasing interest in the study of long-term regional land cover change across multiple image dates. In most cases, however, temporally coincident ground sampled data ar...

  13. ASSESSING THE ACCURACY OF SATELLITE-DERIVED LAND COVER CLASSIFICATION USING HISTORICAL AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY DIGITAL ORTHOPHOTO QUADRANGLES, AND AIRBORNE VIDEO DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the rapidly growing archives of satellite remote sensing imagery now span decades'worth of data, there is increasing interest in the study of long-term regional land cover change across multiple image dates. In most cases, however, temporally coincident ground sampled data are...

  14. ASSESSING THE ACCURACY OF SATELLITE-DERIVED LAND COVER CLASSIFICATION USING HISTORICAL AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY, DIGITAL ORTHOPHOTO QUADDRANGLES, AND AIRBORNE VIDEO DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the rapidly growing archives of satellite remote sensing imagery now span decades'worth of data, there is increasing interest in the study of long-term regional land cover change across multiple image dates. In most cases, however, temporally coincident ground sampled data are...

  15. Mapping Urban Ecosystem Services Using High Resolution Aerial Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilant, A. N.; Neale, A.; Wilhelm, D.

    2010-12-01

    Ecosystem services (ES) are the many life-sustaining benefits we receive from nature: e.g., clean air and water, food and fiber, cultural-aesthetic-recreational benefits, pollination and flood control. The ES concept is emerging as a means of integrating complex environmental and economic information to support informed environmental decision making. The US EPA is developing a web-based National Atlas of Ecosystem Services, with a component for urban ecosystems. Currently, the only wall-to-wall, national scale land cover data suitable for this analysis is the National Land Cover Data (NLCD) at 30 m spatial resolution with 5 and 10 year updates. However, aerial photography is acquired at higher spatial resolution (0.5-3 m) and more frequently (1-5 years, typically) for most urban areas. Land cover was mapped in Raleigh, NC using freely available USDA National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP) with 1 m ground sample distance to test the suitability of aerial photography for urban ES analysis. Automated feature extraction techniques were used to extract five land cover classes, and an accuracy assessment was performed using standard techniques. Results will be presented that demonstrate applications to mapping ES in urban environments: greenways, corridors, fragmentation, habitat, impervious surfaces, dark and light pavement (urban heat island). Automated feature extraction results mapped over NAIP color aerial photograph. At this scale, we can look at land cover and related ecosystem services at the 2-10 m scale. Small features such as individual trees and sidewalks are visible and mappable. Classified aerial photo of Downtown Raleigh NC Red: impervious surface Dark Green: trees Light Green: grass Tan: soil

  16. National aerial photography program as a geographic information system resource

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Light, Donald L.

    1991-01-01

    The National Aerial Photography Program (NAPP) is jointly funded by Federal agencies and States that choose to participate in a 50-50 cost sharing cooperative arrangement. The NAPP is designed to acquire black-and-white (B&W) or color infrared (CIR) photography at a scale of 1:40,000. The status of NAPP flying, now going into the first year of its second 5-year cycle, is reviewed to inform the user community of NAPP's coverage. The resolution, geometric quality and flight parameters are used to estimate the system's cartographic potential to produce orthophotoquads, digital elevation models, topographic maps and digital information to meet national map accuracy standards at 1:12,000 and 1:24,000-scale and serve as a geographic information system resource. Also, a technique is presented to compute the optimum scanning spot size (15 ??m) and storage required for converting the B&W or CIR photography to digital, machine-readable pixel form. The resulting digital NAPP data are suitable for a wide variety of new applications, including use in geographic information systems.

  17. Oblique Aerial Photography Tool for Building Inspection and Damage Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murtiyoso, A.; Remondino, F.; Rupnik, E.; Nex, F.; Grussenmeyer, P.

    2014-11-01

    Aerial photography has a long history of being employed for mapping purposes due to some of its main advantages, including large area imaging from above and minimization of field work. Since few years multi-camera aerial systems are becoming a practical sensor technology across a growing geospatial market, as complementary to the traditional vertical views. Multi-camera aerial systems capture not only the conventional nadir views, but also tilted images at the same time. In this paper, a particular use of such imagery in the field of building inspection as well as disaster assessment is addressed. The main idea is to inspect a building from four cardinal directions by using monoplotting functionalities. The developed application allows to measure building height and distances and to digitize man-made structures, creating 3D surfaces and building models. The realized GUI is capable of identifying a building from several oblique points of views, as well as calculates the approximate height of buildings, ground distances and basic vectorization. The geometric accuracy of the results remains a function of several parameters, namely image resolution, quality of available parameters (DEM, calibration and orientation values), user expertise and measuring capability.

  18. The availability of local aerial photography in southern California. [for solution of urban planning problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, W., III; Sledge, B.; Paul, C. K.; Landini, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Some of the major photography and photogrammetric suppliers and users located in Southern California are listed. Recent trends in aerial photographic coverage of the Los Angeles basin area are also noted, as well as the uses of that imagery.

  19. Remote sensing as an aid for marsh management: Lafouche parish, Louisiana. [aerial photography of Louisiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragan, J. G.; Green, J. H.; Whitehurst, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    NASA aerial photography, primarily color infrared and color positive transparencies, was used in a study of marsh management practices and in comparing managed and unmanaged marsh areas. Weir locations for tidal control are recommended.

  20. The remote characterization of vegetation using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rango, A.; Laliberte, A.; Winters, C.; Maxwell, C.; Steele, C.

    2008-12-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can fly in place of piloted aircraft to gather remote sensing information on vegetation characteristics. The type of sensors flown depends on the instrument payload capacity available, so that, depending on the specific UAV, it is possible to obtain video, aerial photographic, multispectral and hyperspectral radiometric, LIDAR, and radar data. The characteristics of several small UAVs less than 55lbs (25kg)) along with some payload instruments will be reviewed. Common types of remote sensing coverage available from a small, limited-payload UAV are video and hyperspatial, digital photography. From evaluation of these simple types of remote sensing data, we conclude that UAVs can play an important role in measuring and monitoring vegetation health and structure of the vegetation/soil complex in rangelands. If we fly our MLB Bat-3 at an altitude of 700ft (213m), we can obtain a digital photographic resolution of 6cm. The digital images acquired cover an area of approximately 29,350sq m. Video imaging is usually only useful for monitoring the flight path of the UAV in real time. In our experiments with the 6cm resolution data, we have been able to measure vegetation patch size, crown width, gap sizes between vegetation, percent vegetation and bare soil cover, and type of vegetation. The UAV system is also being tested to acquire height of the vegetation canopy using shadow measurements and a digital elevation model obtained with stereo images. Evaluation of combining the UAV digital photography with LIDAR data of the Jornada Experimental Range in south central New Mexico is ongoing. The use of UAVs is increasing and is becoming a very promising tool for vegetation assessment and change, but there are several operational components to flying UAVs that users need to consider. These include cost, a whole set of, as yet, undefined regulations regarding flying in the National Air Space(NAS), procedures to gain approval for flying in the NAS

  1. The use of high altitude aerial photography to inventory wildlife habitat in Kansas: An initial evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merchant, J. W.; Waddell, B. H.

    1974-01-01

    The use of aerial photography as a method for determining the wildlife conditions of an area is discussed. Color infrared photography is investigated as the most effective type of remote sensor. The characteristics of the remote sensing systems are described. Examples of the remote sensing operation and the method for reducing the data are presented.

  2. A semi-operational agricultural inventory using small scale aerial photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draeger, W. C.; Pettinger, L. R.

    1970-01-01

    The feasibility of performing inventories of agricultural resources using very small scale aerial or space photography was studied. The results were encouraging on two counts: (1) The very practical problems of an operational survey are being faced and solutions are being found. (2) It seems that a fully operational agricultural inventory using space photography is not beyond the scope of present technology.

  3. Using 70-mm aerial photography to identify rangeland sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everitt, J. H.; Gerbermann, A. H.; Alaniz, M. A.; Bowen, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    A south Texas rangeland area was used as a study site to test the use of microdensitometry on 70-mm color-infrared and black-and-white photographs (scale 1:19,000) for distinguishing among 11 range sites (two brushland, seven grassland, two barren land) during the winter (February), spring (May), and summer (August) of 1976. Color-infrared photographs were also taken at a scale of 1:42,000 for the summer date. Film optical density readings were made on one color-infrared film with white light only. The best separations among density readings for all range sites were obtained using white light exposed on color-infrared film in the summer when vegetation was at peak foliage development. Results from this study indicate that 70-mm aerial color-infrared photography at a scale of 1:19,000 or 1:42,000 has good potential for identifying range sites in large and inaccessible areas, and could be a useful tool for range management.

  4. Early aerial photography and contributions to Digital Earth - The case of the 1921 Halifax air survey mission in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werle, D.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents research into the military and civilian history, technological development, and practical outcomes of aerial photography in Canada immediately after the First World War. The collections of early aerial photography in Canada and elsewhere, as well as the institutional and practical circumstances and arrangements of their creation, represent an important part of remote sensing heritage. It is argued that the digital rendition of the air photos and their representation in mosaic form can make valuable contributions to Digital Earth historic inquiries and mapping exercises today. An episode of one of the first urban surveys, carried out over Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1921, is highlighted and an air photo mosaic and interpretation key is presented. Using the almost one hundred year old air photos and a digitally re-assembled mosaic of a substantial portion of that collection as a guide, a variety of features unique to the post-war urban landscape of the Halifax peninsula are analysed, illustrated, and compared with records of past and current land use. The pan-chromatic air photo ensemble at a nominal scale of 1:5,000 is placed into the historical context with contemporary thematic maps, recent air photos, and modern satellite imagery. Further research opportunities and applications concerning early Canadian aerial photography are outlined.

  5. Estimation of walrus populations on sea ice with infrared imagery and aerial photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Udevitz, M.S.; Burn, D.M.; Webber, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Population sizes of ice-associated pinnipeds have often been estimated with visual or photographic aerial surveys, but these methods require relatively slow speeds and low altitudes, limiting the area they can cover. Recent developments in infrared imagery and its integration with digital photography could allow substantially larger areas to be surveyed and more accurate enumeration of individuals, thereby solving major problems with previous survey methods. We conducted a trial survey in April 2003 to estimate the number of Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) hauled out on sea ice around St. Lawrence Island, Alaska. The survey used high altitude infrared imagery to detect groups of walruses on strip transects. Low altitude digital photography was used to determine the number of walruses in a sample of detected groups and calibrate the infrared imagery for estimating the total number of walruses. We propose a survey design incorporating this approach with satellite radio telemetry to estimate the proportion of the population in the water and additional low-level flights to estimate the proportion of the hauled-out population in groups too small to be detected in the infrared imagery. We believe that this approach offers the potential for obtaining reliable population estimates for walruses and other ice-associated pinnipeds. ?? 2007 by the Society for Marine Mammalogy.

  6. Forest and land inventory using ERTS imagery and aerial photography in the boreal forest region of Alberta, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, C. L.

    1974-01-01

    Satellite imagery and small-scale (1:120,000) infrared ektachrome aerial photography for the development of improved forest and land inventory techniques in the boreal forest region are presented to demonstrate spectral signatures and their application. The forest is predominately mixed, stands of white spruce and poplar, with some pure stands of black spruce, pine and large areas of poorly drained land with peat and sedge type muskegs. This work is part of coordinated program to evaluate ERTS imagery by the Canadian Forestry Service.

  7. The Use of Small Scale Aerial Photography in a Regional Agricultural Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draeger, W. C.

    1971-01-01

    The feasibility of performing inventories of agricultural resources using very small scale aerial or space photography has been investigated. Results to date are encouraging on two counts: (1) the questions posed initially are being answered, and (2) it would seem that a fully operational agricultural inventory using very small scale photography is not beyond the scope of present technology. The biggest problems to be faced in establishing a functional inventory system are those concerning logistics and data handling.

  8. Forensic aerial photography: projected 3-D exhibits facilitating rapid environmental justice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Robert A.

    2009-02-01

    Forensic stereoscopic analysis of historical aerial photography is successfully identifying the causes of environmental degradation, including erosion and unlawful releases of hazardous wastes into the environment. The photogrammetric evidence can successfully pinpoint the specific locations of undocumented hazardous waste landfills and other types of unlawful releases of chemicals and wastes into the environment, providing location data for targeted investigation, characterization, and subsequent remediation. The findings of these studies are being effectively communicated in a simple, memorable, and compelling way by projecting the three-dimensional (3-D) sequences of historical aerial photography utilizing polarized 3-D presentation methods.

  9. Change detection using 75-year aerial photo and satellite data sets, inexpensive means to obtain 6 cm resolution data, and developing opportunities for community-oriented remote sensing through photography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some governmental research sites have been in existence for as many as 100 years with ground photography used for documentation starting in the early 1900s(e.g., at the USDA Jornada Experimental Range(JER)(783 km2) in south central New Mexico) If ground photography is properly documented when acquir...

  10. The remote characterization of vegetation using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle photography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can fly in place of piloted aircraft to gather remote sensing information on vegetation characteristics. The type of sensors flown depends on the instrument payload capacity available, so that, depending on the specific UAV, it is possible to obtain video, aerial phot...

  11. ISSUES IN DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING OF AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY FOR MAPPING SUBMERSED AQUATIC VEGETATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the numerous issues that needed to be addressed when developing a methodology for mapping Submersed Aquatic Vegetation (SAV) from digital aerial photography. Specifically, we discuss 1) choice of film; 2) consideration of tide and weather constraints; 3) in-s...

  12. Field validation of 1930s aerial photography: What are we missing?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerial photography from the 1930s serves as the earliest synoptic depiction of vegetation cover. We generated a spatially explicit database of shrub (Prosopis velutina) stand structure within two 1.8 ha field plots established in 1932 to address two questions: (1) What are the detection limits of p...

  13. The sky is the limit? 20 years of small-format aerial photography taken from UAS for monitoring geomorphological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzolff, Irene

    2014-05-01

    One hundred years after the first publication on aerial photography taken from unmanned aerial platforms (Arthur Batut 1890), small-format aerial photography (SFAP) became a distinct niche within remote sensing during the 1990s. Geographers, plant biologists, archaeologists and other researchers with geospatial interests re-discovered the usefulness of unmanned platforms for taking high-resolution, low-altitude photographs that could then be digitized and analysed with geographical information systems, (softcopy) photogrammetry and image processing techniques originally developed for digital satellite imagery. Even before the ubiquity of digital consumer-grade cameras and 3D analysis software accessible to the photogrammetric layperson, do-it-yourself remote sensing using kites, blimps, drones and micro air vehicles literally enabled the questing researcher to get their own pictures of the world. As a flexible, cost-effective method, SFAP offered images with high spatial and temporal resolutions that could be ideally adapted to the scales of landscapes, forms and distribution patterns to be monitored. During the last five years, this development has been significantly accelerated by the rapid technological advancements of GPS navigation, autopiloting and revolutionary softcopy-photogrammetry techniques. State-of-the-art unmanned aerial systems (UAS) now allow automatic flight planning, autopilot-controlled aerial surveys, ground control-free direct georeferencing and DEM plus orthophoto generation with centimeter accuracy, all within the space of one day. The ease of use of current UAS and processing software for the generation of high-resolution topographic datasets and spectacular visualizations is tempting and has spurred the number of publications on these issues - but which advancements in our knowledge and understanding of geomorphological processes have we seen and can we expect in the future? This presentation traces the development of the last two decades

  14. User services available from USDA'S aerial photography field office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickson, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    APFO furnishes LANDSAT imagery and supporting NASA aircraft imagery to NASA-funded principal investigators who are working within the agriculture discipline. The office holds and reproduces Skylab imagery and a variety of aircraft photography (including infrared) from various government agencies. Available products are listed. Other topics discussed include quality control of photographic materials, analytical aerotriangulation, and photographic processes.

  15. A perspective on the state of the art of photographic interpretation. [aerial photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Aerial photography and photographic interpretation are the cornerstone of remote sensing. Many interpretative techniques used on data from these more advanced or unconventional imaging systems are essentially extensions of techniques originally developed for the analysis of aerial photographic data. As research on the analysis and application of data from other than photographic imaging systems progresses, the role of the interpretation of aerial photography becomes more important. Any individual who wishes to practice the art of remote sensing data analysis must gain a thorough knowledge of the activities, elements and techniques of manual photographic/image interpretation. While the activities and elements of photo interpretation have remained essentially the same, technique development has continued to progress. Additional studies are proposed dealing with the basics of interactive processes.

  16. Preliminary assessment of aerial photography techniques for canvasback population analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munro, R.E.; Trauger, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    Recent intensive research on the canvasback has focused attention on the need for more precise estimates of population parameters. During the 1972-75 period, various types of aerial photographing equipment were evaluated to determine the problems and potentials for employing these techniques in appraisals of canvasback populations. The equipment and procedures available for automated analysis of aerial photographic imagery were also investigated. Serious technical problems remain to be resolved, but some promising results were obtained. Final conclusions about the feasibility of operational implementation await a more rigorous analysis of the data collected.

  17. EROS main image file - A picture perfect database for Landsat imagery and aerial photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    The Earth Resources Observation System (EROS) Program was established by the U.S. Department of the Interior in 1966 under the administration of the Geological Survey. It is primarily concerned with the application of remote sensing techniques for the management of natural resources. The retrieval system employed to search the EROS database is called INORAC (Inquiry, Ordering, and Accounting). A description is given of the types of images identified in EROS, taking into account Landsat imagery, Skylab images, Gemini/Apollo photography, and NASA aerial photography. Attention is given to retrieval commands, geographic coordinate searching, refinement techniques, various online functions, and questions regarding the access to the EROS Main Image File.

  18. Detection and damage assessment of citrus tree losses with aerial color infrared photography /ACIR/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blazquez, C. H.; Horn, F. W., Jr.; Edwards, G. J.

    1981-01-01

    Detection and disease damage assessment of citrus tree losses in a Florida citrus grove were made by establishing a registration (grove site location) coordinate system, developing a damage assessment system, and testing sequential aerial color infrared (ACIR) photography at the scale of 1 in. = 333 ft (2.5 cm = 100 m) during the winter, spring, and summer seasons of 1978 and spring of 1979. Spring photography was the easiest to photo interpret, showed the greatest differences between healthy and diseased trees, and had the least shadow and background interference for photo interpretation. Trees showing slight disease damage were detected in ACIR before they were found in ground surveys.

  19. Assessing the impact of pipeline construction on coniferous wetlands in central Michigan with aerial photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kittleson, K. M.; Mcdavitt, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    The Remote Sensing Project at Michigan State University is using repetitive aerial photography to assess the impact of pipeline construction on coniferous wetlands in central Michigan. Preliminary results indicate that ponding, dieback, windthrow, and vegetation changes are readily detectable on medium-scale aerial photography. It is found that the major effect of the pipeline construction is the alteration of the water level, either by flooding or dessication. The most serious damage generally occurs when pipelines cross seepage and spiring wetland types; specific damage is related to the impoundment of the natural water flow, producing flooding on the upflow side of the pipeline and dessication of these wetlands below the pipeline rights-of-way.

  20. Research applications of night-time aerial photography, from local to global scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, J.; Sadler, J.

    2012-12-01

    Artificial lighting of the earth's surface is changing at a global scale, with numerous social, economic and environmental implications. In many regions, the extent, brightness and spectral range of lighting is increasing, reflecting economic and technological development, population growth and urbanization. Its benefits include improving the perception of neighbourhood safety and increasing people's options for when activities can take place. Impacts range from the disruption of sleep patterns by a single street lamp to obscured views of the night sky for tens of kilometers surrounding an urban area. There is therefore a need to secure baseline maps of artificial lighting, and to detect changes in their extent and quality over time. Considerable success has been achieved in generating global lighting datasets from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) data, which have been used to support a broad range of research and policy applications. However, their coarse spatial and spectral resolution and difficulties in radiance calibration have been recognised as barriers to some potential applications. We present the first multi-spectral radiance calibrated lighting data for cities at a fine spatial resolution (10cm). We then illustrate how these data can be effective for exploring relationships between lighting and urban form, and that they can support the radiance calibration of lighting datasets with much greater spatial extents. Color night photography was collected for two major English cities - Birmingham and London. Ground photometry and radiometry surveys were undertaken, permitting the reclassification of the images to represent incident lux and the identification and classification of individual lamps. Total illuminated area and lamp density both correlated positively with percentage built surface cover, although the strength of these relationships differed between cities. This suggests that artificial lighting may

  1. Remote measurement of turbidity and chlorophyll through aerial photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwebel, M. D.; James, W. P.; Clark, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    Studies were conducted utilizing six different film and filter combinations to quantitatively detect chlorophyll and turbidity in six farm ponds. The low range of turbidity from 0-35 JTU correlated well with the density readings from the green band of normal color film and the high range above 35 JTU was found to correlate with density readings in the red band of color infrared film. The effect of many of the significant variables can be reduced by using standardized procedures in taking the photography. Attempts to detect chlorophyll were masked by the turbidity. The ponds which were highly turbid also had high chlorophyll concentrations; whereas, the ponds with low turbidity also had low chlorophyll concentrations. This prevented a direct correlation for this parameter. Several suggested approaches are cited for possible future investigations.

  2. Selected reading in agricultural applications of small-format aerial photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, William H.; Kroeger, Kevin J.

    1980-01-01

    This collection of material has been assembled in response to a growing.interest in the use of low-cost, small-format aerial photography in the management of agricultural resources. Together, these articles serve to document the prevailing level of interest in the subject and provide an insight as to what can reasonably be expected from the use of this powerful agricultural management tool. 

  3. Condor TAC: EO/IR tactical aerial reconnaissance photography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrushevsky, Vladimir; Tsur, David

    2012-06-01

    Based on the experience gained with the Condor2 long-range oblique photography (LOROP) camera, ELOP is expanding its airborne reconnaissance product line with the Condor TAC tactical photography system. The latter was designed for overflight imaging of extended areas from a fighter or special mission aircraft, at day and night. The Condor TAC is mounted in an aerodynamically shaped pod and can operate in wide envelope of flight altitude and speed. Besides the camera, the pod contains mission management and video processing unit (MVU), solid state recorder (SSR), wide-band data link (DL) for real-time imagery transmission, and two environmental control units (ECU). Complex multi-segment optical windows were successfully developed for the system. The camera system design is modular and highly flexible. Two independent imaging payload modules are mounted inside a gimbal system. Each of the modules is equipped with a strap-down IMU, and may carry a cluster of cameras or a single large camera with gross weight up to 35 kg. The payload modules are interchangeable, with an identical interface to the gimbal. The modularity and open architecture of the system facilitate its adaptation to various operational requirements, as well as allow easy and relatively non-expensive upgrades and configuration changes. In the current configuration, both EO and IR payload modules are equipped with a combination of longer focal length cameras for bi-directional panoramic scan at medium and high flight altitudes, and shorter focal length cameras for fixed wide angle coverage at low altitudes. All the camera types are equipped with standard format, off-the-shelf area detector arrays. Precise motion compensation is achieved by calibrated back-scan mirrors.

  4. The Alfred Nobel rocket camera. An early aerial photography attempt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingemar Skoog, A.

    2010-02-01

    Alfred Nobel (1833-1896), mainly known for his invention of dynamite and the creation of the Nobel Prices, was an engineer and inventor active in many fields of science and engineering, e.g. chemistry, medicine, mechanics, metallurgy, optics, armoury and rocketry. Amongst his inventions in rocketry was the smokeless solid propellant ballistite (i.e. cordite) patented for the first time in 1887. As a very wealthy person he actively supported many Swedish inventors in their work. One of them was W.T. Unge, who was devoted to the development of rockets and their applications. Nobel and Unge had several rocket patents together and also jointly worked on various rocket applications. In mid-1896 Nobel applied for patents in England and France for "An Improved Mode of Obtaining Photographic Maps and Earth or Ground Measurements" using a photographic camera carried by a "…balloon, rocket or missile…". During the remaining of 1896 the mechanical design of the camera mechanism was pursued and cameras manufactured. In April 1897 (after the death of Alfred Nobel) the first aerial photos were taken by these cameras. These photos might be the first documented aerial photos taken by a rocket borne camera. Cameras and photos from 1897 have been preserved. Nobel did not only develop the rocket borne camera but also proposed methods on how to use the photographs taken for ground measurements and preparing maps.

  5. USGS Earth Explorer Client for Co-Discovery of Aerial and Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhenry, R.; Sohre, T.; McKinney, R.; Mentele, T.

    2011-12-01

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation Science (EROS) Center is home to one of the largest civilian collections of images of the Earth's surface. These images are collected from recent satellite platforms such as the Landsat, Terra, Aqua and Earth Observer-1, historical airborne systems such as digital cameras and side-looking radar, and digitized historical aerial photography dating to the 1930's. The aircraft scanners include instruments such as the Advanced Solid State Array Spectrometer (ASAS). Also archived at EROS are specialized collections of aerial images, such as high-resolution orthoimagery, extensive collections over Antarctica, and historical airborne campaigns such as the National Aerial Photography Program (NAPP) and the National High Altitude Photography (NHAP) collections. These collections, as well as digital map data, declassified historical space-based photography, and variety of collections such as the Global Land Survey 2000 (GLS2000) and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) are accessible through the USGS Earth Explorer (EE) client. EE allows for the visual discovery and browse of diverse datasets simultaneously, permitting the co-discovery and selection refinement of both satellite and aircraft imagery. The client, in use for many years was redesigned in 2010 to support requirements for next generation Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) data access and distribution. The redesigned EE is now supported by standards-based, open source infrastructure. EE gives users the capability to search 189 datasets through one interface, including over 8.4 million frames of aerial imagery. Since April 2011, NASA datasets archived at the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) including the MODIS land data products and ASTER Level-1B data products over the U.S. and Territories were made available via the EE client enabling users to co-discover aerial data archived at the USGS EROS along with USGS

  6. Kite Aerial Photography as a Tool for Remote Sensing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallee, Jeff; Meier, Lesley R.

    2010-01-01

    As humans, we perform remote sensing nearly all the time. This is because we acquire most of our information about our surroundings through the senses of sight and hearing. Whether viewed by the unenhanced eye or a military satellite, remote sensing is observing objects from a distance. With our current technology, remote sensing has become a part…

  7. Declassified Intelligence Satellite Photography (DISP) Coverage of Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindschadler, Robert; Seider, Wendy

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a nine-week summer project examining all Declassified Intelligence Satellite Photography (DISP) of Antarctica. It was discovered that the data were collected in three separate missions during 1962 and 1963. The first two missions covered only the coastal areas, while the third mission covered the entire continent. Many of the 1782 frames collected were cloudy. This is especially true of West Antarctica. An optimal set of photographs covering the entire Antarctic coastline is identified along with some examples that show changes in the coastline which have occurred since the early 1960s.

  8. Obtaining biophysical measurements of woody vegetation from high resolution digital aerial photography in tropical and arid environments: Northern Territory, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staben, G. W.; Lucieer, A.; Evans, K. G.; Scarth, P.; Cook, G. D.

    2016-10-01

    Biophysical parameters obtained from woody vegetation are commonly measured using field based techniques which require significant investment in resources. Quantitative measurements of woody vegetation provide important information for ecological studies investigating landscape change. The fine spatial resolution of aerial photography enables identification of features such as trees and shrubs. Improvements in spatial and spectral resolution of digital aerial photographic sensors have increased the possibility of using these data in quantitative remote sensing. Obtaining biophysical measurements from aerial photography has the potential to enable it to be used as a surrogate for the collection of field data. In this study quantitative measurements obtained from digital aerial photography captured at ground sampling distance (GSD) of 15 cm (n = 50) and 30 cm (n = 52) were compared to woody biophysical parameters measured from 1 ha field plots. Supervised classification of the aerial photography using object based image analysis was used to quantify woody and non-woody vegetation components in the imagery. There was a high correlation (r ≥ 0.92) between all field measured woody canopy parameters and aerial derived green woody cover measurements, however only foliage projective cover (FPC) was found to be statistically significant (paired t-test; α = 0.01). There was no significant difference between measurements derived from imagery captured at either GSD of 15 cm and 30 cm over the same field site (n = 20). Live stand basal area (SBA) (m2 ha-1) was predicted from the aerial photographs by applying an allometric equation developed between field-measured live SBA and woody FPC. The results show that there was very little difference between live SBA predicted from FPC measured in the field or from aerial photography. The results of this study show that accurate woody biophysical parameters can be obtained from aerial photography from a range of woody vegetation

  9. Monitoring Seabirds and Marine Mammals by Georeferenced Aerial Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemper, G.; Weidauer, A.; Coppack, T.

    2016-06-01

    The assessment of anthropogenic impacts on the marine environment is challenged by the accessibility, accuracy and validity of biogeographical information. Offshore wind farm projects require large-scale ecological surveys before, during and after construction, in order to assess potential effects on the distribution and abundance of protected species. The robustness of site-specific population estimates depends largely on the extent and design of spatial coverage and the accuracy of the applied census technique. Standard environmental assessment studies in Germany have so far included aerial visual surveys to evaluate potential impacts of offshore wind farms on seabirds and marine mammals. However, low flight altitudes, necessary for the visual classification of species, disturb sensitive bird species and also hold significant safety risks for the observers. Thus, aerial surveys based on high-resolution digital imagery, which can be carried out at higher (safer) flight altitudes (beyond the rotor-swept zone of the wind turbines) have become a mandatory requirement, technically solving the problem of distant-related observation bias. A purpose-assembled imagery system including medium-format cameras in conjunction with a dedicated geo-positioning platform delivers series of orthogonal digital images that meet the current technical requirements of authorities for surveying marine wildlife at a comparatively low cost. At a flight altitude of 425 m, a focal length of 110 mm, implemented forward motion compensation (FMC) and exposure times ranging between 1/1600 and 1/1000 s, the twin-camera system generates high quality 16 bit RGB images with a ground sampling distance (GSD) of 2 cm and an image footprint of 155 x 410 m. The image files are readily transferrable to a GIS environment for further editing, taking overlapping image areas and areas affected by glare into account. The imagery can be routinely screened by the human eye guided by purpose-programmed software

  10. Use of low-altitude aerial photography to identify submersed aquatic macrophytes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Donald W.; Manny, Bruce A.; Brown, Charles L.; Jaworski, Eugene

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of using low-altitude aerial photography to identify beds of submersed macrophytes is demonstrated. True color aerial photos and collateral ground survey information for submersed aquatic macrophyte beds at 10 sites in the St.Clair-Detroit River system were obtained in September 1978. Using the photos and collateral ground survey information, a dichotomous key was developed for the identification of six classes - beds of five genera of macrophytes and one substrate type. A test was prepared to determine how accurately photo interpreters could identify the six classes. The test required an interpreter to examine an unlabeled, outlined area on photographs and identify it using the key. Six interpreters were tested. One pair of interpreters was trained in the interpretation of a variety of aerial photos, a second pair had field experience in the collection and identification of submersed macrophytes in the river system, and a third pair had neither training in the interpretation of aerial photos nor field experience. The criteria that we developed were applied equally well by the interpretors, regardless of their training or experience. Overall accuracy (i.e., omission errors) of all six classes combined was 68% correct, whereas, overall accuracy of individual classes ranged from 50 to 100% correct. Mapping accuracy (i.e. omission and commission errors) of individual classes ranged from 36 to 75%. Although the key developed for this study has only limited application outside the context of the data and sites examined in this study, it is concluded that low-altitude aerial photography, together with limited amounts of collateral ground survey information, can be used to economically identify beds of submersed macrophytes in the St. Clair-Detroit River system and other similar water bodies.

  11. Object-based land-cover classification for metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona, using aerial photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoxiao; Myint, Soe W.; Zhang, Yujia; Galletti, Chritopher; Zhang, Xiaoxiang; Turner, Billie L.

    2014-12-01

    Detailed land-cover mapping is essential for a range of research issues addressed by the sustainability and land system sciences and planning. This study uses an object-based approach to create a 1 m land-cover classification map of the expansive Phoenix metropolitan area through the use of high spatial resolution aerial photography from National Agricultural Imagery Program. It employs an expert knowledge decision rule set and incorporates the cadastral GIS vector layer as auxiliary data. The classification rule was established on a hierarchical image object network, and the properties of parcels in the vector layer were used to establish land cover types. Image segmentations were initially utilized to separate the aerial photos into parcel sized objects, and were further used for detailed land type identification within the parcels. Characteristics of image objects from contextual and geometrical aspects were used in the decision rule set to reduce the spectral limitation of the four-band aerial photography. Classification results include 12 land-cover classes and subclasses that may be assessed from the sub-parcel to the landscape scales, facilitating examination of scale dynamics. The proposed object-based classification method provides robust results, uses minimal and readily available ancillary data, and reduces computational time.

  12. Identification and extraction of the seaward edge of terrestrial vegetation using digital aerial photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Melanie; Brock, John C.; Nayegandhi, A.; Duffy, M.; Wright, C.W.

    2006-01-01

    This report is created as part of the Aerial Data Collection and Creation of Products for Park Vital Signs Monitoring within the Northeast Region Coastal and Barrier Network project, which is a joint project between the National Park Service Inventory and Monitoring Program (NPS-IM), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Observational Sciences Branch, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Coastal and Watershed Studies (CCWS). This report is one of a series that discusses methods for extracting topographic features from aerial survey data. It details step-by-step methods used to extract a spatially referenced digital line from aerial photography that represents the seaward edge of terrestrial vegetation along the coast of Assateague Island National Seashore (ASIS). One component of the NPS-IM/USGS/NASA project includes the collection of NASA aerial surveys over various NPS barrier islands and coastal parks throughout the National Park Service's Northeast Region. These aerial surveys consist of collecting optical remote sensing data from a variety of sensors, including the NASA Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), the NASA Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), and down-looking digital mapping cameras.

  13. A field evaluation of small-scale forest resource aerial photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, J.; Meyer, M.

    1977-01-01

    An earlier study under somewhat clinical laboratory conditions has suggested the possibility of using smaller scales of forest photography without serious information loss. The present paper subjects this idea to a rigorous field test by a number of experienced user-cooperators. Various combinations of summer black-and-white infrared and color infrared aerial photography at scales of 1:15,840, 1:24,000, 1:31,680, and 1:80,000 were taken over forested portions of Minnesota. Major conclusions are that 1:15,840 is the preferred working photo scale, and that instead of 1:15,840 a scale of 1:20,000 is considered an acceptable substitute.

  14. Application of aerial photography to water-related programs in Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enslin, W. R.; Hill-Rowley, R.; Tilmann, S. E.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes the use of aerial photography and information system technology in the provision of information required for the effective operation of three water-related programs in Michigan. Potential mosquito breeding sites were identified from specially acquired low altitude 70 mm color photography for the City of Lansing Vector Control Area. A comprehensive inventory of surface water sources and potential access sites was prepared to assist fire departments in Antrim County with fire truck water-recharge operations. Remotely-sensed land cover/use data for Windsor Township, Eaton County were integrated with other resource data into a computer-based information system for regional water quality studies. Eleven thematic maps specifically focussed on landscape features affecting non-point water pollution and waste disposal were generated from analyses of a four-hectare grid-based data file containing land cover/use, soils, topographic and geologic (well-log) data.

  15. Application of aerial photography to water-related programs in Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enslin, W. R.; Hill-Rowley, R.; Tilmann, S. E.

    1977-01-01

    Aerial photography and information system technology were used to generate information required for the effective operation of three water-related programs in Michigan. Potential mosquito breeding sites were identified from specially acquired low altitude 70 mm color photography for the city of Lansing; the inventory identified 35% more surface water areas than indicated on existing field maps. A comprehensive inventory of surface water sources and potential access sites was prepared to assist fire departments in Antrim County with fire truck water-recharge operations. Remotely-sensed land cover/use data for Windsor Township, Eaton County, were integrated with other resource data into a computer-based information system for regional water quality studies. Eleven thematic maps focusing on landscape features affecting non-point water pollution and waste disposal were generated from analyses of a four-hectare grid-based data file containing land cover/use, soils, topographic and geologic (well-log) data.

  16. Assessment of forest plantations from low altitude aerial photography. [North Carolina coastal plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, H. A.

    1977-01-01

    Vertical color, and color-infrared, aerial photography obtained from altitudes between 183 m and 915 m provide a cost effective method of determining tree survival and height growth in pine plantations on the North Carolina Coastal Plain. All interpretations were performed by professional forestry personnel from the original 70 mm color transparencies. Prompt assessment of tree survival is necessary if failed spots are to be successfully replanted. Counts of living trees made after the third growing season, and sometimes only two growing seasons after planting, are accurate enough to permit planning of replanting operations without extensive ground surveys.

  17. Use of 35-mm color aerial photography to acquire mallard sex ratio data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferguson, E.L.; Jorde, D.G.; Sease, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    A conventional 35-mm camera equipped with an f2.8 135-mm lens and ASA 64 color film was used to acquire sex ratio data on mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) wintering in the Platte River Valley of south-central Nebraska. Prelight focusing for a distance of 30.5 metres and setting of shutter speed at 1/2000 of a second eliminated focusing and reduced image motion problems and resulted in high-resolution, large-scale aerial photography of small targets. This technique has broad application to the problem of determining sex ratios of various species of waterfowl concentrated on wintering and staging areas. The aerial photographic method was cheaper than the ground ocular method when costs were compared on a per-100 bird basis.

  18. Processed 1938 aerial photography for selected areas of the lower Colorado River, southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norman, Laura M.; Gishey, Michael; Gass, Leila; Yanites, Brian; Pfeifer, Edwin; Simms, Ron; Ahlbrandt, Ray

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiated a study of the Lower Colorado River to derive temporal-change characteristics from the predam period to the present. In this report, we present summary information on accomplishments under a USGS task for the Department of the Interior's Landscapes in the West project. We discuss our preliminary results in compiling a digital database of geospatial information on the Lower Colorado River and acquisition of data products, and present a geospatial digital dataset of 1938 aerial photography of the river valley. The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (BOR)'s, Resources Management Office in Boulder City, Nev., provided historical aerial photographs of the river valley from the Hoover Dam to the United States-Mexican border, with some exclusions. USGS authors scanned and mosaicked the photographs, registered the photo mosaics, and created metadata describing each mosaic series, all 15 of which are presented here.

  19. Aerial monitoring and environmental protection: aerial photography as an instrument for checking landscape damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartara, Patrizia

    2009-09-01

    C.N.R. and University of Salento have realized a Geographical Information System for heritage management of the national territory (landscape) and historical urban settlements. Informations come from bibliography, archives, direct and systematic field survey, different kind of aerial photographs analysis, with the primary aim of knowledge for the establishment of an in existence Cultural Heritage Cadastre, focused to legal protection and exploitation of the sites, not last the correct territory planning.

  20. Identification of irrigated crop types from ERTS-1 density contour maps and color infrared aerial photography. [Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrs, R. W.; Evans, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The crop types of a Great Plains study area were mapped from color infrared aerial photography. Each field was positively identified from field checks in the area. Enlarged (50x) density contour maps were constructed from three ERTS-1 images taken in the summer of 1973. The map interpreted from the aerial photography was compared to the density contour maps and the accuracy of the ERTS-1 density contour map interpretations were determined. Changes in the vegetation during the growing season and harvest periods were detectable on the ERTS-1 imagery. Density contouring aids in the detection of such charges.

  1. Automatic Orientation and Mosaicking of Archived Aerial Photography Using Structure from Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, J. A.

    2016-03-01

    Aerial photography has been acquired regularly for topographic mapping since the decade of 1930. In Portugal there are several archives of aerial photos in national mapping institutes, as well as in local authorities, containing a total of nearly one hundred thousand photographs, mainly from the 1940s, 1950s and some from 1930s. These data sets provide important information about the evolution of the territory, for environment and agricultural studies, land planning, and many other examples. There is an interest in making these aerial coverages available in the form of orthorectified mosaics for integration in a GIS. The orthorectification of old photographs may pose several difficulties. Required data about the camera and lens system used, such as the focal distance, fiducial marks coordinates or distortion parameters may not be available, making it difficult to process these data in conventional photogrammetric software. This paper describes an essentially automatic methodology for orientation, orthorectification and mosaic composition of blocks of old aerial photographs, using Agisoft Photoscan structure from motion software. The operation sequence is similar to the processing of UAV imagery. The method was applied to photographs from 1947 and 1958, provided by the Portuguese Army Geographic Institute. The orientation was done with GCPs collected from recent orthophototos and topographic maps. This may be a difficult task, especially in urban areas that went through many changes. Residuals were in general below 1 meter. The agreement of the orthomosaics with recent orthophotos and GIS vector data was in general very good. The process is relatively fast and automatic, and can be considered in the processing of full coverages of old aerial photographs.

  2. 'unlocking the Archive': Using Digital Photogrammetry of Modern Airborne Aerial Photography for Analysis of Historic Aerial Photographs to Extend the Record of Glacier Mass Balance Change on the Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, L. E.; Miller, P.; Fox, A. J.; Mills, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Changes to glacier fronts and ice shelves and glacier acceleration are well documented, but there are almost no data on mass changes for the more than 400 glaciers on the Antarctic Peninsula. Satellite data have been used to calculate change over the last 3 decades, but methods to quantify this over longer timescales have eluded researchers. However there is an archive of aerial photography dating back to the 1940s, this has been largely ignored due to the range of technical problems associated with deriving quantitative data from historic imagery and the lack of ground control data. This presentation demonstrates how advances in photogrammetric processing and capture of modern aerial photography has allowed this archive to be 'unlocked'. Accurate photogrammetric reconstruction from aerial photographs traditionally requires known ground control points acquired in the field; however, in remote and inaccessible areas, such as the Antarctic Peninsula, this is often impossible. A method for providing control for historic photos without fieldwork, by linking them to a newly acquired, highly accurate photogrammetric model adjusted through direct kinematic GPS positioning of the camera has been applied to a number of glaciers across the Antarctic Peninsula. This presentation will outline the photogrammetric workflow and associated errors to highlight the suitability of this technique and demonstrate the data that can be obtained. Accurate measurements of surface elevation change on glaciers on the Antarctic Peninsula over a 70 year time span have enabled quantification of spatial and temporal patterns of change. The results show a general trend of glacier retreat, but with thinning of the glacier terminus marginally offset by accumulation in the upper areas of the glacier. The use of this technique opens up possibilities for 'unlocking the archive' in other remote glacial areas where historic aerial photography exists but the collection of ground control points is limited.

  3. The remote sensing of aquatic macrophytes Part 1: Color-infrared aerial photography as a tool for identification and mapping of littoral vegetation. Part 2: Aerial photography as a quantitative tool for the investigation of aquatic ecosystems. [Lake Wingra, Wisconsin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustafson, T. D.; Adams, M. S.

    1973-01-01

    Research was initiated to use aerial photography as an investigative tool in studies that are part of an intensive aquatic ecosystem research effort at Lake Wingra, Madison, Wisconsin. It is anticipated that photographic techniques would supply information about the growth and distribution of littoral macrophytes with efficiency and accuracy greater than conventional methods.

  4. The use of color infrared aerial photography in determining salt marsh vegetation and delimiting man-made structures of Lynnhaven Bay, Virginia. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, R. E., III

    1974-01-01

    Color infrared aerial photography was found to be superior to color aerial photography in an ecological study of Lynnhaven Bay, Virginia. The research was divided into three phases: (1) Determination of the feasibility of correlating color infrared aerial photography with saline wetland species composition and zonation patterns, (2) determination of the accuracy of the aerial interpretation and problems related to the aerial method used; and (3) comparison of developed with undeveloped areas along Lynnhaven Bay's shoreline. Wetland species composition and plant community zonation bands were compared with aerial infrared photography and resulted in a high degree of correlation. Problems existed with changing physical conditions; time of day, aircraft angle and sun angle, making it necessary to use several different characteristics in wetland species identification. The main characteristics used were known zonation patterns, textural signatures and color tones. Lynnhaven Bay's shoreline was 61.5 percent developed.

  5. Aerial photography: Applications in the study of coastal erosion and pollution. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the applications of aerial photography in the study of coastal shoreline problems such as erosion and pollution. Topics include ocean wave direction and measurement, oil pollution detection and direction forecasting, shoreline change measurements, coastal mapping, and coastal topographic features. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Mapping giant reed (Arundo donax) infestations along the Texas-Mexico portion of the Rio Grande using aerial photography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Giant reed is an invasive weed throughout the southern half of the United States with the densest stands growing along the coastal rivers of southern California and the Rio Grande in Texas. The objective of this study was to use aerial photography to map giant reed infestations and estimate infested...

  7. Research on effect of Kell coefficient on the quality of aerial photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yue; Ma, Wenli

    2010-10-01

    The method of Spatial convolution is applied to analyze the imaging process of the CCD imaging system, which involves optical imaging process and CCD integral sampling process, and the ratio between GRD and GSD that is called Kell coefficient is introduced, based on which, analysis of effect of Kell coefficient on the quality of aerial photography is educed. Imaging process of the target is simulated with different Kell coefficient values by matlab. The method of the gray difference between the target and the image on CCD which is regarded as the evaluation criteria is proposed to evaluate the image quality. The simulation results show that when Kell coefficient equals 2.8, the target characteristics can be distinguished.

  8. The use of aerial photography to quantitatively delineate mixing zones - A progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillesand, T. M.

    1973-01-01

    Aerial photography has been used to characterize and model the mixing zones which result from waste effluent discharges at seven river sites throughout the state of Wisconsin. The mixing zone is defined as the portion of the river where the waste effluent is totally mixed with the ambient receiving water. An integrated program of field sampling, mathematical modeling, laboratory modeling, and remote sensing was conducted to develop a quantitative relationship for the volumetric configuration of the mixing zone as a function of the measurable characteristics of various effluents, outfalls, and receiving water bodies. Analysis of scanning microdensitometer data extracted from 9-in. color IR transparencies has confirmed the utility of employing image density measurements to quantitatively delineate surficial concentration patterns within the mixing zone.

  9. 3D Modelling of Inaccessible Areas using UAV-based Aerial Photography and Structure from Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obanawa, Hiroyuki; Hayakawa, Yuichi; Gomez, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    In hardly accessible areas, the collection of 3D point-clouds using TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanner) can be very challenging, while airborne equivalent would not give a correct account of subvertical features and concave geometries like caves. To solve such problem, the authors have experimented an aerial photography based SfM (Structure from Motion) technique on a 'peninsular-rock' surrounded on three sides by the sea at a Pacific coast in eastern Japan. The research was carried out using UAS (Unmanned Aerial System) combined with a commercial small UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) carrying a compact camera. The UAV is a DJI PHANTOM: the UAV has four rotors (quadcopter), it has a weight of 1000 g, a payload of 400 g and a maximum flight time of 15 minutes. The camera is a GoPro 'HERO3 Black Edition': resolution 12 million pixels; weight 74 g; and 0.5 sec. interval-shot. The 3D model has been constructed by digital photogrammetry using a commercial SfM software, Agisoft PhotoScan Professional®, which can generate sparse and dense point-clouds, from which polygonal models and orthophotographs can be calculated. Using the 'flight-log' and/or GCPs (Ground Control Points), the software can generate digital surface model. As a result, high-resolution aerial orthophotographs and a 3D model were obtained. The results have shown that it was possible to survey the sea cliff and the wave cut-bench, which are unobservable from land side. In details, we could observe the complexity of the sea cliff that is nearly vertical as a whole while slightly overhanging over the thinner base. The wave cut bench is nearly flat and develops extensively at the base of the cliff. Although there are some evidences of small rockfalls at the upper part of the cliff, there is no evidence of very recent activity, because no fallen rock exists on the wave cut bench. This system has several merits: firstly lower cost than the existing measuring methods such as manned-flight survey and aerial laser

  10. Feasibility study for locating archaeological village sites by satellite remote sensing techniques. [multispectral photography of Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, J. P. (Principal Investigator); Stringer, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The objective is to determine the feasibility of detecting large Alaskan archaeological sites by satellite remote sensing techniques and mapping such sites. The approach used is to develop digital multispectral signatures of dominant surface features including vegetation, exposed soils and rock, hydrological patterns and known archaeological sites. ERTS-1 scenes are then printed out digitally in a map-like array with a letter reflecting the most appropriate classification representing each pixel. Preliminary signatures were developed and tested. It was determined that there was a need to tighten up the archaeological site signature by developing accurate signatures for all naturally-occurring vegetation and surface conditions in the vicinity of the test area. These second generation signatures have been tested by means of computer printouts and classified tape displays on the University of Alaska CDU-200 and by comparison with aerial photography. It has been concluded that the archaeological signatures now in use are as good as can be developed. Plans are to print out signatures for the entire test area and locate on topographic maps the likely locations of archaeological sites within the test area.

