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Sample records for aerial plant organs

  1. Root ABA Accumulation in Long-Term Water-Stressed Plants is Sustained by Hormone Transport from Aerial Organs.

    PubMed

    Manzi, Matías; Lado, Joanna; Rodrigo, María Jesús; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Arbona, Vicent; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2015-12-01

    The reduced pool of the ABA precursors, β,β-carotenoids, in roots does not account for the substantial increase in ABA content in response to water stress (WS) conditions, suggesting that ABA could be transported from other organs. Basipetal transport was interrupted by stem-girdling, and ABA levels were determined in roots after two cycles of WS induced by transplanting plants to dry perlite. Leaf applications of isotope-labeled ABA and reciprocal grafting of ABA-deficient tomato mutants were used to confirm the involvement of aerial organs on root ABA accumulation. Disruption of basipetal transport reduced ABA accumulation in roots, and this decrease was more severe after two consecutive WS periods. This effect was linked to a sharp decrease in the β,β-carotenoid pool in roots in response to water deficit. Significant levels of isotope-labeled ABA were transported from leaves to roots, mainly in plants subjected to water dehydration. Furthermore, the use of different ABA-deficient tomato mutants in reciprocal grafting combinations with wild-type genotypes confirmed the involvement of aerial organs in the ABA accumulation in roots. In conclusion, accumulation of ABA in roots after long-term WS periods largely relies on the aerial organs, suggesting a reduced ability of the roots to synthesize ABA from carotenoids. Furthermore, plants are able to transport ABA basipetally to sustain high hormone levels in roots. PMID:26542111

  2. 29. Oblique Aerial View of North Plant, Looking North, Showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Oblique Aerial View of North Plant, Looking North, Showing Powerhouse in Left Center and 1929 Bridge in Right Center (undated) - Atwater Kent Manufacturing Company, North Plant, 5000 Wissahickon Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. 27. Oblique Aerial View of North and South Plants, Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Oblique Aerial View of North and South Plants, Looking East, with Powerhouse in Center Foreground (undated) - Atwater Kent Manufacturing Company, North Plant, 5000 Wissahickon Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. 1. AERIAL VIEW OF WHITSETT (INTAKE) PUMP PLANT ON LAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW OF WHITSETT (INTAKE) PUMP PLANT ON LAKE SHORE IN FOREGROUND; GENE IN BACKGROUND, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Whitsett Pump Plant, West side of Colorado River, north of Parker Dam, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

  5. Aerial photography for sensing plant anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.; Cardenas, R.; Hart, W. G.

    1970-01-01

    Changes in the red tonal response of Kodak Ektrachrome Infrared Aero 8443 film (EIR) are often incorrectly attributed solely to variations in infrared light reflectance of plant leaves, when the primary influence is a difference in visible light reflectance induced by varying chlorophyll contents. Comparisons are made among aerial photographic images of high- and low-chlorophyll foliage. New growth, foot rot, and boron and chloride nutrient toxicites produce low-chlorophyll foliage, and EIR transparency images of light red or white compared with dark-red images of high-chlorophyll foliage. Deposits of the sooty mold fungus that subsists on the honeydew produced by brown soft scale insects, obscure the citrus leaves' green color. Infected trees appear as black images on EIR film transparencies compared with red images of healthy trees.

  6. 20. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE PLANT WAS COMPOSED OF FOUR WIDELY SEPARATED AREAS, EACH ONE PERFORMING A DIFFERENT TYPE OF WORK. PLANT A (44), SOUTHWEST, FABRICATED PARTS FROM DEPLETED URANIUM, PLANT B (81), SOUTH, WAS ENRICHED URANIUM OPERATIONS, PLANT C (71), NORTH, PLUTONIUM OPERATIONS, AND PLANT D (91), EAST, WAS FINAL ASSEMBLY, SHIPPING AND RECEIVING (2/6/66). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  7. Biomechanical responses of aquatic plants to aerial conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hamann, Elena; Puijalon, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Wetlands are impacted by changes in hydrological regimes that can lead to periods of low water levels. During these periods, aquatic plants experience a drastic change in the mechanical conditions that they encounter, from low gravitational and tensile hydrodynamic forces when exposed to flow under aquatic conditions, to high gravitational and bending forces under terrestrial conditions. The objective of this study was to test the capacity of aquatic plants to produce self-supporting growth forms when growing under aerial conditions by assessing their resistance to terrestrial mechanical conditions and the associated morpho-anatomical changes. Methods Plastic responses to aerial conditions were assessed by sampling Berula erecta, Hippuris vulgaris, Juncus articulatus, Lythrum salicaria, Mentha aquatica, Myosotis scorpioides, Nuphar lutea and Sparganium emersum under submerged and emergent conditions. The cross-sectional area and dry matter content (DMC) were measured in the plant organs that bear the mechanical forces, and their biomechanical properties in tension and bending were assessed. Key Results All of the species except for two had significantly higher stiffness in bending and thus an increased resistance to terrestrial mechanical conditions when growing under emergent conditions. This response was determined either by an increased allocation to strengthening tissues and thus a higher DMC, or by an increased cross-sectional area. These morpho-anatomical changes also resulted in increased strength and stiffness in tension. Conclusions The capacity of the studied species to colonize this fluctuating environment can be accounted for by a high degree of phenotypic plasticity in response to emersion. Further investigation is however needed to disentangle the finer mechanisms behind these responses (e.g. allometric relations, tissue make-up), their costs and adaptive value. PMID:24187030

  8. 29. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING SOUTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING SOUTH. IN 1983, THE PERIMETER SECURITY ZONE SURROUNDING THE PLUTONIUM OPERATIONS WAS COMPLETED. IT CONSISTED OF A DOUBLE PERIMETER FENCE, CLOSED CIRCUIT TELEVISIONS, ALARMS, AND AN UNINTERRUPTED POWER SUPPLY (7/29/83). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  9. Metagenomic Analysis of Fungal Diversity on Strawberry Plants and the Effect of Management Practices on the Fungal Community Structure of Aerial Organs.

    PubMed

    Abdelfattah, Ahmed; Wisniewski, Michael; Li Destri Nicosia, Maria Giulia; Cacciola, Santa Olga; Schena, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    An amplicon metagenomic approach based on the ITS2 region of fungal rDNA was used to identify the composition of fungal communities associated with different strawberry organs (leaves, flowers, immature and mature fruits), grown on a farm using management practices that entailed the routine use of various chemical pesticides. ITS2 sequences clustered into 316 OTUs and Ascomycota was the dominant phyla (95.6%) followed by Basidiomycota (3.9%). Strawberry plants supported a high diversity of microbial organisms, but two genera, Botrytis and Cladosporium, were the most abundant, representing 70-99% of the relative abundance (RA) of all detected sequences. According to alpha and beta diversity analyses, strawberry organs displayed significantly different fungal communities with leaves having the most diverse fungal community, followed by flowers, and fruit. The interruption of chemical treatments for one month resulted in a significant modification in the structure of the fungal community of leaves and flowers while immature and mature fruit were not significantly affected. Several plant pathogens of other plant species, that would not be intuitively expected to be present on strawberry plants such as Erysiphe, were detected, while some common strawberry pathogens, such as Rhizoctonia, were less evident or absent. PMID:27490110

  10. Metagenomic Analysis of Fungal Diversity on Strawberry Plants and the Effect of Management Practices on the Fungal Community Structure of Aerial Organs

    PubMed Central

    Abdelfattah, Ahmed; Wisniewski, Michael; Li Destri Nicosia, Maria Giulia; Cacciola, Santa Olga

    2016-01-01

    An amplicon metagenomic approach based on the ITS2 region of fungal rDNA was used to identify the composition of fungal communities associated with different strawberry organs (leaves, flowers, immature and mature fruits), grown on a farm using management practices that entailed the routine use of various chemical pesticides. ITS2 sequences clustered into 316 OTUs and Ascomycota was the dominant phyla (95.6%) followed by Basidiomycota (3.9%). Strawberry plants supported a high diversity of microbial organisms, but two genera, Botrytis and Cladosporium, were the most abundant, representing 70–99% of the relative abundance (RA) of all detected sequences. According to alpha and beta diversity analyses, strawberry organs displayed significantly different fungal communities with leaves having the most diverse fungal community, followed by flowers, and fruit. The interruption of chemical treatments for one month resulted in a significant modification in the structure of the fungal community of leaves and flowers while immature and mature fruit were not significantly affected. Several plant pathogens of other plant species, that would not be intuitively expected to be present on strawberry plants such as Erysiphe, were detected, while some common strawberry pathogens, such as Rhizoctonia, were less evident or absent. PMID:27490110

  11. 25. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING WEST - NORTHWEST IN 1974. IN 1972, 4,600 ACRES WERE PURCHASED AROUND THE SITE TO BETTER PROTECT THE BORDERS FROM TERRORISM AND INFILTRATION BY PROTESTORS. ANTI-NUCLEAR DEMONSTRATION BEGAN SHORTLY AFTER THE 1969 FIRE IN BUILDING 776/777, AND CONTINUED UNTIL PRODUCTION CEASED AT THE PLANT IN 1989 (10/7/74). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  12. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST. CLOSEUP OF RAIL MILL, POWER PLANT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST. CLOSE-UP OF RAIL MILL, POWER PLANT, ROD STORAGE, & MACHINE SHOP AT RIGHT OF TRACKS. BAR & BLOOMING MILL, PIT FURNACE BUILDING, OPEN HEARTH, & BLAST FURNACE NO. 1 & NO. 2 AT LEFT OF TRACKS. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  13. 1. AERIAL VIEW OF THE HIGHLINE PUMPING PLANT SITE ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW OF THE HIGHLINE PUMPING PLANT SITE ON THE WESTERN CANAL, LOOKING NORTH. THE OLD PLANT IS ON THE RIGHT BANK, NEAREST THE CANAL. THE NEW PLANT IS ON THE LEFT BANK AT THE END OF THE INLET CANAL. THE KYRENE DITCH RUNS OUT OF THE BOTTOM OF THE PICTURE, AND PART OF THE SWITCHYARD FOR THE KYRENE STEAM PLANT IS VISIBLE AT LOWER RIGHT. c. 1955 - Highline Canal & Pumping Station, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  14. 32. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING NORTHWEST. DURING THE 1980S, A NUMBER OF COMPLAINTS CONCERNING SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ERRORS SURFACED, CULMINATING IN THE 1989 RAID ON THE PLANT BY THE FBI FOR ALLEGED ENVIRONMENTAL INFRACTIONS. THAT SAME YEAR, PRODUCTION AT THE PLANT WAS HALTED FOR CORRECTION OF SAFETY DEFICIENCIES. BY 1991, A SERIES OF EVENTS WORLDWIDE REDUCED THE COLD WAR THREAT, AND IN 1992, THE SECRETARY OF ENERGY ANNOUNCED THAT THE MISSION AT THE PLANT WOULD BE CHANGED TO ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION AND WASTE MANAGEMENT, WITH THE GOAL OF CLEANING UP THE PLANT AND SITE (1989). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  15. 21. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING NORTHWEST. BY THE LATE 1960S, THE SITE HAD UNDERGONE TWO MAJOR EXPANSIONS. THE FIRST EXPANSION IN 1956-57, WHEN THE TRIGGER DESIGN CHANGED AND NECESSITATED THE ADDITION OF SEVEN NEW BUILDINGS. THE SECOND LARGE EXPANSION TOOK PLACE FROM 1964-65, WHEN ROCKY FLATS BECAME THE SOLE PRODUCER OF TRIGGERS. DURING THIS EXPANSION, ELEVEN BUILDINGS WERE ADDED, PRIMARILY IN RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT LABORATORIES, GUARD HOUSES, AND WASTE WATER TREATMENT (7/1/69). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  16. 13. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT FROM DIRECTLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT FROM DIRECTLY OVERHEAD IN 1954. IN 1950, DOW CHEMICAL COMPANY WAS CHOSEN BY THE ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION TO ESTABLISH THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT AS AN ATOMIC BOMB TRIGGER FABRICATION FACILITY. THE CRITERIA FOR SITING SUCH A PLANT INCLUDED A LOCATION WEST OF THE MISSISSIPPI, NORTH OF TEXAS, SOUTH OF THE NORTHERN BORDER OF COLORADO, AND EAST OF UTAH; A DRY MODERATE CLIMATE; A SUPPORTING POPULATION OF AT LEAST 25,000 PEOPLE; AND ACCESSIBILITY FROM LOS ALAMOS, NM, CHICAGO, IL, AND ST. LOUIS, MO. TWENTY-ONE AREAS IN THE UNITED STATES WERE SUGGESTED; SEVEN LOCATIONS WERE SCREENED IN THE DENVER AREA. THIS FOUR-SQUARE MILE AREA WAS SELECTED AND CONSTRUCTION BEGAN IN 1951 (8/31/54). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  17. 26. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING NORTHEAST. IN 1951, A GOOD FRIDAY ISSUE OF THE DENVER POST ANNOUNCED THE ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION'S PLANS TO BUILD THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT. UNDER THE HEADLINE 'THERE'S GOOD NEWS TODAY.' POLITICAL LEADERS EXPRESSED GREAT PRIDE IN THE CHOICE OF THE DENVER-BOULDER AREA AS THE SITE FOR AN ATOMIC PLANT AS QUOTED IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN NEWS: 'WE ARE PROUD THAT THE AREA HAS BEEN CHOSEN FOR ANOTHER IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTION TO THE NATION'S STRENGTH AND FUTURE SECURITY.' BY THE MID 1970S, PUBLIC OPINION OF THE SITE HAD CHANGED (5/4/78). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  18. Metagenomic analysis of fungal diversity on strawberry plants and the effect of management practices on the fungal community structure of aerial organs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabarcoding, defined as Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) of amplicons of the ITS2 region (DNA barcode), was used to identify the composition of the fungal community on different strawberry organs i.e. leaves, flowers, and immature and mature fruits grown on a farm using disease and insect control ...

  19. Plant Regulatory Organizations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chapter on Plant Regulatory Organizations is part of a book titled Pest Management and Phytosanitary Trade Barriers authored by Neil Heather (Australia) and Guy Hallman. It covers the role of plant regulatory organizations from the international to state level in protecting plant health. At on...

  20. Aerial thermography studies of power plant heated lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Villa-Aleman, E.

    2000-01-26

    Remote sensing temperature measurements of water bodies is complicated by the temperature differences between the true surface or skin water and the bulk water below. Weather conditions control the reduction of the skin temperature relative to the bulk water temperature. Typical skin temperature depressions range from a few tenths of a degree Celsius to more than one degree. In this research project, the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) used aerial thermography and surface-based meteorological and water temperature measurements to study a power plant cooling lake in South Carolina. Skin and bulk water temperatures were measured simultaneously for imagery calibration and to produce a database for modeling of skin temperature depressions as a function of weather and bulk water temperatures. This paper will present imagery that illustrates how the skin temperature depression was affected by different conditions in several locations on the lake and will present skin temperature modeling results.

  1. Aerial Radiation Measurements from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Guss, P. P.

    2012-07-16

    This document is a slide show type presentation concerning DOE and Aerial Measuring System (AMS) activities and results with respect to assessing the consequences of the releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. These include ground monitoring and aerial monitoring.

  2. Cytotoxic Compounds from Aerial Organs of Xanthium strumarium.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Janet Piloto; Zampini, Iris Catiana; Cuello, Ana Soledad; Francisco, Marbelis; Romero, Aylema; Valdivia, Dayana; Gonzalez, Maria; Carlos Salas; Lamar, Angel Sanchez; Isla, Maria Inés

    2016-03-01

    Xanthium strumarium L., the main species of the genus Xanthium, is ubiquitously distributed. The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxic effect of aerial organs of X strumarium, grown in Cuba, against cancer cell lines and the isolation of compounds potentially responsible for this activity. Initially, an ethanol partitioning procedure yielded the XSE extract that was subsequently fractionated with chloroform resulting in a XSCF fraction. Both, XSE and XSCF fractions exhibited cytotoxic effects on MDA MB-23 1, MCF7, A549 and CT26 cell lines by using the MTT assay. Above all, the XSCF fraction was more active than XSE. For this reason, XSCF was subsequently fractionated by silica gel chromatography and the active fractions submitted to semi-preparative HPLC for isolation of bioactive compounds. Six sub-fractions (SF1 to SF6) were recovered. Sub-fractions 3 and 6 were the most active on each assayed cell line, while sub-fractions 4 and 5 were only active against A549 and CT26 cell lines. In each case, sub-fraction 6 showed the strongest inhibitory effect. The HPLC-DAD fingerprint of sub-fraction 6 showed a single peak that was identified by GC-MS as (-) spathulenol, a sesquiterpene with reported antitumor activity. PMID:27169184

  3. Determination of Cotton Plant Injury by Aerial Application of Glyphosate Using Remote Sensing and Spray Drift Sampling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Off-target drift of aerially applied glyphosate can cause plant injury, which is of great concern to farmers and aerial applicators. To determine the extent of crop injury due to near-field drift, an experiment was conducted from a single aerial application of glyphosate. For a larger-scoped project...

  4. 10. AERIAL VIEW OF CROSSCUT FACILITY SITE, SHOWING STEAM/DIESEL PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. AERIAL VIEW OF CROSSCUT FACILITY SITE, SHOWING STEAM/DIESEL PLANT BUILDING, RUNNING GENERALLY ACROSS PHOTO, AND INDIAN BEND POND IN UPPER RIGHT CORNER. November 7, 1955 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  5. An aerial radiological survey of the Pilgrim Station Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Plymouth, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, A.E.

    1997-06-01

    Terrestrial radioactivity surrounding the Pilgrim Station Nuclear Power Plant was measured using aerial radiolog- ical survey techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates near the plant and to identify unexpected, man-made radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included land areas within a three-mile radius of the plant site. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that employs sodium iodide, thallium-activated detectors. Exposure rate and photopeak counts were computed from these data and plotted on aerial photographs of the survey area. Several ground-based exposure measurements were made for comparison with the,aerial survey results. Exposure rates in areas surrounding the plant site varied from 6 to 10 microroentgens per hour, with exposure rates below 6 microroentgens per hour occurring over bogs and marshy areas. Man-made radiation was found to be higher than background levels at the plant site. Radation due to nitrogen-1 6, which is produced in the steam cycle of a boiling-water reactor, was the primaty source of activity found at the plant site. Cesium-137 activity at levels slightly above those expected from natural fallout was found at isolated locations inland from the plant site. No other detectable sources of man-made radioactivity were found.

  6. An aerial radiological survey of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding area, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) and surrounding area in Paducah, Kentucky, was conducted during May 15--25, 1990. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the terrestrial radiological environment at the PGDP and surrounding area for use in effective environmental management and emergency response planning. The aerial survey was flown at an altitude of 61 meters (200 feet) along a series of parallel lines 107 meters (350 feet) apart. The survey encompassed an area of 62 square kilometers (24 square miles), bordered on the north by the Ohio River. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a gamma radiation contour map. Typical background exposure rates were found to vary from 5 to 12 microroentgens per hour ([mu]R/h). Protactinium-234m, a radioisotope indicative of uranium-238, was detected at several facilities at the PGDR. In support of the aerial survey, ground-based exposure rate and soil sample measurements were obtained at several sites within the survey perimeter. The results of the aerial and ground-based measurements were found to agree within [plus minus]15%.

  7. An aerial radiological survey of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding area, Portsmouth, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted from July 11--20, 1990, over an 83-square-kilometer (32-square-mile) area surrounding the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant located near Portsmouth, Ohio. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 91 meters (300 feet) with line spacings of 122 meters (400 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a set of United States Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps of the area. The terrestrial exposure rates varied from about 7 to 14 microroentgens per hour ([mu]R/h) at 1 meter above the ground. Analysis of the data for man-made sources and for the uranium decay product, protactinium-234m ([sup 234m]Pa), showed five sites within the boundaries of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant with elevated readings. Spectra obtained in the vicinity of the buildings at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant showed the presence of [sup 234m]Pa, a uranium-238 ([sup 238]U) decay product. In addition, spectral analysis of the data obtained over the processing plant facility showed gamma activity indicative of uranium-235 ([sup 234]U). No other man-made gamma ray emitting radioactive material was detected, either on or off the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant property. Soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at five different locations within the survey boundlaries to support the aerial data.

  8. The content and toxicity of heavy metals in soils affected by aerial emissions from the Pechenganikel plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evdokimova, G. A.; Mozgova, N. P.; Korneikova, M. V.

    2014-05-01

    The zoning of the terrestrial ecosystems exposed to the aerial emissions from the Pechenganikel plant (Murmansk oblast) was performed; it was based on the state of the soil cover in 2012. The following parameters were determined: the pH, the contents of heavy metals (HMs) and exchangeable calcium and magnesium, the proportion between the organic and mineral soil components, and the state of the soil micro-biota. Three zones differing in the intensity of the soil pollution were distinguished: the zone of strong pollution (at a distance of 3 km from the source of the emission), the zone of medium pollution (16 km), and the zone of weak pollution (25-30 km to the southwest from the pollution source). In the last ten years, the soil pollution in the zone influenced by aerial emissions from the Pechenganikel plant has remained the same. The amount of bacteria and fungi in the air is directly related to that in the soil. The results obtained point to the bacterial pollution of the atmosphere nearby the industrial center. In the vicinity of the plant, gram-negative bacteria ( Gracilicutes) predominate in the air; in remote areas, gram-positive bacteria ( Fermicutes) are dominants. In the air nearby the industrial center, potentially pathogenic fungi ( Gongronella butleri and Alternaria alternata) were revealed.

  9. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and Surrounding Area, Portsmouth, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Namdoo Moon

    2007-12-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the 16 square-mile (~41 square-kilometer) area surrounding the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The survey was performed in August 2007 utilizing a large array of helicopter mounted sodium iodide detectors. The purpose of the survey was to update the previous radiological survey levels of the environment and surrounding areas of the plant. A search for a missing radium-226 source was also performed. Implied exposure rates, man-made activity, and excess bismuth-214 activity, as calculated from the aerial data are presented in the form of isopleth maps superimposed on imagery of the surveyed area. Ground level and implied aerial exposure rates for nine specific locations are compared. Detected radioisotopes and their associated gamma ray exposure rates were consistent with those expected from normal background emitters. At specific plant locations described in the report, man-made activity was consistent with the operational histories of the location. There was no spectral activity that would indicate the presence of the lost source.

  10. An aerial survey of radioactivity associated with Atomic Energy plants

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, F.J.; Harlan, W.E.; Humphrey, P.A.; Kane, R.L.; Reinhardt, P.W.

    1992-09-02

    The project covered was an endeavor to (1) compare a group of laboratory instruments as airborne detectors of radioactivity and (2) simultaneously obtain data relative to the diffusion rate of radioactive contamination emitted into the atmosphere from off-gas stacks of production runs. Research was conducted in the Oak Ridge, Tennessee and Hanford, Washington areas. Detection was accomplished at a maximum distance of seventeen miles from the plant. Very little information of a conclusive nature was gained concerning the diffusion. Further research with the nuclear instruments, using a stronger source, is recommended. To obtain conclusive information concerning the meteorological aspects of the project, a larger observational program will be needed.

  11. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Alien Plant Species Detection and Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvořák, P.; Müllerová, J.; Bartaloš, T.; Brůna, J.

    2015-08-01

    Invasive species spread rapidly and their eradication is difficult. New methods enabling fast and efficient monitoring are urgently needed for their successful control. Remote sensing can improve early detection of invading plants and make their management more efficient and less expensive. In an ongoing project in the Czech Republic, we aim at developing innovative methods of mapping invasive plant species (semi-automatic detection algorithms) by using purposely designed unmanned aircraft (UAV). We examine possibilities for detection of two tree and two herb invasive species. Our aim is to establish fast, repeatable and efficient computer-assisted method of timely monitoring, reducing the costs of extensive field campaigns. For finding the best detection algorithm we test various classification approaches (object-, pixel-based and hybrid). Thanks to its flexibility and low cost, UAV enables assessing the effect of phenological stage and spatial resolution, and is most suitable for monitoring the efficiency of eradication efforts. However, several challenges exist in UAV application, such as geometrical and radiometric distortions, high amount of data to be processed and legal constrains for the UAV flight missions over urban areas (often highly invaded). The newly proposed UAV approach shall serve invasive species researchers, management practitioners and policy makers.

  12. Variety-based research on the phenolic content in the aerial parts of organically and conventionally grown buckwheat.

    PubMed

    Žvikas, V; Pukelevičienė, V; Ivanauskas, L; Pukalskas, A; Ražukas, A; Jakštas, V

    2016-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different farming types-organic and conventional-on phenolic content in buckwheat varieties grown in Lithuania. Rutin was identified as the dominant phenolic compound in contrast to both phenolic acids (chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acids) and other flavonoids (quercetin and quercitrin). It was determined that variety had the highest impact (p<0.05) on the phenolic content of various aerial parts of buckwheat. In most cases, farming practice significantly (p<0.05) affected the accumulation of phenolics in buckwheat. Organically grown plants usually contained higher amounts of phenolics than those grown under conventional farming conditions. According to a cluster analysis, varieties Panda, Zaleika, and VB Nojai were found to accumulate the highest amounts of phenolics. PMID:27451232

  13. Use of aerial photographs for assessment of soil organic carbon and delineation of agricultural management zones.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholomeus, H.; Kooistra, L.

    2012-04-01

    For quantitative estimation of soil properties by means of remote sensing, often hyperspectral data are used. But these data are scarce and expensive, which prohibits wider implementation of the developed techniques in agricultural management. For precision agriculture, observations at a high spatial resolution are required. Colour aerial photographs at this scale are widely available, and can be acquired at no of very low costs. Therefore, we investigated whether publically available aerial photographs can be used to a) automatically delineate management zones and b) estimate levels of organic carbon spatially. We selected three study areas within the Netherlands that cover a large variance in soil type (peat, sand, and clay). For the fields of interest, RGB aerial photographs with a spatial resolution of 50 cm were extracted from a publically available data provider. Further pre-processing exists of geo-referencing only. Since the images originate from different sources and are potentially acquired under unknown illumination conditions, the exact radiometric properties of the data are unknown. Therefore, we used spectral indices to emphasize the differences in reflectance and normalize for differences in radiometry. To delineate management zones we used image segmentation techniques, using the derived indices as input. Comparison with management zone maps as used by the farmers shows that there is good correspondence. Regression analysis between a number of soil properties and the derived indices shows that organic carbon is the major explanatory variable for differences in index values within the fields. However, relations do not hold for large regions, indicating that local models will have to be used, which is a problem that is also still relevant for hyperspectral remote sensing data. With this research, we show that low-cost aerial photographs can be a valuable tool for quantitative analysis of organic carbon and automatic delineation of management zones

  14. Differences in mechanical and structural properties of surface and aerial petioles of the aquatic plant Nymphaea odorata subsp. tuberosa (Nymphaeaceae).

    PubMed

    Etnier, Shelley A; Villani, Philip J

    2007-07-01

    Lily pads (Nymphaea odorata) exhibit heterophylly where a single plant may have leaves that are submerged, floating, or above (aerial) the surface of the water. Lily pads are placed in a unique situation because each leaf form is exposed to a distinctly different set of mechanical demands. While surface petioles may be loaded in tension under conditions of wind or waves, aerial petioles are loaded in compression because they must support the weight of the lamina. Using standard techniques, we compared the mechanical and morphological properties of both surface and aerial leaf petioles. Structural stiffness (EI) and the second moment of area (I) were higher in aerial petioles, although we detected no differences in other mechanical values (elastic modulus [E], extension ratio, and breaking strength). Morphologically, aerial petioles had a thicker rind, with increased collenchyma tissue and sclereid cell frequency. Aerial petioles also had a larger cross-sectional area and were more elliptical. Thus, subtle changes in the distribution of materials, rather than differences in their makeup, differentiate petiole forms. We suggest that the growth of aerial petioles may be an adaptive response to shading, allowing aerial leaves to rise above a crowded water surface. PMID:21636476

  15. An aerial radiological survey of the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Fort Calhoun, Nebraska

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Plant in Fort Calhoun, Nebraska, during the period June 19 through June 28, 1993. The survey was conducted at an altitude of 150 feet (46 meters) over a 25-square-mile (65-square-kilometer) area centered on the power station. The purpose of the survey was to document the terrestrial gamma radiation environment of the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a contour map. Outside the plant boundary, exposure rates were found to vary between 6 and 12 microroentgens per hour and were attributed to naturally-occurring uranium, thorium, and potassium. The aerial data were compared to ground-based benchmark exposure rate measurements and radionuclide assays of soil samples obtained within the survey boundary. The ground-based measurements were found to be in good agreement with those inferred from the aerial measuring system. A previous survey was conducted on August 9 and 10, 1972, before the plant began operation. Exposure rates measured in both surveys were consistent with normal terrestrial background.

  16. An aerial radiological survey of the Robert Emmett Ginna Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Ontario, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, A.E.

    1997-06-01

    Terrestrial radioactivity surrounding the Robert Emmett Ginna Nuclear Power Plant was measured using aerial radiological surveying techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates near the plant and to identify unexpected, man-made radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included land areas within a three-mile radius of the plant site. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that employed sodium iodide, thallium-activated detectors. Exposure-rate and photopeak counts were computed from these data and plotted on aerial photographs of the survey area. Several ground-based exposure measurements were made for comparison with the aerial survey results. Exposure rates in the area surrounding the plant site varied from 6 to 10 microroentgens per hour. Man-made radiation (cobalt-60 within the plant site and cesium-1 37 directly over the reactor) was found at the plant site. In addition, small areas of suspected cesium-137 activity were found within the survey areas. Other than these small sites, the survey area was free of man-made radioac- tivity.

  17. Light microscopy of whole plant organs.

    PubMed

    Timmers, Antonius C J

    2016-08-01

    Plants are ideal organisms for light microscopical studies of cellular mechanisms controlling cell organisation and cell functioning. However, most plant organs are not transparent to light which prevents high resolution imaging deep within plant tissues. Classically, access into plant organs is achieved by sectioning or whole-mount tissue clearing. Until recently, the protocols for clearing destroyed the signal from fluorescent markers which prevented the imaging of the distribution of fluorescent proteins and the three-dimensional reconstruction from optical slices of whole plant organs. From 2011, a number of protocols have been developed for whole brain and whole organism imaging for animal studies. Now, these protocols have been adapted for in-depth imaging of whole plant organs. Here, I present an overview of clearing techniques of plant organs and highlight the latest developments of plant tissue clearing in combination with high resolution fluorescence microscopy. PMID:27027806

  18. Antioxidant Property of Aerial Parts and Root of Phyllanthus fraternus Webster, an Important Medicinal Plant

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Richa; Chaurasia, Jitendra Kumar; Tiwari, Kavindra Nath; Singh, Karuna

    2014-01-01

    In present study free radical scavenging potential of aerial parts and root of Phyllanthus fraternus was investigated. Extraction was done in water and ethanol. Total antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH free radical scavenging method; ethanolic extract of aerial part was most potent in activity with 50% inhibition at 258 μg/mL concentration. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) was measured in terms of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) by using egg-yolk homogenates as lipid-rich media with EC50 of aerial part (ethanolic) 1522 μg/mL which was found to be most active. Superoxide (SO) radical scavenging activity was measured using riboflavin-light-nitroblue tetrazolium assay. Ethanolic and aqueous extract of both aerial part and root was almost similar in superoxide radical scavenging activity. Reducing power was determined on the basis of Fe3+-Fe2+ transformation in the presence of extract. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also measured by spectroscopic method. Results showed that the ethanolic fraction of aerial part is most active towards antioxidant potential and this activity is related to its polyphenolic content and reducing potential. Thus, P. fraternus extract can be used as potent natural antioxidant. PMID:24587744

  19. Environmental geophysics and sequential aerial photo study at Sunfish and Marsden Lakes, Twin Cities Army Ammunition Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Padar, C.A.; McGinnis, L.D.; Thompson, M.D.; Anderson, A.W.; Benson, M.A.; Stevanov, J.E.; Daudt, C.R.; Miller, S.F.; Knight, D.E. |

    1995-08-01

    Geophysical studies at Site H of Twin Cities Army Ammunition Plant have delineated specific areas of dumping and waste disposal. Anomalous areas noted in the geophysical data sets have been correlated with features visible in a chronological sequence of aerial photos. The photos aid in dating the anthropogenic changes and in interpreting the geophysical anomalies observed at Site H and across Sunfish Lake. Specifically, two burn cages and what has been interpreted as their surrounding debris have been delineated. The areal extent of another waste site has been defined in the southwest corner of Area H-1. Depth estimates to the top of the Area H-1 anomalies show that the anomalies lie below lake level, indicative of dumping directly into Sunfish Lake. Except for these areas along the northwestern shore, there is no evidence of waste disposal along the shoreline or within the present-day lake margins. Magnetic, electromagnetic, and ground-penetrating-radar data have pinpointed the locations of mounds, observable in aerial photos, around the first burn cage. The second burn cage and its surrounding area have also been clearly defined from aerial photos, with support from further geophysical data. Additional analysis of the data has yielded volumetric estimates of the amount of material that would need removal in the event of excavation of the anomalous areas. Magnetic and electromagnetic profiles were also run across Marsden Lake. On the basis of these data, it has been concluded that no large-scale dumping has occurred in or around Marsden Lake.

  20. Large-scale aerial images capture details of invasive plant populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Satellite and aerial remote sensing have been successfully used to measure invasive weed infestations over very large areas, but have limited resolution. Ground-based methods have provided detailed measurements of invasive weeds, but can measure only limited areas. Here we test a novel approach th...

  1. Organic control of plant diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic agriculture refers to agricultural production systems that are managed according to a number of standards which vary by governing body or political entity, but which share a common philosophy and set of general management practices. In popular culture, organic crop production is generally un...

  2. Cesium-134 and strontium-85 in strawberry plants following wet aerial deposition.

    PubMed

    Carini, F; Brambilla, M; Mitchell, N; Ould-Dada, Z

    2003-01-01

    The understanding of the processes that control the behavior of radionuclides in crops can support policymakers to take actions to protect the environment and safeguard human health. Data concerning the behavior of radionuclides in fruits are limited. Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne) plants were contaminated on the aboveground part by sprinkling an aqueous solution of 134Cs and 85Sr at three growing stages: predormancy, anthesis, and beginning of ripening. Intercepted activity was more affected by the posture and physical orientation of leaves rather than by leaf area or biomass. Fruit interception ranges from 0.2 to 1.2% of the sprinkled activity. Translocation coefficients from leaf to fruit are on the order of 10(-4) for 134Cs and 10(-5) for 85Sr. Translocation reaches its highest intensity between anthesis and ripening. If deposition occurs when plants are bearing fruits, the fruit activity will be affected by the activity initially deposited on the fruit surfaces. This is important for 85Sr as it is not translocated in the phloem. The loss of the dead leaves at the resumption of growth causes high plant decontamination, but a fraction of both radionuclides remains in the storage organs, roots, and shoots, which is retranslocated to fruits in the following spring. The values of the environmental half-time, t(w), after deposition at predormancy are 114 d for 134Cs and 109 d for 85Sr. Cesium-134 tends to be allocated to fruits, while 85Sr remains in leaves and crowns. Translocation of radionuclides to roots results in soil contamination. PMID:14674549

  3. Aerial Survey Results for 131I Deposition on the Ground after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Torii, Tatsuo; Sugita, Takeshi; Okada, Colin E.; Reed, Michael S.; Blumenthal, Daniel J.

    2013-08-01

    In March 2011 the second largest accidental release of radioactivity in history occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant following a magnitude 9.0 earthquake and subsequent tsunami. Teams from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Emergency Response performed aerial surveys to provide initial maps of the dispersal of radioactive material in Japan. The initial results from the surveys did not report the concentration of 131I. This work reports on analyses performed on the initial survey data by a joint Japan-US collaboration to determine 131I ground concentration. This information is potentially useful in reconstruction of the inhalation and external exposure doses from this short-lived radionuclide. The deposited concentration of 134Cs is also reported.

  4. An aerial radiological survey of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Forked River, New Jersey. Date of survey: September 18--25, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, H.A.; McCall, K.A.

    1994-05-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant in Forked River, New Jersey, during the period September 18 through September 24, 1992. The survey was conducted at an altitude of 150 feet (46 meters) over a 26-square-mile (67-square-kilometer) area centered on the power station. The purpose of the survey was to document the terrestrial gamma radiation environment of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power plant and surrounding area. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a contour map. Outside the plant boundary, exposure rates were found to vary between 4 and 10 microroentgens per hour and were attributed to naturally-occurring uranium, thorium, and radioactive potassium gamma emitters. The aerial data were compared to ground-based benchmark exposure rate measurements and radionuclide assays of soil samples obtained within the survey boundary. The ground-based measurements were found to be in good agreement with those inferred from the aerial measuring system. A previous survey of the power plant was conducted in August 1969 during its initial startup phase. Exposure rates and radioactive isotopes revealed in both surveys were consistent and within normal terrestrial background levels.

  5. Genomic diversity of Pseudomonas spp. isolated from aerial or root surfaces of plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Among the diverse strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas chlororaphis inhabiting plant surfaces are those that protect plants from infection by pathogens. To explore the diversity of these bacteria, we derived genomic sequences of seven strains that suppress plant disease. Along with t...