  11. Catalogue of satellite photography of the active volcanoes of the world

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heiken, G.

    1976-01-01

    A catalogue is presented of active volcanoes as viewed from Earth-orbiting satellites. The listing was prepared of photographs, which have been screened for quality, selected from the earth resources technology satellite (ERTS) and Skylab, Apollo and Gemini spacecraft. There is photography of nearly every active volcano in the world; the photographs are particularly useful for regional studies of volcanic fields.

  12. Modelling trends in woody vegetation structure in semi-arid Australia as determined from aerial photography.

    PubMed

    Fensham, Roderick John; Low Choy, Sama J; Fairfax, Russell James; Cavallaro, Paul C

    2003-08-01

    Accounting of carbon stocks in woody vegetation for greenhouse purposes requires definition of medium term trends with accurate error assessment. Tree and shrub cover was sampled through time at randomly located sites over a large area of central Queensland, Australia using aerial photography from 1945 to 1999. Calibration models developed from field data for the same land types as those represented within the study area allowed for the extrapolation of overstorey and understorey cover, basal area and biomass values and these were modelled as trends over the latter half of the 20th century. These structural attributes have declined over the region because of land clearing with values for biomass changing from a mean of 58.0(+/-1.2)t/ha in 1953 to 41.1(+/-1.0)t/ha in 1991. The biomass of Acacia on clay and Eucalypt on texture contrast soils land types has declined most dramatically. Within uncleared vegetation there was an overall trend of increase from 56.1(+/-1.2)t/ha in 1951 to 67.6(+/-1.3)t/ha in 1995. The increase in structural attributes within uncleared vegetation was most pronounced for the Eucalypt on texture contrast soils and Eucalypt on clay land types. It was demonstrated that the sites sampled were representative of their land types and that spatial bias of the photography, undetected tree-killing, sampling error, inherent variability of structural attributes and measurement error should not have impacted greatly on bias or precision of trend estimates for well-sampled land types. Certainly the errors are not likely to be substantial for trends averaged over all land types and they provide an accurate assessment of the magnitude and direction of change. The technique presented here would appear to be a robust means of accounting for the above-ground woody component of woodlands and open forests and will also contribute to a broader understanding of savanna dynamics. PMID:12877875

  13. Photography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towler, Alan L.

    This guide to teaching photography, one in a series of instructional materials for junior high industrial arts education, is designed to assist teachers as they plan and implement new courses of study and as they make revisions and improvements in existing courses in order to integrate classroom learning with real-life experiences. This…

  14. Photography.

    PubMed

    Oakeley, Henry

    2009-12-01

    A look at 50 years of personal photography, from Brownie Box to Canon digital single-lens reflex cameras, recording life, people, microscope slides and orchids in their habitats and in the studio to digitising old paintings, photos and herbarium specimens. Notes on photographic techniques and the use of ring flash, with comments on long-term conservation of digital images.

  15. Measuring Change in Arctic Coastal Environments Using Repeat Aerial Photography and SfM Elevation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, A.; Nolan, M.; Kinsman, N.; Richmond, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    Aerial- and ground-based photography can provide valuable information about coastal environments in space and time including the presence or absence of shorefast ice, beach characteristics and morphology, high-water indicators produced during storm surge events, bluff failure mechanisms, and habitat identification. Recent advances in digital photogrammetry and construction of Digital Elevation Models (DEM) using Structure-from-Motion (SfM) algorithms allow for improved mapping and analysis of coastal change in 3-dimensions at a relatively low cost. For example, analyses can include delineating shorelines based on a tidal datum, mapping inundation extent based on a known or modeled flood level, or quantifying volumetric change. Repeat aerial surveys and associated orthophoto and DEM construction serve as a powerful monitoring tool that can provide insights into the mechanisms responsible for coastal change. Along the extensive and remote coast of Alaska, high-quality imagery and elevation data are rare, in part because traditional methods of acquiring the data are cost prohibitive. Here we evaluate the usefulness of data sets acquired using small aircraft and SfM techniques for evaluating seasonal change to the beach and permafrost bluffs at Barter Island, Alaska during the summer of 2014. Considerable bluff retreat and morphological change were measured along a 2.7 km stretch of coast with net mean volume loss of approximately 28,000 ± 540 m3 between the top and the base of the bluffs. The pattern of change was dominantly landward retreat of the top of the bluffs and removal of the debris fan at the base of the bluffs. Barrier-spit overwash and migration and deposition of storm berms were also observed and accurately measured. Our results suggest that this is a cost-effective method for mapping coastal change in remote environments leading to a similar data acquisition effort for the State of Alaska, primarily for shoreline and coastal hazard mapping purposes

  16. A procedure for merging land cover/use data from Landsat, aerial photography, and map sources - Compatibility, accuracy and cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enslin, W. R.; Tilmann, S. E.; Hill-Rowley, R.; Rogers, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    A method is developed to merge land cover/use data from Landsat, aerial photography and map sources into a grid-based geographic information system. The method basically involves computer-assisted categorization of Landsat data to provide certain user-specified land cover categories; manual interpretation of aerial photography to identify other selected land cover/use categories that cannot be obtained from Landsat data; identification of special features from aerial photography or map sources; merging of the interpreted data from all the sources into a computer compatible file under a standardized coding structure; and the production of land cover/use maps, thematic maps, and tabular data. The specific tasks accomplished in producing the merged land cover/use data file and subsequent output products are identified and discussed. It is shown that effective implementation of the merging method is critically dependent on selecting the 'best' data source for each user-specified category in terms of accuracy and time/cost tradeoffs.

  17. 'Unlocking the archive': Using digital photogrammetry of modern and historic aerial photography to reconstruct 60 years of volumetric change on the Moider Glacier, Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Lucy; Miller, Pauline; Ireland, Louise; Fox, Adrian; Mills, Jon; Fieber, Karolina

    2016-04-01

    The Antarctic Peninsula is a mountain glacier system comprised of over 400 glaciers, and is an important contributor to historical and future sea level rise. Assessment and monitoring of AP glaciers is crucial for understanding sensitivity to climate change. Changes to glacier fronts and ice shelves and glacier acceleration are well documented, but there are almost no data on mass changes on the Antarctic Peninsula. Satellite data have been used to calculate change over the last 3 decades, but methods to quantify this over longer timescales have eluded researchers. However there is an archive of aerial photography dating back to the 1940s, this has been largely ignored due to the range of technical problems associated with deriving quantitative data from historic imagery and the lack of ground control data. This presentation demonstrates how advances in photogrammetric processing and capture of modern aerial photography has allowed this archive to be 'unlocked'. Accurate photogrammetric reconstruction from aerial photographs traditionally requires known ground control points acquired in the field; in remote and inaccessible areas, such as the Antarctic Peninsula, this is often impossible. A method for providing control for historic photos without fieldwork, by linking them to a newly acquired, highly accurate photogrammetric model adjusted through direct kinematic GPS positioning of the camera has been applied to a number of glaciers across the Antarctic Peninsula. This presentation will outline the photogrammetric workflow with focus on the Moider Glacier in the Marguerite Bay region of the western Antarctic Peninsula to investigate the quality of data that can be obtained. Volumetric changes on the glaciers from the 1950s to present day (2015) have been reconstructed and can be used to explore the spatial and temporal changes that have occurred on this glacier. In particular, there is near-annual data over the last 5 years recording a period when there has been

  18. Geomorphic changes of a coral shingle cay measured using Kite Aerial Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, Mitch; Duce, Stephanie; Harris, Dan; Webster, Jody M.; Thompson, Alisha; Vila-Concejo, Ana; Williams, Stefan B.

    2016-10-01

    Measurements of geomorphic change in the intertidal zones of coral reefs are made using a variety of remote sensing and in-situ techniques, where variations in the coverage and spatial-temporal precision achieved are directly related to the cost of data acquisition. We present a novel, low-cost technique for measuring high-resolution changes in reef environments based on Kite Aerial Photography (KAP) and photogrammetry/structure-from-motion post-processing. KAP images are used to measure fine-scale changes in intertidal topography and sediment texture characteristics, including rubble particle size, of a coral shingle cay at One Tree Island, Great Barrier Reef in the context of storm activity. Validation using Real Time Kinematic DGPS demonstrates the ability to measure topographic elevation with an error of 5.53 cm (RMSE) and a spatial resolution of 5 cm per point, an accuracy/resolution that is superior to airborne LiDAR and equivalent to terrestrial LiDAR, but at a fraction of the equipment cost.

  19. Wavelet Estimation of Plant Spatial Patterns in Multi-temporal Aerial Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strand, E. K.; Vierling, L. A.; Smith, A. M.; Bunting, S. C.; Hann, D. B.; Gessler, P. E.

    2005-12-01

    Spatial wavelet analysis represents a powerful set of image processing techniques that has considerable potential to quantify ecologically relevant patterns at multiple scales. We utilized 1-m panchromatic aerial photography from 1939 and 1998 to automatically detect the location and crown diameters of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) plants as they encroach upon a sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) steppe landscape via 2-dimensional wavelet analysis. We further demonstrate how wavelet analysis can be used to estimate plant cover, above-ground carbon stock and net C sequestration rate in above-ground woody tissue. The juniper crown diameters derived from wavelet analysis produced a strong correlation with crown diameters measured via comparable hand-digitizing in a geographic information system (r=0.96, n=69) with a 5% commission and an 8% omission error. When compared to field data we found that plants with crown diameters three times larger than the image pixel size were accurately depicted by the wavelet technique (r=0.86, n=60) with a 19% omission and 0% commission error. Similarly, the GIS hand-digitizing yielded a 15% omission error and 0 % commission error (r =0.92, n=65). Plants with a crown diameter smaller than 3 m were not detected by the wavelet method nor were they possible to record in a GIS, however these small plants comprised only 4% of the woody carbon across the sampled landscape. We further compared the wavelet estimated plant cover to field data for 20 plots with juniper cover ranging from 1.2 - 61.8 %. Cover estimates using wavelets are accurate up to approximately 20% juniper cover (r=0.81, n=13), but plant cover is underestimated for plots with a canopy closure > 20% due to crown clumping. Considering all of the 20 plots, the wavelet method estimated 10.7% total plant cover compared to the field estimate of 13.9%. We attribute approximately 50% of the error in the cover estimate to the inability to detect plants < 3 m in size, and 50 % of

  20. Determining in-season nitrogen requirements for corn using aerial color-infrared photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sripada, Ravi Prakash

    Fast, accurate methods to determine in-season corn (Zea mays L.) nitrogen (N) requirements are needed to provide more precise and economical management and potentially decrease groundwater N contamination. The objectives of this study were to: (i) develop a methodology for predicting in-season N requirement for corn at the V7 and VT stages using aerial color infrared (CIR) photography; (ii) validate the RGDVI-based remote sensing technique for determining in-season N requirements for corn at VT; (iii) determine the relationships between corn agronomic parameters and spectral parameters that influence the prediction of optimum NV7 and NVT rates. Field studies were conducted for four years over a wide range of soil conditions and water regimes in the North Carolina Coastal Plain. A two-way factorial experimental design was implemented as a split-plot in randomized complete blocks with NPL as the main plot factor and NV7 or NVT as the sub-plot factor. Corn agronomic parameters were measured and aerial CIR photographs were obtained for each site at V7 or VT prior to N application. Spectral radiation of corn measured using the Green Difference Vegetation Index (GDVI) relative to high-N reference strips using a linear-plateau model was the best predictor of optimum NVT (R2 = 0.67). Very weak correlations were observed between optimum rates of N V7 and band combinations with significant correlations for relative G, RGDVI, and relative difference vegetation index (RDVI). In the VT validation study, the difference between predicted and observed optimum NVT rates ranged from -30 to 90 kg N ha-1. Overall, the remote sensing technique was successful (r2 = 0.85) in predicting optimum NVT rates despite the inherent constraints of predicting yield potential in any particular year. The spectral index RGDVI showed consistently significant relationships with corn agronomic parameters measured at VT. By assessing corn N requirements late in the season during the period of maximum N

  1. High-Resolution 3D Bathymetric Mapping for Small Streams Using Low-Altitude Aerial Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, J. T.; Duffin, J.

    2015-12-01

    Geomorphic monitoring of river restoration projects is a critical component of measuring their success. In smaller streams, with depths less than 2 meters, one of the more difficult variables to map at high-resolution is bathymetry. In larger rivers, bathymetry can be measured with instruments like multi-beam sonar, bathymetric airborne LiDAR, or acoustic doppler current profilers (ADCP). However, these systems are often limited by their minimum operating depths, which makes them ineffective in shallow water. Remote sensing offers several potential solutions for collecting bathymetry, spectral depth mapping and photogrammetric measurement (e.g. Structure-from-Motion (SfM) multi-view photogrammetry). In this case study, we use SfM to produce both high-resolution above water topography and below water bathymetry for two reaches of a stream restoration project on the Middle Fork of the John Day River in eastern Oregon and one reach on the White River in Vermont. We collected low-allitude multispectral (RGB+NIR) aerial photography at all of the sites at altitudes of 30 to 50 meters. The SfM survey was georeferenced with RTK-GPS ground control points and the bathymetry was refraction-corrected using additional RTK-GPS sample points. The resulting raster data products have horizontal resolutions of ~4-8 centimeters for the topography and ~8-15 cm for the bathymetry. This methodology, like many fluvial remote sensing methods, will only work under ideal conditions (e.g. clear water), but it provides an additional tool for collecting high-resolution bathymetric datasets for geomorphic monitoring efforts.

  2. Comparative Assessment of Very High Resolution Satellite and Aerial Orthoimagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrafiotis, P.; Georgopoulos, A.

    2015-03-01

    This paper aims to assess the accuracy and radiometric quality of orthorectified high resolution satellite imagery from Pleiades-1B satellites through a comparative evaluation of their quantitative and qualitative properties. A Pleiades-B1 stereopair of high resolution images taken in 2013, two adjacent GeoEye-1 stereopairs from 2011 and aerial orthomosaic (LSO) provided by NCMA S.A (Hellenic Cadastre) from 2007 have been used for the comparison tests. As control dataset orthomosaic from aerial imagery provided also by NCMA S.A (0.25m GSD) from 2012 was selected. The process for DSM and orthoimage production was performed using commercial digital photogrammetric workstations. The two resulting orthoimages and the aerial orthomosaic (LSO) were relatively and absolutely evaluated for their quantitative and qualitative properties. Test measurements were performed using the same check points in order to establish their accuracy both as far as the single point coordinates as well as their distances are concerned. Check points were distributed according to JRC Guidelines for Best Practice and Quality Checking of Ortho Imagery and NSSDA standards while areas with different terrain relief and land cover were also included. The tests performed were based also on JRC and NSSDA accuracy standards. Finally, tests were carried out in order to assess the radiometric quality of the orthoimagery. The results are presented with a statistical analysis and they are evaluated in order to present the merits and demerits of the imaging sensors involved for orthoimage production. The results also serve for a critical approach for the usability and cost efficiency of satellite imagery for the production of Large Scale Orthophotos.

  3. Integration of airborne Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data and digitized aerial photography via an ISH transformation. [Intensity Saturation Hue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrosia, Vincent G.; Myers, Jeffrey S.; Ekstrand, Robert E.; Fitzgerald, Michael T.

    1991-01-01

    A simple method for enhancing the spatial and spectral resolution of disparate data sets is presented. Two data sets, digitized aerial photography at a nominal spatial resolution 3,7 meters and TMS digital data at 24.6 meters, were coregistered through a bilinear interpolation to solve the problem of blocky pixel groups resulting from rectification expansion. The two data sets were then subjected to intensity-saturation-hue (ISH) transformations in order to 'blend' the high-spatial-resolution (3.7 m) digitized RC-10 photography with the high spectral (12-bands) and lower spatial (24.6 m) resolution TMS digital data. The resultant merged products make it possible to perform large-scale mapping, ease photointerpretation, and can be derived for any of the 12 available TMS spectral bands.

  4. Evaluation of aerial photography for predicting trends in structural attributes of Australian woodland including comparison with ground-based monitoring data.

    PubMed

    Fensham, Roderick J; Bray, Steven G; Fairfax, Russell J

    2007-06-01

    The accurate assessment of trends in the woody structure of savannas has important implications for greenhouse accounting and land-use industries such as pastoralism. Two recent assessments of live woody biomass change from north-east Australian eucalypt woodland between the 1980s and 1990s present divergent results. The first estimate is derived from a network of permanent monitoring plots and the second from woody cover assessments from aerial photography. The differences between the studies are reviewed and include sample density, spatial scale and design. Further analyses targeting potential biases in the indirect aerial photography technique are conducted including a comparison of basal area estimates derived from 28 permanent monitoring sites with basal area estimates derived by the aerial photography technique. It is concluded that the effect of photo-scale; or the failure to include appropriate back-transformation of biomass estimates in the aerial photography study are not likely to have contributed significantly to the discrepancy. However, temporal changes in the structure of woodlands, for example, woodlands maturing from many smaller trees to fewer larger trees or seasonal changes, which affect the relationship between cover and basal area could impact on the detection of trends using the aerial photography technique. It is also possible that issues concerning photo-quality may bias assessments through time, and that the limited sample of the permanent monitoring network may inadequately represent change at regional scales. PMID:16828220

  5. Wavelet-based detection of bush encroachment in a savanna using multi-temporal aerial photographs and satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekede, Munyaradzi D.; Murwira, Amon; Masocha, Mhosisi

    2015-03-01

    Although increased woody plant abundance has been reported in tropical savannas worldwide, techniques for detecting the direction and magnitude of change are mostly based on visual interpretation of historical aerial photography or textural analysis of multi-temporal satellite images. These techniques are prone to human error and do not permit integration of remotely sensed data from diverse sources. Here, we integrate aerial photographs with high spatial resolution satellite imagery and use a discrete wavelet transform to objectively detect the dynamics in bush encroachment at two protected Zimbabwean savanna sites. Based on the recently introduced intensity-dominant scale approach, we test the hypotheses that: (1) the encroachment of woody patches into the surrounding grassland matrix causes a shift in the dominant scale. This shift in the dominant scale can be detected using a discrete wavelet transform regardless of whether aerial photography and satellite data are used; and (2) as the woody patch size stabilises, woody cover tends to increase thereby triggering changes in intensity. The results show that at the first site where tree patches were already established (Lake Chivero Game Reserve), between 1972 and 1984 the dominant scale of woody patches initially increased from 8 m before stabilising at 16 m and 32 m between 1984 and 2012 while the intensity fluctuated during the same period. In contrast, at the second site, which was formely grass-dominated site (Kyle Game Reserve), we observed an unclear dominant scale (1972) which later becomes distinct in 1985, 1996 and 2012. Over the same period, the intensity increased. Our results imply that using our approach we can detect and quantify woody/bush patch dynamics in savanna landscapes.

  6. The use of large-scale aerial photography for interpreting Landsat digital data in an elk habitat-analysis project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isaacson, D. L.; Alexander, C. J.; Leckenby, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    Large-scale aerial photography was used to interpret Landsat multispectral scanner data processed through an unsupervised classifier. After scale adjustment and interpretation by application of an elk-habitat photointerpretation legend, the photographs were registered with the spectral classification, and the co-occurrence of spectral picture elements with photointerpreted habitat classes was tabulated. Analysis of the resulting table of data permitted the description of spectral classes in terms meaningful and useful to elk research and management unit in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon.

  7. Scanner. [photography from a spin stabilized synchronous satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hummer, R. F.; Upton, D. T. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An aerial vehicle rotating in gyroscopic fashion about one of its axes has an optical system which scans an area below the vehicle in determined relation to vehicle rotation. A sensing device is provided to sense the physical condition of the area of scan and optical means are associated to direct the physical intelligence received from the scan area to the sensing means. Means are provided to incrementally move the optical means through a series of steps to effect sequential line scan of the area being viewed keyed to the rotational rate of the vehicle.

  8. Remote sensing in agriculture. [using Earth Resources Technology Satellite photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downs, S. W., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Some examples are presented of the use of remote sensing in cultivated crops, forestry, and range management. Areas of concern include: the determination of crop areas and types, prediction of yield, and detection of disease; the determination of forest areas and types, timber volume estimation, detection of insect and disease attack, and forest fires; and the determination of range conditions and inventory, and livestock inventory. Articles in the literature are summarized and specific examples of work being performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center are given. Primarily, aerial photographs and photo-like ERTS images are considered.

  9. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) in atmospheric research and satellite validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitnikov, Nikolay; Borisov, Yuriy; Akmulin, Dimitry; Chekulaev, Igor; Efremov, Denis; Sitnikova, Vera; Ulanovsky, Alexey; Popovicheva, Olga

    The perspectives of the development of methods and facilities based on UAV for atmospheric investigations are considered. Some aspects of these methods applications are discussed. Developments of the experimental samples of UAV onboard equipment for measurements of atmospheric parameters carried out in Central Aerological Observatory are presented. Hardware system for the UAV is developed. The results of measurements of the spatial distributions of the thermodynamic parameters and the concentrations of some gas species onboard of remotely piloted and unmanned aerial vehicles obtained in field tests are presented. The development can be used for satellite data validation, as well as operative environmental monitoring of contaminated areas in particular, chemical plants, natural and industrial disasters territories, areas and facilities for space purposes , etc.

  10. MAPPING INTERTIDAL EELGRASS (ZOSTERA MARINA L.) IN THREE COASTAL ESTUARIES OF THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST USA USING FALSE-COLOUR NEAR-INFRARED AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study describes a hybrid technique of digitally classifying aerial photography used for mapping the intertidal habitat of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in Pacific Northwest USA estuaries. The large tidal range (2-3 m) in this region exposes most of this seagrass community at ...

  11. A Vegetation Analysis on Horn Island Mississippi, ca. 1940 using Habitat Characteristic Dimensions Derived from Historical Aerial Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeter, G. W.; Carter, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    Guy (Will) Wilburn Jeter Jr., Gregory A. Carter University of Southern Mississippi Geography and Geology Gulf Coast Geospatial Center The over-arching goal of this research is to assess habitat change over a seventy year period to better understand the combined effects of global sea level rise and storm impacts on the stability of Horn Island, MS habitats. Historical aerial photography is often overlooked as a resource for use in determining habitat change. However, the spatial information provided even by black and white imagery can give insight into past habitat composition via textural analysis. This research will evaluate characteristic dimensions; most notably patch size of habitat types using simple geo-statistics and textures of brightness values of historical aerial imagery. It is assumed that each cover type has an identifiable patch size that can be used as a unique classifier of each habitat type. Analytical methods applied to the 1940 imagery were developed using 2010 field data and USDA aerial imagery. Textural moving window methods and basic geo-statistics were used to estimate characteristic dimensions of each cover type in 1940 aerial photography. The moving window texture analysis was configured with multiple window sizes to capture the characteristic dimensions of six habitat types; water, bare sand , dune herb land, estuarine shrub land, marsh land and slash pine woodland. Coefficient of variation (CV), contrast, and entropy texture filters were used to analyze the spatial variability of the 1940 and 2010 imagery. (CV) was used to depict the horizontal variability of each habitat characteristic dimension. Contrast was used to represent the variability of bright versus dark pixel values; entropy was used to show the variation in the slash pine woodland habitat type. Results indicate a substantial increase in marshland habitat relative to other habitat types since 1940. Results also reveal each habitat-type, such as dune herb-land, marsh

  12. A 'digital' technique for manual extraction of data from aerial photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Istvan, L. B.; Bondy, M. T.

    1977-01-01

    The interpretation procedure described uses a grid cell approach. In addition, a random point is located in each cell. The procedure required that the cell/point grid be established on a base map, and identical grids be made to precisely match the scale of the photographic frames. The grid is then positioned on the photography by visual alignment to obvious features. Several alignments on one frame are sometimes required to make a precise match of all points to be interpreted. This system inherently corrects for distortions in the photography. Interpretation is then done cell by cell. In order to meet the time constraints, first order interpretation should be maintained. The data is put onto coding forms, along with other appropriate data, if desired. This 'digital' manual interpretation technique has proven to be efficient, and time and cost effective, while meeting strict requirements for data format and accuracy.

  13. Open Skies aerial photography of selected areas in Central America affected by Hurricane Mitch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Molnia, Bruce; Hallam, Cheryl A.

    1999-01-01

    Between October 27 and November 1, 1998, Central America was devastated by Hurricane Mitch. Following a humanitarian relief effort, one of the first informational needs was complete aerial photographic coverage of the storm ravaged areas so that the governments of the affected countries, the U.S. agencies planning to provide assistance, and the international relief community could come to the aid of the residents of the devastated area. Between December 4 and 19, 1998 an Open Skies aircraft conducted five successful missions and obtained more than 5,000 high-resolution aerial photographs and more than 15,000 video images. The aerial data are being used by the Reconstruction Task Force and many others who are working to begin rebuilding and to help reduce the risk of future destruction.

  14. Unmanned aerial vehicles for rangeland mapping and monitoring: a comparison of two systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerial photography from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) bridges the gap between ground-based observations and remotely sensed imagery from aerial and satellite platforms. UAVs can be deployed quickly and repeatedly, are less costly and safer than piloted aircraft, and can obtain very high-resolution...

  15. Applicability Evaluation of Object Detection Method to Satellite and Aerial Imageries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiya, K.; Fuse, T.; Takahashi, M.

    2016-06-01

    Since satellite and aerial imageries are recently widely spread and frequently observed, combination of them are expected to complement spatial and temporal resolution each other. One of the prospective applications is traffic monitoring, where objects of interest, or vehicles, need to be recognized automatically. Techniques that employ object detection before object recognition can save a computational time and cost, and thus take a significant role. However, there is not enough knowledge whether object detection method can perform well on satellite and aerial imageries. In addition, it also has to be studied how characteristics of satellite and aerial imageries affect the object detection performance. This study employ binarized normed gradients (BING) method that runs significantly fast and is robust to rotation and noise. For our experiments, 11-bits BGR-IR satellite imageries from WorldView-3, and BGR-color aerial imageries are used respectively, and we create thousands of ground truth samples. We conducted several experiments to compare the performances with different images, to verify whether combination of different resolution images improved the performance, and to analyze the applicability of mixing satellite and aerial imageries. The results showed that infrared band had little effect on the detection rate, that 11-bit images performed less than 8-bit images and that the better spatial resolution brought the better performance. Another result might imply that mixing higher and lower resolution images for training dataset could help detection performance. Furthermore, we found that aerial images improved the detection performance on satellite images.

  16. REMOTE SENSING OF SEAGRASS WITH AVIRIS AND HIGH ALTITUDE AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    On May 15,2002 AVIRlS (Advanced VisuaJ/lnfrared Imaging Spectrometer) data and high altitude aerial photographs were acquired tor coastal .waters from Cape Lookout to Oregon Inlet, North Carolina. The study encompasses extensive areas of seagrass, federally protected submersed, r...

  17. EROS Main Image File: A Picture Perfect Database for Landsat Imagery and Aerial Photography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Robert F.

    1984-01-01

    Describes Earth Resources Observation System online database, which provides access to computerized images of Earth obtained via satellite. Highlights include retrieval system and commands, types of images, search strategies, other online functions, and interpretation of accessions. Satellite information, sources and samples of accessions, and…

  18. Identification and measurement of shrub type vegetation on large scale aerial photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driscoll, R. S.

    1970-01-01

    Important range-shrub species were identified at acceptable levels of accuracy on large-scale 70 mm color and color infrared aerial photographs. Identification of individual shrubs was significantly higher, however, on color infrared. Photoscales smaller than 1:2400 had limited value except for mature individuals of relatively tall species, and then only if crown margins did not overlap and sharp contrast was evident between the species and background. Larger scale photos were required for low-growing species in dense stands. The crown cover for individual species was estimated from the aerial photos either with a measuring magnifier or a projected-scale micrometer. These crown cover measurements provide techniques for earth-resource analyses when used in conjunction with space and high-altitude remotely procured photos.

  19. An Antarctic Time Capsule: Compiling and Hosting 60 years of USGS Antarctic Aerial Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niebuhr, S.; Child, S.; Porter, C.; Herried, B.; Morin, P. J.

    2010-12-01

    The Antarctic Geospatial Information Center (AGIC) and the US Geologic Survey (USGS) collaborated to scan, archive, and make available 330,000 trimetrogon aerial (TMA) photos from 1860 flight lines taken over Antarctica from 1946 to 2000. Staff at USGS scanned them at 400 dpi and 1024 dpi resolution. To geolocate them, AGIC digitized the flight line maps, added relevant metadata including flight line altitude, camera type, and focal length, and approximated geographic centers for each photo. Both USGS and AGIC host the medium resolution air photos online, and are adding high resolution scans as they become available. The development of these metadata allowed AGIC to create a web-based flight line and aerial photo browsing application to facilitate the searching process. The application allows the user to browse through air photos and flight lines by location with links to full resolution preview images and to image downloads. AGIC has also orthorectified selected photos of facilities and areas of high scientific interest and are making them available online. This includes a time series showing significant change in several glaciers and lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys over 50 years and a series illustrating how McMurdo Station has changed. For the first time, this collection of historical imagery over a swiftly changing continent are readily available to the Antarctic scientific community (www.agic.umn.edu/imagery/aerial).

  20. Modeling vegetation heights from high resolution stereo aerial photography: an application for broad-scale rangeland monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillan, Jeffrey K.; Karl, Jason W.; Duniway, Michael; Elaksher, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Vertical vegetation structure in rangeland ecosystems can be a valuable indicator for assessing rangeland health and monitoring riparian areas, post-fire recovery, available forage for livestock, and wildlife habitat. Federal land management agencies are directed to monitor and manage rangelands at landscapes scales, but traditional field methods for measuring vegetation heights are often too costly and time consuming to apply at these broad scales. Most emerging remote sensing techniques capable of measuring surface and vegetation height (e.g., LiDAR or synthetic aperture radar) are often too expensive, and require specialized sensors. An alternative remote sensing approach that is potentially more practical for managers is to measure vegetation heights from digital stereo aerial photographs. As aerial photography is already commonly used for rangeland monitoring, acquiring it in stereo enables three-dimensional modeling and estimation of vegetation height. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and accuracy of estimating shrub heights from high-resolution (HR, 3-cm ground sampling distance) digital stereo-pair aerial images. Overlapping HR imagery was taken in March 2009 near Lake Mead, Nevada and 5-cm resolution digital surface models (DSMs) were created by photogrammetric methods (aerial triangulation, digital image matching) for twenty-six test plots. We compared the heights of individual shrubs and plot averages derived from the DSMs to field measurements. We found strong positive correlations between field and image measurements for several metrics. Individual shrub heights tended to be underestimated in the imagery, however, accuracy was higher for dense, compact shrubs compared with shrubs with thin branches. Plot averages of shrub height from DSMs were also strongly correlated to field measurements but consistently underestimated. Grasses and forbs were generally too small to be detected with the resolution of the DSMs. Estimates of

  1. Modeling vegetation heights from high resolution stereo aerial photography: an application for broad-scale rangeland monitoring.

    PubMed

    Gillan, Jeffrey K; Karl, Jason W; Duniway, Michael; Elaksher, Ahmed

    2014-11-01

    Vertical vegetation structure in rangeland ecosystems can be a valuable indicator for assessing rangeland health and monitoring riparian areas, post-fire recovery, available forage for livestock, and wildlife habitat. Federal land management agencies are directed to monitor and manage rangelands at landscapes scales, but traditional field methods for measuring vegetation heights are often too costly and time consuming to apply at these broad scales. Most emerging remote sensing techniques capable of measuring surface and vegetation height (e.g., LiDAR or synthetic aperture radar) are often too expensive, and require specialized sensors. An alternative remote sensing approach that is potentially more practical for managers is to measure vegetation heights from digital stereo aerial photographs. As aerial photography is already commonly used for rangeland monitoring, acquiring it in stereo enables three-dimensional modeling and estimation of vegetation height. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and accuracy of estimating shrub heights from high-resolution (HR, 3-cm ground sampling distance) digital stereo-pair aerial images. Overlapping HR imagery was taken in March 2009 near Lake Mead, Nevada and 5-cm resolution digital surface models (DSMs) were created by photogrammetric methods (aerial triangulation, digital image matching) for twenty-six test plots. We compared the heights of individual shrubs and plot averages derived from the DSMs to field measurements. We found strong positive correlations between field and image measurements for several metrics. Individual shrub heights tended to be underestimated in the imagery, however, accuracy was higher for dense, compact shrubs compared with shrubs with thin branches. Plot averages of shrub height from DSMs were also strongly correlated to field measurements but consistently underestimated. Grasses and forbs were generally too small to be detected with the resolution of the DSMs. Estimates of

  2. Modeling vegetation heights from high resolution stereo aerial photography: an application for broad-scale rangeland monitoring.

    PubMed

    Gillan, Jeffrey K; Karl, Jason W; Duniway, Michael; Elaksher, Ahmed

    2014-11-01

    Vertical vegetation structure in rangeland ecosystems can be a valuable indicator for assessing rangeland health and monitoring riparian areas, post-fire recovery, available forage for livestock, and wildlife habitat. Federal land management agencies are directed to monitor and manage rangelands at landscapes scales, but traditional field methods for measuring vegetation heights are often too costly and time consuming to apply at these broad scales. Most emerging remote sensing techniques capable of measuring surface and vegetation height (e.g., LiDAR or synthetic aperture radar) are often too expensive, and require specialized sensors. An alternative remote sensing approach that is potentially more practical for managers is to measure vegetation heights from digital stereo aerial photographs. As aerial photography is already commonly used for rangeland monitoring, acquiring it in stereo enables three-dimensional modeling and estimation of vegetation height. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and accuracy of estimating shrub heights from high-resolution (HR, 3-cm ground sampling distance) digital stereo-pair aerial images. Overlapping HR imagery was taken in March 2009 near Lake Mead, Nevada and 5-cm resolution digital surface models (DSMs) were created by photogrammetric methods (aerial triangulation, digital image matching) for twenty-six test plots. We compared the heights of individual shrubs and plot averages derived from the DSMs to field measurements. We found strong positive correlations between field and image measurements for several metrics. Individual shrub heights tended to be underestimated in the imagery, however, accuracy was higher for dense, compact shrubs compared with shrubs with thin branches. Plot averages of shrub height from DSMs were also strongly correlated to field measurements but consistently underestimated. Grasses and forbs were generally too small to be detected with the resolution of the DSMs. Estimates of

  3. Land use inventory of Salt Lake County, Utah from color infrared aerial photography 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, K. P.; Willie, R. D.; Wheeler, D. J.; Ridd, M. K.

    1983-01-01

    The preparation of land use maps of Salt Lake County, Utah from high altitude color infrared photography is described. The primary purpose of the maps is to aid in the assessment of the effects of urban development on the agricultural land base and water resources. The first stage of map production was to determine the categories of land use/land cover and the mapping unit detail. The highest level of interpretive detail was given to the land use categories found in the agricultural or urbanized portions of the county; these areas are of primary interest with regard to the consumptive use of water from surface streams and wells. A slightly lower level of mapping detail was given to wetland environments; areas to which water is not purposely diverted by man but which have a high consumptive rate of water use. Photos were interpreted on the basis of color, tone, texture, and pattern, together with features of the topographic, hydrologic, and ecological context.

  4. Wetland mapping from digitized aerial photography. [Sheboygen Marsh, Sheboygen County, Wisconsin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarpace, F. L.; Quirk, B. K.; Kiefer, R. W.; Wynn, S. L.

    1981-01-01

    Computer assisted interpretation of small scale aerial imagery was found to be a cost effective and accurate method of mapping complex vegetation patterns if high resolution information is desired. This type of technique is suited for problems such as monitoring changes in species composition due to environmental factors and is a feasible method of monitoring and mapping large areas of wetlands. The technique has the added advantage of being in a computer compatible form which can be transformed into any georeference system of interest.

  5. Learning Scene Categories from High Resolution Satellite Image for Aerial Video Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cheriyadat, Anil M

    2011-01-01

    Automatic scene categorization can benefit various aerial video processing applications. This paper addresses the problem of predicting the scene category from aerial video frames using a prior model learned from satellite imagery. We show that local and global features in the form of line statistics and 2-D power spectrum parameters respectively can characterize the aerial scene well. The line feature statistics and spatial frequency parameters are useful cues to distinguish between different urban scene categories. We learn the scene prediction model from highresolution satellite imagery to test the model on the Columbus Surrogate Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (CSUAV) dataset ollected by high-altitude wide area UAV sensor platform. e compare the proposed features with the popular Scale nvariant Feature Transform (SIFT) features. Our experimental results show that proposed approach outperforms te SIFT model when the training and testing are conducted n disparate data sources.

  6. Monitoring morphological changes in an arid zone by spaceborne images and aerial photography between 1945 - 2009; the Yamin Plateau, Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetz, Guy; Blumberg, Dan; Avraham, Dody; Cohen, Hai

    2010-05-01

    This research focuses on a geomorphic mapping of the Yamin Plateau in southern Israel which is part of the Yamin-Rotem Syncline and covers about 200 km2. This area has been restricted since the 1950s and therefore, provides a unique opportunity to study undisturbed geomorphic processes. Nowadays, the national nuclear waste depository is located in this area accepting waste from industrial factories, research institutes and hospitals. This is the main reason why environmental processes are of major interest in terms of landform changes in space and time. The exposed geology section of the Yamin Plateau mostly consists of the Miocene Hazeva Group where sedimentary processes started 20 million years ago and continued for 12-14 million years. Two formations of the Miocene Hazeva Group appear in the study area Zefa and Rotem. The compositions of these two formations are similar and sometimes defined as "the main sand body" in the Hazeva Group. The restriction of the area stopped the grazing and let the development of a biological soil crust on the surface. The research objective was to document and characterize landform changes from 1945 until 2009 within the Yamin Plateau based on spaceborne images and aerial photography. All the parameters we extracted in the laboratory were validated with field measurements. A combination of the spaceborne images, aerial photography and field measurements leads us to the following conclusions: The research results show that soil stabilization processes took place earlier than the area closure. Inspite of decreasing precipitation tendencies as measured during the last 50 years in Yamin Plateau, the vegetation cover increased from 55% in 1945 to 67% in 2009. The main reason for this is the area closure and reduction in grazing along with developing of vegetation and biological soil crusts. Field studies and image processing of aerial photographs and recent QuickBird images alongside grain-size distribution show that in the past there

  7. From the air to digital landscapes: generating reach-scale topographic models from aerial photography in gravel-bed rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vericat, Damià; Narciso, Efrén; Béjar, Maria; Tena, Álvaro; Brasington, James; Gibbins, Chris; Batalla, Ramon J.

    2014-05-01

    Digital Terrain Models are fundamental to characterise landscapes, to support numerical modelling and to monitor topographic changes. Recent advances in topography, remote sensing and geomatics are providing new opportunities to obtain high density/quality and rapid topographic data. In this paper we present an integrated methodology to rapidly obtain reach scale topographic models of fluvial systems. This methodology has been tested and is being applied to develop event-scale terrain models of a 11-km river reach in the highly dynamic Upper Cinca (NE Iberian Peninsula). This research is conducted in the background of the project MorphSed. The methodology integrates (a) the acquisition of dense point clouds of the exposed floodplain (aerial photography and digital photogrammetry); (b) the registration of all observations to the same coordinate system (using RTK-GPS surveyed GCPs); (c) the acquisition of bathymetric data (using aDcp measurements integrated with RTK-GPS); (d) the intelligent decimation of survey observations (using the open source TopCat toolkit) and, finally, (e) data fusion (elaborating Digital Elevation Models). In this paper special emphasis is given to the acquisition and registration of point clouds. 3D point clouds are obtained from aerial photography and by means of automated digital photogrammetry. Aerial photographs are taken at 275 meters above the ground by means of a SLR digital camera manually operated from an autogyro. Four flight paths are defined in order to cover the 11 km long and 500 meters wide river reach. A total of 45 minutes are required to fly along these paths. Camera has been previously calibrated with the objective to ensure image resolution at around 5 cm. A total of 220 GCPs are deployed and RTK-GPS surveyed before the flight is conducted. Two people and one full workday are necessary to deploy and survey the full set of GCPs. Field data acquisition may be finalised in less than 2 days. Structure-from-Motion is

  8. Locating inputs of freshwater to Lynch Cove, Hood Canal, Washington, using aerial infrared photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheibley, Rich W.; Josberger, Edward G.; Chickadel, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The input of freshwater and associated nutrients into Lynch Cove and lower Hood Canal (fig. 1) from sources such as groundwater seeps, small streams, and ephemeral creeks may play a major role in the nutrient loading and hydrodynamics of this low dissolved-oxygen (hypoxic) system. These disbursed sources exhibit a high degree of spatial variability. However, few in-situ measurements of groundwater seepage rates and nutrient concentrations are available and thus may not represent adequately the large spatial variability of groundwater discharge in the area. As a result, our understanding of these processes and their effect on hypoxic conditions in Hood Canal is limited. To determine the spatial variability and relative intensity of these sources, the U.S. Geological Survey Washington Water Science Center collaborated with the University of Washington Applied Physics Laboratory to obtain thermal infrared (TIR) images of the nearshore and intertidal regions of Lynch Cove at or near low tide. In the summer, cool freshwater discharges from seeps and streams, flows across the exposed, sun-warmed beach, and out on the warm surface of the marine water. These temperature differences are readily apparent in aerial thermal infrared imagery that we acquired during the summers of 2008 and 2009. When combined with co-incident video camera images, these temperature differences allow identification of the location, the type, and the relative intensity of the sources.

  9. Use of aerial photography in determining land use and streamflow relationships on small developing watersheds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owe, M.

    1981-01-01

    Using aerial photographs dating back to 1937, the historical trends of five land use classes (crop, forest, open field, urban and suburban) are determined. The relationships between these and various flow regime parameters are investigated. Annual runoff is found to be 7.5 inches greater now than in the year 1932. It is also found that growing season runoff increased by 3.5 inches during the same period. This increase is approximately equivalent to 160 area inches of excess runoff during the 45-year period of observation. The increase in runoff is found to be positively correlated with the percent basin area in the urban, suburban and open field land use classes. A negative correlation is established with forest and crop land. Although poor correlations are found with high flow, low flow, flow interval and flow date data, it is thought that a more precise quantification of land use or a smaller basin area may possibly have yielded more positive results for streamflow timing data.

  10. Identification of disrupted surfaces due to military activity at the Ft. Irwin National Training Center: An aerial photograph and satellite image analysis

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, L.E.; Marsh, S.E.; Lee, C.

    1996-07-01

    Concern for environmental management of our natural resources is most often focused on the anthropogenic impacts placed upon these resources. Desert landscapes, in particular, are fragile environments, and minimal stresses on surficial materials can greatly increase the rate and character of erosional responses. The National Training Center, Ft. Irwin, located in the middle of the Mojave Desert, California, provides an isolated study area of intense ORV activity occurring over a 50-year period. Geomorphic surfaces, and surficial disruption from two study sites within the Ft. Irwin area were mapped from 1947, 1:28,400, and 1993 1:12,000 black and white aerial photographs. Several field checks were conducted to verify this mapping. However, mapping from black and white aerial photography relies heavily on tonal differences, patterns, and morphological criteria. Satellite imagery, sensitive to changes in mineralogy, can help improve the ability to distinguish geomorphic units in desert regions. In order to assess both the extent of disrupted surfaces and the surficial geomorphology discemable from satellite imagery, analysis was done on SPOT panchromatic and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral imagery acquired during the spring of 1987 and 1993. The resulting classified images provide a clear indication of the capabilities of the satellite data to aid in the delineation of disrupted geomorphic surfaces.

  11. Metrically preserving the USGS aerial film archive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moe, Donald; Longhenry, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Since 1972, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, has provided fi lm-based products to the public. EROS is home to an archive of 12 million frames of analog photography ranging from 1937 to the present. The archive contains collections from both aerial and satellite platforms including programs such as the National High Altitude Program (NHAP), National Aerial Photography Program (NAPP), U.S. Antarctic Resource Center (USARC), Declass 1(CORONA, ARGON, and LANYARD), Declass 2 (KH-7 and KH-9), and Landsat (1972 – 1992, Landsat 1–5).

  12. The identification of selected vegetation types in Arizona through the photointerpretation of intermediate scale aerial photography. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, G. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Nine photography interpretation tests were performed with a total of 19 different interpreters. Three tests were conducted with black and white intermediate scale photography and six tests with color infrared intermediate scale photography. The black and white test results show that the interpretation of vegetation mapped at the association level of classification is reliable for all the classes used at 61%. The color infrared tests indicate that the association level of mapping is unsatisfactory for vegetation interpretation of classes 1 and 6. Students' t-test indicated that intermediate scale black and white photography is significantly better than this particular color infrared photography for the interpretation of southeastern Arizona vegetation mapped at the association level.

  13. Oblique Aerial Photography of the Arctic Coast of Alaska, Cape Sabine to Milne Point, July 16-19, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, Ann E.; Richmond, Bruce M.

    2010-01-01

    Shoreline Change Study. An accompanying ESRI ArcGIS shape file (and plaintext copy) indicates the position of the aircraft and time when each photograph was taken. The USGS-CMGP Field Activity ID for the survey is A-5-09-AK, and more information on the survey and how to view the photographs using Google Earth software is available online at http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/infobank/a/a509ak/html/a-5-09-ak.photos.kmz (last accessed February 12, 2010). The initial report ?Oblique aerial photography of the Arctic coast of Alaska, Nulavik to Demarcation Point, August 7-10, 2006? is available online at http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/436/, and the associated Google Earth .kmz file is available at http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/infobank/a/a106ak/html/a-1-06-ak.photos.kmz (last accessed February 12, 2010).

  14. Oblique Aerial Photography of the Arctic Coast of Alaska, Nulavik to Demarcation Point, August 7-10, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, Ann E.; Richmond, Bruce M.

    2009-01-01

    The Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska, an area of strategic economic importance to the United States, is home to remote Native American communities and encompasses unique habitats of global significance. Coastal erosion along the Arctic coast is chronic and widespread; recent evidence suggests that erosion rates are among the highest in the world (up to ~16 m/yr) and may be accelerating. Coastal erosion adversely impacts energy-related infrastructure, natural shoreline habitats, and Native American communities. Climate change is thought to be a key component of recent environmental changes in the Arctic. Reduced sea-ice cover in the Arctic Ocean is one of the probable mechanisms responsible for increasing coastal exposure to wave attack and the resulting increase in erosion. Extended periods of permafrost melting and associated decrease in bluff cohesion and stability are another possible source of the increase in erosion. Several studies of selected areas on the Alaska coast document past shoreline positions and coastal change, but none have examined the entire North coast systematically. Results from these studies indicate high rates of coastal retreat that vary spatially along the coast. To address the need for a comprehensive and regionally consistent evaluation of shoreline change along the North coast of Alaska, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of their Coastal and Marine Geology Program's (CMGP) National Assessment of Shoreline Change Study, is evaluating shoreline change from Peard Bay to the United States/Canadian border, using historical maps and photography and a standardized methodology that is consistent with other shoreline-change studies along the Nation's coastlines (for example, URL http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/shoreline-change/ (last accessed March 2, 2009). This report contains photographs collected during an aerial-reconnaissance survey conducted in support of this study. An accompanying ESRI ArcGIS shape file (and plain-text copy

  15. Applying aerial digital photography as a spectral remote sensing technique for macrophytic cover assessment in small rural streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anker, Y.; Hershkovitz, Y.; Gasith, A.; Ben-Dor, E.

    2011-12-01

    classification and the in-situ transects indicates that: A. Stream vegetation classification resolution is about 4 cm by the SRGB method compared to about 1 m by HSR. Moreover, this resolution is also higher than of the manual grid transect classification. B. The SRGB method is by far the most cost-efficient. The combination of spectral information (rather than the cognitive color) and high spatial resolution of aerial photography provides noise filtration and better sub-water detection capabilities than the HSR technique. C. Only the SRGB method applies for habitat and section scales; hence, its application together with in-situ grid transects for validation, may be optimal for use in similar scenarios.
    The HSR dataset was first degraded to 17 bands with the same spectral range as the RGB dataset and also to a dataset with 3 equivalent bands

  16. Detecting new Buffel grass infestations in Australian arid lands: evaluation of methods using high-resolution multispectral imagery and aerial photography.

    PubMed

    Marshall, V M; Lewis, M M; Ostendorf, B

    2014-03-01

    We assess the feasibility of using airborne imagery for Buffel grass detection in Australian arid lands and evaluate four commonly used image classification techniques (visual estimate, manual digitisation, unsupervised classification and normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) thresholding) for their suitability to this purpose. Colour digital aerial photography captured at approximately 5 cm of ground sample distance (GSD) and four-band (visible–near-infrared) multispectral imagery (25 cm GSD) were acquired (14 February 2012) across overlapping subsets of our study site. In the field, Buffel grass projected cover estimates were collected for quadrates (10 m diameter), which were subsequently used to evaluate the four image classification techniques. Buffel grass was found to be widespread throughout our study site; it was particularly prevalent in riparian land systems and alluvial plains. On hill slopes, Buffel grass was often present in depressions, valleys and crevices of rock outcrops, but the spread appeared to be dependent on soil type and vegetation communities. Visual cover estimates performed best (r 2 0.39), and pixel-based classifiers (unsupervised classification and NDVI thresholding) performed worst (r 2 0.21). Manual digitising consistently underrepresented Buffel grass cover compared with field- and image-based visual cover estimates; we did not find the labours of digitising rewarding. Our recommendation for regional documentation of new infestation of Buffel grass is to acquire ultra-high-resolution aerial photography and have a trained observer score cover against visual standards and use the scored sites to interpolate density across the region.

  17. Integration of historical aerial photography and a geographic information system to evaluate the impact of human activities in a cypress-tupelo swamp

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, J.R.; Burkhalter, S.; Althausen, J.D.; Narumalani, S.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1993-12-31

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a 78,000 ha Department of Energy (DOE) facility that borders the Savannah River in the south-west portion of South Carolina. It includes a 3,800 ha cypress-tupelo swamp where commercial lumbering activities took place prior to the purchase of the land by the federal government in 1951. Since then, the DOE commenced nuclear production operations which resulted in the release of thermal effluent into the streams entering the Savannah River swamp system. The thermal effluent also had an impact on the swamp through the creation of sedimentation deltas. The purpose of this research is to identify areas of anthropogenic impact on the swamp and to delineate any areas that may still be considered pristine. Large-scale historical aerial photography of the swamp for 1938, 1943, 1951, and 1973 were photo-interpreted and used to develop a geographic information system (GIS) database. Logging features such as haul lines, drag points, harvest areas and roads were identified from black-and-white aerial photographs (1938-1973) and converted into a digital format. Sediment deltas were interpreted from 1976, 1981 and 1988 color aerial photography. Geometric transformations and GIS data analysis operations were performed to delineate areas impacted by man`s activities over the 48-year time period. Only 1391 ha of swamp can still can be considered pristine. Approximately 63% of the swamp has been altered from its original state, either by logging practices or the effects of sediment loading from thermal effluent. This method of mapping the pristine areas of the swamp allows SRS environmental scientists the opportunity to have a priori knowledge about undisturbed swamp forest environments, which they may use as a baseline for restoration or wetland mitigation projects.

  18. Semi-auto assessment system on building damage caused by landslide disaster with high-resolution satellite and aerial images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Bo; Xu, Qihua; He, Jun; Ge, Fengxiang; Wang, Ying

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, earthquake and heavy rain have triggered more and more landslides, which have caused serious economic losses. The timely detection of the disaster area and the assessment of the hazard are necessary and primary for disaster mitigation and relief. As high-resolution satellite and aerial images have been widely used in the field of environmental monitoring and disaster management, the damage assessment by processing satellite and aerial images has become a hot spot of research work. The rapid assessment of building damage caused by landslides with high-resolution satellite or aerial images is the focus of this article. In this paper, after analyzing the morphological characteristics of the landslide disaster, we proposed a set of criteria for rating building damage, and designed a semi-automatic evaluation system. The system is applied to the satellite and aerial images processing. The performance of the experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of our system.

  19. Reviews and syntheses: Australian vegetation phenology: new insights from satellite remote sensing and digital repeat photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Caitlin E.; Brown, Tim; Keenan, Trevor F.; Duursma, Remko A.; van Dijk, Albert I. J. M.; Beringer, Jason; Culvenor, Darius; Evans, Bradley; Huete, Alfredo; Hutley, Lindsay B.; Maier, Stefan; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia; Sonnentag, Oliver; Specht, Alison; Taylor, Jeffrey R.; van Gorsel, Eva; Liddell, Michael J.

    2016-09-01

    Phenology is the study of periodic biological occurrences and can provide important insights into the influence of climatic variability and change on ecosystems. Understanding Australia's vegetation phenology is a challenge due to its diverse range of ecosystems, from savannas and tropical rainforests to temperate eucalypt woodlands, semi-arid scrublands, and alpine grasslands. These ecosystems exhibit marked differences in seasonal patterns of canopy development and plant life-cycle events, much of which deviates from the predictable seasonal phenological pulse of temperate deciduous and boreal biomes. Many Australian ecosystems are subject to irregular events (i.e. drought, flooding, cyclones, and fire) that can alter ecosystem composition, structure, and functioning just as much as seasonal change. We show how satellite remote sensing and ground-based digital repeat photography (i.e. phenocams) can be used to improve understanding of phenology in Australian ecosystems. First, we examine temporal variation in phenology on the continental scale using the enhanced vegetation index (EVI), calculated from MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. Spatial gradients are revealed, ranging from regions with pronounced seasonality in canopy development (i.e. tropical savannas) to regions where seasonal variation is minimal (i.e. tropical rainforests) or high but irregular (i.e. arid ecosystems). Next, we use time series colour information extracted from phenocam imagery to illustrate a range of phenological signals in four contrasting Australian ecosystems. These include greening and senescing events in tropical savannas and temperate eucalypt understorey, as well as strong seasonal dynamics of individual trees in a seemingly static evergreen rainforest. We also demonstrate how phenology links with ecosystem gross primary productivity (from eddy covariance) and discuss why these processes are linked in some ecosystems but not others. We conclude that

  20. A procedure for merging land cover/use data from LANDSAT, aerial photography, and map sources: Compatibility, accuracy, and cost. Remote Sensing Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enslin, W. R.; Tilmann, S. E.; Hill-Rowley, R.; Rogers, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    Regional planning agencies are currently expressing a need for detailed land cover/use information to effectively meet the requirements of various federal programs. Individual data sources have advantages and limitations in fulfilling this need, both in terms of time/cost and technological capability. A methodology has been developed to merge land cover/use data from LANDSAT, aerial photography and map sources to maximize the effective use of a variety of data sources in the provision of an integrated information system for regional analysis. A test of the proposed inventory method is currently under way in four central Michigan townships. This test will evaluate the compatibility, accuracy and cost of the integrated method with reference to inventories developed from a single data source, and determine both the technological feasibility and analytical potential of such a system.

  1. A study to analyze six band multispectral images and fabricate a Fourier transform detector. [optical data processing - aerial photography/forests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shackelford, R. G.; Walsh, J. R., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    An automatic Fourier transform diffraction pattern sampling system, used to investigate techniques for forestry classification of six band multispectral aerial photography is presented. Photographs and diagrams of the design, development and fabrication of a hybrid optical-digital Fourier transform detector are shown. The detector was designed around a concentric ring fiber optic array. This array was formed from many optical fibers which were sorted into concentric rings about a single fiber. All the fibers in each ring were collected into a bundle and terminated into a single photodetector. An optical/digital interface unit consisting of a high level multiplexer, and an analog-to-digital amplifier was also constructed and is described.

  2. Environmental waste site characterization utilizing aerial photographs and satellite imagery: Three sites in New Mexico, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Van Eeckhout, E.; Pope, P.; Becker, N.; Wells, B.; Lewis, A.; David, N.

    1996-04-01

    The proper handling and characterization of past hazardous waste sites is becoming more and more important as world population extends into areas previously deemed undesirable. Historical photographs, past records, current aerial satellite imagery can play an important role in characterizing these sites. These data provide clear insight into defining problem areas which can be surface samples for further detail. Three such areas are discussed in this paper: (1) nuclear wastes buried in trenches at Los Alamos National Laboratory, (2) surface dumping at one site at Los Alamos National Laboratory, and (3) the historical development of a municipal landfill near Las Cruces, New Mexico.

  3. A DECADE OF MAPPING SUBMERGED AQUATIC VEGETATION USING COLOR INFRARED AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY: METHODS USED AND LESSONS LEARNED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Annual color infrared aerial photographs acquired annually between 1997 and 2007 were used to classify distributions of intertidal and shallow subtidal native eelgrass Zostera marina and non-indigenous dwarf eelgrass Z. japonica in lower Yaquina estuary, Oregon. The use of digit...

  4. Combining satellite, aerial and ground measurements to assess forest carbon stocks in Democratic Republic of Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaumont, Benjamin; Bouvy, Alban; Stephenne, Nathalie; Mathoux, Pierre; Bastin, Jean-François; Baudot, Yves; Akkermans, Tom

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring tropical forest carbon stocks changes has been a rising topic in the recent years as a result of REDD+ mechanisms negotiations. Such monitoring will be mandatory for each project/country willing to benefit from these financial incentives in the future. Aerial and satellite remote sensing technologies offer cost advantages in implementing large scale forest inventories. Despite the recent progress made in the use of airborne LiDAR for carbon stocks estimation, no widely operational and cost effective method has yet been delivered for central Africa forest monitoring. Within the Maï Ndombe region of Democratic Republic of Congo, the EO4REDD project develops a method combining satellite, aerial and ground measurements. This combination is done in three steps: [1] mapping and quantifying forest cover changes using an object-based semi-automatic change detection (deforestation and forest degradation) methodology based on very high resolution satellite imagery (RapidEye), [2] developing an allometric linear model for above ground biomass measurements based on dendrometric parameters (tree crown areas and heights) extracted from airborne stereoscopic image pairs and calibrated using ground measurements of individual trees on a data set of 18 one hectare plots and [3] relating these two products to assess carbon stocks changes at a regional scale. Given the high accuracies obtained in [1] (> 80% for deforestation and 77% for forest degradation) and the suitable, but still to be improved with a larger calibrating sample, model (R² of 0.7) obtained in [2], EO4REDD products can be seen as a valid and replicable option for carbon stocks monitoring in tropical forests. Further improvements are planned to strengthen the cost effectiveness value and the REDD+ suitability in the second phase of EO4REDD. This second phase will include [A] specific model developments per forest type; [B] measurements of afforestation, reforestation and natural regeneration processes and

  5. 3D Building Modeling and Reconstruction using Photometric Satellite and Aerial Imageries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izadi, Mohammad

    In this thesis, the problem of three dimensional (3D) reconstruction of building models using photometric satellite and aerial images is investigated. Here, two systems are pre-sented: 1) 3D building reconstruction using a nadir single-view image, and 2) 3D building reconstruction using slant multiple-view aerial images. The first system detects building rooftops in orthogonal aerial/satellite images using a hierarchical segmentation algorithm and a shadow verification approach. The heights of detected buildings are then estimated using a fuzzy rule-based method, which measures the height of a building by comparing its predicted shadow region with the actual shadow evidence in the image. This system finally generated a KML (Keyhole Markup Language) file as the output, that contains 3D models of detected buildings. The second system uses the geolocation information of a scene containing a building of interest and uploads all slant-view images that contain this scene from an input image dataset. These images are then searched automatically to choose image pairs with different views of the scene (north, east, south and west) based on the geolocation and auxiliary data accompanying the input data (metadata that describes the acquisition parameters at the capture time). The camera parameters corresponding to these images are refined using a novel point matching algorithm. Next, the system independently reconstructs 3D flat surfaces that are visible in each view using an iterative algorithm. 3D surfaces generated for all views are combined, and redundant surfaces are removed to create a complete set of 3D surfaces. Finally, the combined 3D surfaces are connected together to generate a more complete 3D model. For the experimental results, both presented systems are evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively and different aspects of the two systems including accuracy, stability, and execution time are discussed.

  6. Low cost 3D-modelling of a complex archaeological site using aerial photography in the hinterland of Petra, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emaus, R.; Goossens, R.

    2015-02-01

    Individual archaeological sites can sometimes show a complex morphology. One such site is the Roman quarries located one kilometre northwest of the Roman fortress at Udhruh, in the hinterland of Petra. In archaeology there are various platforms such as balloons, kites and unmanned aerial vehicles (uav's) from which low altitude aerial photographs can be taken that have been proven to work. All with their specific advantages above others in different circumstances. By designing a very distinct setup for the kite and optimizing the workflow accordingly, an effective and steady platform for the camera was created. The Quarries were photographed from the air and the images then provided enough material to accurately create a 3D model of the site.

  7. Using Airborne and Satellite Imagery to Distinguish and Map Black Mangrove

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reports the results of studies evaluating color-infrared (CIR) aerial photography, CIR aerial true digital imagery, and high resolution QuickBird multispectral satellite imagery for distinguishing and mapping black mangrove [Avicennia germinans (L.) L.] populations along the lower Texas g...

  8. Mapping bare soil in South West Wales, UK, using high resolution colour infra-red aerial photography for water quality and flood risk management applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykes, Helena; Neale, Simon; Coe, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    Natural Resources Wales is a UK government body responsible for environmental regulation, among other areas. River walks in Water Framework Directive (WFD) priority catchments in South West Wales, UK, identified soil entering water courses due to poaching and bank erosion, leading to deterioration in the water quality and jeopardising the water quality meeting legal minimum standards. Bare soil has also been shown to cause quicker and higher hydrograph peaks in rural catchments than if those areas were vegetated, which can lead to flooding of domestic properties during peak storm flows. The aim was to target farm visits by operational staff to advise on practices likely to improve water quality and to identify areas where soft engineering solutions such as revegetation could alleviate flood risk in rural areas. High resolution colour-infrared aerial photography, 25cm in the three colour bands and 50cm in the near infrared band, was used to map bare soil in seven catchments using supervised classification of a five band stack including the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Mapping was combined with agricultural land use and field boundary data to filter out arable fields, which are supposed to bare soil for part of their cycle, and was very successful when compared to ground truthing, with the exception of silage fields which contained sparse, no or unproductive vegetation at the time the imagery was acquired leading to spectral similarity to bare soil. A raindrop trace model was used to show the path sediment from bare soil areas would take when moving through the catchment to a watercourse, with hedgerows inserted as barriers following our observations from ground truthing. The findings have been used to help farmers gain funding for improvements such as fencing to keep animals away from vulnerable river banks. These efficient and automated methods can be rolled out to more catchments in Wales and updated using aerial imagery acquired more recently to

  9. Satellite information on Orlando, Florida. [coordination of LANDSAT and Skylab data and EREP photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hannah, J. W.; Thomas, G. L.; Esparza, F.

    1975-01-01

    A land use map of Orange County, Florida was prepared from EREP photography while LANDSAT and EREP multispectral scanner data were used to provide more detailed information on Orlando and its suburbs. The generalized maps were prepared by tracing the patterns on an overlay, using an enlarging viewer. Digital analysis of the multispectral scanner data was basically the maximum likelihood classification method with training sample input and computer printer mapping of the results. Urban features delineated by the maps are discussed. It is concluded that computer classification, accompanied by human interpretation and manual simplification can produce land use maps which are useful on a regional, county, and city basis.

  10. Development of an object-based classification model for mapping mountainous forest cover at high elevation using aerial photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lateb, Mustapha; Kalaitzidis, Chariton; Tompoulidou, Maria; Gitas, Ioannis

    2016-08-01

    Climate change and overall temperature increase results in changes in forest cover in high elevations. Due to the long life cycle of trees, these changes are very gradual and can be observed over long periods of time. In order to use remote sensing imagery for this purpose it needs to have very high spatial resolution and to have been acquired at least 50 years ago. At the moment, the only type of remote sensing imagery with these characteristics is historical black and white aerial photographs. This study used an aerial photograph from 1945 in order to map the forest cover at the Olympus National Park, at that date. An object-based classification (OBC) model was developed in order to classify forest and discriminate it from other types of vegetation. Due to the lack of near-infrared information, the model had to rely solely on the tone of the objects, as well as their geometric characteristics. The model functioned on three segmentation levels, using sub-/super-objects relationships and utilising vegetation density to discriminate forest and non-forest vegetation. The accuracy of the classification was assessed using 503 visually interpreted and randomly distributed points, resulting in a 92% overall accuracy. The model is using unbiased parameters that are important for differentiating between forest and non-forest vegetation and should be transferrable to other study areas of mountainous forests at high elevations.

  11. Satellite and Aerial Remote Sensing in Support of Disaster Response Operations Conducted by the Texas Division of Emergency Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, G. L.; Tapley, B. D.; Bettadpur, S. V.; Howard, T.; Porter, B.; Smith, S.; Teng, L.; Tapley, C.

    2014-12-01

    The effective use of remote sensing products as guidance to emergency managers and first responders during field operations requires close coordination and communication with state-level decision makers, incident commanders and the leaders of individual strike teams. Information must be tailored to meet the needs of different emergency support functions and must contain current (ideally near real-time) data delivered in standard formats in time to influence decisions made under rapidly changing conditions. Since 2003, a representative of the University of Texas Center for Space Research (CSR) has served as a member of the Governor's Emergency Management Council and has directed the flow of information from remote sensing observations and high performance computing modeling and simulations to the Texas Division of Emergency Management in the State Operations Center. The CSR team has supported response and recovery missions resulting from hurricanes, tornadoes, flash floods, wildfires, oil spills and other natural and man-made disasters in Texas and surrounding states. Through web mapping services, state emergency managers and field teams have received threat model forecasts, real-time vehicle tracking displays and imagery to support search-and-clear operations before hurricane landfall, search-and-rescue missions following floods, tactical wildfire suppression, pollution monitoring and hazardous materials detection. Data servers provide near real-time satellite imagery collected by CSR's direct broadcast receiving system and post data products delivered during activations of the United Nations International Charter on Space and Major Disasters. In the aftermath of large-scale events, CSR is charged with tasking state aviation resources, including the Air National Guard and Texas Civil Air Patrol, to acquire geolocated aerial photography of the affected region for wide area damage assessment. A data archive for each disaster is available online for years following

  12. The use of space and high altitude aerial photography to classify forest land and to detect forest disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, R. C.; Greentree, W. J.; Heller, R. C.; Norick, N. X.

    1970-01-01

    In October 1969, an investigation was begun near Atlanta, Georgia, to explore the possibilities of developing predictors for forest land and stand condition classifications using space photography. It has been found that forest area can be predicted with reasonable accuracy on space photographs using ocular techniques. Infrared color film is the best single multiband sensor for this purpose. Using the Apollo 9 infrared color photographs taken in March 1969 photointerpreters were able to predict forest area for small units consistently within 5 to 10 percent of ground truth. Approximately 5,000 density data points were recorded for 14 scan lines selected at random from five study blocks. The mean densities and standard deviations were computed for 13 separate land use classes. The results indicate that forest area cannot be separated from other land uses with a high degree of accuracy using optical film density alone. If, however, densities derived by introducing red, green, and blue cutoff filters in the optical system of the microdensitometer are combined with their differences and their ratios in regression analysis techniques, there is a good possibility of discriminating forest from all other classes.

  13. Looking for an old aerial photograph

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    Attempts to photograph the surface of the Earth date from the 1800's, when photographers attached cameras to balloons, kites, and even pigeons. Today, aerial photographs and satellite images are commonplace. The rate of acquiring aerial photographs and satellite images has increased rapidly in recent years. Views of the Earth obtained from aircraft or satellites have become valuable tools to Government resource planners and managers, land-use experts, environmentalists, engineers, scientists, and a wide variety of other users. Many people want historical aerial photographs for business or personal reasons. They may want to locate the boundaries of an old farm or a piece of family property. Or they may want a photograph as a record of changes in their neighborhood, or as a gift. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) maintains the Earth Science Information Centers (ESIC?s) to sell aerial photographs, remotely sensed images from satellites, a wide array of digital geographic and cartographic data, as well as the Bureau?s wellknown maps. Declassified photographs from early spy satellites were recently added to the ESIC offerings of historical images. Using the Aerial Photography Summary Record System database, ESIC researchers can help customers find imagery in the collections of other Federal agencies and, in some cases, those of private companies that specialize in esoteric products.

  14. Exploration of mineral resource deposits based on analysis of aerial and satellite image data employing artificial intelligence methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, Gennady

    2013-04-01

    We propose a solution to the problem of exploration of various mineral resource deposits, determination of their forms / classification of types (oil, gas, minerals, gold, etc.) with the help of satellite photography of the region of interest. Images received from satellite are processed and analyzed to reveal the presence of specific signs of deposits of various minerals. Course of data processing and making forecast can be divided into some stages: Pre-processing of images. Normalization of color and luminosity characteristics, determination of the necessary contrast level and integration of a great number of separate photos into a single map of the region are performed. Construction of semantic map image. Recognition of bitmapped image and allocation of objects and primitives known to system are realized. Intelligent analysis. At this stage acquired information is analyzed with the help of a knowledge base, which contain so-called "attention landscapes" of experts. Used methods of recognition and identification of images: a) combined method of image recognition, b)semantic analysis of posterized images, c) reconstruction of three-dimensional objects from bitmapped images, d)cognitive technology of processing and interpretation of images. This stage is fundamentally new and it distinguishes suggested technology from all others. Automatic registration of allocation of experts` attention - registration of so-called "attention landscape" of experts - is the base of the technology. Landscapes of attention are, essentially, highly effective filters that cut off unnecessary information and emphasize exactly the factors used by an expert for making a decision. The technology based on denoted principles involves the next stages, which are implemented in corresponding program agents. Training mode -> Creation of base of ophthalmologic images (OI) -> Processing and making generalized OI (GOI) -> Mode of recognition and interpretation of unknown images. Training mode

  15. Net Changes in Above Ground Woody Carbon Stock in Western Juniper Woodlands using Wavelet Techniques and Multi-temporal Aerial Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strand, E. K.; Bunting, S. C.; Smith, A. M.

    2006-12-01

    Expansion of woody plant cover in semi-arid ecosystems previously occupied primarily by grasses and forbs has been identified as an important land cover change process affecting the global carbon budget. Although woody encroachment occurs worldwide, quantifying changes in carbon pools and fluxes related to this phenomenon via remote sensing is challenging because large areas are affected at a fine spatial resolution (1- 10 m) and, in many cases, at slow temporal rates. Two-dimensional spatial wavelet analysis (SWA) represents a novel image processing technique that has been successful in automatically and objectively quantifying ecologically relevant features at multiple scales. We apply SWA to current and historic 1-m resolution black and white aerial photography to quantify changes in above ground woody biomass and carbon stock of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis subsp. occidentalis) expanding into sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) steppe on the Owyhee Plateau in southwestern Idaho. Due to the large land area (330,000 ha) and variable availability of historical photography, we sampled forty-eight 100-ha blocks situated across the area, stratified using topographic, soil, and land stewardship variables. The average juniper plant cover increased one-fold (from 5.3% to 10.4% total cover) at the site during the time period of 1939-1946 to 1998-2004. Juniper plant density has increased by 128% with a higher percentage of the plant population in the smaller size classes compared to the size distribution 60 years ago. After image-based SWA delineation of tree crown sizes, we computed the change in above ground woody plant biomass and carbon stock between the two time periods using allometry. Areas where the shrub steppe is dominated by low sagebrush (Artemisia arbuscula) has experienced little to no expansion of western juniper. However, on deeper, more well drained soils capable of supporting mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata subsp. vaseyana), the above

  16. Using historic aerial photography and paleohydrologic techniques to assess long-term ecological response to two Montana dam removals.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Denine; Blank, Matt; Ammondt, Selita; Patten, Duncan T

    2009-07-01

    The restorative potential of dam removal on ecosystem function depends on the reversibility of dam effects and its operations. While dam removal is an established engineering practice, the need for an understanding of the ecological response remains. We used paleoflood hydrology, hydrologic modeling, and aerial photo interpretation to investigate the long-term ecologic responses to dam failure and breach. We investigated downstream geomorphic and vegetation responses to a dam failure (Pattengail Dam in 1927) and a controlled dam breach, which used natural sediment removal (Mystic Lake Dam in 1985). Our data showed vegetation responses indicative of channel and floodplain evolution at Pattengail. The size of the flood following the Pattengail dam failure initiated a series of channel adjustments and reworked over 19ha of floodplain downstream of the dam. In Mystic, we observed few flood stage indicators and a slight response in floodplain vegetation. We made several findings. (1) Dam removal effects on channel evolution and floodplain development depend on reach types and their responsiveness to flow regime change. (2) Ecologic response to dam removal depends on the sizes and timing of high flow events during and following removal. (3) Paleohydrology can be used to assess historic floods (>20 years). We see the utility of assessing the ecological responsiveness of a system to previous fluvial events or changes in flow regime. Informed about the character of a system based on its history, dam removal scientists can use these tools to set realistic restoration goals for removing a dam. PMID:19042079

  17. Using historic aerial photography and paleohydrologic techniques to assess long-term ecological response to two Montana dam removals.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Denine; Blank, Matt; Ammondt, Selita; Patten, Duncan T

    2009-07-01

    The restorative potential of dam removal on ecosystem function depends on the reversibility of dam effects and its operations. While dam removal is an established engineering practice, the need for an understanding of the ecological response remains. We used paleoflood hydrology, hydrologic modeling, and aerial photo interpretation to investigate the long-term ecologic responses to dam failure and breach. We investigated downstream geomorphic and vegetation responses to a dam failure (Pattengail Dam in 1927) and a controlled dam breach, which used natural sediment removal (Mystic Lake Dam in 1985). Our data showed vegetation responses indicative of channel and floodplain evolution at Pattengail. The size of the flood following the Pattengail dam failure initiated a series of channel adjustments and reworked over 19ha of floodplain downstream of the dam. In Mystic, we observed few flood stage indicators and a slight response in floodplain vegetation. We made several findings. (1) Dam removal effects on channel evolution and floodplain development depend on reach types and their responsiveness to flow regime change. (2) Ecologic response to dam removal depends on the sizes and timing of high flow events during and following removal. (3) Paleohydrology can be used to assess historic floods (>20 years). We see the utility of assessing the ecological responsiveness of a system to previous fluvial events or changes in flow regime. Informed about the character of a system based on its history, dam removal scientists can use these tools to set realistic restoration goals for removing a dam.

  18. System for electronic transformation and geographic correlation of satellite television information. [cloud cover photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubenskiy, V. P.; Nemkovskiy, B. L.; Rodionov, B. N.

    1974-01-01

    An electronic transformation and correlation system has been developed for the Meteor space weather system which provides transformation and scaling of the original picture, accounts for satellite flight altitude and inclinations of the optical axes of the transmitting devices, and simultaneously superposes the geographical coordinate grid on the transformed picture.

  19. Measuring impacts of community forestry program through repeat photography and satellite remote sensing in the Dolakha district of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Niraula, Rabin Raj; Gilani, Hammad; Pokharel, Bharat Kumar; Qamer, Faisal Mueen

    2013-09-15

    During the 1990's community-based forest management gained momentum in Nepal. This study systematically evaluates the impacts that this had on land cover change and other associated aspects during the period 1990-2010 using repeat photography and satellite imagery in combination with interviews with community members. The results of the study clearly reflect the success of community-based forest management in the Dolakha district of the mid-hills of Nepal: during the study period, the rate of conversion of sparse forest into dense forest under community-based management was found to be between 1.13% and 3.39% per year. Similarly, the rate of conversion of non-forest area into forest was found to be between 1.11% and 1.96% per year. Community-based forest management has resulted in more efficient use of forest resources, contributed to a decline in the use of slash-and-burn agricultural practices, reduced the incidence of forest fires, spurred tree plantation, and encouraged the conservation and protection of trees on both public and private land. The resulting reclamation of forest in landside areas and river banks and the overall improvement in forest cover in the area has reduced flash floods and associated landslides.

  20. Kite Aerial Photography for Low-Cost, Ultra-high Spatial Resolution Multi-Spectral Mapping of Intertidal Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Bryson, Mitch; Johnson-Roberson, Matthew; Murphy, Richard J.; Bongiorno, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Intertidal ecosystems have primarily been studied using field-based sampling; remote sensing offers the ability to collect data over large areas in a snapshot of time that could complement field-based sampling methods by extrapolating them into the wider spatial and temporal context. Conventional remote sensing tools (such as satellite and aircraft imaging) provide data at limited spatial and temporal resolutions and relatively high costs for small-scale environmental science and ecologically-focussed studies. In this paper, we describe a low-cost, kite-based imaging system and photogrammetric/mapping procedure that was developed for constructing high-resolution, three-dimensional, multi-spectral terrain models of intertidal rocky shores. The processing procedure uses automatic image feature detection and matching, structure-from-motion and photo-textured terrain surface reconstruction algorithms that require minimal human input and only a small number of ground control points and allow the use of cheap, consumer-grade digital cameras. The resulting maps combine imagery at visible and near-infrared wavelengths and topographic information at sub-centimeter resolutions over an intertidal shoreline 200 m long, thus enabling spatial properties of the intertidal environment to be determined across a hierarchy of spatial scales. Results of the system are presented for an intertidal rocky shore at Jervis Bay, New South Wales, Australia. Potential uses of this technique include mapping of plant (micro- and macro-algae) and animal (e.g. gastropods) assemblages at multiple spatial and temporal scales. PMID:24069206

  1. Tidal Flooding and Vegetation Patterns in a Salt Marsh Tidal Creek Imaged by Low-altitude Balloon Aerial Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, S. M.; Madsen, E.

    2013-12-01

    soil water content. These other factors are all directly affected by the hydroperiod, creating a complex system of feedbacks. Inundation frequencies show a pronounced relationship to zonation. Creek bank height and the hydroperiod have a curvilinear relationship at low bank heights such that small decreases in creek bank height can result in large increases in inundation frequency. Biological zonation is not simply a result of bank height and inundation frequency, other contributing factors include species competition, adaptability, and groundwater flow. Vegetation patterns delineated by a ground-based GPS survey and image classification from the aerial photos show that not all changes in eco-zonation are a direct function of elevation. Some asymmetry across the creek is observed in plant habitat, and eliminating topography (and thereby tidal inundation) as a factor, we attribute the remaining variability to groundwater flow.

  2. Photography Galore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekhaml, Leticia

    2000-01-01

    Describes projects and learning activities on photography that are useful for elementary and secondary school teachers. Highlights include Web sites; workshops; two specific projects; lesson plan sites on the Internet; photography contests; and trends relating to photography. (LRW)

  3. The Need of Nested Grids for Aerial and Satellite Images and Digital Elevation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, G.; Mas, S.; Fernández-Villarino, X.; Martínez-Luceño, J.; Ojeda, J. C.; Pérez-Martín, B.; Tejeiro, J. A.; García-González, C.; López-Romero, E.; Soteres, C.

    2016-06-01

    Usual workflows for production, archiving, dissemination and use of Earth observation images (both aerial and from remote sensing satellites) pose big interoperability problems, as for example: non-alignment of pixels at the different levels of the pyramids that makes it impossible to overlay, compare and mosaic different orthoimages, without resampling them and the need to apply multiple resamplings and compression-decompression cycles. These problems cause great inefficiencies in production, dissemination through web services and processing in "Big Data" environments. Most of them can be avoided, or at least greatly reduced, with the use of a common "nested grid" for mutiresolution production, archiving, dissemination and exploitation of orthoimagery, digital elevation models and other raster data. "Nested grids" are space allocation schemas that organize image footprints, pixel sizes and pixel positions at all pyramid levels, in order to achieve coherent and consistent multiresolution coverage of a whole working area. A "nested grid" must be complemented by an appropriate "tiling schema", ideally based on the "quad-tree" concept. In the last years a "de facto standard" grid and Tiling Schema has emerged and has been adopted by virtually all major geospatial data providers. It has also been adopted by OGC in its "WMTS Simple Profile" standard. In this paper we explain how the adequate use of this tiling schema as common nested grid for orthoimagery, DEMs and other types of raster data constitutes the most practical solution to most of the interoperability problems of these types of data.

  4. Integration of historical aerial and satellite photos, recent satellite images and geophysical surveys for the knowledge of the ancient Dyrrachium (Durres, Albania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malfitana, Daniele; Shehi, Eduard; Masini, Nicola; Scardozzi, Giuseppe

    2010-05-01

    The paper presents the preliminary results of an integrated multidiscipliary research project concerning the urban area of the modern Durres (ancient Dyrrachium). Here a joint Italian and Albanian researcher are starting preliminary investigations on the place of an ancient roman villa placed in the urban centre of the modern town. In a initial phase are offering interesting results the use of a rich multitemporal remote sensing data-set, historical aerial photos of 1920s and 1930s, photos of USA spy satellites of 1960s and 1970s (Corona KH-4A and KH-4B), and very high resolution satellite imagery. The historical aerial documentation is very rich and includes aerial photogrammetrich flights of two Italian Institutions: the private company SARA - Società Anonima Rilevamenti Aerofotogrammetrici in Rome (1928) and the IGM - Istituto Geografico Militare (1936, 1937 e 1941), which flew on Durres for purposes of cartographic production and military. These photos offer an image of the city before the urban expansion after the Second World War and in recent decades, progressively documented by satellite images of the 1960s-1970s and recent years. They enable a reconstruction of the ancient topography of the urban area, even with the possibility of detailed analysis, as in the case of the the Roman villa, nowadays buried under a modern garden, but also investigated with a GPR survey, in order to rebuild its plan and contextualize the villa in relation to the urban area of the ancient Dyrrachium.

  5. Aerial photographic reproductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1971-01-01

    Geological Survey vertical aerial photography is obtained primarily for topographic and geologic mapping. Reproductions from this photography are usually satisfactory for general use. Because reproductions are not stocked, but are custom processed for each order, they cannot be returned for credit or refund.

  6. Estimating yield of irrigated potatoes using aerial and satellite remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivarajan, Saravanan

    Multispectral aerial and satellite remote sensing plays a major role in crop yield prediction due to its ability to detect crop growth conditions on spatial and temporal scales in a cost effective manner. Many empirical relationships have been established in the past between spectral vegetation indices and leaf area index, fractional ground cover, and crop growth rates for different crops through ground sampling. Remote sensing-based vegetation index (VI) yield models using airborne and satellite data have been developed only for grain crops like barley, corn, wheat, and sorghum. So it becomes important to validate and extend the VI-based model for tuber crops like potato, taking into account the most significant parameters that affect the final crop yield of these crops. This research involved developing and validating yield models for potato crop in southern Idaho fields using high-resolution airborne and satellite remote sensing. High-resolution multispectral airborne imagery acquired on three dates throughout the growing season in 2004 was used to develop a VI-based statistical yield model by integrating the area under the Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) curve. The model was developed using hand-dug samples collected in two center pivots based on soil variability and crop growth patterns to account for variability in the leaf area duration and yields. The three-date Integrated SAVI (ISAVI) model developed was then validated using 2005 spot yield samples collected from two center pivot fields and also tested for 2004 and 2005 whole field data over dozens of center pivot fields. The three- date model was applied using 2004 and 2005 satellite images and tested. The eight-date ISAVI yield model was also extended to satellite images to estimate the potato yield. The overall yield estimation using the eight-date ISAVI model was better than the three-date model as the image inputs covered the complete growth cycle of the crop from emergence to harvest. Actual

  7. Satellite Images and Aerial Photographs of the Effects of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on Coastal Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barras, John A.

    2007-01-01

    -water datasets derived from the Landsat TM satellite imagery were combined with 2001 marsh vegetative communities (Chabreck and others, unpub. data, 2001) to identify land-water configurations by marsh community before and after the hurricanes. Links to the Landsat TM images and aerial photographs are given below (figs. 1-29). Comparison of land area before the storms to land area after the storms is made possible by the inclusion of Landsat TM images and aerial photographs taken in the years and months before the storms. The figures are arranged geographically from east to west to follow the chronology of the effects of the storms. For a more detailed analysis of the changes wrought by these storms, see 'Land Area Changes in Coastal Louisiana After Hurricanes Katrina and Rita' (Barras, in press).

  8. Geographical correlation of TV and IR images obtained from weather satellites. [cloud cover photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziman, Y. L.; Nepoklonov, B. N.; Rodionov, B. N.

    1974-01-01

    The requirements on the accuracy of geographical correlation of TV and IR cloud cover images are determined by the objective of the analysis of the weather information contained in these images. In the operational analysis case, the correlation accuracy need not be high. Errors of several tens of kilometers in determining the location of the cloud formation contours are considered acceptable in this case. Such correlation must be provided in real image reception time. Scientific studies require accurate correlation of the cloud formation contours. The errors in determining their position should be commensurate with the imaging system resolution. The geometric aspects of developing methods and equipment for geographical correlation of television and infrared images of cloud cover taken from Meteor satellites are discussed.

  9. An evaluation of multiband photography for rock discrimination. [sedimentary rocks of Front Range, Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, K. (Principal Investigator); Raines, G. L.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. With the advent of ERTS and Skylab satellites, multiband imagery and photography have become readily available to geologists. The ability of multiband photography to discriminate sedimentary rocks was examined. More than 8600 in situ measurements of band reflectance of the sedimentary rocks of the Front Range, Colorado, were acquired. Statistical analysis of these measurements showed that: (1) measurements from one site can be used at another site 100 miles away; (2) there is basically only one spectral reflectance curve for these rocks, with constant amplitude differences between the curves; and (3) the natural variation is so large that at least 150 measurements per formation are required to select best filters. These conclusions are supported by subjective tests with aerial multiband photography. The designed multiband photography concept for rock discrimination is not a practical method of improving sedimentary rock discrimination capabilities.

  10. Coordinated analysis of data. [all sky photography observations of the ATS 5 satellite of auroras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mende, S. B.

    1974-01-01

    All Sky Cameras (ASCA) observations were made at the field line conjugate of the ATS-5 Satellite. The field of view of these cameras covered the region of the magnetosphere from L=5 to L=ll at the approximate longitude of the ATS field line conjugate. Definite statements are made concerning the correlation of the auroras observed by the ASCA's and the magnetospheric trapped fluxes. No auroras are observed at the field line conjugate, on quiet days when the hot plasma does not penetrate into the magnetosphere far enough to reach the ATS-5 orbit. On more disturbed days, when the ATS-5 enters the plasma sheet containing plasma clouds, an equatorward motion of the lowest latitude auroral arc is observed. Significant qualitative correlation between the ASCA data and the trapped fluxes is observed when a local plasma injection event occurs near ATS-5. The clearest signature of the injection event is magnetic and is most pronounced as a recovery of a negative bay at the ATS-5 magnetometer. The most significant correlations are observed with the intensification of the diffuse uniform glow which intensifies during the injection event.

  11. Watershed-scale land-use mapping with satellite imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Satellite remote sensing data has many advantages compared with other data sources, such as field methods and aerial photography, for land cover classification. In particular,it is useful in evaluating temporal and spatial effects. In addition, remote sensing can offer a cost-effective means of prov...

  12. Aerial photographic reproductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1975-01-01

    The National Cartographic Information Center of the U.S. Geological Survey maintains records of aerial photographic coverage of the United States and its Territories, based on reports from other Federal agencies as well as State governmental agencies and commercial companies. From these records, the Center furnishes data to prospective purchasers on available photography and the agency holding the aerial film.

  13. Environmental application of aerial reconnaissance to search for open dumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getz, Thomas J.; Randolph, J. C.; Echelberger, Wayne F.

    1983-11-01

    Three approaches to using aerial photography are evaluated for searching for open dumps in the state of Indiana. Photography with hand-held cameras from a small airplane proved more effective and flexible than either photo-interpretation of existing air photos or subcontracting to a federal agency for new aerial photography. The rationale for our choice of aerial reconnaissance, other uses of low-level aerial surveillance, the utility of small-format camera aerial photography for environmental analysis, and methods used for locating open dumps are discussed.

  14. Evaluation of multiband photography for rock discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raines, G. L.

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation is presented of the multiband photography concept that tonal differences between rock formations on aerial photography can be improved through the selection of the appropriate bands. The concept involves: (1) acquiring band reference data for the rocks being considered; (2) selecting the best combination of bands to discriminate the rocks using these reference data; (3) acquiring aerial photography using these selected bands; and (4) extracting the desired geologic information in an optimum manner. The test site geology and rock reflectance are discussed in detail. The evaluation found that the differences in contrast ratios are not statistically significant, and the spectral information in different bands is not advantageous.

  15. A DECADE OF MAPPING SUBMERGED AQUATIC VEGETATION USING COLOR INFRARED AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY: METHODS USED AND LESSONS LEARNED - 5-14-2014

    EPA Science Inventory

    Annual color infrared (CIR) aerial photographs acquired annually between 1997 and 2007 were used to classify distributions of intertidal and shallow subtidal native eelgrass Zostera marina and non-indigenous dwarf eelgrass Z. japonica in lower Yaquina estuary, Oregon. The use of...

  16. Clinical photography.

    PubMed

    Jakowenko, Janelle

    2009-01-01

    Digital cameras, when used correctly, can provide the basis for telemedicine services. The increasing sophistication of digital cameras, combined with the improved speed and availability of the Internet, make them an instrument that every health-care professional should be familiar with. Taking satisfactory images of patients requires clinical photography skills. Photographing charts, monitors, X-ray films and specimens also requires expertise. Image capture using digital cameras is often done with insufficient attention, which can lead to inaccurate study results. The procedures in clinical photography should not vary from camera to camera, or from country to country. Taking a photograph should be a standardised process. There are seven main scenarios in clinical photography and health professionals who use cameras should be familiar with all of them. Obtaining informed consent prior to photography should be a normal part of the clinical photography routine.

  17. Long-term change detection from historical photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, T.; Schenk, T.

    2006-12-01

    There is an increasing awareness in the science community about the potential of utilizing old photography and derived products together with new data for change detection and for extending the timeline as far back as possible. For example recent observations have revealed dramatic changes in the behavior of many ice streams and outlet glaciers in Greenland and Antarctica, ranging from complete shutdown of ice streams to manifold increases in velocity. Most observations are typically from the comparatively short time period since the beginning of the civilian satellite imagery (1980s), with most quantitative measurements starting only 10-15 years ago. To evaluate whether ongoing observed changes are climatically significant, changes must be determined over longer time frames. Earlier terrestrial and aerial photography and maps indeed exist and the objective of the project to disseminate these historical data and to develop techniques and tools for combining (fusing) old and new data in order to compile long-term time series of changes in the polar regions, for example in ice extent, velocity and surface elevations. The presentation focuses on new methodologies and interdisciplinary approaches that greatly facilitate the use of old photography for quantitative studies in the polar regions. An absolute prerequisite for the successful use of old photography is a rigorous registration, either with other sensory input data or with respect to 3D reference systems. Recent advances in digital photogrammetry allow registration with linear features, such as lines, curves and free-form lines without the need for identifying identical points. The concept of sensor invariant features was developed to register such disparate data sets as aerial imagery and 3D laser point clouds, originating from satellite laser altimetry or airborne laser scanning systems. Examples illustrating these concepts are shown from the Transantarctic Mountains, including the registration of aerial

  18. A methodology for near real-time change detection between Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and wide area satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fytsilis, Anastasios L.; Prokos, Anthony; Koutroumbas, Konstantinos D.; Michail, Dimitrios; Kontoes, Charalambos C.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper a novel integrated hybrid methodology for unsupervised change detection between Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and satellite images, which can be utilized in various fields like security applications (e.g. border surveillance) and damage assessment, is proposed. This is a challenging problem mainly due to the difference in geographic coverage and the spatial resolution of the two images, as well as to the acquisition modes which lead to misregistration errors. The methodology consists of the following steps: (a) pre-processing, where the part of the satellite image that corresponds to the UAV image is determined and the UAV image is ortho-rectified using information provided by a Digital Terrain Model, (b) the detection of potential changes, which is based exclusively on intensity and image gradient information, (c) the generation of the region map, where homogeneous regions are produced by the previous potential changes via a seeded region growing algorithm and placed on the region map, and (d) the evaluation of the above regions, in order to characterize them as true changes or not. The methodology has been applied on demanding real datasets with very encouraging results. Finally, its robustness to the misregistration errors is assessed via extensive experimentation.

  19. Analysis of urban residential environments using color infrared aerial photography: An examination of socioeconomic variables and physical characteristics of selected areas in the Los Angeles basin, with addendum: An application of the concepts of the Los Angeles residential environment study to the Ontario-Upland region of California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullens, R. H., Jr.; Senger, L. W.

    1969-01-01

    Aerial photographs taken with color infrared film were used to differentiate various types of residential areas in the Los Angeles basin, using characteristics of the physical environment which vary from one type of residential area to another. Residential areas of varying quality were classified based on these characteristics. Features of the physical environment, identifiable on CIR aerial photography were examined to determine which of these are the best indicators of quality of residential areas or social areas, as determined by the socioeconomic characteristics of the inhabitants of the selected areas. Association between several physical features and the socioeconomic variables was found to exist.

  20. Mapping Urban Tree Canopy Coverage and Structure using Data Fusion of High Resolution Satellite Imagery and Aerial Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmes, A.; Rogan, J.; Williams, C. A.; Martin, D. G.; Ratick, S.; Nowak, D.