  6. Modeling and inverse controller design for an unmanned aerial vehicle based on the self-organizing map.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jeongho; Principe, Jose C; Erdogmus, Deniz; Motter, Mark A

    2006-03-01

    The next generation of aircraft will have dynamics that vary considerably over the operating regime. A single controller will have difficulty to meet the design specifications. In this paper, a self-organizing map (SOM)-based local linear modeling scheme of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is developed to design a set of inverse controllers. The SOM selects the operating regime depending only on the embedded output space information and avoids normalization of the input data. Each local linear model is associated with a linear controller, which is easy to design. Switching of the controllers is done synchronously with the active local linear model that tracks the different operating conditions. The proposed multiple modeling and control strategy has been successfully tested in a simulator that models the LoFLYTE UAV. PMID:16566471

  7. Epidermis is a pivotal site of at least four secondary metabolic pathways in Catharanthus roseus aerial organs.

    PubMed

    Mahroug, Samira; Courdavault, Vincent; Thiersault, Martine; St-Pierre, Benoit; Burlat, Vincent

    2006-05-01

    Catharanthus roseus produces a wide range of secondary metabolites, some of which present high therapeutic values such as antitumoral monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIAs), vinblastine and vincristine, and the hypotensive MIA, ajmalicine. We have recently shown that a complex multicellular organisation of the MIA biosynthetic pathway occurred in C. roseus aerial organs. In particular, the final steps of both the secoiridoid-monoterpene and indole pathways specifically occurred in the epidermis of leaves and petals. Chorismate is the common precursor of indole and phenylpropanoid pathways. In an attempt to better map the spatio-temporal organisation of diverse secondary metabolisms in Catharanthus roseus aerial organs, we studied the expression pattern of genes encoding enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase [PAL, E.C. 4.3.1.5], cinnamate 4-hydroxylase [C4H, E.C. 1.14.13.11] and chalcone synthase [CHS, E.C. 2.3.1.74]). In situ hybridisation experiments revealed that CrPAL and CrC4H were specifically localised to lignifying xylem, whereas CrPAL, CrC4H and CrCHS were specifically expressed in the flavonoid-rich upper epidermis. Interestingly, these three genes were co-expressed in the epidermis (at least the upper, adaxial one) together with three MIA-related genes, indicating that single epidermis cells were capable of concomitantly producing a wide range of diverse secondary metabolites (e.g. flavonoïds, indoles, secoiridoid-monoterpenes and MIAs). These results, and data showing co-accumulation of flavonoids and alkaloids in single cells of C. roseus cell lines, indicated the spatio-temporal feasibility of putative common regulation mechanisms for the expression of these genes involved in at least four distinct secondary metabolisms. PMID:16322983

  8. Parabolic Trough Organic Rankine Cycle Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Canada, S.; Cohen, G.; Cable, R.; Brosseau, D.; Price, H.

    2005-01-01

    Arizona Public Service (APS) is required to generate a portion of its electricity from solar resources in order to satisfy its obligation under the Arizona Environmental Portfolio Standard (EPS). In recent years, APS has installed and operates over 4.5 MWe of fixed, tracking, and concentrating photovoltaic systems to help meet the solar portion of this obligation and to develop an understanding of which solar technologies provide the best cost and performance to meet utility needs. During FY04, APS began construction of a 1-MWe parabolic trough concentrating solar power plant. This plant represents the first parabolic trough plant to begin construction since 1991. The plant will also be the first commercial deployment of the Solargenix parabolic trough collector technology developed under contract to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The plant will use an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power plant, provided by Ormat. The ORC power plant is much simpler than a conventional steam Rankine cycle power plant and allows unattended operation of the facility.

  9. USING AERIAL HYPERSPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING IMAGERY TO ESTIMATE CORN PLANT STAND DENSITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since corn plant stand density is important for optimizing crop yield, several researchers have recently developed ground-based systems for automatic measurement of this crop growth parameter. Our objective was to use data from such a system to assess the potential for estimation of corn plant stan...

  10. Aerial Explorers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg; Ippolito, Corey

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents recent results from a mission architecture study of planetary aerial explorers. In this study, several mission scenarios were developed in simulation and evaluated on success in meeting mission goals. This aerial explorer mission architecture study is unique in comparison with previous Mars airplane research activities. The study examines how aerial vehicles can find and gain access to otherwise inaccessible terrain features of interest. The aerial explorer also engages in a high-level of (indirect) surface interaction, despite not typically being able to takeoff and land or to engage in multiple flights/sorties. To achieve this goal, a new mission paradigm is proposed: aerial explorers should be considered as an additional element in the overall Entry, Descent, Landing System (EDLS) process. Further, aerial vehicles should be considered primarily as carrier/utility platforms whose purpose is to deliver air-deployed sensors and robotic devices, or symbiotes, to those high-value terrain features of interest.

  11. An Aerial Radiological survey of the Alvin W. Vogtle Nuclear Plant and surrounding area, Waynesboro, Georgia: Date of survey: August--September 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    An Aerial Radiological Survey was conducted during the period of August 24 to September 14, 1988 over an area of approximately 310 square kilometers (120 square miles) surrounding the Alvin W. Vogtle Nuclear Plant. The Vogtle Nuclear Plant is located near Augusta, Georgia, along the Savannah River and adjacent to the Savannah River Site (SRS). Several anomalous areas were identified in the portion of the survey extending into the SRS perimeter. The dominant isotopes found in these areas were cesium-137 and cobalt-60. All of these man-made anomalies identified by the aerial measurements were attributed to SRS processing. For the remainder of the survey area, the inferred radiation exposure rates generally varied from 6 to 10 microroentgens per hour ({mu}R/h), which was found to be due to naturally occurring uranium, thorium, and radioactive potassium gamma emitters. The reported exposure rate values included an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.6 {mu}R/h. Soils samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at three locations within the survey boundaries to support the aerial data. The exposure rate values obtained from these groundbased measurements were in agreement with the corresponding inferred aerial values. 6 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Genomic Diversity of Biocontrol Strains of Pseudomonas spp. Isolated from Aerial or Root Surfaces of Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The striking ecological, metabolic, and biochemical diversity of Pseudomonas has intrigued microbiologists for many decades. To explore the genomic diversity of biocontrol strains of Pseudomonas spp., we derived high quality draft sequences of seven strains known to suppress plant disease. The str...

  13. The Effect of Gravity on the Structural Strength and Form of Aerial Plant Axes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murakami, Kiyofumi; Tajima, Ayumi

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between the form and structure of plants and their gravitational environment is one of the most important teaching subjects of biological education. However, the teaching materials for the gravity effect have so long been concerned only with gravitropism, i.e. the short-time response of adjusting the orientation of seedling roots…

  14. Aerial radiation monitoring around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant using an unmanned helicopter.

    PubMed

    Sanada, Yukihisa; Torii, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 generated a series of large tsunami that seriously damaged the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), which resulted in the release of radioactive materials into the environment. To provide further details regarding the distribution of air dose rate and the distribution of radioactive cesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) deposition on the ground within a radius of approximately 5 km from the nuclear power plant, we carried out measurements using an unmanned helicopter equipped with a radiation detection system. The distribution of the air dose rate at a height of 1 m above the ground and the radioactive cesium deposition on the ground was calculated. Accordingly, the footprint of radioactive plumes that extended from the FDNPP was illustrated. PMID:25053518

  15. Uniformity of environmental conditions and plant growth in a hydroponic culture system for use in a growth room with aerial CO2 control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vessey, J. K.; York, E. K.; Henry, L. T.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1988-01-01

    A portable system of hydroponic culture was developed that maintained temperature, pH, and nutrient concentrations of circulating nutrient solutions. The hydroponic system is used within a controlled-environment room (CER) for control of aerial environment. The CER was equipped with an auto-calibrating system for atmospheric CO2 control. The control systems for the hydroponic chambers were able to maintain acidity within +/- 0.2 pH units and the temperature with +/- 0.5 degree C. Mixing time for the 200-liter volume of solution within a hydroponic chamber was less than 12 min. The CO2 control system was able to maintain aerial concentrations within +/- 10 ppm CO2 during the light period. The only gradient found to occur within the hydroponic chambers or CER was a slight gradient in aerial temperature along the length of hydroponic chambers. Growth of soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] was characterized during a 3-week period of vegetative development by leaf number and area, plant dry weight, total N content of plants, and N depletion from the nutrient solution. The growth characteristics among populations for three hydroponic chambers within the CER were not significantly different, and the percent standard errors of means of the measurements within populations from each chamber were nearly all less than 10%. Thus, the uniformity of plant growth reflected the uniformity of environmental conditions.

  16. Aerial radiological survey of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Bonsal, North Carolina. Date of survey: June 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Jobst, J.E.

    1984-10-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant near Bonsal, North Carolina was conducted during the period 19 to 26 June 1984. The survey encompassed a 263-square-kilometer (101-square-mile) area centered on the reactor facilities. Inferred exposure rates were due primarily to naturally occurring gamma-emitting radionuclides and cosmic ray activity (estimated at 3.6 ..mu..R/h). The exposure rates varied broadly, from 4 to 11 ..mu..R/h. Most of the forest and farm land in the surrounding countryside ranged from 6 to 9 ..mu..R/h. Two areas showed slightly elevated activity (9 to 11 ..mu..R/h) due to Plant activities: (1) the land immediately surrounding the reactor because of construction materials and the absence of vegetation, (2) a metallurgical laboratory storage area containing small quantities of fission products. Spectral analysis of the latter showed that /sup 60/Co was the primary contributor to this elevated activity. Ground-based measurements made in several areas around the Plant site were consistent with the aerial data. This was the first aerial radiological survey conducted over this area. 6 references, 7 figures, 3 tables.

  17. Study of nsLTPs in Lotus japonicus genome reveal a specific epidermal cell member (LjLTP10) regulated by drought stress in aerial organs with a putative role in cutin formation.

    PubMed

    Tapia, G; Morales-Quintana, L; Parra, C; Berbel, A; Alcorta, M

    2013-07-01

    The cuticle is the first defense against pathogens and the second way water is lost in plants. Hydrophobic layers covering aerial plant organs from primary stages of development form cuticle, including major classes of aliphatic wax components and cutin. Extensive research has been conducted to understand cuticle formation mechanisms in plants. However, many questions remain unresolved in the transport of lipid components to form cuticle. Database studies of the Lotus japonicus genome have revealed the presence of 24 sequences classified as putative non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs), which were classified in seven groups; four groups were selected because of their expression in aerial organs. LjLTP8 forms a cluster with DIR1 in Arabidopsis thaliana while LjLTP6, LjLTP9, and LjLTP10 were grouped as type I LTPs. In silico studies showed a high level of structural conservation, and substrate affinity studies revealed palmitoyl-CoA as the most likely ligand for these LTPs, although the Lyso-Myristoyl Phosphatidyl Choline, Lyso-myristoyl phosphatidyl glycerol, and Lyso-stearyl phosphatidyl choline ligands also showed a high affinity with the proteins. The LjLTP6 and LjLTP10 genes were expressed in both the stems and the leaves under normal conditions and were highly induced during drought stress. LjLTP10 was the most induced gene in shoots during drought. The gene was only expressed in the epidermal cells of stems, primordial leaves, and young leaflets. LjLTP10 was positively regulated by MeJA but repressed by abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene, and H2O2, while LjLTP6 was weakly induced by MeJA, repressed by H2O2, and not affected by ABA and ethylene. We suggest that LjLTP10 is involved in plant development of stem and leaf cuticle, but also in acclimation to tolerate drought stress in L. japonicus. PMID:23733601

  18. Study on release and transport of aerial radioactive materials in reprocessing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Amano, Y.; Tashiro, S.; Uchiyama, G.; Abe, H.; Yamane, Y.; Yoshida, K.; Kodama, T.

    2013-07-01

    The release and transport characteristics of radioactive materials at a boiling accident of the high active liquid waste (HALW) in a reprocessing plant have been studied for improving experimental data of source terms of the boiling accident. In the study, a heating test and a thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) test were conducted. In the heating test using a simulated HALW, it was found that ruthenium was mainly released into the air in the form of gas and that non-volatile elements were released into the air in the form of mist. In the TG-DTA test, the rate constants and reaction heat of thermal decomposition of ruthenium nitrosyl nitrate were obtained from TG and DTA curves. (authors)

  19. Simulating aerial gravitropism and posture control in plants: what has been done, what is missing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutand, Catherine; Pot, Guillaume; Bastien, R.; Badel, Eric; Moulia, Bruno

    The gravitropic response requires a process of perception of the signal and a motor process to actuate the movements. Different models have been developed, some focuses on the perception process and some focuses on the motor process. The kinematics of the gravitropic response will be first detailed to set the phenomenology of gravi- and auto-tropism. A model of perception (AC model) will be first presented to demonstrate that sensing inclination is not sufficient to control the gravitropic movement, and that proprioception is also involved. Then, “motor models” will be reviewed. In herbaceous plants, differential growth is the main motor. Modelling tropic movements with simulating elongation raises some difficulties that will be explained. In woody structures the main motor process is the differentiation of reaction wood via cambial growth. We will first present the simplest biomechanical model developed to simulate gravitropism and its limits will be pointed out. Then a more sophisticated model (TWIG) will be presented with a special focus on the importance of wood viscoelasticity and the wood maturation process and its regulation by a mechanosensing process. The presentation will end by a balance sheet of what is done and what is missing for a complete modelling of gravitropism and will present first results of a running project dedicating to get the data required to include phototropism in the actual models.

  20. 27. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST DOWN THE WEST ACCESS ROAD. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST DOWN THE WEST ACCESS ROAD. THE FIRST LARGE PROTEST AT THE PLANT CAME IN 1978. IT WAS THE FIRST MAJOR PROTEST AT ANY DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PLANT. IN RESPONSE TO CONTINUING ANTI- NUCLEAR PROTESTS, IN PARTICULAR A 1979 RALLY THAT DREW 10,000 PARTICIPANTS, ROCKWELL EMPLOYEES AT THE PLANT FORMED A GRASSROOT ORGANIZATION, CITIZENS FOR ENERGY AND FREEDOM, AND ORGANIZED A PRO-NUCLEAR RALLY, 'POWER TO THE PEOPLE,' THAT ATTRACTED 16,000 PEOPLE (5/4/78). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  1. Effect of organic amendments and mineral fertilizer on zinc bioavailability, plant content and translocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chami, Ziad Al; Cavoski, Ivana; Mondelli, Donato; Miano, Teodoro

    2013-04-01

    Organic matter plays a key role in heavy metal bioavailability through changes in soil chemical characteristics, and by its metal-chelating ability, the latter being one of the most important factors controlling the mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals in the soil-plant system. In this research, rocket (Eruca vesicaria L. Cavalieri), a common edible plant species in the Mediterranean regions, was used as bio-indicator to evaluate the effect of different organic amendments on Zn toxicity, absorption, and translocation. The main objectives of this study were to investigate the bioavailability of Zn in an artificially contaminated soil after the addition of compost, manure and chemical fertilizers at agronomically recommended doses and to evaluate their ability to reduce Zn concentration in the edible plant part. A greenhouse pots experiment was carried out using rocket plant grown on an artificially contaminated soil. In this study, the effect of compost, manure and chemical fertilizers on Zn fate in a soil-plant system was evaluated. At the end of the experiment main growth parameters and Zn content in plants were determined. In addition, Zn speciation in the soil was assessed using the original BCR sequential extraction and the DTPA extraction. The overall assessment of experimental results is that compost, followed by chemical fertilizers treatments, was the most efficient in enhancing plant growth and decreasing metal toxicity and concentrations in plant tissues. Manure amendments increased plant Zn content and toxicity in rocket plants. In the case of compost treatment, this effect can be attributed to the humified OM present in compost; while the negative effect of manure is due to its content in low molecular weight organic acids. The effect of chemical fertilizers treatment could be attributed to the addition of P fertilizer in soluble and highly available forms to the plants. On the contrary, using DTPA and BCR sequential extraction procedure, all

  2. Plant Diseases and Management Approaches in Organic Farming Systems.

    PubMed

    van Bruggen, A H C; Finckh, M R

    2016-08-01

    Organic agriculture has expanded worldwide. Numerous papers were published in the past 20 years comparing plant diseases in organic and conventional crops. Root diseases are generally less severe owing to greater soil health, whereas some foliar diseases can be problematic in organic agriculture. The soil microbial community and nitrogen availability play an important role in disease development and yield. Recently, the focus has shifted to optimizing organic crop production by improving plant nutrition, weed control, and plant health. Crop-loss assessment relating productivity to all yield-forming and -reducing factors would benefit organic production and sustainability evaluation. PMID:27215969

  3. ENZYMATIC PROCESSES USED BY PLANTS TO DEGRADE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a review of recent plant enzyme systems that have been studied in uptake and transformation of organic contaminants. General procedures of plant preparation and enzyme isolation are covered. Six plant enzyme systems have been investigated for activity with selected pollut...

  4. AERIAL RADIOLOGICAL SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, A.E.

    1997-06-09

    Measuring terrestrial gamma radiation from airborne platforms has proved to be a useful method for characterizing radiation levels over large areas. Over 300 aerial radiological surveys have been carried out over the past 25 years including U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, commercial nuclear power plants, Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program/Uranium Mine Tailing Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP/UMTRAP) sites, nuclear weapons test sites, contaminated industrial areas, and nuclear accident sites. This paper describes the aerial measurement technology currently in use by the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) for routine environmental surveys and emergency response activities. Equipment, data-collection and -analysis methods, and examples of survey results are described.

  5. An aerial radiological survey of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and surrounding area, Carlsbad, New Mexico: Date of survey, April 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period April 8 to April 19, 1988 over a 404-square-kilometer (156-square-mile) area covering the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) located near Carlsbad, New Mexico, the surrounding area. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 91 meters (300 feet) with a line spacing of 152 meters (500 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial exposure rates plus the cosmic exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph of the area. The average terrestrial exposure rates ranged from approximately 6.0 to 9.0 microroentgens per hour ({mu}R/h). Two areas of increased exposure rate were evident. Both areas indicated higher than normal concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides. A machine-aided search of the data for man-made sources of radiation indicated the presence of Cs-137 at the Gnome Site, which was expected from previous survey work done in the area. No other sources of man-made radiation were found.

  6. OSC2 and CYP716A14v2 Catalyze the Biosynthesis of Triterpenoids for the Cuticle of Aerial Organs of Artemisia annua

    PubMed Central

    Moses, Tessa; Pollier, Jacob; Shen, Qian; Soetaert, Sandra; Reed, James; Erffelinck, Marie-Laure; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip C.W.; Vanden Bossche, Robin; Osbourn, Anne; Thevelein, Johan M.; Deforce, Dieter; Tang, Kexuan

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia annua is widely studied for its ability to accumulate the antimalarial sesquiterpenoid artemisinin. In addition to producing a variety of sesquiterpenoids, A. annua also accumulates mono-, di-, and triterpenoids, the majority of which are produced in the glandular trichomes. A. annua also has filamentous trichomes on its aerial parts, but little is known of their biosynthesis potential. Here, through a comparative transcriptome analysis between glandular and filamentous trichomes, we identified two genes, OSC2 and CYP716A14v2, encoding enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of specialized triterpenoids in A. annua. By expressing these genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Nicotiana benthamiana, we characterized the catalytic function of these proteins and could reconstitute the specialized triterpenoid spectrum of A. annua in these heterologous hosts. OSC2 is a multifunctional oxidosqualene cyclase that produces α-amyrin, β-amyrin, and δ-amyrin. CYP716A14v2 is a P450 belonging to the functionally diverse CYP716 family and catalyzes the oxidation of pentacyclic triterpenes, leading to triterpenes with a carbonyl group at position C-3, thereby providing an alternative biosynthesis pathway to 3-oxo triterpenes. Together, these enzymes produce specialized triterpenoids that are constituents of the wax layer of the cuticle covering the aerial parts of A. annua and likely function in the protection of the plant against biotic and abiotic stress. PMID:25576188

  7. Soil Organic Matter and Management of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Widmer, T. L.; Mitkowski, N. A.; Abawi, G. S.

    2002-01-01

    Organic matter and its replenishment has become a major component of soil health management programs. Many of the soil's physical, chemical, and biological properties are a function of organic matter content and quality. Adding organic matter to soil influences diverse and important biological activities. The diversity and number of free-living and plant-parasitic nematodes are altered by rotational crops, cover crops, green manures, and other sources of organic matter. Soil management programs should include the use of the proper organic materials to improve soil chemical, physical, and biological parameters and to suppress plant-parasitic nematodes and soilborne pathogens. It is critical to monitor the effects of organic matter additions on activities of major and minor plant-parasitic nematodes in the production system. This paper presents a general review of information in the literature on the effects of crop rotation, cover crops, and green manures on nematodes and their damage to economic crops. PMID:19265946

  8. Soil organic matter and management of plant-parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Widmer, T L; Mitkowski, N A; Abawi, G S

    2002-12-01

    Organic matter and its replenishment has become a major component of soil health management programs. Many of the soil's physical, chemical, and biological properties are a function of organic matter content and quality. Adding organic matter to soil influences diverse and important biological activities. The diversity and number of free-living and plant-parasitic nematodes are altered by rotational crops, cover crops, green manures, and other sources of organic matter. Soil management programs should include the use of the proper organic materials to improve soil chemical, physical, and biological parameters and to suppress plant-parasitic nematodes and soilborne pathogens. It is critical to monitor the effects of organic matter additions on activities of major and minor plant-parasitic nematodes in the production system. This paper presents a general review of information in the literature on the effects of crop rotation, cover crops, and green manures on nematodes and their damage to economic crops. PMID:19265946

  9. Does Accelerated Soil Organic Matter Decomposition in the Presence of Plants Increase Plant N Availability?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant roots can increase microbial activity and soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition via rhizosphere priming effects. It is virtually unknown how differences in the priming effect among plant species and soil type affect N mineralization and plant uptake. In a greenhouse experiment, we tested whe...

  10. Modeling and Inverse Controller Design for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Based on the Self-Organizing Map

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Jeongho; Principe, Jose C.; Erdogmus, Deniz; Motter, Mark A.

    2005-01-01

    The next generation of aircraft will have dynamics that vary considerably over the operating regime. A single controller will have difficulty to meet the design specifications. In this paper, a SOM-based local linear modeling scheme of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is developed to design a set of inverse controllers. The SOM selects the operating regime depending only on the embedded output space information and avoids normalization of the input data. Each local linear model is associated with a linear controller, which is easy to design. Switching of the controllers is done synchronously with the active local linear model that tracks the different operating conditions. The proposed multiple modeling and control strategy has been successfully tested in a simulator that models the LoFLYTE UAV.

  11. Organic Matter Application Can Reduce Copper Toxicity in Tomato Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Copper fungicides and bactericides are often used in tomato cultivation and can cause toxic Cu levels in soils. In order to combat this, organic matter can be applied to induce chelation reactions and form a soluble complex by which much of the Cu can leach out of the soil profile or be taken up safely by plants. Organic acids such as citric,…

  12. The Haustorium, a Specialized Invasive Organ in Parasitic Plants.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Satoko; Cui, Songkui; Ichihashi, Yasunori; Shirasu, Ken

    2016-04-29

    Parasitic plants thrive by infecting other plants. Flowering plants evolved parasitism independently at least 12 times, in all cases developing a unique multicellular organ called the haustorium that forms upon detection of haustorium-inducing factors derived from the host plant. This organ penetrates into the host stem or root and connects to its vasculature, allowing exchange of materials such as water, nutrients, proteins, nucleotides, pathogens, and retrotransposons between the host and the parasite. In this review, we focus on the formation and function of the haustorium in parasitic plants, with a specific emphasis on recent advances in molecular studies of root parasites in the Orobanchaceae and stem parasites in the Convolvulaceae. PMID:27128469

  13. Plant disease management in organic farming systems.

    PubMed

    van Bruggen, Ariena H C; Gamliel, Abraham; Finckh, Maria R

    2016-01-01

    Organic farming (OF) has significantly increased in importance in recent decades. Disease management in OF is largely based on the maintenance of biological diversity and soil health by balanced crop rotations, including nitrogen-fixing and cover crops, intercrops, additions of manure and compost and reductions in soil tillage. Most soil-borne diseases are naturally suppressed, while foliar diseases can sometimes be problematic. Only when a severe disease outbreak is expected are pesticides used that are approved for OF. A detailed overview is given of cultural and biological control measures. Attention is also given to regulated pesticides. We conclude that a systems approach to disease management is required, and that interdisciplinary research is needed to solve lingering disease problems, especially for OF in the tropics. Some of the organic regulations are in need of revision in close collaboration with various stakeholders. PMID:26331771

  14. Hydrogen isotopic compositions of organic compounds in plants reflect the plant's carbon metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormier, M. A.; Kahmen, A.; Werner, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    The main factors controlling δ2H of plant organic compounds are generally assumed to be the plant's source water and the evaporative deuterium enrichment of leaf water. Hydrogen isotope analyses of plant compounds from sediments or tree rings are therefore mainly applied to assess hydrological conditions at different spatial and temporal scales. However, the biochemical hydrogen isotope fractionation occurring during biosynthesis of plant organic compounds (ɛbio) also accounts for a large part of the variability observed in the δ2H values. Nevertheless, only few studies have directly addressed the physiological basis of this variability and even fewer studies have thus explored possible applications of hydrogen isotope variability in plant organic compounds for plant physiological research. Here we show two datasets indicating that the plant's carbon metabolism can have a substantial influence on δ2H values of n-alkanes and cellulose. First, we performed a controlled experiment where we forced plants into heterotrophic and autotrophic C-metabolism by growing them under four different light treatments. Second, we assessed the δ2H values of different parasitic heterotrophic plants and their autotrophic host plants. Our two datasets show a systematic shift in ɛbio of up to 80 ‰ depending on the plant's carbon metabolism (heterotrophic or autotrophic). Differences in n-alkane and cellulose δ2H values in plants with autotrophic vs. heterotrophic metabolisms can be explained by different NADPH pools that are used by the plants to build their compounds either with assimilates that originate directly from photosynthesis or from stored carbohydrates. Our results have significant implications for the calibration and interpretation of geological records. More importantly, as the δ2H values reflect the plant's carbon metabolism involved during the tissue formation, our findings highlight the potential of δ2H values as new tool for studying plant and ecosystem carbon

  15. Differential Effect of Plant Lipids on Membrane Organization

    PubMed Central

    Grosjean, Kevin; Mongrand, Sébastien; Beney, Laurent; Simon-Plas, Françoise; Gerbeau-Pissot, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The high diversity of the plant lipid mixture raises the question of their respective involvement in the definition of membrane organization. This is particularly the case for plant plasma membrane, which is enriched in specific lipids, such as free and conjugated forms of phytosterols and typical phytosphingolipids, such as glycosylinositolphosphoceramides. This question was here addressed extensively by characterizing the order level of membrane from vesicles prepared using various plant lipid mixtures and labeled with an environment-sensitive probe. Fluorescence spectroscopy experiments showed that among major phytosterols, campesterol exhibits a stronger ability than β-sitosterol and stigmasterol to order model membranes. Multispectral confocal microscopy, allowing spatial analysis of membrane organization, demonstrated accordingly the strong ability of campesterol to promote ordered domain formation and to organize their spatial distribution at the membrane surface. Conjugated sterol forms, alone and in synergy with free sterols, exhibit a striking ability to order membrane. Plant sphingolipids, particularly glycosylinositolphosphoceramides, enhanced the sterol-induced ordering effect, emphasizing the formation and increasing the size of sterol-dependent ordered domains. Altogether, our results support a differential involvement of free and conjugated phytosterols in the formation of ordered domains and suggest that the diversity of plant lipids, allowing various local combinations of lipid species, could be a major contributor to membrane organization in particular through the formation of sphingolipid-sterol interacting domains. PMID:25575593

  16. Methods in plant foliar volatile organic compounds research.

    PubMed

    Materić, Dušan; Bruhn, Dan; Turner, Claire; Morgan, Geraint; Mason, Nigel; Gauci, Vincent

    2015-12-01

    Plants are a major atmospheric source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These secondary metabolic products protect plants from high-temperature stress, mediate in plant-plant and plant-insect communication, and affect our climate globally. The main challenges in plant foliar VOC research are accurate sampling, the inherent reactivity of some VOC compounds that makes them hard to detect directly, and their low concentrations. Plant VOC research relies on analytical techniques for trace gas analysis, usually based on gas chromatography and soft chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Until now, these techniques (especially the latter one) have been developed and used primarily by physicists and analytical scientists, who have used them in a wide range of scientific research areas (e.g., aroma, disease biomarkers, hazardous compound detection, atmospheric chemistry). The interdisciplinary nature of plant foliar VOC research has recently attracted the attention of biologists, bringing them into the field of applied environmental analytical sciences. In this paper, we review the sampling methods and available analytical techniques used in plant foliar VOC research to provide a comprehensive resource that will allow biologists moving into the field to choose the most appropriate approach for their studies. PMID:26697273

  17. Simple plant-based design strategies for volatile organic pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, M.; Erickson, L.E.; Davis, L.C.

    1999-12-31

    Vegetation which enhances in-situ biodegradation of organic compounds can play a key role in the bioremediation of such contaminants in polluted soils and groundwater. Plants may act directly on some contaminants by degrading them, but their main effect is to enhance microbial populations in the thizosphere. Microbially mediated transformations are thus indirectly facilitated by root exudates which nourish the indigenous microorganisms. Plants may also be viewed as a solar driven pump-and-treat system which can contain a plume and reduce the spread of contaminated water. Laboratory investigations carried out in a growth chamber with alfalfa plants provide evidence for the (microbially mediated) biodegradation of organic compounds such as toluene, phenol and TCE. Alfalfa plants tolerate concentrations of these organics in contaminated water up to 100 mg/L. They facilitate transfer of the contaminants from the saturated to the vadose zone. For volatile organic compounds such as TCE, vegetation provides a controlled release of compounds and hence assures dilution of the TCE evapotranspired into the atmosphere from contaminated soils. Using a range of calculated plausible scenarios, it is shown that intermedia transfer caused by volatilization associated with plants is most unlikely to lead to exceedance of standards for gas phase contamination, for most volatile contaminants. Possible action level exceedances might occur with highly toxic substances including vinyl chloride and carbon tetrachloride, if they re present in ground water at levels above kilogram amounts in a single plume of a few hectares, and released by vigorously growing plants under hot dry conditions. Information needed for the calculation and design of plant-based bioremediation systems for typical sites is discussed in this paper.

  18. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF PLANT UPTAKE AND TRANSLOCATION OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS: APPLICATION TO EXPERIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Uptake, transport, and accumulation of organic chemicals by plants are influenced by characteristics of the plant and properties of the chemical, soil, and environmental conditions. athematical model for uptake of organic chemicals by plants was calibrated by application to data ...

  19. Structural Dynamic and Desiccation Damage in Plant reproductive Organs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant reproductive structures provide ideal systems to study the impact of water loss on cellular systems. Diverse physiologies in related taxa or among different organs (e.g., leaves, overwintering structures, pollen and embryos) allow us to compare sensitivities among structures and identify prima...

  20. PILOT PLANT PROJECT FOR REMOVING ORGANIC SUBSTANCES FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes research on the European practice of preozonation of water to modify naturally occurring organics, followed by bacteria activated carbon (BAC) adsorption to remove trihalomethane precursors. A 100-gal/min pilot plant was designed, constructed and operated to...

  1. Repeat-containing protein effectors of plant-associated organisms

    PubMed Central

    Mesarich, Carl H.; Bowen, Joanna K.; Hamiaux, Cyril; Templeton, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    Many plant-associated organisms, including microbes, nematodes, and insects, deliver effector proteins into the apoplast, vascular tissue, or cell cytoplasm of their prospective hosts. These effectors function to promote colonization, typically by altering host physiology or by modulating host immune responses. The same effectors however, can also trigger host immunity in the presence of cognate host immune receptor proteins, and thus prevent colonization. To circumvent effector-triggered immunity, or to further enhance host colonization, plant-associated organisms often rely on adaptive effector evolution. In recent years, it has become increasingly apparent that several effectors of plant-associated organisms are repeat-containing proteins (RCPs) that carry tandem or non-tandem arrays of an amino acid sequence or structural motif. In this review, we highlight the diverse roles that these repeat domains play in RCP effector function. We also draw attention to the potential role of these repeat domains in adaptive evolution with regards to RCP effector function and the evasion of effector-triggered immunity. The aim of this review is to increase the profile of RCP effectors from plant-associated organisms. PMID:26557126

  2. Stochastic models for plant microtubule self-organization and structure.

    PubMed

    Eren, Ezgi C; Dixit, Ram; Gautam, Natarajan

    2015-12-01

    One of the key enablers of shape and growth in plant cells is the cortical microtubule (CMT) system, which is a polymer array that forms an appropriately-structured scaffolding in each cell. Plant biologists have shown that stochastic dynamics and simple rules of interactions between CMTs can lead to a coaligned CMT array structure. However, the mechanisms and conditions that cause CMT arrays to become organized are not well understood. It is prohibitively time-consuming to use actual plants to study the effect of various genetic mutations and environmental conditions on CMT self-organization. In fact, even computer simulations with multiple replications are not fast enough due to the spatio-temporal complexity of the system. To redress this shortcoming, we develop analytical models and methods for expeditiously computing CMT system metrics that are related to self-organization and array structure. In particular, we formulate a mean-field model to derive sufficient conditions for the organization to occur. We show that growth-prone dynamics itself is sufficient to lead to organization in presence of interactions in the system. In addition, for such systems, we develop predictive methods for estimation of system metrics such as expected average length and number of CMTs over time, using a stochastic fluid-flow model, transient analysis, and approximation algorithms tailored to our problem. We illustrate the effectiveness of our approach through numerical test instances and discuss biological insights. PMID:25700800

  3. Remote sensing of biomass and annual net aerial primary productivity of a salt marsh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardisky, M. A.; Klemas, V.; Daiber, F. C.; Roman, C. T.

    1984-01-01

    Net aerial primary productivity is the rate of storage of organic matter in above-ground plant issues exceeding the respiratory use by the plants during the period of measurement. It is pointed out that this plant tissue represents the fixed carbon available for transfer to and consumption by the heterotrophic organisms in a salt marsh or the estuary. One method of estimating annual net aerial primary productivity (NAPP) required multiple harvesting of the marsh vegetation. A rapid nondestructive remote sensing technique for estimating biomass and NAPP would, therefore, be a significant asset. The present investigation was designed to employ simple regression models, equating spectral radiance indices with Spartina alterniflora biomass to nondestructively estimate salt marsh biomass. The results of the study showed that the considered approach can be successfully used to estimate salt marsh biomass.

  4. Hierarchical organization of a Sardinian sand dune plant community.

    PubMed

    Cusseddu, Valentina; Ceccherelli, Giulia; Bertness, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Coastal sand dunes have attracted the attention of plant ecologists for over a century, but they have largely relied on correlations to explain dune plant community organization. We examined long-standing hypotheses experimentally that sand binding, inter-specific interactions, abiotic factors and seedling recruitment are drivers of sand dune plant community structure in Sardinia, Italy. Removing foundation species from the fore-, middle- and back-dune habitats over three years led to erosion and habitat loss on the fore-dune and limited plant recovery that increased with dune elevation. Reciprocal species removals in all zones suggested that inter-specific competition is common, but that dominance is transient, particularly due to sand burial disturbance in the middle-dune. A fully factorial 2-year manipulation of water, nutrient availability and substrate stability revealed no significant proximate response to these physical factors in any dune zone. In the fore- and middle-dune, plant seeds are trapped under adult plants during seed germination, and seedling survivorship and growth generally increase with dune height in spite of increased herbivory in the back-dune. Sand and seed erosion leads to limited seed recruitment on the fore-dune while high summer temperatures and preemption of space lead to competitive dominance of woody plants in the back-dune. Our results suggest that Sardinian sand dune plant communities are organized hierarchically, structured by sand binding foundation species on the fore-dune, sand burial in the middle-dune and increasingly successful seedling recruitment, growth and competitive dominance in the back-dune. PMID:27478701

  5. Hierarchical organization of a Sardinian sand dune plant community

    PubMed Central

    Ceccherelli, Giulia; Bertness, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Coastal sand dunes have attracted the attention of plant ecologists for over a century, but they have largely relied on correlations to explain dune plant community organization. We examined long-standing hypotheses experimentally that sand binding, inter-specific interactions, abiotic factors and seedling recruitment are drivers of sand dune plant community structure in Sardinia, Italy. Removing foundation species from the fore-, middle- and back-dune habitats over three years led to erosion and habitat loss on the fore-dune and limited plant recovery that increased with dune elevation. Reciprocal species removals in all zones suggested that inter-specific competition is common, but that dominance is transient, particularly due to sand burial disturbance in the middle-dune. A fully factorial 2-year manipulation of water, nutrient availability and substrate stability revealed no significant proximate response to these physical factors in any dune zone. In the fore- and middle-dune, plant seeds are trapped under adult plants during seed germination, and seedling survivorship and growth generally increase with dune height in spite of increased herbivory in the back-dune. Sand and seed erosion leads to limited seed recruitment on the fore-dune while high summer temperatures and preemption of space lead to competitive dominance of woody plants in the back-dune. Our results suggest that Sardinian sand dune plant communities are organized hierarchically, structured by sand binding foundation species on the fore-dune, sand burial in the middle-dune and increasingly successful seedling recruitment, growth and competitive dominance in the back-dune. PMID:27478701

  6. Methods in plant foliar volatile organic compounds research1

    PubMed Central

    Materić, Dušan; Bruhn, Dan; Turner, Claire; Morgan, Geraint; Mason, Nigel; Gauci, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Plants are a major atmospheric source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These secondary metabolic products protect plants from high-temperature stress, mediate in plant–plant and plant–insect communication, and affect our climate globally. The main challenges in plant foliar VOC research are accurate sampling, the inherent reactivity of some VOC compounds that makes them hard to detect directly, and their low concentrations. Plant VOC research relies on analytical techniques for trace gas analysis, usually based on gas chromatography and soft chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Until now, these techniques (especially the latter one) have been developed and used primarily by physicists and analytical scientists, who have used them in a wide range of scientific research areas (e.g., aroma, disease biomarkers, hazardous compound detection, atmospheric chemistry). The interdisciplinary nature of plant foliar VOC research has recently attracted the attention of biologists, bringing them into the field of applied environmental analytical sciences. In this paper, we review the sampling methods and available analytical techniques used in plant foliar VOC research to provide a comprehensive resource that will allow biologists moving into the field to choose the most appropriate approach for their studies. PMID:26697273

  7. Aerial radiation surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Jobst, J.

    1980-01-01

    A recent aerial radiation survey of the surroundings of the Vitro mill in Salt Lake City shows that uranium mill tailings have been removed to many locations outside their original boundary. To date, 52 remote sites have been discovered within a 100 square kilometer aerial survey perimeter surrounding the mill; 9 of these were discovered with the recent aerial survey map. Five additional sites, also discovered by aerial survey, contained uranium ore, milling equipment, or radioactive slag. Because of the success of this survey, plans are being made to extend the aerial survey program to other parts of the Salt Lake valley where diversions of Vitro tailings are also known to exist.

  8. Tubulin tyrosine nitration regulates microtubule organization in plant cells

    PubMed Central

    Blume, Yaroslav B.; Krasylenko, Yuliya A.; Demchuk, Oleh M.; Yemets, Alla I.

    2013-01-01

    During last years, selective tyrosine nitration of plant proteins gains importance as well-recognized pathway of direct nitric oxide (NO) signal transduction. Plant microtubules are one of the intracellular signaling targets for NO, however, the molecular mechanisms of NO signal transduction with the involvement of cytoskeletal proteins remain to be elucidated. Since biochemical evidence of plant α-tubulin tyrosine nitration has been obtained recently, potential role of this posttranslational modification in regulation of microtubules organization in plant cell is estimated in current paper. It was shown that 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NO2-Tyr) induced partially reversible Arabidopsis primary root growth inhibition, alterations of root hairs morphology and organization of microtubules in root cells. It was also revealed that 3-NO2-Tyr intensively decorates such highly dynamic microtubular arrays as preprophase bands, mitotic spindles and phragmoplasts of Nicotiana tabacum Bright Yellow-2 (BY-2) cells under physiological conditions. Moreover, 3D models of the mitotic kinesin-8 complexes with the tail of detyrosinated, tyrosinated and tyrosine nitrated α-tubulin (on C-terminal Tyr 450 residue) from Arabidopsis were reconstructed in silico to investigate the potential influence of tubulin nitrotyrosination on the molecular dynamics of α-tubulin and kinesin-8 interaction. Generally, presented data suggest that plant α-tubulin tyrosine nitration can be considered as its common posttranslational modification, the direct mechanism of NO signal transduction with the participation of microtubules under physiological conditions and one of the hallmarks of the increased microtubule dynamics. PMID:24421781

  9. Experience with organic Rankine cycles in heat recovery power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bronicki, L.Y.; Elovic, A.; Rettger, P.

    1996-11-01

    Over the last 30 years, organic Rankine cycles (ORC) have been increasingly employed to produce power from various heat sources when other alternatives were either technically not feasible or economical. These power plants have logged a total of over 100 million turbine hours of experience demonstrating the maturity and field proven technology of the ORC cycle. The cycle is well adapted to low to moderate temperature heat sources such as waste heat from industrial plants and is widely used to recover energy from geothermal resources. The above cycle technology is well established and applicable to heat recovery of medium size gas turbines and offers significant advantages over conventional steam bottoming cycles.

  10. 5. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF BUILDING 371 AFTER CONSTRUCTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF BUILDING 371 AFTER CONSTRUCTION WAS COMPLETED. (11/7/78) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  11. Do plants reflect atmospheric concentrations of persistent organic contaminants?

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.C.

    1994-12-31

    Chemical analysis of several types of plants -- such as pine needles, lichens, mosses and grasses -- has been used by numerous workers as a means of inferring spatial and temporal variations in the atmospheric concentrations of persistent organic compounds (e.g. PCBs, PAHs, CBs and PCDD/Fs). This is usually because plants are perceived as convenient `passive` air samplers and assumed to `integrate` variations in ambient concentrations during their lifetime. More recently, various researchers have sought to understand the mechanisms of exchange/uptake at the air vegetation surface, with a view to refining the use of vegetation sampling techniques and understanding the role of vegetation in influencing the global cycling of these compounds. This presentation will review some of the recent advances in this area, highlighting some of pitfalls and beneficial uses of employing plants as `monitoring tools`.

  12. Transcriptional Switches Direct Plant Organ Formation and Patterning

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Risueno, Miguel A.; Van Norman, Jaimie M.; Benfey, Philip N.

    2013-01-01

    Development of multicellular organisms requires specification of diverse cell types. In plants, development is continuous and because plant cells are surrounded by rigid cell walls, cell division and specification of daughter cell fate must be carefully orchestrated. During embryonic and postembryonic plant development, the specification of cell types is determined both by positional cues and cell lineage. The establishment of distinct transcriptional domains is a fundamental mechanism for determining different cell fates. In this review, we focus on four examples from recent literature of switches operating in cell fate decisions that are regulated by transcriptional mechanisms. First, we highlight a transcriptional mechanism involving a mobile transcription factor in formation of the two ground tissue cell types in roots. Specification of vascular cell types is then discussed, including new details about xylem cell-type specification via a mobile microRNA. Next, transcriptional regulation of two key embryonic developmental events is considered: establishment of apical–basal polarity in the single-celled zygote and specification of distinct root and shoot stem cell populations in the plant embryo. Finally, a dynamic transcriptional mechanism for lateral organ positioning that integrates spatial and temporal information into a repeating pattern is summarized. PMID:22305165

  13. Aerial Image Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, Robert E.

    1987-09-01

    Aerial images produce the best stereoscopic images of the viewed world. Despite the fact that every optic in existence produces an aerial image, few persons are aware of their existence and possible uses. Constant reference to the eye and other optical systems have produced a psychosis of design that only considers "focal planes" in the design and analysis of optical systems. All objects in the field of view of the optical device are imaged by the device as an aerial image. Use of aerial images in vision and visual display systems can provide a true stereoscopic representation of the viewed world. This paper discusses aerial image systems - their applications and designs and presents designs and design concepts that utilize aerial images to obtain superior visual displays, particularly with application to visual simulation.

  14. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF PLANT UPTAKE AND TRANSLOCATION OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS: DEVELOPMENT OF THE MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Uptake, transport, and accumulation of organic chemicals by plants are influenced by characteristics of the plant and properties of the chemical, soil, and environmental conditions. valuations of plant contamination cannot be made experimentally for the many thousands of xenobiot...

  15. Helical growth in plant organs: mechanisms and significance.

    PubMed

    Smyth, David R

    2016-09-15

    Many plants show some form of helical growth, such as the circular searching movements of growing stems and other organs (circumnutation), tendril coiling, leaf and bud reversal (resupination), petal arrangement (contortion) and leaf blade twisting. Recent genetic findings have revealed that such helical growth may be associated with helical arrays of cortical microtubules and of overlying cellulose microfibrils. An alternative mechanism of coiling that is based on differential contraction within a bilayer has also recently been identified and underlies at least some of these growth patterns. Here, I provide an overview of the genes and cellular processes that underlie helical patterning. I also discuss the diversity of helical growth patterns in plants, highlighting their potential adaptive significance and comparing them with helical growth patterns in animals. PMID:27624832

  16. Antimicrobial activity of selected Iranian medicinal plants against a broad spectrum of pathogenic and drug multiresistant micro-organisms.

    PubMed

    Abedini, A; Roumy, V; Mahieux, S; Gohari, A; Farimani, M M; Rivière, C; Samaillie, J; Sahpaz, S; Bailleul, F; Neut, C; Hennebelle, T

    2014-10-01

    The antimicrobial activities of 44 methanolic extracts from different parts of Iranian indigenous plant species used in traditional medicines of Iran were tested against a panel of 35 pathogenic and multiresistant bacteria and 1 yeast. The antimicrobial efficacy was determined using Müller-Hinton agar in Petri dishes seeded by a multiple inoculator and minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) method. The 21 most active extracts (MIC < 0·3 mg ml(-1) for one or several micro-organisms) were submitted to a more refined measurement. The best antibacterial activity was obtained by 10 plants. Microdilution assays allowed to determinate the MIC and MBC of the 21 most active extracts. The lowest achieved MIC value was 78 μg ml(-1), with 4 extracts. This work confirms the antimicrobial activity of assayed plants and suggests further examination to identify the chemical structure of their antimicrobial compounds. Significance and impact of the study: This study describes the antimicrobial screening of Iranian plant extracts chosen according to traditional practice against 36 microbial strains, from reference culture collections or recent clinical isolates, and enables to select 4 candidates for further chemical characterization and biological assessment: Dorema ammoniacum, Ferula assa-foetida, Ferulago contracta (seeds) and Perovskia abrotanoides (aerial parts). This may be useful in the development of potential antimicrobial agents, from easily harvested and highly sustainable plant parts. Moreover, the weak extent of cross-resistance between plant extracts and antibiotics warrants further research and may promote a strategy based on less potent but time-trained products. PMID:24888993

  17. Radiation effects on organic materials in nuclear plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, M B; Davis, M V

    1981-11-01

    A literature search was conducted to identify information useful in determining the lowest level at which radiation causes damage to nuclear plant equipment. Information was sought concerning synergistic effects of radiation and other environmental stresses. Organic polymers are often identified as the weak elements in equipment. Data on radiation effects are summarized for 50 generic name plastics and 16 elastomers. Coatings, lubricants, and adhesives are treated as separate groups. Inorganics and metallics are considered briefly. With a few noted exceptions, these are more radiation resistant than organic materials. Some semiconductor devices and electronic assemblies are extremely sensitive to radiation. Any damage threshold including these would be too low to be of practical value. With that exception, equipment exposed to less than 10/sup 4/ rads should not be significantly affected. Equipment containing no Teflon should not be significantly affected by 10/sup 5/ rads. Data concerning synergistic effects and radiation sensitization are discussed. The authors suggest correlations between the two effects.

  18. Volatile organic compound emission profiles of four common arctic plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedel-Petersen, Ida; Schollert, Michelle; Nymand, Josephine; Rinnan, Riikka

    2015-11-01

    The biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from plants impact atmosphere and climate. The species-specific emissions, and thereby the atmospheric impact, of many plant species are still unknown. Knowledge of BVOC emission from arctic plants is particularly limited. The vast area and relatively high leaf temperature give the Arctic potential for emissions that cannot be neglected. This field study aimed to elucidate the BVOC emission profiles for four common arctic plant species in their natural environment during the growing season. BVOCs were sampled from aboveground parts of Empetrum hermaphroditum, Salix glauca, Salix arctophila and Betula nana using the dynamic enclosure technique and collection of volatiles in adsorbent cartridges, analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sampling occurred three times: in late June/early July, in mid-July and in early August. E. hermaphroditum emitted the least BVOCs, dominated by sesquiterpenes (SQTs) and non-isoprenoid BVOCs. The Salix spp. emitted the most, dominated by isoprene. The emissions of B. nana were composed of about two-thirds non-isoprenoid BVOCs, with moderate amounts of monoterpenes (MTs) and SQTs. The total B. nana emissions and the MT and SQT emissions standardized to 30 °C were highest in the first measurement in early July, while the other species had the highest emissions in the last measurement in early August. As climate change is expected to increase plant biomass and change vegetation composition in the Arctic, the BVOC emissions from arctic ecosystems will also change. Our results suggest that if the abundance of deciduous shrubs like Betula and Salix spp. increases at the expense of slower growing evergreens like E. hermaphroditum, there is the potential for increased emissions of isoprene, MTs and non-isoprenoid BVOCs in the Arctic.

  19. Aerial photographic reproductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1975-01-01

    The National Cartographic Information Center of the U.S. Geological Survey maintains records of aerial photographic coverage of the United States and its Territories, based on reports from other Federal agencies as well as State governmental agencies and commercial companies. From these records, the Center furnishes data to prospective purchasers on available photography and the agency holding the aerial film.

  20. 11. Photographic copy of aerial photograph dated ca. 1954; Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photographic copy of aerial photograph dated ca. 1954; Photographer unknown; Original owned by Waterloo Courier, Waterloo, Iowa; AERIAL VIEW OF RATH COMPLEX, LOOKING WEST; BEEF KILLING BUILDING (149 AND LIVESTOCK HOLDING AREAS ARE AT LEFT CENTER; FERTILIZER PLANT/STORAGE BUILDINGS ARE AT BOTTOM OF PHOTO - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  1. 12. Photocopy of photograph (original negative located at Aerial Mapping ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopy of photograph (original negative located at Aerial Mapping Company, Phoenix, Arizona, Negative No. 90046) Photographer unknown, March 28, 1990. DIMENSION-CONTROLLED AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHIC MAP. - Yuma Main Street Water Treatment Plant, Jones Street at foot of Main Street, Yuma, Yuma County, AZ

  2. 12. Photographic copy of aerial photograph dated October 1988; Photographed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photographic copy of aerial photograph dated October 1988; Photographed by Aerial Services, Incorporated, Waterloo, Iowa; THE RATH COMPLEX FROM DIRECTLY OVERHEAD; THE PACKING PLANT BUILDINGS OCCUPY UPPER RIGHT QUADRANT OF PHOTO; 18TH STREET BRIDGE AT CENTER - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  3. Hydroperiod regime controls the organization of plant species in wetlands.

    PubMed

    Foti, Romano; del Jesus, Manuel; Rinaldo, Andrea; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2012-11-27

    With urban, agricultural, and industrial needs growing throughout the past decades, wetland ecosystems have experienced profound changes. Most critically, the biodiversity of wetlands is intimately linked to its hydrologic dynamics, which in turn are being drastically altered by ongoing climate changes. Hydroperiod regimes, e.g., percentage of time a site is inundated, exert critical control in the creation of niches for different plant species in wetlands. However, the spatial signatures of the organization of plant species in wetlands and how the different drivers interact to yield such signatures are unknown. Focusing on Everglades National Park (ENP) in Florida, we show here that cluster sizes of each species follow a power law probability distribution and that such clusters have well-defined fractal characteristics. Moreover, we individuate and model those signatures via the interplay between global forcings arising from the hydroperiod regime and local controls exerted by neighboring vegetation. With power law clustering often associated with systems near critical transitions, our findings are highly relevant for the management of wetland ecosystems. In addition, our results show that changes in climate and land management have a quantifiable predictable impact on the type of vegetation and its spatial organization in wetlands. PMID:23150589

  4. Hydroperiod regime controls the organization of plant species in wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Foti, Romano; del Jesus, Manuel; Rinaldo, Andrea; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    With urban, agricultural, and industrial needs growing throughout the past decades, wetland ecosystems have experienced profound changes. Most critically, the biodiversity of wetlands is intimately linked to its hydrologic dynamics, which in turn are being drastically altered by ongoing climate changes. Hydroperiod regimes, e.g., percentage of time a site is inundated, exert critical control in the creation of niches for different plant species in wetlands. However, the spatial signatures of the organization of plant species in wetlands and how the different drivers interact to yield such signatures are unknown. Focusing on Everglades National Park (ENP) in Florida, we show here that cluster sizes of each species follow a power law probability distribution and that such clusters have well-defined fractal characteristics. Moreover, we individuate and model those signatures via the interplay between global forcings arising from the hydroperiod regime and local controls exerted by neighboring vegetation. With power law clustering often associated with systems near critical transitions, our findings are highly relevant for the management of wetland ecosystems. In addition, our results show that changes in climate and land management have a quantifiable predictable impact on the type of vegetation and its spatial organization in wetlands. PMID:23150589

  5. Conceptual hierarchical modeling to describe wetland plant community organization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Little, A.M.; Guntenspergen, G.R.; Allen, T.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    Using multivariate analysis, we created a hierarchical modeling process that describes how differently-scaled environmental factors interact to affect wetland-scale plant community organization in a system of small, isolated wetlands on Mount Desert Island, Maine. We followed the procedure: 1) delineate wetland groups using cluster analysis, 2) identify differently scaled environmental gradients using non-metric multidimensional scaling, 3) order gradient hierarchical levels according to spatiotem-poral scale of fluctuation, and 4) assemble hierarchical model using group relationships with ordination axes and post-hoc tests of environmental differences. Using this process, we determined 1) large wetland size and poor surface water chemistry led to the development of shrub fen wetland vegetation, 2) Sphagnum and water chemistry differences affected fen vs. marsh / sedge meadows status within small wetlands, and 3) small-scale hydrologic differences explained transitions between forested vs. non-forested and marsh vs. sedge meadow vegetation. This hierarchical modeling process can help explain how upper level contextual processes constrain biotic community response to lower-level environmental changes. It creates models with more nuanced spatiotemporal complexity than classification and regression tree procedures. Using this process, wetland scientists will be able to generate more generalizable theories of plant community organization, and useful management models. ?? Society of Wetland Scientists 2009.

  6. [Chromosomal organization of the genomes of small-chromosome plants].

    PubMed

    Muravenko, O V; Zelenin, A V

    2009-11-01

    An effective approach to study the chromosome organization in genomes of plants with small chromosomes and/or with low-informative C-banding patterns was developed in the course of investigation of the karyotypes of cotton plant, camomile, flax, and pea. To increase the resolving power of chromosome analysis, methods were worked out for revealing early replication patterns on chromosomes and for artificial impairment of mitotic chromosome condensation with the use of a DNA intercalator, 9-aminoacridine (9-AMA). To estimate polymorphism of the patterns of C-banding of small chromosomes on preparations obtained with the use of 9-AMA, it is necessary to choose a length interval that must not exceed three average sizes of metaphase chromosomes without the intercalator. The use of 9-AMA increases the resolution of differential C- and OR-banding and the precision of physical chromosome mapping by the FISH method. Of particular importance in studying small chromosomes is optimization of the computer-aided methods used to obtain and process chromosome images. The complex approach developed for analysis of the chromosome organization in plant genomes was used to study the karyotypes of 24 species of the genus Linum L. It permitted their chromosomes to be identified for the first time, and, in addition, B chromosomes were discovered and studied in the karyotypes of the species of the section Syllinum. By similarity of the karyotypes, the studied flax species were distributed in eight groups in agreement with the clusterization of these species according to the results of RAPD analysis performed in parallel. Systematic positions and phylogenetic relationships of the studied flax species were verified. Out results can serve as an important argument in favour of the proposal to develop a special program for sequencing the genome of cultivated flax (L. usitatissimum L.), which is a major representative of small-chromosome species. PMID:20058798

  7. Metal uptake of Nerium oleander from aerial and underground organs and its use as a biomonitoring tool for airborne metallic pollution in cities.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, S; Martín, A; García, M; Español, C; Navarro, E

    2016-04-01

    The analysis of the airborne particulate matter-PM-incorporated to plant leaves may be informative of the air pollution in the surroundings, allowing their use as biomonitoring tools. Regarding metals, their accumulation in leaves can be the result of both atmospheric incorporation of metallic PM on aboveground plant organs and root uptake of soluble metals. In this study, the use of Nerium oleander leaves as a biomonitoring tool for metallic airborne pollution has been assessed. The metal uptake in N. oleander was assessed as follows: (a) for radicular uptake by irrigation with airborne metals as Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, As, Ce and Zn (alone and in mixture) and (b) for direct leave exposure to urban PM. Plants showed a high resistance against the toxicity of metals under both single and multiple metal exposures. Except for Zn, the low values of translocation and bioaccumulation factors confirmed the excluder behaviour of N. oleander with respect to the metals provided by the irrigation. For metal uptake from airborne pollution, young plants grown under controlled conditions were deployed during 42 days in locations of the city of Zaragoza (700,000 h, NE Spain), differing in their level of traffic density. Samples of PM2.5 particles and the leaves of N. oleander were simultaneously collected weekly. High correlations in Pb concentrations were found between leaves and PM2.5; in a lesser extent, correlations were also found for Fe, Zn and Ti. Scanning electron microscopy showed the capture of airborne pollution particles in the large and abundant substomatal chambers of N. oleander leaves. Altogether, results indicate that N. Oleander, as a metal resistant plant by metal exclusion, is a suitable candidate as a biomonitoring tool for airborne metal pollution in urban areas. PMID:26732705

  8. Genomic organization of plant terpene synthases and molecular evolutionary implications.

    PubMed Central

    Trapp, S C; Croteau, R B

    2001-01-01

    Terpenoids are the largest, most diverse class of plant natural products and they play numerous functional roles in primary metabolism and in ecological interactions. The first committed step in the formation of the various terpenoid classes is the transformation of the prenyl diphosphate precursors, geranyl diphosphate, farnesyl diphosphate, and geranylgeranyl diphosphate, to the parent structures of each type catalyzed by the respective monoterpene (C(10)), sesquiterpene (C(15)), and diterpene synthases (C(20)). Over 30 cDNAs encoding plant terpenoid synthases involved in primary and secondary metabolism have been cloned and characterized. Here we describe the isolation and analysis of six genomic clones encoding terpene synthases of conifers, [(-)-pinene (C(10)), (-)-limonene (C(10)), (E)-alpha-bisabolene (C(15)), delta-selinene (C(15)), and abietadiene synthase (C(20)) from Abies grandis and taxadiene synthase (C(20)) from Taxus brevifolia], all of which are involved in natural products biosynthesis. Genome organization (intron number, size, placement and phase, and exon size) of these gymnosperm terpene synthases was compared to eight previously characterized angiosperm terpene synthase genes and to six putative terpene synthase genomic sequences from Arabidopsis thaliana. Three distinct classes of terpene synthase genes were discerned, from which assumed patterns of sequential intron loss and the loss of an unusual internal sequence element suggest that the ancestral terpenoid synthase gene resembled a contemporary conifer diterpene synthase gene in containing at least 12 introns and 13 exons of conserved size. A model presented for the evolutionary history of plant terpene synthases suggests that this superfamily of genes responsible for natural products biosynthesis derived from terpene synthase genes involved in primary metabolism by duplication and divergence in structural and functional specialization. This novel molecular evolutionary approach focused

  9. Organic pollution removal from coke plant wastewater using coking coal.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lihui; Li, Shulei; Wang, Yongtian; Sun, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Coke plant wastewater (CPW) is an intractable chemical wastewater, and it contains many toxic pollutants. This article presents the results of research on a semi-industrial adsorption method of coking wastewater treatment. As a sorbent, the coking coal (CC) was a dozen times less expensive than active carbon. The treatment was conducted within two scenarios, as follows: (1) adsorption after biological treatment of CPW with CC at 40 g L(-1); the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was 75.66%, and the concentration was reduced from 178.99 to 43.56 mg L(-1); (2) given an adsorption by CC of 250 g L(-1) prior to the biological treatment of CPW, the eliminations of COD and phenol were 58.08% and 67.12%, respectively. The CC that adsorbed organic pollution and was returned to the coking system might have no effect on both coke oven gas and coke. PMID:26114284

  10. GENERAL AERIAL VIEW OF LAKE ALDWELL AND ELWHA DAM AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL AERIAL VIEW OF LAKE ALDWELL AND ELWHA DAM AND POWERHOUSE, WITH STRAIT OF JUAN DE FUCA TO THE NORTH. PHOTO BY JET LOWE, HAER, 1995. - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Elwha Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA

  11. AERIAL PHOTO OF ELWHA RIVER, SPILLWAYS AT GLINES DAM, POWERHOUSE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL PHOTO OF ELWHA RIVER, SPILLWAYS AT GLINES DAM, POWERHOUSE, SURGE TANK AND TRANSFORMER YARD WITH HISTORIC SHED (WAREHOUSE). PHOTO BY JET LOWE, HAER, 1995. - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Glines Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA

  12. GENERAL AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, AT GLINES DAM AND POWERHOUSE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, AT GLINES DAM AND POWERHOUSE, LAKE MILLS RESERVOIR, AND THE ELWHA RIVER. PHOTO BY JET LOWE, HAER, 1995. - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Glines Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA

  13. AERIAL PHOTO, LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING POWERHOUSE, SURGE TANK, TRANSFORMER YARD, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL PHOTO, LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING POWERHOUSE, SURGE TANK, TRANSFORMER YARD, GLINES DAM, AND LAKE MILLS RESERVOIR. PHOTO BY JET LOWE, HAER, 1995. - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Glines Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA

  14. GENERAL AERIAL VIEW OF NORTH END OF LAKE ALDWELL (RESERVOIR) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL AERIAL VIEW OF NORTH END OF LAKE ALDWELL (RESERVOIR) WITH ELWHA DAM AND POWERHOUSE. PHOTO BY JET LOWE, HAER, 1995. - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Elwha Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA

  15. GENERAL AERIAL VIEW TO SOUTH OF ELWHA DAM AND POWERHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL AERIAL VIEW TO SOUTH OF ELWHA DAM AND POWERHOUSE WITH NORTH END OF RESERVOIR. PHOTO BY JET LOWE, HAER, 1995. - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Elwha Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA

  16. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, FROM RED MOUNTAIN TO USX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, FROM RED MOUNTAIN TO USX FAIRFIELD WORKS (TOP LEFT) WITH WENONAH SINTERING PLANT (BOTTOM CENTER) AND WENONAH COMMUNITY (CENTER RIGHT). - High Line Railroad, From Red Mountain to Fairfield Works, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  17. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING FURTHER SOUTH EAST, VILLAGE CREEK WATER TREATMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW LOOKING FURTHER SOUTH EAST, VILLAGE CREEK WATER TREATMENT PLANT ON RIGHT SIDE, ENSLEY IN BACKGROUND. - Birmingham Southern Railroad Yard, Thirty-fourth Street, Ensley, Jefferson County, AL

  18. 4. Aerial view of Whitsett intake (lower right), Parker Dam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Aerial view of Whitsett intake (lower right), Parker Dam and village (left), Gene Wash Reservoir, Gene Pump Plant and village (right). - Parker Dam, Spanning Colorado River between AZ & CA, Parker, La Paz County, AZ

  19. Ground cover estimated from aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerbermann, A. H.; Cuellar, J. A.; Wiegand, C. L.

    1976-01-01

    Estimates of per cent ground cover made by ground observers were compared with independent estimates made on the basis of low-altitude (640-1219 m) aerial photographs of the same fields. Standard statistical simple correlation and linear regression analyses revealed a high correlation between the two estimation methods. In crops such as grain, sorghum, corn, and forage sorghum, in which the broadest part of the leaf canopy is near the top of the plant, there was a tendency to overestimate the per cent ground cover from aerial photographs.

  20. Plants-rhizospheric organisms interaction in a manmade system with and without biogenous element limitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somova, L. A.; Pechurkin, N. S.; Polonsky, V. I.; Pisman, T. I.; Sarangova, A. B.; Andre, M.; Sadovskaya, G. M.

    1997-01-01

    The effect has been studied of inoculation of seeds of wheat with two species of rhizospheric microorganisms, - Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida - on young plant growth with complete and with nitrogen deficit mineral nutrition. With complete mineral medium, plants grown from seeds inoculated with bacteria of Pseudomonas genus (experiment plants) have been found to have better growth over plants not inoculated with these bacteria (control plants). The experiment plants had increased transpiration and their biomass had higher organic nitrogen content. With nitrogen deficit medium, the plants inoculated with bacteria and those without them, have not revealed changes in growth. Neither case demonstrated competition of microorganisms with plants for nitrogen sources.

  1. Soil organisms shape the competition between grassland plant species.

    PubMed

    Sabais, Alexander C W; Eisenhauer, Nico; König, Stephan; Renker, Carsten; Buscot, François; Scheu, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    Decomposers and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) both determine plant nutrition; however, little is known about their interactive effects on plant communities. We set up a greenhouse experiment to study effects of plant competition (one- and two-species treatments), Collembola (Heteromurus nitidus and Protaphorura armata), and AMF (Glomus intraradices) on the performance (above- and belowground productivity and nutrient uptake) of three grassland plant species (Lolium perenne, Trifolium pratense, and Plantago lanceolata) belonging to three dominant plant functional groups (grasses, legumes, and herbs). Generally, L. perenne benefited from being released from intraspecific competition in the presence of T. pratense and P. lanceolata. However, the presence of AMF increased the competitive strength of P. lanceolata and T. pratense against L. perenne and also modified the effects of Collembola on plant productivity. The colonization of roots by AMF was reduced in treatments with two plant species suggesting that plant infection by AMF was modified by interspecific plant interactions. Collembola did not affect total colonization of roots by AMF, but increased the number of mycorrhizal vesicles in P. lanceolata. AMF and Collembola both enhanced the amount of N and P in plant shoot tissue, but impacts of Collembola were less pronounced in the presence of AMF. Overall, the results suggest that, by differentially affecting the nutrient acquisition and performance of plant species, AMF and Collembola interactively modify plant competition and shape the composition of grassland plant communities. The results suggest that mechanisms shaping plant community composition can only be understood when complex belowground interactions are considered. PMID:22678109

  2. Aerial Photography Summary Record System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1998-01-01

    The Aerial Photography Summary Record System (APSRS) describes aerial photography projects that meet specified criteria over a given geographic area of the United States and its territories. Aerial photographs are an important tool in cartography and a number of other professions. Land use planners, real estate developers, lawyers, environmental specialists, and many other professionals rely on detailed and timely aerial photographs. Until 1975, there was no systematic approach to locate an aerial photograph, or series of photographs, quickly and easily. In that year, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) inaugurated the APSRS, which has become a standard reference for users of aerial photographs.

  3. Effects of lighting and air movement on temperatures in reproductive organs of plants in a closed plant growth facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaya, Y.; Hirai, H.

    Temperature increases in plant reproductive organs such as anthers and stigmas could cause fertility impediments and thus produce sterile seeds under artificial lighting conditions without adequately controlled environments in closed plant growth facilities. There is a possibility such a situation could occur in Bioregenerative Life Support Systems under microgravity conditions in space because there will be little natural convective or thermal mixing. This study was conducted to determine the temperature of the plant reproductive organs as affected by illumination and air movement under normal gravitational forces on the earth and to make an estimation of the temperature increase in reproductive organs in closed plant growth facilities under microgravity in space. Thermal images of reproductive organs of rice and strawberry were captured using infrared thermography at air temperatures of 10 11 °C. Compared to the air temperature, temperatures of petals, stigmas and anthers of strawberry increased by 24, 22 and 14 °C, respectively, after 5 min of lighting at an irradiance of 160 W m-2 from incandescent lamps. Temperatures of reproductive organs and leaves of strawberry were significantly higher than those of rice. The temperatures of petals, stigmas, anthers and leaves of strawberry decreased by 13, 12, 13 and 14 °C, respectively, when the air velocity was increased from 0.1 to 1.0 ms-1. These results show that air movement is necessary to reduce the temperatures of plant reproductive organs in plant growth facilities.

  4. Research collaborations can improve the use of organic amendments for plant-parasitic nematode management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concept of utilizing organic amendments to manage plant-parasitic nematodes is not new, but the widespread implementation of this management practice has still not been realized. The use of organic amendments for plant-parasitic nematode management is a complex process requiring an understandin...

  5. Aerial Explorers and Robotic Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg

    2004-01-01

    A unique bio-inspired approach to autonomous aerial vehicle, a.k.a. aerial explorer technology is discussed. The work is focused on defining and studying aerial explorer mission concepts, both as an individual robotic system and as a member of a small robotic "ecosystem." Members of this robotic ecosystem include the aerial explorer, air-deployed sensors and robotic symbiotes, and other assets such as rovers, landers, and orbiters.

  6. Principles and limitations of stable isotopes in differentiating organic and conventional foodstuffs: 1. Plant products.

    PubMed

    Inácio, Caio Teves; Chalk, Phillip Michael; Magalhães, Alberto M T

    2015-01-01

    Among the lighter elements having two or more stable isotopes (H, C, N, O, S), δ(15)N appears to be the most promising isotopic marker to differentiate plant products from conventional and organic farms. Organic plant products vary within a range of δ(15)N values of +0.3 to +14.6%, while conventional plant products range from negative to positive values, i.e. -4.0 to +8.7%. The main factors affecting δ(15)N signatures of plants are N fertilizers, biological N2 fixation, plant organs and plant age. Correlations between mode of production and δ(13)C (except greenhouse tomatoes warmed with natural gas) or δ(34)S signatures have not been established, and δ(2)H and δ(18)O are unsuitable markers due to the overriding effect of climate on the isotopic composition of plant-available water. Because there is potential overlap between the δ(15)N signatures of organic and conventionally produced plant products, δ(15)N has seldom been used successfully as the sole criterion for differentiation, but when combined with complementary analytical techniques and appropriate statistical tools, the probability of a correct identification increases. The use of organic fertilizers by conventional farmers or the marketing of organic produce as conventional due to market pressures are additional factors confounding correct identification. The robustness of using δ(15)N to differentiate mode of production will depend on the establishment of databases that have been verified for individual plant products. PMID:24915332

  7. Aerial photographic reproductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1971-01-01

    Geological Survey vertical aerial photography is obtained primarily for topographic and geologic mapping. Reproductions from this photography are usually satisfactory for general use. Because reproductions are not stocked, but are custom processed for each order, they cannot be returned for credit or refund.

  8. Aerial of the VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Even in this aerial view at KSC, the Vehicle Assembly Building is imposing. In front of it is the Launch Control Center. In the background is the Rotation/Processing Facility, next to the Banana Creek. In the foreground is the Saturn Causeway that leads to Launch Pads 39A and 39B.