    2015-12-01

    Urban tree canopy (UTC) coverage is a critical component of sustainable urban areas. Trees provide a number of important ecosystem services, including air pollution mitigation, water runoff control, and aesthetic and cultural values. Critically, urban trees also act to mitigate the urban heat island (UHI) effect by shading impervious surfaces and via evaporative cooling. The cooling effect of urban trees can be seen locally, with individual trees reducing home HVAC costs, and at a citywide scale, reducing the extent and magnitude of an urban areas UHI. In order to accurately model the ecosystem services of a given urban forest, it is essential to map in detail the condition and composition of these trees at a fine scale, capturing individual tree crowns and their vertical structure. This paper presents methods for delineating UTC and measuring canopy structure at fine spatial resolution (<1m). These metrics are essential for modeling the HVAC benefits from UTC for individual homes, and for assessing the ecosystem services for entire urban areas. Such maps have previously been made using a variety of methods, typically relying on high resolution aerial or satellite imagery. This paper seeks to contribute to this growing body of methods, relying on a data fusion method to combine the information contained in high resolution WorldView-3 satellite imagery and aerial lidar data using an object-based image classification approach. The study area, Worcester, MA, has recently undergone a large-scale tree removal and reforestation program, following a pest eradication effort. Therefore, the urban canopy in this location provides a wide mix of tree age class and functional type, ideal for illustrating the effectiveness of the proposed methods. Early results show that the object-based classifier is indeed capable of identifying individual tree crowns, while continued research will focus on extracting crown structural characteristics using lidar-derived metrics. Ultimately

  1. Preliminary applications of Landsat images and aerial photography for determining land-use, geologic, and hydrologic characteristics, Yampa River basin, Colorado and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heimes, F.J.; Moore, G.K.; Steele, T.D.

    1978-01-01

    Expanded energy- and recreation-related activities in the Yampa River basin, Colorado and Wyoming, have caused a rapid increase in economic development which will result in increased demand and competition for natural resources. In planning for efficient allocation of the basin 's natural resources, Landsat images and small-scale color and color-infrared photographs were used for selected geologic, hydrologic and land-use applications within the Yampa River basin. Applications of Landsat data included: (1) regional land-use classification and mapping, (2) lineament mapping, and (3) areal snow-cover mapping. Results from the Landsat investigations indicated that: (1) Landsat land-use classification maps, at a regional level, compared favorably with areal land-use patterns that were defined from available ground information, (2) lineaments were mapped in sufficient detail using recently developed techniques for interpreting aerial photographs, (3) snow cover generally could be mapped for large areas with the exception of some densely forested areas of the basin and areas having a large percentage of winter-season cloud cover. Aerial photographs were used for estimation of turbidity for eight stream locations in the basin. Spectral reflectance values obtained by digitizing photographs were compared with measured turbidity values. Results showed strong correlations (variances explained of greater than 90 percent) between spectral reflectance obtained from color photographs and measured turbidity values. (Woodard-USGS)

  2. Electronic Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payne, Meredith Lindsay

    1995-01-01

    The main objective was to assist in the production of electronic images in the Electronic Photography Lab (EPL). The EPL is a new facility serving the electronic photographic needs of the Langley community. The purpose of the Electronic Photography lab is to provide Langley with access to digital imaging technology. Although the EPL has been in operation for less than one year, almost 1,000 images have been produced. The decision to establish the lab was made after careful determination of the centers needs for electronic photography. The LaRC community requires electronic photography for the production of electronic printing, Web sites, desktop publications, and its increased enhancement capabilities. In addition to general use, other considerations went into the planning of the EPL. For example, electronic photography is much less of a burden on the environment compared to conventional photography. Also, the possibilities of an on-line database and retrieval system could make locating past work more efficient. Finally, information in an electronic image is quantified, making measurements and calculations easier for the researcher.

  3. Insect-inspired navigation algorithm for an aerial agent using satellite imagery.

    PubMed

    Gaffin, Douglas D; Dewar, Alexander; Graham, Paul; Philippides, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Humans have long marveled at the ability of animals to navigate swiftly, accurately, and across long distances. Many mechanisms have been proposed for how animals acquire, store, and retrace learned routes, yet many of these hypotheses appear incongruent with behavioral observations and the animals' neural constraints. The "Navigation by Scene Familiarity Hypothesis" proposed originally for insect navigation offers an elegantly simple solution for retracing previously experienced routes without the need for complex neural architectures and memory retrieval mechanisms. This hypothesis proposes that an animal can return to a target location by simply moving toward the most familiar scene at any given point. Proof of concept simulations have used computer-generated ant's-eye views of the world, but here we test the ability of scene familiarity algorithms to navigate training routes across satellite images extracted from Google Maps. We find that Google satellite images are so rich in visual information that familiarity algorithms can be used to retrace even tortuous routes with low-resolution sensors. We discuss the implications of these findings not only for animal navigation but also for the potential development of visual augmentation systems and robot guidance algorithms.

  4. Insect-Inspired Navigation Algorithm for an Aerial Agent Using Satellite Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Gaffin, Douglas D.; Dewar, Alexander; Graham, Paul; Philippides, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Humans have long marveled at the ability of animals to navigate swiftly, accurately, and across long distances. Many mechanisms have been proposed for how animals acquire, store, and retrace learned routes, yet many of these hypotheses appear incongruent with behavioral observations and the animals’ neural constraints. The “Navigation by Scene Familiarity Hypothesis” proposed originally for insect navigation offers an elegantly simple solution for retracing previously experienced routes without the need for complex neural architectures and memory retrieval mechanisms. This hypothesis proposes that an animal can return to a target location by simply moving toward the most familiar scene at any given point. Proof of concept simulations have used computer-generated ant’s-eye views of the world, but here we test the ability of scene familiarity algorithms to navigate training routes across satellite images extracted from Google Maps. We find that Google satellite images are so rich in visual information that familiarity algorithms can be used to retrace even tortuous routes with low-resolution sensors. We discuss the implications of these findings not only for animal navigation but also for the potential development of visual augmentation systems and robot guidance algorithms. PMID:25874764

  5. Searching data for supporting archaeo-landscapes in Cyprus: an overview of aerial, satellite, and cartographic datasets of the island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agapiou, Athos; Lysandrou, Vasiliki; Themistocleous, Kyriakos; Nisantzi, Argyro; Lasaponara, Rosa; Masini, Nicola; Krauss, Thomas; Cerra, Daniele; Gessner, Ursula; Schreier, Gunter; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos

    2016-08-01

    The landscape of Cyprus is characterized by transformations that occurred during the 20th century, with many of such changes being still active today. Landscapes' changes are due to a variety of reasons including war conflicts, environmental conditions and modern development that have often caused the alteration or even the total loss of important information that could have assisted the archaeologists to comprehend the archaeo-landscape. The present work aims to provide detailed information regarding the different existing datasets that can be used to support archaeologists in understanding the transformations that the landscape in Cyprus undergone, from a remote sensing perspective. Such datasets may help archaeologists to visualize a lost landscape and try to retrieve valuable information, while they support researchers for future investigations. As such they can further highlight in a predictive manner and consequently assess the impacts of landscape transformation -being of natural or anthropogenic cause- to cultural heritage. Three main datasets are presented here: aerial images, satellite datasets including spy satellite datasets acquired during the Cold War, and cadastral maps. The variety of data is provided in a chronological order (e.g. year of acquisitions), while other important parameters such as the cost and the accuracy are also determined. Individual examples of archaeological sites in Cyprus are also provided for each dataset in order to underline both their importance and performance. Also some pre- and post-processing remote sensing methodologies are briefly described in order to enhance the final results. The paper within the framework of ATHENA project, dedicated to remote sensing archaeology/CH, aims to fill a significant gap in the recent literature of remote sensing archaeology of the island and to assist current and future archaeologists in their quest for remote sensing information to support their research.

  6. Jakobshavn Isbrae, Greenland: DEMs, orthophotos, surface velocities, and ice loss derived from photogrammetric re-analysis of July 1985 repeat aerial photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motyka, R.; Fahnestock, M.; Howat, I.; Truffer, M.; Brecher, H.; Luethi, M.

    2008-12-01

    Jakobshavn Isbrae drains about 7 % of the Greenland Ice Sheet and is the ice sheet's largest outlet glacier. Two sets of high elevation (~13,500 m), high resolution (2 m) aerial photographs of Jakobshavn Isbrae were obtained about two weeks apart during July 1985 (Fastook et al, 1995). These historic photo sets have become increasingly important for documenting and understanding the dynamic state of this outlet stream prior to the rapid retreat and massive ice loss that began in 1998 and continues today. The original photogrammetric analysis of this imagery is summarized in Fastook et al. (1995). They derived a coarse DEM (3 km grid spacing) covering an area of approximately 100 km x 100 km by interpolating several hundred positions determined manually from block-aerial triangulation. We have re-analyzed these photos sets using digital photogrammetry (BAE Socet Set©) and significantly improved DEM quality and resolution (20, 50, and 100 m grids). The DEMs were in turn used to produce high quality orthophoto mosaics. Comparing our 1985 DEM to a DEM we derived from May 2006 NASA ATM measurements showed a total ice volume loss of ~ 105 km3 over the lower drainage area; almost all of this loss has occurred since 1997. Ice stream surface velocities derived from the 1985 orthomosaics showed speeds of 20 m/d on the floating tongue, diminishing to 5 m/d at 50 km further upstream. Velocities have since nearly doubled along the ice stream during its current retreat. Fastook, J.L., H.H. Brecher, and T.J. Hughes, 1995. J.of Glaciol. 11 (137), 161-173.

  7. High Resolution Urban Land Cover Mapping Using NAIP Aerial Photography and Image Processing for the USEPA National Atlas of Sustainability and Ecosystem Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilant, A. N.; Baynes, J.; Dannenberg, M.

    2012-12-01

    The US EPA National Atlas for Sustainability is a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application that allows users to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services in a specific region. The Atlas provides users with a visual method for interpreting ecosystem services and understanding how they can be conserved and enhanced for a sustainable future. The Urban Atlas component of the National Atlas will provide fine-scale information linking human health and well-being to environmental conditions such as urban heat islands, near-road pollution, resource use, access to recreation, drinking water quality and other quality of life indicators. The National Land Cover Data (NLCD) derived from 30 m scale 2006 Landsat imagery provides the land cover base for the Atlas. However, urban features and phenomena occur at finer spatial scales, so higher spatial resolution and more current LC maps are required. We used 4 band USDA NAIP imagery (1 m pixel size) and various classification approaches to produce urban land cover maps with these classes: impervious surface, grass and herbaceous, trees and forest, soil and barren, and water. Here we present the remote sensing methods used and results from four pilot cities in this effort, highlighting the pros and cons of the approach, and the benefits to sustainability and ecosystem services analysis. Example of high resolution land cover map derived from USDA NAIP aerial photo. Compare 30 m and 1 m resolution land cover maps of downtown Durham, NC.

  8. An algorithm for approximate rectification of digital aerial images

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-resolution aerial photography is one of the most valuable tools available for managing extensive landscapes. With recent advances in digital camera technology, computer hardware, and software, aerial photography is easier to collect, store, and transfer than ever before. Images can be automa...

  9. Preliminary investigation of Large Format Camera photography utility in soil mapping and related agricultural applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelletier, R. E.; Hudnall, W. H.

    1987-01-01

    The use of Space Shuttle Large Format Camera (LFC) color, IR/color, and B&W images in large-scale soil mapping is discussed and illustrated with sample photographs from STS 41-6 (October 1984). Consideration is given to the characteristics of the film types used; the photographic scales available; geometric and stereoscopic factors; and image interpretation and classification for soil-type mapping (detecting both sharp and gradual boundaries), soil parent material topographic and hydrologic assessment, natural-resources inventory, crop-type identification, and stress analysis. It is suggested that LFC photography can play an important role, filling the gap between aerial and satellite remote sensing.

  10. Geologic information from satellite images. [geological interpretation of ERTS-1 and Skylab multispectral photography of Rocky Mountain areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, K.; Knepper, D. H., Jr. (Principal Investigator); Sawatzky, D. L.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Extracting geologic information from ERTS and Skylab/EREP images is best done by a geologist trained in photointerpretation. The information is at a regional scale, and three basic types are available: rock and soil, geologic structures, and landforms. Discrimination between alluvium and sedimentary or crystalline bedrock, and between units in thick sedimentary sequences is best, primarily because of topographic expression and vegetation differences. Discrimination between crystalline rock types is poor. Folds and fractures are the best displayed geologic features. They are recognizable by topographic expression, drainage patterns, and rock or vegetation tonal patterns. Landforms are easily discriminated by their familar shapes and patterns. It is possible to optimize the scale, format, spectral bands, conditions of acquisition, and sensor systems for best geologic interpretation. Several examples demonstrate the applicability of satellite images to tectonic analysis and petroleum and mineral exploration.

  11. Literature & Photography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plattor, Emma E.

    An effective way to teach literature to students accustomed to electronic media is to use prose and poetry as raw materials for the production of photography projects that translate print into more familiar and exciting forms. Studies confirm that "visual literacy" should be an important part of a modern student's education. "Picture reading," an…

  12. Medical photography.

    PubMed

    Brown, S E

    Medical photography and illustration still provides an essential service for the clinician and researcher, despite an ever-increasing remit. This article describes the role of the medical illustration department and may help the hospital practitioner to use this service to the full.

  13. Choosing a survey sample when data on the population are limited: a method using Global Positioning Systems and aerial and satellite photographs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Various methods have been proposed for sampling when data on the population are limited. However, these methods are often biased. We propose a new method to draw a population sample using Global Positioning Systems and aerial or satellite photographs. Results We randomly sampled Global Positioning System locations in designated areas. A circle was drawn around each location with radius representing 20 m. Buildings in the circle were identified from satellite photographs; one was randomly chosen. Interviewers selected one household from the building, and interviews were conducted with eligible household members. Conclusions Participants had known selection probabilities, allowing proper estimation of parameters of interest and their variances. The approach was made possible by recent technological developments and access to satellite photographs. PMID:22967277

  14. Extracting land use information from the earth resources technology satellite data by conventional interpretation methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vegas, P. L.

    1974-01-01

    A procedure for obtaining land use data from satellite imagery by the use of conventional interpretation methods is presented. The satellite is described briefly, and the advantages of various scales and multispectral scanner bands are discussed. Methods for obtaining satellite imagery and the sources of this imagery are given. Equipment used in the study is described, and samples of land use maps derived from satellite imagery are included together with the land use classification system used. Accuracy percentages are cited and are compared to those of a previous experiment using small scale aerial photography.

  15. The high resolution topographic evolution of an active retrogressive thaw slump compiled from a decade of photography, ground surveys, laser scans and satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosby, B. T.; Barnhart, T. B.; Rowland, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing imagery has enables the temporal reconstruction of thermal erosion features including lakes, shorelines and hillslope failures in remote Arctic locations, yet these planar data limit analysis to lines and areas. This study explores the application of varying techniques to reconstruct the three dimensional evolution of a single thermal erosion feature using a mixture of opportunistic oblique photos, ground surveys and satellite imagery. At the Selawik River retrogressive thaw slump in northwest Alaska, a bush plane collected oblique aerial photos when the feature was first discovered in 2004 and in subsequent years. These images were recently processed via Structure from Motion to generate georeferenced point clouds for the years prior to the initiation of our research. High resolution ground surveys in 2007, 2009 and 2010 were completed using robotic total station. Terrestrial laser scans (TLS) were collected in the summers of 2011 and 2012. Analysis of stereo satellite imagery from 2012 and 2015 enable continued monitoring of the feature after ground campaigns ended. As accurate coregistraion between point clouds is vital to topographic change detection, all prior and subsequent datasets were georeferenced to stable features observed in the 2012 TLS scan. Though this coregistration introduces uncertainty into each image, the magnitudes of uncertainty are significantly smaller than the topographic changes detected. Upslope retreat of the slump headwall generally decreases over time as the slump floor progresses from a highly dissected gully topography to a low relief, earthflow dominated depositional plane. The decreasing slope of the slump floor diminishes transport capacity, resulting in the progressive burial of the slump headwall, thus decreasing headwall retreat rates. This self-regulation of slump size based on feature relief and transport capacity suggests a capacity to predict the maximum size a given feature can expand to before

  16. Multispectral Photography: the obscure becomes the obvious

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polgrean, John

    1974-01-01

    Commonly used in map making, real estate zoning, and highway route location, aerial photography planes equipped with multispectral cameras may, among many environmental applications, now be used to locate mineral deposits, define marshland boundaries, study water pollution, and detect diseases in crops and forests. (KM)

  17. A survey of earth resources on Apollo 9 photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N.

    1969-01-01

    The types of photography obtained on the Apollo 9 mission and on concurrent flights made by supporting aircraft are described. The need for earth resource surveys and the value of aircraft and spacecraft as the platforms from which to make such surveys are considered along with the rational for using multiband photography and the means by which such photography can be enhanced. Aerial and space photographs are presented and analyzed. The feasibility of conducting earth resource surveys by means of space photography is discussed and results are summarized.

  18. Photography applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cochran, Susan A.; Goodman, James A.; Purkis, Samuel J.; Phinn, Stuart R.

    2013-01-01

    Photographic imaging is the oldest form of remote sensing used in coral reef studies. This chapter briefly explores the history of photography from the 1850s to the present, and delves into its application for coral reef research. The investigation focuses on both photographs collected from low-altitude fixed-wing and rotary aircraft, and those collected from space by astronauts. Different types of classification and analysis techniques are discussed, and several case studies are presented as examples of the broad use of photographs as a tool in coral reef research.

  19. Multispectral Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Model II Multispectral Camera is an advanced aerial camera that provides optimum enhancement of a scene by recording spectral signatures of ground objects only in narrow, preselected bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. Its photos have applications in such areas as agriculture, forestry, water pollution investigations, soil analysis, geologic exploration, water depth studies and camouflage detection. The target scene is simultaneously photographed in four separate spectral bands. Using a multispectral viewer, such as their Model 75 Spectral Data creates a color image from the black and white positives taken by the camera. With this optical image analysis unit, all four bands are superimposed in accurate registration and illuminated with combinations of blue green, red, and white light. Best color combination for displaying the target object is selected and printed. Spectral Data Corporation produces several types of remote sensing equipment and also provides aerial survey, image processing and analysis and number of other remote sensing services.

  20. Some closing thoughts: Practical payoffs from satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The benefits-to-cost ratio of satellite remote sensing, both as a substitute for conventional methods of monitoring and assessing resources, and as a supplement to these methods is examined using a model which analyzes the cost of aerial photography versus satellite scanner for producing and interpreting an image of the Earth's surface sized to LANDSAT dimensions. Examples of cost savings are tabulated for ground surveys, aerial photos, and LANDSAT. Possible additional benefits from LANDSAT D are assessed. The way in which satellites fit into more comprehensive models for resources management is discussed. It is shown that remote sensing is but one essential component in a complex system that aggregates technical. Socioeconomics, political, cultural, and other factors in the human decision process.

  1. Thunderstorm-associated cloud motions as computed from 5-minute SMS pictures. [Synchronous Meteorological Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tecson, J. J.; Umenhofer, T. A.; Fujita, T. T.

    1977-01-01

    The five-minute rapid-scan imagery from the Synchronous Meteorological Satellite is employed to study cloud motions associated with the Omaha tornado of May 6, 1975. Cloud-motion vectors derived from automated and man-machine interactive systems provide an account of the mesoscale phenomena. In addition to the geostationary satellite data, aerial photography obtained during a cloud-truth mission is used in the severe storm investigation. For tracking overland cumuli with short half-lives, a three-minute scan interval appears necessary for the satellite imagery.

  2. Aerial photography : obtaining a true perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1923-01-01

    A demonstration was given within the last few days at the British Museum by Mr. J. W. Gordon, author of "Generalized Linear Perspective" (Constable and Co.), a work describing a newly-worked-out system by which photographs can be made available for the purpose of exactly recording the dimensions of the objects photographed even when the objects themselves are presented foreshortened in the photograph.

  3. Satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, J.A.; Matthews, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    The present work is based on a conference: Natural Satellites, Colloquium 77 of the IAU, held at Cornell University from July 5 to 9, 1983. Attention is given to the background and origins of satellites, protosatellite swarms, the tectonics of icy satellites, the physical characteristics of satellite surfaces, and the interactions of planetary magnetospheres with icy satellite surfaces. Other topics include the surface composition of natural satellites, the cratering of planetary satellites, the moon, Io, and Europa. Consideration is also given to Ganymede and Callisto, the satellites of Saturn, small satellites, satellites of Uranus and Neptune, and the Pluto-Charon system.

  4. Chemiluminescent methods and instruments for monitoring of the atmosphere and satellite validation on board of research aircrafts and unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitnikov, Nikolay; Borisov, Yuriy; Akmulin, Dimitry; Chekulaev, Igor; Sitnikova, Vera; Ulanovsky, Alexey; Sokolov, Alexey

    The results of development of instruments based on heterophase chemiluminescence for measurements of space distribution of ozone and nitrogen oxides concentrations on board of research aircrafts and unmanned aerial vehicles carried out in Central Aerological Observatory are presented. Some results of atmospheric investigations on board of research aircrafts M55 “Geophysica” (Russia) and “Falcon” (Germany) carried out using developed instruments in frame of international projects are demonstrated. Small and low power instruments based on chemiluminescent principle for UAV are developed. The results of measurements on board of UAV are shown. The development can be used for satellite data validation, as well as operative environmental monitoring of contaminated areas in particular, chemical plants, natural and industrial disasters territories, areas and facilities for space purposes etc.

  5. IMPROVING THE ACCURACY OF HISTORIC SATELLITE IMAGE CLASSIFICATION BY COMBINING LOW-RESOLUTION MULTISPECTRAL DATA WITH HIGH-RESOLUTION PANCHROMATIC DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Getman, Daniel J

    2008-01-01

    Many attempts to observe changes in terrestrial systems over time would be significantly enhanced if it were possible to improve the accuracy of classifications of low-resolution historic satellite data. In an effort to examine improving the accuracy of historic satellite image classification by combining satellite and air photo data, two experiments were undertaken in which low-resolution multispectral data and high-resolution panchromatic data were combined and then classified using the ECHO spectral-spatial image classification algorithm and the Maximum Likelihood technique. The multispectral data consisted of 6 multispectral channels (30-meter pixel resolution) from Landsat 7. These data were augmented with panchromatic data (15m pixel resolution) from Landsat 7 in the first experiment, and with a mosaic of digital aerial photography (1m pixel resolution) in the second. The addition of the Landsat 7 panchromatic data provided a significant improvement in the accuracy of classifications made using the ECHO algorithm. Although the inclusion of aerial photography provided an improvement in accuracy, this improvement was only statistically significant at a 40-60% level. These results suggest that once error levels associated with combining aerial photography and multispectral satellite data are reduced, this approach has the potential to significantly enhance the precision and accuracy of classifications made using historic remotely sensed data, as a way to extend the time range of efforts to track temporal changes in terrestrial systems.

  6. USGS Releases New Digital Aerial Products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) has initiated distribution of digital aerial photographic products produced by scanning or digitizing film from its historical aerial photography film archive. This archive, located in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, contains thousands of rolls of film that contain more than 8 million frames of historic aerial photographs. The largest portion of this archive consists of original film acquired by Federal agencies from the 1930s through the 1970s to produce 1:24,000-scale USGS topographic quadrangle maps. Most of this photography is reasonably large scale (USGS photography ranges from 1:8,000 to 1:80,000) to support the production of the maps. Two digital products are currently available for ordering: high-resolution scanned products and medium-resolution digitized products.

  7. Aerial videotape mapping of coastal geomorphic changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Debusschere, Karolien; Penland, Shea; Westphal, Karen A.; Reimer, P. Douglas; McBride, Randolph A.

    1991-01-01

    An aerial geomorphic mapping system was developed to examine the spatial and temporal variability in the coastal geomorphology of Louisiana. Between 1984 and 1990 eleven sequential annual and post-hurricane aerial videotape surveys were flown covering periods of prolonged fair weather, hurricane impacts and subsequent post-storm recoveries. A coastal geomorphic classification system was developed to map the spatial and temporal geomorphic changes between these surveys. The classification system is based on 10 years of shoreline monitoring, analysis of aerial photography for 1940-1989, and numerous field surveys. The classification system divides shorelines into two broad classes: natural and altered. Each class consists of several genetically linked categories of shorelines. Each category is further subdivided into morphologic types on the basis of landform relief, elevation, habitat type, vegetation density and type, and sediment characteristics. The classification is used with imagery from the low-altitude, high-resolution aerial videotape surveys to describe and quantify the longshore and cross-shore geomorphic, sedimentologic, and vegetative character of Louisiana's shoreline systems. The mapping system makes it possible to delineate and map detailed geomorphic habitat changes at a resolution higher than that of conventional vertical aerial photography. Morphologic units are mapped parallel to the regional shoreline from the aerial videotape imagery onto the base maps at a scale of 1:24,000. The base maps were constructed from vertical aerial photography concurrent with the data of the video imagery.

  8. Sociology through Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes how photography can inspire and cultivate sociological mindfulness. One set of assignments uses self-portraiture to highlight the complexity of visual representations of social identity. Another uses photography to guide sociological inquiry. Both sets of assignments draw on the Literacy Through Photography methodology,…

  9. In situ Volcanic Plume Monitoring with small Unmanned Aerial Systems for Cal/Val of Satellite Remote Sensing Data: CARTA-UAV 2013 Mission (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, J. A.; Pieri, D. C.; Bland, G.; Fladeland, M. M.

    2013-12-01

    The development of small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) with a variety of sensor packages, enables in situ and proximal remote sensing measurements of volcanic plumes. Using Costa Rican volcanoes as a Natural Laboratory, the University of Costa Rica as host institution, in collaboration with four NASA centers, have started an initiative to develop low-cost, field-deployable airborne platforms to perform volcanic gas & ash plume research, and in-situ volcanic monitoring in general, in conjunction with orbital assets and state-of-the-art models of plume transport and composition. Several gas sensors have been deployed into the active plume of Turrialba Volcano including a miniature mass spectrometer, and an electrochemical SO2 sensor system with temperature, pressure, relative humidity, and GPS sensors. Several different airborne platforms such as manned research aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, tethered balloons, as well as man-portable in-situ ground truth systems are being used for this research. Remote sensing data is also collected from the ASTER and OMI spaceborne instruments and compared with in situ data. The CARTA-UAV 2013 Mission deployment and follow up measurements successfully demonstrated a path to study and visualize gaseous volcanic emissions using mass spectrometer and gas sensor based instrumentation in harsh environment conditions to correlate in situ ground/airborne data with remote sensing satellite data for calibration and validation purposes. The deployment of such technology improves on our current capabilities to detect, analyze, monitor, model, and predict hazards presented to aircraft by volcanogenic ash clouds from active and impending volcanic eruptions.

  10. Characterization of surface oil thickness distribution patterns observed during the Deepwater Horizon (MC-252) oil spill with aerial and satellite remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Svejkovsky, Jan; Hess, Mark; Muskat, Judd; Nedwed, Tim J; McCall, Jenifer; Garcia, Oscar

    2016-09-15

    Knowledge of the spatial distribution of oil thickness patterns within an on-water spill is of obvious importance for immediate spill response activities as well as for subsequent evaluation of the spill impacts. For long-lasting continuous spills like the 2010 3-month Deepwater Horizon (DWH) event in the Gulf of Mexico, it is also important to identify changes in the dominant oil features through time. This study utilized very high resolution (≤5m) aerial and satellite imagery acquired during the DWH spill to evaluate the shape, size and thickness of surface oil features that dominated the DWH slick. Results indicate that outside of the immediate spill source region, oil distributions did not encompass a broad, varied range of thicknesses. Instead, the oil separated into four primary, distinct characterizations: 1) invisible surface films detectable only with Synthetic Aperture Radar imaging because of the decreased surface backscatter, 2) thicker sheen & rainbow areas (<0.005mm), 3) large regional areas of relatively thin, "metallic appearance" films (0.005-0.08mm), and 4) strands of thick, emulsified oil (>1mm) that were consistently hundreds of meters long but most commonly only 10-50m wide. Where present within the slick footprint, each of the three distinct visible oil thickness classes maintained its shape characteristics both spatially (at different distances from the source and in different portions of the slick), and temporally (from mid-May through July 2010). The region over the source site tended to contain a more continuous range of oil thicknesses, however, our results indicate that the continuous injection of subsurface dispersants starting in late May significantly altered (lowered) that range. In addition to characterizing the oil thickness distribution patterns through the timeline of one of the world's largest oil spills, this paper also details the extension of using high resolution aerial imagery to calibrate medium resolution satellite data

  11. Characterization of surface oil thickness distribution patterns observed during the Deepwater Horizon (MC-252) oil spill with aerial and satellite remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Svejkovsky, Jan; Hess, Mark; Muskat, Judd; Nedwed, Tim J; McCall, Jenifer; Garcia, Oscar

    2016-09-15

    Knowledge of the spatial distribution of oil thickness patterns within an on-water spill is of obvious importance for immediate spill response activities as well as for subsequent evaluation of the spill impacts. For long-lasting continuous spills like the 2010 3-month Deepwater Horizon (DWH) event in the Gulf of Mexico, it is also important to identify changes in the dominant oil features through time. This study utilized very high resolution (≤5m) aerial and satellite imagery acquired during the DWH spill to evaluate the shape, size and thickness of surface oil features that dominated the DWH slick. Results indicate that outside of the immediate spill source region, oil distributions did not encompass a broad, varied range of thicknesses. Instead, the oil separated into four primary, distinct characterizations: 1) invisible surface films detectable only with Synthetic Aperture Radar imaging because of the decreased surface backscatter, 2) thicker sheen & rainbow areas (<0.005mm), 3) large regional areas of relatively thin, "metallic appearance" films (0.005-0.08mm), and 4) strands of thick, emulsified oil (>1mm) that were consistently hundreds of meters long but most commonly only 10-50m wide. Where present within the slick footprint, each of the three distinct visible oil thickness classes maintained its shape characteristics both spatially (at different distances from the source and in different portions of the slick), and temporally (from mid-May through July 2010). The region over the source site tended to contain a more continuous range of oil thicknesses, however, our results indicate that the continuous injection of subsurface dispersants starting in late May significantly altered (lowered) that range. In addition to characterizing the oil thickness distribution patterns through the timeline of one of the world's largest oil spills, this paper also details the extension of using high resolution aerial imagery to calibrate medium resolution satellite data

  12. Geographic correlation of television pictures obtained from weather satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushuyev, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    The geographical control of satellite pictures, using the terminology of aerial photography, can be treated as the problem of analysis of a single picture with the objective of obtaining a ground contour map. Studies have shown the possibility and capability of the method of composing photographic maps from transformed television pictures. Optico-mechanical transformation solves the problem of geographical correlation for operational purposes. However, this technique does not compensate for electronic distortion, and accounts for earth sphericity only approximately. However, for certain purposes (studying ice drift), the maximum possible accuracy is required. Analytic geographical correlation methods using digital computers should be considered promising.

  13. MAPPING NON-INDIGENOUS EELGRASS ZOSTERA JAPONICA, ASSOCIATED MACROALGAE AND EMERGENT AQUATIC VEGETARIAN HABITATS IN A PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARY USING NEAR-INFRARED COLOR AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY AND A HYBRID IMAGE CLASSIFICATION TECHNIQUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted aerial photographic surveys of Oregon's Yaquina Bay estuary during consecutive summers from 1997 through 2001. Imagery was obtained during low tide exposures of intertidal mudflats, allowing use of near-infrared color film to detect and discriminate plant communitie...

  14. MAPPING EELGRASS SPECIES ZOSTERA ZAPONICA AND Z. MARINA, ASSOCIATED MACROALGAE AND EMERGENT AQUATIC VEGETATION HABITATS IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARIES USING NEAR-INFRARED COLOR AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY AND A HYBRID IMAGE CLASSIFICATION TECHNIQUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aerial photographic surveys of Oregon's Yaquina Bay estuary were conducted during consecutive summers from 1997 through 2000. Imagery was obtained during low tide exposures of intertidal mudflats, allowing use of near-infrared color film to detect and discriminate plant communit...

  15. SPOT satellite mapping of Ice Stream B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merry, Carolyn J.

    1993-01-01

    Numerous features of glaciological significance appear on two adjoining SPOT High Resolution Visible (HRV) images that cover the onset region of ice stream B. Many small-scale features, such as crevasses and drift plumes, have been previously observed in aerial photography. Subtle features, such as long flow traces that have not been mapped previously, are also clear in the satellite imagery. Newly discovered features include ladder-like runners and rungs within certain shear margins, flow traces that are parallel to ice flow, unusual crevasse patterns, and flow traces originating within shear margins. An objective of our work is to contribute to an understanding of the genesis of the features observed in satellite imagery. The genetic possibilities for flow traces, other lineations, bands of transverse crevasses, shear margins, mottles, and lumps and warps are described.

  16. Off-the-Wall Project Brings Aerial Mapping down to Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidhazy, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The technology of aerial photography, photogrametry, has widespread applications in mapping and aerial surveying. A multi-billion-dollar industry, aerial surveying and mapping is "big business" in both civilian and military sectors. While the industry has grown increasingly automated, employment opportunities still exist for people with a basic…

  17. The future of photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motta, Ricardo J.

    2010-01-01

    We are just a few years away from celebrating the 200th anniversary of photography. The first permanent photographic record was made by Niepce in 1826, the view from his window at Le Gras. After many development cycles, including some periods of stagnation, photography is now experience an amazing period of growth. Change since the mid 90's going into the next several years will completely modify photography and its industry. We propose that the digital photography revolution can be divided into two phases. The first, from about 1994 to 2009, was primarily the transformation of film-based equipment into their digital counterparts. Now, in the second phase, photography is starting to change into something completely different, with forces like social networks, cell phone cameras and computational photography changing the business, the methods and the use of photographs.

  18. Aerial Infrared Photos for Citrus Growers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blazquez, C. H.; Horn, F. W. J.

    1982-01-01

    Handbook advises on benefits and methods of aerial photography with color infrared film. Interpretation of photographs is discussed in detail. Necessary equipment for interpretation is described--light table, magnifying lenses, and microfiche viewers, for example. Advice is given on rating tree condition; identifying effects of diseases, insects, and nematodes; and evaluating effects of soil, water, and weather.

  19. Aircraft and satellite monitoring of water quality in Lake Superior near Duluth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherz, J. P.; Sydor, M.; Vandomelen, J. F.

    1974-01-01

    Satellite images and low altitude aerial photographs often show vivid discolorations in water bodies. Extensive laboratory analysis shows that water reflectance, which causes brightness on aerial images, positively correlates to the water quality parameter of turbidity, which on a particular day correlates to suspended solids. Work with low altitude photography on three overcast days and with ERTS images on five clear days provides positive correlation of image brightness to the high turbidity and solids which are present in Lake Superior near Duluth over 50% of the time. Proper use of aerial images would have shown that an $8,000,000 drinking water intake constructed in the midst of this unpotable, turbid water should have been located 6 miles north in clear, usable water. Noise effects such as skylight reflection, atmospheric effects, and depth penetration also must be understood for operational use of remote sensing for water quality monitoring and are considered in the paper.

  20. Aerial Explorers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg; Ippolito, Corey

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents recent results from a mission architecture study of planetary aerial explorers. In this study, several mission scenarios were developed in simulation and evaluated on success in meeting mission goals. This aerial explorer mission architecture study is unique in comparison with previous Mars airplane research activities. The study examines how aerial vehicles can find and gain access to otherwise inaccessible terrain features of interest. The aerial explorer also engages in a high-level of (indirect) surface interaction, despite not typically being able to takeoff and land or to engage in multiple flights/sorties. To achieve this goal, a new mission paradigm is proposed: aerial explorers should be considered as an additional element in the overall Entry, Descent, Landing System (EDLS) process. Further, aerial vehicles should be considered primarily as carrier/utility platforms whose purpose is to deliver air-deployed sensors and robotic devices, or symbiotes, to those high-value terrain features of interest.

  1. A preliminary training guide for utilizing high-altitude, color-infrared photography in compiling soil maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, J. E.; Parkhurst, W. H.; Ward, J. F.; Almond, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    Instruction for acquiring and analytically processing small-scale color-infrared photography to perform a soil resources inventory over forests of the southern U.S. is provided. Planning the project; acquiring aerial photography, materials, equipment and supplemental data; and preparing the photography for analysis are discussed. The procedures for preparing ancillary and primary component overlays are discussed. The use of correlation charts and dichotomous keys for mountain landforms, water regime, and vegetation is explained.

  2. Land cover mapping using aerial and VHR satellite images for distributed hydrological modelling of periurban catchments: Application to the Yzeron catchment (Lyon, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacqueminet, C.; Kermadi, S.; Michel, K.; Béal, D.; Gagnage, M.; Branger, F.; Jankowfsky, S.; Braud, I.

    2013-04-01

    SummaryThe rapid progression of urbanization in periurban areas affects the hydrological cycle of periurban rivers. To quantify these changes, distributed hydrological modelling tools able to simulate the hydrology of periurban catchments are being developed. Land cover information is one of the data sources used to define the model mesh and parameters. The land cover in periurban catchments is characterized by a very large heterogeneity, where the vegetated and the artificial surfaces are finely overlapping. The study is conducted in the Yzeron catchment (150 km2), close to the city of Lyon, France. We explore the potential of very high-resolution (VHR) optical images (0.50-2.50 m) for retrieving information useful for those distributed hydrological models at two scales. For detailed object-oriented models, applicable to catchments of a few km2, where hydrological units are based on the cadastral units, manual digitizing based on the 0.5 m resolution image, was found to be the most accurate to provide the required information. For larger catchments of about 100 km2, three semi-automated mapping procedures (pixel based and object-oriented classifications), applied to aerial images (BD-Ortho®IGN), and two satellite images (Quickbird and Spot 5) were compared. We showed that each image/processing provided some interesting and accurate information about some of the land cover classes. We proposed to combine them into a synthesis map, taking profit of the strength of each image/processing in identifying the land cover classes and their physical properties. This synthesis map was shown to be more accurate than each map separately. We illustrate the interest of the derived maps in terms of distributed hydrological modelling. The maps were used to propose a classification of the Yzeron sub-catchments in terms of dominant vegetation cover and imperviousness. We showed that according to the image processing and images characteristics, the calculated imperviousness rates

  3. Aerial photographs and satellite images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1995-01-01

    Because photographs and images taken from the air or from space are acquired without direct contact with the ground, they are referred to as remotely sensed images. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has used remote sensing from the early years of the 20th century to support earth science studies and for mapping purposes.

  4. Satellite Technologies in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portz, Stephen M.

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on ways of using satellite imagery obtained from the Internet, to enhance classroom learning. Discusses satellite deployment; classroom applications, including infrared imagery, high-resolution photography, and global positioning satellites; and use of satellite data for hands-on activities, including cartography, city and community…

  5. High-Speed Photography

    SciTech Connect

    Paisley, D.L.; Schelev, M.Y.

    1998-08-01

    The applications of high-speed photography to a diverse set of subjects including inertial confinement fusion, laser surgical procedures, communications, automotive airbags, lightning etc. are briefly discussed. (AIP) {copyright} {ital 1998 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.}

  6. Astronomical photography, part T

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunkelman, L.; Mercer, R. D.; Ross, C. L.; Worden, A. M.

    1972-01-01

    Photographic observations of astronomical interest conducted during the Apollo 15 mission are discussed. Procedures used in photographing the solar corona are described together with calibration and reduction methods. In addition, selected preliminary results obtained from the photography are presented.

  7. Inventory of native vegetation and related resources from space photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulton, C. E.; Johnson, J. R.; Mouat, D. A.

    1970-01-01

    The application of space and high flight photography to vegetational resources in Arizona is discussed. Ecologically based vegetation-landform and land use maps are prepared. The use of material from the Apollo 9 flight and high flight aerial photography are discussed. Land uses that result in a conversion or strong modification of the natural vegetation are presented. The vegetation-landform units have an ecological basis and are meaningful from a land use point of view because they identify areas with unique potentials or limitations for use or development under various land uses. Examples of these relationships are given.

  8. A study of Minnesota forests and lakes using data from earth resources technology satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This project is to foster and develop new applications of remote sensing under an interdisciplinary effort. Seven reports make up the specific projects presently being conducted throughout the State of Minnesota in cooperation with several agencies and municipalities. These are included under the general headings of: (1) applications of aerial photography and ERTS-1 data to agricultural, forest, and water resources management; (2) classification and dynamics of water and wetland resources of Minnesota; (3) studies of Lake Superior Bay; and (4) feasibility of detecting major air pollutants by earth-oriented satellite-borne sensors.

  9. Preliminary statistical studies concerning the Campos RJ sugar cane area, using LANDSAT imagery and aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Costa, S. R. X.; Paiao, L. B. F.; Mendonca, F. J.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Duarte, V.

    1983-01-01

    The two phase sampling technique was applied to estimate the area cultivated with sugar cane in an approximately 984 sq km pilot region of Campos. Correlation between existing aerial photography and LANDSAT data was used. The two phase sampling technique corresponded to 99.6% of the results obtained by aerial photography, taken as ground truth. This estimate has a standard deviation of 225 ha, which constitutes a coefficient of variation of 0.6%.

  10. Satellite imagery and discourses of transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Chad Vincent

    In the last decade there has been a dramatic increase in satellite imagery available in the commercial marketplace and to the public in general. Satellite imagery systems and imagery archives, a knowledge domain formally monopolized by nation states, have become available to the public, both from declassified intelligence data and from fully integrated commercial vendors who create and market imagery data. Some of these firms have recently launched their own satellite imagery systems and created rather large imagery "architectures" that threaten to rival military reconnaissance systems. The increasing resolution of the imagery and the growing expertise of software and imagery interpretation developers has engendered a public discourse about the potentials for increased transparency in national and global affairs. However, transparency is an attribute of satellite remote sensing and imagery production that is taken for granted in the debate surrounding the growing public availability of high-resolution satellite imagery. This paper examines remote sensing and military photo reconnaissance imagery technology and the production of satellite imagery in the interests of contemplating the complex connections between imagery satellites, historically situated discourses about democratic and global transparency, and the formation and maintenance of nation state systems. Broader historical connections will also be explored between satellite imagery and the history of the use of cartographic and geospatial technologies in the formation and administrative control of nation states and in the discursive formulation of national identity. Attention will be on the technology itself as a powerful social actor through its connection to both national sovereignty and transcendent notions of scientific objectivity. The issues of the paper will be explored through a close look at aerial photography and satellite imagery both as communicative tools of power and as culturally relevant

  11. Commercial feasibility of traffic data collection using satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merry, Carolyn J.; McCord, Mark R.; Bossler, John D.

    1995-01-01

    Requests to market remote sensing data at fine spatial resolutions have been proposed. We evaluated the potential of complementing traffic data collection programs with such data. One of the most fundamental issues is the imaging resolution required to identify vehicles on a highway. We simulated the performance of three spatial resolutions (1.0 m, 2.1 m and 4.2 m) by processing aerial photography (0.4-0.7 μm) of the Columbus, Ohio, area. The imagery was used to count and classify two groups of vehicles—large trucks and smaller vehicles—on several highway segments. We found that the 1.0 m resolution performed significantly better than the coarser resolutions for correctly identifying vehicles. We also investigated the coverage of an orbiting satellite for imaging highways. We find that a 1-m resolution satellite would cover approximately 1% of the highways in the continental U.S. per day.

  12. A vegetational and ecological resource analysis from space and high flight photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulton, C. E.; Faulkner, D. P.; Schrumpf, B. J.

    1970-01-01

    A hierarchial classification of vegetation and related resources is considered that is applicable to convert remote sensing data in space and aerial synoptic photography. The numerical symbolization provides for three levels of vegetational classification and three levels of classification of environmental features associated with each vegetational class. It is shown that synoptic space photography accurately projects how urban sprawl affects agricultural land use areas and ecological resources.

  13. The use of four band multispectral photography to identify forest cover types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downs, S. W., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Four-band multispectral aerial photography and a color additive viewer were employed to identify forest cover types in Northern Alabama. The multispectral photography utilized the blue, green, red and near-infrared spectral regions and was made with black and white infrared film. On the basis of color differences alone, a differentiation between conifers and hardwoods was possible; however, supplementary information related to forest ecology proved necessary for the differentiation of various species of pines and hardwoods.

  14. The use of color infrared photography for wetlands assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enslin, W. R.; Sullivan, M. C.

    1974-01-01

    A study was undertaken of Pointe Mouillee Marsh, located on Lake Erie, to assess shoreline erosion and to inventory and evaluate adjacent land as potential replacement for areas lost to erosion, and to provide better data sources for management decisions. The results of the study were: (1) Evaluation of low altitude oblique photography was useful in determining specifications of operational mission requirements; (2) Accurate base map revisions, reflecting shoreline erosion, were made using aerial photography and a Zoom Transfer Scope; (3) An aerial land cover inventory provided data necessary for the selection of adjacent lands suitable for marshland development; (4) A detailed inventory of vegetative communities (mapped from CIR), was made for management decisions; and (5) A carefully selected and well laid-out transect was a key asset to photo interpretation and analysis of vegetation.

  15. Mariner 9 star photography.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, T. E.

    1973-01-01

    Mariner 9 achieved successful photography of the stars, the purpose of the experiment being to measure camera parameters associated with point source photometry, and to examine the feasibility of using stars as invariant calibration sources and a reference for optical navigation. The Mariner 9 camera-B photography demonstrated photometric response consistency over a limited sample of data to better than 15%. Camera performance verified the ability to model vidicon response characteristics as well as demonstrated an imaging capability sufficient to permit the use of stars for photometric calibration.

  16. Teaching Photography in Dental Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuman, Ted A.; Hummel, Susan K.

    1992-01-01

    Two surveys investigated the extent of photography instruction in dental schools. The first survey of 53 schools revealed that 36% had formal dental photography programs. Of 21 photography instructors surveyed in the second study, 67% had no formal training, many knew little about texts or resources, and techniques and knowledge varied. (MSE)

  17. 'Unlocking the archive': Using photogrammetry of historic aerial photographs to extend the record of glacier change on the Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Lucy; Fox, Adrian

    2014-05-01

    Changes to glacier fronts and ice shelves and glacier acceleration are well documented, but there is almost no data on mass changes for the more than 400 glaciers on the Antarctic Peninsula. Current research demonstrates that the Antarctic Peninsula is contributing to sea-level change at a similar rate to that of other fast-changing near-polar or large mountain-glacier environments such as Iceland, Patagonia and Alaska (Hock, 2009). Forecasting the future impacts of the Antarctic Peninsula ice sheet on sea level will require a much improved understanding of 20th Century and contemporary glacier mass changes. Satellite data has been used to calculate these changes over the last three decades, but methods to quantify this over a longer time scale have eluded researchers. However, there is an archive of aerial photography of the Antarctic Peninsula dating back to the 1940s, this has been largely ignored due to the range of technical problems associated with deriving quantitative data from historic aerial photographs. This presentation demonstrates how advances in photogrammetric processing and capture of modern aerial photography have allowed this archive to be 'unlocked'. Accurate photogrammetric reconstruction from aerial photographs traditionally requires known ground control points acquired in the field; in remote and inaccessible areas, such as the Antarctic Peninsula, this is often impossible and so has restricted the use of photogrammetric analysis of the available aerial photography. A method for providing control for historic photos without fieldwork on the ground, by linking them to a newly acquired, highly accurate photogrammetric model adjusted through direct kinematic GPS positioning of the camera was developed by Fox and Cziferszky (2008), and this is now being applied to a number of glaciers across the Antarctic Peninsular using Intergraph Photogrammetry Suite (Erdas LPS 2013) software. This presentation will outline the photogrammetric workflow and

  18. Exploring Racism through Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fey, Cass; Shin, Ryan; Cinquemani, Shana; Marino, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Photography is a powerful medium with which to explore social issues and concerns through the intersection of artistic form and concept. Through the discussions of images and suggested activities, students will understand various ways photographers have documented and addressed racism and discrimination. This Instructional Resource presents a…

  19. State Skill Standards: Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Frederick; Reed, Loretta; Jensen, Capra; Robison, Gary; Taylor, Susan; Pavesich, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide skill standards for all content areas in career and technical education. The standards in this document are for photography programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program.…

  20. Dreams Memories & Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Photography students spend a considerable amount of time working on technical issues in shooting, composing, editing, and processing prints. Another aspect of their learning should include the conception and communication of their ideas. A student's memories and dreams can serve as motivation to create images in visual art. Some artists claim that…

  1. Photography in Pink Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashburn, Liz

    2007-01-01

    The teaching of photography provides many opportunities to attack the assumption of universal heterosexuality, which is central to our society, in order to provide space for other sexualities such as gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender. This article is based on many years of lecturing in art schools and focuses on the classroom teaching of…

  2. Photography in dentistry.

    PubMed

    McLaren, E A; Terry, D A

    2001-10-01

    The use of photography is becoming a standard for today's modern dental practice. Dental imaging is critical for the sharing of visual information among the patient, dentist, and ceramist. This article covers the basics of camera, lens, and flash selection, and the use of camera flash systems. It will also provide guidelines for obtaining a good dental image.

  3. 32. OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW TO THE SOUTHWEST, SHOWING THE FEDERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW TO THE SOUTHWEST, SHOWING THE FEDERAL CHANNEL IN RELATION TO SAN FRANCISCO BAY AND SAN BRUNO MOUNTAIN AT TOP CENTER. Date and time of photography "12-9-98 10:58." - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  4. 31. OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW TO THE NORTHEAST, SHOWING THE FEDERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW TO THE NORTHEAST, SHOWING THE FEDERAL CHANNEL IN RELATION TO DOWNTOWN OAKLAND AND LAKE MERRITT. Date and time of photography "12-9-98 10:54." - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  5. Weather Satellite Pictures and How to Obtain Them.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petit, Noel J.; Johnson, Philip

    1982-01-01

    An introduction to satellite meteorology is presented to promote use of live weather satellite photographs in the classroom. Topics addressed include weather satellites, how they work, earth emissions, satellite photography, satellite image analysis, obtaining satellite pictures, and future considerations. Includes sources for materials to…

  6. Exploration applications of satellite imagery in mature basins - A summation

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Z. )

    1991-08-01

    A series of examples supported by surface and subsurface controls illustrates procedures used to integrate satellite imagery interpretation into a conventional exploration program, and the potential contribution of such an approach to the recognition of new hydrocarbon plays in mature basins. Integrated analysis of satellite imagery data consists of four major steps. The first step focuses on the recognition of style, trend, and timing of deformation of exposed structures located at the basin interior or around its margins. This information is obtained through an integrated analysis of satellite imagery data, stereo aerial photography, surface geological mapping, and field observations. The second step consists of integrating the satellite imagery with gravity and magnetic data to recognize obscured and/or buried structures. The third step involves the analysis of available seismic data which is specifically processes to enhance subtle basement topography in order to determine influences on reservoir quality. In the fourth step, subsurface structure, isopach, show, and pool maps derived from available well information are integrated into the structural interpretation. These four analytical steps are demonstrated with examples form the Powder River basin, Western Canada basin, Paris basin, and Central basin platform of west Texas. In all of these highly mature basins, it is easy to demonstrate that (1) hydrocarbon migration and accumulation was largely controlled by subtle basement structures, and (2) these structures can be detected through the integrated analysis of satellite imagery.

  7. Improving Sea Water Quality Monitoring by Integrating Satellite, Aerial and Ground based Multispectral Observations in the optical band: the case of Ionian Sea along Basilicata (Italy) coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacava, T.; Ciancia, E.; Coviello, I.; Daraio, M.; Paciello, R.; Pergola, N.; Pignatti, S.; Santini, F.; Tramutoli, V.; Vallianatos, F.

    2012-12-01

    Ocean color satellite instruments provide information both on sea surface optical variables (e.g. upwelling normalized water-leaving radiances) and on bio-optical parameters, such as chlorophyll-a concentration, Cromophormic Dissolved Organic Matter (C-DOM) concentration, etc. A study of these parameters and of their evolution in the space-time domain may provide useful information on the overall quality of the sea water for a specific area offering, in addition, the reference behaviors necessary for identifying significant (possibly induced by anthropic pressure) changes in the coastal environment. In this context main aim of IOSMOS (IOnian Sea water quality MOnitoring by Satellite data) - a Project for European Transnational Cooperation co financed by the Operational Programme ERDF Basilicata 2007-2013 - is the development of advanced satellite products and techniques for the study and monitoring of Ionian sea water quality in terms of bio-optical properties along Basilicata (Italy) coasts. Specific goals of the project are: i) identification, tuning and assessment of advanced satellite products useful for the estimation of parameters relevant for the bio-optical characterization of the coastal waters quality; ii) identification, tuning and assessment of advanced satellite products useful for the study of sediment transport mechanisms into the sea; iii) analysis of long-term trends (up to 15 years) to identify the most exposed areas, those at highest degradation and/or greatest potential risk. On the base of airborne and in situ calibration campaigns different literature (single-image) algorithms will be validated and their results compared with original techniques based on multi-temporal satellite data analyses. In this paper main starting points and preliminary results of the IOSMOS project will be presented.

  8. Unmanned aerial optical systems for spatial monitoring of Antarctic mosses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucieer, Arko; Turner, Darren; Veness, Tony; Malenovsky, Zbynek; Harwin, Stephen; Wallace, Luke; Kelcey, Josh; Robinson, Sharon

    2013-04-01

    The Antarctic continent has experienced major changes in temperature, wind speed and stratospheric ozone levels during the last 50 years. In a manner similar to tree rings, old growth shoots of Antarctic mosses, the only plants on the continent, also preserve a climate record of their surrounding environment. This makes them an ideal bio-indicator of the Antarctic climate change. Spatially extensive ground sampling of mosses is laborious and time limited due to the short Antarctic growing season. Obviously, there is a need for an efficient method to monitor spatially climate change induced stress of the Antarctic moss flora. Cloudy weather and high spatial fragmentation of the moss turfs makes satellite imagery unsuitable for this task. Unmanned aerial systems (UAS), flying at low altitudes and collecting image data even under a full overcast, can, however, overcome the insufficiency of satellite remote sensing. We, therefore, developed scientific UAS, consisting of a remote-controlled micro-copter carrying on-board different remote sensing optical sensors, tailored to perform fast and cost-effective mapping of Antarctic flora at ultra-high spatial resolution (1-10 cm depending on flight altitude). A single lens reflex (SLR) camera carried by UAS acquires multi-view aerial photography, which processed by the Structure from Motion computer vision algorithm provides an accurate three-dimensional digital surface model (DSM) at ultra-high spatial resolution. DSM is the key input parameter for modelling a local seasonal snowmelt run-off, which provides mosses with the vital water supply. A lightweight multispectral camera on-board of UVS is collecting images of six selected spectral wavebands with the full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) of 10 nm. The spectral bands can be used to compute various vegetation optical indices, e.g. Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) or Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI), assessing the actual physiological state of polar vegetation. Recently

  9. Role of Tie-Points Distribution in Aerial Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerner, S.; Kaufman, I.; Raizman, Y.

    2016-03-01

    Automatic image matching algorithms, and especially feature-based methods, profoundly changed our understanding and requirements of tie points. The number of tie points has increased by orders of magnitude, yet the notions of accuracy and reliability of tie points remain equally important. The spatial distribution of tie points is less predictable, and is subject only to limited control. Feature-based methods also highlighted a conceptual division of the matching process into two separate stages - feature extraction and feature matching. In this paper we discuss whether spatial distribution requirements, such as Von Gruber positions, are still relevant to modern matching methods. We argue that forcing such patterns might no longer be required in the feature extraction stage. However, we claim spatial distribution is important in the feature matching stage. We will focus on terrains that are notorious for difficult matching, such as water bodies, with real data obtained by users of VisionMap's A3 Edge camera and LightSpeed photogrammetric suite.

  10. The photography of fluorescein

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, J.D.

    1982-06-01

    The last few years have seen a number of new flaps described and a renewed interest in the use of fluorescein, but there have been few photographs of the fluorescein effect, because special light sources were required with the filters that were employed. The realization that fluorescein can be excited by electromagnetic radiation in the visible range allows a simplified technique in which an ordinary electronic flash unit may serve as the only light source. The photography of fluorescein is not difficult to perform, and since minimal additional equipment is required, all workers who use fluorescein should begin to document their work more accurately and dramatically.

  11. A procedure for orthorectification of sub-decimeter resolution imagery obtained with an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Digital aerial photography acquired with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has great value for resource management due to the flexibility and relatively low cost for image acquisition, and very high resolution imagery (5 cm) which allows for mapping bare soil and vegetation types, structure and patter...

  12. Digital data from shuttle photography: The effects of platform variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bruce E.

    1987-01-01

    Two major criticisms of using Shuttle hand held photography as an Earth science sensor are that it is nondigital, nonquantitative and that it has inconsistent platform characteristics, e.g., variable look angles, especially as compared to remote sensing satellites such as LANDSAT and SPOT. However, these criticisms are assumptions and have not been systematically investigated. The spectral effects of off-nadir views of hand held photography from the Shuttle and their role in interpretation of lava flow morphology on the island of Hawaii are studied. Digitization of photography at JSC and use of LIPS image analysis software in obtaining data is discussed. Preliminary interpretative results of one flow are given. Most of the time was spent in developing procedures and overcoming equipment problems. Preliminary data are satisfactory for detailed analysis.

  13. Filling gaps in cultural heritage documentation by 3D photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuhr, W.; Lee, J. D.

    2015-08-01

    This contribution promotes 3D photography as an important tool to obtain objective object information. Keeping mainly in mind World Heritage documentation as well as Heritage protection, it is another intention of this paper, to stimulate the interest in applications of 3D photography for professionals as well as for amateurs. In addition this is also an activity report of the international CIPA task group 3. The main part of this paper starts with "Digging the treasure of existing international 3D photography". This does not only belong to tangible but also to intangible Cultural Heritage. 3D photography clearly supports the recording, the visualization, the preservation and the restoration of architectural and archaeological objects. Therefore the use of 3D photography in C.H. should increase on an international level. The presented samples in 3D represent a voluminous, almost partly "forgotten treasure" of international archives for 3D photography. The next chapter is on "Promoting new 3D photography in Cultural Heritage". Though 3D photographs are a well-established basic photographic and photogrammetric tool, even suited to provide "near real" documentation, they are still a matter of research and improvement. Beside the use of 3D cameras even single lenses cameras are very much suited for photographic 3D documentation purposes in Cultural Heritage. Currently at the Faculty of Civil Engineering of the University of Applied Sciences Magdeburg-Stendal, low altitude aerial photography is exposed from a maximum height of 13m, using a hand hold carbon telescope rod. The use of this "huge selfie stick" is also an (international) recommendation, to expose high resolution 3D photography of monuments under expedition conditions. In addition to the carbon rod recently a captive balloon and a hexacopter UAV- platform is in use, mainly to take better synoptically (extremely low altitude, ground truth) aerial photography. Additional experiments with respect to "easy

  14. Femtosecond photography lessons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanchenko, S. D.

    1999-06-01

    Antic scientists, sailors, warriors, physician, etc. were perceiving the space by means of their eye vision system. Nowadays the same people use eyeglasses, telescopes, microscopes, image converters. All these devices fit the necessary magnification, intensification gain and image spectrum to the eyes. The human brain is processing the image data offered to him in a format pertaining to eyes. Hence, the cognition of images can be regarded as a direct measurement. As to the time scale converters, they turned out to be harder done as compared with the spatial scale converters. Hence, the development of the high-speed photography (HSP) continues for more than a hundred and fifty years. The recent pico- femtosecond HSP branch sprang up in 1949 at the Kurchatov Institute -- its cradle. All about the HSP had been advertised. Instead of reprinting what is already well known, it makes sense to emphasize some instructive lessons drawn from past experience. Also it is tempting to look a bit into the high-speed photography future.

  15. Mariner photography of Mars and aerial photography of earth - Some analogies.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcher, D.; Veverka, J.; Sagan, C.

    1971-01-01

    Tentative characterizations of several Mariner 6 and 7 Martian surface features, made by the senior author in the absence of previous knowledge about Mars, are presented. The ridges in 7N17 are interpreted as a glacial moraine; barchane or parabolic sand dunes are identified in 6N5; and thermokarst collapse features, possibly produced in permafrost by Martian geothermal activity, are proposed in 6N8 and 6N14, in agreement with the suggestion of Sharp et al. (1971).

  16. Digital reproduction of historical aerial photographic prints for preserving a deteriorating archive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luman, D.E.; Stohr, C.; Hunt, L.

    1997-01-01

    Aerial photography from the 1920s and 1930s is a unique record of historical information used by government agencies, surveyors, consulting scientists and engineers, lawyers, and individuals for diverse purposes. Unfortunately, the use of the historical aerial photographic prints has resulted in their becoming worn, lost, and faded. Few negatives exist for the earliest photography. A pilot project demonstrated that high-quality, precision scanning of historical aerial photography is an appealing alternative to traditional methods for reproduction. Optimum sampling rate varies from photograph to photograph, ranging between 31 and 42 ??m/pixel for the USDA photographs tested. Inclusion of an index, such as a photomosaic or gazetteer, and ability to view the imagery promptly upon request are highly desirable.

  17. A photogrammetric DEM of Greenland based on 1978-1987 aerial photos: validation and integration with laser altimetry and satellite-derived DEMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korsgaard, N. J.; Kjaer, K. H.; Nuth, C.; Khan, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Here we present a DEM of Greenland covering all ice-free terrain and the margins of the GrIS and local glaciers and ice caps. The DEM is based on the 3534 photos used in the aero-triangulation which were recorded by the Danish Geodata Agency (then the Geodetic Institute) in survey campaigns spanning the period 1978-1987. The GrIS is covered tens of kilometers into the interior due to the large footprints of the photos (30 x 30 km) and control provided by the aero-triangulation. Thus, the data are ideal for providing information for analysis of ice marginal elevation change and also control for satellite-derived DEMs.The results of the validation, error assessments and predicted uncertainties are presented. We test the DEM using Airborne Topographic Mapper (IceBridge ATM) as reference data; evaluate the a posteriori covariance matrix from the aero-triangulation; and co-register DEM blocks of 50 x 50 km to ICESat laser altimetry in order to evaluate the coherency.We complement the aero-photogrammetric DEM with modern laser altimetry and DEMs derived from stereoscopic satellite imagery (AST14DMO) to examine the mass variability of the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS). Our analysis suggests that dynamically-induced mass loss started around 2003 and continued throughout 2014.

  18. Broadband ringdown spectral photography.

    PubMed

    Scherer, J J; Paul, J B; Jiao, H; O'Keefe, A

    2001-12-20

    A new technique that enables frequency-resolved cavity ringdown absorption spectra to be obtained over a large optical bandwidth by a single laser shot is described. The technique, ringdown spectral photography (RSP), simultaneously employs two key principles to record the time and frequency response of an optical cavity along orthogonal axes of a CCD array detector. Previously, the principles employed in RSP were demonstrated with narrow-band laser light that was scanned in frequency [Chem. Phys. Lett. 292, 143 (1998)]. Here, the RSP method is demonstrated using single pulses of broadband visible laser light. The ability to obtain broad as well as rotationally resolved spectra over a large bandwidth with high sensitivity is demonstrated. PMID:18364983

  19. Remote sensing of effects of land-use practices on water quality. [environmental surveys using Landsat satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    Research efforts are presented for the use of remote sensing in environmental surveys in Kentucky. Ground truth parameters were established that represent the vegetative cover of disturbed and undisturbed watersheds in the Cumberland Plateau of eastern Kentucky. Several water quality parameters were monitored of the watersheds utilized in the establishment of ground truth data. The capabilities of multistage-multispectral aerial photography and satellite imagery were evaluated in detecting various land use practices. The use of photographic signatures of known land use areas utilizing manually-operated spot densitometers was studied. The correlation of imagery signature data to water quality data was examined. Potential water quality predictions were developed from forested and nonforested watersheds based upon the above correlations. The cost effectiveness of predicting water quality values was evaluated using multistage and satellite imagery sampling techniques.

  20. "A" Is for Aerial Maps and Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Reese H.; Delahunty, Tina

    2007-01-01

    The technology of satellite imagery and remote sensing adds a new dimension to teaching and learning about maps with elementary school children. Just a click of the mouse brings into view some images of the world that could only be imagined a generation ago. Close-up aerial pictures of the school and neighborhood quickly catch the interest of…

  1. 30. VERTICAL AERIAL VIEW OF THE MOUTH OF THE FEDERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. VERTICAL AERIAL VIEW OF THE MOUTH OF THE FEDERAL CHANNEL, SCALE 1:14,400. TO THE SOUTH OF THE CHANNEL ARE THE RUNWAYS OF THE FORMER ALAMEDA NAVAL AIR STATION; TO THE NORTH ARE THE BERTHS AND BUILDINGS OF THE FORMER NAVAL SUPPLY CENTER, OAKLAND. Date and time of photography '12-9-98 10:51." - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  2. Evaluation of Color and Color Infrared Photography from the Goldfield Mining District, Esmerelda and Nye Countries, Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashley, R. P.

    1970-01-01

    The determination of geological features characteristic of the Goldfield epithermal ore deposits is considered and which of them can be identified from color and color infrared aerial photography. The Goldfield mining district in the western part of the Basin and Range Province is the area of study, located in desert terrain of relatively low relief.

  3. Searching for hidden houses: optical satellite imagery in archaeological prospection of the early Neolithic settlements in the Kujawy region, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    RÄ czkowski, Włodzimierz; Rucinski, Dominik

    2015-06-01

    Archaeologists have been applying remote sensing methods for over hundred years. New technological opportunities still appear and they may offer new data on remains from the Past. Effectiveness of remote sensing methods differs at scales. Aerial photographs play very important role at the regional scale of prospection. The question appears on usefulness of optical satellite imagery in the field dominated by aerial photography until now. Survey based on aerial recording of early farming settlements in Central Europe proofs the value and effectiveness of the method in this field. On the other hand whilst analyzing aerial photographs one might doubt about a spatial structure of the settlement, whether the whole space of the settlement has been recorded or not. Most of traces of houses can be recognized as cropmarks, however it applies only to specific geomorphological structures. It raises the question: did people in the past select those specific geomorphological structures for settling or whether existing soil and geomorphological conditions mask archaeological traces? An attempt to recognize the impact of local soils and geomorphological conditions on a possibility of identification of archaeological features is one of the tasks in the project ArchEO - archaeological applications of Earth Observation techniques. In the vicinity of Kaczkowo village in Kujawy Region (Poland) a cluster of traces of the early Neolithic farmers is located. This area has been a subject of aerial survey for several years. Yet the question on a completeness of recognition of the settlement pattern is still open. In the project we attempt to assess to what extent optical satellite imagery and a wide range of processing techniques (vegetation indices, color composites, spectral transformations, edge detection etc.) might allow an identification of the remains of settlements, especially in the neighborhood of already known clusters of Neolithic houses. It might help in defining the range of

  4. New horizons for the national high-altitude photography program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bermel, Peter F.

    1983-01-01

    The National High-Altitude Photography Program (NHAP) is a multi-Federal agency activity to acquire uniform imagery for the establishment of a national high-altitude photographic data base. Federal agencies participating in NHAP have pooled their resources and consolidated photographic requirements in a systematic 6-year effort that will minimize duplication of photographic programs, reduce overall Federal expenditures for aerial photography, and provide imagery for a wide range of public and private users, The U.S. Geological Survey has the lead coordination role and shares, with the other participating agencies, the responsibility for funding the acquisition of photography. Since the inception of NHAP in 1980, black-and-white and color infrared stereoscopic imagery has been acquired for about 50% of the 3,000,000 square miles in the conterminous United States. An additional 40% of the 48-State area is under contract to provide aerial survey firms, and the sixth and final contract to achieve complete once-over coverage will be awarded early in 1985. Extensive use has been made of the newly established data base for mapping, landform studies, land use planning, natural resource inventory, evaluation and management, engineering, and education. In anticipation of the completion of once-over coverage, the participating agencies have begun studies to define the requirements for a maintenance program which would provide cyclic coverage of the conterminous United States and imagery for specific agency needs. Although continued funding at the same level is not assured, under consideration are requirements for new cameras, films, and other remote sensors, photographic parameters, and extension of program coverage to Alaska, Hawaii, and outlying areas. In addition, new applications of the data base to prepare cartographic map and data products are being investigated. It is becoming increasingly clear that some major decision needs to be made soon if a NHAP II is to begin in

  5. Clinical digital photography: implementation of clinical photography for everyday practice.

    PubMed

    Shorey, Robert; Moore, Kenneth

    2009-03-01

    Clinical photography requires a regimented system of image acquisition similar to the regimentation needed for dental radiographs. Clinical digital photographic equipment is rapidly advancing. To achieve the best image quality and resolution, digital single-lens reflex systems are necessary. DSLR clinical systems are made of three components: camera body, macro lens, and flash attachment. Other ancillary equipment is necessary to achieve appropriate clinical image reveals and composition. Recommendations are given to assist in the implementation of clinical photography in the dental practice. PMID:19830983

  6. Aerial radiation surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Jobst, J.

    1980-01-01

    A recent aerial radiation survey of the surroundings of the Vitro mill in Salt Lake City shows that uranium mill tailings have been removed to many locations outside their original boundary. To date, 52 remote sites have been discovered within a 100 square kilometer aerial survey perimeter surrounding the mill; 9 of these were discovered with the recent aerial survey map. Five additional sites, also discovered by aerial survey, contained uranium ore, milling equipment, or radioactive slag. Because of the success of this survey, plans are being made to extend the aerial survey program to other parts of the Salt Lake valley where diversions of Vitro tailings are also known to exist.

  7. Aerial-Photointerpretation of landslides along the Ohio and Mississippi rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Su, W.-J.; Stohr, C.

    2000-01-01

    A landslide inventory was conducted along the Ohio and Mississippi rivers in the New Madrid Seismic Zone of southern Illinois, between the towns of Olmsted and Chester, Illinois. Aerial photography and field reconnaissance identified 221 landslides of three types: rock/debris falls, block slides, and undifferentiated rotational/translational slides. Most of the landslides are small- to medium-size, ancient rotational/translational features partially ob-scured by vegetation and modified by weathering. Five imagery sources were interpreted for landslides: 1:250,000-scale side-looking airborne radar (SLAR); 1:40,000-scale, 1:20,000-scale, 1:6,000-scale, black and white aerial photography; and low altitude, oblique 35-mm color photography. Landslides were identified with three levels of confidence on the basis of distinguishing characteristics and ambiguous indicators. SLAR imagery permitted identification of a 520 hectare mega-landslide which would not have been identified on medium-scale aerial photography. The leaf-off, 35-mm color, oblique photography provided the best imagery for confident interpretation of detailed features needed for smaller landslides.

  8. Theatre Photography: Capturing Your Productions on Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermilye, Jon R.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests a number of steps that can be taken to improve the aesthetic and technical quality of stage photography. Discusses finding a photographer, film choices, equipment, other technical considerations, the photo call, and digital photography. (RS)

  9. Using Digital Photography to Enhance Student Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegle, Del

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to help students develop their digital photography skills and see the world through new eyes. An emphasis is placed on using digital photography to communicate ideas and feelings. (Contains 6 figures and 2 tables.)

  10. Multipurpose background for standardization in medical photography.

    PubMed

    Hallock, G G

    1985-08-01

    A dual photography background system consisting of a quadrilled format on one side and a plain background on the other is described. It is mobile and efficient as a space- and time-saving device for medical photography.

  11. NEAR INFRARED AERIAL PHOTO-DETECTION OF ZOSTERA JAPONICA COMMUNITIES IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARINE INTERTIDAL HABITATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Near infrared color aerial photography (-1:7200) of Yaquina Bay, Oregon, flown at minus tides during summer months of 1997 was used to produce digital stereo ortho-photographs covering tidally exposed eelgrass habitat. GIS analysis coupled with GPS positioning of ground-truth da...

  12. Laser photography system: hardware configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piszczek, Marek; Rutyna, Krzysztof; Kowalski, Marcin; Zyczkowski, Marek

    2012-06-01

    Solution presented in this article is a system using image acquisition time gating method. The time-spatial framing method developed by authors was used to build Laser Photography System (LPS). An active vision system for open space monitoring and terrorist threats detection is being built as an effect of recent work lead in the Institute of Optoelectronics, MUT. The device is destined to prevent and recognize possible terrorist threats in important land and marine areas. The aim of this article is to discuss the properties and hardware configuration of the Laser Photography System.

  13. Telemetry of Aerial Radiological Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    H. W. Clark, Jr.

    2002-10-01

    Telemetry has been added to National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA's) Aerial Measuring System (AMS) Incident Response aircraft to accelerate availability of aerial radiological mapping data. Rapid aerial radiological mapping is promptly performed by AMS Incident Response aircraft in the event of a major radiological dispersal. The AMS airplane flies the entire potentially affected area, plus a generous margin, to provide a quick look at the extent and severity of the event. The primary result of the AMS Incident Response over flight is a map of estimated exposure rate on the ground along the flight path. Formerly, it was necessary to wait for the airplane to land before the map could be seen. Now, while the flight is still in progress, data are relayed via satellite directly from the aircraft to an operations center, where they are displayed and disseminated. This permits more timely utilization of results by decision makers and redirection of the mission to optimize its value. The current telemetry capability can cover all of North America. Extension to a global capability is under consideration.

  14. 36 CFR 5.5 - Commercial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial photography. 5.5... COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any... Federal Regulations. (b) Still photography. The taking of photographs of any vehicle, or other articles...

  15. 36 CFR 1005.5 - Commercial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Commercial photography. 1005.5....5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any motion picture may be filmed... charge. (Applicant) For (Company) Bond Requirement $ Approved: (Date) (Title) (b) Still photography....

  16. 32 CFR 705.10 - Still photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Still photography. 705.10 Section 705.10... AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.10 Still photography. (a) Policy and procedures...) Basic policy and procedures for still photos are set forth in the Manual of Naval Photography,...

  17. 36 CFR 5.5 - Commercial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Commercial photography. 5.5... COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any... Federal Regulations. (b) Still photography. The taking of photographs of any vehicle, or other articles...

  18. 32 CFR 705.10 - Still photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Still photography. 705.10 Section 705.10... AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.10 Still photography. (a) Policy and procedures...) Basic policy and procedures for still photos are set forth in the Manual of Naval Photography,...

  19. 32 CFR 705.10 - Still photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Still photography. 705.10 Section 705.10... AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.10 Still photography. (a) Policy and procedures...) Basic policy and procedures for still photos are set forth in the Manual of Naval Photography,...

  20. 36 CFR 1005.5 - Commercial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Commercial photography. 1005... OPERATIONS § 1005.5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any motion picture may be... charge. (Applicant) For (Company) Bond Requirement $ Approved: (Date) (Title) (b) Still photography....

  1. 36 CFR 5.5 - Commercial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commercial photography. 5.5... COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any... Federal Regulations. (b) Still photography. The taking of photographs of any vehicle, or other articles...

  2. 32 CFR 705.10 - Still photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Still photography. 705.10 Section 705.10... AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.10 Still photography. (a) Policy and procedures...) Basic policy and procedures for still photos are set forth in the Manual of Naval Photography,...

  3. 36 CFR 1005.5 - Commercial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commercial photography. 1005... OPERATIONS § 1005.5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any motion picture may be... charge. (Applicant) For (Company) Bond Requirement $ Approved: (Date) (Title) (b) Still photography....

  4. 36 CFR 5.5 - Commercial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Commercial photography. 5.5... COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any... Federal Regulations. (b) Still photography. The taking of photographs of any vehicle, or other articles...

  5. 36 CFR 1005.5 - Commercial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Commercial photography. 1005... OPERATIONS § 1005.5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any motion picture may be... charge. (Applicant) For (Company) Bond Requirement $ Approved: (Date) (Title) (b) Still photography....

  6. 32 CFR 705.10 - Still photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Still photography. 705.10 Section 705.10... AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.10 Still photography. (a) Policy and procedures...) Basic policy and procedures for still photos are set forth in the Manual of Naval Photography,...

  7. 36 CFR 1005.5 - Commercial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial photography. 1005... OPERATIONS § 1005.5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any motion picture may be... charge. (Applicant) For (Company) Bond Requirement $ Approved: (Date) (Title) (b) Still photography....

  8. Data users note: Apollo 17 lunar photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, W. S.; Doyle, F. J.; Levenson, L.; Michlovitz, K.

    1974-01-01

    The availability of Apollo 17 pictorial data is announced as an aid to the selection of the photographs for study. Brief descriptions are presented of the Apollo 17 flight, and the photographic equipment used during the flight. The following descriptions are also included: service module photography, command module photography, and lunar surface photography.

  9. Pinhole Photography--A--Budget Saver.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worne, Janet

    1984-01-01

    Though every art student should have a chance to do photography, expenses have kept photography out of the art curriculum. Inexpensive pinhole photography can be the answer. Describes the pinhole camera and its construction, setting up the darkroom, using the camera, and print processing. (CS)

  10. Using high-resolution digital aerial imagery to map land cover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieck, J.J.; Robinson, Larry

    2014-01-01

    The Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) has used aerial photography to map land cover/land use on federally owned and managed lands for over 20 years. Until recently, that process used 23- by 23-centimeter (9- by 9-inch) analog aerial photos to classify vegetation along the Upper Mississippi River System, on National Wildlife Refuges, and in National Parks. With digital aerial cameras becoming more common and offering distinct advantages over analog film, UMESC transitioned to an entirely digital mapping process in 2009. Though not without challenges, this method has proven to be much more accurate and efficient when compared to the analog process.

  11. Digital Photography for Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neckers, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Most elementary students approach photography in an open-minded, experimental way. As a result, their images are often more playful than those taken by adults. Students discover more through their own explorations than they would learn through overly structured lessons. In this article, the author describes how he introduces his elementary…

  12. Multispectral photography for earth resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenderoth, S.; Yost, E.; Kalia, R.; Anderson, R.

    1972-01-01

    A guide for producing accurate multispectral results for earth resource applications is presented along with theoretical and analytical concepts of color and multispectral photography. Topics discussed include: capabilities and limitations of color and color infrared films; image color measurements; methods of relating ground phenomena to film density and color measurement; sensitometry; considerations in the selection of multispectral cameras and components; and mission planning.

  13. Keynote Address: Photography From Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, Richard W.

    1984-11-01

    Since the beginning of history, mankind has dreamed of soaring above his planet and recording his impressions. Others dreamed of a journey to the Moon, to the other planets, and indeed to the stars. NASA cameras have changed the dreams to stark reality. Space photography is not only striking in beauty, but also permits us to unlock many of the secrets of our universe.

  14. The Chemistry of Color Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guida, Wayne C.; Raber, Douglas J.

    1975-01-01

    Presents several topics in color photography which can serve as an introduction of scientific concepts into the classroom, such as: photochemistry (energy transport), organic chemistry (dye formation), physics (nature of light), psychology (color perception), and engineering (isolation of different chemical processes within layers of the film).…

  15. Guidebook to School Publications Photography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glowacki, Joseph W.

    This guidebook for school publications photographers discusses both the self-image of the publications photographer and various aspects of photography, including components of the camera, shutter speed and action pictures, light meters, handling cameras, lenses, developing film, pushing film beyond the emulsion-speed rating recommended by the…

  16. Teaching Photography without a Darkroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDole, Thomas L.

    Alternative curriculum strategies can be used to conduct an effective photography program without the expense usually associated with a darkroom. Three methods can be used to eliminate the need for a darkroom facility: outside vendors, an emulsion that can be user-processed without access to a darkroom (slide or transparency film), and emulsions…

  17. Teaching Field Biology with Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Ronald L.; Howell, W. Mike; Davenport, L. J.; Wood, Linda F.

    2003-01-01

    Photography makes an easy and excellent tool for teaching field biology courses, allowing students to study nature without harming it. This photographic technique is used in capturing images of vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants during class field trips, then making these images available for students to identify and study from a departmental…

  18. Commercial Photography: Scope and Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    This scope and sequence guide, developed for a commercial photography vocational education program, represents an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System. It was developed as a result of needs expressed by teachers, parents,…

  19. Medical photography: principles for orthopedics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Medical photography is used clinically for patient evaluation, treatment decisions, and scientific documentation. Although standards for medical photography exist in many branches of medicine, we have not encountered such criteria in publications in the area of orthopedics. Purpose This study aims to (1) assess the quality of medical images used in an orthopedic publication and (2) to propose standards for medical photography in this area. Methods Clinical photographs were reviewed from all issues of a journal published between the years 2008 and 2012. A quality of clinical images was developed based on the criteria published for the specialties of dermatology and cosmetic surgery. All images were reviewed on the appropriateness of background, patient preparation, and technique. Results In this study, only 44.9% of clinical images in an orthopedic publication adhered to the proposed conventions. Conclusions Standards have not been established for medical photography in orthopedics as in other specialty areas. Our results suggest that photographic clinical information in orthopedic publications may be limited by inadequate presentation. We propose that formal conventions for clinical images should be established. PMID:24708703

  20. Surprising Beauty in Technical Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidhazy, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The Imaging and Photographic Technology area, in which the author teaches, is an applications- and technology-oriented photography program designed to prepare students for work in technical, corporate, industrial, and scientific environments. One day, the author received an e-mail message from an editor who had found his Web site and thought he…

  1. Photography-based image generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, Nicholas M.; Deering, Charles S.

    1989-09-01

    A two-channel Photography Based Image Generator system was developed to drive the Helmet Mounted Laser Projector at the Naval Training System Center at Orlando, Florida. This projector is a two-channel system that displays a wide field-of-view color image with a high-resolution inset to efficiently match the pilot's visual capability. The image generator is a derivative of the LTV-developed visual system installed in the A-7E Weapon System Trainer at NAS Cecil Field. The Photography Based Image Generator is based on patented LTV technology for high resolution, multi-channel, real world visual simulation. Special provisions were developed for driving the NTSC-developed and patented Helmet Mounted Laser Projector. These include a special 1023-line raster format, an electronic image blending technique, spherical lens mapping for dome projection, a special computer interface for head/eye tracking and flight parameters, special software, and a number of data bases. Good gaze angle tracking is critical to the use of the NTSC projector in a flight simulation environment. The Photography Based Image Generator provides superior dynamic response by performing a relatively simple perspective transformation on stored, high-detail photography instead of generating this detail by "brute force" computer image generation methods. With this approach, high detail can be displayed and updated at the television field rate (60 Hz).

  2. Astronomical Photography for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulme, Kenneth S.

    1981-01-01

    Describes class projects involving astronomical photography. Includes a description of how to make an astrocamera or convert a pocket camera into one suitable for astrophotography, film choices, and phenomena to photograph, such as star trails, meteors, the sun, and the moon. (DS)

  3. Inertial instrument system for aerial surveying

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, R.H.; Chapman, W.H.; Hanna, W.F.; Mongan, C.E.; Hursh, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    An inertial guidance system for aerial surveying has been developed under contract to the U.S. Geological Survey. This prototype system, known as the aerial profiling of terrain (APT) system, is designed to determine continuously the positions of points along an aircraft flight path, or the underlying terrain profile, to an accuracy of + or - 0.5 ft (15 cm) vertically and + or - 2 ft (61 cm) horizontally. The system 's objective thus is to accomplish, from a fixed-wing aircraft, what would traditionally be accomplished from ground-based topographic surveys combined with aerial photography and photogrammetry. The two-part strategy for measuring the terrain profile entails: (1) use of an inertial navigator for continuous determination of the three-coordinate position of the aircraft, and (2) use of an eye-safe pulsed laser profiler for continuous measurement of the vertical distance from aircraft to land surface, so that the desired terrain profile can then be directly computed. The APT system, installed in a DeHavilland Twin Otter aircraft, is typically flown at a speed of 115 mph (105 knots) at an altitude of 2,000 ft (610 m) above the terrain. Performance-evaluation flights have shown that the vertical and horizontal accuracy specifications are met. (USGS)

  4. Aerial Image Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, Robert E.

    1987-09-01

    Aerial images produce the best stereoscopic images of the viewed world. Despite the fact that every optic in existence produces an aerial image, few persons are aware of their existence and possible uses. Constant reference to the eye and other optical systems have produced a psychosis of design that only considers "focal planes" in the design and analysis of optical systems. All objects in the field of view of the optical device are imaged by the device as an aerial image. Use of aerial images in vision and visual display systems can provide a true stereoscopic representation of the viewed world. This paper discusses aerial image systems - their applications and designs and presents designs and design concepts that utilize aerial images to obtain superior visual displays, particularly with application to visual simulation.

  5. Inter-annual Variability in Tundra Phenology Captured with Digital Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melendez, M.; Vargas, S. A.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    The need to improve multi-scale phenological monitoring of arctic terrestrial ecosystems has been a persistent research challenge. Although there has been a range of advances in remote sensing capacities over the past decade, these present costly, and sometimes logistically challenging and technically demanding solutions for arctic terrestrial ecosystems. In this poster and undergraduate research project, we demonstrate how seasonal and inter-annual variability in landscape phenology can be derived for multiple tundra ecosystems using a low-cost and low-tech kite aerial photography (KAP) system that has been developed as a contribution to the US Arctic Observing Network. Seasonal landscape phenology was observed over the Networked Info-Mechanical Systems (NIMS) grids (2 x 50 meters) located in Barrow and Atqasuk, Alaska using imagery acquired with KAP and analyzed for a range of greenness indices. Preliminary results showed that the 2G-RB greenness index correlated the best with NDVI values calculated from ground based hyperspectral reflectance measurements. 2012 had the highest 2G-RB greenness index values for both Barrow and Atqasuk sites, which correlated well with NDVI values acquired from ground-based hyperspectral reflectance measurements. Wet vegetation types showed the most interannual variability at the Atqasuk site based on the 2G-RB greenness index while in Barrow the moist vegetation types showed the most interannual variability. These results show that vegetation indices similar to those acquired from hyperspectral remote sensing platforms can be derived using low-cost and low-tech techniques. Further analysis using these same techniques is required in order to link relatively small scale vegetation dynamics measured with KAP with those documented at large scales using satellite imagery.

  6. 11. Photocopy of aerial photograph (original aerial located in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photocopy of aerial photograph (original aerial located in the U.S. Forest Service, Toiyabe National Forest, Carson District Office). AERIAL VIEW OF THE GENOA PEAK ROAD, SPUR. - Genoa Peak Road, Spur, Glenbrook, Douglas County, NV

  7. Unmanned aerial systems for forest reclamation monitoring: throwing balloons in the air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Rita; Vaz, Eric; Panagopoulos, Thomas; Guerrero, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Wildfires are a recurrent phenomenon in Mediterranean landscapes, deteriorating environment and ecosystems, calling out for adequate land management. Monitoring burned areas enhances our abilities to reclaim them. Remote sensing has become an increasingly important tool for environmental assessment and land management. It is fast, non-intrusive, and provides continuous spatial coverage. This paper reviews remote sensing methods, based on space-borne, airborne or ground-based multispectral imagery, for monitoring the biophysical properties of forest areas for site specific management. The usage of satellite imagery for land use management has been frequent in the last decades, it is of great use to determine plants health and crop conditions, allowing a synergy between the complexity of environment, anthropogenic landscapes and multi-temporal understanding of spatial dynamics. Aerial photography increments on spatial resolution, nevertheless it is heavily dependent on airborne availability as well as cost. Both these methods are required for wide areas management and policy planning. Comprising an active and high resolution imagery source, that can be brought at a specific instance, reducing cost while maintaining locational flexibility is of utmost importance for local management. In this sense, unmanned aerial vehicles provide maximum flexibility with image collection, they can incorporate thermal and multispectral sensors, however payload and engine operation time limit flight time. Balloon remote sensing is becoming increasingly sought after for site specific management, catering rapid digital analysis, permitting greater control of the spatial resolution as well as of datasets collection in a given time. Different wavelength sensors may be used to map spectral variations in plant growth, monitor water and nutrient stress, assess yield and plant vitality during different stages of development. Proximity could be an asset when monitoring forest plants vitality

  8. Sea Ice Mapping using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solbø, S.; Storvold, R.

    2011-12-01

    Mapping of sea ice extent and sea ice features is an important task in climate research. Since the arctic coastal and oceanic areas have a high probability of cloud coverage, aerial platforms are superior to satellite measurements for high-resolution optical measurements. However, routine observations of sea ice conditions present a variety of problems using conventional piloted aircrafts. Specially, the availability of suitable aircrafts for lease does not cover the demand in major parts of the arctic. With the recent advances in unmanned aerial systems (UAS), there is a high possibility of establishing routine, cost effective aerial observations of sea ice conditions in the near future. Unmanned aerial systems can carry a wide variety of sensors useful for characterizing sea-ice features. For instance, the CryoWing UAS, a system initially designed for measurements of the cryosphere, can be equipped with digital cameras, surface thermometers and laser altimeters for measuring freeboard of ice flows. In this work we will present results from recent CryoWing sea ice flights on Svalbard, Norway. The emphasis will be on data processing for stitching together images acquired with the non-stabilized camera payload, to form high-resolution mosaics covering large spatial areas. These data are being employed to map ice conditions; including ice and lead features and melt ponds. These high-resolution mosaics are also well suited for sea-ice mechanics, classification studies and for validation of satellite sea-ice products.

  9. Modernizing medical photography, part 1.

    PubMed

    Crompton, Paul

    2004-12-01

    Government, media and public focus on waiting times in the National Health Service in the United Kingdom has forced the organization to look closely at the process by which a patient progresses through an increasingly complex and ever changing system. In an effort to streamline the patient journey or care pathway, modernizers have turned to business and manufacturing for solutions. Whilst medical photographers need to recognize their role in this context, they are also facing major technological modernization through the development of digital photography. Part 1 of this paper looks at the origins of some of the techniques presently being used to modernize the patient journey. Part 2 shows how these tools of modernization can be utilized to harness the advantages of digital technology to provide a modern and appropriate medical photography service in a large, disparate teaching hospital.

  10. Modernizing medical photography, part 2.

    PubMed

    Crompton, Paul

    2005-03-01

    Part 1 of this paper explored the origins of process activity mapping, one of the major tools currently being used to modernize patient pathways in the National Health Service in Great Britain. Within medical photography the current notion of modernization is inextricably linked to the development of digital technology. Whilst the core principle of capturing light on a sensitive medium remains as clear and relevant as ever, the mechanisms by which the image is processed and presented to the client have changed profoundly. Part 2 shows how the principles of lean thinking and process activity mapping can be utilized to harness the advantages of digital technology to provide a modern and appropriate medical photography service in a large disparate teaching hospital.

  11. Speckle photography in biomechanical testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasprzak, Henryk T.; Podbielska, Halina

    1994-02-01

    The application of speckle photography in biomechanical testing of bones and surgical fixing devices is presented. Double-exposure speckle photography is used for measuring the in-plane deformation of broken lower leg bones supported with different fixing devices under axial loading. An osteosynthesis plate, an external fixator, and an intramedullar nail mounted on the tibia shaft are tested. The results for different loading conditions are analyzed and compared with those obtained by holographic interferometry. Further, the human hyoid bone is investigated by this method. The load is applied to the anterior surface of the body of the bone. All tested specimen show an asymmetric displacement, the greatest in a plane vertical to the load. An evaluation of fracture behavior can be done from the displacement pattern.

  12. NEW HORIZONS FOR THE NATIONAL HIGH-ALTITUDE PHOTOGRAPHY PROGRAM.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bermel, Peter F.

    1983-01-01

    The National High-Altitude Photography Program (NHAP) is a multi-Federal agency activity to acquire uniform imagery for the establishment of a national high-altitude photographic data base. Since the inception of NHAP in 1980, black-and-white and color infrared stereoscopic imagery has been acquired for about 50% of the 3,000,000 square miles in the conterminous United States. An additional 40% of the 48-State area is under contract to private aerial survey firms, and the sixth and final contract to achieve complete once-over coverage will be awarded early in 1985. Extensive use has been made of the newly established data base. The participating agencies have begun studies to define the requirements for a maintenance program which would provide cyclic coverage of the conterminous United States and imagery for specific agency needs.

  13. Correlation between multispectral photography and near-surface turbidities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wertz, D. L.; Mealor, W. T.; Steele, M. L.; Pinson, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    Four-band multispectral photography obtained from an aerial platform at an altitude of about 10,000 feet has been utilized to measure near-surface turbidity at numerous sampling sites in the Ross Barnett Reservoir, Mississippi. Correlation of the photographs with turbidity measurements has been accomplished via an empirical mathematical model which depends upon visual color recognition when the composited photographs are examined on either an I squared S model 600 or a Spectral Data model 65 color-additive viewer. The mathematical model was developed utilizing least-squares, iterative, and standard statistical methods and includes a time-dependent term related to sun angle. This model is consistent with information obtained from two overflights of the target area - July 30, 1973 and October 30, 1973 - and now is being evaluated with regard to information obtained from a third overflight on November 8, 1974.

  14. Ethical considerations in dermatologic photography.

    PubMed

    Lakdawala, Nikita; Fontanella, Demian; Grant-Kels, Jane M

    2012-01-01

    In dermatology, clinical photographs are an essential component of patient care, enabling clinicians to document changes in skin pathology over time. Recent advances in digital technology and the electronic medical record have revolutionized clinical photography; however, these advances bring with them new ethical, legal, and social concerns. Photographs, more than other forms of documentation, have the potential to make patients uncomfortable. The act of photography, especially for those images requiring exposure of the genital area or the entire body, can be an uncomfortable experience for patients, necessitating the clinician and photographer to take an empathic stance in this setting. The Internet has elicited an increasing, and a very real, concern for patients about possible distribution and use of images outside of their individual care. The clinician and staff can allay these fears by professionally and empathetically addressing their concerns. In addition, it is important that patients receive appropriate informed consent about clinical photographs and the potential use of the images in their care, education, and research. Given the multitude of methods for recording clinical photographs, combined with the increasing complexity of image storage, standardization becomes a critical tool in providing consistency among images and achieving more equitable and efficacious care. To achieve this goal and improve the baseline standard of continuity of care for dermatological practices, we review the role of photographs, develop a model for patient consent, and establish standards for photography so as to provide the most ethical care for the patient.

  15. Flash photography-induced maculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Veugelen, Tim; Coutteel, Carine; Leys, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To report a flash photography-induced maculopathy. Methods: A professional photographer blinded himself accidentally and he consulted 3 days after the event with a scotoma in his dominant left eye. A unilateral acute light-induced maculopathy with hemorrhage was observed. The lesion was studied with colour photography, fluorescein and indocyanin angiography, autofluorescence imaging and repeated optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. Results: At age 43, this professional photographer was blinded by the flash light of his camera and subsequently realized he had a scotoma in his dominant eye. Three days after the event visual acuity (VA) was 20/70 and an acute light-induced maculopathy was noted. Another three days later, VA was 20/50 and the lesions were less prominent. After one month, the photographer still had problems making sharp pictures, VA was 20/25 and a macular scar was observed. During further follow-up, he regained full vision and experienced no professional problems. Conclusions: This case illustrates that the light of flash photography can accidentally hit an eye and induce a light-induced maculopathy.