  9. Aerial Perspective Artistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a lesson centering on aerial perspective artistry of students and offers suggestions on how art teachers should carry this project out. This project serves to develop students' visual perception by studying reproductions by famous artists. This lesson allows one to imagine being lured into a landscape capable of captivating…

  10. Characterization of culturable bacterial endophytes and their capacity to promote plant growth from plants grown using organic or conventional practices.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ye; DeBolt, Seth; Dreyer, Jamin; Scott, Delia; Williams, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Plants have a diverse internal microbial biota that has been shown to have an important influence on a range of plant health attributes. Although these endophytes have been found to be widely occurring, few studies have correlated agricultural production practices with endophyte community structure and function. One agricultural system that focuses on preserving and enhancing soil microbial abundance and biodiversity is organic farming, and numerous studies have shown that organically managed system have increased microbial community characteristics. Herein, the diversity and specificity of culturable bacterial endophytes were evaluated in four vegetable crops: corn, tomato, melon, and pepper grown under organic or conventional practices. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from surface-sterilized shoot, root, and seed tissues and sequence identified. A total of 336 bacterial isolates were identified, and grouped into 32 species and five phyla. Among these, 239 isolates were from organically grown plants and 97 from those grown conventionally. Although a diverse range of bacteria were documented, 186 were from the Phylum Firmicutes, representing 55% of all isolates. Using the Shannon diversity index, we observed a gradation of diversity in tissues, with shoots and roots having a similar value, and seeds having the least diversity. Importantly, endophytic microbial species abundance and diversity was significantly higher in the organically grown plants compared to those grown using conventional practices, potentially indicating that organic management practices may increase endophyte presence and diversity. The impact that these endophytes could have on plant growth and yield was evaluated by reintroducing them into tomato plants in a greenhouse environment. Of the bacterial isolates tested, 61% were found to promote tomato plant growth and 50-64% were shown to enhance biomass accumulation, illustrating their potential agroecosystem application. PMID:26217348

  11. Characterization of culturable bacterial endophytes and their capacity to promote plant growth from plants grown using organic or conventional practices

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Ye; DeBolt, Seth; Dreyer, Jamin; Scott, Delia; Williams, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Plants have a diverse internal microbial biota that has been shown to have an important influence on a range of plant health attributes. Although these endophytes have been found to be widely occurring, few studies have correlated agricultural production practices with endophyte community structure and function. One agricultural system that focuses on preserving and enhancing soil microbial abundance and biodiversity is organic farming, and numerous studies have shown that organically managed system have increased microbial community characteristics. Herein, the diversity and specificity of culturable bacterial endophytes were evaluated in four vegetable crops: corn, tomato, melon, and pepper grown under organic or conventional practices. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from surface-sterilized shoot, root, and seed tissues and sequence identified. A total of 336 bacterial isolates were identified, and grouped into 32 species and five phyla. Among these, 239 isolates were from organically grown plants and 97 from those grown conventionally. Although a diverse range of bacteria were documented, 186 were from the Phylum Firmicutes, representing 55% of all isolates. Using the Shannon diversity index, we observed a gradation of diversity in tissues, with shoots and roots having a similar value, and seeds having the least diversity. Importantly, endophytic microbial species abundance and diversity was significantly higher in the organically grown plants compared to those grown using conventional practices, potentially indicating that organic management practices may increase endophyte presence and diversity. The impact that these endophytes could have on plant growth and yield was evaluated by reintroducing them into tomato plants in a greenhouse environment. Of the bacterial isolates tested, 61% were found to promote tomato plant growth and 50–64% were shown to enhance biomass accumulation, illustrating their potential agroecosystem application. PMID:26217348

  12. Inter-organ defense networking: Leaf whitefly sucking elicits plant immunity to crown gall disease caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Plants have elaborate defensive machinery to protect against numerous pathogens and insects. Plant hormones function as modulators of defensive mechanisms to maintain plant resistance to natural enemies. Our recent study suggests that salicylic acid (SA) is the primary phytohormone regulating plant responses to Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection. Tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana Domin.) immune responses against Agrobacterium-mediated crown gall disease were activated by exposure to the sucking insect whitefly, which stimulated SA biosynthesis in aerial tissues; in turn, SA synthesized in aboveground tissues systemically modulated SA secretion in root tissues. Further investigation revealed that endogenous SA biosynthesis negatively modulated Agrobacterium-mediated plant genetic transformation. Our study provides novel evidence that activation of the SA-signaling pathway mediated by a sucking insect infestation has a pivotal role in subsequently attenuating Agrobacterium infection. These results demonstrate new insights into interspecies cross-talking among insects, plants, and soil bacteria. PMID:26357873

  13. Inter-organ defense networking: Leaf whitefly sucking elicits plant immunity to crown gall disease caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Plants have elaborate defensive machinery to protect against numerous pathogens and insects. Plant hormones function as modulators of defensive mechanisms to maintain plant resistance to natural enemies. Our recent study suggests that salicylic acid (SA) is the primary phytohormone regulating plant responses to Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection. Tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana Domin.) immune responses against Agrobacterium-mediated crown gall disease were activated by exposure to the sucking insect whitefly, which stimulated SA biosynthesis in aerial tissues; in turn, SA synthesized in aboveground tissues systemically modulated SA secretion in root tissues. Further investigation revealed that endogenous SA biosynthesis negatively modulated Agrobacterium-mediated plant genetic transformation. Our study provides novel evidence that activation of the SA-signaling pathway mediated by a sucking insect infestation has a pivotal role in subsequently attenuating Agrobacterium infection. These results demonstrate new insights into interspecies cross-talking among insects, plants, and soil bacteria. PMID:26357873

  14. Organization of health care in small plants in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Seward E.

    1955-01-01

    In the USA, the concept of an occupational health programme has grown steadily, and now embraces the total health of the worker. Elements of basic in-plant health programmes have been identified and patterns developed for successful operation. Today, health services in small plants still fall far short of optimal requirements. No more than 5% of workers in small plants enjoy the benefit of occupational health services. The main reason for the arrested development of these programmes is the lack of organizational and administrative techniques for providing health services in small plants. Recently, however, several projects have demonstrated that these difficulties can be overcome, and the future development of such programmes in small plants thus looks hopeful. Other recent developments hold promise of strengthening the health services available to workers. Union health centres, now being established in increasing numbers, offer the workers varying services, ranging from diagnostic and preventive procedures to complete medical care. Further benefits to both the worker and his family are being provided under collective bargaining agreements by voluntary health-insurance schemes. In addition to making services available to large numbers of workers previously not covered, the development of both union health centres and the prepaid health-insurance schemes offer future possibilities for integration of these programmes into the preventive and diagnostic services offered in the plant. Finally, governmental occupational health agencies, in addition to their industrial hygiene activities, are taking an increasing interest in the establishment and development of in-plant health programmes. PMID:13276820

  15. The organization of plant communities: negative plant-soil feedbacks and semiarid grasslands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estimates of species losses and evidence of positive plant diversity-productivity relationships have spurred interest in understanding the mechanism(s) regulating species coexistence and relative abundance. Plant-soil biota feedbacks appear to affect plant diversity and community structure by eithe...

  16. Non-serotinous woody plants behave as aerial seed bank species when a late-summer wildfire coincides with a mast year

    PubMed Central

    Pounden, Edith; Greene, David F; Michaletz, Sean T

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Trees which lack obvious fire-adaptive traits such as serotinous seed-bearing structures or vegetative resprouting are assumed to be at a dramatic disadvantage in recolonization via sexual recruitment after fire, because seed dispersal is invariably quite constrained. We propose an alternative strategy in masting tree species with woody cones or cone-like structures: that the large clusters of woody tissue in a mast year will sufficiently impede heat transfer that a small fraction of seeds can survive the flaming front passage; in a mast year, this small fraction would be a very large absolute number. In Kootenay National Park in British Columbia, we examined regeneration by Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii), a non-serotinous conifer, after two fires, both of which coincided with mast years. Coupling models of seed survivorship within cones and seed maturation schedule to a spatially realistic recruitment model, we show that (1) the spatial pattern of seedlings on a 630 m transect from the forest edge into the burn was best explained if there was in situ seed dissemination by burnt trees; (2) in areas several hundred meters from any living trees, recruitment density was well correlated with local prefire cone density; and (3) spruce was responding exactly like its serotinous codominant, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). We conclude that non-serotinous species can indeed behave like aerial seed bank species in mast years if the fire takes place late in the seed maturation period. Using the example of the circumpolar boreal forest, while the joint probability of a mast year and a late-season fire will make this type of event rare (we estimate P = 0.1), nonetheless, it would permit a species lacking obvious fire-adapted traits to occasionally establish a widespread and abundant cohort on a large part of the landscape. PMID:25614797

  17. AERIAL VIEW OF BUILDING 991, LOOKING WEST. BUILDING 991 WAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW OF BUILDING 991, LOOKING WEST. BUILDING 991 WAS DESIGNED FOR SHIPPING AND RECEIVING AND FOR FINAL ASSEMBLY OF WEAPON COMPONENTS. (6/26/91) - Rocky Flats Plant, Final Assembly & Shipping, Eastern portion of plant site, south of Spruce Avenue, east of Tenth Street & north of Central Avenue, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  18. 4. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHSOUTHWEST, OF BUILDING 371 GROUND FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHWEST, OF BUILDING 371 GROUND FLOOR UNDER CONSTRUCTION. THE GROUND FLOOR, WHICH CONTAINS THE MAJORITY OF THE PLUTONIUM RECOVERY PROCESSING EQUIPMENT, IS DIVIDED INTO COMPARTMENTS BY FIREWALLS, AIRLOCKS, AND USE OF NEGATIVE AIR PRESSURE. (1/7/75) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  19. AERIAL VIEW OF BUILDING 460, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE BUILDING WAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW OF BUILDING 460, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE BUILDING WAS CONSTRUCTED TO CONSOLIDATE ALL NON-NUCLEAR MANUFACTURING AT THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT INTO ONE FACILITY. (6/13/85) - Rocky Flats Plant, Stainless Steel & Non-Nuclear Components Manufacturing, Southeast corner of intersection of Cottonwood & Third Avenues, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  20. Predicting the accumulation of organic contaminants from soil by plants.

    PubMed

    Cropp, Roger A; Hawker, Darryl W; Boonsaner, Maliwan

    2010-11-01

    Analytic expressions for maximum chemical concentration attained in plants, and time this takes for uptake from surrounding soil were derived from a simple two-compartment soil/water-plant model. To illustrate, for the antibiotic norflxacin undergoing first order loss in the soil/water phase with a rate constant of 0.544 days⁻¹, maximum concentration in soybean P(MAX) is predicted to occur after 2.79 days exposure and be independent of initial soil/water concentration SW₀ of 52.5 mg kg⁻¹ dry weight. For soybean, the relationship between P(MAX) and SW₀ is P(MAX) = 0.047SW₀, resulting in predicted maximum levels of 2.20 mg kg⁻¹ dry weight. Modelled plant concentrations agreed well with experimental data (R² = 0.91). PMID:21069277

  1. 11. AERIAL VIEW OF CROSSCUT FACILITY, LOOKING NORTH. THE HYDRO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. AERIAL VIEW OF CROSSCUT FACILITY, LOOKING NORTH. THE HYDRO PLANT CENTER SITS ON THE EDGE OF RAVINE WHICH IS ACTUALLY THE BEGINNING OF THE GRAND CANAL. THE CROSS-CUT STEAM PLANT IS THE LARGE WHITE BUILDING JUST WEST OF THE HYDRO PLANT, WITH THE TRANSMISSION SWITCHYARD IN BETWEEN. THE OTHER BUILDINGS ARE SALT RIVER PROJECT FABRICATION AND EQUIPMENT SHOPS Photographer unknown, August 22, 1958 - Cross Cut Hydro Plant, North Side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  2. Plant sphingolipids: Their importance in cellular organization and adaption.

    PubMed

    Michaelson, Louise V; Napier, Johnathan A; Molino, Diana; Faure, Jean-Denis

    2016-09-01

    Sphingolipids and their phosphorylated derivatives are ubiquitous bio-active components of cells. They are structural elements in the lipid bilayer and contribute to the dynamic nature of the membrane. They have been implicated in many cellular processes in yeast and animal cells, including aspects of signaling, apoptosis, and senescence. Although sphingolipids have a better defined role in animal systems, they have been shown to be central to many essential processes in plants including but not limited to, pollen development, signal transduction and in the response to biotic and abiotic stress. A fuller understanding of the roles of sphingolipids within plants has been facilitated by classical biochemical studies and the identification of mutants of model species. Recently the development of powerful mass spectrometry techniques hailed the advent of the emerging field of lipidomics enabling more accurate sphingolipid detection and quantitation. This review will consider plant sphingolipid biosynthesis and function in the context of these new developments. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner. PMID:27086144

  3. Hybridization and evolution of invasiveness in plants and other organisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Less than a decade ago, we proposed that hybridization could serve as a stimulus for the evolution of invasiveness in plants (Ellstrand and Schierenbeck Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 97:7043–7050, 2000). A substantial amount of research has taken place on that topic since the publication of that paper, stim...

  4. ORGANIC PESTICIDE MODIFICATION OF SPECIES INTERACTIONS USING ANNUAL PLANT COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method is proposed and tested for assessing multispecies responses to three pesticides (atrazine, 2,4,D and malathion). Pesticides were applied at two concentrations, mon model plant communities grown in raised beds using soil containing a natural weed bank. over by species was...

  5. The impact of plant-based antimicrobials on sensory properties of organic leafy greens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant extracts and essential oils are well known for their antibacterial activity. However, studies concerning their effect on the organoleptic properties of treated foods are limited. The objective was to study the sensory attributes of organic leafy greens treated with plant antimicrobials and ide...

  6. EMISSION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM DRUM-MIX ASPHALT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research program was undertaken in order to develop a quantitative estimate of the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from drum-mix asphalt plants. The study was carried out by field sampling of five drum-mix plants under a variety of operating conditions. Include...

  7. Co-adaptationary aspects of the underground communication between plants and other organisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil microbial communities are comprised of a vast array of bacteria, fungi, nematodes and other organisms. It is becoming increasingly clear that these communities are not passively determined but actively regulated by plants. This chapter discusses the role plant root exudates play in the active r...

  8. Volatile organic compounds as non-invasive markers for plant phenotyping.

    PubMed

    Niederbacher, B; Winkler, J B; Schnitzler, J P

    2015-09-01

    Plants emit a great variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can actively participate in plant growth and protection against biotic and abiotic stresses. VOC emissions are strongly dependent on environmental conditions; the greatest ambiguity is whether or not the predicted change in climate will influence and modify plant-pest interactions that are mediated by VOCs. The constitutive and induced emission patterns between plant genotypes, species, and taxa are highly variable and can be used as pheno(chemo)typic markers to distinguish between different origins and provenances. In recent years significant progress has been made in molecular and genetic plant breeding. However, there is actually a lack of knowledge in functionally linking genotypes and phenotypes, particularly in analyses of plant-environment interactions. Plant phenotyping, the assessment of complex plant traits such as growth, development, tolerance, resistance, etc., has become a major bottleneck, and quantitative information on genotype-environment relationships is the key to addressing major future challenges. With increasing demand to support and accelerate progress in breeding for novel traits, the plant research community faces the need to measure accurately increasingly large numbers of plants and plant traits. In this review article, we focus on the promising outlook of VOC phenotyping as a fast and non-invasive measure of phenotypic dynamics. The basic principle is to define plant phenotypes according to their disease resistance and stress tolerance, which in turn will help in improving the performance and yield of economically relevant plants. PMID:25969554

  9. A partition-limited model for the plant uptake of organic contaminants from soil and water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiou, C.T.; Sheng, G.; Manes, M.

    2001-01-01

    In dealing with the passive transport of organic contaminants from soils to plants (including crops), a partition-limited model is proposed in which (i) the maximum (equilibrium) concentration of a contaminant in any location in the plant is determined by partition equilibrium with its concentration in the soil interstitial water, which in turn is determined essentially by the concentration in the soil organic matter (SOM) and (ii) the extent of approach to partition equilibrium, as measured by the ratio of the contaminant concentrations in plant water and soil interstitial water, ??pt (??? 1), depends on the transport rate of the contaminant in soil water into the plant and the volume of soil water solution that is required for the plant contaminant level to reach equilibrium with the external soil-water phase. Through reasonable estimates of plant organic-water compositions and of contaminant partition coefficients with various plant components, the model accounts for calculated values of ??pt in several published crop-contamination studies, including near-equilibrium values (i.e., ??pt ??? 1) for relatively water-soluble contaminants and lower values for much less soluble contaminants; the differences are attributed to the much higher partition coefficients of the less soluble compounds between plant lipids and plant water, which necessitates much larger volumes of the plant water transport for achieving the equilibrium capacities. The model analysis indicates that for plants with high water contents the plant-water phase acts as the major reservoir for highly water-soluble contaminants. By contrast, the lipid in a plant, even at small amounts, is usually the major reservoir for highly water-insoluble contaminants.

  10. The DOE ARM Aerial Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Hubbe, John M.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Mei, Fan; Chand, Duli; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Andrews, Elisabeth; Biraud, S.; McFarquhar, Greg

    2014-05-01

    The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a climate research user facility operating stationary ground sites that provide long-term measurements of climate relevant properties, mobile ground- and ship-based facilities to conduct shorter field campaigns (6-12 months), and the ARM Aerial Facility (AAF). The airborne observations acquired by the AAF enhance the surface-based ARM measurements by providing high-resolution in-situ measurements for process understanding, retrieval-algorithm development, and model evaluation that are not possible using ground- or satellite-based techniques. Several ARM aerial efforts were consolidated into the AAF in 2006. With the exception of a small aircraft used for routine measurements of aerosols and carbon cycle gases, AAF at the time had no dedicated aircraft and only a small number of instruments at its disposal. In this "virtual hangar" mode, AAF successfully carried out several missions contracting with organizations and investigators who provided their research aircraft and instrumentation. In 2009, AAF started managing operations of the Battelle-owned Gulfstream I (G-1) large twin-turboprop research aircraft. Furthermore, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided funding for the procurement of over twenty new instruments to be used aboard the G-1 and other AAF virtual-hangar aircraft. AAF now executes missions in the virtual- and real-hangar mode producing freely available datasets for studying aerosol, cloud, and radiative processes in the atmosphere. AAF is also engaged in the maturation and testing of newly developed airborne sensors to help foster the next generation of airborne instruments.

  11. Plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ozone (O3) polluted atmospheres: the ecological effects.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Delia M; Blande, James D; Souza, Silvia R; Nerg, Anne-Marja; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2010-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) is an important secondary air pollutant formed as a result of photochemical reactions between primary pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). O3 concentrations in the lower atmosphere (troposphere) are predicted to continue increasing as a result of anthropogenic activity, which will impact strongly on wild and cultivated plants. O3 affects photosynthesis and induces the development of visible foliar injuries, which are the result of genetically controlled programmed cell death. It also activates many plant defense responses, including the emission of phytogenic VOCs. Plant emitted VOCs play a role in many eco-physiological functions. Besides protecting the plant from abiotic stresses (high temperatures and oxidative stress) and biotic stressors (competing plants, micro- and macroorganisms), they drive multitrophic interactions between plants, herbivores and their natural enemies e.g., predators and parasitoids as well as interactions between plants (plant-to-plant communication). In addition, VOCs have an important role in atmospheric chemistry. They are O3 precursors, but at the same time are readily oxidized by O3, thus resulting in a series of new compounds that include secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). Here, we review the effects of O3 on plants and their VOC emissions. We also review the state of current knowledge on the effects of ozone on ecological interactions based on VOC signaling, and propose further research directions. PMID:20084432

  12. Effect of mechanical damage on emission of volatile organic compounds from plant leaves and implications for evaluation of host plant specificity of prospective biological control agents of weeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Assessment of host plant specificity is a critical step in the evaluation of classical biological control agents of weeds, which is necessary for avoiding possible damage to nontarget plants. Volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted by plants likely play an important role in determining which plant...

  13. BIOAVAILABILITY TO PLANTS OF SLUDGE-BORNE TOXIC ORGANICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large numbers of man-made organic chemicals occur in sewage sludge and many are thought to represent an environmental hazard. his is particularly true of the compounds classified as priority pollutants (TOs) which typically occur in sludges in the mg/kg concentration range. oncer...

  14. Organic Chemistry and the Native Plants of the Sonoran Desert: Conversion of Jojoba Oil to Biodiesel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daconta, Lisa V.; Minger, Timothy; Nedelkova, Valentina; Zikopoulos, John N.

    2015-01-01

    A new, general approach to the organic chemistry laboratory is introduced that is based on learning about organic chemistry techniques and research methods by exploring the natural products found in local native plants. As an example of this approach for the Sonoran desert region, the extraction of jojoba oil and its transesterification to…

  15. Contribution of plant lignin to the soil organic matter formation and stabilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lignin is the third most abundant plant constituent after cellulose and hemicellulose and thought to be one of the building blocks for soil organic matter formation. Lignin can be used as a predictor for long-term soil organic matter stabilization and C sequestration. Soils and humic acids from fo...

  16. Yeast Biocontrol of a Fungal Plant Disease: A Model for Studying Organism Interrelationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chanchaichaovivat, Arun; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Ruenwongsa, Pintip

    2008-01-01

    An experiment on the action of the yeast, "Saccharomyces cerevisiae", against a fungal plant disease is proposed for secondary students (Grade 11) to support their study of organism interrelationship. This biocontrol experiment serves as the basis for discussing relationships among three organisms (red chilli fruit, "Saccharomyces cerevisiae," and…

  17. Aerial Video Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    When Michael Henry wanted to start an aerial video service, he turned to Johnson Space Center for assistance. Two NASA engineers - one had designed and developed TV systems in Apollo, Skylab, Apollo- Soyuz and Space Shuttle programs - designed a wing-mounted fiberglass camera pod. Camera head and angles are adjustable, and the pod is shaped to reduce vibration. The controls are located so a solo pilot can operate the system. A microprocessor displays latitude, longitude, and bearing, and a GPS receiver provides position data for possible legal references. The service has been successfully utilized by railroads, oil companies, real estate companies, etc.

  18. Comparative analysis of transcriptomes in aerial stems and roots of Ephedra sinica based on high-throughput mRNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Okada, Taketo; Takahashi, Hironobu; Suzuki, Yutaka; Sugano, Sumio; Noji, Masaaki; Kenmoku, Hiromichi; Toyota, Masao; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Kawahara, Nobuo; Asakawa, Yoshinori; Sekita, Setsuko

    2016-12-01

    Ephedra plants are taxonomically classified as gymnosperms, and are medicinally important as the botanical origin of crude drugs and as bioresources that contain pharmacologically active chemicals. Here we show a comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of aerial stems and roots of Ephedra sinica based on high-throughput mRNA sequencing by RNA-Seq. De novo assembly of short cDNA sequence reads generated 23,358, 13,373, and 28,579 contigs longer than 200 bases from aerial stems, roots, or both aerial stems and roots, respectively. The presumed functions encoded by these contig sequences were annotated by BLAST (blastx). Subsequently, these contigs were classified based on gene ontology slims, Enzyme Commission numbers, and the InterPro database. Furthermore, comparative gene expression analysis was performed between aerial stems and roots. These transcriptome analyses revealed differences and similarities between the transcriptomes of aerial stems and roots in E. sinica. Deep transcriptome sequencing of Ephedra should open the door to molecular biological studies based on the entire transcriptome, tissue- or organ-specific transcriptomes, or targeted genes of interest. PMID:27625990

  19. Sorption of trace organics and engineered nanomaterials onto wetland plant material.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Fariya; Westerhoff, Paul; Herckes, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are sources for emerging pollutants, including organic compounds and engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), which then flow into aquatic systems. In this article, natural attenuation of pollutants by constructed wetland plants was investigated using lab-scale microcosm and batch sorption studies. The microcosms were operated at varying hydraulic residence times (HRTs) and contained decaying plant materials. Representative organic compounds and ENMs were simultaneously spiked into the microcosm influent, along with a conservative tracer (bromide), and then monitored in the effluent over time. It was observed that a more hydrophobic compound-natural estrogen achieved better removal than a polar organic compound – para-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA), which mimics the behaviour of the tracer. Batch sorption experiments showed that estrogen has higher sorption affinity than pCBA, highlighting the importance of sorption to the plant materials as a removal process for the organic contaminants in the microcosms. Wetland plants were also found a potential sorbent for ENMs. Two different ENMs (nano-silver and aqueous fullerenes) were included in this study, both of which experienced comparable removal in the microcosms. Relative to the tracer, the highest removal of ENMs and trace organics was 60% and 70%, respectively. A more than two-fold increase in HRT increased the removal efficiency of the contaminants in the range of 20–60%. The outcome of this study supports that plant materials of wetlands can play an important role in removing emerging pollutants from WWTP effluent. PMID:24592444

  20. A Late Devonian fertile organ with seed plant affinities from China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Deming; Liu, Le; Guo, Yun; Xue, Jinzhuang; Meng, Meicen

    2015-01-01

    Seed plants underwent first major evolutionary radiation in the Late Devonian (Famennian), as evidenced by the numerous ovules described to date. However, the early pollen organs are underrepresented, so that their structure and evolution remain poorly known. Here we report a new taxon of pollen organ Placotheca minuta from the Late Devonian. The synangium consists of many basally and more or less laterally fused microsporangia borne on the margin of a pad. The prepollen is spherical and trilete. The appearance of Famennian synangia especially in Placotheca does not support the current understanding that the earliest pollen organs closely resembled the fructifications of the ancestral progymnosperms. Placotheca indicates earlier diversification of pollen organs than previously expected and is highly derived among the early pollen organs with trilete prepollen. It is suggested that, immediately after the origination of seed plants, pollen organs had evolved at a rapid rate, whereas their prepollen remained primitively spore-like. PMID:26022973

  1. A Late Devonian Fertile Organ with Seed Plant Affinities from China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Deming; Liu, Le; Guo, Yun; Xue, Jinzhuang; Meng, Meicen

    2015-01-01

    Seed plants underwent first major evolutionary radiation in the Late Devonian (Famennian), as evidenced by the numerous ovules described to date. However, the early pollen organs are underrepresented, so that their structure and evolution remain poorly known. Here we report a new taxon of pollen organ Placotheca minuta from the Late Devonian. The synangium consists of many basally and more or less laterally fused microsporangia borne on the margin of a pad. The prepollen is spherical and trilete. The appearance of Famennian synangia especially in Placotheca does not support the current understanding that the earliest pollen organs closely resembled the fructifications of the ancestral progymnosperms. Placotheca indicates earlier diversification of pollen organs than previously expected and is highly derived among the early pollen organs with trilete prepollen. It is suggested that, immediately after the origination of seed plants, pollen organs had evolved at a rapid rate, whereas their prepollen remained primitively spore-like. PMID:26022973

  2. Organically managed soils reduce internal colonization of tomato plants by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ganyu; Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan M; Vallad, Gary E; van Bruggen, Ariena H C

    2013-04-01

    A two-phase experiment was conducted twice to investigate the effects of soil management on movement of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium in tomato plants. In the first phase, individual leaflets of 84 tomato plants grown in conventional or organic soils were dip inoculated two to four times before fruiting with either of two Salmonella Typhimurium strains (10(9) CFU/ml; 0.025% [vol/vol] Silwet L-77). Inoculated and adjacent leaflets were tested for Salmonella spp. densities for 30 days after each inoculation. Endophytic bacterial communities were characterized by polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis before and after inoculation. Fruit and seed were examined for Salmonella spp. incidence. In phase 2, extracted seed were planted in conventional soil, and contamination of leaves and fruit of the second generation was checked. More Salmonella spp. survived in inoculated leaves on plants grown in conventional than in organic soil. The soil management effect on Salmonella spp. survival was confirmed for tomato plants grown in two additional pairs of soils. Endophytic bacterial diversities of tomato plants grown in conventional soils were significantly lower than those in organic soils. All contaminated fruit (1%) were from tomato plants grown in conventional soil. Approximately 5% of the seed from infested fruit were internally contaminated. No Salmonella sp. was detected in plants grown from contaminated seed. PMID:23506364

  3. Psychrotolerant actinomycetes of plants and organic horizons in tundra and taiga soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrova, M. S.; Zenova, G. M.; Yakushev, A. V.; Manucharova, N. A.; Makarova, E. P.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.; Chernov, I. Yu.

    2013-08-01

    It has been revealed that in organic horizons and plants of the tundra and taiga ecosystems under low temperatures, actinomycetal complexes form. The population density of psychrotolerant actinomycetes in organic horizons and plants reaches tens and hundreds of thousands CFU/g of substrate or soil, and decreases in the sequence litters > plants > soils > undecomposed plant remains > moss growths. The mycelium length of psychrotolerant actinomycetes reaches 220 m/g of substrate. Application of the FISH method has demonstrated that metabolically active psychrotolerant bacteria of the phylum Actinobacteria constitute 30% of all metabolically active psychrotolerant representatives of the Bacterià domain of the prokaryotic microbial community of soils and plants. Psychrotolerant actinomycetes in tundra and taiga ecosystems possess antimicrobial properties.

  4. Gravity, chromosomes, and organized development in aseptically cultured plant cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krikorian, Abraham D.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of the PCR experiment are: to test the hypothesis that microgravity will in fact affect the pattern and developmental progression of embryogenically competent plant cells from one well-defined, critical stage to another; to determine the effects of microgravity in growth and differentiation of embryogenic carrot cells grown in cell culture; to determine whether microgravity or the space environment fosters an instability of the differentiated state; and to determine whether mitosis and chromosome behavior are adversely affected by microgravity. The methods employed will consist of the following: special embryogenically competent carrot cell cultures will be grown in cell culture chambers provided by NASDA; four cell culture chambers will be used to grow cells in liquid medium; two dishes (plant cell culture dishes) will be used to grow cells on a semi-solid agar support; progression to later embryonic stages will be induced in space via crew intervention and by media manipulation in the case of liquid grown cell cultures; progression to later stages in case of semi-solid cultures will not need crew intervention; embryo stages will be fixed at a specific interval (day 6) in flight only in the case of liquid-grown cultures; and some living cells and somatic embryos will be returned for continued post-flight development and 'grown-out.' These will derive from the semi-solid grown cultures.

  5. Plant-Associated Bacterial Degradation of Toxic Organic Compounds in Soil

    PubMed Central

    McGuinness, Martina; Dowling, David

    2009-01-01

    A number of toxic synthetic organic compounds can contaminate environmental soil through either local (e.g., industrial) or diffuse (e.g., agricultural) contamination. Increased levels of these toxic organic compounds in the environment have been associated with human health risks including cancer. Plant-associated bacteria, such as endophytic bacteria (non-pathogenic bacteria that occur naturally in plants) and rhizospheric bacteria (bacteria that live on and near the roots of plants), have been shown to contribute to biodegradation of toxic organic compounds in contaminated soil and could have potential for improving phytoremediation. Endophytic and rhizospheric bacterial degradation of toxic organic compounds (either naturally occurring or genetically enhanced) in contaminated soil in the environment could have positive implications for human health worldwide and is the subject of this review. PMID:19742157

  6. Infrared film for aerial photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, William H.

    1979-01-01

    Considerable interest has developed recently in the use of aerial photographs for agricultural management. Even the simplest hand-held aerial photographs, especially those taken with color infrared film, often provide information not ordinarily available through routine ground observation. When fields are viewed from above, patterns and variations become more apparent, often allowing problems to be spotted which otherwise may go undetected.

  7. AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY AND LEGAL APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aerial photographic interpretation is the process of examining objects on aerial photographs and determining their significance. t is often defined as both art and science because the process, and the quality of the derived information, is often a qualitative nature and much depe...

  8. Hierarchical Helical Order in the Twisted Growth of Plant Organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Hirofumi

    2012-09-01

    The molecular and cellular basis of left-right asymmetry in plant morphogenesis is a fundamental issue in biology. A rapidly elongating root or hypocotyl of twisting mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana exhibits a helical growth with a handedness opposite to that of the underlying cortical microtubule arrays in epidermal cells. However, how such a hierarchical helical order emerges is currently unknown. We propose a model for investigating macroscopic chiral asymmetry in Arabidopsis mutants. Our elastic model suggests that the helical pattern observed is a direct consequence of the simultaneous presence of anisotropic growth and tilting of cortical microtubule arrays. We predict that the root helical pitch angle is a function of the microtubule helical angle and elastic moduli of the tissues. The proposed model is versatile and is potentially important for other biological systems ranging from protein fibrous structures to tree trunks.

  9. DOE/NNSA Aerial Measuring System (AMS): Flying the 'Real' Thing

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Lyons

    2011-06-24

    This slide show documents aerial radiation surveys over Japan. Map product is a compilation of daily aerial measuring system missions from the Fukushima Daiichi power plant to 80 km radius. In addition, other flights were conducted over US military bases and the US embassy.

  10. Contributions of host cellular trafficking and organization to the outcomes of plant-pathogen interactions.

    PubMed

    Underwood, William

    2016-08-01

    In recent years it has become increasingly apparent that dynamic changes in protein localization, membrane trafficking pathways, and cellular organization play a major role in determining the outcome of interactions between plants and pathogenic microorganisms. Plants have evolved sophisticated perception systems to recognize the presence of potentially pathogenic microorganisms via the detection of non-self or modified-self elicitor molecules, pathogen virulence factors, or the activities of such virulence factors. Dynamic changes to host cellular organization and membrane trafficking pathways play pivotal roles in detection and signaling by plant immune receptors and are vital for the execution of spatially targeted defense responses to thwart invasion by potential pathogens. Conversely, from the perspective of the pathogen, the ability to manipulate plant cellular organization and trafficking processes to establish infection structures and deliver virulence factors is a major determinant of pathogen success. This review summarizes selected topics that illustrate how dynamic changes in host cellular trafficking and organization shape the outcomes of diverse plant-pathogen interactions and addresses ways in which our rapidly expanding knowledge of the cell biological processes that contribute to immunity or infection may influence efforts to improve plant disease resistance. PMID:27216829

  11. Temporal Control of Plant Organ Growth by TCP Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tengbo; Irish, Vivian F

    2015-06-29

    The Arabidopsis petal is a simple laminar organ whose development is largely impervious to environmental effects, making it an excellent model for dissecting the regulation of cell-cycle progression and post-mitotic cell expansion that together sculpt organ form. Arabidopsis petals grow via basipetal waves of cell division, followed by a phase of cell expansion. RABBIT EARS (RBE) encodes a C2H2 zinc finger transcriptional repressor and is required for petal development. During the early phase of petal initiation, RBE regulates a microRNA164-dependent pathway that controls cell proliferation at the petal primordium boundaries. The effects of rbe mutations on petal lamina growth suggest that RBE is also required to regulate later developmental events during petal organogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that, early in petal development, RBE represses the transcription of a suite of CIN-TCP genes that in turn act to inhibit the number and duration of cell divisions; the temporal alleviation of that repression results in the transition from cell division to post-mitotic cell expansion and concomitant petal maturation. PMID:26073137

  12. Colonization of plants by human pathogenic bacteria in the course of organic vegetable production.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Andreas; Fischer, Doreen; Hartmann, Anton; Schmid, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, increasing numbers of outbreaks caused by the consumption of vegetables contaminated with human pathogenic bacteria were reported. The application of organic fertilizers during vegetable production is one of the possible reasons for contamination with those pathogens. In this study laboratory experiments in axenic and soil systems following common practices in organic farming were conducted to identify the minimal dose needed for bacterial colonization of plants and to identify possible factors like bacterial species or serovariation, plant species or organic fertilizer types used, influencing the success of plant colonization by human pathogenic bacteria. Spinach and corn salad were chosen as model plants and were inoculated with different concentrations of Salmonella enterica sv. Weltevreden, Listeria monocytogenes sv. 4b and EGD-E sv. 1/2a either directly (axenic system) or via agricultural soil amended with spiked organic fertilizers (soil system). In addition to PCR- and culture-based detection methods, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was applied in order to localize bacteria on or in plant tissues. Our results demonstrate that shoots were colonized by the pathogenic bacteria at inoculation doses as low as 4 × 10 CFU/ml in the axenic system or 4 × 10(5) CFU/g in the soil system. In addition, plant species dependent effects were observed. Spinach was colonized more often and at lower inoculation doses compared to corn salad. Differential colonization sites on roots, depending on the plant species could be detected using FISH-CLSM analysis. Furthermore, the transfer of pathogenic bacteria to plants via organic fertilizers was observed more often and at lower initial inoculation doses when fertilization was performed with inoculated slurry compared to inoculated manure. Finally, it could be shown that by introducing a simple washing step, the bacterial contamination was reduced in most cases or even was removed completely in some

  13. Organic Farming and Landscape Structure: Effects on Insect-Pollinated Plant Diversity in Intensively Managed Grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Power, Eileen F.; Kelly, Daniel L.; Stout, Jane C.

    2012-01-01

    Parallel declines in insect-pollinated plants and their pollinators have been reported as a result of agricultural intensification. Intensive arable plant communities have previously been shown to contain higher proportions of self-pollinated plants compared to natural or semi-natural plant communities. Though intensive grasslands are widespread, it is not known whether they show similar patterns to arable systems nor whether local and/or landscape factors are influential. We investigated plant community composition in 10 pairs of organic and conventional dairy farms across Ireland in relation to the local and landscape context. Relationships between plant groups and local factors (farming system, position in field and soil parameters) and landscape factors (e.g. landscape complexity) were investigated. The percentage cover of unimproved grassland was used as an inverse predictor of landscape complexity, as it was negatively correlated with habitat-type diversity. Intensive grasslands (organic and conventional) contained more insect-pollinated forbs than non-insect pollinated forbs. Organic field centres contained more insect-pollinated forbs than conventional field centres. Insect-pollinated forb richness in field edges (but not field centres) increased with increasing landscape complexity (% unimproved grassland) within 1, 3, 4 and 5km radii around sites, whereas non-insect pollinated forb richness was unrelated to landscape complexity. Pollination systems within intensive grassland communities may be different from those in arable systems. Our results indicate that organic management increases plant richness in field centres, but that landscape complexity exerts strong influences in both organic and conventional field edges. Insect-pollinated forb richness, unlike that for non-insect pollinated forbs, showed positive relationships to landscape complexity reflecting what has been documented for bees and other pollinators. The insect-pollinated forbs, their

  14. Colonization of plants by human pathogenic bacteria in the course of organic vegetable production

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Andreas; Fischer, Doreen; Hartmann, Anton; Schmid, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, increasing numbers of outbreaks caused by the consumption of vegetables contaminated with human pathogenic bacteria were reported. The application of organic fertilizers during vegetable production is one of the possible reasons for contamination with those pathogens. In this study laboratory experiments in axenic and soil systems following common practices in organic farming were conducted to identify the minimal dose needed for bacterial colonization of plants and to identify possible factors like bacterial species or serovariation, plant species or organic fertilizer types used, influencing the success of plant colonization by human pathogenic bacteria. Spinach and corn salad were chosen as model plants and were inoculated with different concentrations of Salmonella enterica sv. Weltevreden, Listeria monocytogenes sv. 4b and EGD-E sv. 1/2a either directly (axenic system) or via agricultural soil amended with spiked organic fertilizers (soil system). In addition to PCR- and culture-based detection methods, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was applied in order to localize bacteria on or in plant tissues. Our results demonstrate that shoots were colonized by the pathogenic bacteria at inoculation doses as low as 4 × 10 CFU/ml in the axenic system or 4 × 105 CFU/g in the soil system. In addition, plant species dependent effects were observed. Spinach was colonized more often and at lower inoculation doses compared to corn salad. Differential colonization sites on roots, depending on the plant species could be detected using FISH-CLSM analysis. Furthermore, the transfer of pathogenic bacteria to plants via organic fertilizers was observed more often and at lower initial inoculation doses when fertilization was performed with inoculated slurry compared to inoculated manure. Finally, it could be shown that by introducing a simple washing step, the bacterial contamination was reduced in most cases or even was removed completely in some cases

  15. Bioremediation of polluted soil through the combined application of plants, earthworms and organic matter.

    PubMed

    Macci, Cristina; Doni, Serena; Peruzzi, Eleonora; Ceccanti, Brunello; Masciandaro, Grazia

    2012-10-26

    Two plant species (Paulownia tomentosa and Cytisus scoparius), earthworms (Eisenia fetida), and organic matter (horse manure) were used as an ecological approach to bioremediate a soil historically contaminated by heavy metals and hydrocarbons. The experiment was carried out for six months at a mesoscale level using pots containing 90 kg of polluted soil. Three different treatments were performed for each plant: (i) untreated planted soil as a control (C); (ii) planted soil + horse manure (20:1 w/w) (M); (iii) planted soil + horse manure + 15 earthworms (ME). Both the plant species were able to grow in the polluted soil and to improve the soil's bio-chemical conditions, especially when organic matter and earthworms were applied. By comparing the two plant species, few significant differences were observed in the soil characteristics; Cytisus scoparius improved soil nutrient content more than Paulownia tomentosa, which instead stimulated more soil microbial metabolism. Regarding the pollutants, Paulownia tomentosa was more efficient in reducing the heavy metal (Pb, Cr, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni) content, while earthworms were particularly able to stimulate the processes involved in the decontamination of organic pollutants (hydrocarbons). This ecological approach, validated at a mesoscale level, has recently been transferred to a real scale situation to carry out the bioremediation of polluted soil in San Giuliano Terme Municipality (Pisa, Italy). PMID:22911348

  16. Mask degradation monitoring with aerial mask inspector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Wen-Jui; Fu, Yung-Ying; Lu, Shih-Ping; Jiang, Ming-Sian; Lin, Jeffrey; Wu, Clare; Lifschitz, Sivan; Tam, Aviram

    2013-06-01

    As design rule continues to shrink, microlithography is becoming more challenging and the photomasks need to comply with high scanner laser energy, low CDU, and ever more aggressive RETs. This give rise to numerous challenges in the semiconductor wafer fabrication plants. Some of these challenges being contamination (mainly haze and particles), mask pattern degradation (MoSi oxidation, chrome migration, etc.) and pellicle degradation. Fabs are constantly working to establish an efficient methodology to manage these challenges mainly using mask inspection, wafer inspection, SEM review and CD SEMs. Aerial technology offers a unique opportunity to address the above mask related challenges using one tool. The Applied Materials Aera3TM system has the inherent ability to inspect for defects (haze, particles, etc.), and track mask degradation (e.g. CDU). This paper focuses on haze monitoring, which is still a significant challenge in semiconductor manufacturing, and mask degradation effects that are starting to emerge as the next challenge for high volume semiconductor manufacturers. The paper describes Aerial inspector (Aera3) early haze methodology and mask degradation tracking related to high volume manufacturing. These will be demonstrated on memory products. At the end of the paper we take a brief look on subsequent work currently conducted on the more general issue of photo mask degradation monitoring by means of an Aerial inspector.