  16. Flash photography-induced maculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Veugelen, Tim; Coutteel, Carine; Leys, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To report a flash photography-induced maculopathy. Methods: A professional photographer blinded himself accidentally and he consulted 3 days after the event with a scotoma in his dominant left eye. A unilateral acute light-induced maculopathy with hemorrhage was observed. The lesion was studied with colour photography, fluorescein and indocyanin angiography, autofluorescence imaging and repeated optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. Results: At age 43, this professional photographer was blinded by the flash light of his camera and subsequently realized he had a scotoma in his dominant eye. Three days after the event visual acuity (VA) was 20/70 and an acute light-induced maculopathy was noted. Another three days later, VA was 20/50 and the lesions were less prominent. After one month, the photographer still had problems making sharp pictures, VA was 20/25 and a macular scar was observed. During further follow-up, he regained full vision and experienced no professional problems. Conclusions: This case illustrates that the light of flash photography can accidentally hit an eye and induce a light-induced maculopathy. PMID:27625926

  17. Ocular Fundus Photography as an Educational Tool.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Devin D; Garza, Philip S

    2015-10-01

    The proficiency of nonophthalmologists with direct ophthalmoscopy is poor, which has prompted a search for alternative technologies to examine the ocular fundus. Although ocular fundus photography has existed for decades, its use has been traditionally restricted to ophthalmology clinical care settings and textbooks. Recent research has shown a role for nonmydriatic fundus photography in nonophthalmic settings, encouraging more widespread adoption of fundus photography technology. Recent studies have also affirmed the role of fundus photography as an adjunct or alternative to direct ophthalmoscopy in undergraduate medical education. In this review, the authors examine the use of ocular fundus photography as an educational tool and suggest future applications for this important technology. Novel applications of fundus photography as an educational tool have the potential to resurrect the dying art of funduscopy.

  18. The Dynamic Interplay between Photochemistry and Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Samuel A.

    1975-01-01

    Examines the early photochemical and photographic research of French, German and English natural philosophers. Describes how these investigators developed photography and the laws which govern photochemical reactions. (MLH)

  19. Photography as an Agent of Transformation: Education, Community and Documentary Photography in Post-War Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macnab, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Radical political activism in the 1970s and 1980s had a huge impact on documentary photography in Britain. Community organisations and photography collectives emerged and endeavoured to democratise the arts for those who would not otherwise have come into contact with them. Community photography used the technology to break down the barriers…

  20. Application of multispectral photography to mineral and land resources of South Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, N. K. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Good results were obtained from using Skylab photography in conjunction with LANDSAT imagery for visual interpretation of various geologic features, particularly lineaments. It was concluded that visual interpretation alone of Skylab photographs was quite limited, and much of this was because of the low contrast, heavily vegetated terrain in southeastern United States. Lineaments of major structural features are detectable but subtle. An intimate knowledge of the geologic field relationships is needed before a meaningful analysis is feasible using current satellite photography alone.

  1. Aerial survey techniques for locating abandoned strip mine land

    SciTech Connect

    Dattavio, L.E.; Mroczynski, R.P.; Weismiller, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act requires that states develop regulatory programs and reclamation plans for surface mining activities. Prior to passage of this law, the Indiana legislature required Indiana Department of Natural Resources (IDNR) to survey abandoned mine lands not under the control of state reclamation laws. IDNR then contracted the Laboratory for Applications of Remote Sensing (LARS) at Purdue University to conduct a preliminary survey of these lands. Photointerpretation techniques of medium scale color infrared photography enabled the LARS staff to identify partially reclaimed and nonreclaimed sites with a 20-county area in southwestern Indiana. Over 4700 ha of abandoned lands were located and classified on the aerial photography. This information is currently being used by IDNR to develop reclamation plans to revegetate the abandoned lands. The results of this survey clearly indicate that photointerpretation is an effective technique to complete initial inventories of nonreclaimed mine lands.

  2. Detection of moisture and moisture related phenomena from Skylab. [infrared photography of Texas/New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eagleman, J. R.; Pogge, E. C.; Moore, R. K. (Principal Investigator); Hardy, N.; Lin, W.; League, L.

    1974-01-01

    The author had identified the following significant results. Soil moisture and precipitation variations were not detectable as tonal variations on the S19OA IR B and W photography. Some light tonal areas contained high precipitation .83 inches and high moisture content 21.1% while other light tonal areas contained only .02 inches precipitation and as little as 0.7% moisture. Similar variations were observed in dark tonal areas. This inconsistency may be caused by a lapse of 3 to 4 days from the time precipitation occurred until the photographs were taken and the fact that in the first inch of soil the measured soil moisture was generally less than 5.0%. For overall tonal contrast, the aerial color, color IR and aerial B and W appear to be the best. Cities stand out from the landscape best in the aerial color and color IR, however, to see major street patterns a combination of the two aerial B and W bands and the two IR B and W bands may be desirable. For mapping roads it is best use all 6 bands. For lake detection, the IR B and W bands would be the best but for streams the aerial B and W band would be better. The aerial color, color IR, and the two IR B and W bands are best for distinguishing cultivated and non-cultivated areas, whereas the two aerial B and W bands are better for seeing local relief. Clouds may be best seen in the aerial color and color IR bands.

  3. High-Speed Photography 101

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidhazy, Andrew

    1997-05-01

    This paper describes the contents of a unique introductory, applications oriented, high speed photography course offered to Imaging and Photographic Technology majors at the Rochester Institute of Technology. The course covers the theory and practice of photographic systems designed to permit analysis of events of very short duration. Included are operational characteristics of intermittent and rotating prism cameras, rotating mirror and drum cameras, synchronization systems and timing controls and high speed flash and stroboscopic systems, and high speed video recording. Students gain basic experience not only in the use of fundamental equipment but also in proper planning, set-up and introductory data reduction techniques through a series of practical experiments.

  4. Slit lamp photography: The basics.

    PubMed

    Painter, Rosalyn

    2015-06-01

    This introductory paper is designed to explain the basics of slit lamp photography with the use of illustrations and sample images. The two primary methods of illumination are described with reference to positioning and magnification, as well as the use of background illumination. Filters and dye usage are described along with a brief explanation of associated imaging techniques. Further explanation of techniques will be looked at in subsequent articles, this paper aims to give an over view rather than an in-depth discussion of techniques.

  5. Crewmembers in the middeck with the Retinal Photography experiment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Mission Pilot Robert Cabana conducting the Retinal Photography life sciences experiment on test subject Mission Specialist Michael Clifford. The Retinal Photography experiment is Detailed Supplementary Objective # 474.

  6. Monitoring black-tailed prairie dog colonies with high-resolution satellite imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sidle, John G.; Johnson, D.H.; Euliss, B.R.; Tooze, M.

    2002-01-01

    The United States Fish and Wildlife Service has determined that the black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) warrants listing as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act. Central to any conservation planning for the black-tailed prairie dog is an appropriate detection and monitoring technique. Because coarse-resolution satellite imagery is not adequate to detect black-tailed prairie dog colonies, we examined the usefulness of recently available high-resolution (1-m) satellite imagery. In 6 purchased scenes of national grasslands, we were easily able to visually detect small and large colonies without using image-processing algorithms. The Ikonos (Space Imaging(tm)) satellite imagery was as adequate as large-scale aerial photography to delineate colonies. Based on the high quality of imagery, we discuss a possible monitoring program for black-tailed prairie dog colonies throughout the Great Plains, using the species' distribution in North Dakota as an example. Monitoring plots could be established and imagery acquired periodically to track the expansion and contraction of colonies.

  7. Assessment of satellite and aircraft multispectral scanner data for strip-mine monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spisz, E. W.; Dooley, J. T.

    1980-01-01

    The application of LANDSAT multispectral scanner data to describe the mining and reclamation changes of a hilltop surface coal mine in the rugged, mountainous area of eastern Kentucky is presented. Original single band satellite imagery, computer enhanced single band imagery, and computer classified imagery are presented for four different data sets in order to demonstrate the land cover changes that can be detected. Data obtained with an 11 band multispectral scanner on board a C-47 aircraft at an altitude of 3000 meters are also presented. Comparing the satellite data with color, infrared aerial photography, and ground survey data shows that significant changes in the disrupted area can be detected from LANDSAT band 5 satellite imagery for mines with more than 100 acres of disturbed area. However, band-ratio (bands 5/6) imagery provides greater contrast than single band imagery and can provide a qualitative level 1 classification of the land cover that may be useful for monitoring either the disturbed mining area or the revegetation progress. However, if a quantitative, accurate classification of the barren or revegetated classes is required, it is necessary to perform a detailed, four band computer classification of the data.

  8. 50 CFR 216.42 - Photography. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Photography. 216.42 Section 216.42 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Special Exceptions § 216.42 Photography....

  9. 50 CFR 216.42 - Photography. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Photography. 216.42 Section 216.42 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Special Exceptions § 216.42 Photography....

  10. Using Photography to Tell a Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Susan; Williams, Kayenta

    2008-01-01

    Photography can be an exciting way to integrate art and creativity into social studies. Photography allows students to use creative self-expression in revealing the symbolism in historic places, people, or scenes with a richness that words alone often cannot accomplish. In this article, the authors provide several ideas for creating photo essays.…

  11. 50 CFR 216.42 - Photography. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Photography. 216.42 Section 216.42 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Special Exceptions § 216.42 Photography....

  12. 50 CFR 216.42 - Photography. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Photography. 216.42 Section 216.42 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Special Exceptions § 216.42 Photography....

  13. 50 CFR 216.42 - Photography. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Photography. 216.42 Section 216.42 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Special Exceptions § 216.42 Photography....

  14. Data user's note: Apollo 15 lunar photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, W. S.; Niksch, M. A. (Editor)

    1972-01-01

    Brief descriptions are given of the Apollo 15 mission objectives, photographic equipment, and photographic coverage and quality. The lunar photographic tasks were: (1) ultraviolet photography of the earth and moon; (2) photography of the gegenschein from lunar orbit; (3) service module orbital photographic tasks; and (4) command module photographic tasks.

  15. Digital photography enhances diagnostics, communication, and documentation.

    PubMed

    McLaren, Edward A; Schoenbaum, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Digital dental photography is an exceptional tool for communication, diagnosis, and documentation. So much of what is possible today with dental treatment hinges strongly upon dentists' ability to fully capture the necessary diagnostic information and properly educate their patients. With the proper training, techniques, equipment, and implementation, dental photography can significantly enhance the level of treatment provided.

  16. Accommodation response for integral photography still images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Sumio; Park, Min-Chul

    2015-05-01

    In this paper the accommodation responses for integral photography still images were measured. The experimental results showed that the accommodation responses for integral photography images showed a linear change with images showing the depth position of integral photography, even if the integral photography images were located out of the depth of the field. Furthermore, the discrimination of depth perception, which relates to a blur effect in integral photography images, was subjectively evaluated for the examination of its influence on the accommodation response. As a result, the range of the discrimination of depth perception was narrow in comparison to the range of the rectilinear accommodation response. However, these results were consistent according to the propensity of statistical significance for the discrimination of depth perception in the out range of subjectively effective discriminations.

  17. Photography and plastic surgery: part 1.

    PubMed

    Spear, Marcia; Hagan, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Plastic surgery and photography are inseparable and with present-day technology, it is much easier and more affordable than ever before to incorporate high-quality and standardized images into clinical practice. Perfecting digital photography can have a learning curve that is many times hindered by old habits from the days of slide photography, macro lenses, and specialized flashes, which made it more difficult and complex to incorporate into a busy plastic surgery practice. With the current digital revolution, many of these barriers have been or can be eliminated and anyone can become a proficient photographer. The purpose of this article, first in a series, is to introduce the plastic surgical nurse to the history of photography and applications and the benefits of digital photography.

  18. Spectral properties of agricultural crops and soils measured from space, aerial, field, and laboratory sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E. (Principal Investigator); Vanderbilt, V. C.; Robinson, B. F.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

    1981-01-01

    Investigations of the multispectral reflectance characteristics of crops and soils as measured from laboratory, field, aerial, and satellite sensor systems are reviewed. The relationships of important biological and physical characteristics to the spectral properties of crops and soils are addressed.

  19. Coal refuse site inventories. [reclamation survey using color-IR photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wobber, F. J.; Wier, C. E.; Leshendok, T.; Beeman, W.

    1975-01-01

    Small-scale color-infrared aerial photography at 1:120,000 scale is used to carry out an operational survey of coal refuse sites. Site analyses and reclamation cost estimates are completed in less than 90 days by using remote sensing techniques. Analysis of photographs provided dependable and accurate data for the location and environmental assessment of nearly 200 coal refuse banks and slurry ponds. The inventory constitutes a comprehensive reference for establishing priorities for coal refuse site reclamation and for complementing future field surveys.

  20. Inventory and analysis of natural vegetation and related resources from space and high altitude photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulton, C. E.

    1972-01-01

    A multiple sampling technique was developed whereby spacecraft photographs supported by aircraft photographs could be used to quantify plant communities. Large scale (1:600 to 1:2,400) color infrared aerial photographs were required to identify shrub and herbaceous species. These photos were used to successfully estimate a herbaceous standing crop biomass. Microdensitometry was used to discriminate among specific plant communities and individual plant species. Large scale infrared photography was also used to estimate mule deer deaths and population density of northern pocket gophers.

  1. Affordable, Accessible, Immediate: Capture Stunning Images with Digital Infrared Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Technology educators who teach digital photography should consider incorporating an infrared (IR) photography component into their program. This is an area where digital photography offers significant benefits. Either type of IR imaging is very interesting to explore, but traditional film-based IR photography is difficult and expensive. In…

  2. Measuring gloss by digital photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pancham; MacDonald, Lindsay

    2006-01-01

    The measurement of gloss is conventionally made by specialised instruments that determine the ratio of reflected to incident illumination at a single fixed angle. This study investigated whether digital photography with flash illumination could be used as an alternative. Multiple exposures were combined by a high dynamic range (HDR) imaging technique to produce a two-dimensional intensity profile of the reflectance around the specular point. The method was tested for six paper samples of varying gloss, and the results were found to correlate well with instrumental measurements. The image gloss profiles, however, provided more information about the distribution of the reflection over a range of angles and also gave an indication of the surface texture.

  3. The Future Of High Speed Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtney-Pratt, J. S.

    1987-09-01

    The variety, range and precision of methods available for photographic recording of fast phenomena have been increasing steadily. The capabilities of the techniques are considered, classifying the methods by the kind of record obtained. descriptions of experimental techniques and apparatus, and illustrations, are given in earlier articles: "A Review of the Methods of High-Speed Photography," Reports on Progress in Physics in 1957; "Advances in High-Speed Photography 1957-1972," Proceedings of the Tenth International Congress on High-Speed Photography and also JSMPTE 82, pp. 167-175 (1973); "Advances in High-Speed Photograph, updated to 1983 in the Proceedings of SPIE Volume 427.

  4. The DOE ARM Aerial Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Hubbe, John M.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Mei, Fan; Chand, Duli; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Andrews, Elisabeth; Biraud, S.; McFarquhar, Greg

    2014-05-01

    The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a climate research user facility operating stationary ground sites that provide long-term measurements of climate relevant properties, mobile ground- and ship-based facilities to conduct shorter field campaigns (6-12 months), and the ARM Aerial Facility (AAF). The airborne observations acquired by the AAF enhance the surface-based ARM measurements by providing high-resolution in-situ measurements for process understanding, retrieval-algorithm development, and model evaluation that are not possible using ground- or satellite-based techniques. Several ARM aerial efforts were consolidated into the AAF in 2006. With the exception of a small aircraft used for routine measurements of aerosols and carbon cycle gases, AAF at the time had no dedicated aircraft and only a small number of instruments at its disposal. In this "virtual hangar" mode, AAF successfully carried out several missions contracting with organizations and investigators who provided their research aircraft and instrumentation. In 2009, AAF started managing operations of the Battelle-owned Gulfstream I (G-1) large twin-turboprop research aircraft. Furthermore, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided funding for the procurement of over twenty new instruments to be used aboard the G-1 and other AAF virtual-hangar aircraft. AAF now executes missions in the virtual- and real-hangar mode producing freely available datasets for studying aerosol, cloud, and radiative processes in the atmosphere. AAF is also engaged in the maturation and testing of newly developed airborne sensors to help foster the next generation of airborne instruments.

  5. Mapping Chinese tallow with color-infrared photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Nelson, G.A.; Sapkota, S.K.; Seeger, E.B.; Martella, K.D.

    2002-01-01

    Airborne color-infrared photography (CIR) (1:12,000 scale) was used to map localized occurrences of the widespread and aggressive Chinese tallow (Sapium sebiferum), an invasive species. Photography was collected during senescence when Chinese tallow's bright red leaves presented a high spectral contrast within the native bottomland hardwood and upland forests and marsh land-cover types. Mapped occurrences were conservative because not all senescing tallow leaves are bright red simultaneously. To simulate low spectral but high spatial resolution satellite/airborne image and digital video data, the CIR photography was transformed into raster images at spatial resolutions approximating 0.5 in and 1.0 m. The image data were then spectrally classified for the occurrence of bright red leaves associated with senescing Chinese tallow. Classification accuracies were greater than 95 percent at both spatial resolutions. There was no significant difference in either forest in the detection of tallow or inclusion of non-tallow trees associated with the two spatial resolutions. In marshes, slightly more tallow occurrences were mapped with the lower spatial resolution, but there were also more misclassifications of native land covers as tallow. Combining all land covers, there was no difference at detecting tallow occurrences (equal omission errors) between the two resolutions, but the higher spatial resolution was associated with less inclusion of non-tallow land covers as tallow (lower commission error). Overall, these results confirm that high spatial (???1 m) but low spectral resolution remote sensing data can be used for mapping Chinese tallow trees in dominant environments found in coastal and adjacent upland landscapes.

  6. Astronomical photography. Part A: Gum nebula, galactic cluster, and zodiacal light photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, R. D.; Dunkelman, L.; Mattingly, T. K.

    1972-01-01

    It is reported that the Apollo 16 command module astronomical photography was performed with the specific objective of capitalizing on the uniqueness of the double umbra as a vantage point to collect astronomical data that are obtainable only near our Moon. For this reason, these data will be compared directly to analogous photography performed from Earth orbit during Project Mercury and the Gemini Program as well as to the Apollo-duplicated photography taken from sites on the Earth surface. Comparison with Earth-based photography should yield direct information on the Earth airglow layer and on atmospheric scattering and extinction.

  7. Aerial Explorers and Robotic Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg

    2004-01-01

    A unique bio-inspired approach to autonomous aerial vehicle, a.k.a. aerial explorer technology is discussed. The work is focused on defining and studying aerial explorer mission concepts, both as an individual robotic system and as a member of a small robotic "ecosystem." Members of this robotic ecosystem include the aerial explorer, air-deployed sensors and robotic symbiotes, and other assets such as rovers, landers, and orbiters.

  8. A photography course for physics students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, P.; Higinbotham, J.

    1990-11-01

    This article is based upon a paper presented at the Asian Pacific Education Network (ASPEN) Conference on the Teaching of Optics. It seeks to encourage Physics Departments to seriously consider the teaching of Photography in Physics Courses.

  9. Helicopter-based Photography for use in SfM over the West Greenland Ablation Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mote, T. L.; Tedesco, M.; Astuti, I.; Cotten, D.; Jordan, T.; Rennermalm, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Results of low-elevation high-resolution aerial photography from a helicopter are reported for a supraglacial watershed in West Greenland. Data were collected at the end of July 2015 over a supraglacial watershed terminating in the Kangerlussuaq region of Greenland and following the Utrecht University K-Transect of meteorological stations. The aerial photography reported here were complementary observations used to support hyperspectral measurements of albedo, discussed in the Greenland Ice sheet hydrology session of this AGU Fall meeting. A compact digital camera was installed inside a pod mounted on the side of the helicopter together with gyroscopes and accelerometers that were used to estimate the relative orientation. Continuous video was collected on 19 and 21 July flights, and frames extracted from the videos are used to create a series of aerial photos. Individual geo-located aerial photos were also taken on a 24 July flight. We demonstrate that by maintaining a constant flight elevation and a near constant ground speed, a helicopter with a mounted camera can produce 3-D structure of the ablation zone of the ice sheet at unprecedented spatial resolution of the order of 5 - 10 cm. By setting the intervalometer on the camera to 2 seconds, the images obtained provide sufficient overlap (>60%) for digital image alignment, even at a flight elevation of ~170m. As a result, very accurate point matching between photographs can be achieved and an extremely dense RGB encoded point cloud can be extracted. Overlapping images provide a series of stereopairs that can be used to create point cloud data consisting of 3 position and 3 color variables, X, Y, Z, R, G, and B. This point cloud is then used to create orthophotos or large scale digital elevation models, thus accurately displaying ice structure. The geo-referenced images provide a ground spatial resolution of approximately 6 cm, permitting analysis of detailed features, such as cryoconite holes, evolving small

  10. Delivery of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Sullivan, Donald V.

    2011-01-01

    To support much of NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Program science, NASA has acquired two Global Hawk Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Two major missions are currently planned using the Global Hawk: the Global Hawk Pacific (GloPac) and the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) missions. This paper briefly describes GloPac and GRIP, the concept of operations and the resulting requirements and communication architectures. Also discussed are requirements for future missions that may use satellite systems and networks owned and operated by third parties.

  11. Aerial Perspective Artistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a lesson centering on aerial perspective artistry of students and offers suggestions on how art teachers should carry this project out. This project serves to develop students' visual perception by studying reproductions by famous artists. This lesson allows one to imagine being lured into a landscape capable of captivating…

  12. Aerial of the VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Even in this aerial view at KSC, the Vehicle Assembly Building is imposing. In front of it is the Launch Control Center. In the background is the Rotation/Processing Facility, next to the Banana Creek. In the foreground is the Saturn Causeway that leads to Launch Pads 39A and 39B.

  13. Updating Maps Using High Resolution Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alrajhi, Muhamad; Shahzad Janjua, Khurram; Afroz Khan, Mohammad; Alobeid, Abdalla

    2016-06-01

    Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is one of the most dynamic countries of the world. We have witnessed a very rapid urban development's which are altering Kingdom's landscape on daily basis. In recent years a substantial increase in urban populations is observed which results in the formation of large cities. Considering this fast paced growth, it has become necessary to monitor these changes, in consideration with challenges faced by aerial photography projects. It has been observed that data obtained through aerial photography has a lifecycle of 5-years because of delay caused by extreme weather conditions and dust storms which acts as hindrances or barriers during aerial imagery acquisition, which has increased the costs of aerial survey projects. All of these circumstances require that we must consider some alternatives that can provide us easy and better ways of image acquisition in short span of time for achieving reliable accuracy and cost effectiveness. The approach of this study is to conduct an extensive comparison between different resolutions of data sets which include: Orthophoto of (10 cm) GSD, Stereo images of (50 cm) GSD and Stereo images of (1 m) GSD, for map updating. Different approaches have been applied for digitizing buildings, roads, tracks, airport, roof level changes, filling stations, buildings under construction, property boundaries, mosques buildings and parking places.

  14. Digital Dental Photography: A Contemporary Revolution

    PubMed Central

    Bumb, Dipika

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Photographs are symbolic of memories and with the advent of digital photography it has become much easier to collect them in a second in a more comprehensive and qualitative manner. Technological advancements in the field of digital photography have revolutionized the concept of photography as a powerful medium of expression and communication. It also offers a spectrum of perception, interpretation and execution. Photography and dentistry go hand in hand for revelation of the hidden and overlooked defects in teeth and other parts of the cavity. This article emphasizes on the significance of digital photography in dentistry and guidelines for capturing orofacial structures and radiographs in a more accurate and informative manner. Conclusion: Dental world constitutes of microstructures that have to be recorded in a detailed manner in order to perform patient education, documentation of records and treatment, illustration of lectures, publication and web connectivity of complicated cases. How to cite this article: Desai V, Bumb D. Digital Dental Photography: A Contemporary Revolution. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(3):193-196. PMID:25206221

  15. Medium Spatial Resolution Satellite Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stensaas, Greg

    2007-01-01

    This project provides characterization and calibration of aerial and satellite systems in support of quality acquisition and understanding of remote sensing data, and verifies and validates the associated data products with respect to ground and and atmospheric truth so that accurate value-added science can be performed. The project also provides assessment of new remote sensing technologies.

  16. Multitemporal satellite data analyses for archaeological mark detection: preliminary results in Italy and Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasaponara, Rosa; Masini, Nicola

    2014-05-01

    The current availability of very high resolution satellite data provides an excellent tool to detect and monitor archaeological marks, namely spectral and spatial anomalies linked to the presence of buried archaeological remains from a landscape view down to local scale (single site) investigations. Since the end of the nineteenth century, aerial photography has been the remote sensing tool most widely used in archaeology for surveying both surface and sub-surface archaeological remains. Aerial photography was a real "revolution" in archaeology being an excellent tool for investigations addressed at detecting underground archaeological structures through the reconnaissance of the so-called "archaeological marks" generally grouped and named as "soil","crop marks" "snow marks", and also recently "weed marks" (Lasaponara and Masini). Such marks are generally visible only from an aerial view (see detail in Lasaponara and Masini 2009, Ciminale et al. 2009, Masini and Lasaponara 2006 Lasaponara et al 2011) . In particular, soil marks are changes in soil colour or texture due to the presence of surface and shallow remains. Crop marks are changes in crop texture linked to as differences in height or colour of crops which are under stress due to lack of water or deficiencies in other nutrients caused by the presence of masonry structures in the subsoil. Crop marks can also be formed above damp and nutritious soil of buried pits and ditches. Such marks are generally visible only from an aerial view, especially during the spring season. In the context of the Project "Remote sensing technologies applied to the management of natural and cultural heritage in sites located in Italy and Argentina: from risk monitoring to mitigatin startegies P@an_sat", funded by the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affair, we tested the capability of multitemporal data, from active and passive satellite sensors, in the detection of "archaeological marks". The areas of interested were selected from

  17. Satellite imagery of the earth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merifield, P.M.; Cronin, J.; Foshee, L.L.; Gawarecki, S.J.; Neal, J.T.; Stevenson, R.E.; Stone, R.O.; Williams, R.S., Jr.

    1969-01-01

    Photography of the Earth from spacecraft has application to both atmospheric and Earth sciences. Gemini and Apollo photographs have furnished information on sea surface roughness, areas of potential upwelling and oceanic current systems. Regional geologic structures and geomorphologic features are also recorded in orbital photographs. Infrared satellite imagery provides meteorological and hydrological data and is potentially useful for locating fresh water springs along coastal areas, sources of geothermal power and volcanic activity. Ground and airborne surveys are being undertaken to create a basis for the interpretation of data obtained from future satellite systems.

  18. On the use of wavelet for extracting feature patterns from Multitemporal google earth satellite data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasaponara, R.

    2012-04-01

    The great amount of multispectral VHR satellite images, even available free of charge in Google earth has opened new strategic challenges in the field of remote sensing for archaeological studies. These challenges substantially deal with: (i) the strategic exploitation of satellite data as much as possible, (ii) the setting up of effective and reliable automatic and/or semiautomatic data processing strategies and (iii) the integration with other data sources from documentary resources to the traditional ground survey, historical documentation, geophysical prospection, etc. VHR satellites provide high resolution data which can improve knowledge on past human activities providing precious qualitative and quantitative information developed to such an extent that currently they share many of the physical characteristics of aerial imagery. This makes them ideal for investigations ranging from a local to a regional scale (see. for example, Lasaponara and Masini 2006a,b, 2007a, 2011; Masini and Lasaponara 2006, 2007, Sparavigna, 2010). Moreover, satellite data are still the only data source for research performed in areas where aerial photography is restricted because of military or political reasons. Among the main advantages of using satellite remote sensing compared to traditional field archaeology herein we briefly focalize on the use of wavelet data processing for enhancing google earth satellite data with particular reference to multitemporal datasets. Study areas selected from Southern Italy, Middle East and South America are presented and discussed. Results obtained point out the use of automatic image enhancement can successfully applied as first step of supervised classification and intelligent data analysis for semiautomatic identification of features of archaeological interest. Reference Lasaponara R, Masini N (2006a) On the potential of panchromatic and multispectral Quickbird data for archaeological prospection. Int J Remote Sens 27: 3607-3614. Lasaponara R

  19. On the use of wavelet for extracting feature patterns from Multitemporal google earth satellite data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasaponara, R.

    2012-04-01

    The great amount of multispectral VHR satellite images, even available free of charge in Google earth has opened new strategic challenges in the field of remote sensing for archaeological studies. These challenges substantially deal with: (i) the strategic exploitation of satellite data as much as possible, (ii) the setting up of effective and reliable automatic and/or semiautomatic data processing strategies and (iii) the integration with other data sources from documentary resources to the traditional ground survey, historical documentation, geophysical prospection, etc. VHR satellites provide high resolution data which can improve knowledge on past human activities providing precious qualitative and quantitative information developed to such an extent that currently they share many of the physical characteristics of aerial imagery. This makes them ideal for investigations ranging from a local to a regional scale (see. for example, Lasaponara and Masini 2006a,b, 2007a, 2011; Masini and Lasaponara 2006, 2007, Sparavigna, 2010). Moreover, satellite data are still the only data source for research performed in areas where aerial photography is restricted because of military or political reasons. Among the main advantages of using satellite remote sensing compared to traditional field archaeology herein we briefly focalize on the use of wavelet data processing for enhancing google earth satellite data with particular reference to multitemporal datasets. Study areas selected from Southern Italy, Middle East and South America are presented and discussed. Results obtained point out the use of automatic image enhancement can successfully applied as first step of supervised classification and intelligent data analysis for semiautomatic identification of features of archaeological interest. Reference Lasaponara R, Masini N (2006a) On the potential of panchromatic and multispectral Quickbird data for archaeological prospection. Int J Remote Sens 27: 3607-3614. Lasaponara R

  20. Sequential triangulation of orbital photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajan, M.; Junkins, J. L.; Turner, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of structuring the satellite photogrammetric triangulation as an iterative Extended Kalman estimation algorithm is demonstrated. Comparative numerical results of the sequential against batch estimation algorithm are presented. Difficulty of accurately modeling of the attitude motion is overcome by utilizing the on-board angular rate measurements. Solutions of the differential equations and the evaluation of state transition matrix are carried out numerically.

  1. Environmental applications of hand-held photography taken from the space shuttle

    SciTech Connect

    Muehlberger, W.R.

    1996-07-01

    Astronauts have been taking photographs of earth since 1965, years before unmanned satellites began systematic coverage. The trained eye of an intelligent observer permits the rapid identification of a feature or an anomaly so that it can be the central focus of the photograph, rather than one of an endless stream of information from an unmanned satellite through which the interpreter has to sort and pick. This paper describes some of the environmental uses of hand-held photography since the launch of the first Space Shuttle in April, 1981.

  2. Photography Facts & Folklore: Role of Quality Photography Has Blurred over the Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Les

    1997-01-01

    Notes that the technical quality of publication photography has remained static in the last 10 years, despite advances in digital technology. Discusses fact and folklore regarding six statements about photography, including auto focus cameras are superior to manual; action pictures are better than posed pictures; and layout and design are more…

  3. AERIAL RADIOLOGICAL SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, A.E.

    1997-06-09

    Measuring terrestrial gamma radiation from airborne platforms has proved to be a useful method for characterizing radiation levels over large areas. Over 300 aerial radiological surveys have been carried out over the past 25 years including U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, commercial nuclear power plants, Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program/Uranium Mine Tailing Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP/UMTRAP) sites, nuclear weapons test sites, contaminated industrial areas, and nuclear accident sites. This paper describes the aerial measurement technology currently in use by the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) for routine environmental surveys and emergency response activities. Equipment, data-collection and -analysis methods, and examples of survey results are described.

  4. Flexible depth of field photography.

    PubMed

    Kuthirummal, Sujit; Nagahara, Hajime; Zhou, Changyin; Nayar, Shree K

    2011-01-01

    The range of scene depths that appear focused in an image is known as the depth of field (DOF). Conventional cameras are limited by a fundamental trade-off between depth of field and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). For a dark scene, the aperture of the lens must be opened up to maintain SNR, which causes the DOF to reduce. Also, today's cameras have DOFs that correspond to a single slab that is perpendicular to the optical axis. In this paper, we present an imaging system that enables one to control the DOF in new and powerful ways. Our approach is to vary the position and/or orientation of the image detector during the integration time of a single photograph. Even when the detector motion is very small (tens of microns), a large range of scene depths (several meters) is captured, both in and out of focus. Our prototype camera uses a micro-actuator to translate the detector along the optical axis during image integration. Using this device, we demonstrate four applications of flexible DOF. First, we describe extended DOF where a large depth range is captured with a very wide aperture (low noise) but with nearly depth-independent defocus blur. Deconvolving a captured image with a single blur kernel gives an image with extended DOF and high SNR. Next, we show the capture of images with discontinuous DOFs. For instance, near and far objects can be imaged with sharpness, while objects in between are severely blurred. Third, we show that our camera can capture images with tilted DOFs (Scheimpflug imaging) without tilting the image detector. Finally, we demonstrate how our camera can be used to realize nonplanar DOFs. We believe flexible DOF imaging can open a new creative dimension in photography and lead to new capabilities in scientific imaging, vision, and graphics. PMID:21088319

  5. Clinical photography among African cleft caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Olaitan, Peter Babatunde; Oseni, Ganiyu Oladiran

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this paper is to document the practice of photography among clinicians whose daily work depends and is influenced so much by medical photography. Materials and Methods: Questionnaires documenting the bio data, place of practice, and experience of cleft caregivers with clinical photography were distributed. Knowledge of rules guiding clinical photography and adherence to them were also asked. Types of camera used were documented and knowledge of the value of clinical photographs were also inquired. Results: Plastic surgeons constitute the highest proportion of 27 (38.6%), followed by Oral and Maxillofacial surgeons with 14 (20.0%). Twenty one (30.0%) of the respondents always, 21 (30.0%) often, 12 (17.1%) frequently, while 9 respondents sometimes took photographs of their patients. Suggested uses of clinical photographs included training, 52 (74.3%), education, 51 (72.9%), medicolegal, 44 (62.9%) and advertisement, 44 (62.9%) among others. Twenty two (31.4%) did not know that there were standard guidelines for taking clinical photographs. Twenty three (32.9%) of them did not seek the consent of the patients before taking clinical photographs. Conclusion: While the practice of clinical photography is high among African cleft caregivers, there is a need for further education on the issues of standard rules and obtaining consent from patients. PMID:22279284

  6. First results for an image processing workflow for hyperspatial imagery acquired with a low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Very high-resolution images from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have great potential for use in rangeland monitoring and assessment, because the imagery fills the gap between ground-based observations and remotely sensed imagery from aerial or satellite sensors. However, because UAV imagery is ofte...

  7. Emperors in hiding: when ice-breakers and satellites complement each other in Antarctic exploration.

    PubMed

    Ancel, André; Cristofari, Robin; Fretwell, Peter T; Trathan, Phil N; Wienecke, Barbara; Boureau, Matthieu; Morinay, Jennifer; Blanc, Stéphane; Le Maho, Yvon; Le Bohec, Céline

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating the demographic trends of marine top predators is critical to understanding the processes involved in the ongoing rapid changes in Antarctic ecosystems. However, the remoteness and logistical complexity of operating in Antarctica, especially during winter, make such an assessment difficult. Satellite imaging is increasingly recognised as a valuable method for remote animal population monitoring, yet its accuracy and reliability are still to be fully evaluated. We report here the first ground visit of an emperor penguin colony first discovered by satellite, but also the discovery of a second one not indicated by satellite survey at that time. Several successive remote surveys in this coastal region of East Antarctica, both before and after sudden local changes, had indeed only identified one colony. These two colonies (with a total of ca. 7,400 breeding pairs) are located near the Mertz Glacier in an area that underwent tremendous habitat change after the glacier tongue broke off in February 2010. Our findings therefore suggest that a satellite survey, although offering a major advance since it allows a global imaging of emperor penguin colonies, may miss certain colony locations when challenged by certain features of polar ecosystems, such as snow cover, evolving ice topology, and rapidly changing habitat. Moreover our survey shows that this large seabird has considerable potential for rapid adaptation to sudden habitat loss, as the colony detected in 2009 may have moved and settled on new breeding grounds. Overall, the ability of emperor penguin colonies to relocate following habitat modification underlines the continued need for a mix of remote sensing and field surveys (aerial photography and ground counts), especially in the less-frequented parts of Antarctica, to gain reliable knowledge about the population demography and dynamics of this flagship species of the Antarctic ecosystem. PMID:24963661

  8. Oblique Aerial Imagery for NMA - Some best Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remondino, F.; Toschi, I.; Gerke, M.; Nex, F.; Holland, D.; McGill, A.; Talaya Lopez, J.; Magarinos, A.

    2016-06-01

    Oblique airborne photogrammetry is rapidly maturing and being offered by service providers as a good alternative or replacement of the more traditional vertical imagery and for very different applications (Fig.1). EuroSDR, representing European National Mapping Agencies (NMAs) and research organizations of most EU states, is following the development of oblique aerial cameras since 2013, when an ongoing activity was created to continuously update its members on the developments in this technology. Nowadays most European NMAs still rely on the traditional workflow based on vertical photography but changes are slowly taking place also at production level. Some NMAs have already run some tests internally to understand the potential for their needs whereas other agencies are discussing on the future role of this technology and how to possibly adapt their production pipelines. At the same time, some research institutions and academia demonstrated the potentialities of oblique aerial datasets to generate textured 3D city models or large building block models. The paper provides an overview of tests, best practices and considerations coming from the R&D community and from three European NMAs concerning the use of oblique aerial imagery.

  9. A System For Automated Medical Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tivattanasuk, Eva S.; Kaczoroski, Anthony J.; Rhodes, Michael L.

    1988-06-01

    A system is described that electronically controls the medical photography for a computed tomography (CT) scanner system. Multiple CT exams can be photographed with each image automatically adjusted to a specific gamma table presentation and positioned to any film location within a given film format. Our approach uses a library that can store 24 CT exam photography protocols. Library entries can be added, deleted, or edited. Mixed film formats, multiple image types, and automated annotation capabilities allow all CT exams to be filmed at our clinic cost-effectively and unattended. Using this automated approach to CT exam photography, one full-time equivalent CT technologist has been saved from the operational cost of our center. We outline the film protocol database, illustrate protocol options and by example, show the flexibility of this approach. Features of this system illustrate essential components of any such approach.

  10. Earth observations and photography experiment MA-136

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Baz, F.; Mitchell, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    The primary objectives of the earth observations and photography experiment of the Apollo Soyuz Test Project were to photograph various terrestrial structures and to use the capabilities of man as a trained observer in visually studying earth features and phenomena. Man's special capabilities include the sensitivity of the eye to subtle color variations and the speed with which the eye/brain system can interpret what is seen and select targets for photography. Real time astronaut observations constitute a useful complement to orbital photographs and greatly aid in their interpretation. Targets for mapping and hand held photography were selected on the basis of their value to specialists in the earth sciences including geology, oceanography, desert study, hydrology, meteorology, and environmental science.

  11. Large scale 20mm photography for range resources analysis in the Western United States. [Casa Grande, Arizona, Mercury, Nevada, and Mojave Desert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tueller, P. T.

    1977-01-01

    Large scale 70mm aerial photography is a valuable supplementary tool for rangeland studies. A wide assortment of applications were developed varying from vegetation mapping to assessing environmental impact on rangelands. Color and color infrared stereo pairs are useful for effectively sampling sites limited by ground accessibility. They allow an increased sample size at similar or lower cost than ground sampling techniques and provide a permanent record.

  12. The use of color infrared photography for wetlands mapping with special reference to shoreline and waterfowl habitat assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Evaluation of low altitude oblique photography obtained by hand-held cameras was useful in determining specifications of operational mission requirements for conventional smaller-scaled vertical photography. Remote sensing techniques were used to assess the rapid destruction of marsh areas at Pointe Mouillee. In an estuarian environment where shoreline features change yearly, there is a need for revision in existing area maps. A land cover inventory, mapped from aerial photography, provided essential data necessary for determining adjacent lands suitable for marshland development. To quantitatively assess the wetlands environment, a detailed inventory of vegetative communities (19 categories) was made using color infrared photography and intensive ground truth. A carefully selected and well laid-out transect was found to be a key asset to photointerpretation and to the analysis of vegetative conditions. Transect data provided the interpreter with locally representative areas of various vegetative types. This facilitated development of a photointerpretation key. Additional information on vegetative conditions in the area was also obtained by evaluating the transect data.

  13. Ethereal presences in holography and photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, M.; Byrne, Kay

    2007-02-01

    This paper examines the concept of the 'Presence of Absence' in post-mortem photography and holography, drawing upon both historical and lesser-known images as reference. To create a photographic negative one needs the presence of light to expose the light sensitive surface, be it glass, a polished plate or plastic. A hologram may also be created when a coherent light source, for example from a Laser, travels through a light sensitive material and falls upon the subject to be recorded. A holograph however, retains the optical qualities of both phase and amplitude, the memory of light. Both mediums recall, as it were, 'now absent moments', and confronts us with what is 'not there' as much as 'what is'. This paper examines the exploration of absence and presence in post-mortem photography and holography and it's a richly visceral visual language. A photonic syntax can interpret death as an elegant yet horrific aesthetic, the photograph may be beautify screened and yet obscene in its content. In essence one can be a voyeur, experiencing a mere visual whisper of the true nature of the subject. Our Victorian forefathers explored postmortem photography as an object of mourning, and at the close of the nineteenth century when Jack the Ripper had the inhabitants of White Chapel in a grip of fear, photography made its mark as a documentation of violent crime. Today, within contemporary photography, death is now presented within the confines of the 'Art Gallery', as a sensual, and at times, sensationalised art form. In exploring post-mortem imagery, both in holography and conventional photography, absence presents an aspect of death as startling in its unanimated form and detailed in its finite examination of mortality.

  14. Pitfalls in colour photography of choroidal tumours

    PubMed Central

    Schalenbourg, A; Zografos, L

    2013-01-01

    Colour imaging of fundus tumours has been transformed by the development of digital and confocal scanning laser photography. These advances provide numerous benefits, such as panoramic images, increased contrast, non-contact wide-angle imaging, non-mydriatic photography, and simultaneous angiography. False tumour colour representation can, however, cause serious diagnostic errors. Large choroidal tumours can be totally invisible on angiography. Pseudogrowth can occur because of artefacts caused by different methods of fundus illumination, movement of reference blood vessels, and flattening of Bruch's membrane and sclera when tumour regression occurs. Awareness of these pitfalls should prevent the clinician from misdiagnosing tumours and wrongfully concluding that a tumour has grown. PMID:23238442

  15. Pitfalls in colour photography of choroidal tumours.

    PubMed

    Schalenbourg, A; Zografos, L

    2013-02-01

    Colour imaging of fundus tumours has been transformed by the development of digital and confocal scanning laser photography. These advances provide numerous benefits, such as panoramic images, increased contrast, non-contact wide-angle imaging, non-mydriatic photography, and simultaneous angiography. False tumour colour representation can, however, cause serious diagnostic errors. Large choroidal tumours can be totally invisible on angiography. Pseudogrowth can occur because of artefacts caused by different methods of fundus illumination, movement of reference blood vessels, and flattening of Bruch's membrane and sclera when tumour regression occurs. Awareness of these pitfalls should prevent the clinician from misdiagnosing tumours and wrongfully concluding that a tumour has grown.

  16. Clinical photography in the dermatology practice.

    PubMed

    Witmer, William K; Lebovitz, Peter J

    2012-09-01

    Photography has been accepted for decades as a standard means for documenting dermatologic conditions and as an adjunct to their treatment, in both medical practice and research. The emergence of low-cost easy-to-use digital imaging systems has made good-quality photography more accessible to practitioners, while providing improved functionality in the clinical environment. Primary concerns are controlling lighting and positioning to provide a clear record of the patients skin condition and maintaining consistency over time to assure meaningful comparison of clinical end points.

  17. Water immersion in neonatal bereavement photography.

    PubMed

    Duffey, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Water immersion in neonatal bereavement photography is a new technique intended to enhance the quality of the photographs provided to families following their loss. Water immersion appears to be most helpful following a second trimester fetal demise. This technique can be used by nurses, professional photographers and others in addition to more traditional neonatal bereavement photography. It does not require special skills or equipment and can be implemented in virtually any perinatal setting. The enhanced quality of photographs produced with this method can potentially provide a source of comfort to grieving families.

  18. Key Concepts for Digital Photography. For Tech Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlin, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    Digital photography is an appealing technology to use in the classroom because it is rooted in skills many teachers already have--taking and viewing photos. Some aspects of digital photography are different from traditional photography. Understanding these differences makes all aspects of acquiring, analyzing, creating, and communicating with…

  19. 76 FR 27307 - Marine Mammals; Photography Permit Application No. 16360

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA426 Marine Mammals; Photography Permit..., Auckland, New Zealand has applied in due form for a permit to conduct commercial/educational photography of... for photography for educational or commercial purposes involving non-endangered and...

  20. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  1. A Photography Primer for Middle School Students and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Charles L.

    Project PHOTO provides a format for middle school students to learn about photography with three different types of techniques: sun prints, can cameras, and pinhole cameras. Additional topics and activities include film developing, contact prints and enlarging, history of photography, photographic composition, types of cameras, a photography word…

  2. Aerial Video Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    When Michael Henry wanted to start an aerial video service, he turned to Johnson Space Center for assistance. Two NASA engineers - one had designed and developed TV systems in Apollo, Skylab, Apollo- Soyuz and Space Shuttle programs - designed a wing-mounted fiberglass camera pod. Camera head and angles are adjustable, and the pod is shaped to reduce vibration. The controls are located so a solo pilot can operate the system. A microprocessor displays latitude, longitude, and bearing, and a GPS receiver provides position data for possible legal references. The service has been successfully utilized by railroads, oil companies, real estate companies, etc.

  3. Mapping giant reed along the Rio Grande using airborne and satellite imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Giant reed (Arundo donax L.) is a perennial invasive weed that presents a severe threat to agroecosystems and riparian areas in the Texas and Mexican portions of the Rio Grande Basin. The objective of this presentation is to give an overview on the use of aerial photography, airborne multispectral a...

  4. Perception via satellite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinove, Charles J.

    1970-01-01

    The earth resources observation satellite (EROS) program in the Department of the Interior is intended to gather and use data from satellites and aircraft on natural and man-made features of the earth's surface. Earth resources technology satellite will provide the EROS program with data for use in dealing with natural resource problems and understanding the interaction between man and the environment. Applications will include studies of tectonic features, hydrologic problems, location of fish schools, determination of the conditions of range land, mapping land use for urban planning, studies of erosion and change along coastlines and major streams, and inventories of land use and land forms. In addition, the ERTS data may be used for detecting forest and crop diseases and inventorying crops. The ERTS satellite will be in a polar, sun-synchronous orbit so that each point on the earth's surface will be sensed every 17 to 20 days, at the same time of day. Multispectral photography is being investigated for its usefulness in hydrology. Side-looking airborne radar has not yet been widely used in hydrologic studies, although it is an excellent tool for all-weather, day or night, coverage of large areas. Other techniques being investigated include passive microwave radiometry, ultraviolet and visible stimulated luminescence, and absorption spectroscopy.

  5. Monitoring channel head erosion processes in response to an artificially induced abrupt base level change using time-lapse photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, M. H.; Nearing, M.; Hernandez, M.; Polyakov, V. O.