  17. Organic-inorganic hybrids from renewable plant oils and clay.

    PubMed

    Uyama, Hiroshi; Kuwabara, Mai; Tsujimoto, Takashi; Nakano, Mitsuru; Usuki, Arimitsu; Kobayashi, Shiro

    2004-03-15

    This study deals with the preparation and properties of a new class of organic-inorganic hybrids from renewable resources. The hybrids were synthesized by an acid-catalyzed curing of epoxidized triglycerides in the presence of an organophilic montmorillonite (a modified clay). The mechanical properties were improved by the incorporation of clay in the oil-based polymer matrix. The reinforcement effect due to the addition of clay was confirmed by dynamic viscoelasticity analysis. The hybrids showed relatively high thermal stability. The co-curing of epoxidized soybean and linseed oils in the presence of clay produced hybrids with controlled mechanical and coating properties. The barrier property of the hybrid towards water vapor was superior to that of the oil polymer. The development of the present hybrids consisting of inexpensive renewable resources, triglyceride and clay is expected to contribute to global sustainability. PMID:15468227

  18. Calcium and Calmodulin Localization in Gravitropically-responding Plant Organs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roux, S. J.

    1985-01-01

    Antimonate staining procedures were used to detect calcium redistribution changes in corn roots. Results show that an asymmetric redistribution of Ca is induced by a gravitropic stimulus in roots as it is in shoots. Since this response occurs within 10 min, at least 5 min before any visible bending, it could play a role in the regulation of root gravitropism. Two different general approaches were used to localize calmodulin in plant tissue: radioimmunoassay of its content in tissue and in purified subcellular organelles, and immunocytochemical detection of it in roots and coleoptiles. Radioimmunoassay results indicate that calmodulin is present in large quantities in pllant cells and that it is specifically associated with mitochondria, etioplasts and nuclei. An assayed of an extract of soluble wall proteins revealed that over 1% of these proteins was calmodulin. Controls indicate that this calmodulin is not cytoplasmic in origin. A reaction product from anti-calmodulin was found mainly in the root cap cells, moderately in metazylem elements, in some cells in the stele surrounding metaxylem elements and in cortical cells.

  19. Treatment of hydroponic wastewater by denitrification filters using plant prunings as the organic carbon source.

    PubMed

    Park, J B K; Craggs, R J; Sukias, J P S

    2008-05-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using pre-treated plant liquors as organic carbon sources for the treatment of hydroponic wastewater containing high nitrate-N (>300 mg N/L). The waste plant material was pre-treated to extract organic carbon-rich liquors. When this plant liquor was used as an organic carbon source in denitrification filters at the organic carbon:nitrogen dose rate of 3C:N, nitrate removal efficiencies were >95% and final effluent nitrate concentrations were consistently <20mg N/L. However, at this dose rate, relatively high concentrations (>140 mg/L) of organic carbon (fBOD5) remained in the final effluents. Therefore, a 'compromise' organic carbon:nitrogen dose rate (2C:N) was trialled, at which nitrate removal efficiencies were maintained at >85%, final effluent nitrate concentrations were consistently below 45 mg N/L, and effluent fBOD5 concentrations were <25mg/L. This study has demonstrated that waste plant material is a suitable carbon source for the removal of nitrate from hydroponic wastewater in a denitrification filter. PMID:17714940

  20. Organic matter of urban soils: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodyanitskii, Yu. N.

    2015-08-01

    Urban environment exerts an ambiguous effect on the organic pool of soils; it may decrease (as compared to the background values) in some parts of a city and increase in other parts. The organic matter accumulation in urban soils is promoted by the input of aerial organic pollutants; slowed down mineralization of plant residues under the influence of contamination; and increased productivity of the plants owing to elevated temperatures, high content of carbon dioxide in the air, and maintenance of green zones (sodding of vast areas in cities, application of peat, irrigation and drainage of soils.)

  1. Stitching Organelles: Organization and Function of Specialized Membrane Contact Sites in Plants.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sancho, Jessica; Tilsner, Jens; Samuels, A Lacey; Botella, Miguel A; Bayer, Emmanuelle M; Rosado, Abel

    2016-09-01

    The coordination of multiple metabolic activities in plants relies on an interorganelle communication network established through membrane contact sites (MCS). The MCS are maintained in transient or durable configurations by tethering structures which keep the two membranes in close proximity, and create chemical microdomains that allow localized and targeted exchange of small molecules and possibly proteins. The past few years have witnessed a dramatic increase in our understanding of the structural and molecular organization of plant interorganelle MCS, and their crucial roles in plant specialized functions including stress responses, cell to cell communication, and lipid transport. In this review we summarize recent advances in understanding the molecular components, structural organization, and functions of different plant-specific MCS architectures. PMID:27318776

  2. Organ-specific regulation of growth-defense tradeoffs by plants.

    PubMed

    Smakowska, Elwira; Kong, Jixiang; Busch, Wolfgang; Belkhadir, Youssef

    2016-02-01

    Plants grow while also defending themselves against phylogenetically unrelated pathogens. Because defense and growth are both costly programs, a plant's success in colonizing resource-scarce environments requires tradeoffs between the two. Here, we summarize efforts aimed at understanding how plants use iterative tradeoffs to modulate differential organ growth when defenses are elicited. First, we focus on shoots to illustrate how light, in conjunction with the growth hormone gibberellin (GA) and the defense hormone jasmonic acid (JA), act to finely regulate defense and growth programs in this organ. Second, we expand on the regulation of growth-defense trade-offs in the root, a less well-studied topic despite the critical role of this organ in acquiring resources in an environment deeply entrenched with disparate populations of microbes. PMID:26802804

  3. Mechanisms of Heavy Metal Sequestration in Soils: Plant-Microbe Interactions and Organic Matter Aging

    SciTech Connect

    Teresa W.-M. Fan; Richard M. Higashi; David Crowley; Andrew N. Lane: Teresa A. Cassel; Peter G. Green

    2004-12-31

    For stabilization of heavy metals at contaminated sites, the three way interaction among soil organic matter (OM)-microbes-plants, and their effect on heavy metal binding is critically important for long-term sustainability, a factor that is poorly understood at the molecular level. Using a soil aging system, the humification of plant matter such as wheat straw was probed along with the effect on microbial community on soil from the former McClellan Air Force Base.

  4. AERIAL MEASURING SYSTEM IN JAPAN

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, Craig; Colton, David

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Agency’s Aerial Measuring System deployed personnel and equipment to partner with the U.S. Air Force in Japan to conduct multiple aerial radiological surveys. These were the first and most comprehensive sources of actionable information for U.S. interests in Japan and provided early confirmation to the government of Japan as to the extent of the release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Generation Station. Many challenges were overcome quickly during the first 48 hours; including installation and operation of Aerial Measuring System equipment on multiple U.S. Air Force Japan aircraft, flying over difficult terrain, and flying with talented pilots who were unfamiliar with the Aerial Measuring System flight patterns. These all combined to make for a dynamic and non-textbook situation. In addition, the data challenges of the multiple and on-going releases, and integration with the Japanese government to provide valid aerial radiological survey products that both military and civilian customers could use to make informed decisions, was extremely complicated. The Aerial Measuring System Fukushima response provided insight in addressing these challenges and gave way to an opportunity for the expansion of the Aerial Measuring System’s mission beyond the borders of the US.

  5. Airborne remote sensing assessment of the damage to cotton caused by spray drift from aerially applied glyphosate through spray deposition measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Off-target drift of aerially applied glyphosate can cause plant injury, which is of great concern to farmers and aerial applicators. To determine the extent of crop injury due to near-field drift, an experiment was conducted with a single aerial application of glyphosate. For identification of the d...

  6. Differential effect of plant lipids on membrane organization: specificities of phytosphingolipids and phytosterols.

    PubMed

    Grosjean, Kevin; Mongrand, Sébastien; Beney, Laurent; Simon-Plas, Françoise; Gerbeau-Pissot, Patricia

    2015-02-27

    The high diversity of the plant lipid mixture raises the question of their respective involvement in the definition of membrane organization. This is particularly the case for plant plasma membrane, which is enriched in specific lipids, such as free and conjugated forms of phytosterols and typical phytosphingolipids, such as glycosylinositolphosphoceramides. This question was here addressed extensively by characterizing the order level of membrane from vesicles prepared using various plant lipid mixtures and labeled with an environment-sensitive probe. Fluorescence spectroscopy experiments showed that among major phytosterols, campesterol exhibits a stronger ability than β-sitosterol and stigmasterol to order model membranes. Multispectral confocal microscopy, allowing spatial analysis of membrane organization, demonstrated accordingly the strong ability of campesterol to promote ordered domain formation and to organize their spatial distribution at the membrane surface. Conjugated sterol forms, alone and in synergy with free sterols, exhibit a striking ability to order membrane. Plant sphingolipids, particularly glycosylinositolphosphoceramides, enhanced the sterol-induced ordering effect, emphasizing the formation and increasing the size of sterol-dependent ordered domains. Altogether, our results support a differential involvement of free and conjugated phytosterols in the formation of ordered domains and suggest that the diversity of plant lipids, allowing various local combinations of lipid species, could be a major contributor to membrane organization in particular through the formation of sphingolipid-sterol interacting domains. PMID:25575593

  7. Duration of emission of volatile organic compounds from mechanically damaged plant leaves.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lincoln; Beck, John J

    2015-09-01

    Classical biological control of invasive alien weeds depends on the use of arthropod herbivores that are sufficiently host specific to avoid risk of injuring nontarget plants. Host plant specificity is usually evaluated by using a combination of behavioral and developmental experiments under choice, no-choice and field conditions. Secondary plant compounds are likely to have an important influence on host plant specificity. However, relatively little is known about the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are emitted by target and nontarget plants, and how environmental conditions may affect their emission. Previous studies have shown that mechanical damage of leaves increases the composition and content of VOCs emitted. In this study we measured the VOC emissions of five species of plants in the subtribe Centaureinae (Asteraceae)--Carthamus tinctorius, Centaurea cineraria, Centaurea melitensis, Centaurea rothrockii, and Centaurea solstitialis--that have previously been used in host specificity experiments for a prospective biological control agent of yellow starthistle (C. solstitialis). Leaves of each plant were punctured with a needle and the VOCs were collected by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) periodically over 48 h and analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 49 compounds were detected. Damage caused an immediate increase of 200-600% in the composition of VOCs emitted from each plant species, and the amounts generally remained high for at least 48 h. The results indicate that a very unspecific mechanical damage can cause a prolonged change in the VOC profile of plants. PMID:26398629

  8. Efficient CO2 Fixation Pathways: Energy Plant: High Efficiency Photosynthetic Organisms

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    PETRO Project: UCLA is redesigning the carbon fixation pathways of plants to make them more efficient at capturing the energy in sunlight. Carbon fixation is the key process that plants use to convert carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere into higher energy molecules (such as sugars) using energy from the sun. UCLA is addressing the inefficiency of the process through an alternative biochemical pathway that uses 50% less energy than the pathway used by all land plants. In addition, instead of producing sugars, UCLA’s designer pathway will produce pyruvate, the precursor of choice for a wide variety of liquid fuels. Theoretically, the new biochemical pathway will allow a plant to capture 200% as much CO2 using the same amount of light. The pathways will first be tested on model photosynthetic organisms and later incorporated into other plants, thus dramatically improving the productivity of both food and fuel crops.

  9. Aerial thermography for energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Thermal infrared scanning from an aircraft is a convenient and commercially available means for determining relative rates of energy loss from building roofs. The need to conserve energy as fuel costs makes the mass survey capability of aerial thermography an attractive adjunct to community energy awareness programs. Background information on principles of aerial thermography is presented. Thermal infrared scanning systems, flight and environmental requirements for data acquisition, preparation of thermographs for display, major users and suppliers of thermography, and suggested specifications for obtaining aerial scanning services were reviewed.

  10. Detection, Composition and Treatment of Volatile Organic Compounds from Waste Treatment Plants

    PubMed Central

    Font, Xavier; Artola, Adriana; Sánchez, Antoni

    2011-01-01

    Environmental policies at the European and global level support the diversion of wastes from landfills for their treatment in different facilities. Organic waste is mainly treated or valorized through composting, anaerobic digestion or a combination of both treatments. Thus, there are an increasing number of waste treatment plants using this type of biological treatment. During waste handling and biological decomposition steps a number of gaseous compounds are generated or removed from the organic matrix and emitted. Different families of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) can be found in these emissions. Many of these compounds are also sources of odor nuisance. In fact, odors are the main source of complaints and social impacts of any waste treatment plant. This work presents a summary of the main types of VOC emitted in organic waste treatment facilities and the methods used to detect and quantify these compounds, together with the treatment methods applied to gaseous emissions commonly used in composting and anaerobic digestion facilities. PMID:22163835

  11. Safety evaluation for packaging for onsite transfer of B Plant organic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Mercado, M.S.

    1996-10-07

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes the use of a 17,500-L (4,623-gal) tank manufactured by Brenner Tank, Incorporated, to transport up to 16,221 L (4,285 gal) of radioactive organic liquid waste. The waste will be transported from the organic loading pad to a storage pad. Both pads are within the B Plant complex, but approximately 4 mi apart.

  12. 47. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY AERIAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY AERIAL VIEW OF "A" FACE (LEFT) WITH CLEANING SYSTEM INSTALLED (NOW REMOVED) AND "B" FACE (RIGHT) WITH CONSTRUCTION CRANE IN USE. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  13. AERIAL VIEW OF MAIN PROCESSING BUILDING SHOWING CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW OF MAIN PROCESSING BUILDING SHOWING CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS AND EXCAVATION FOR LABORATORY ON LEFT. INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-51-1759. Unknown Photographer, 3/28/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. 3. Lower end of the Old Crosscut Canal, aerial view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Lower end of the Old Crosscut Canal, aerial view to north. The Old Crosscut runs top left to lower right, west of meat packing plant and stockyards. Photographer unknown, c. 1939. Source: Pueblo Grande Museum Cultural Park. - Old Crosscut Canal, North Side of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  15. 26. Aerial photograph dated 20 June 1942, showing north end ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Aerial photograph dated 20 June 1942, showing north end of Gould Island from the southwest. At upper left is firing pier. Shop building and power plant under construction at center. Photo courtesy of Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Newport, Rhode Island. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  16. GENERAL CLOSEUP AERIAL OF ELWHA DAM AND POWER HOUSE LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL CLOSE-UP AERIAL OF ELWHA DAM AND POWER- HOUSE LOOKING DOWN ON SURGE TANK, BIFURCATED PENSTOCK, SPILLWAYS, AND NORTH END OF RESERVOIR. PHOTO BY JET LOWE, HAER, 1995. - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Elwha Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA

  17. AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING WEST TOWARD PRATT CITY, WITH EXTRACTION OPERATIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING WEST TOWARD PRATT CITY, WITH EXTRACTION OPERATIONS (BOTTOM LEFT AND CENTER), COKE BY-PRODUCT PLANT (CENTER), AND THE FORMER THOMAS FURNACE COMMUNITY, NOW THE THOMAS NATIONAL REGISTER HISTORIC DISTRICT (CENTER RIGHT). - Wade Sand & Gravel Company, AL 78, Thomas, Jefferson County, AL

  18. 24. Duplicate negative of an historic negative. 'AERIAL VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Duplicate negative of an historic negative. 'AERIAL VIEW OF AREA 'B' HOLSTON ORDNANCE WORKS.' 1944. #OCMH 4-12.2ASAV3 in Super Explosives Program RDX and Its Composition A, B, & C, Record Group No. 319, National Archives, Washington, D.C. - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  19. A novel analytical approach for visualizing and tracking organic chemicals in plants.

    PubMed

    Wild, Edward; Dent, John; Barber, Jonathan L; Thomas, Gareth O; Jones, Kevin C

    2004-08-01

    Vegetation plays a key role in the environmental fate of many organic chemicals, from pesticides applied to plants, to the air-vegetation exchange and global cycling of atmospheric organic contaminants. Our ability to locate such compounds in plants has traditionally relied on inferences being made from destructive chemical extraction techniques or methods with potential artifacts. Here, for the first time, two-photon excitation microscopy (TPEM) is coupled with plant autofluorescence to visualize and track trace levels of an organic contaminant in living plant tissue, without any form of sample modification or manipulation. Anthracene-a polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-was selected for study in living maize (Zea mays) leaves. Anthracene was tracked over 96 h, where amounts as low as approximately 0.1-10 pg were visible, as it moved through the epicuticular wax and plant cuticle, and was observed reaching the cytoplasm of the epidermal cells. By this stage, anthracene was identifiable in five separate locations within the leaf: (1) as a thin (approximately 5 microm) diffuse layer, in the upper surface of the epicuticular wax; (2) as thick (approximately 28 microm) diffuse bands extending from the epicuticular wax through the cuticle, to the cell walls of the epidermal cells; (3) on the external surface of epidermal cell walls; (4) on the internal surface of epidermal cell walls; and (5) within the cytoplasm of the epidermal cells. This technique provides a powerful nonintrusive tool for visualizing and tracking the movement, storage locations, and degradation of organic chemicals within vegetation using only plant and compound autofluorescence. Many other applications are envisaged for TPEM, in visualizing organic chemicals within different matrixes. PMID:15352460

  20. Subcellular Targeting of Methylmercury Lyase Enhances Its Specific Activity for Organic Mercury Detoxification in Plants1

    PubMed Central

    Bizily, Scott P.; Kim, Tehryung; Kandasamy, Muthugapatti K.; Meagher, Richard B.

    2003-01-01

    Methylmercury is an environmental pollutant that biomagnifies in the aquatic food chain with severe consequences for humans and other animals. In an effort to remove this toxin in situ, we have been engineering plants that express the bacterial mercury resistance enzymes organomercurial lyase MerB and mercuric ion reductase MerA. In vivo kinetics experiments suggest that the diffusion of hydrophobic organic mercury to MerB limits the rate of the coupled reaction with MerA (Bizily et al., 2000). To optimize reaction kinetics for organic mercury compounds, the merB gene was engineered to target MerB for accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum and for secretion to the cell wall. Plants expressing the targeted MerB proteins and cytoplasmic MerA are highly resistant to organic mercury and degrade organic mercury at 10 to 70 times higher specific activity than plants with the cytoplasmically distributed wild-type MerB enzyme. MerB protein in endoplasmic reticulum-targeted plants appears to accumulate in large vesicular structures that can be visualized in immunolabeled plant cells. These results suggest that the toxic effects of organic mercury are focused in microenvironments of the secretory pathway, that these hydrophobic compartments provide more favorable reaction conditions for MerB activity, and that moderate increases in targeted MerB expression will lead to significant gains in detoxification. In summary, to maximize phytoremediation efficiency of hydrophobic pollutants in plants, it may be beneficial to target enzymes to specific subcellular environments. PMID:12586871

  1. Digital Single-Cell Analysis of Plant Organ Development Using 3DCellAtlas[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Montenegro-Johnson, Thomas D.; Stamm, Petra; Strauss, Soeren; Topham, Alexander T.; Tsagris, Michail; Wood, Andrew T.A.; Smith, Richard S.; Bassel, George W.

    2015-01-01

    Diverse molecular networks underlying plant growth and development are rapidly being uncovered. Integrating these data into the spatial and temporal context of dynamic organ growth remains a technical challenge. We developed 3DCellAtlas, an integrative computational pipeline that semiautomatically identifies cell types and quantifies both 3D cellular anisotropy and reporter abundance at single-cell resolution across whole plant organs. Cell identification is no less than 97.8% accurate and does not require transgenic lineage markers or reference atlases. Cell positions within organs are defined using an internal indexing system generating cellular level organ atlases where data from multiple samples can be integrated. Using this approach, we quantified the organ-wide cell-type-specific 3D cellular anisotropy driving Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyl elongation. The impact ethylene has on hypocotyl 3D cell anisotropy identified the preferential growth of endodermis in response to this hormone. The spatiotemporal dynamics of the endogenous DELLA protein RGA, expansin gene EXPA3, and cell expansion was quantified within distinct cell types of Arabidopsis roots. A significant regulatory relationship between RGA, EXPA3, and growth was present in the epidermis and endodermis. The use of single-cell analyses of plant development enables the dynamics of diverse regulatory networks to be integrated with 3D organ growth. PMID:25901089

  2. Microtubule dynamics of the centrosome-like polar organizers from the basal land plant Marchantia polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Buschmann, Henrik; Holtmannspötter, Michael; Borchers, Agnes; O'Donoghue, Martin-Timothy; Zachgo, Sabine

    2016-02-01

    The liverwort Marchantia employs both modern and ancestral devices during cell division: it forms preprophase bands and in addition it shows centrosome-like polar organizers. We investigated whether polar organizers and preprophase bands cooperate to set up the division plane. To this end, two novel green fluorescent protein-based microtubule markers for dividing cells of Marchantia were developed. Cells of the apical notch formed polar organizers first and subsequently assembled preprophase bands. Polar organizers were formed de novo from multiple mobile microtubule foci localizing to the nuclear envelope. The foci then became concentrated by bipolar aggregation. We determined the comet production rate of polar organizers and show that microtubule plus ends of astral microtubules polymerize faster than those found on cortical microtubules. Importantly, it was observed that conditions increasing polar organizer numbers interfere with preprophase band formation. The data show that polar organizers have much in common with centrosomes, but that they also have specialized features. The results suggest that polar organizers contribute to preprophase band formation and in this way are involved in controlling the division plane. Our analyses of the basal land plant Marchantia shed new light on the evolution of plant cell division. PMID:26467050

  3. Plants mediate soil organic matter decomposition in response to sea level rise.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Peter; Jensen, Kai; Megonigal, James Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Tidal marshes have a large capacity for producing and storing organic matter, making their role in the global carbon budget disproportionate to land area. Most of the organic matter stored in these systems is in soils where it contributes 2-5 times more to surface accretion than an equal mass of minerals. Soil organic matter (SOM) sequestration is the primary process by which tidal marshes become perched high in the tidal frame, decreasing their vulnerability to accelerated relative sea level rise (RSLR). Plant growth responses to RSLR are well understood and represented in century-scale forecast models of soil surface elevation change. We understand far less about the response of SOM decomposition to accelerated RSLR. Here we quantified the effects of flooding depth and duration on SOM decomposition by exposing planted and unplanted field-based mesocosms to experimentally manipulated relative sea level over two consecutive growing seasons. SOM decomposition was quantified as CO2 efflux, with plant- and SOM-derived CO2 separated via δ(13) CO2 . Despite the dominant paradigm that decomposition rates are inversely related to flooding, SOM decomposition in the absence of plants was not sensitive to flooding depth and duration. The presence of plants had a dramatic effect on SOM decomposition, increasing SOM-derived CO2 flux by up to 267% and 125% (in 2012 and 2013, respectively) compared to unplanted controls in the two growing seasons. Furthermore, plant stimulation of SOM decomposition was strongly and positively related to plant biomass and in particular aboveground biomass. We conclude that SOM decomposition rates are not directly driven by relative sea level and its effect on oxygen diffusion through soil, but indirectly by plant responses to relative sea level. If this result applies more generally to tidal wetlands, it has important implications for models of SOM accumulation and surface elevation change in response to accelerated RSLR. PMID:26342160

  4. Modeling aerial refueling operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Allen B., III

    Aerial Refueling (AR) is the act of offloading fuel from one aircraft (the tanker) to another aircraft (the receiver) in mid flight. Meetings between tanker and receiver aircraft are referred to as AR events and are scheduled to: escort one or more receivers across a large body of water; refuel one or more receivers; or train receiver pilots, tanker pilots, and boom operators. In order to efficiently execute the Aerial Refueling Mission, the Air Mobility Command (AMC) of the United States Air Force (USAF) depends on computer models to help it make tanker basing decisions, plan tanker sorties, schedule aircraft, develop new organizational doctrines, and influence policy. We have worked on three projects that have helped AMC improve its modeling and decision making capabilities. Optimal Flight Planning. Currently Air Mobility simulation and optimization software packages depend on algorithms which iterate over three dimensional fuel flow tables to compute aircraft fuel consumption under changing flight conditions. When a high degree of fidelity is required, these algorithms use a large amount of memory and CPU time. We have modeled the rate of aircraft fuel consumption with respect to AC GrossWeight, Altitude and Airspeed. When implemented, this formula will decrease the amount of memory and CPU time needed to compute sortie fuel costs and cargo capacity values. We have also shown how this formula can be used in optimal control problems to find minimum costs flight plans. Tanker Basing Demand Mismatch Index. Since 1992, AMC has relied on a Tanker Basing/AR Demand Mismatch Index which aggregates tanker capacity and AR demand data into six regions. This index was criticized because there were large gradients along regional boundaries. Meanwhile tankers frequently cross regional boundaries to satisfy the demand for AR support. In response we developed continuous functions to score locations with respect to their proximity to demand for AR support as well as their

  5. Riverine Dissolved Organic Matter Degradation Modeled Through Microbial Incubations of Vascular Plant Leachates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harfmann, J.; Hernes, P.; Chuang, C. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) contains as much carbon as is in the atmosphere, provides the main link between terrestrial and marine carbon reservoirs, and fuels the microbial food web. The fate and removal of DOM is a result of several complex conditions and processes, including photodegradation, sorption/desorption, dominant vascular plant sources, and microbial abundance. In order to better constrain factors affecting microbial degradation, laboratory incubations were performed using Sacramento River water for microbial inoculums and vascular plant leachates. Four vascular plant sources were chosen based on their dominance in the Sacramento River Valley: gymnosperm needles from Pinus sabiniana (foothill pine), angiosperm dicot leaves from Quercus douglassi (blue oak), angiosperm monocot mixed annual grasses, and angiosperm monocot mixed Schoenoplectus acutus (tule) and Typha spp. (cattails). Three concentrations of microbial inoculum were used for each plant material, ranging from 0.2% to 10%. Degradation was monitored as a function of time using dissolved organic carbon (DOC), UV-Vis absorbance, and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (fDOM), and was compared across vascular plant type and inoculum concentration.

  6. Partition coefficient of cadmium between organic soils and bean and oat plants

    SciTech Connect

    Siddqui, M.F.R.; Courchesne, F.; Kennedy, G.; Zayed, J.

    1995-12-31

    Environmental fate models require the partition coefficient data of contaminants among two or more environmental compartments. The bioaccumulation of cadmium (Cd) by bean and oat plants grown on organic soils in a controlled growth chamber was investigated to validate the plant/soil partition coefficient. Total Cd was measured in the soils and in the different parts of the plants. The mean total Cd concentrations for soil cultivated with beans and oats were 0.86 and 0.69 {micro}g/g, respectively. Selective extractants (BaCl{sub 2}, Na-pyrophosphate and HNO{sub 3}-hydroxy) were used to evaluate solid phase Cd species in the soil. In the soil cultivated with bean, BaCl{sub 2} exchangeable, Na-pyrophosphate extractable and HNO{sub 3}-NH{sub 2}OH extractable Cd represented 1.2, 1.6 and 50.9% of total soil Cd, respectively. For the soil cultivated with oats, the same extractants gave values of 1.1, 1.8 and 61.9%. Cd concentration levels in bean plants followed the sequence roots > fruits = stems > leaves (p < 0.01) while the following sequence was observed for oat plants: roots > fruits > stems > leaves (p < 0.05). The partition coefficient for total Cd (Cd{sub Plant tissue}/Cd{sub Soil}) was in the range of 0.28--0.55 for bean plants and 1.03--1.86 for oat plants.

  7. A novel laboratory system for determining fate of volatile organic compounds in planted systems

    SciTech Connect

    Orchard, B.J.; Doucette, W.J.; Chard, J.K; Bugbee, B.

    2000-04-01

    Contradictory observations regarding the uptake and translocation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by plants have been reported, most notably for trichloroethylene (TCE). Experimental artifacts resulting from the use of semistatic or low-flow laboratory systems may account for part of the discrepancy. Innovative plant growth chambers are required to rigorously quantify the movement of VOCs through higher plants while maintaining a natural plant environment. The plant must be sealed in a chamber that allows rapid exchange of air to remove the water vapor lost in transpiration, to resupply the CO{sub 2} consumed in photosynthesis, and to resupply the O{sub 2} consumed in root-zone respiration. Inadequate airflow through the foliar region results in high humidity, which dramatically reduces transpiration and may reduce contaminant flux. Oxygen depletion in static root zones induces root stress, which can increase root membrane permeability. The root zone must be separated from the shoots to differentiate between plant uptake and foliar deposition. Here the authors describe the design, construction, and testing of a dual-vacuum, continuous high-flow chamber systems for accurately determining the fate of VOCs plants. The system provides a natural plant environment, complete root/shoot separation, the ability to quantify phytovolatilization and mineralization in both root and shoot compartments, continuous root-zone aeration, and high mass recovery.

  8. Promotion of plant growth by Pseudomonas fluorescens strain SS101 via novel volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Soon; Dutta, Swarnalee; Ann, Mina; Raaijmakers, Jos M; Park, Kyungseok

    2015-05-29

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) play key roles in modulating plant growth and induced systemic resistance (ISR) to pathogens. Despite their significance, the physiological functions of the specific VOCs produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens SS101 (Pf.SS101) have not been precisely elucidated. The effects of Pf.SS101 and its VOCs on augmentation of plant growth promotion were investigated in vitro and in planta. A significant growth promotion was observed in plants exposed Pf.SS101 under both conditions, suggesting that its VOCs play a key role in promoting plant growth. Solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) and a gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometer (GC-MS) system were used to characterize the VOCs emitted by Pf.SS101 and 11 different compounds were detected in samples inoculated this bacterium, including 13-Tetradecadien-1-ol, 2-butanone and 2-Methyl-n-1-tridecene. Application of these compounds resulted in enhanced plant growth. This study suggests that Pf.SS101 promotes the growth of plants via the release of VOCs including 13-Tetradecadien-1-ol, 2-butanone and 2-Methyl-n-1-tridecene, thus increasing understanding of the role of VOCs in plant-bacterial inter-communication. PMID:25892516

  9. Plant roots alter microbial potential for mediation of soil organic carbon decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firestone, M.; Shi, S.; Herman, D.; He, Z.; Zhou, J.

    2014-12-01

    Plant root regulation of soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition is a key controller of terrestrial C-cycling. Although many studies have tested possible mechanisms underlying plant "priming" of decomposition, few have investigated the microbial mediators of decomposition, which can be greatly influenced by plant activities. Here we examined effects of Avena fatua roots on decomposition of 13C-labeled root litter in a California grassland soil over two simulated growing-seasons. The presence of plant roots consistently suppressed rates of litter decomposition. Reduction of inorganic nitrogen (N) concentration in soil reduced but did not completely relieve this suppressive effect. The presence of plants significantly altered the abundance, composition and functional potential of microbial communities. Significantly higher signal intensities of genes capable of degrading low molecular weight organic compounds (e.g., glucose, formate and malate) were observed in microbial communities from planted soils, while microorganisms in unplanted soils had higher relative abundances of genes involved in degradation of some macromolecules (e.g., hemicellulose and lignin). Additionally, compared to unplanted soils, microbial communities from planted soils had higher signal intensities of proV and proW, suggesting microbial osmotic stress in planted soils. Possible mechanisms for the observed inhibition of decomposition are 1) microbes preferentially using simple substrates from root exudates and 2) soil drying by plant evapotranspiration impairing microbial activity. We propose a simple data-based model suggesting that the impacts of roots, the soil environment, and microbial community composition on decomposition processes result from impacts of these factors on the soil microbial functional gene potential.

  10. Organic blueberry production systems: management of plant nutrition, irrigation requirements, and weeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A long-term systems trial was established to evaluate factorial management practices for organic production of highbush blueberry. The practices include: flat and raised planting beds; feather meal and fish emulsion fertilizer applied at 29 and 57 kg/ha N; sawdust mulch, compost topped with sawdust ...

  11. Cover crops and organic mulches for nematode, weed, and plant health management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two field experiments were conducted in 2003 and 2004 to evaluate ‘Tropic Sun’ sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea) and ‘Iron Clay’ cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) as summer cover crops and as organic mulches. Both experiments were a 3 x 3 split-plot design in which the main plots were summer planting of sunn h...

  12. Organic blueberry production systems: management of plant nutrition, irrigation requirements, and weeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A long-term systems trial was established to evaluate management practices for organic production of northern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.). The factorial experiment included two planting bed treatments (flat and raised beds), source and rate of fertilizer (feather meal and fish emuls...

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS AT A CHLOR-ALKALI PLANT: STUDY ORGANIZATION AND IMPLEMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes the organization and implementation of a detailed emissions measurement campaign conducted over a 2-week period at the Olin Corporation's mercury chlor-alkali plant in Augusta, GA. (NOTE: Since data analysis is continuing, study results will be provided later...

  14. Book Review: "The Rhizosphere: Biochemistry and Organic Substances at the Soil-Plant Interface, Second Edition"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complexity of the biological, chemical, and physical interactions occurring in the volume of soil surrounding the root of a growing plant dictates that a multidisciplinary approach must be taken to improve our understanding of this rhizosphere. Hence, "The Rhizosphere: Biochemistry and Organic S...

  15. PHYTOTOX: DATABASE DEALING WITH THE EFFECT OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS ON TERRESTRIAL VASCULAR PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new database, PHYTOTOX, dealing with the direct effects of exogenously supplied organic chemicals on terrestrial vascular plants is described. The database consists of two files, a Reference File and Effects File. The Reference File is a bibliographic file of published research...

  16. SAMPLING FOR HIGH-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN POWER PLANT STACK GASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The results of laboratory and field investigations of experimental sampling systems intended to collect high-molecular-weight organic compounds from flue gases in coal-fired power plants are presented. The most promising sampling device was a solid sorbent cartridge inserted dire...

  17. PARTITIONING OF TOXIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ON MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT SOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fundamental aspects of partitioning of toxic organic compounds on municipal wastewater treatment plant solids have been investigated. Sorption on wastewater solids was not affected by solids-to-liquid ratio. Kinetic data on sorption showed an initial rapid uptake followed by a sl...

  18. EBP1 regulates organ size through cell growth and proliferation in plants

    PubMed Central

    Horváth, Beatrix M; Magyar, Zoltán; Zhang, Yuexing; Hamburger, Anne W; Bakó, László; Visser, Richard G F; Bachem, Christian W B; Bögre, László

    2006-01-01

    Plant organ size shows remarkable uniformity within species indicating strong endogenous control. We have identified a plant growth regulatory gene, functionally and structurally homologous to human EBP1. Plant EBP1 levels are tightly regulated; gene expression is highest in developing organs and correlates with genes involved in ribosome biogenesis and function. EBP1 protein is stabilised by auxin. Elevating or decreasing EBP1 levels in transgenic plants results in a dose-dependent increase or reduction in organ growth, respectively. During early stages of organ development, EBP1 promotes cell proliferation, influences cell-size threshold for division and shortens the period of meristematic activity. In postmitotic cells, it enhances cell expansion. EBP1 is required for expression of cell cycle genes; CyclinD3;1, ribonucleotide reductase 2 and the cyclin-dependent kinase B1;1. The regulation of these genes by EBP1 is dose and auxin dependent and might rely on the effect of EBP1 to reduce RBR1 protein level. We argue that EBP1 is a conserved, dose-dependent regulator of cell growth that is connected to meristematic competence and cell proliferation via regulation of RBR1 level. PMID:17024182

  19. Volatile organic compound emissions from usaf wastewater treatment plants in ozone nonattainment areas. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ouellette, B.A.