    2016-07-01

    Gullies that terminate at a vertical-wall are ubiquitous throughout arid and semiarid regions. Multi-year assessments of gully evolution and headcut advance are typically accomplished using traditional ground surveys and aerial photographs, with much recent research focused on integrating data collected at very high spatial resolutions using new techniques such as aerial surveys with blimps or kites and ground surveys with LiDar scanners. However, knowledge of specific processes that drive headcut advance is limited due to inadequate observation and documentation of flash floods and subsequent erosion that can occur at temporal resolutions not captured through repeat surveys. This paper presents a method for using very-high temporal resolution ground-based time-lapse photography to capture short-duration flash floods and gully head evolution in response. In 2004, a base level controlling concrete weir was removed from the outlet of a 1.29 ha semiarid headwater drainage on the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed in southeastern Arizona, USA. During the ten year period from 2004 to 2014 the headcut migrated upchannel a total of 14.5 m reducing the contributing area at the headwall by 9.5%. Beginning in July 2012, time-lapse photography was employed to observe event scale channel evolution dynamics. The most frequent erosion processes observed during three seasons of time-lapse photography were plunge pool erosion and mass wasting through sidewall or channel headwall slumping that occurred during summer months. Geomorphic change during the ten year period was dominated by a single piping event in August 2014 that advanced the channel head 7.4 m (51% of the overall advance) and removed 11.3 m3 of sediment. High temporal resolution time-lapse photography was critical for identifying subsurface erosion processes, in the absence of time-lapse images piping would not have been identified as an erosion mechanism responsible for advancing the gully headwall at this site.

  6. Developing Geographers through Photography: Enlarging Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Rickie

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores how photographs can be used to teach urban social geography to second- and third-year university students. In it the author describes her work acquainting students with the skill of "directed observation". She argues that teaching geography through photography is not merely asking students to take pictures but rather, the…

  7. Smartphone photography in oral and maxillofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Jamil, F

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of staff in oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS) departments take clinical photographs with their personal phones. We report the results of a survey on the use of smartphone photography in OMFS departments in the United Kingdom, and highlight the guidelines that govern their use and the associated ethical and medicolegal implications. PMID:26499388

  8. Time sequence photography of Roosters Comb

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The importance of understanding natural landscape changes is key in properly determining rangeland ecology. Time sequence photography allows a landscape snapshot to be documented and enables the ability to compare natural changes overtime. Photographs of Roosters Comb were taken from the same vantag...

  9. Measuring food intake with digital photography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Digital Photography of Foods Method accurately estimates the food intake of adults and children in cafeterias. With this method, images of food selection and leftovers are quickly captured in the cafeteria. These images are later compared with images of 'standard' portions of food using computer...

  10. Photography of Coral Reefs from ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the uses of photography from the International Space Station (ISS) in studying Earth's coral reefs. The photographs include reefs in various oceans . The photographs have uses for science in assisting NASA mapping initiatives, distribution worldwide through ReefBase, and by biologist in the field.

  11. Commercial Photography. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) for commercial photography is an employer-verified competency list that evolved from a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) job analysis process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives throughout Ohio. The competency list consists of 12 units: (1) business…

  12. The therapeutic value of medical photography.

    PubMed

    Bennett, J D; Woolford, T J; Lundall, C

    1993-10-01

    Medical photography is shown to have therapeutic value in illustrating to a patient a previously hidden clinical lesion. The sight of the extent and nature of a hole in her nasal septum which the patient had caused by picking her nose allowed her to stop this habit where previous medication and psychotherapy had failed.

  13. Apollo mission 12 lunar photography indexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    An index of lunar photography taken during the Apollo 12 mission is presented. Prominent lunar features are identified and named. A superimposed grid provides coordinate location for lunar topographical features. The photographs are of targets of opportunity taken with a 70 millimeter camera.

  14. Kohoutek, photometric photography experiment (S233)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, C. A.; Craven, P. D.

    1981-01-01

    The final results of the Skylab 4 experiment S233, Kohoutek photometric photography experiment, which undertook a series of visible light photographs suitable for photometry and for a photographic history of Comet Kohoutek are described. The experiment concept, the data reduction method, and the results obtained are discussed.

  15. The Use of Photography in Family Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Entin, Alan D.

    Photographs and family albums are helpful in marriage and family psychotherapy to aid in the understanding of family processes, relationship patterns, goals, expectations, values, traditions, and ideals. Based on the assumption that a photograph is a form of communication, photography can be used to: (1) examine typical family picture-taking…

  16. Digital Photography and Its Impact on Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lantz, Chris

    Today the chemical processing of film is being replaced by a virtual digital darkroom. Digital image storage makes new levels of consistency possible because its nature is less volatile and more mutable than traditional photography. The potential of digital imaging is great, but issues of disk storage, computer speed, camera sensor resolution,…

  17. Photography/Digital Imaging: Parallel & Paradoxical Histories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, Mary Stieglitz

    With the introduction of photography and photomechanical printing processes in the 19th century, the first age of machine pictures and reproductions emerged. The 20th century introduced computer image processing systems, creating a digital imaging revolution. Rather than concentrating on the adversarial aspects of the computer's influence on…

  18. Sentics, Kirlian Photography, and Psychosomatic Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krippner, Stanley

    1973-01-01

    Described are sentics, the assessment of emotions by measuring finger pressure on a finger-rest rigged with two pressure transducers that produce graphic tracings, and photography initiated by S. and V. Kirlian that converts nonelectrical properties of an object into electrical properties which appear on film as an electromagnetic field. (MC)

  19. Aura photography: mundane physics or diagnostic tool?

    PubMed

    Stanwick, M

    Kirlian photography is often associated with the paranormal. Many people believe it records the auras of living objects and that it can be used as a diagnostic tool. This paper argues against these beliefs and maintains that there is a simple, scientific explanation of the Kirlian effect. PMID:8718173

  20. Film cameras or digital sensors? The challenge ahead for aerial imaging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Light, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    Cartographic aerial cameras continue to play the key role in producing quality products for the aerial photography business, and specifically for the National Aerial Photography Program (NAPP). One NAPP photograph taken with cameras capable of 39 lp/mm system resolution can contain the equivalent of 432 million pixels at 11 ??m spot size, and the cost is less than $75 per photograph to scan and output the pixels on a magnetic storage medium. On the digital side, solid state charge coupled device linear and area arrays can yield quality resolution (7 to 12 ??m detector size) and a broader dynamic range. If linear arrays are to compete with film cameras, they will require precise attitude and positioning of the aircraft so that the lines of pixels can be unscrambled and put into a suitable homogeneous scene that is acceptable to an interpreter. Area arrays need to be much larger than currently available to image scenes competitive in size with film cameras. Analysis of the relative advantages and disadvantages of the two systems show that the analog approach is more economical at present. However, as arrays become larger, attitude sensors become more refined, global positioning system coordinate readouts become commonplace, and storage capacity becomes more affordable, the digital camera may emerge as the imaging system for the future. Several technical challenges must be overcome if digital sensors are to advance to where they can support mapping, charting, and geographic information system applications.

  1. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  2. AERIAL MEASURING SYSTEM IN JAPAN

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, Craig; Colton, David

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Agency’s Aerial Measuring System deployed personnel and equipment to partner with the U.S. Air Force in Japan to conduct multiple aerial radiological surveys. These were the first and most comprehensive sources of actionable information for U.S. interests in Japan and provided early confirmation to the government of Japan as to the extent of the release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Generation Station. Many challenges were overcome quickly during the first 48 hours; including installation and operation of Aerial Measuring System equipment on multiple U.S. Air Force Japan aircraft, flying over difficult terrain, and flying with talented pilots who were unfamiliar with the Aerial Measuring System flight patterns. These all combined to make for a dynamic and non-textbook situation. In addition, the data challenges of the multiple and on-going releases, and integration with the Japanese government to provide valid aerial radiological survey products that both military and civilian customers could use to make informed decisions, was extremely complicated. The Aerial Measuring System Fukushima response provided insight in addressing these challenges and gave way to an opportunity for the expansion of the Aerial Measuring System’s mission beyond the borders of the US.

  3. Satellite Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a discussion of communication satellites: explains the principles of satellite communication, describes examples of how governments and industries are currently applying communication satellites, analyzes issues confronting satellite communication, links mathematics and science to the study of satellite communication, and applies…

  4. DOCUMENTING THE INTERTIDAL COMPONENT OF EELGRASS DISTRIBUTIONS IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARIES USING COLOR INFRARED AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to develop and test a rapid, cost-effective method of mapping the intertidal (and surface-visible subtidal) distribution of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) meadows and patches in the turbid coastal estuaries of the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Initial co...

  5. Mapping Wild Taro with Color-infrared Aerial Photography and Image Processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild taro [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott.] is an exotic ornamental plant that has escaped cultivation and invaded many freshwater wetlands in the southeastern United States. Remote sensing techniques were evaluated for distinguishing wild taro along the Rio Grande in southwest Texas. Field refle...

  6. USING GIS AND AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY TO DETERMINE A HISTORICAL IMPERVIOUS SURFACE/STREAMFLOW RELATIONSHIP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Impervious surfaces are a leading contributor to non-point-source water pollution in urban watersheds. These surfaces include such features as roads, parking lots, rooftops and driveways. Arcview GIS and the Image Analysis extension have been utilized to geo-register and map imp...

  7. The application of GPS precise point positioning technology in aerial triangulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiuxiao; Fu, Jianhong; Sun, Hongxing; Toth, Charles

    In traditional GPS-supported aerotriangulation, differential GPS (DGPS) positioning technology is used to determine the 3-dimensional coordinates of the perspective centers at exposure time with an accuracy of centimeter to decimeter level. This method can significantly reduce the number of ground control points (GCPs). However, the establishment of GPS reference stations for DGPS positioning is not only labor-intensive and costly, but also increases the implementation difficulty of aerial photography. This paper proposes aerial triangulation supported with GPS precise point positioning (PPP) as a way to avoid the use of the GPS reference stations and simplify the work of aerial photography. Firstly, we present the algorithm for GPS PPP in aerial triangulation applications. Secondly, the error law of the coordinate of perspective centers determined using GPS PPP is analyzed. Thirdly, based on GPS PPP and aerial triangulation software self-developed by the authors, four sets of actual aerial images taken from surveying and mapping projects, different in both terrain and photographic scale, are given as experimental models. The four sets of actual data were taken over a flat region at a scale of 1:2500, a mountainous region at a scale of 1:3000, a high mountainous region at a scale of 1:32000 and an upland region at a scale of 1:60000 respectively. In these experiments, the GPS PPP results were compared with results obtained through DGPS positioning and traditional bundle block adjustment. In this way, the empirical positioning accuracy of GPS PPP in aerial triangulation can be estimated. Finally, the results of bundle block adjustment with airborne GPS controls from GPS PPP are analyzed in detail. The empirical results show that GPS PPP applied in aerial triangulation has a systematic error of half-meter level and a stochastic error within a few decimeters. However, if a suitable adjustment solution is adopted, the systematic error can be eliminated in GPS

  8. Aerial thermography for energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Thermal infrared scanning from an aircraft is a convenient and commercially available means for determining relative rates of energy loss from building roofs. The need to conserve energy as fuel costs makes the mass survey capability of aerial thermography an attractive adjunct to community energy awareness programs. Background information on principles of aerial thermography is presented. Thermal infrared scanning systems, flight and environmental requirements for data acquisition, preparation of thermographs for display, major users and suppliers of thermography, and suggested specifications for obtaining aerial scanning services were reviewed.

  9. Contemporary dental photography: selection and application.

    PubMed

    Terry, Douglas A; Snow, Stephen R; McLaren, Edward A

    2008-10-01

    Technological developments in photography have continued to facilitate and enhance the practice of dentistry. This evolution to a contemporary photographic process is revolutionizing the way clinicians diagnose, treat, and communicate with patients and colleagues. In this technologically progressing profession, clinicians should consider using an objective strategy for the selection and application of a reliable camera system that best suits the needs of their practice. This article provides clinicians with an overview of the function and basic components of a professional digital single lens reflex camera system, the criteria for evaluating and selecting a digital camera system, and the clinical applications for dental photography, as well as presents guidelines for obtaining a quality dental image.

  10. Instant color print photography in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Olmstead, C B

    1982-06-01

    The use of instant color print photography in dermatology is explored and evaluated in this article. Recent advances in the technology of instant photography have made it possible for the creation of fast, accurate, clinical photographs by people with little experience or training. The Polaroid SX-70 Sonar camera with the CU-70 close-up kit is evaluated and compared to the Kodak instant close-up camera kit as marketed by the Lester A. Dine Company. The advantages and disadvantages of the two camera systems are presented. Techniques such as lighting, proper distance, and exposure are discussed with mention of the method of converting prints into slides. The many and varied applications of this modality are reviewed. Rapid, sharp, reproducible clinical photographs can now be obtained instantaneously by the busy clinician.

  11. Application of Digital Image Correlation Method to Improve the Accuracy of Aerial Photo Stitching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Shih-Heng; Jhou, You-Liang; Shih, Ming-Hsiang; Hsiao, Han-Wei; Sung, Wen-Pei

    2016-04-01

    Satellite images and traditional aerial photos have been used in remote sensing for a long time. However, there are some problems with these images. For example, the resolution of satellite image is insufficient, the cost to obtain traditional images is relatively high and there is also human safety risk in traditional flight. These result in the application limitation of these images. In recent years, the control technology of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is rapidly developed. This makes unmanned aerial vehicle widely used in obtaining aerial photos. Compared to satellite images and traditional aerial photos, these aerial photos obtained using UAV have the advantages of higher resolution, low cost. Because there is no crew in UAV, it is still possible to take aerial photos using UAV under unstable weather conditions. Images have to be orthorectified and their distortion must be corrected at first. Then, with the help of image matching technique and control points, these images can be stitched or used to establish DEM of ground surface. These images or DEM data can be used to monitor the landslide or estimate the volume of landslide. For the image matching, we can use such as Harris corner method, SIFT or SURF to extract and match feature points. However, the accuracy of these methods for matching is about pixel or sub-pixel level. The accuracy of digital image correlation method (DIC) during image matching can reach about 0.01pixel. Therefore, this study applies digital image correlation method to match extracted feature points. Then the stitched images are observed to judge the improvement situation. This study takes the aerial photos of a reservoir area. These images are stitched under the situations with and without the help of DIC. The results show that the misplacement situation in the stitched image using DIC to match feature points has been significantly improved. This shows that the use of DIC to match feature points can actually improve the accuracy of

  12. Benchmarking clinical photography services in the NHS.

    PubMed

    Arbon, Giles

    2015-01-01

    Benchmarking is used in services across the National Health Service (NHS) using various benchmarking programs. Clinical photography services do not have a program in place and services have to rely on ad hoc surveys of other services. A trial benchmarking exercise was undertaken with 13 services in NHS Trusts. This highlights valuable data and comparisons that can be used to benchmark and improve services throughout the profession. PMID:26828540

  13. Astronaut Photography of Coral Reefs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Noordeloos, Marco

    2001-01-01

    Astronaut photographs of tropical coastal areas may contain information on submerged features, including coral reefs, up to depths of about 15 m in clear waters. Previous research efforts have shown that astronaut photographs can aid in estimating coral reef locations and extent on national, regional and global scales, and allow characterization of major geomorphological rim and lagoon features (Andrefouet et al. 2000, in preparation). They can be combined with traditional satellite data to help distinguish between clouds and lagoon features such as pinnacles (Andrefouet and Robinson, in review). Furthermore, astronaut photographs may provide reef scientists and managers with information on the location and extent of river plumes and sediment run off, or facilitate identification of land cover types, including mangroves (Webb et al., in press). Photographs included in the section were selected based on several criteria. The primary consideration of the editors was that the photographs represent a worldwide distribution of coral reefs, have extremely low visual interference by cloud cover, and display a spatial scale reasonable for examining reef-related features. Once photographs were selected, they were digitized from 2nd generation copies. The color and contrast were hand corrected to an approximation of natural color (required to account for spectral differences between photographs due to the color sensitivities of films used, and differences in sun angle and exposure of the photographs). None of the photographs shown here have been georeferenced to correct them to a map projection and scale. Any distortions in features due to slightly oblique look angles when the photographs were taken through spacecraft windows remain. When feasible, near vertical photographs have been rotated so that north is toward the top. An approximate scale bar and north arrow have added using distinctive features on each photograph with reference to a 1:1,000,000 scale navigation chart

  14. Mars Cameras Make Panoramic Photography a Snap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    If you wish to explore a Martian landscape without leaving your armchair, a few simple clicks around the NASA Web site will lead you to panoramic photographs taken from the Mars Exploration Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity. Many of the technologies that enable this spectacular Mars photography have also inspired advancements in photography here on Earth, including the panoramic camera (Pancam) and its housing assembly, designed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Cornell University for the Mars missions. Mounted atop each rover, the Pancam mast assembly (PMA) can tilt a full 180 degrees and swivel 360 degrees, allowing for a complete, highly detailed view of the Martian landscape. The rover Pancams take small, 1 megapixel (1 million pixel) digital photographs, which are stitched together into large panoramas that sometimes measure 4 by 24 megapixels. The Pancam software performs some image correction and stitching after the photographs are transmitted back to Earth. Different lens filters and a spectrometer also assist scientists in their analyses of infrared radiation from the objects in the photographs. These photographs from Mars spurred developers to begin thinking in terms of larger and higher quality images: super-sized digital pictures, or gigapixels, which are images composed of 1 billion or more pixels. Gigapixel images are more than 200 times the size captured by today s standard 4 megapixel digital camera. Although originally created for the Mars missions, the detail provided by these large photographs allows for many purposes, not all of which are limited to extraterrestrial photography.

  15. Modeling aerial refueling operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Allen B., III

    Aerial Refueling (AR) is the act of offloading fuel from one aircraft (the tanker) to another aircraft (the receiver) in mid flight. Meetings between tanker and receiver aircraft are referred to as AR events and are scheduled to: escort one or more receivers across a large body of water; refuel one or more receivers; or train receiver pilots, tanker pilots, and boom operators. In order to efficiently execute the Aerial Refueling Mission, the Air Mobility Command (AMC) of the United States Air Force (USAF) depends on computer models to help it make tanker basing decisions, plan tanker sorties, schedule aircraft, develop new organizational doctrines, and influence policy. We have worked on three projects that have helped AMC improve its modeling and decision making capabilities. Optimal Flight Planning. Currently Air Mobility simulation and optimization software packages depend on algorithms which iterate over three dimensional fuel flow tables to compute aircraft fuel consumption under changing flight conditions. When a high degree of fidelity is required, these algorithms use a large amount of memory and CPU time. We have modeled the rate of aircraft fuel consumption with respect to AC GrossWeight, Altitude and Airspeed. When implemented, this formula will decrease the amount of memory and CPU time needed to compute sortie fuel costs and cargo capacity values. We have also shown how this formula can be used in optimal control problems to find minimum costs flight plans. Tanker Basing Demand Mismatch Index. Since 1992, AMC has relied on a Tanker Basing/AR Demand Mismatch Index which aggregates tanker capacity and AR demand data into six regions. This index was criticized because there were large gradients along regional boundaries. Meanwhile tankers frequently cross regional boundaries to satisfy the demand for AR support. In response we developed continuous functions to score locations with respect to their proximity to demand for AR support as well as their

  16. Terrestrial photography as a complementary measurement in weather stations for snow monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimentel, Rafael; José Pérez-Palazón, María; Herrero, Javier; José Polo, María

    2015-04-01

    Snow monitoring constitutes a basic key to know snow behaviour and evolution, which have particular features in semiarid regions (i.e. highly strong spatiotemporal variability, and the occurrence of several accumulation-melting cycles throughout the year). On one hand, traditional snow observation, such as snow surveys and snow pillows have the inconvenience of a limited accessibility during snow season and the impossibility to cover a vast extension. On the other hand, satellite remote sensing techniques, largely employed in medium to large scale regional studies, has the disadvantage of a fixed spatial and temporal resolutions which in some cases are not able to reproduce snow processes at small scale. An economic alternative is the use of terrestrial photography which scales are adapted to the study problem. At the microscale resolution permits the continuous monitoring of snow, adapting the resolution of the observation to the scales of the processes. Besides its use as raw observation datasets to calibrate and validate models' results, terrestrial photography constitutes valuable information to complement weather stations observations. It allows the discriminating possible mistakes in meteorological observations (i.e. overestimation on rain measurements) and a better understanding of snow behaviour against certain weather agents (i.e. blowing snow). Thus, terrestrial photography is a feasible and convenient technique to be included in weather monitoring stations in mountainous areas in semiarid regions.

  17. Combining LANDSAT MSS, aerial photographs and ground measurements to estimate rangeland productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gialdini, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    The production of a vegetation map of over 2.2 million acres with detail down to the plant community level, and the production of estimates of rangeland productivity (pounds of usable forage per acre for cattle) for a 500,000 acre subset of area with a design goal for accuracy and precision of + or - 20% at the 80% confidence level, are considered. The data consist of five groups: maps of area, LANDSAT data, digital terrain data, large scale aerial photography, and ground plots. An outline of the data acquisition and data reduction schemes are presented.

  18. Clinical Photography for Periorbital and Facial Aesthetic Practice.

    PubMed

    Nair, Akshay Gopinathan; Santhanam, Aparna

    2016-01-01

    External cutaneous photography involves photographic documentation, which helps in treatment planning, documentation of facial features, teaching, publishing and pre- and post-procedural comparisons. The key is not simply documenting, but documenting it the right way and ensuring that photography is standardised and reproducible. In this review, basic photography techniques, standardised and reproducible angles such as frontal, oblique and lateral views and specific photographic angles for conditions such as facial rejuvenation are discussed. Use of photography accessories and a few tips on how to click good photographs in the examination room and how to achieve consistency in standardised photography are also presented. External photography in ophthalmic and facial plastic surgery like any other speciality too has standardised guidelines. Even small variations cause a drastic change in the photos and it's clinical and research value. Unless stringent criteria are met, the photographs lose their relevance and impact. PMID:27398013

  19. Clinical Photography for Periorbital and Facial Aesthetic Practice.

    PubMed

    Nair, Akshay Gopinathan; Santhanam, Aparna

    2016-01-01

    External cutaneous photography involves photographic documentation, which helps in treatment planning, documentation of facial features, teaching, publishing and pre- and post-procedural comparisons. The key is not simply documenting, but documenting it the right way and ensuring that photography is standardised and reproducible. In this review, basic photography techniques, standardised and reproducible angles such as frontal, oblique and lateral views and specific photographic angles for conditions such as facial rejuvenation are discussed. Use of photography accessories and a few tips on how to click good photographs in the examination room and how to achieve consistency in standardised photography are also presented. External photography in ophthalmic and facial plastic surgery like any other speciality too has standardised guidelines. Even small variations cause a drastic change in the photos and it's clinical and research value. Unless stringent criteria are met, the photographs lose their relevance and impact.

  20. Clinical Photography for Periorbital and Facial Aesthetic Practice

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Akshay Gopinathan; Santhanam, Aparna

    2016-01-01

    External cutaneous photography involves photographic documentation, which helps in treatment planning, documentation of facial features, teaching, publishing and pre- and post-procedural comparisons. The key is not simply documenting, but documenting it the right way and ensuring that photography is standardised and reproducible. In this review, basic photography techniques, standardised and reproducible angles such as frontal, oblique and lateral views and specific photographic angles for conditions such as facial rejuvenation are discussed. Use of photography accessories and a few tips on how to click good photographs in the examination room and how to achieve consistency in standardised photography are also presented. External photography in ophthalmic and facial plastic surgery like any other speciality too has standardised guidelines. Even small variations cause a drastic change in the photos and it's clinical and research value. Unless stringent criteria are met, the photographs lose their relevance and impact. PMID:27398013

  1. History and current use of clinical photography in orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Galante, Donna L

    2009-03-01

    The history of dentistry and photography began in 1840 when the first dental school was opened, and the world's first photographic gallery was opened and operated by a dentist turned photographer. Since that time, photography and dentistry have been partners as photography has become an integral part of a patient's record and treatment plan. The specialty of orthodontics has led the way in this model of recording patient data.

  2. D City Transformations by Time Series of Aerial Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adami, A.

    2015-02-01

    Recent photogrammetric applications, based on dense image matching algorithms, allow to use not only images acquired by digital cameras, amateur or not, but also to recover the vast heritage of analogue photographs. This possibility opens up many possibilities in the use and enhancement of existing photos heritage. The research of the original figuration of old buildings, the virtual reconstruction of disappeared architectures and the study of urban development are some of the application areas that exploit the great cultural heritage of photography. Nevertheless there are some restrictions in the use of historical images for automatic reconstruction of buildings such as image quality, availability of camera parameters and ineffective geometry of image acquisition. These constrains are very hard to solve and it is difficult to discover good dataset in the case of terrestrial close range photogrammetry for the above reasons. Even the photographic archives of museums and superintendence, while retaining a wealth of documentation, have no dataset for a dense image matching approach. Compared to the vast collection of historical photos, the class of aerial photos meets both criteria stated above. In this paper historical aerial photographs are used with dense image matching algorithms to realize 3d models of a city in different years. The models can be used to study the urban development of the city and its changes through time. The application relates to the city centre of Verona, for which some time series of aerial photographs have been retrieved. The models obtained in this way allowed, right away, to observe the urban development of the city, the places of expansion and new urban areas. But a more interesting aspect emerged from the analytical comparison between models. The difference, as the Euclidean distance, between two models gives information about new buildings or demolitions. As considering accuracy it is necessary point out that the quality of final

  3. Observation of coral reefs on Ishigaki Island, Japan, using Landsat TM images and aerial photographs

    SciTech Connect

    Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Kayanne, Hajime

    1997-06-01

    Ishigaki Island is located at the southwestern end of Japanese Islands and famous for its fringing coral reefs. More than twenty LANDSAT TM images in twelve years and aerial photographs taken on 1977 and 1994 were used to survey two shallow reefs on this island, Shiraho and Kabira. Intensive field surveys were also conducted in 1995. All satellite images of Shiraho were geometrically corrected and overlaid to construct a multi-date satellite data set. The effects of solar elevation and tide on satellite imagery were studied with this data set. The comparison of aerial and satellite images indicated that significant changes occurred between 1977 and 1984 in Kabira: rapid formation in the western part and decrease in the eastern part of dark patches. The field surveys revealed that newly formed dark patches in the west contain young corals. These results suggest that remote sensing is useful for not only mapping but also monitoring of shallow coral reefs.

  4. Operational Use of Remote Sensing within USDA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bethel, Glenn R.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation of remote sensing imagery within the USDA is shown. USDA Aerial Photography, Digital Sensors, Hurricane imagery, Remote Sensing Sources, Satellites used by Foreign Agricultural Service, Landsat Acquisitions, and Aerial Acquisitions are also shown.

  5. Spatially explicit rangeland erosion monitoring using high-resolution digital aerial imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillan, Jeffrey K.; Karl, Jason W.; Barger, Nichole N.; Elaksher, Ahmed; Duniway, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Nearly all of the ecosystem services supported by rangelands, including production of livestock forage, carbon sequestration, and provisioning of clean water, are negatively impacted by soil erosion. Accordingly, monitoring the severity, spatial extent, and rate of soil erosion is essential for long-term sustainable management. Traditional field-based methods of monitoring erosion (sediment traps, erosion pins, and bridges) can be labor intensive and therefore are generally limited in spatial intensity and/or extent. There is a growing effort to monitor natural resources at broad scales, which is driving the need for new soil erosion monitoring tools. One remote-sensing technique that can be used to monitor soil movement is a time series of digital elevation models (DEMs) created using aerial photogrammetry methods. By geographically coregistering the DEMs and subtracting one surface from the other, an estimate of soil elevation change can be created. Such analysis enables spatially explicit quantification and visualization of net soil movement including erosion, deposition, and redistribution. We constructed DEMs (12-cm ground sampling distance) on the basis of aerial photography immediately before and 1 year after a vegetation removal treatment on a 31-ha Piñon-Juniper woodland in southeastern Utah to evaluate the use of aerial photography in detecting soil surface change. On average, we were able to detect surface elevation change of ± 8−9cm and greater, which was sufficient for the large amount of soil movement exhibited on the study area. Detecting more subtle soil erosion could be achieved using the same technique with higher-resolution imagery from lower-flying aircraft such as unmanned aerial vehicles. DEM differencing and process-focused field methods provided complementary information and a more complete assessment of soil loss and movement than any single technique alone. Photogrammetric DEM differencing could be used as a technique to

  6. Combining Human Computing and Machine Learning to Make Sense of Big (Aerial) Data for Disaster Response.

    PubMed

    Ofli, Ferda; Meier, Patrick; Imran, Muhammad; Castillo, Carlos; Tuia, Devis; Rey, Nicolas; Briant, Julien; Millet, Pauline; Reinhard, Friedrich; Parkan, Matthew; Joost, Stéphane

    2016-03-01

    Aerial imagery captured via unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is playing an increasingly important role in disaster response. Unlike satellite imagery, aerial imagery can be captured and processed within hours rather than days. In addition, the spatial resolution of aerial imagery is an order of magnitude higher than the imagery produced by the most sophisticated commercial satellites today. Both the United States Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the European Commission's Joint Research Center (JRC) have noted that aerial imagery will inevitably present a big data challenge. The purpose of this article is to get ahead of this future challenge by proposing a hybrid crowdsourcing and real-time machine learning solution to rapidly process large volumes of aerial data for disaster response in a time-sensitive manner. Crowdsourcing can be used to annotate features of interest in aerial images (such as damaged shelters and roads blocked by debris). These human-annotated features can then be used to train a supervised machine learning system to learn to recognize such features in new unseen images. In this article, we describe how this hybrid solution for image analysis can be implemented as a module (i.e., Aerial Clicker) to extend an existing platform called Artificial Intelligence for Disaster Response (AIDR), which has already been deployed to classify microblog messages during disasters using its Text Clicker module and in response to Cyclone Pam, a category 5 cyclone that devastated Vanuatu in March 2015. The hybrid solution we present can be applied to both aerial and satellite imagery and has applications beyond disaster response such as wildlife protection, human rights, and archeological exploration. As a proof of concept, we recently piloted this solution using very high-resolution aerial photographs of a wildlife reserve in Namibia to support rangers with their wildlife conservation efforts (SAVMAP project, http://lasig.epfl.ch/savmap ). The

  7. Combining Human Computing and Machine Learning to Make Sense of Big (Aerial) Data for Disaster Response.

    PubMed

    Ofli, Ferda; Meier, Patrick; Imran, Muhammad; Castillo, Carlos; Tuia, Devis; Rey, Nicolas; Briant, Julien; Millet, Pauline; Reinhard, Friedrich; Parkan, Matthew; Joost, Stéphane

    2016-03-01

    Aerial imagery captured via unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is playing an increasingly important role in disaster response. Unlike satellite imagery, aerial imagery can be captured and processed within hours rather than days. In addition, the spatial resolution of aerial imagery is an order of magnitude higher than the imagery produced by the most sophisticated commercial satellites today. Both the United States Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the European Commission's Joint Research Center (JRC) have noted that aerial imagery will inevitably present a big data challenge. The purpose of this article is to get ahead of this future challenge by proposing a hybrid crowdsourcing and real-time machine learning solution to rapidly process large volumes of aerial data for disaster response in a time-sensitive manner. Crowdsourcing can be used to annotate features of interest in aerial images (such as damaged shelters and roads blocked by debris). These human-annotated features can then be used to train a supervised machine learning system to learn to recognize such features in new unseen images. In this article, we describe how this hybrid solution for image analysis can be implemented as a module (i.e., Aerial Clicker) to extend an existing platform called Artificial Intelligence for Disaster Response (AIDR), which has already been deployed to classify microblog messages during disasters using its Text Clicker module and in response to Cyclone Pam, a category 5 cyclone that devastated Vanuatu in March 2015. The hybrid solution we present can be applied to both aerial and satellite imagery and has applications beyond disaster response such as wildlife protection, human rights, and archeological exploration. As a proof of concept, we recently piloted this solution using very high-resolution aerial photographs of a wildlife reserve in Namibia to support rangers with their wildlife conservation efforts (SAVMAP project, http://lasig.epfl.ch/savmap ). The

  8. Broadband spectral photography of the James River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bressette, W. E.

    1975-01-01

    On May 28, 1974, a photographic mission from 5.3 kilometers altitude was flown over the James River from Norfolk to Hopewell. During the mission 252 photographs were exposed over the river. The photographs are divided into four simultaneously exposed groups with each group exposed through a different broadband optical filter. The four filters isolated blue-green, green, yellow, and near-infrared radiation from the water body. The document summarizes the mission photography in relation to flight altitude, sunglint, and photographic exposure.

  9. Standards and practices for bite mark photography.

    PubMed

    Golden, G S

    2011-12-01

    In most crimes where bite marks are discovered, photographic accuracy is crucial to the investigative process since in many instances the bite mark(s) may be the only evidence linking a particular suspect to the crime. Therefore, the rationale for employing superior photographic principles is mandatory for the investigation team. This paper will discuss current standards, best practice, and armamentaria for digital photography of bite mark injuries on skin. Full spectrum protocols will be described including Alternate Light Imaging, Reflective Ultra-violet, and Infrared techniques for photo-documentation of images of bite marks and other bruise patterns that have been inflicted on human skin. PMID:22717911

  10. Know how. A guide to medical photography.

    PubMed

    Melhuish, J

    A medical photograph can transfer more information to a health professional than subjective descriptions, which are open to misinterpretation. For the best photographic results, a medical photographer should be used. However, in small hospitals, or in the community, this is not always practicable, therefore nurses should have some knowledge of the most appropriate equipment to use, and know the techniques to employ to attain consistent results. Consistency is one of the most important aspects of medical photography as it allows for comparisons between photographic images over time.

  11. South Carolina Maps and Aerial Photographic Systems (SC Maps) Teaching Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Peggy W.; And Others

    South Carolina has mountain chains, monadnocks, rolling hills, varying drainage patterns, rivers, a delta, barrier islands, rocks over a billion years old and land that was once part of another continent. This document contains a set of curriculum activities that have been developed from a diverse collection of aerial photographic, satellite,…

  12. Unmanned aerial vehicle: A unique platform for low-altitude remote sensing for crop management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) provide a unique platform for remote sensing to monitor crop fields that complements remote sensing from satellite, aircraft and ground-based platforms. The UAV-based remote sensing is versatile at ultra-low altitude to be able to provide an ultra-high-resolution imag...

  13. Kirlian Photography: A New Opportunity for Gifted Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krippner, Stanley

    1977-01-01

    The author reviews research on Kirlian photography (a method of converting non-electrical properties of an object into electrical properties which are then captured on film), and suggests that the Kirlian photography process can provide the gifted student with an additional avenue for the development of creative capacities. (SBH)

  14. Using Digital Photography to Supplement Learning of Biotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norflus, Fran

    2012-01-01

    The author used digital photography to supplement learning of biotechnology by students with a variety of learning styles and educational backgrounds. Because one approach would not be sufficient to reach all the students, digital photography was used to explain the techniques and results to the class instead of having to teach each student…

  15. 76 FR 40338 - Marine Mammals; Photography Permit No. 16360

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On May 11, 2011, notice was published in the Federal Register (76 FR 27307) that a... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Marine Mammals; Photography Permit No. 16360 AGENCY..., Auckland, New Zealand to conduct commercial/educational photography of cetaceans off Hawaii. ADDRESSES:...

  16. 75 FR 3862 - Photography in Public Exhibit Space

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ..., 2009, NARA published a proposed rule in the Federal Register (74 FR 38153) for a 60-day public comment... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION 36 CFR Part 1280 RIN 3095-AB60 Photography in Public Exhibit Space AGENCY: National... documents accessible and available to the public, and that by prohibiting photography, NARA will make...

  17. The Roles of Photography for Developing Literacy across the Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappello, Marva; Lafferty, Karen E.

    2015-01-01

    Teachers can capitalize on the overwhelmingly visual nature of contemporary society for learning and teaching through integrating photography in their classroom instruction. In offering an alternative pathway for acquiring and expressing knowledge, photography has the potential to strengthen instruction across disciplines by drawing on multiple…

  18. 77 FR 2037 - Marine Mammals; Photography Permit File No. 17032

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA929 Marine Mammals; Photography Permit File No... for a permit to conduct commercial or educational photography on killer (Orcinus orca) and...

  19. Picture This: Using Photography to Conceptualize Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJean, William

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how he used photography to conceptualize social justice to a group of undergraduate students. As part of their final assessment, the students were required to take photographs that represented their understanding of social justice. The author believed that photography provided a rich way to understand student…

  20. 77 FR 24470 - Marine Mammals; Photography Permit File No. 17032

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... was published in the Federal Register (77 FR 2037) that a request for a permit for commercial... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA929 Marine Mammals; Photography Permit File No... conduct commercial/educational photography in Alaska. ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents...

  1. Snap It up! Using Digital Photography in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Linda

    2005-01-01

    The digital camera has many uses in an early learning environment. However, there are some prerequisites to implementing the use of digital photography. In this article, the author offers some categories of usage as well as some concrete ideas for implementation of digital photography. She discusses how photos can be used (1) to give children…

  2. Earth observations and photography experiment: Summary of significant results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Baz, F.

    1978-01-01

    Observation and photographic data from the Apollo Soyuz Test Project are analyzed. The discussion is structured according to the fields of investigation including: geology, desert studies, oceanography, hydrology, and meteorology. The data were obtained by: (1) visual observations of selected Earth features, (2) hand-held camera photography to document observations, and (3) stereo mapping photography of areas of significant scientific interest.

  3. ARISE (Antarctic Remote Ice Sensing Experiment) in the East 2003: Validation of Satellite-derived Sea-ice Data Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massom, Robert A.; Worby, Anthony; Lytle, Victoria; Markus, Thorsten; Allison, Ian; Scambos, Theodore; Enomoto, Hiroyuki; Tateyama, Kazutaka; Haran, Terence; Comiso, Josefino C.; Pfaffling, Andreas; Tamura, Takeshi; Muto, Atsuhiro; Kanagaratnam, Pannir; Giles, Barry; Young, Neal; Hyland, Glenn; Key, Erica

    2006-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented from the first validation of geophysical data products (ice concentration, snow thickness on sea ice (h(sub s) and ice temperature (T(sub i))fr om the NASA EOS Aqua AMSR-E sensor, in East Antarctica (in September-October 2003). The challenge of collecting sufficient measurements with which to validate the coarse-resolution AMSR-E data products adequately was addressed by means of a hierarchical approach, using detailed in situ measurements, digital aerial photography and other satellite data. Initial results from a circumnavigation of the experimental site indicate that, at least under cold conditions with a dry snow cover, there is a reasonably close agreement between satellite- and aerial-photo-derived ice concentrations, i.e. 97.2+/-.6% for NT2 and 96.5+/-2.5% for BBA algorithms vs 94.3% for the aerial photos. In general, the AMSR-E concentration represents a slight overestimate of the actual concentration, with the largest discrepancies occurring in regions containing a relatively high proportion of thin ice. The AMSR-E concentrations from the NT2 and BBA algorithms are similar on average, although differences of up to 5% occur in places, again related to thin-ice distribution. The AMSR-E ice temperature (T(sub i)) product agrees with coincident surface measurements to approximately 0.5 C in the limited dataset analyzed. Regarding snow thickness, the AMSR h(sub s) retrieval is a significant underestimate compared to in situ measurements weighted by the percentage of thin ice (and open water) present. For the case study analyzed, the underestimate was 46% for the overall average, but 23% compared to smooth-ice measurements. The spatial distribution of the AMSR-E h(sub s) product follows an expected and consistent spatial pattern, suggesting that the observed difference may be an offset (at least under freezing conditions). Areas of discrepancy are identified, and the need for future work using the more extensive dataset is

  4. Dynamics of aerial target pursuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, S.

    2015-12-01

    During pursuit and predation, aerial species engage in multitasking behavior that involve simultaneous target detection, tracking, decision-making, approach and capture. The mobility of the pursuer and the target in a three dimensional environment during predation makes the capture task highly complex. Many researchers have studied and analyzed prey capture dynamics in different aerial species such as insects and bats. This article focuses on reviewing the capture strategies adopted by these species while relying on different sensory variables (vision and acoustics) for navigation. In conclusion, the neural basis of these capture strategies and some applications of these strategies in bio-inspired navigation and control of engineered systems are discussed.

  5. Measuring food intake with digital photography.

    PubMed

    Martin, C K; Nicklas, T; Gunturk, B; Correa, J B; Allen, H R; Champagne, C

    2014-01-01

    The digital photography of foods method accurately estimates the food intake of adults and children in cafeterias. When using this method, images of food selection and leftovers are quickly captured in the cafeteria. These images are later compared with images of 'standard' portions of food using computer software. The amount of food selected and discarded is estimated based upon this comparison, and the application automatically calculates energy and nutrient intake. In the present review, we describe this method, as well as a related method called the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM), which relies on smartphones to estimate food intake in near real-time in free-living conditions. When using the RFPM, participants capture images of food selection and leftovers using a smartphone and these images are wirelessly transmitted in near real-time to a server for analysis. Because data are transferred and analysed in near real-time, the RFPM provides a platform for participants to quickly receive feedback about their food intake behaviour and to receive dietary recommendations for achieving weight loss and health promotion goals. The reliability and validity of measuring food intake with the RFPM in adults and children is also reviewed. In sum, the body of research reviewed demonstrates that digital imaging accurately estimates food intake in many environments and it has many advantages over other methods, including reduced participant burden, elimination of the need for participants to estimate portion size, and the incorporation of computer automation to improve the accuracy, efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the method.

  6. Observing snow cover using unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spallek, Waldemar; Witek, Matylda; Niedzielski, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    Snow cover is a key environmental variable that influences high flow events driven by snow-melt episodes. Estimates of snow extent (SE), snow depth (SD) and snow water equivalent (SWE) allow to approximate runoff caused by snow-melt episodes. These variables are purely spatial characteristics, and hence their pointwise measurements using terrestrial monitoring systems do not offer the comprehensive and fully-spatial information on water storage in snow. Existing satellite observations of snow reveal moderate spatial resolution which, not uncommonly, is not fine enough to estimate the above-mentioned snow-related variables for small catchments. High-resolution aerial photographs and the resulting orthophotomaps and digital surface models (DSMs), obtained using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), may offer spatial resolution of 3 cm/px. The UAV-based observation of snow cover may be done using the near-infrared (NIR) cameras and visible-light cameras. Since the beginning of 2015, in frame of the research project no. LIDER/012/223/L-5/13/NCBR/2014 financed by the National Centre for Research and Development of Poland, we have performed a series of the UAV flights targeted at four sites in the Kwisa catchment in the Izerskie Mts. (part of the Sudetes, SW Poland). Observations are carried out with the ultralight UAV swinglet CAM (produced by senseFly, lightweight 0.5 kg, wingspan 80 cm) which enables on-demand sampling at low costs. The aim of the field work is to acquire aerial photographs taken using the visible-light and NIR cameras for a purpose of producing time series of DSMs and orthophotomaps with snow cover for all sites. The DSMs are used to calculate SD as difference between observational (with snow) and reference (without snow) models. In order to verify such an approach to compute SD we apply several procedures, one of which is the estimation of SE using the corresponding orthophotomaps generated on a basis of visual-light and NIR images. The objective of this

  7. AERIAL OF VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING & SURROUNDING AREA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    AERIAL OF VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING & SURROUNDING AREA KSC-377C-0082.41 116-KSC-377C-82.41, P-15877, ARCHIVE-04151 Aerial view - Shuttle construction progress - VAB and Orbiter Processing Facilities - direction northwest.

  8. Estimation of Stand Height and Forest Volume Using High Resolution Stereo Photography and Forest Type Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. M.

    2016-06-01

    Traditional field methods for measuring tree heights are often too costly and time consuming. An alternative remote sensing approach is to measure tree heights from digital stereo photographs which is more practical for forest managers and less expensive than LiDAR or synthetic aperture radar. This work proposes an estimation of stand height and forest volume(m3/ha) using normalized digital surface model (nDSM) from high resolution stereo photography (25cm resolution) and forest type map. The study area was located in Mt. Maehwa model forest in Hong Chun-Gun, South Korea. The forest type map has four attributes such as major species, age class, DBH class and crown density class by stand. Overlapping aerial photos were taken in September 2013 and digital surface model (DSM) was created by photogrammetric methods(aerial triangulation, digital image matching). Then, digital terrain model (DTM) was created by filtering DSM and subtracted DTM from DSM pixel by pixel, resulting in nDSM which represents object heights (buildings, trees, etc.). Two independent variables from nDSM were used to estimate forest stand volume: crown density (%) and stand height (m). First, crown density was calculated using canopy segmentation method considering live crown ratio. Next, stand height was produced by averaging individual tree heights in a stand using Esri's ArcGIS and the USDA Forest Service's FUSION software. Finally, stand volume was estimated and mapped using aerial photo stand volume equations by species which have two independent variables, crown density and stand height. South Korea has a historical imagery archive which can show forest change in 40 years of successful forest rehabilitation. For a future study, forest volume change map (1970s-present) will be produced using this stand volume estimation method and a historical imagery archive.

  9. An aerial photographic census of Chesapeake Bay and North Carolina canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haramis, G.M.; Goldsberry, J.R.; McAuley, D.G.; Derleth, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    Conventional 35 mm photography was used to conduct an aerial photographic census of canvasbacks (A. valisineria) throughout Chesapeake Bay (tidal Maryland and Virginia) and coastal North Carolina, Jan. 26-30, 1981. Flock size and sex ratio characteristics were determined from examination of color transparencies of 165 canvasback flocks totaling > 95,000 birds. A sex ratio of 2.91 males/female was determined from 68,769 birds, 80% of the birds in 150 flocks. Sex ratio for the Atlantic Flyway was projected as 2.90 males/female. The greatest number of canvasbacks and the widest range of flock size were recorded in Maryland waters; the fewest canvasbacks and the smallest average flock size in Virginia; and the fewest but on average the largest flocks of canvasbacks in North Carolina. Sex ratio varied latitudinally in the flyway with a tendency for males to occupy more northern and females more southern latitudes in winter. Sex ratio (males/female) was highest in Maryland (3.98), slightly lower in Virginia (3.71), and lowest in North Carolina (1.70). Locally, sex ratio varied with flock size. In Chesapeake Bay, small flocks ( 1000) flocks. By providing large-sample sex ratio information, as well as exact counts of birds, low-level 35-mm aerial photography is the most efficient and accurate means of determining canvasback population status in eastern coastal habitats.

  10. Using High Resolution Balloon Photography to Provide Topographic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, K.; Bauer, T.

    2009-12-01

    For site-scale projects, the Bureau of Reclamation has used low altitude balloon photogrammetry to obtain high-resolution photographs and detailed topographic information. These data are collected in a fraction of the time and effort it would take to obtain a similar level of detail using traditional methods. This is accomplished at a significantly reduced cost compared to flying LiDAR or aerial photography, which can be prohibitively expensive for small or medium scale projects. Low altitude balloon photogrammetry is a process where overlapping photographs and ground survey control points are input into a photogrammetry software program (AdamTechnology 3DM Analyst Mine Mapping Suite) to produce orthophotographs and digital terrain model (DTM) elevation points. To acquire the photos a digital camera is attached to an 8-foot diameter helium balloon. The balloon is tethered and flown above the location of interest. The camera is controlled remotely while a live image is transmitted to a receiver on the ground. Ground survey control is established by using GPS equipment to survey ground targets placed within the area to be photographed. There are limitations to the process. Data collection is very weather dependent; too much wind causes the balloon to be unstable. Site conditions also determine the feasibility: power lines, trees, and steep embankments can cause difficulties maneuvering the balloon. Although some of the photographs show the underwater portion of the channel; there is little agreement between GPS points and the processed DTM elevations in the channel. The balloon has been used to survey large woody debris (LWD) structures and channel morphology in the Middle Fork John Day River (central Oregon) and monitoring debris after the removal of Chiloquin Dam (Sprague River, southern Oregon). Seventeen LWD structures were installed on the Middle Fork John Day River near John Day, OR in 2007 and 2008 to provide aquatic habitat. Balloon photos were obtained in

  11. Floating aerial LED signage based on aerial imaging by retro-reflection (AIRR).

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hirotsugu; Tomiyama, Yuka; Suyama, Shiro

    2014-11-01

    We propose a floating aerial LED signage technique by utilizing retro-reflection. The proposed display is composed of LEDs, a half mirror, and retro-reflective sheeting. Directivity of the aerial image formation and size of the aerial image have been investigated. Furthermore, a floating aerial LED sign has been successfully formed in free space.

  12. Reconnaissance mapping from aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeden, H. A.; Bolling, N. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Engineering soil and geology maps were successfully made from Pennsylvania aerial photographs taken at scales from 1:4,800 to 1:60,000. The procedure involved a detailed study of a stereoscopic model while evaluating landform, drainage, erosion, color or gray tones, tone and texture patterns, vegetation, and cultural or land use patterns.

  13. On the accuracy of glacier outlines derived from satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, F.

    2012-04-01

    The determination of the accuracy of glacier outlines as mapped from satellite data is a mandatory task, in particular when change assessment is performed. However, this is often not correctly done as a direct comparison with a reference data set can give misleading results. Though it is widely accepted that glacier outlines as derived from a higher-resolution data set (e.g. aerial photography) can be used to determine the accuracy of outlines derived from a lower resolution data set (e.g. Landsat TM), this is not generally true and several details have to be considered. At first, changing glacier extents require to compare images acquired in the same year and rapidly changing snow conditions require to use images from the same week or at least with identical snow conditions (i.e. no snow outside of glaciers). Secondly, differences in interpretation result from the higher-spatial resolution itself and the missing shortwave infrared band in high-resolution data. In particular, the determination of the glacier boundary on panchromatic imagery can locally be impossible (when the ice and the surrounding rock have the same reflectance). Thirdly, for natural objects like glaciers the change of the resolution alone results in a change of the area covered by the respective outline. Finally, the required manual correction of debris-covered glacier parts is done differently by different analysts and also by the same analyst when digitized several times. To overcome these challenges and provide an accuracy assessment for a larger data set, we will perform a combined round robin and validation experiment in the framework of the ESA project Glaciers_cci. This will include the manual and automated digitization of glacier outlines on high and low resolution satellite data (e.g. Quickbird / Ikonos vs. Landsat TM / ETM+) in different parts of the world (Alaska, Alps, Himalaya), as well as multiple digitizations of the same set of glaciers (with and without debris cover) by

  14. Gigapixel photography for skin cancer surveillance: a novel alternative to total-body photography.

    PubMed

    Mikailov, Anar; Blechman, Adam

    2013-11-01

    There is substantial evidence supporting the use of cutaneous imaging in combination with standard total-body skin examinations for early detection and treatment of melanoma. In the last 2 decades, total-body photography (TBP) has been widely used in combination with standard total-body skin examinations for active skin cancer surveillance with proven clinical utility; however, the groundbreaking image detail provided by gigapixel photography (GP) could improve dermatologists' ability to monitor suspicious lesions and therefore could serve a critical role in supplementing traditional total-body skin examinations for skin cancer surveillance. Although it has been successfully implemented in other fields, future studies are required to determine the effectiveness of GP in dermatology.

  15. Validation of current land cover maps utilizing astronaut acquired photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebelein, Jennifer; Estes, John E.

    2000-01-01

    This investigation focuses on the potential use of astronaut acquired photography for the validation of current, land cover maps. More specifically, this study is directed at assessing the potential for the use of astronaut acquired photography to document and validate land cover change. Space Shuttle, astronaut acquired photography is employed to test the potential utility of data that may be acquired by astronauts employing the Window Observational Rack Facility (WORF) on International Space Station (ISS). The majority of astronaut acquired photography has been obtained under conditions similar to ISS operations in terms of both spectral as well as spatial resolution. Validation of land cover maps utilizing this type of imagery is being accomplished through a process of comparison among three different land cover classification legends created from the Eros Data Center (EDC) Land Characteristics Database. Our study area is a subregional scale portion of an Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) based global Land Characteristics Database. The goal of this research is to attempt to establish: 1. which legend derived for this area provides the highest overall accuracy for the land cover classes present: 2. which legend is best validated using astronaut acquired photography; and 3. which classes of these legends best lend themselves to validation with astronaut acquired photography. Preliminary results indicate that astronaut acquired photography can be employed to validate land cover maps and that results achieved using this imagery corresponds well to those achieved utilizing Landsat data. .

  16. Dimensional Review of Scales for Forensic Photography.

    PubMed

    Ferrucci, Massimiliano; Doiron, Theodore D; Thompson, Robert M; Jones, John P; Freeman, Adam J; Neiman, Janice A

    2016-03-01

    Scales for photography provide a geometrical reference in the photographic documentation of a crime scene, pattern, or item of evidence. The ABFO No. 2 Standard Reference Scale (1) is used by the forensic science community as an accurate reference scale. We investigated the overall accuracy of the major centimeter graduations, internal/external diameters of the circles, error in placement of the circle centers, and leg perpendicularity. Four vendors were selected for the scales, and the features were measured on a vision-based coordinate measurement system. The scales were well within the specified tolerance for the length graduations. After 4 years, the same scales were measured to determine what change could be measured. The scales demonstrated acceptable stability in the scale length and center-to-center measurements; however, the perpendicularity exhibited change. The study results indicate that scale quality checks using certified metal rulers are good practice. PMID:27404626

  17. Lunar orbital photography of astronomical phenomena.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, R. D.; Dunkelman, L.; Ross, C. L.; Worden, A.

    1972-01-01

    This paper reports further progress on photography of faint astronomical and geophysical phenomena accomplished during the recent Apollo missions. Command module pilots have been able to photograph such astronomical objects as the solar corona, zodiacal light-corona transition region, lunar libration region, and portions of the Milky Way. The methods utilized for calibration of the film by adaptation of the High Altitude Observatory sensitometer are discussed. Kodak 2485 high-speed recording film was used in both 35-mm and 70-mm formats. The cameras used were Nikon f/1.2 55-mm focal length and Hasselblad f/2.8 80-mm focal length. Preflight and postflight calibration exposures were included on both the flight and control films, corresponding to luminances extending from the inner solar corona to as faint as 1/10 of the luminance of the light of the night sky. The photographs obtained from unique vantage points available during lunar orbit are discussed.

  18. Wide angle photography of the Milky Way.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, C.; Laustsen, S.

    1986-12-01

    Since astronomers began to use photography on a scientific basis, a number of pictures of the Milky Way band, or large parts thereof, has been made. Barnard (1890, 1927) produced a series of fine Milky Way photos. Later attempts by Rodgers, Whiteoak et al. (1960), Schmidt-Kaler and Schlosser (1972), Sivan (1974) and others resulted in impressive pictures, either in the form of panoramas or extreme wide-field views, mostly in weil defined (narrow) spectral bands. The most famous depietion of the Milky Way, however, is not a photograph but a drawing made by hand. This was made by M. and T. Keskula at Lund Observatory, and it has become the standard representation of the Milky Way band in textbooks.

  19. Use of satellite data for mapping snow cover in the western United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, J. C. (Principal Investigator); Bowley, C. J.; Simmes, D. A.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The results of the analysis of ERTS imagery for the Arizona and California test sites indicate that the extent of the mountain snowpacks can be mapped from ERTS data in more detail than is depicted in aerial survey snow charts. In addition to comparative analysis with aerial snow charts, the ERTS data have also been compared with high altitude aircraft photography. The results of the comparative analysis indicate that although small details in the snow line that cannot be detected in the ERTS data can be mapped from the higher resolution aircraft data, the boundaries of the areas of significant snow cover can be mapped as accurately from ERTS imagery as from aircraft photography.

  20. Measuring food intake with digital photography

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Corby K.; Nicklas, Theresa; Gunturk, Bahadir; Correa, John B.; Allen, H. Raymond; Champagne, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The Digital Photography of Foods Method accurately estimates the food intake of adults and children in cafeterias. When using this method, imags of food selection and leftovers are quickly captured in the cafeteria. These images are later compared to images of “standard” portions of food using a computer application. The amount of food selected and discarded is estimated based upon this comparison, and the application automatically calculates energy and nutrient intake. Herein, we describe this method, as well as a related method called the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM), which relies on Smartphones to estimate food intake in near real-time in free-living conditions. When using the RFPM, participants capture images of food selection and leftovers using a Smartphone and these images are wirelessly transmitted in near real-time to a server for analysis. Because data are transferred and analyzed in near real-time, the RFPM provides a platform for participants to quickly receive feedback about their food intake behavior and to receive dietary recommendations to achieve weight loss and health promotion goals. The reliability and validity of measuring food intake with the RFPM in adults and children will also be reviewed. The body of research reviewed herein demonstrates that digital imaging accurately estimates food intake in many environments and it has many advantages over other methods, including reduced participant burden, elimination of the need for participants to estimate portion size, and incorporation of computer automation to improve the accuracy, efficiency, and the cost-effectiveness of the method. PMID:23848588

  1. Multitemporal satellite data analyses for archaeological mark detection: preliminary results in Italy and Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasaponara, Rosa; Masini, Nicola

    2014-05-01

    The current availability of very high resolution satellite data provides an excellent tool to detect and monitor archaeological marks, namely spectral and spatial anomalies linked to the presence of buried archaeological remains from a landscape view down to local scale (single site) investigations. Since the end of the nineteenth century, aerial photography has been the remote sensing tool most widely used in archaeology for surveying both surface and sub-surface archaeological remains. Aerial photography was a real "revolution" in archaeology being an excellent tool for investigations addressed at detecting underground archaeological structures through the reconnaissance of the so-called "archaeological marks" generally grouped and named as "soil","crop marks" "snow marks", and also recently "weed marks" (Lasaponara and Masini). Such marks are generally visible only from an aerial view (see detail in Lasaponara and Masini 2009, Ciminale et al. 2009, Masini and Lasaponara 2006 Lasaponara et al 2011) . In particular, soil marks are changes in soil colour or texture due to the presence of surface and shallow remains. Crop marks are changes in crop texture linked to as differences in height or colour of crops which are under stress due to lack of water or deficiencies in other nutrients caused by the presence of masonry structures in the subsoil. Crop marks can also be formed above damp and nutritious soil of buried pits and ditches. Such marks are generally visible only from an aerial view, especially during the spring season. In the context of the Project "Remote sensing technologies applied to the management of natural and cultural heritage in sites located in Italy and Argentina: from risk monitoring to mitigatin startegies P@an_sat", funded by the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affair, we tested the capability of multitemporal data, from active and passive satellite sensors, in the detection of "archaeological marks". The areas of interested were selected from

  2. Studies on an aerial propellant transfer space plane (APTSP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayan, N.; Biju Kumar, K. S.; Gupta, Anish Kumar; Kashyap, Akhilesh Kumar; Venkatraman, Kartik; Mathew, Joseph; Mukunda, H. S.

    2004-04-01

    This paper presents a study of a fully reusable earth-to-orbit launch vehicle concept with horizontal take-off and landing, employing a turbojet engine for low speed, and a rocket for high-speed acceleration and space operations. This concept uses existing technology to the maximum possible extent, thereby reducing development time, cost and effort. It uses the experience in aerial filling of military aircrafts for propellant filling at an altitude of 13 km at a flight speed of M=0.85. Aerial filling of propellant reduces the take-off weight significantly thereby minimizing the structural weight of the vehicle. The vehicle takes off horizontally and uses turbojet engines till the end of the propellant filling operation. The rocket engines provide thrust for the next phase till the injection of a satellite at LEO. A sensitivity analysis of the mission with respect to rocket engine specific impulse and overall vehicle structural factor is also presented in this paper. A conceptual design of space plane with a payload capability of 10 ton to LEO is carried out. The study shows that the realization of an aerial propellant transfer space plane is possible with limited development of new technology thus reducing the demands on the finances required for achieving the objectives.

  3. Evaluation of a GPS used in conjunction with aerial telemetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olexa, E.M.; Gogan, P.J.P.; Podruzny, K.M.; Eiler, John; Alcorn, Doris J.; Neuman, Michael R.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the use of a non-correctable Global Positioning System (NGPS) in association with aerial telemetry to determine animal locations. Average error was determined for 3 components of the location process: use of a NGPS receiver on the ground, use of a NGPS receiver in a aircraft while flying over a visual marker, and use of the same receiver while flying over a location determined by standard aerial telemetry. Average errors were 45.3, 88.1 and 137.4 m, respectively. A directional bias of <35 m was present for the telemetry component only. Tests indicated that use of NGPS to determine aircraft, and thereby animal, location is an efficient alternative to interpolation from topographic maps. This method was more accurate than previously reported Long-Range Navigation system, version C (LORAN-C) and Argos satellite telemetry. It has utility in areas where animal-borne GPS receivers are not practical due to a combination of topography, canopy coverage, weight or cost of animal-borne GPS units. Use of NGPS technology in conjunction with aerial telemetry will provide the location accuracy required for identification of gross movement patterns and coarse-grained habitat use.

  4. Quality of DEMs derived from Kite Aerial Photogrammety System: a case study of Dutch coastal environments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paron, Paolo; Smith, Mike J.; Anders, Niels; Meesuk, Vorawit

    2014-05-01

    Coastal protection is one of the main challenges for the Netherlands, where a large proportion of anthropogenic activity is located below sea level (both residential and economic). The Dutch government is implementing an innovative method of coastal replenishment using natural waves and winds to relocate sand from one side to the other of the country. This requires close monitoring of the spatio-temporal evolution of beaches in order to correctly model the future direction and amount of sand movement. To do so -on the onshore beach- we tested a Kite-Aerial Photography System for monitoring the beach dynamics at Zandmotor (http://www.dezandmotor.nl/en-GB/). The equipment used for data collection were a commercial DSLR camera (Nikon D7000 with a 20mm lens), gyro-levelled rig, Sutton Flowform 16 kite and Leica GNSS Viva GS10, with GSM connection to the Dutch geodetic network. We flew using a 115 m line with an average inclination of 40 to 45°; this gave a camera vertical distance of ~80 m and pixel size of ~20 mm. The methodology follows that of Smith et al. (2009), and of Paron & Smith (2013), applied to a highly dynamic environment with low texture and small relief conditions. Here we present a comparison of the quality of the digital elevation model (DEM) generated from the same dataset using two different systems: Structure from Motion (SfM) using Agisoft Photoscan Pro and traditional photogrammetry using Leica Photograpmmetry Suite. In addition the outputs from the two data processing methods are presented, including both an image mosaic and DEM, and highlighting pros and cons of both methods. References Smith, M. J. et al. 2009. High spatial resolution data acquisition for the geosciences: kite aerial photography. ESPL, 34(1), 155-161. Paron, P., Smith, M.J. 2013. Kite aerial photogrammetry system for monitoring coastal change in the Netherlands. 8th IAG International Conference on Geomorphology, Paris, August.

  5. Analysis of the impact of spatial resolution on land/water classifications using high-resolution aerial imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Enwright, Nicholas M.; Jones, William R.; Garber, Adrienne L.; Keller, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Long-term monitoring efforts often use remote sensing to track trends in habitat or landscape conditions over time. To most appropriately compare observations over time, long-term monitoring efforts strive for consistency in methods. Thus, advances and changes in technology over time can present a challenge. For instance, modern camera technology has led to an increasing availability of very high-resolution imagery (i.e. submetre and metre) and a shift from analogue to digital photography. While numerous studies have shown that image resolution can impact the accuracy of classifications, most of these studies have focused on the impacts of comparing spatial resolution changes greater than 2 m. Thus, a knowledge gap exists on the impacts of minor changes in spatial resolution (i.e. submetre to about 1.5 m) in very high-resolution aerial imagery (i.e. 2 m resolution or less). This study compared the impact of spatial resolution on land/water classifications of an area dominated by coastal marsh vegetation in Louisiana, USA, using 1:12,000 scale colour-infrared analogue aerial photography (AAP) scanned at four different dot-per-inch resolutions simulating ground sample distances (GSDs) of 0.33, 0.54, 1, and 2 m. Analysis of the impact of spatial resolution on land/water classifications was conducted by exploring various spatial aspects of the classifications including density of waterbodies and frequency distributions in waterbody sizes. This study found that a small-magnitude change (1–1.5 m) in spatial resolution had little to no impact on the amount of water classified (i.e. percentage mapped was less than 1.5%), but had a significant impact on the mapping of very small waterbodies (i.e. waterbodies ≤ 250 m2). These findings should interest those using temporal image classifications derived from very high-resolution aerial photography as a component of long-term monitoring programs.

  6. Satellite RNAs and Satellite Viruses.

    PubMed

    Palukaitis, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Satellite RNAs and satellite viruses are extraviral components that can affect either the pathogenicity, the accumulation, or both of their associated viruses while themselves being dependent on the associated viruses as helper viruses for their infection. Most of these satellite RNAs are noncoding RNAs, and in many cases, have been shown to alter the interaction of their helper viruses with their hosts. In only a few cases have the functions of these satellite RNAs in such interactions been studied in detail. In particular, work on the satellite RNAs of Cucumber mosaic virus and Turnip crinkle virus have provided novel insights into RNAs functioning as noncoding RNAs. These effects are described and potential roles for satellite RNAs in the processes involved in symptom intensification or attenuation are discussed. In most cases, models describing these roles involve some aspect of RNA silencing or its suppression, either directly or indirectly involving the particular satellite RNA.

  7. Evaluation of DSMs generated from multi-temporal aerial photographs using emerging structure from motion-multi-view stereo technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiguro, Satoshi; Yamano, Hiroya; Oguma, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-01

    An accuracy assessment of digital surface models (DSMs) generated from archived aerial photographs using the structure from motion-multi-view stereo (SfM-MVS) technique was carried out. A four-step accuracy-assessment procedure was adopted using aerial photography from eight periods, as follows. Step 1: generate a DSM and orthophoto from digital aerial photographs taken in 2013 and ground control points (GCPs) measured by GNSS. Step 2: assess the accuracy of the DSM by comparison with altitude measured by leveling survey. Step 3: generate other historical DSMs and orthophotos from historical aerial photographs using GCPs extracted from the DSM of 2013. Step 4: assess the accuracy of all historical DSMs by comparing with the leveling survey. Then re-calculate the accuracy of historical DSMs by reducing the inherent error in the 2013 DSM. The DSM based on the aerial photographs taken in 2013 was generated with a resolution of 48.2 cm. The residual height error of the GCPs was 15.4 cm. Validation against the altitudes of 171 points revealed that this DSM has a height root-mean-square-error (RMSE) of 24.1 cm and is 9.2 cm lower than the leveling data on average. Even using US military photos with unconfirmed detailed specifications, the model can measure the altitude with an RMSE value of 121.5 cm. It appears therefore that analysis by SfM-MVS can give comparable measurement accuracy to traditional aerial photogrammetry. The low cost and high accuracy obtained with archived aerial photographs are worthy of special mention.

  8. Aerial robotic data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Hayes, D.W.; Pendergast, M.M.; Corban, J.E.

    1993-12-31

    A small, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), equipped with sensors for physical and chemical measurements of remote environments, is described. A miniature helicopter airframe is used as a platform for sensor testing and development. The sensor output is integrated with the flight control system for real-time, interactive, data acquisition and analysis. Pre-programmed flight missions will be flown with several sensors to demonstrate the cost-effective surveillance capabilities of this new technology.

  9. Preliminary study of Lake Pontchartrain and vicinity using remotely sensed data from the ERTS-A satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hidalgo, J. U. (Principal Investigator); Smalley, A. E.; Faller, K. H.; Irvin, M. B.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. During the summer of 1972, huge mats of duckweeds (Lemnaceae) appeared on Lake Pontchartrain, a shallow estuary in southeastern Louisiana. In color infrared photography, duckweeds show a characteristic light lavender color, unlike algal mats or water hyacinth, as observed in low level aerial photography. Although at least five species are present in the area, most water coverage is by Lemna minor and Spirodela oligorrhiza. ERTS-1 imagery shows many areas of bayous, swamps, and marginal waters of Lake Pontchartrain covered with duckweeds. Subsequent passes show a seasonal decreases in duckweeds.

  10. 37. PHOTOGRAPHY OF ORIGINAL PLAN (MINNEAPOLIS CITY ENGINEER) GENERAL DIAGRAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. PHOTOGRAPHY OF ORIGINAL PLAN (MINNEAPOLIS CITY ENGINEER) GENERAL DIAGRAM OF STEEL ARCH BRIDGE (4 x 5 negative) - Steel Arch Bridge, Hennepin Avenue spanning west channel of Mississippi River, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  11. 40. PHOTOGRAPHY OF ORIGINAL PLAN (MINNEAPOLIS CITY ENGINEER) PLAN OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. PHOTOGRAPHY OF ORIGINAL PLAN (MINNEAPOLIS CITY ENGINEER) PLAN OF SOUTH HALF CENTRE PIER, STEEL ARCH BRIDGE (4 x 5 negative) - Steel Arch Bridge, Hennepin Avenue spanning west channel of Mississippi River, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  12. [Investigation about particularity of dental clinical digital photography].

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng

    2012-04-01

    Dental photography is one of the special field in photography because of the particularity of the technology and approach. Lack of depth of field is one of the most possible problems for new learners. In dental photography, the control of depth of field depends on aperture only, deep depth of field can be achieved by decreasing the aperture. The parameters of exposure include aperture, shutter speed, flash intensity and ISO, which control the exposure together. The area of pictures is controlled by proportion, with manual exposure for getting right exposure. Manual focusing is suggested instead of auto focusing. The appropriate technology, method and right area are the most important factors for dental photography, and later treatment has to be avoided.

  13. Evaluating post-Katrina recovery in Mississippi using repeat photography.

    PubMed

    Burton, Christopher; Mitchell, Jerry T; Cutter, Susan L

    2011-07-01

    Hurricane Katrina of August 2005 had extensive consequences for the state of Mississippi in the United States. Widespread infrastructure and property damage, massive social dislocation, and ecological loss remain among the many challenges faced by communities as they work towards 'normalcy'. This study employs repeat photography to understand differential recovery from Hurricane Katrina in Mississippi. Revealing change with conventional landscape photography, a process known as repeat photography, is common in the natural sciences. Simply stated, repeat photography is the practice of re-photographing the same scene as it appears in an earlier photograph. Photographs were taken at 131 sites every six months over a three-year period. Each photograph was assigned a recovery score and a spatially interpolated recovery surface was generated for each time period. The mapped and graphed results show disparities in the progression of recovery: some communities quickly entered the rebuilding process whereas others have lagged far behind.

  14. Clinical Photography for Trichology Practice: Tips and Tricks

    PubMed Central

    Ashique, KT; Kaliyadan, Feroze

    2011-01-01

    Clinical photography of hair disorders is an extension of photography in dermatology practice. Some points should be kept in mind while taking images of the hair and hair bearing areas in view of the reflection of light and the subsequent glare that may spoil the result. For documentation of most conditions of the hair, the same general rules of dermatological photography apply. The correct lighting is the most important aspect of clinical photography in trichology practice and can be achieved by reflected light than direct light. Special care should be taken in conditions requiring serial images to document progress/response to treatment and the most important factor in this context is consistency with respect to patient positioning, lighting, camera settings and background. Dermoscopy/trichoscopy can also be incorporated in clinical practice for image documentation. PMID:21769229

  15. Medical photography: current technology, evolving issues and legal perspectives.

    PubMed

    Harting, M T; DeWees, J M; Vela, K M; Khirallah, R T

    2015-04-01

    Medical photographic image capture and data management has undergone a rapid and compelling change in complexity over the last 20 years. This is because of multiple factors, including significant advances in ease of photograph capture, alongside an evolution of mechanisms of data portability/dissemination, combined with governmental focus on health information privacy. Literature to guide medical, legal, governmental and business professionals when dealing with issues related to medical photography is virtually nonexistent. Herein, we will address the breadth of uses of medical photography, device properties/specific devices utilised for image capture, methods of data transfer and dissemination and patient perceptions and attitudes regarding photography in a medical setting. In addition, we will address the legal implications, including legal precedent, copyright and privacy law, informed consent, protected health information and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), as they pertain to medical photography.

  16. A 3D digital medical photography system in paediatric medicine.

    PubMed

    Williams, Susanne K; Ellis, Lloyd A; Williams, Gigi

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, traditional clinical photography services at the Educational Resource Centre were extended using new technology. This paper describes the establishment of a 3D digital imaging system in a paediatric setting at the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne.

  17. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Hazards in a Photography Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houk, Cliff; Hart, Charles

    1987-01-01

    Described are case studies illustrating chemical hazards in a photography lab due to compounds containing cyanide. Suggestions for preventing problems including proper procedures, housekeeping, facilities, and ventilation are considered. (RH)

  18. Schlieren and shadowgraph photography. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habercom, G. E., Jr.

    1980-04-01

    A bibliography of 179 abstracts covering the applications and techniques of Schlieren and shadowgraphy photography is presented. The majority of the reports are primarily concerned with flow visualization, although there are included studies on heat transfer and combustion processes.

  19. Applicability of New Approaches of Sensor Orientation to Micro Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehak, M.; Skaloud, J.

    2016-06-01

    This study highlights the benefits of precise aerial position and attitude control in the context of mapping with Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs). Accurate mapping with MAVs is gaining importance in applications such as corridor mapping, road and pipeline inspections or mapping of large areas with homogeneous surface structure, e.g. forests or agricultural fields. There, accurate aerial control plays a major role in successful terrain reconstruction and artifact-free ortophoto generation. The presented experiments focus on new approaches of aerial control. We confirm practically that the relative aerial position and attitude control can improve accuracy in difficult mapping scenarios. Indeed, the relative orientation method represents an attractive alternative in the context of MAVs for two reasons. First, the procedure is somewhat simplified, e.g. the angular misalignment, so called boresight, between the camera and the inertial measurement unit (IMU) does not have to be determined and, second, the effect of possible systematic errors in satellite positioning (e.g. due to multipath and/or incorrect recovery of differential carrier-phase ambiguities) is mitigated. First, we present a typical mapping project over an agricultural field and second, we perform a corridor road mapping. We evaluate the proposed methods in scenarios with and without automated image observations. We investigate a recently proposed concept where adjustment is performed using image observations limited to ground control and check points, so called fast aerial triangulation (Fast AT). In this context we show that accurate aerial control (absolute or relative) together with a few image observations can deliver accurate results comparable to classical aerial triangulation with thousands of image measurements. This procedure in turns reduces the demands on processing time and the requirements on the existence of surface texture. Finally, we compare the above mentioned procedures with direct sensor

  20. An evaluation of multiband photography for rock discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raines, G. L.; Lee, K.

    1974-01-01

    The ability of multiband photography to discriminate sedimentary rocks is investigated. Measurements showed that there is a large natural variation in the band reflectance of rock formations and that the differences in the contrast ratios for different Wratten filters is small, making it statistically impossible to select a set of best bands from in situ reflectance measurements. It is concluded that the designed multiband photography concept is not a practical method for improving sedimentary-rock discrimination capabilities.

  1. 7 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Fee Schedule

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agency (FSA), Aerial Photography Field Office (APFO), USDA, 2222 West 2300 South, Salt Lake City, Utah... should contact the aerial photography coordinator, Farm Service Agency (FSA), Aerial Photography...

  2. 7 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Fee Schedule

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Agency (FSA), Aerial Photography Field Office (APFO), USDA, 2222 West 2300 South, Salt Lake City, Utah... should contact the aerial photography coordinator, Farm Service Agency (FSA), Aerial Photography...

  3. 7 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Fee Schedule

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agency (FSA), Aerial Photography Field Office (APFO), USDA, 2222 West 2300 South, Salt Lake City, Utah... should contact the aerial photography coordinator, Farm Service Agency (FSA), Aerial Photography...

  4. 7 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Fee Schedule

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agency (FSA), Aerial Photography Field Office (APFO), USDA, 2222 West 2300 South, Salt Lake City, Utah... should contact the aerial photography coordinator, Farm Service Agency (FSA), Aerial Photography...

  5. Automated Identification of River Hydromorphological Features Using UAV High Resolution Aerial Imagery.

    PubMed

    Casado, Monica Rivas; Gonzalez, Rocio Ballesteros; Kriechbaumer, Thomas; Veal, Amanda

    2015-11-04

    European legislation is driving the development of methods for river ecosystem protection in light of concerns over water quality and ecology. Key to their success is the accurate and rapid characterisation of physical features (i.e., hydromorphology) along the river. Image pattern recognition techniques have been successfully used for this purpose. The reliability of the methodology depends on both the quality of the aerial imagery and the pattern recognition technique used. Recent studies have proved the potential of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to increase the quality of the imagery by capturing high resolution photography. Similarly, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) have been shown to be a high precision tool for automated recognition of environmental patterns. This paper presents a UAV based framework for the identification of hydromorphological features from high resolution RGB aerial imagery using a novel classification technique based on ANNs. The framework is developed for a 1.4 km river reach along the river Dee in Wales, United Kingdom. For this purpose, a Falcon 8 octocopter was used to gather 2.5 cm resolution imagery. The results show that the accuracy of the framework is above 81%, performing particularly well at recognising vegetation. These results leverage the use of UAVs for environmental policy implementation and demonstrate the potential of ANNs and RGB imagery for high precision river monitoring and river management.

  6. Automated Identification of River Hydromorphological Features Using UAV High Resolution Aerial Imagery.

    PubMed

    Casado, Monica Rivas; Gonzalez, Rocio Ballesteros; Kriechbaumer, Thomas; Veal, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    European legislation is driving the development of methods for river ecosystem protection in light of concerns over water quality and ecology. Key to their success is the accurate and rapid characterisation of physical features (i.e., hydromorphology) along the river. Image pattern recognition techniques have been successfully used for this purpose. The reliability of the methodology depends on both the quality of the aerial imagery and the pattern recognition technique used. Recent studies have proved the potential of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to increase the quality of the imagery by capturing high resolution photography. Similarly, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) have been shown to be a high precision tool for automated recognition of environmental patterns. This paper presents a UAV based framework for the identification of hydromorphological features from high resolution RGB aerial imagery using a novel classification technique based on ANNs. The framework is developed for a 1.4 km river reach along the river Dee in Wales, United Kingdom. For this purpose, a Falcon 8 octocopter was used to gather 2.5 cm resolution imagery. The results show that the accuracy of the framework is above 81%, performing particularly well at recognising vegetation. These results leverage the use of UAVs for environmental policy implementation and demonstrate the potential of ANNs and RGB imagery for high precision river monitoring and river management. PMID:26556355

  7. Automated Identification of River Hydromorphological Features Using UAV High Resolution Aerial Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Rivas Casado, Monica; Ballesteros Gonzalez, Rocio; Kriechbaumer, Thomas; Veal, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    European legislation is driving the development of methods for river ecosystem protection in light of concerns over water quality and ecology. Key to their success is the accurate and rapid characterisation of physical features (i.e., hydromorphology) along the river. Image pattern recognition techniques have been successfully used for this purpose. The reliability of the methodology depends on both the quality of the aerial imagery and the pattern recognition technique used. Recent studies have proved the potential of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to increase the quality of the imagery by capturing high resolution photography. Similarly, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) have been shown to be a high precision tool for automated recognition of environmental patterns. This paper presents a UAV based framework for the identification of hydromorphological features from high resolution RGB aerial imagery using a novel classification technique based on ANNs. The framework is developed for a 1.4 km river reach along the river Dee in Wales, United Kingdom. For this purpose, a Falcon 8 octocopter was used to gather 2.5 cm resolution imagery. The results show that the accuracy of the framework is above 81%, performing particularly well at recognising vegetation. These results leverage the use of UAVs for environmental policy implementation and demonstrate the potential of ANNs and RGB imagery for high precision river monitoring and river management. PMID:26556355

  8. Satellite applications to a coastal inlet study, Clearwater Beach, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Y. H.; Smutz, M.; Ruth, B. E.; Brooks, H. K.

    1977-01-01

    Two sets of LANDSAT magnetic tapes were obtained and displayed on the screen of an IMAGE 100 computer. Spectral analysis was performed to produce various signatures, their extent and location. Subsequent ground truth observations and measurements were gathered by means of hydrographic surveys and low-altitude aerial photography for interpretation and calibration of the LANDSAT data. Finally, a coastal engineering assessment based on the LANDSAT data was made. Recommendations to the City of Clearwater regarding the navigational channel alignment and dredging practice are presented in the light of the inlet stability.

  9. Meteorological satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, L. J. (Editor); Schnapf, A.; Diesen, B. C., III; Martin, P. S.; Schwalb, A.; Bandeen, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    An overview is presented of the meteorological satellite programs that have been evolving from 1958 to the present, and plans for the future meteorological and environmental satellite systems that are scheduled to be placed into service in the early 1980's are reviewed. The development of the TIROS family of weather satellites, including TIROS, ESSA, ITOS/NOAA, and the present TIROS-N (the third generation operational system) is summarized. The contribution of the Nimbus and ATS technology satellites to the development of the operational-orbiting and geostationary satellites is discussed. Included are descriptions of both the TIROS-N and the DMSP payloads currently under development to assure a continued and orderly growth of these systems into the 1980's.

  10. Reconstruction of crimes by infrared photography.

    PubMed

    Sterzik, V; Bohnert, M

    2016-09-01

    Whenever blunt or sharp forces are used in a crime, analysis of bloodstain pattern distribution may provide important information for the reconstruction of happenings. Thereby, attention should be paid to both the crime scene and the clothes of everyone involved in the crime. On dark textiles, though, it is difficult or even impossible for the human eye to detect bloodstains because of the low contrast to the background. However, in the near infrared wavelength range, contrast is considerably higher. Many textiles reflect light beyond a wavelength of 830 nm and thus appear light-colored, whereas blood absorbs the light and appears dark. In our studies, a D7000 NIKON reflex camera modified for infrared photography produced high-resolution photographs visualizing even very small spatter stains on dark textiles. The equipment can be used at any crime scene or lab and provides immediately available and interpretable images. Thus, important findings can be obtained at an early stage of police investigations, as two examples (homicide and attempted homicide) illustrate. PMID:26932868

  11. Reconstruction of crimes by infrared photography.

    PubMed

    Sterzik, V; Bohnert, M

    2016-09-01

    Whenever blunt or sharp forces are used in a crime, analysis of bloodstain pattern distribution may provide important information for the reconstruction of happenings. Thereby, attention should be paid to both the crime scene and the clothes of everyone involved in the crime. On dark textiles, though, it is difficult or even impossible for the human eye to detect bloodstains because of the low contrast to the background. However, in the near infrared wavelength range, contrast is considerably higher. Many textiles reflect light beyond a wavelength of 830 nm and thus appear light-colored, whereas blood absorbs the light and appears dark. In our studies, a D7000 NIKON reflex camera modified for infrared photography produced high-resolution photographs visualizing even very small spatter stains on dark textiles. The equipment can be used at any crime scene or lab and provides immediately available and interpretable images. Thus, important findings can be obtained at an early stage of police investigations, as two examples (homicide and attempted homicide) illustrate.

  12. Assessing ecosystem response to multiple disturbances and climate change in South Africa using ground- and satellite-based measurements and model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutsch, W. L.; Falge, E. M.; Brümmer, C.; Mukwashi, K.; Schmullius, C.; Hüttich, C.; Odipo, V.; Scholes, R. J.; Mudau, A.; Midgley, G.; Stevens, N.; Hickler, T.; Scheiter, S.; Martens, C.; Twine, W.; Iiyambo, T.; Bradshaw, K.; Lück, W.; Lenfers, U.; Thiel-Clemen, T.; du Toit, J.

    2015-12-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa currently experiences rapidly growing human population, intrinsically tied to substantial changes in land use on shrubland, savanna and mixed woodland ecosystems due to over-exploitation. Significant conversions driving degradation, affecting fire frequency and water availability, and fueling climate change are expected to increase in the immediate future. However, measured data of greenhouse gas emissions as affected by land use change are scarce to entirely lacking from this region. The project 'Adaptive Resilience of Southern African Ecosystems' (ARS AfricaE) conducts research and develops scenarios of ecosystem development under climate change, for management support in conservation or for planning rural area development. This will be achieved by (1) creation of a network of research clusters (paired sites with natural and altered vegetation) along an aridity gradient in South Africa for ground-based micrometeorological in-situ measurements of energy and matter fluxes, (2) linking biogeochemical functions with ecosystem structure, and eco-physiological properties, (3) description of ecosystem disturbance (and recovery) in terms of ecosystem function such as carbon balance components and water use efficiency, (4) set-up of individual-based models to predict ecosystem dynamics under (post) disturbance managements, (5) combination with long-term landscape dynamic information derived from remote sensing and aerial photography, and (6) development of sustainable management strategies for disturbed ecosystems and land use change. Emphasis is given on validation (by a suite of field measurements) of estimates obtained from eddy covariance, model approaches and satellite derivations.

  13. Using ground- and satellite-based measurements and models to quantify response to multiple disturbances and climate change in South African semi-arid ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falge, Eva; Brümmer, Christian; Schmullius, Christiane; Scholes, Robert; Twine, Wayne; Mudau, Azwitamisi; Midgley, Guy; Hickler, Thomas; Bradshaw, Karen; Lück, Wolfgang; Thiel-Clemen, Thomas; du Toit, Justin; Sankaran, Vaith; Kutsch, Werner

    2016-04-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa currently experiences significant changes in shrubland, savanna and mixed woodland ecosystems driving degradation, affecting fire frequency and water availability, and eventually fueling climate change. The project 'Adaptive Resilience of Southern African Ecosystems' (ARS AfricaE) conducts research and develops scenarios of ecosystem development under climate change, for management support in conservation or for planning rural area development. For a network of research clusters along an aridity gradient in South Africa, we measure greenhouse gas exchange, ecosystem structure and eco-physiological properties as affected by land use change at paired sites with natural and altered vegetation. We set up dynamic vegetation models and individual-based models to predict ecosystem dynamics under (post) disturbance managements. We monitor vegetation amount and heterogeneity using remotely sensed images and aerial photography over several decades to examine time series of land cover change. Finally, we investigate livelihood strategies with focus on carbon balance components to develop sustainable management strategies for disturbed ecosystems and land use change. Emphasis is given on validation of estimates obtained from eddy covariance, model approaches and satellite derivations. We envision our methodological approach on a network of research clusters a valuable means to investigate potential linkages to concepts of adaptive resilience.

  14. Thailand national programme of the earth resources technology satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabhasri, S. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Accomplishments include the identification of a series of active alluvial fans along the margins of the Central Plain, the compilation of crop resources maps of central and eastern Thailand, and evaluation of the Purdue/LARS printout using unsupervised mode of an area near Bangkok. Results from LANDSAT 1 imagery and ground truth survey showed that Thailand existing forest in 1973 covered an area of approximately 37% of total land area. The last countrywide survey using aerial photographs at 1:60,000 scale conducted in 1961 gave the figure of 58%. Experience has shown many advantages of LANDSAT imagery over the conventional aerial photography in locating faults and fractures in the preparation of tectonic maps. Several rock types can also be identified from LANDSAT imagery.

  15. Usefulness of Skylab color photography and ERTS-1 multispectral imagery for mapping range vegetation types in southwestern Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, R. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Aerial photography at scales of 1:43,400 and 1:104,500 was used to evaluate the usefulness of Skylab color photography (scales of 1:477,979 and 1:712,917) and ERTS-1 multispectral imagery (scale 1:1,000,000) for mapping range vegetation types. The project was successful in producing a range vegetation map of the 68,000 acres of salt desert shrub type in southwestern Wyoming. Techniques for estimation of above-ground green biomass have not yet been confirmed due to the mechanical failure of the photometer used in obtaining relative reflectance measurement. However, graphs of log transmittance versus above-ground green biomass indicate that production estimates may be made for some vegetation types from ERTS imagery. Other vegetation types not suitable for direct ERTS estimation of green biomass may possibly be related to those vegetation types whose production has been estimated from the multispectral imagery.

  16. A Spherical Aerial Terrestrial Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, Christopher J.

    This thesis focuses on the design of a novel, ultra-lightweight spherical aerial terrestrial robot (ATR). The ATR has the ability to fly through the air or roll on the ground, for applications that include search and rescue, mapping, surveillance, environmental sensing, and entertainment. The design centers around a micro-quadcopter encased in a lightweight spherical exoskeleton that can rotate about the quadcopter. The spherical exoskeleton offers agile ground locomotion while maintaining characteristics of a basic aerial robot in flying mode. A model of the system dynamics for both modes of locomotion is presented and utilized in simulations to generate potential trajectories for aerial and terrestrial locomotion. Details of the quadcopter and exoskeleton design and fabrication are discussed, including the robot's turning characteristic over ground and the spring-steel exoskeleton with carbon fiber axle. The capabilities of the ATR are experimentally tested and are in good agreement with model-simulated performance. An energy analysis is presented to validate the overall efficiency of the robot in both modes of locomotion. Experimentally-supported estimates show that the ATR can roll along the ground for over 12 minutes and cover the distance of 1.7 km, or it can fly for 4.82 minutes and travel 469 m, on a single 350 mAh battery. Compared to a traditional flying-only robot, the ATR traveling over the same distance in rolling mode is 2.63-times more efficient, and in flying mode the system is only 39 percent less efficient. Experimental results also demonstrate the ATR's transition from rolling to flying mode.

  17. Unmanned Aerial Systems and Spectroscopy for Remote Sensing Applications in Archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Themistocleous, K.; Agapiou, A.; Cuca, B.; Hadjimitsis, D. G.

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing has open up new dimensions in archaeological research. Although there has been significant progress in increasing the resolution of space/aerial sensors and image processing, the detection of the crop (and soil marks) formations, which relate to buried archaeological remains, are difficult to detect since these marks may not be visible in the images if observed over different period or at different spatial/spectral resolution. In order to support the improvement of earth observation remote sensing technologies specifically targeting archaeological research, a better understanding of the crop/soil marks formation needs to be studied in detail. In this paper the contribution of both Unmanned Aerial Systems as well ground spectroradiometers is discussed in a variety of examples applied in the eastern Mediterranean region (Cyprus and Greece) as well in Central Europe (Hungary). In- situ spectroradiometric campaigns can be applied for the removal of atmospheric impact to simultaneous satellite overpass images. In addition, as shown in this paper, the systematic collection of ground truth data prior to the satellite/aerial acquisition can be used to detect the optimum temporal and spectral resolution for the detection of stress vegetation related to buried archaeological remains. Moreover, phenological studies of the crops from the area of interest can be simulated to the potential sensors based on their Relative Response Filters and therefore prepare better the satellite-aerial campaigns. Ground data and the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) can provide an increased insight for studying the formation of crop and soil marks. New algorithms such as vegetation indices and linear orthogonal equations for the enhancement of crop marks can be developed based on the specific spectral characteristics of the area. As well, UAS can be used for remote sensing applications in order to document, survey and model cultural heritage and archaeological sites.

  18. Electronic photography at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holm, Jack M.

    1994-01-01

    The field of photography began a metamorphosis several years ago which promises to fundamentally change how images are captured, transmitted, and output. At this time the metamorphosis is still in the early stages, but already new processes, hardware, and software are allowing many individuals and organizations to explore the entry of imaging into the information revolution. Exploration at this time is prerequisite to leading expertise in the future, and a number of branches at LaRC have ventured into electronic and digital imaging. Their progress until recently has been limited by two factors: the lack of an integrated approach and the lack of an electronic photographic capability. The purpose of the research conducted was to address these two items. In some respects, the lack of electronic photographs has prevented application of an integrated imaging approach. Since everything could not be electronic, the tendency was to work with hard copy. Over the summer, the Photographics Section has set up an Electronic Photography Laboratory. This laboratory now has the capability to scan film images, process the images, and output the images in a variety of forms. Future plans also include electronic capture capability. The current forms of image processing available include sharpening, noise reduction, dust removal, tone correction, color balancing, image editing, cropping, electronic separations, and halftoning. Output choices include customer specified electronic file formats which can be output on magnetic or optical disks or over the network, 4400 line photographic quality prints and transparencies to 8.5 by 11 inches, and 8000 line film negatives and transparencies to 4 by 5 inches. The problem of integrated imaging involves a number of branches at LaRC including Visual Imaging, Research Printing and Publishing, Data Visualization and Animation, Advanced Computing, and various research groups. These units must work together to develop common approaches to image

  19. Electronic photography at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, Jack M.

    1994-12-01

    The field of photography began a metamorphosis several years ago which promises to fundamentally change how images are captured, transmitted, and output. At this time the metamorphosis is still in the early stages, but already new processes, hardware, and software are allowing many individuals and organizations to explore the entry of imaging into the information revolution. Exploration at this time is prerequisite to leading expertise in the future, and a number of branches at LaRC have ventured into electronic and digital imaging. Their progress until recently has been limited by two factors: the lack of an integrated approach and the lack of an electronic photographic capability. The purpose of the research conducted was to address these two items. In some respects, the lack of electronic photographs has prevented application of an integrated imaging approach. Since everything could not be electronic, the tendency was to work with hard copy. Over the summer, the Photographics Section has set up an Electronic Photography Laboratory. This laboratory now has the capability to scan film images, process the images, and output the images in a variety of forms. Future plans also include electronic capture capability. The current forms of image processing available include sharpening, noise reduction, dust removal, tone correction, color balancing, image editing, cropping, electronic separations, and halftoning. Output choices include customer specified electronic file formats which can be output on magnetic or optical disks or over the network, 4400 line photographic quality prints and transparencies to 8.5 by 11 inches, and 8000 line film negatives and transparencies to 4 by 5 inches. The problem of integrated imaging involves a number of branches at LaRC including Visual Imaging, Research Printing and Publishing, Data Visualization and Animation, Advanced Computing, and various research groups. These units must work together to develop common approaches to image

  20. [True color accuracy in digital forensic photography].

    PubMed

    Ramsthaler, Frank; Birngruber, Christoph G; Kröll, Ann-Katrin; Kettner, Mattias; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2016-01-01

    Forensic photographs not only need to be unaltered and authentic and capture context-relevant images, along with certain minimum requirements for image sharpness and information density, but color accuracy also plays an important role, for instance, in the assessment of injuries or taphonomic stages, or in the identification and evaluation of traces from photos. The perception of color not only varies subjectively from person to person, but as a discrete property of an image, color in digital photos is also to a considerable extent influenced by technical factors such as lighting, acquisition settings, camera, and output medium (print, monitor). For these reasons, consistent color accuracy has so far been limited in digital photography. Because images usually contain a wealth of color information, especially for complex or composite colors or shades of color, and the wavelength-dependent sensitivity to factors such as light and shadow may vary between cameras, the usefulness of issuing general recommendations for camera capture settings is limited. Our results indicate that true image colors can best and most realistically be captured with the SpyderCheckr technical calibration tool for digital cameras tested in this study. Apart from aspects such as the simplicity and quickness of the calibration procedure, a further advantage of the tool is that the results are independent of the camera used and can also be used for the color management of output devices such as monitors and printers. The SpyderCheckr color-code patches allow true colors to be captured more realistically than with a manual white balance tool or an automatic flash. We therefore recommend that the use of a color management tool should be considered for the acquisition of all images that demand high true color accuracy (in particular in the setting of injury documentation). PMID:27386623