    1994-09-01

    In accordance with the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), this research conducts an evaluation of the potential emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from selected Air Force wastewater treatment plants. Using a conservative mass balance analysis and process specific simulation models, volatile organic emission estimates are calculated for four individual facilities--Edwards AFB, Luke AFB, McGuire AFB, and McClellan AFB--which represent a cross section of the current inventory of USAF wastewater plants in ozone nonattainment areas. From these calculations, maximum facility emissions are determined which represent the upper limit for the potential VOC emissions from these wastewater plants. Based on the calculated emission estimates, each selected wastewater facility is evaluated as a potential major stationary source of volatile organic emissions under both Title I of the 1990 CAAA and the plant's governing Clean Air Act state implementation plan. Next, the potential impact of the specific volatile organics being emitted is discussed in terms of their relative reactivity and individual contribution to tropospheric ozone formation. Finally, a relative comparison is made between the estimated VOC emissions for the selected wastewater facilities and the total VOC emissions for their respective host installations.

  20. Weed management practices for organic production of trailing blackberry. I. Plant growth and early fruit production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed management practices were evaluated in a new field of trailing blackberry established in western Oregon. The field was planted in May 2010 and certified organic in May 2012. Treatments included two cultivars, ‘Marion’ and ‘Black Diamond’, grown in 1) non-weeded plots, where weeds were cut to th...

  1. Plant-derived compounds stimulate the decomposition of organic matter in arctic permafrost soils.

    PubMed

    Wild, Birgit; Gentsch, Norman; Čapek, Petr; Diáková, Kateřina; Alves, Ricardo J Eloy; Bárta, Jiři; Gittel, Antje; Hugelius, Gustaf; Knoltsch, Anna; Kuhry, Peter; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Mikutta, Robert; Palmtag, Juri; Schleper, Christa; Schnecker, Jörg; Shibistova, Olga; Takriti, Mounir; Torsvik, Vigdis L; Urich, Tim; Watzka, Margarete; Šantrůčková, Hana; Guggenberger, Georg; Richter, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Arctic ecosystems are warming rapidly, which is expected to promote soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition. In addition to the direct warming effect, decomposition can also be indirectly stimulated via increased plant productivity and plant-soil C allocation, and this so called "priming effect" might significantly alter the ecosystem C balance. In this study, we provide first mechanistic insights into the susceptibility of SOM decomposition in arctic permafrost soils to priming. By comparing 119 soils from four locations across the Siberian Arctic that cover all horizons of active layer and upper permafrost, we found that an increased availability of plant-derived organic C particularly stimulated decomposition in subsoil horizons where most of the arctic soil carbon is located. Considering the 1,035 Pg of arctic soil carbon, such an additional stimulation of decomposition beyond the direct temperature effect can accelerate net ecosystem C losses, and amplify the positive feedback to global warming. PMID:27157964

  2. Plant-derived compounds stimulate the decomposition of organic matter in arctic permafrost soils

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Birgit; Gentsch, Norman; Čapek, Petr; Diáková, Kateřina; Alves, Ricardo J. Eloy; Bárta, Jiři; Gittel, Antje; Hugelius, Gustaf; Knoltsch, Anna; Kuhry, Peter; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Mikutta, Robert; Palmtag, Juri; Schleper, Christa; Schnecker, Jörg; Shibistova, Olga; Takriti, Mounir; Torsvik, Vigdis L.; Urich, Tim; Watzka, Margarete; Šantrůčková, Hana; Guggenberger, Georg; Richter, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Arctic ecosystems are warming rapidly, which is expected to promote soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition. In addition to the direct warming effect, decomposition can also be indirectly stimulated via increased plant productivity and plant-soil C allocation, and this so called “priming effect” might significantly alter the ecosystem C balance. In this study, we provide first mechanistic insights into the susceptibility of SOM decomposition in arctic permafrost soils to priming. By comparing 119 soils from four locations across the Siberian Arctic that cover all horizons of active layer and upper permafrost, we found that an increased availability of plant-derived organic C particularly stimulated decomposition in subsoil horizons where most of the arctic soil carbon is located. Considering the 1,035 Pg of arctic soil carbon, such an additional stimulation of decomposition beyond the direct temperature effect can accelerate net ecosystem C losses, and amplify the positive feedback to global warming. PMID:27157964

  3. Plant-derived compounds stimulate the decomposition of organic matter in arctic permafrost soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Birgit; Gentsch, Norman; Čapek, Petr; Diáková, Kateřina; Alves, Ricardo J. Eloy; Bárta, Jiři; Gittel, Antje; Hugelius, Gustaf; Knoltsch, Anna; Kuhry, Peter; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Mikutta, Robert; Palmtag, Juri; Schleper, Christa; Schnecker, Jörg; Shibistova, Olga; Takriti, Mounir; Torsvik, Vigdis L.; Urich, Tim; Watzka, Margarete; Šantrůčková, Hana; Guggenberger, Georg; Richter, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Arctic ecosystems are warming rapidly, which is expected to promote soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition. In addition to the direct warming effect, decomposition can also be indirectly stimulated via increased plant productivity and plant-soil C allocation, and this so called “priming effect” might significantly alter the ecosystem C balance. In this study, we provide first mechanistic insights into the susceptibility of SOM decomposition in arctic permafrost soils to priming. By comparing 119 soils from four locations across the Siberian Arctic that cover all horizons of active layer and upper permafrost, we found that an increased availability of plant-derived organic C particularly stimulated decomposition in subsoil horizons where most of the arctic soil carbon is located. Considering the 1,035 Pg of arctic soil carbon, such an additional stimulation of decomposition beyond the direct temperature effect can accelerate net ecosystem C losses, and amplify the positive feedback to global warming.

  4. Genes and quantitative genetic variation involved with senescence in cells, organs, and the whole plant

    PubMed Central

    Pujol, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    Senescence, the deterioration of morphological, physiological, and reproductive functions with age that ends with the death of the organism, was widely studied in plants. Genes were identified that are linked to the deterioration of cells, organs and the whole plant. It is, however, unclear whether those genes are the source of age dependent deterioration or get activated to regulate such deterioration. Furthermore, it is also unclear whether such genes are active as a direct consequence of age or because they are specifically involved in some developmental stages. At the individual level, it is the relationship between quantitative genetic variation, and age that can be used to detect the genetic signature of senescence. Surprisingly, the latter approach was only scarcely applied to plants. This may be the consequence of the demanding requirements for such approaches and/or the fact that most research interest was directed toward plants that avoid senescence. Here, I review those aspects in turn and call for an integrative genetic theory of senescence in plants. Such conceptual development would have implications for the management of plant genetic resources and generate progress on fundamental questions raised by aging research. PMID:25755664

  5. The brighter side of soils: quantum dots track organic nitrogen through fungi and plants.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, Matthew D; Treseder, Kathleen K; Atsatt, Peter R

    2009-01-01

    Soil microorganisms mediate many nutrient transformations that are central in terrestrial cycling of carbon and nitrogen. However, uptake of organic nutrients by microorganisms is difficult to study in natural systems. We assessed quantum dots (fluorescent nanoscale semiconductors) as a new tool to observe uptake and translocation of organic nitrogen by fungi and plants. We conjugated quantum dots to the amino groups of glycine, arginine, and chitosan and incubated them with Penicillium fungi (a saprotroph) and annual bluegrass (Poa annua) inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. As experimental controls, we incubated fungi and bluegrass samples with substrate-free quantum dots as well as unbound quantum dot substrate mixtures. Penicillium fungi, annual bluegrass, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi all showed uptake and translocation of quantum dot-labeled organic nitrogen, but no uptake of quantum dot controls. Additionally, we observed quantum dot-labeled organic nitrogen within soil hyphae, plant roots, and plant shoots using field imaging techniques. This experiment is one of the first to demonstrate direct uptake of organic nitrogen by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. PMID:19294917

  6. Chemical characteristics of organic aerosols in Algiers city area: influence of a fat manufacture plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yassaa, Noureddine; Meklati, Brahim Youcef; Cecinato, Angelo

    Total concentrations and homologue distributions of organic fraction constituents have been determined in particulate matter emitted from different units of a fat manufacturer (i.e. oils refining and conditioning plants, and production and conditioning units of a soap industry) located in Algiers area, as well as in atmospheric aerosols. In particular n-alkanes, n-alkanoic and n-alkenoic acids, n-alkan-2-ones and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were investigated. Organic aerosol contents varied broadly among the plant units, depending upon nature of the manufactured products. The percent composition of all classes of compounds investigated in ambient atmosphere was similar to those observed indoor at industrial plant units. Organic acids, n-alkanoic as well as n-alkenoic, appeared by far the most abundant organic constituents of aerosols, both indoor and outdoor, ranging from 7.7 to 19.8 and from 12.7 to 17.1 μg m -3, respectively. The huge occurrence of acids and n-alkanes in ambient aerosols was consistent with their high levels present in oil and fat materials. Among minor components of aerosols, n-alkan-2-ones and PAH, seemed to be related to thermally induced ageing and direct combustion of raw organic material used for oil and soap production.

  7. A New Organic Dye-Based Staining for The Detection of Plant DNA in Agarose Gels.

    PubMed

    Sönmezoğlu, Özlem Ateş; Özkay, Kerime

    2015-01-01

    Ethidium bromide (EtBr) is used to stain DNA in agarose gel electrophoresis, but this dye is mutagenic and carcinogenic. We investigated N-719, which is a visible, reliable and organic Ruthenium-based dye, and five fluorescent alternatives for staining plant DNA. For prestaining and poststaining, N-719, GelRed, and SYBR Safe stained both DNA and PCR product bands as clearly as EtBr. SYBR Green I, methylene blue, and crystal violet were effective for poststaining only. The organic dye N-719 stained DNA bands as sensitively and as clearly as EtBr. Consequently, organic dyes can be used as alternatives to EtBr in plant biotechnology studies. PMID:26158569

  8. Aerial Photography: Use in Detecting Simulated Insect Defoliation in Corn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, H. C.; Latham, R.; Meyer, M. P.

    1973-01-01

    Artificial defoliation in corn was used to explore the usefulness of aerial photography in detecting crop insect infestations. Defoliation on the top of plants was easily detected, while that on the base was less so. Aero infrared film with Wratten 89B filter gave the best results, and morning flights at the scale of 1:15840 are recommended. Row direction, plant growth stage, and time elapse since defoliation were not important factors.

  9. 9. AERIAL VIEW OF CROSSCUT FACILITY, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. THE NEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. AERIAL VIEW OF CROSSCUT FACILITY, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. THE NEW CROSSCUT CANAL ENTERS THE PICTURE AT FOREGROUND RIGHT, EMPTYING INTO THE FOREBAY AND DESILTING BASIN CENTER. THE DUAL PENSTOCKS ARE SEEN AS THE STRAIGHT LINE RUNNING TOWARD THE HYDRO PLANTS ACROSS VAN BUREN STREET. top. THE BEGINNING OF THE GRAND CANAL IS VISIBLE, CURVING TO THE RIGHT BEYOND THE RAILROAD TRACKS Photographer unknown, no date - Cross Cut Hydro Plant, North Side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  10. 3. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, OF BUILDING 371 BASEMENT UNDER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, OF BUILDING 371 BASEMENT UNDER CONSTRUCTION. THE BASEMENT HOUSES HEATING, VENTILATION, AND AIR CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT AND MECHANICAL UTILITIES, THE UPPER PART OF THE PLUTONIUM STORAGE VAULT AND MAINTENANCE BAY, AND SMALL PLUTONIUM PROCESSING AREAS. THE BASEMENT LEVEL IS DIVIDED INTO NEARLY EQUAL NORTH AND SOUTH PARTS BY THE UPPER PORTION OF THE PLUTONIUM STORAGE VAULT. (10/7/74) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  11. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHSOUTHEAST, OF BUILDING 371 UNDER CONSTRUCTION. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST, OF BUILDING 371 UNDER CONSTRUCTION. THE BUILDING IS A MULTI-LEVEL STRUCTURE, PARTIALLY UNDERGROUND. THE PLUTONIUM STORAGE VAULT EXTENDS FROM THE WEST SIDE OF THE BUILDING. FOOTERS FOR BUILDING 374 ARE VISIBLE TO THE LEFT OF BUILDING 371. (5/2/74) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  12. 2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHNORTHEAST, OF THE SUBBASEMENT OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH-NORTHEAST, OF THE SUB-BASEMENT OF BUILDING 371 UNDER CONSTRUCTION. THE SUB-BASEMENT, THE BOTTOM LEVEL, IS AN IRREGULARLY SHAPED AREA, CONSISTING PRIMARILY OF THE LOWER PORTION OF THE PLUTONIUM STORAGE VAULT AND ITS TRANSFER, REPAIR, AND STACKER-RETRIEVER MAINTENANCE BAYS. THE PLUTONIUM STORAGE VAULT RUNS EAST-WEST. (7/2/74) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  13. Representativity of mosses as biomonitor organisms for the accumulation of environmental chemicals in plants and soils

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, W.

    1986-06-01

    The suitability of mosses for air pollution monitoring of benzohexachloride isomers and polyaromatic hydrocarbons is shown by residue data of different samples from Europe. The interpretation of the results makes it obvious that next to regional pattern analysis, hypotheses for atmospheric transport and deposition processes of different environmental chemicals can also be formed. An evaluation of these kinds of bioindicator methods is presented by a quantitative comparison of air pollution data and accumulated residues in plants. The results indicate a high retention efficiency of mosses for pollutants dominantly adsorbed to particulate matter in the air, like polyaromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals. The comparison of residue data of trace pollutants in mosses and other plants underlines the indicator functions of lower plants for air monitoring patterns with the exception of chlorinated hydrocarbons. They are more effective enriched by coniferous plants which contain ingredients able to absorb and transport these groups of environmental pollutants in the organism.

  14. Organic Farming Benefits Local Plant Diversity in Vineyard Farms Located in Intensive Agricultural Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimbene, Juri; Marini, Lorenzo; Paoletti, Maurizio G.

    2012-05-01

    The majority of research on organic farming has considered arable and grassland farming systems in Central and Northern Europe, whilst only a few studies have been carried out in Mediterranean agro-systems, such as vineyards, despite their economic importance. The main aim of the study was to test whether organic farming enhances local plant species richness in both crop and non-crop areas of vineyard farms located in intensive conventional landscapes. Nine conventional and nine organic farms were selected in an intensively cultivated region (i.e. no gradient in landscape composition) in northern Italy. In each farm, vascular plants were sampled in one vineyard and in two non-crop linear habitats, grass strips and hedgerows, adjacent to vineyards and therefore potentially influenced by farming. We used linear mixed models to test the effect of farming, and species longevity (annual vs. perennial) separately for the three habitat types. In our intensive agricultural landscapes organic farming promoted local plant species richness in vineyard fields, and grassland strips while we found no effect for linear hedgerows. Differences in species richness were not associated to differences in species composition, indicating that similar plant communities were hosted in vineyard farms independently of the management type. This negative effect of conventional farming was probably due to the use of herbicides, while mechanical operations and mowing regime did not differ between organic and conventional farms. In grassland strips, and only marginally in vineyards, we found that the positive effect of organic farming was more pronounced for perennial than annual species.

  15. Effects of light intensity light quality and air velocity on temperature in plant reproductive organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaya, Y.; Hirai, H.

    Excess temperature increase in plant reproductive organs such as anthers and stigmata could cause fertility impediments and thus produce sterile seeds under artificial lighting conditions in closed plant growth facilities There is a possibility that the aberration was caused by an excess increase in temperatures of reproductive organs in Bioregenerative Life Support Systems under microgravity conditions in space The fundamental study was conducted to know the thermal situation of the plant reproductive organs as affected by light intensity light quality and air velocity on the earth and to estimate the excess temperature increase in the reproductive organs in closed plant growth facilities in space Thermal images of reproductive organs of rice and strawberry were captured using infrared thermography at an air temperature of 10 r C The temperatures in flowers at 300 mu mol m -2 s -1 PPFD under the lights from red LEDs white LEDs blue LEDs fluorescent lamps and incandescent lamps increased by 1 4 1 7 1 9 6 0 and 25 3 r C respectively for rice and by 2 8 3 4 4 1 7 8 and 43 4 r C respectively for strawberry The flower temperatures increased with increasing PPFD levels The temperatures in petals anthers and stigmas of strawberry at 300 mu mol m -2 s -1 PPFD under incandescent lamps increased by 32 7 29 0 and 26 6 r C respectively at 0 1 m s -1 air velocity and by 20 6 18 5 and 15 9 r C respectively at 0 8 m s -1 air velocity The temperatures of reproductive organs decreased with increasing

  16. Phytoremediation of uranium-contaminated soils: Role of organic acids in triggering uranium hyperaccumulation in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J.W.; Blaylock, M.J.; Kapulnik, Y.; Ensley, B.D.

    1998-07-01

    Uranium phytoextraction, the use of plants to extract U from contaminated soils, is an emerging technology. The authors report on the development of this technology for the cleanup of U-contaminated soils. In this research, they investigated the effects of various soil amendments on U desorption from soil to soil solution, studied the physiological characteristics of U uptake and accumulation in plants, and developed techniques to trigger U hyperaccumulation in plants. A key to the success of U phytoextraction is to increase soil U availability to plants. The authors have found that some organic acids can be added to soils to increase U desorption from soil to soil solution and to trigger a rapid U accumulation in plants. Of the organic acids (acetic acid, citric acid, and malic acid) tested, citric acid was the most effective in enhancing U accumulation in plants. Shoot U concentrations of Brassica juncea and Brassica chinensis grown in a U-contaminated soil increased from less than 5 mg kg{sup {minus}1} to more than 5,000 mg kg{sup {minus}1} in citric acid-treated soils. To their knowledge, this is the highest shoot U concentration reported for plants grown on U-contaminated soils. Using this U hyperaccumulation technique, they are now able to increase U accumulation in shoots of selected plant species grown in two U-contaminated soils by more than 1,000-fold within a few days. The results suggest that U phytoextraction may provide an environmentally friendly alternative for the cleanup of U-contaminated soils.

  17. Overview of organic amendments for management of plant-parasitic nematodes, with case studies from Florida.

    PubMed

    McSorley, Robert

    2011-06-01

    Organic amendments have been widely used for management of plant-parasitic nematodes. Relatively rapid declines in nematode population levels may occur when decomposing materials release toxic compounds, while longer-term effects might include increases in nematode antagonists. Improved crop nutrition and plant growth following amendment use may lead to tolerance of plant-parasitic nematodes. Results depend on a great variety of factors such as material used, processing/composting of material, application rate, test arena, crop rotation and agronomic practices, soil type, climate, and other environmental factors. Reasons for variable performance and interpretation of results from amendment studies are discussed. Case studies of amendments for nematode management are reviewed from Florida, where composts and crop residues are the most frequently used amendments. Plant growth was often improved by amendment application, free-living nematodes (especially bacterivores) were often stimulated, but suppression of plant-parasitic nematodes was inconsistent. Amendments were generally not as effective as soil fumigation with methyl bromide for managing root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), and often population levels or galling of root-knot nematodes in amended plots did not differ from those in non-amended control plots. While amendments may improve plant growth and stimulate soil food webs, additional study and testing are needed before they could be used reliably for management of plant-parasitic nematodes under Florida conditions. PMID:22791915

  18. Overview of Organic Amendments for Management of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes, with Case Studies from Florida

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Organic amendments have been widely used for management of plant-parasitic nematodes. Relatively rapid declines in nematode population levels may occur when decomposing materials release toxic compounds, while longer-term effects might include increases in nematode antagonists. Improved crop nutrition and plant growth following amendment use may lead to tolerance of plant-parasitic nematodes. Results depend on a great variety of factors such as material used, processing/composting of material, application rate, test arena, crop rotation and agronomic practices, soil type, climate, and other environmental factors. Reasons for variable performance and interpretation of results from amendment studies are discussed. Case studies of amendments for nematode management are reviewed from Florida, where composts and crop residues are the most frequently used amendments. Plant growth was often improved by amendment application, free-living nematodes (especially bacterivores) were often stimulated, but suppression of plant-parasitic nematodes was inconsistent. Amendments were generally not as effective as soil fumigation with methyl bromide for managing root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), and often population levels or galling of root-knot nematodes in amended plots did not differ from those in non-amended control plots. While amendments may improve plant growth and stimulate soil food webs, additional study and testing are needed before they could be used reliably for management of plant-parasitic nematodes under Florida conditions. PMID:22791915

  19. Microextraction techniques for the determination of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds from plants: a review.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cui; Wang, Juan; Li, Donghao

    2013-10-17

    Vegetables and fruits are necessary for human health, and traditional Chinese medicine that uses plant materials can cure diseases. Thus, understanding the composition of plant matrix has gained increased attention in recent years. Since plant matrix is very complex, the extraction, separation and quantitation of these chemicals are challenging. In this review we focus on the microextraction techniques used in the determination of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds (such as esters, alcohols, aldehydes, hydrocarbons, ketones, terpenes, sesquiterpene, phenols, acids, plant secondary metabolites and pesticides) from plants (e.g., fruits, vegetables, medicinal plants, tree leaves, etc.). These microextraction techniques include: solid phase microextraction (SPME), stir-bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), single drop microextraction (SDME), hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME), dispersive liquid liquid microextraction (DLLME), and gas purge microsyringe extraction (GP-MSE). We have taken into consideration papers published from 2008 to the end of January 2013, and provided critical and interpretative review on these techniques, and formulated future trends in microextraction for the determination of volatile and semivolatile compounds from plants. PMID:24091369

  20. Pollen Organ Telangiopsis sp. of Late Devonian Seed Plant and Associated Vegetative Frond.

    PubMed

    Wang, De-Ming; Meng, Mei-Cen; Guo, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Pollen organ Telangiopsis sp., associated with but not attached to vegetative fronds, has been collected from the Upper Devonian (Famennian) Wutong Formation, Dongzhi County, Anhui Province, China. Fertile axes with terminal pollen organs are dichotomous for 2-4 times and may be proximally attached by fragmentary pinnules. Pollen organs are synangiate and borne on the top of a short stalk. Synangia are radial in symmetry and each consists of 4-8 elongate microsporangia fused at base. Microsporangia have a longitudinal dehiscence line and show a tapered apex. The associated stem is spiny and bears a vegetative frond which bifurcates once at the basalmost part. Frond rachises possess one order of pinna arranged alternately. Pinnules are borne alternately, planate, highly dissected, and equally dichotomous for 2-3 times. Comparisons among Late Devonian seed plants recognize several branching patterns in the fertile fronds/axes bearing terminal pollen organs. Telangiopsis sp. reinforces that the Late Devonian pollen organs are synangiate usually with basally fused microsporangia. It is suggested that the evolutionary divergence of radial and bilateral symmetries of pollen organs may have occurred in the Famennian, when the earliest seed plants evolved planate and sometimes laminate pinnules. PMID:26808271

  1. Pollen Organ Telangiopsis sp. of Late Devonian Seed Plant and Associated Vegetative Frond

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Pollen organ Telangiopsis sp., associated with but not attached to vegetative fronds, has been collected from the Upper Devonian (Famennian) Wutong Formation, Dongzhi County, Anhui Province, China. Fertile axes with terminal pollen organs are dichotomous for 2–4 times and may be proximally attached by fragmentary pinnules. Pollen organs are synangiate and borne on the top of a short stalk. Synangia are radial in symmetry and each consists of 4–8 elongate microsporangia fused at base. Microsporangia have a longitudinal dehiscence line and show a tapered apex. The associated stem is spiny and bears a vegetative frond which bifurcates once at the basalmost part. Frond rachises possess one order of pinna arranged alternately. Pinnules are borne alternately, planate, highly dissected, and equally dichotomous for 2–3 times. Comparisons among Late Devonian seed plants recognize several branching patterns in the fertile fronds/axes bearing terminal pollen organs. Telangiopsis sp. reinforces that the Late Devonian pollen organs are synangiate usually with basally fused microsporangia. It is suggested that the evolutionary divergence of radial and bilateral symmetries of pollen organs may have occurred in the Famennian, when the earliest seed plants evolved planate and sometimes laminate pinnules. PMID:26808271

  2. Soil organic matter decomposition follows plant productivity response to sea-level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Peter; Jensen, Kai; Megonigal, James Patrick

    2015-04-01

    The accumulation of soil organic matter (SOM) is an important mechanism for many tidal wetlands to keep pace with sea-level rise. SOM accumulation is governed by the rates of production and decomposition of organic matter. While plant productivity responses to sea-level rise are well understood, far less is known about the response of SOM decomposition to accelerated sea-level rise. Here we quantified the effects of sea-level rise on SOM decomposition by exposing planted and unplanted tidal marsh monoliths to experimentally manipulated flood duration. The study was performed in a field-based mesocosm facility at the Smithsonian Global Change Research Wetland, a micro tidal brackish marsh in Maryland, US. SOM decomposition was quantified as CO2 efflux, with plant- and SOM-derived CO2 separated using a stable carbon isotope approach. Despite the dogma that decomposition rates are inversely related to flooding, SOM mineralization was not sensitive to varying flood duration over a 35 cm range in surface elevation in unplanted mesocoms. In the presence of plants, decomposition rates were strongly and positively related to aboveground biomass (p≤0.01, R2≥0.59). We conclude that rates of soil carbon loss through decomposition are driven by plant responses to sea level in this intensively studied tidal marsh. If our result applies more generally to tidal wetlands, it has important implications for modeling carbon sequestration and marsh accretion in response to accelerated sea-level rise.

  3. Eukaryotic Components Remodeled Chloroplast Nucleoid Organization during the Green Plant Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Yusuke; Takusagawa, Mari; Harada, Naomi; Fukao, Yoichiro; Yamaoka, Shohei; Kohchi, Takayuki; Hori, Koichi; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Shikanai, Toshiharu; Nishimura, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplast (cp) DNA is thought to originate from the ancestral endosymbiont genome and is compacted to form nucleoprotein complexes, cp nucleoids. The structure of cp nucleoids is ubiquitously observed in diverse plants from unicellular algae to flowering plants and is believed to be a multifunctional platform for various processes, including cpDNA replication, repair/recombination, transcription, and inheritance. Despite its fundamental functions, the protein composition for cp nucleoids in flowering plants was suggested to be divergent from those of bacteria and algae, but the evolutionary process remains elusive. In this research, we aimed to reveal the evolutionary history of cp nucleoid organization by analyzing the key organisms representing the three evolutionary stages of eukaryotic phototrophs: the chlorophyte alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the charophyte alga Klebsormidium flaccidum, and the most basal land plant Marchantia polymorpha. To clarify the core cp nucleoid proteins in C. reinhardtii, we performed an LC-MS/MS analysis using highly purified cp nucleoid fractions and identified a novel SAP domain-containing protein with a eukaryotic origin as a constitutive core component. Then, homologous genes for cp nucleoid proteins were searched for in C. reinhardtii, K. flaccidum, and M. polymorpha using the genome databases, and their intracellular localizations and DNA binding activities were investigated by cell biological/biochemical analyses. Based on these results, we propose a model that recurrent modification of cp nucleoid organization by eukaryotic factors originally related to chromatin organization might have been the driving force for the diversification of cp nucleoids since the early stage of green plant evolution. PMID:26608058

  4. Leaf level emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from some Amazonian and Mediterranean plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracho-Nunez, A.; Knothe, N. M.; Welter, S.; Staudt, M.; Costa, W. R.; Liberato, M. A. R.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2012-11-01

    As volatile organic compounds (VOCs) significantly affect atmospheric chemistry (oxidative capacity) and physics (secondary organic aerosol formation and effects), emission inventories defining regional and global biogenic VOC emission strengths are important. The aim of this work was to achieve a description of VOC emissions from poorly described tropical vegetation to be compared with the quite well investigated and highly heterogeneous emissions from Mediterranean vegetation. For this task, common plant species of both ecosystems were investigated. Sixteen plant species from the Mediterranean area, which is known for its special diversity in VOC emitting plant species, were chosen. In contrast, little information is currently available regarding emissions of VOCs from tropical tree species at the leaf level. Twelve plant species from different environments of the Amazon basin, i.e. Terra firme, Várzea and Igapó, were screened for emission of VOCs at leaf level with a branch enclosure system. Analysis of the volatile organics was performed online by a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and offline by collection on adsorbent tubes and subsequent gas chromatographic analysis. Isoprene was quantitatively the most dominant compound emitted followed by monoterpenes, methanol and acetone. Most of the Mediterranean species emitted a variety of monoterpenes, whereas only five tropical species were monoterpene emitters exhibiting a quite conservative emission pattern (α-pinene > limonene > sabinene > β-pinene). Mediterranean plants showed additional emissions of sesquiterpenes, whereas in the case of plants from the Amazon region no sesquiterpenes were detected probably due to a lack of sensitivity in the measuring systems. On the other hand methanol emissions, an indicator of growth, were common in most of the tropical and Mediterranean species. A few species from both ecosystems showed acetone emissions. The observed heterogeneous emissions

  5. Plant growth response in experimental soilless mixes prepared from coal combustion products and organic waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bardhan, S.; Watson, M.; Dick, W.A.

    2008-07-15

    Large quantities of organic materials such as animal manures, yard trimmings, and biosolids are produced each year. Beneficial use options for them are often limited, and composting has been proposed as a way to better manage these organic materials. Similarly, burning of coal created 125 million tons of coal combustion products (CCP) in the United States in 2006. An estimated 53 million tons of CCP were reused, whereas the remainder was deposited in landfills. By combining CCP and composted organic materials (COM), we were able to create soilless plant growth mixes with physicochemical conditions that can support excellent plant growth. An additional benefit is the conservation of natural raw materials, such as peat, which is generally used for making soilless mixes. Experimental mixes were formulated by combining CCP and COM at ratios ranging from 2:8 to 8:2 (vol/vol), respectively. Water content at saturation for the created mixes was 63% to 72%, whereas for the commercial control, it was 77%. pH values for the best performing mixes ranged between 5.9 and 6.8. Electrical conductivity and concentrations of required plant nutrient were also within plant growth recommendations for container media. Significantly (P < 0.0001) higher plant biomass growth (7%-130%) was observed in the experimental mixes compared with a commercial mix. No additional fertilizers were provided during the experiment, and reduced fertilization costs can thus accrue as an added benefit to the grower. In summary, combining CCP and COM, derived from source materials often viewed as wastes, can create highly productive plant growth mixes.

  6. Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhancing tomato plant growth and productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Sortino, Orazio; Dipasquale, Mauro; Montoneri, Enzo; Tomasso, Lorenzo; Perrone, Daniele G.; Vindrola, Daniela; Negre, Michele; Piccone, Giuseppe

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Municipal bio-wastes are a sustainable source of bio-based products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refuse derived soluble bio-organics promote chlorophyll synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhance plant growth and fruit ripening rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sustainable chemistry exploiting urban refuse allows sustainable development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemistry, agriculture and the environment benefit from biowaste technology. - Abstract: Municipal bio-refuse (CVD), containing kitchen wastes, home gardening residues and public park trimmings, was treated with alkali to yield a soluble bio-organic fraction (SBO) and an insoluble residue. These materials were characterized using elemental analysis, potentiometric titration, and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and then applied as organic fertilizers to soil for tomato greenhouse cultivation. Their performance was compared with a commercial product obtained from animal residues. Plant growth, fruit yield and quality, and soil and leaf chemical composition were the selected performance indicators. The SBO exhibited the best performance by enhancing leaf chlorophyll content, improving plant growth and fruit ripening rate and yield. No product performance-chemical composition relationship could be assessed. Solubility could be one reason for the superior performance of SBO as a tomato growth promoter. The enhancement of leaf chlorophyll content is discussed to identify a possible link with the SBO photosensitizing properties that have been demonstrated in other work, and thus with photosynthetic performance.

  7. Organic halogens in unpolluted waters and large bodies of water receiving bleach plant effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Grimvall, A.; Jonsson, S.; Karlsson, S.; Savenhed, R.; Boren, H. )

    1991-05-01

    In this paper the authors review and update recently performed studies of organic halogens in unpolluted waters and two large bodies of water receiving bleach plant effluents---Lake Vattern in Sweden and the Baltic Sea. All water samples contained measurable amounts of adsorbable organic halogens (AOX); the highest concentrations (up to 200 {mu}g Cl/L) were observed in humic lakes not exposed to any industrial discharges. Analysis of chlorophenols revealed that there is a long-distance transport ({gt} 100 km) of chloroguaiacols from bleach plants to remote parts of receiving waters. However, there was no evidence of chlorinated organics from bleach plants accumulating over several years in the water phase. One chlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, and its methylated analogue, 2,4,6-trichloroanisole, were also detected in surface waters considered to be unpolluted. Mass balance calculations showed that different processes in terrestrial environments make large contributions of AOX; enzyme-mediated chlorination of humic substances is a plausible explanation to the widespread occurrence of organic halogens.

  8. Plants Regulate Soil Organic Matter Decomposition in Response to Sea Level Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megonigal, P.; Mueller, P.; Jensen, K.

    2014-12-01

    Tidal wetlands have a large capacity for producing and storing organic matter, making their role in the global carbon budget disproportionate to their land area. Most of the organic matter stored in these systems is in soils where it contributes 2-5 times more to surface accretion than an equal mass of minerals. Soil organic matter (SOM) sequestration is the primary process by which tidal wetlands become perched high in the tidal frame, decreasing their vulnerability to accelerated sea level rise. Plant growth responses to sea level rise are well understood and represented in century-scale forecast models of soil surface elevation change. We understand far less about the response of soil organic matter decomposition to rapid sea level rise. Here we quantified the effects of sea level on SOM decomposition rates by exposing planted and unplanted tidal marsh monoliths to experimentally manipulated flood duration. The study was performed in a field-based mesocosm facility at the Smithsonian's Global Change Research Wetland. SOM decomposition rate was quantified as CO2 efflux, with plant- and SOM-derived CO2 separated with a two end-member δ13C-CO2 model. Despite the dogma that decomposition rates are inversely related to flooding, SOM mineralization was not sensitive to flood duration over a 35 cm range in soil surface elevation. However, decomposition rates were strongly and positively related to aboveground biomass (R2≥0.59, p≤0.01). We conclude that soil carbon loss through decomposition is driven by plant responses to sea level in this intensively studied tidal marsh. If this result applies more generally to tidal wetlands, it has important implications for modeling soil organic matter and surface elevation change in response to accelerated sea level rise.

  9. The 3D reconstruction of greenhouse tomato plant based on real organ samples and parametric L-system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Longjiao; Xu, Lihong; Li, Dawei; Fu, Daichang

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, a fast and effective 3D reconstruction method for the growth of greenhouse tomato plant is proposed by using real organ samples and a parametric L-system. By analyzing the stereo structure of tomato plant, we extracts rules and parameters to assemble an L-system that is able to simulate the plant growth, and then the components of the L-system are translated into plant organ entities via image processing and computer graphics techniques. This method can efficiently and faithfully simulate the growing process of the greenhouse tomato plant.

  10. Thermal treatment and leaching of biochar alleviates plant growth inhibition from mobile organic compounds

    PubMed Central

    Sackett, Tara E.; Thomas, Sean C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent meta-analyses of plant responses to biochar boast positive average effects of between 10 and 40%. Plant responses, however, vary greatly across systems, and null or negative biochar effects are increasingly reported. The mechanisms responsible for such responses remain unclear. In a glasshouse experiment we tested the effects of three forestry residue wood biochars, applied at five dosages (0, 5, 10, 20, and 50 t/ha) to a temperate forest drystic cambisol as direct surface applications and as complete soil mixes on the herbaceous pioneers Lolium multiflorum and Trifolium repens. Null and negative effects of biochar on growth were found in most cases. One potential cause for null and negative plant responses to biochar is plant exposure to mobile compounds produced during pyrolysis that leach or evolve following additions of biochars to soil. In a second glasshouse experiment we examined the effects of simple leaching and heating techniques to ameliorate potentially phytotoxic effects of volatile and leachable compounds released from biochar. We used Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME)–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to qualitatively describe organic compounds in both biochar (through headspace extraction), and in the water leachates (through direct injection). Convection heating and water leaching of biochar prior to application alleviated growth inhibition. Additionally, growth was inhibited when filtrate from water-leached biochar was applied following germination. SPME-GC-MS detected primarily short-chained carboxylic acids and phenolics in both the leachates and solid chars, with relatively high concentrations of several known phytotoxic compounds including acetic acid, butyric acid, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol and benzoic acid. We speculate that variable plant responses to phytotoxic organic compounds leached from biochars may largely explain negative plant growth responses and also account for strongly species-specific patterns of plant

  11. In situ stimulation vs. bioaugmentation: Can microbial inoculation of plant roots enhance biodegradation of organic compounds?

    SciTech Connect

    Kingsley, M.T.; Metting, F.B. Jr.; Fredrickson, J.K.; Seidler, R.J.

    1993-06-01

    The use of plant roots and their associated rhizosphere bacteria for biocontainment and biorestoration offers several advantages for treating soil-dispersed contaminants and for application to large land areas. Plant roots function as effective delivery systems, since root growth transports bacteria vertically and laterally along the root in the soil column (see [ 1,2]). Movement of microbes along roots and downward in the soil column can be enhanced via irrigation [1-4]. For example, Ciafardini et al. [3] increased the nodulation and the final yield of soybeans during pod filling by including Bradyrhizobium japonicum in the irrigation water. Using rhizosphere microorganisms is advantageous for biodegradation of compounds that are degraded mainly by cometabolic processes, e.g., trichloroethylene (TCE). The energy source for bacterial growth and metabolism is supplied by the plant in the form of root exudates and other sloughed organic material. Plants are inexpensive, and by careful choice of species that possess either tap or fibrous root growth patterns, they can be used to influence mass transport of soil contaminants to the root surface via the transpiration stream [5]. Cropping of plants to remove heavy metals from contaminated soils has been proposed as a viable, low-cost, low-input treatment option [6]. The interest in use of plants as a remediation strategy has even reached the popular press [7], where the use of ragweed for the reclamation of sites contaminated with tetraethyl lead and other heavy metals was discussed.

  12. A portion of plant airborne communication is endorsed by uptake and metabolism of volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    Plants have the ability to sense volatile organic compounds (VOCs) so as to efficiently adapt to their environment. The mechanisms underlying such plant 'olfactory' systems are largely unknown. Here I would like to propose that the metabolism of VOCs in plant tissues is one of the mechanisms by which plants sense VOCs. During the gas-exchange that is essential for photosynthesis, VOCs in the atmosphere are taken into the intercellular spaces of leaves. Each VOC is partitioned between the gas phase (intercellular space) and liquid phase (cell wall) at a certain ratio determined by Henry's law. The VOCs in the cell wall diffuse through the plasma membrane to the cytosol depending on their oil/water partition coefficients. Plants detoxify some VOCs, especially those that are oxidized, through glycosylation, glutathionylation, and reduction. These metabolic processes lower the concentration of VOCs in the cytosol, which facilitates further cytosolic uptake. As a result, vigorous metabolism of VOCs in the cytosol can lead to a substantial accumulation of VOC metabolites and the depletion of glutathione or NADPH. One such metabolite (a VOC glycoside) is known to mount a direct defense against herbivores, whilst deprivation of glutathione and NADPH can fortify plants with responses similar to the oxidative stress response. PMID:27281633

  13. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Powell, Brian F.; Halvorson, William L.

    2007-01-01

    Executive Summary We summarized inventory and monitoring efforts for plants and vertebrates at Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument (NM) in Arizona. We used data from previous research to compile complete species lists for the monument and to assess inventory completeness. There have been 1,031 species of plants and vertebrates observed at the monument. Most of the species on the list are documented by voucher specimens. There are 59 non-native species established in the monument: one mammal, three birds, and 55 non-native plants. Most non-native plant species were first recorded along roads. In each taxon-specific chapter, we highlight areas that contribute disproportionately to species richness or that have unique species for the monument. Of particular importance are Quitobaquito Springs and Pond, which are responsible for the monument having one of the highest number of bird species in the Sonoran Desert Network of parks. Quitobaquito also contains the only fish in the monument, the endangered Quitobaquito pupfish (Cyprinodon eremus). Other important resources for the plants and vertebrates include the xeroriparian washes (e.g., Alamo Canyon) and the Ajo Mountains. Based on the review of past studies, we believe the inventories of vascular plants and vertebrates are nearly complete and that the monument has one of the most complete inventories of any unit in the Sonoran Desert Network.

  14. VIGS, HIGS and FIGS: small RNA silencing in the interactions of viruses or filamentous organisms with their plant hosts.

    PubMed

    Baulcombe, David C

    2015-08-01

    Recent evidence indicates two-way traffic of silencing RNA between filamentous organisms and their plant hosts. There are also indications that suppressors of RNA silencing are transferred from filamentous organisms into host plant cells where they influence the innate immune system. Here I use virus disease as a template for interpretation of RNA silencing in connection with filamentous organisms and infected plant cells. I propose that host plant interactions of these organisms are influenced by RNA silencing networks in which there are: small interfering RNAs from the host that are transported into the filamentous organism and vice versa; silencing suppressors from the organism that are transported into the host; endogenous small interfering RNAs and micro RNAs that target components of the innate immune system or endogenous suppressors of the innate immune system. PMID:26247121

  15. Fossil organic carbon in wastewater and its fate in treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Law, Yingyu; Jacobsen, Geraldine E; Smith, Andrew M; Yuan, Zhiguo; Lant, Paul

    2013-09-15

    This study reports the presence of fossil organic carbon in wastewater and its fate in wastewater treatment plants. The findings pinpoint the inaccuracy of current greenhouse gas accounting guidelines which defines all organic carbon in wastewater to be of biogenic origin. Stable and radiocarbon isotopes ((13)C and (14)C) were measured throughout the process train in four municipal wastewater treatment plants equipped with secondary activated sludge treatment. Isotopic mass balance analyses indicate that 4-14% of influent total organic carbon (TOC) is of fossil origin with concentrations between 6 and 35 mg/L; 88-98% of this is removed from the wastewater. The TOC mass balance analysis suggests that 39-65% of the fossil organic carbon from the influent is incorporated into the activated sludge through adsorption or from cell assimilation while 29-50% is likely transformed to carbon dioxide (CO2) during secondary treatment. The fossil organic carbon fraction in the sludge undergoes further biodegradation during anaerobic digestion with a 12% decrease in mass. 1.4-6.3% of the influent TOC consists of both biogenic and fossil carbon is estimated to be emitted as fossil CO2 from activated sludge treatment alone. The results suggest that current greenhouse gas accounting guidelines, which assume that all CO2 emission from wastewater is biogenic may lead to underestimation of emissions. PMID:23863394

  16. Aerial camera auto focusing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuan; Lan, Gongpu; Gao, Xiaodong; Liang, Wei

    2012-10-01

    Before the aerial photographic task, the cameras focusing work should be performed at first to compensate the defocus caused by the changes of the temperature, pressure etc. A new method of aerial camera auto focusing is proposed through traditional photoelectric self-collimation combined with image processing method. Firstly, the basic principles of optical self-collimation and image processing are introduced. Secondly, the limitations of the two are illustrated and the benefits of the new method are detailed. Then the basic principle, the system composition and the implementation of this new method are presented. Finally, the data collection platform is set up reasonably and the focus evaluation function curve is draw. The results showed that: the method can be used in the Aerial camera focusing field, adapt to the aviation equipment trends of miniaturization and lightweight .This paper is helpful to the further work of accurate and automatic focusing.

  17. Leaf level emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from some Amazonian and Mediterranean plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracho-Nunez, A.; Knothe, , N. M.; Welter, S.; Staudt, M.; Costa, W. R.; Liberato, M. A. R.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2013-09-01

    Emission inventories defining regional and global biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission strengths are needed to determine the impact of VOC on atmospheric chemistry (oxidative capacity) and physics (secondary organic aerosol formation and effects). The aim of this work was to contribute with measurements of tree species from the poorly described tropical vegetation in direct comparison with the quite well-investigated, highly heterogeneous emissions from Mediterranean vegetation. VOC emission from sixteen plant species from the Mediterranean area were compared with twelve plant species from different environments of the Amazon basin by an emission screening at leaf level using branch enclosures. Analysis of the volatile organics was performed online by a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and offline by collection on adsorbent tubes and subsequent gas chromatographic analysis. Isoprene was the most dominant compound emitted followed by monoterpenes, methanol and acetone. The average loss rates of VOC carbon in relation to the net CO2 assimilation were found below 4% and indicating normal unstressed plant behavior. Most of the Mediterranean species emitted a large variety of monoterpenes, whereas only five tropical species were identified as monoterpene emitters exhibiting a quite conservative emission pattern (α-pinene < limonene < sabinene < ß-pinene). Mediterranean plants showed additional emissions of sesquiterpenes. In the case of Amazonian plants no sesquiterpenes were detected. However, missing of sesquiterpenes may also be due to a lack of sensitivity of the measuring systems. Furthermore, our screening activities cover only 1% of tree species of such tropical areas as estimated based on recent biodiversity reports. Methanol emissions, an indicator of growth, were found to be common in most of the tropical and Mediterranean species. A few species from both ecosystems showed acetone emissions. The observed heterogeneous

  18. Strategies for Searching for Biosignatures in Ancient Martian Sub-Aerial Surface Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horgan, B.

    2016-05-01

    Organics can be preserved in sub-aerial soil environments if the soils have high clay contents and were formed under reducing (saturated) conditions. Possible ancient soils with these characteristics are present on Mars.

  19. New methods for new data on plant organic carbon from sediments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Descolas, C.; Bouvier, T.; Got, P.; Guittard, F.

    2009-04-01

    New methods for new data on plant organic carbon from sediments. Chantal Descolas-Gros1,Thierry Bouvier2, Patrice Got2, Frederic Guittard3 1 Institut des Sciences de l'Evolution Université Montpellier 2, CNRS, UMR 5554 Place Eugène Bataillon, Case Courrier 061, 34095 Montpellier cedex 05, France Email: Chantal.Descolas@univ-montp2.fr 2 Laboratoire Ecosystèmes Lagunaires, Université Montpellier 2, CNRS IFREMER UMR 5119 Place E. Bataillon, Case Courrier 093, 34095 Montpellier cedex 05, France. 3 Département de Chimie, Université Sophia Antipolis, 06000 Nice, France Vegetation distribution is linked to climatic and non-climatic factors. In the past, the knowledge of plant species distribution at different scales (global to regional) is a necessary step for climate simulating models. Pollen is one of the most important fossil plant remains and has been widely use for that purpose. But species level determinations are not possible in most cases on pollen. A physiological plant type basis (C3, C4 plants) is frequently employed to improve data accuracy. C3 and C4 plants may be characterized by the delta 13C values of pollen organic carbon. Biogeochemical methods using sporopollenin (a well preserved wall constituent of fossil pollen grains) as macromolecular proxy have been developed. We present here a combination of non-destructive methods, never used on fossil pollen grains. Specific pollen taxa has been isolated from sediments by cytometry and the structure of the sporopollenin is controlled by Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. This method allow further delta 13C measurements on the same material. Selected pollen taxa could be isolated in different levels from a sediment core and the structure of the sporopollenin is controlled before delta 13C measurements.

  20. The aquatic vascular plant Ruppia maritima as an indicator organisms for contaminated sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Tagliabue, M.D.; Thursby, G.B.; Walker, H.A.; Johnston, R.K.

    1994-12-31

    An ongoing estuarine ecological risk assessment case study for the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in the Great Bay (Kittery, ME, Portsmouth, NH) has been the catalyst for continued methods development with a rooted aquatic plant for a sediment toxicity test. A test using the aquatic vascular plant Ruppia maritima would be similar in it`s utility to the Algal (Champia parvula) Reproduction Test, an accepted, short term test (US EPA Short term Methods for Estimating the Chronic Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Marine and Estuarine Organisms). Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate effects of lead, the primary site contaminant on R. maritima in the Great Bay. Morphology and life cycle of R. maritima are similar to that of the aquatic vascular plant Zostra marina which comprises up to 46% of the Great Bay habitat (Short 1992). R. maritima`s reduced size makes it a practical laboratory organism and Ruppia`s effects may offer useful insights into potential effects on Zostra or other aquatic vascular plants. Presently rooted vascular plants are not found in the site of concern (Clark Cove). This can be contributed to either of two factors; the physical parameters of the site, i.e., a depositional zone or the chemical parameters, i.e., metals contamination, specifically lead. Exposure of bedded and nonbedded plants occurred over a four day and ten day period using lead sulfate. Concentrations for bedded exposures were as follows, 0.3, 0.5, 0.8, 1.0 simultaneously extracted metal/acid volatile sulfide (SEM/AVS) molar ratios, and 0.1, 1.0, 10.0 and 100.0mg/l Pb for water only exposures. Some reduction in cumulative leaf growth was observed in the site samples as well as the spiked samples as compared to site controls. Results of this study and associated research which focuses on the further development of the Ruppia test methods will be presented.

  1. Inverse modeling of the biodegradation of emerging organic contaminants in the soil-plant system.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Carlos; Trapp, Stefan; Bayona, Josep M

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the processes involved in the uptake and accumulation of organic contaminants into plants is very important to assess the possible human risk associated with. Biodegradation of emerging contaminants in plants has been observed, but kinetical studies are rare. In this study, we analyse experimental data on the uptake of emerging organic contaminants into lettuce derived in a greenhouse experiment. Measured soil, root and leaf concentrations from four contaminants were selected within the applicability domain of a steady-state two-compartment standard plant uptake model: bisphenol A (BPA), carbamazepine (CBZ), triclosan (TCS) and caffeine (CAF). The model overestimated concentrations in most cases, when no degradation rates in plants were entered. Subsequently, biodegradation rates were fitted so that the measured concentrations were met. Obtained degradation kinetics are in the order, BPA < CAF ≈ TCS < CBZ in roots, and BPA ≈ TCS < CBZ < CAF in leaves. Kinetics determined by inverse modeling are, despite the inherent uncertainty, indicative of the dissipation rates. The advantage of the procedure that is additional knowledge can be gained from existing experimental data. Dissipation kinetics found via inverse modeling is not a conclusive proof for biodegradation and confirmation by experimental studies is needed. PMID:27179241

  2. Microcystin-LR and Cylindrospermopsin Induced Alterations in Chromatin Organization of Plant Cells

    PubMed Central

    Máthé, Csaba; M-Hamvas, Márta; Vasas, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacteria produce metabolites with diverse bioactivities, structures and pharmacological properties. The effects of microcystins (MCYs), a family of peptide type protein-phosphatase inhibitors and cylindrospermopsin (CYN), an alkaloid type of protein synthesis blocker will be discussed in this review. We are focusing mainly on cyanotoxin-induced changes of chromatin organization and their possible cellular mechanisms. The particularities of plant cells explain the importance of such studies. Preprophase bands (PPBs) are premitotic cytoskeletal structures important in the determination of plant cell division plane. Phragmoplasts are cytoskeletal structures involved in plant cytokinesis. Both cyanotoxins induce the formation of multipolar spindles and disrupted phragmoplasts, leading to abnormal sister chromatid segregation during mitosis. Thus, MCY and CYN are probably inducing alterations of chromosome number. MCY induces programmed cell death: chromatin condensation, nucleus fragmentation, necrosis, alterations of nuclease and protease enzyme activities and patterns. The above effects may be related to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or disfunctioning of microtubule associated proteins. Specific effects: MCY-LR induces histone H3 hyperphosphorylation leading to incomplete chromatid segregation and the formation of micronuclei. CYN induces the formation of split or double PPB directly related to protein synthesis inhibition. Cyanotoxins are powerful tools in the study of plant cell organization. PMID:24084787

  3. [Impact of dissolved organic matter on plant uptake of phenanthrene and its mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xin-hua; Zhou, Li-xiang; Wan, Yin-jing; Jiang, Ting-hui

    2006-09-01

    Hydroponic assays were conducted to investigate the influence of dissolved organic matter on uptake of phenanthrene by wheat as well as its mechanisms. The results showed that, under hydroponic condition, phenanthrene impairment of plant growth occurred with wheat growth inhibited rate of 18.01%. The impairment would be greatly enhanced in the presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) derived from pig manure, and the inhibited rate increased to 24.38%. Wheat could uptake and accumulate phenanthrene in the nutrient solution, which could be escalated by DOM, as indicated by wheat root bioconcentration factor being increased to 37.63 L x kg(-1) in the presence of DOM from 2.84 L x kg(-1) in the absence of DOM. At the same time, DOM could facilitate phenanthrene translocation from plant roots to the upper. As a result, the pH value of nutrient solution could increase by more than 1 unit when the co-existence of DOM and phenanthrene occurred in solution, suggesting that H+ -phenanthrene cotransport system is involved in the uptake of phenanthrene by plants. A synergism was also found between wheat uptakes of phenanthrene and inorganic nutrients, Moreover, DOM accelerated markedly the synergism. It is concluded that DOM affects the uptake of phenanthrene by plants and the environmental behaviors of phenanthrene. PMID:17117650

  4. Influence of organic matter on the uptake of cadmium, zinc, copper and iron by sorghum plants.

    PubMed

    Pinto, A P; Mota, A M; de Varennes, A; Pinto, F C

    2004-06-29

    This article describes an experiment, carried out under controlled environment conditions, to investigate the effects of a fulvic acid fraction of soil organic matter on growth, cadmium (Cd) uptake and redistribution by sorghum. In addition the uptake of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) was also determined. Sorghum was grown in nutrient solutions with 0, 0.1, 1 and 10 mg Cd dm(-3), in the absence and presence of organic matter (32 mg C dm(-3)), for various periods up to 20 days. A decrease in sorghum biomass due to Cd toxicity was observed at 10 mg Cd dm(-3), but for concentrations of 0.1 and 1 mg Cd dm(-3) the biomass was increased compared with control, without visual toxicity symptoms. The presence of organic matter (OM) further increased biomass production. Cadmium was mainly retained in sorghum roots, as usually found in tolerant plants, but Cd accumulation in sorghum was greater than in other Gramineae, or even more tolerant plants such as lettuce. The presence of OM decreased the bioavailability of Cd that was partially retained in solution by the OM ligands. However, OM promoted the translocation of Cd to shoots, an effect that may pose a risk to public health because plant-animal transfer of Cd could be enhanced. The presence of OM decreased the uptake of Cu, Zn and Fe. The presence (vs. absence) of 0.1 mg Cd dm(-3) enhanced the uptake of Fe, both in the absence and presence of OM. PMID:15142779

  5. The simulation of organic rankine cycle power plant with n-pentane working fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhilal, Otong; Mulyana, Cukup; Suhendi, Nendi; Sapdiana, Didi

    2016-02-01

    In the steam power plant in Indonesia the dry steam from separator directly used to drive the turbin. Meanwhile, brine from the separator with low grade temperature reinjected to the earth. The brine with low grade temperature can be converted indirectly to electrical power by organic Rankine cycle (ORC) methods. In ORC power plant the steam are released from vaporization of organic working fluid by brine. The steam released are used to drive an turbine which in connected to generator to convert the mechanical energy into electric energy. The objective of this research is the simulation ORC power plant with n-pentane as organic working fluid. The result of the simulation for brine temperature around 165°C and the pressure 8.001 bar optained the net electric power around 1173 kW with the cycle thermal efficiency 14.61% and the flow rate of n-pentane around 15.51 kg/s. This result enable to applied in any geothermal source in Indonesia.

  6. Organic amendments for improving biomass production and metal yield of Ni-hyperaccumulating plants.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-López, V; Prieto-Fernández, Á; Cabello-Conejo, M I; Kidd, P S

    2016-04-01

    Ni phytomining is a promising technology for Ni recovery from low-grade ores such as ultramafic soils. Metal-hyperaccumulators are good candidates for phytomining due to their extraordinary capacity for Ni accumulation. However, many of these plants produce a low biomass, which makes the use of agronomic techniques for improving their growth necessary. In this study, the Ni hyperaccumulators Alyssum serpyllifolium ssp. lusitanicum, A. serpyllifolium ssp. malacitanum, Alyssum bertolonii and Noccaea goesingense were evaluated for their Ni phytoextraction efficiency from a Ni-rich serpentine soil. Effects of soil inorganic fertilisation (100:100:125kgNPKha(-1)) and soil organic amendment addition (2.5, 5 or 10% compost) on plant growth and Ni accumulation were determined. All soil treatments greatly improved plant growth, but the highest biomass production was generally found after addition of 2.5 or 5% compost (w/w). The most pronounced beneficial effects were observed for N. goesingense. Total Ni phytoextracted from soils was significantly improved using both soil treatments (inorganic and organic), despite the decrease observed in soil Ni availability and shoot Ni concentrations in compost-amended soils. The most promising results were found using intermediate amount of compost, indicating that these types of organic wastes can be incorporated into phytomining systems. PMID:26803735

  7. Dynamics of aerial target pursuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, S.

    2015-12-01

    During pursuit and predation, aerial species engage in multitasking behavior that involve simultaneous target detection, tracking, decision-making, approach and capture. The mobility of the pursuer and the target in a three dimensional environment during predation makes the capture task highly complex. Many researchers have studied and analyzed prey capture dynamics in different aerial species such as insects and bats. This article focuses on reviewing the capture strategies adopted by these species while relying on different sensory variables (vision and acoustics) for navigation. In conclusion, the neural basis of these capture strategies and some applications of these strategies in bio-inspired navigation and control of engineered systems are discussed.

  8. AERIAL OF VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING & SURROUNDING AREA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    AERIAL OF VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING & SURROUNDING AREA KSC-377C-0082.41 116-KSC-377C-82.41, P-15877, ARCHIVE-04151 Aerial view - Shuttle construction progress - VAB and Orbiter Processing Facilities - direction northwest.

  9. Tightly-Coupled Plant-Soil Nitrogen Cycling: Comparison of Organic Farms across an Agricultural Landscape.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Timothy M; Hollander, Allan D; Steenwerth, Kerri; Jackson, Louise E

    2015-01-01

    How farming systems supply sufficient nitrogen (N) for high yields but with reduced N losses is a central challenge for reducing the tradeoffs often associated with N cycling in agriculture. Variability in soil organic matter and management of organic farms across an agricultural landscape may yield insights for improving N cycling and for evaluating novel indicators of N availability. We assessed yields, plant-soil N cycling, and root expression of N metabolism genes across a representative set of organic fields growing Roma-type tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) in an intensively-managed agricultural landscape in California, USA. The fields spanned a three-fold range of soil carbon (C) and N but had similar soil types, texture, and pH. Organic tomato yields ranged from 22.9 to 120.1 Mg ha-1 with a mean similar to the county average (86.1 Mg ha-1), which included mostly conventionally-grown tomatoes. Substantial variability in soil inorganic N concentrations, tomato N, and root gene expression indicated a range of possible tradeoffs between yields and potential for N losses across the fields. Fields showing evidence of tightly-coupled plant-soil N cycling, a desirable scenario in which high crop yields are supported by adequate N availability but low potential for N loss, had the highest total and labile soil C and N and received organic matter inputs with a range of N availability. In these fields, elevated expression of a key gene involved in root N assimilation, cytosolic glutamine synthetase GS1, confirmed that plant N assimilation was high even when inorganic N pools were low. Thus tightly-coupled N cycling occurred on several working organic farms. Novel combinations of N cycling indicators (i.e. inorganic N along with soil microbial activity and root gene expression for N assimilation) would support adaptive management for improved N cycling on organic as well as conventional farms, especially when plant-soil N cycling is rapid. PMID:26121264

  10. Tightly-Coupled Plant-Soil Nitrogen Cycling: Comparison of Organic Farms across an Agricultural Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Bowles, Timothy M.; Hollander, Allan D.; Steenwerth, Kerri; Jackson, Louise E.

    2015-01-01

    How farming systems supply sufficient nitrogen (N) for high yields but with reduced N losses is a central challenge for reducing the tradeoffs often associated with N cycling in agriculture. Variability in soil organic matter and management of organic farms across an agricultural landscape may yield insights for improving N cycling and for evaluating novel indicators of N availability. We assessed yields, plant-soil N cycling, and root expression of N metabolism genes across a representative set of organic fields growing Roma-type tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) in an intensively-managed agricultural landscape in California, USA. The fields spanned a three-fold range of soil carbon (C) and N but had similar soil types, texture, and pH. Organic tomato yields ranged from 22.9 to 120.1 Mg ha-1 with a mean similar to the county average (86.1 Mg ha-1), which included mostly conventionally-grown tomatoes. Substantial variability in soil inorganic N concentrations, tomato N, and root gene expression indicated a range of possible tradeoffs between yields and potential for N losses across the fields. Fields showing evidence of tightly-coupled plant-soil N cycling, a desirable scenario in which high crop yields are supported by adequate N availability but low potential for N loss, had the highest total and labile soil C and N and received organic matter inputs with a range of N availability. In these fields, elevated expression of a key gene involved in root N assimilation, cytosolic glutamine synthetase GS1, confirmed that plant N assimilation was high even when inorganic N pools were low. Thus tightly-coupled N cycling occurred on several working organic farms. Novel combinations of N cycling indicators (i.e. inorganic N along with soil microbial activity and root gene expression for N assimilation) would support adaptive management for improved N cycling on organic as well as conventional farms, especially when plant-soil N cycling is rapid. PMID:26121264

  11. Gravity response mechanisms of lateral organs and the control of plant architecture in Arabidopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullen, J.; Hangarter, R.

    Most research on gravity responses in plants has focused on primary roots and shoots, which typically grow in a vertical orientation. However, the patterns of lateral organ formation and their growth orientation, which typically are not vertical, govern plant architecture. For example, in Arabidopsis, when lateral roots emerge from the primary root, they grow at a nearly horizontal orientation. As they elongate, the roots slowly curve until they eventually reach a vertical orientation. The regulation of this lateral root orientation is an important component affecting the overall root system architecture. We have found that this change in orientation is not simply due to the onset of gravitropic competence, as non-vertical lateral roots are capable of both positive and negative gravitropism. Thus, the horizontal growth of the new lateral roots is determined by what is called the gravitropic set-point angle (GSA). In Arabidopsis shoots, rosette leaves and inflorescence branches also display GSA-dependent developmental changes in their orientation. The developmental control of the GSA of lateral organs in Arabidopsis provides us with a useful system for investigating the components involved in regulating directionality of tropistic responses. We have identified several Arabidopsis mutants that have either altered lateral root orientations, altered orientation of lateral organs in the shoot, or both, but maintain normal primary organ orientation. The mgsa ({m}odified {g}ravitropic {s}et-point {a}ngle) mutants with both altered lateral root and shoot orientation show that there are common components in the regulation of growth orientation in the different organs. Rosette leaves and lateral roots also have in common a regulation of positioning by red light. Further molecular and physiological analyses of the GSA mutants will provide insight into the basis of GSA regulation and, thus, a better understanding of how gravity controls plant architecture. [This work was

  12. High-resolution spatial patterns of Soil Organic Carbon content derived from low-altitude aerial multi-band imagery on the Broadbalk Wheat Experiment at Rothamsted,UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldana Jague, Emilien; Goulding, Keith; Heckrath, Goswin; Macdonald, Andy; Poulton, Paul; Stevens, Antoine; Van Wesemael, Bas; Van Oost, Kristof

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic C (SOC) contents in arable landscapes change as a function of management, climate and topography (Johnston et al, 2009). Traditional methods to measure soil C stocks are labour intensive, time consuming and expensive. Consequently, there is a need for developing low-cost methods for monitoring SOC contents in agricultural soils. Remote sensing methods based on multi-spectral images may help map SOC variation in surface soils. Recently, the costs of both Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and multi-spectral cameras have dropped dramatically, opening up the possibility for more widespread use of these tools for SOC mapping. Long-term field experiments with distinct SOC contents in adjacent plots, provide a very useful resource for systematically testing remote sensing approaches for measuring SOC. This study focusses on the Broadbalk Wheat Experiment at Rothamsted (UK). The Broadbalk experiment started in 1843. It is widely acknowledged to be the oldest continuing agronomic field experiment in the world. The initial aim of the experiment was to test the effects of different organic manures and inorganic fertilizers on the yield of winter wheat. The experiment initially contained 18 strips, each about 320m long and 6m wide, separated by paths of 1.5-2.5m wide. The strips were subsequently divided into ten sections (>180 plots) to test the effects of other factors (crop rotation, herbicides, pesticides etc.). The different amounts and combinations of mineral fertilisers (N,P,K,Na & Mg) and Farmyard Manure (FYM) applied to these plots for over 160 years has resulted in very different SOC contents in adjacent plots, ranging between 0.8% and 3.5%. In addition to large inter-plot variability in SOC there is evidence of within-plot trends related to the use of discard areas between plots and movement of soil as a result of ploughing. The objectives of this study are (i) to test whether low-altitude multi-band imagery can be used to accurately predict spatial

  13. The aquatic vascular plant Ruppia maritima as an indicator organism for contaminated sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Tagliabue, M.D.; Thursby, G.B.; Walker, H.A.; Johnston, R.K.

    1995-12-31

    An ongoing estuarine ecological risk assessment case study for the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in the Great Bay Estuary (New Hampshire, Maine) was the catalyst to continue development a rooted aquatic plant sediment toxicity test. Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate effects of lead, the primary site contaminant on R. maritima in the Great Bay. Although the aquatic vascular plant Zostra marina comprises up to 46% of the Great Bay subtidal habitat, R. maritima`s much smaller size makes it a more practical laboratory organism. Effects on Ruppia may offer useful insights into potential effects on Zostra or other aquatic vascular plants. Presently rooted vascular plants are not found in Clark Cove located adjacent to a landfill disposal site on the shipyard. The absence of rooted vegetation can be contributed to, physical parameters of the site (turbidity, grain size, texture) or chemical parameters (heavy metal/Pb contamination, redox potential). Exposure of bedded and nonbedded plants occurred over a four day and ten day period using lead sulfate. Concentrations for bedded exposures were as follows, 0.3, 0.5, 0.8, 1.0 simultaneously extracted metal/acid volatile sulfide (SEM/AVS) molar ratios, and 0.1, 1.0, 10.0 and 100.0mg/l Pb for water only exposures. Reduction in cumulative leaf growth was observed for the Clark Cove sediments as well as the spiked sediments as compared to reference sediments.

  14. Organic farmers use of wild food plants and fungi in a hilly area in Styria (Austria)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Changing lifestyles have recently caused a severe reduction of the gathering of wild food plants. Knowledge about wild food plants and the local environment becomes lost when plants are no longer gathered. In Central Europe popular scientific publications have tried to counter this trend. However, detailed and systematic scientific investigations in distinct regions are needed to understand and preserve wild food uses. This study aims to contribute to these investigations. Methods Research was conducted in the hill country east of Graz, Styria, in Austria. Fifteen farmers, most using organic methods, were interviewed in two distinct field research periods between July and November 2008. Data gathering was realized through freelisting and subsequent semi-structured interviews. The culinary use value (CUV) was developed to quantify the culinary importance of plant species. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on gathering and use variables to identify culture-specific logical entities of plants. The study presented was conducted within the framework of the master's thesis about wild plant gathering of the first author. Solely data on gathered wild food species is presented here. Results Thirty-nine wild food plant and mushroom species were identified as being gathered, whereas 11 species were mentioned by at least 40 percent of the respondents. Fruits and mushrooms are listed frequently, while wild leafy vegetables are gathered rarely. Wild foods are mainly eaten boiled, fried or raw. Three main clusters of wild gathered food species were identified: leaves (used in salads and soups), mushrooms (used in diverse ways) and fruits (eaten raw, with milk (products) or as a jam). Conclusions Knowledge about gathering and use of some wild food species is common among farmers in the hill country east of Graz. However, most uses are known by few farmers only. The CUV facilitates the evaluation of the culinary importance of species and makes comparisons

  15. Assessing self-organization of plant communities--A thermodynamic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, H.; Cao, M.; Stoy, P.; Zhang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Thermodynamics is a powerful tool for the study of system development and has the potential to be applied to studies of ecological complexity. Here, we develop a set of thermodynamic indicators including energy capture and energy dissipation to quantify plant community self-organization. The study ecosystems included a tropical seasonal rainforest, an artificial tropical rainforest, a rubber plantation, and two Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M. King & H. Robinson communities aged 13 years and 1 year. The communities represent a complexity transect from primary vegetation, to transitional community, economic plantation, and fallows and are typical for Xishuangbanna, southwestern China. The indicators of ecosystem self-organization are sensitive to plant community type and seasonality, and demonstrate that the tropical seasonal rainforest is highly self-organized and plays an important role in local environmental stability via the land surface thermal regulation. The rubber plantation is at a very low level of self-organization as quantified by the thermodynamic indicators, especially during the dry season. The expansion of the area of rubber plantation and shrinkage of tropical seasonal rainforest would likely induce local surface warming and a larger daily temperature range.

  16. Exposure to isophorone and other organic solvents in a screen printing plant.

    PubMed

    Samimi, B

    1982-01-01

    A study was conducted in a screen printing plant to determine the exposure of workers to isophorone and other organic solvents. One hundred twenty-four charcoal tube samples were collected from both workers breathing zones and various workplace areas. Sampling times were 50-90 minutes. Maximum mean TWACs of isophorone and cyclohexanone were 23 +/- 5.4 ppm and 28 +/- 5 ppm, respectively, at the breathing zones of printing press workers. Exposure levels for other organic vapors such as cellosolve acetate, butyl acetate, xylenes, diacetone alchohol, and petroleum distillate are also presented. Mean TWACs of personal samples were generally higher than area samples due to proximity of the solvent evaporating surfaces to the workers breathing zones. Mean TWACs for the individual organic vapors did not exceed OSHA Limits. However, the sum of (TWAC/TLV) ratios of organic vapors with additive health effects exceeded unity at the breathing zones of workers handling inks and solvents. Actual 8-hour worker exposures were assumed to be lower because workers were exposed to lower concentrations (about 9/10 of the additive TLVs) in the plant's general atmosphere during non-active periods of the work shift. Recommendations for improvement of working conditions and reduction of exposure levels are made. PMID:7055084

  17. The Pitcher Plant Sarracenia purpurea Can Directly Acquire Organic Nitrogen and Short-Circuit the Inorganic Nitrogen Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Karagatzides, Jim D.; Butler, Jessica L.; Ellison, Aaron M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite the large stocks of organic nitrogen in soil, nitrogen availability limits plant growth in many terrestrial ecosystems because most plants take up only inorganic nitrogen, not organic nitrogen. Although some vascular plants can assimilate organic nitrogen directly, only recently has organic nitrogen been found to contribute significantly to the nutrient budget of any plant. Carnivorous plants grow in extremely nutrient-poor environments and carnivory has evolved in these plants as an alternative pathway for obtaining nutrients. We tested if the carnivorous pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea could directly take up intact amino acids in the field and compared uptake of organic and inorganic forms of nitrogen across a gradient of nitrogen deposition. We hypothesized that the contribution of organic nitrogen to the nitrogen budget of the pitcher plant would decline with increasing nitrogen deposition. Methodology and Principal Findings At sites in Canada (low nitrogen deposition) and the United States (high nitrogen deposition), individual pitchers were fed two amino acids, glycine and phenylalanine, and inorganic nitrogen (as ammonium nitrate), individually and in mixture. Plants took up intact amino acids. Acquisition of each form of nitrogen provided in isolation exceeded uptake of the same form in mixture. At the high deposition site, uptake of organic nitrogen was higher than uptake of inorganic nitrogen. At the low deposition site, uptake of all three forms of nitrogen was similar. Completeness of the associated detritus-based food web that inhabits pitcher-plant leaves and breaks down captured prey had no effect on nitrogen uptake. Conclusions and Significance By taking up intact amino acids, Sarracenia purpurea can short-circuit the inorganic nitrogen cycle, thus minimizing potential bottlenecks in nitrogen availability that result from the plant's reliance for nitrogen mineralization on a seasonally reconstructed food web operating on

  18. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... lift, except in case of emergency. (x) Climbers shall not be worn while performing work from an aerial... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aerial lifts. 1926.453 Section 1926.453 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Scaffolds § 1926.453 Aerial lifts. (a)...

  19. Evaluation of the micronutrient composition of plant foods produced by organic and conventional agricultural methods.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Duncan; Foster, Meika; McArthur, Jennifer O; Ojha, Rachel; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present analysis was to evaluate the micronutrient content of plant foods produced by organic and conventional agricultural methods. Studies were identified from a search of electronic databases (1980-2007, inclusive) as well as manual searches. A total of 66 studies (describing 1440 micronutrient comparisons) were identified. Thirty-three studies (908 comparisons) satisfied the screening criteria which considered cultivar, harvesting, and soil conditions. In studies that satisfied the screening criteria, the absolute levels of micronutrients were higher in organic foods more often than in conventional foods (462 vs 364 comparisons, P=0.002), and the total micronutrient content, expressed as a percent difference, was higher in organic (+5.7%, P<0.001) as compared to conventionally grown produce. The micronutrient content of food groups was more frequently reported to be higher for organic vegetables and legumes compared to their conventional counterparts (vegetables, 267 vs 197, P<0.001; legumes, 79 vs 46, P=0.004). This trend was supported by a mean percent difference in micronutrient content favoring organic vegetables (+5.9%, P<0.001) and legumes (+5.7%, P<0.001). Further research is required to determine the effect of organic agricultural methods on a broader range of nutrients and their potential impact on health. PMID:21929333

  20. Identification of class B and class C floral organ identity genes from rice plants.

    PubMed

    Kang, H G; Jeon, J S; Lee, S; An, G

    1998-12-01

    The functions of two rice MADS-box genes were studied by the loss-of-function approach. The first gene, OsMADS4, shows a significant homology to members in the PISTILLATA (PI) family, which is required to specify petal and stamen identity. The second gene, OsMADS3, is highly homologous to the members in the AGAMOUS (AG) family that is essential for the normal development of the internal two whorls, the stamen and carpel, of the flower. These two rice MADS box cDNA clones were connected to the maize ubiquitin promoter in an antisense orientation and the fusion molecules were introduced to rice plants by the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method. Transgenic plants expressing antisense OsMADS4 displayed alterations of the second and third whorls. The second-whorl lodicules, which are equivalent to the petals of dicot plants in grasses, were altered into palea/lemma-like organs, and the third whorl stamens were changed to carpel-like organs. Loss-of-function analysis of OsMADS3 showed alterations in the third and fourth whorls. In the third whorl, the filaments of the transgenic plants were changed into thick and fleshy bodies, similar to lodicules. Rather than making a carpel, the fourth whorl produced several abnormal flowers. These phenotypes are similar to those of the agamous and plena mutants in Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum, respectively. These results suggest that OsMADS4 belongs to the class B gene family and OsMADS3 belongs to the class C gene family of floral organ identity determination. PMID:9869408

  1. Reconnaissance mapping from aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeden, H. A.; Bolling, N. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Engineering soil and geology maps were successfully made from Pennsylvania aerial photographs taken at scales from 1:4,800 to 1:60,000. The procedure involved a detailed study of a stereoscopic model while evaluating landform, drainage, erosion, color or gray tones, tone and texture patterns, vegetation, and cultural or land use patterns.

  2. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles unique cost estimating requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, P.; Apgar, H.; Stukes, S.; Sterk, S.

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also referred to as drones, are aerial platforms that fly without a human pilot onboard. UAVs are controlled autonomously by a computer in the vehicle or under the remote control of a pilot stationed at a fixed ground location. There are a wide variety of drone shapes, sizes, configurations, complexities, and characteristics. Use of these devices by the Department of Defense (DoD), NASA, civil and commercial organizations continues to grow. UAVs are commonly used for intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR). They are also use for combat operations, and civil applications, such as firefighting, non-military security work, surveillance of infrastructure (e.g. pipelines, power lines and country borders). UAVs are often preferred for missions that require sustained persistence (over 4 hours in duration), or are “ too dangerous, dull or dirty” for manned aircraft. Moreover, they can offer significant acquisition and operations cost savings over traditional manned aircraft. Because of these unique characteristics and missions, UAV estimates require some unique estimating methods. This paper describes a framework for estimating UAV systems total ownership cost including hardware components, software design, and operations. The challenge of collecting data, testing the sensitivities of cost drivers, and creating cost estimating relationships (CERs) for each key work breakdown structure (WBS) element is discussed. The autonomous operation of UAVs is especially challenging from a software perspective.

  3. Stable isotope analysis of plant-derived nitrate - novel method for discrimination between organically and conventionally grown vegetables.

    PubMed

    Mihailova, A; Pedentchouk, N; Kelly, S D

    2014-07-01

    The lack of reliable markers for the discrimination between organic and conventional products makes the organic food market susceptible to attempted fraud. Robust analytical methodologies for organic food authentication are urgently needed. In this study a new approach, compound-specific nitrogen and oxygen isotope analysis of plant-derived nitrate, has been applied alongside bulk nitrogen isotope analysis for discrimination between organically and conventionally greenhouse-grown lettuce and retail potatoes and tomatoes. The method revealed significant differences between conventional and organic fertilisation. An intra-plant isotopic variation as well as significant impact of the fertiliser application rate on the nitrogen and oxygen isotope values of plant-derived nitrate has been observed. Nitrogen and oxygen isotope analysis of nitrate has a potential for differentiation between organic and conventional crops. Further analysis is needed to improve our understanding of the scope of application and robustness of this compound-specific approach. PMID:24518338

  4. Aerial Radiation Detection

    SciTech Connect

    W. M. Quam

    1999-09-30

    An airborne system designed for the detection of radioactive sources on the soil surface from an aircraft normally senses gamma rays emitted by the source. Gamma rays have the longest path length (least attenuation) through the air of any of the common radioactive emissions and will thus permit source detection at large distances. A secondary benefit from gamma rays detection if that nearly all radioactive isotopes can be identified by the spectrum of gammas emitted. Major gaseous emissions from fuel processing plants emit gammas that may be detected and identified. Some types of special nuclear material also emit neutrons which are also useful for detection at a distance.

  5. Medicinal Plants and Other Living Organisms with Antitumor Potential against Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Luara de Sousa; Bastos, Katherine Xavier; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; de Athayde-Filho, Petrônio Filgueiras; Diniz, Margareth de Fátima Formiga Melo; Sobral, Marianna Vieira

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is a disease with high morbidity and mortality rates. As a result, it is often associated with a significant amount of suffering and a general decrease in the quality of life. Herbal medicines are recognized as an attractive approach to lung cancer therapy with little side effects and are a major source of new drugs. The aim of this work was to review the medicinal plants and other living organisms with antitumor potential against lung cancer. The assays were conducted with animals and humans, and Lewis lung carcinoma was the most used experimental model. China, Japan, South Korea, and Ethiopia were the countries that most published studies of species with antitumor activity. Of the 38 plants evaluated, 27 demonstrated antitumor activity. In addition, six other living organisms were cited for antitumor activity against lung cancer. Mechanisms of action, combination with chemotherapeutic drugs, and new technologies to increase activity and reduce the toxicity of the treatment are discussed. This review was based on the NAPRALERT databank, Web of Science, and Chemical Abstracts. This work shows that natural products from plants continue to be a rich source of herbal medicines or biologically active compounds against cancer. PMID:25147575

  6. Cross-talk between environmental stresses and plant metabolism during reproductive organ abscission

    PubMed Central

    Sawicki, Mélodie; Aït Barka, Essaïd; Clément, Christophe; Vaillant-Gaveau, Nathalie; Jacquard, Cédric

    2015-01-01

    In plants, flowering is a crucial process for reproductive success and continuity of the species through time. Fruit production requires the perfect development of reproductive structures. Abscission, a natural process, can occur to facilitate shedding of no longer needed, infected, or damaged organs. If stress occurs during flower development, abscission can intervene at flower level, leading to reduced yield. Flower abscission is a highly regulated developmental process simultaneously influenced and activated in response to exogenous (changing environmental conditions, interactions with microorganisms) and endogenous (physiological modifications) stimuli. During climate change, plant communities will be more susceptible to environmental stresses, leading to increased flower and fruit abscission, and consequently a decrease in fruit yield. Understanding the impacts of stress on the reproductive phase is therefore critical for managing future agricultural productivity. Here, current knowledge on flower/fruit abscission is summarized by focusing specifically on effects of environmental stresses leading to this process in woody plants. Many of these stresses impair hormonal balance and/or carbohydrate metabolism, but the exact mechanisms are far from completely known. Hormones are the abscission effectors and the auxin/ethylene balance is of particular importance. The carbohydrate pathway is the result of complex regulatory processes involving the balance between photosynthesis and mobilization of reserves. Hormones and carbohydrates together participate in complex signal transduction systems, especially in response to stress. The available data are discussed in relation to reproductive organ development and the process of abscission. PMID:25711702

  7. Cross-talk between environmental stresses and plant metabolism during reproductive organ abscission.

    PubMed

    Sawicki, Mélodie; Aït Barka, Essaïd; Clément, Christophe; Vaillant-Gaveau, Nathalie; Jacquard, Cédric

    2015-04-01

    In plants, flowering is a crucial process for reproductive success and continuity of the species through time. Fruit production requires the perfect development of reproductive structures. Abscission, a natural process, can occur to facilitate shedding of no longer needed, infected, or damaged organs. If stress occurs during flower development, abscission can intervene at flower level, leading to reduced yield. Flower abscission is a highly regulated developmental process simultaneously influenced and activated in response to exogenous (changing environmental conditions, interactions with microorganisms) and endogenous (physiological modifications) stimuli. During climate change, plant communities will be more susceptible to environmental stresses, leading to increased flower and fruit abscission, and consequently a decrease in fruit yield. Understanding the impacts of stress on the reproductive phase is therefore critical for managing future agricultural productivity. Here, current knowledge on flower/fruit abscission is summarized by focusing specifically on effects of environmental stresses leading to this process in woody plants. Many of these stresses impair hormonal balance and/or carbohydrate metabolism, but the exact mechanisms are far from completely known. Hormones are the abscission effectors and the auxin/ethylene balance is of particular importance. The carbohydrate pathway is the result of complex regulatory processes involving the balance between photosynthesis and mobilization of reserves. Hormones and carbohydrates together participate in complex signal transduction systems, especially in response to stress. The available data are discussed in relation to reproductive organ development and the process of abscission. PMID:25711702

  8. Vetiver grass, Vetiveria zizanioides: a choice plant for phytoremediation of heavy metals and organic wastes.

    PubMed

    Danh, Luu Thai; Truong, Paul; Mammucari, Raffaella; Tran, Tam; Foster, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Glasshouse and field studies showed that Vetiver grass can produce high biomass (>100t/ tha(-1) year(-1)) and highly tolerate extreme climatic variation such as prolonged drought, flood, submergence and temperatures (-15 degrees - 55 degrees C), soils high in acidity and alkalinity (pH 3.3-9.5), high levels of Al (85% saturation percentage), Mn (578 mg kg(-1)), soil salinity (ECse 47.5 dS m(-1)), sodicity (ESP 48%), anda wide range of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn). Vetiver can accumulate heavy metals, particularly lead (shoot 0.4% and root 1%) and zinc (shoot and root 1%). The majority of heavy metals are accumulated in roots thus suitable for phytostabilization, and for phytoextraction with addition of chelating agents. Vetiver can also absorb and promote biodegradation of organic wastes (2,4,6-trinitroluene, phenol, ethidium bromide, benzo[a]pyrene, atrazine). Although Vetiver is not as effective as some other species in heavy metal accumulation, very few plants in the literature have a wide range of tolerance to extremely adverse conditions of climate and growing medium (soil, sand, and railings) combined into one plant as vetiver. All these special characteristics make vetiver a choice plant for phytoremediation of heavy metals and organic wastes. PMID:19810597

  9. The PsbW protein stabilizes the supramolecular organization of photosystem II in higher plants.

    PubMed

    García-Cerdán, José G; Kovács, Laszlo; Tóth, Tünde; Kereïche, Sami; Aseeva, Elena; Boekema, Egbert J; Mamedov, Fikret; Funk, Christiane; Schröder, Wolfgang P

    2011-02-01

    PsbW, a 6.1-kDa low-molecular-weight protein, is exclusive to photosynthetic eukaryotes, and associates with the photosystem II (PSII) protein complex. In vivo and in vitro comparison of Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type plants with T-DNA insertion knock-out mutants completely lacking the PsbW protein, or with antisense inhibition plants exhibiting decreased levels of PsbW, demonstrated that the loss of PsbW destabilizes the supramolecular organization of PSII. No PSII-LHCII supercomplexes could be detected or isolated in the absence of the PsbW protein. These changes in macro-organization were accompanied by a minor decrease in the chlorophyll fluorescence parameter F(V) /F(M) , a strongly decreased PSII core protein phosphorylation and a modification of the redox state of the plastoquinone (PQ) pool in dark-adapted leaves. In addition, the absence of PsbW protein led to faster redox changes in the PQ pool, i.e. transitions from state 1 to state 2, as measured by changes in stationary fluorescence (F(S) ) kinetics, compared with the wild type. Despite these dramatic effects on macromolecular structure, the transgenic plants exhibited no significant phenotype under normal growth conditions. We suggest that the PsbW protein is located close to the minor antenna of the PSII complex, and is important for the contact and stability between several PSII-LHCII supercomplexes. PMID:21265891

  10. Marsh plant response to metals: Exudation of aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, A. Cristina S.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Basto, M. Clara P.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2016-03-01

    Metal exposure is known to induce the production and secretion of substances, such as aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs), into the rhizosphere by plant roots. Knowledge on this matter is extensive for soil plants but still considerably scarce regarding marsh plants roots adapted to high salinity media. Phragmites australis and Halimione portulacoides, two marsh plants commonly distributed in European estuarine salt marshes, were used to assess the response of roots of both species, in terms of ALMWOAs exudation, to Cu, Ni and Cd exposure (isolated and in mixture since in natural environment, they are exposed to mixture of metals). As previous studies were carried out in unrealistic and synthetic media, here a more natural medium was selected. Therefore, in vitro experiments were carried out, with specimens of both marsh plants, and in freshwater contaminated with two different Cu, Ni and Cd concentrations (individual metal and in mixture). Both marsh plants were capable of liberating ALMWOAs into the surrounding medium. Oxalic, citric and maleic acids were found in P. australis root exudate solutions and oxalic and maleic acids in H. portulacoides root exudate solutions. ALMWOA liberation by both plants was plant species and metal-dependent. For instance, Cu affected the exudation of oxalic acid by H. portulacoides and of oxalic and citric acids by P. australis roots. In contrast, Ni and Cd did not stimulate any specific response. Regarding the combination of all metals, H. portulacoides showed a similar response to that observed for Cu individually. However, in the P. australis case, at high metal concentration mixture, a synergetic effect led to the increase of oxalic acid levels in root exudate solution and to a decrease of citric acid liberation. A correlation between ALMWOAs exudation and metal accumulation could not be established. P. australis and H. portulacoides are considered suitable metal phytoremediators of estuarine impacted areas

  11. Characterization of organic matter of plants from lakes by thermal analysis in a N2 atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fei; Wu, Fengchang; Mu, Yunsong; Hu, Yan; Zhao, Xiaoli; Meng, Wei; Giesy, John P; Lin, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Organic matter (OM) has been characterized using thermal analysis in O2 atmospheres, but it is not clear if OM can be characterized using slow thermal degradation in N2 atmospheres (STDN). This article presents a new method to estimate the behavior of OM in anaerobic environment. Seventeen different plants from Tai Lake (Ch: Taihu), China were heated to 600 °C at a rate of 10 °C min(-1) in a N2 atmosphere and characterized by use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). DSC chromatograms were compared with 9 standard compounds. Seven peaks were observed in DSC chromatograms, 2 main peaks strongly correlated with biochemical indices, and one main peak was a transitional stage. Energy absorbed by a peak at approximately 200 °C and total organic carbon were well correlated, while energy absorbed at approximately 460 °C was negatively correlated with lignin content. Presence of peaks at approximately 350 and 420 °C varied among plant biomass sources, providing potential evidence for biomass identification. Methods of STDN reported here were rapid and accurate ways to quantitatively characterize OM, which may provide useful information for understanding anaerobic behaviors of natural organic matters. PMID:26953147

  12. Characterization of organic matter of plants from lakes by thermal analysis in a N2 atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fei; Wu, Fengchang; Mu, Yunsong; Hu, Yan; Zhao, Xiaoli; Meng, Wei; Giesy, John P.; Lin, Ying

    2016-03-01

    Organic matter (OM) has been characterized using thermal analysis in O2 atmospheres, but it is not clear if OM can be characterized using slow thermal degradation in N2 atmospheres (STDN). This article presents a new method to estimate the behavior of OM in anaerobic environment. Seventeen different plants from Tai Lake (Ch: Taihu), China were heated to 600 °C at a rate of 10 °C min‑1 in a N2 atmosphere and characterized by use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). DSC chromatograms were compared with 9 standard compounds. Seven peaks were observed in DSC chromatograms, 2 main peaks strongly correlated with biochemical indices, and one main peak was a transitional stage. Energy absorbed by a peak at approximately 200 °C and total organic carbon were well correlated, while energy absorbed at approximately 460 °C was negatively correlated with lignin content. Presence of peaks at approximately 350 and 420 °C varied among plant biomass sources, providing potential evidence for biomass identification. Methods of STDN reported here were rapid and accurate ways to quantitatively characterize OM, which may provide useful information for understanding anaerobic behaviors of natural organic matters.

  13. Characterization of organic matter of plants from lakes by thermal analysis in a N2 atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Fei; Wu, Fengchang; Mu, Yunsong; Hu, Yan; Zhao, Xiaoli; Meng, Wei; Giesy, John P.; Lin, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Organic matter (OM) has been characterized using thermal analysis in O2 atmospheres, but it is not clear if OM can be characterized using slow thermal degradation in N2 atmospheres (STDN). This article presents a new method to estimate the behavior of OM in anaerobic environment. Seventeen different plants from Tai Lake (Ch: Taihu), China were heated to 600 °C at a rate of 10 °C min−1 in a N2 atmosphere and characterized by use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). DSC chromatograms were compared with 9 standard compounds. Seven peaks were observed in DSC chromatograms, 2 main peaks strongly correlated with biochemical indices, and one main peak was a transitional stage. Energy absorbed by a peak at approximately 200 °C and total organic carbon were well correlated, while energy absorbed at approximately 460 °C was negatively correlated with lignin content. Presence of peaks at approximately 350 and 420 °C varied among plant biomass sources, providing potential evidence for biomass identification. Methods of STDN reported here were rapid and accurate ways to quantitatively characterize OM, which may provide useful information for understanding anaerobic behaviors of natural organic matters. PMID:26953147

  14. [Source emission characteristics and impact factors of volatile halogenated organic compounds from wastewater treatment plant].

    PubMed

    He, Jie; Wang, Bo-Guang; Liu, Shu-Le; Zhao, De-Jun; Tang, Xiao-Dong; Zou, Yu

    2011-12-01

    A low enrichment method of using Tenax as absorbent and liquid nitrogen as refrigerant has been established to sample the volatile halogenated organic compounds in Guangzhou Liede municipal wastewater treatment plant as well as its ambient air. The composition and concentration of target halogenated hydrocarbons were analyzed by combined thermal desorption/GC-MS to explore its sources profile and impact factors. The result showed that 19 halogenated organic compounds were detected, including 11 halogenated alkanets, 3 halogenated alkenes, 3 halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons and 2 haloesters, with their total concentrations ranged from 34.91 microg x m(-3) to 127.74 microg x m(-3) and mean concentrations ranged from n.d. to 33.39 microg x m(-3). Main pollutants of the studied plant were CH2Cl2, CHCl3, CFC-12, C2H4Cl2, CFC-11, C2HCl3 and C2Cl4, they came from the wastewater by volatilization. Among the six processing units, the dehydration room showed the highest level of halogenated organic compounds, followed by pumping station, while the sludge thickener was the lowest. The emissions from pumping station, aeration tank and biochemical pool were significantly affected by temperature and humidity of environment. PMID:22468521

  15. Thermochemical pretreatments of organic fraction of municipal solid waste from a mechanical-biological treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Gallego, Carlos José; Fdez-Güelfo, Luis Alberto; de los Ángeles Romero Aguilar, María; Romero García, Luis Isidoro

    2015-01-01

    The organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) usually contains high lignocellulosic and fatty fractions. These fractions are well-known to be a hard biodegradable substrate for biological treatments and its presence involves limitations on the performance of anaerobic processes. To avoid this, thermochemical pretreatments have been applied on the OFMSW coming from a full-scale mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plant, in order to pre-hydrolyze the waste and improve the organic matter solubilisation. To study the solubilisation yield, the increments of soluble organic matter have been measured in terms of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) and acidogenic substrate as carbon (ASC). The process variables analyzed were temperature, pressure and NaOH dosage. The levels of work for each variable were three: 160-180-200 °C, 3.5-5.0-6.5 bar and 2-3-4 g NaOH/L. In addition, the pretreatment time was also modified among 15 and 120 min. The best conditions for organic matter solubilisation were 160 °C, 3 g NaOH/L, 6.5 bar and 30 min, with yields in terms of DOC, sCOD, TVFA and ASC of 176%, 123%, 119% and 178% respectively. Thus, predictably the application of this pretreatment in these optimum conditions could improve the H2 production during the subsequent Dark Fermentation process. PMID:25671816

  16. Thermochemical Pretreatments of Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste from a Mechanical-Biological Treatment Plant

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Gallego, Carlos José; Fdez-Güelfo, Luis Alberto; Romero Aguilar, María de los Ángeles; Romero García, Luis Isidoro

    2015-01-01

    The organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) usually contains high lignocellulosic and fatty fractions. These fractions are well-known to be a hard biodegradable substrate for biological treatments and its presence involves limitations on the performance of anaerobic processes. To avoid this, thermochemical pretreatments have been applied on the OFMSW coming from a full-scale mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plant, in order to pre-hydrolyze the waste and improve the organic matter solubilisation. To study the solubilisation yield, the increments of soluble organic matter have been measured in terms of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) and acidogenic substrate as carbon (ASC). The process variables analyzed were temperature, pressure and NaOH dosage. The levels of work for each variable were three: 160–180–200 °C, 3.5–5.0–6.5 bar and 2–3–4 g NaOH/L. In addition, the pretreatment time was also modified among 15 and 120 min. The best conditions for organic matter solubilisation were 160 °C, 3 g NaOH/L, 6.5 bar and 30 min, with yields in terms of DOC, sCOD, TVFA and ASC of 176%, 123%, 119% and 178% respectively. Thus, predictably the application of this pretreatment in these optimum conditions could improve the H2 production during the subsequent Dark Fermentation process. PMID:25671816

  17. Uptake and transport of radioactive nickel and cadmium into three vegetables after wet aerial contamination.

    PubMed

    Fismes, Joëlle; Echevarria, Guillaume; Leclerc-Cessac, Elisabeth; Morel, Jean Louis

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge of radionuclide or trace element retention and translocation to plants following an aerial contamination event, for example, sprinkling with contaminated water, is necessary for the evaluation of human exposure through consumption of contaminated vegetables. The fate of 63Ni and 109Cd in all plant parts of three different vegetables after wet deposition on leaves or on fruits was studied. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown under controlled conditions in a growth chamber were contaminated with 63Ni and 109Cd either on leaves, by means of two different contamination methods (a single early contamination and a repetitive one), or on bean husks (third contamination method: a single contamination at a late stage). Spiked and nonspiked organs were harvested at maturity and radionuclide contents were measured. The fraction retained was on average 56% of the initially administered doses of 63Ni and 87% of 109Cd. The leaf-to-other organ translocation factor was considerably higher for 63Ni (on average 43% of retained radioactivity) than for 109Cd (8%). Nickel-63 migrated throughout the whole plant following foliar contamination, and mainly toward young leaves, seeds in formation, and sink organs, whereas 109Cd migrated to a much lesser extent and only to the organs that were closest to the spiked one, and not at all into fruit. After a fruit contamination event, both radionuclides were translocated into the seeds of spiked fruits. Radionuclide retention and translocation were not affected by plant species, but principally by the type of organ contaminated. PMID:16091602

  18. 25. Aerial photograph dated 20 June 1942, showing north end ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Aerial photograph dated 20 June 1942, showing north end of Gould Island from the northeast (caption on photo is in error). Shop and power plant under construction at left, firing pier under construction at far right. Photo courtesy of Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Newport, Rhode Island. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  19. 27. Aerial photograph dated 14 October 1943 taken directly over ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Aerial photograph dated 14 October 1943 taken directly over Gould Island. Completed complex shown at north end of the island (to right in photograph), including power plant, shop, frame approach, firing pier, and small harbor formed by finger pier off east side of firing pier. Photo courtesy of Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Newport, Rhode Island. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  20. 28. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST AT THE WEST GATE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST AT THE WEST GATE IN 1978. SHOWN IS BUILDING 100, THE MAIN ENTRANCE POINT TO THE SITE FROM 1969 UNTIL 1985. DURING THIS TIME EACH AUTOMOBILE THAT ENTERED THE SITE WAS SEARCHED. IN 1985, BUILDING 120 WAS BUILT AT THE OUTERMOST WEST EDGE OF THE SITE. THERE WERE 29 FACILITIES AROUND THE SITE DEDICATED TO SECURITY (5/4/78). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  1. 29. Aerial photograph (1973) looking south across Gould Island. Firing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Aerial photograph (1973) looking south across Gould Island. Firing pier (still possessing third and fourth levels) in foreground. Pitched roof extending from south end of firing pier marks location of frame approach between pier and shop building (center rear) and power plant (to right of shop). Photo courtesy of Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Newport, Rhode Island. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  2. Investigation of an MLE Algorithm for Quantification of Aerial Radiological Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Michael; Essex, James

    2012-05-10

    Aerial radiation detection is routinely used by many organizations (DHS, DOE, EPA, etc.) for the purposes of identifying the presence of and quantifying the existence of radiation along the ground. This work involves the search for lost or missing sources, as well as the characterization of large-scale releases such as might occur in a nuclear power plant accident. The standard in aerial radiological surveys involves flying large arrays of sodium-iodide detectors at altitude (15 to 700 meters) to acquire geo-referenced, 1 Hz, 1024-channel spectra. The historical shortfalls of this technology include: • Very low spatial resolution (typical field of view is circle of two-times altitude) • Relatively low detectability associated with large stand-off distances • Fundamental challenges in performing ground-level quantification This work uses modern computational power in conjunction with multi-dimensional deconvolution algorithms in an effort to improve spatial resolution, enhance detectability, and provide a robust framework for quantification.

  3. First complete chromosomal organization of a protozoan plant parasite (Phytomonas spp.).

    PubMed

    Marín, Clotilde; Alberge, Blandine; Dollet, Michel; Pagès, Michel; Bastien, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Phytomonas spp. are members of the family Trypanosomatidae that parasitize plants and may cause lethal diseases in crops such as Coffee Phloem necrosis, Hartrot in coconut, and Marchitez sorpresiva in oil palm. In this study, the molecular karyotype of 6 isolates from latex plants has been entirely elucidated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and DNA hybridization. Twenty-one chromosomal linkage groups constituting heterologous chromosomes and sizing between 0.3 and 3 Mb could be physically defined by the use of 75 DNA markers (sequence-tagged sites and genes). From these data, the genome size can be estimated at 25.5 (+/-2) Mb. The physical linkage groups were consistently conserved in all strains examined. Moreover, the finding of several pairs of different-sized homologous chromosomes strongly suggest diploidy for this organism. The definition of the complete molecular karyotype of Phytomonas represents an essential primary step toward sequencing the genome of this parasite of economical importance. PMID:18031984

  4. Biosafety research for non-target organism risk assessment of RNAi-based GE plants

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Andrew F.; Devos, Yann; Lemgo, Godwin N. Y.; Zhou, Xuguo

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference, or RNAi, refers to a set of biological processes that make use of conserved cellular machinery to silence genes. Although there are several variations in the source and mechanism, they are all triggered by double stranded RNA (dsRNA) which is processed by a protein complex into small, single stranded RNA, referred to as small interfering RNAs (siRNA) with complementarity to sequences in genes targeted for silencing. The use of the RNAi mechanism to develop new traits in plants has fueled a discussion about the environmental safety of the technology for these applications, and this was the subject of a symposium session at the 13th ISBGMO in Cape Town, South Africa. This paper continues that discussion by proposing research areas that may be beneficial for future environmental risk assessments of RNAi-based genetically modified plants, with a particular focus on non-target organism assessment. PMID:26594220

  5. Biosafety research for non-target organism risk assessment of RNAi-based GE plants.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Andrew F; Devos, Yann; Lemgo, Godwin N Y; Zhou, Xuguo

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference, or RNAi, refers to a set of biological processes that make use of conserved cellular machinery to silence genes. Although there are several variations in the source and mechanism, they are all triggered by double stranded RNA (dsRNA) which is processed by a protein complex into small, single stranded RNA, referred to as small interfering RNAs (siRNA) with complementarity to sequences in genes targeted for silencing. The use of the RNAi mechanism to develop new traits in plants has fueled a discussion about the environmental safety of the technology for these applications, and this was the subject of a symposium session at the 13th ISBGMO in Cape Town, South Africa. This paper continues that discussion by proposing research areas that may be beneficial for future environmental risk assessments of RNAi-based genetically modified plants, with a particular focus on non-target organism assessment. PMID:26594220

  6. Effects of different forms of plant-derived organic matter on nitrous oxide emissions.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Qingyan; Wu, Lanfang; Ouyang, Zhu; Li, Binbin; Xu, Yanyan

    2016-07-13

    To investigate the impact of different forms of plant-derived organic matter on nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, an incubation experiment with the same rate of total nitrogen (N) application was carried out at 25 °C for 250 days. Soils were incorporated with maize-derived organic matter (i.e., maize residue-derived dissolved organic matter and maize residues with different C/N ratios) and an inorganic N fertilizer (urea). The pattern and magnitude of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions were affected by the form of N applied. Single application of maize-derived organic matter resulted in a higher N2O emission than single application of the inorganic N fertilizer or combined application of the inorganic N fertilizer and maize-derived organic matter. The positive effect of maize residue-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) addition on N2O emissions was relatively short-lived and mainly occurred at the early stage following DOM addition. In contrast, the positive effect induced by maize residue addition was more pronounced and lasted for a longer period. Single application of maize residues resulted in a substantial decrease in soil nitric nitrogen (NO3(-)-N), but it did not affect the production of N2O. No significant relationship between N2O emission and NO3(-)-N and ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) suggested that the availability of soil N was not limiting the production of N2O in our study. The key factors affecting soil N2O emission were the soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content and metabolism quotient (qCO2). Both of them could explain 87% of the variation in cumulative N2O emission. The C/N ratio of maize-derived organic matter was a poor predictor of N2O emission when the soil was not limited by easily available C and the available N content met the microbial N demands for nitrification and denitrification. The results suggested that the magnitude of N2O emission was determined by the impact of organic amendments on soil C availability and microbial activity

  7. K+ uptake in plant roots. The systems involved, their regulation and parallels in other organisms.

    PubMed

    Nieves-Cordones, Manuel; Alemán, Fernando; Martínez, Vicente; Rubio, Francisco

    2014-05-15

    Potassium (K(+)) is an essential macronutrient for plants. It is taken into the plant by the transport systems present in the plasma membranes of root epidermal and cortical cells. The identity of these systems and their regulation is beginning to be understood and the systems of K(+) transport in the model species Arabidopsis thaliana remain far better characterized than in any other plant species. Roots can activate different K(+) uptake systems to adapt to their environment, important to a sessile organism that needs to cope with a highly variable environment. The mechanisms of K(+) acquisition in the model species A. thaliana are the best characterized at the molecular level so far. According to the current model, non-selective channels are probably the main pathways for K(+) uptake at high concentrations (>10mM), while at intermediate concentrations (1mM), the inward rectifying channel AKT1 dominates K(+) uptake. Under lower concentrations of external K(+) (100μM), AKT1 channels, together with the high-affinity K(+) uptake system HAK5 contribute to K(+) acquisition, and at extremely low concentrations (<10μM) the only system capable of taking up K(+) is HAK5. Depending on the species the high-affinity system has been named HAK5 or HAK1, but in all cases it fulfills the same functions. The activation of these systems as a function of the K(+) availability is achieved by different mechanisms that include phosphorylation of AKT1 or induction of HAK5 transcription. Some of the characteristics of the systems for root K(+) uptake are shared by other organisms, whilst others are specific to plants. This indicates that some crucial properties of the ancestral of K(+) transport systems have been conserved through evolution while others have diverged among different kingdoms. PMID:24810767

  8. Plant-Microbial Interactions Define Potential Mechanisms of Organic Matter Priming in the Rhizosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhalnina, K.; Cho, H. J.; Hao, Z.; Mansoori, N.; Karaoz, U.; Jenkins, S.; White, R. A., III; Lipton, M. S.; Deng, K.; Zhou, J.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Northen, T.; Firestone, M. K.; Brodie, E.

    2015-12-01

    In the rhizosphere, metabolic processes of plants and microorganisms are closely coupled, and together with soil minerals, their interactions regulate the turnover of soil organic C (SOC). Plants provide readily assimilable metabolites for microorganisms through exudation, and it has been hypothesized that increasing concentrations of exudate C may either stimulate or suppress rates of SOC mineralization (rhizosphere priming). Both positive and negative rhizosphere priming has been widely observed, however the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. To begin to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying rhizosphere priming, we isolated a broad range of soil bacteria from a Mediterranean grassland dominated by annual grass. Thirty-nine heterotrophic bacteria were selected for genome sequencing and both rRNA gene analysis and metagenome coverage suggest that these isolates represent naturally abundant strain variants. We analyzed their genomes for potential metabolic traits related to life in the rhizosphere and the decomposition of polymeric SOC. While the two dominant groups, Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria, were enriched in polymer degrading enzymes, Alphaproteobacterial isolates contained greater gene copies of transporters related to amino acid, organic acid and auxin uptake or export, suggesting an enhanced metabolic potential for life in the root zone. To verify this metabolic potential, we determined the enzymatic activities of these isolates and revealed preferences of strains to degrade certain polymers (xylan, cellulose or lignin). Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy is being used to determine which polymeric components of plant roots are targeted by specific strains and how exudates may impact their degradation. To verify the potential of isolates to assimilate root exudates and export key metabolites we are using LC-MS/MS based exometabolomic profiling. The traits hypothesized and verified here (transporters, enzymes, exudate uptake

  9. USGS aerial resolution targets.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Salamonowicz, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    It is necessary to measure the achievable resolution of any airborne sensor that is to be used for metric purposes. Laboratory calibration facilities may be inadequate or inappropriate for determining the resolution of non-photographic sensors such as optical-mechanical scanners, television imaging tubes, and linear arrays. However, large target arrays imaged in the field can be used in testing such systems. The USGS has constructed an array of resolution targets in order to permit field testing of a variety of airborne sensing systems. The target array permits any interested organization with an airborne sensing system to accurately determine the operational resolution of its system. -from Author

  10. Hazardous organic compounds in biogas plant end products--soil burden and risk to food safety.

    PubMed

    Suominen, K; Verta, M; Marttinen, S

    2014-09-01

    The end products (digestate, solid fraction of the digestate, liquid fraction of the digestate) of ten biogas production lines in Finland were analyzed for ten hazardous organic compounds or compound groups: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB(7)), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH(16)), bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), perfluorinated alkyl compounds (PFCs), linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LASs), nonylphenols and nonylphenol ethoxylates (NP+NPEOs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). Biogas plant feedstocks were divided into six groups: municipal sewage sludge, municipal biowaste, fat, food industry by-products, animal manure and others (consisting of milling by-products (husk) and raw former foodstuffs of animal origin from the retail trade). There was no clear connection between the origin of the feedstocks of a plant and the concentrations of hazardous organic compounds in the digestate. For PCDD/Fs and for DEHP, the median soil burden of the compound after a single addition of digestate was similar to the annual atmospheric deposition of the compound or compound group in Finland or other Nordic countries. For PFCs, the median soil burden was somewhat lower than the atmospheric deposition in Finland or Sweden. For NP+NPEOs, the soil burden was somewhat higher than the atmospheric deposition in Denmark. The median soil burden of PBDEs was 400 to 1000 times higher than the PBDE air deposition in Finland or in Sweden. With PBDEs, PFCs and HBCD, the impact of the use of end products should be a focus of further research. Highly persistent compounds, such as PBDE- and PFC-compounds may accumulate in agricultural soil after repeated use of organic fertilizers containing these compounds. For other compounds included in this study, agricultural use of biogas plant end products is unlikely to cause risk to food safety in Finland. PMID:24593894

  11. Black Nitrogen or Plant-Derived Organic Nitrogen - which Form is More Efficiently Sequestered in Soils?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Martín, María; Velasco-Molina, Marta; Knicker, Heike

    2014-05-01

    Input of charcoal after forest fires can lead to considerable changes of the quality and quantity of organic matter in soils (SOM). This affects not only its organic C pool but also shifts its organic N composition from peptideous to N-heterocyclic structures (Knicker et al., 1996). In the present study we sought to understand how this alteration is affecting the N availability in fire affected soils. Therefore, we performed a medium-term pot experiment in which grass material (Lolium perenne) was grown on soil material (Cambisols) of a fire-affected and a fire-unaffected forest. The soils were topped with mixtures of ground fresh grass residues and KNO3 or charred grass material (pyrogenic organic matter; PyOM) with KNO3. Here, either the organic N or the inorganic N was isotopically enriched with 15N. Following the 15N concentration in the soil matrix and the growing plants as a function of incubation time (up to 16 months) by isotopic ratio mass spectrometry allowed us to indentify which N-source is most efficiently stabilized and how PyOM is affecting this process. Preliminary data indicated that only after the germination of the seeds, the concentration of the added inorganic 15N in the soil decreased considerably most likely due to its uptake by the growing plants but also due to N-losses by leaching and volatilization. Additional addition of plant residues or PyOM had no major effect on this behavior. Covering the soil with 15N-grass residues which simulates a litter layer led to a slow increase of the 15N concentration in the mineral soil during the first month. This is best explained by the ongoing incorporation of the litter into the soil matrix. After that a small decrease was observed, showing that the organic N was only slowly mobilized. Addition of 15N-PyOM showed a comparable behavior but with 15N concentration in the soil corresponding to twice of those of the pots amended with 15N-grass residues. After that the 15N concentrations decrease quickly

  12. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NJN-6-enriched bio-organic fertilizer suppressed Fusarium wilt and promoted the growth of banana plants.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jun; Ruan, Yunze; Wang, Beibei; Zhang, Jian; Waseem, Raza; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2013-04-24

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain NJN-6 is an important plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) which can produce secondary metabolites antagonistic to several soil-borne pathogens. In this study, the ability of a bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) containing NJN-6 strain to promote the growth and suppress Fusarium wilt of banana plants was evaluated in a pot experiment. The results showed that the application of BIO significantly decreased the incidence of Fusarium wilt and promoted the growth of banana plants compared to that for the organic fertilizer (OF). To determine the beneficial mechanism of the strain, the colonization of NJN-6 strain on banana roots was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The plant growth-promoting hormones indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and gibberellin A3 (GA3), along with antifungal lipopeptides iturin A, were detected when the NJN-6 strain was incubated in both Landy medium with additional l-tryptophan and in root exudates of banana plants. In addition, some antifungal volatile organic compounds and iturin A were also detected in BIO. In summary, strain NJN-6 could colonize the roots of banana plants after the application of BIO and produced active compounds which were beneficial for the growth of banana plants. PMID:23541032

  13. A three step approach for removing organic matter from South African water sources and treatment plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nkambule, T. I.; Krause, R. W. M.; Haarhoff, J.; Mamba, B. B.

    The high variability in the levels and composition of natural organic matter (NOM) in South-African water sources in different regions means that no single treatment process can be prescribed for each water treatment plant operating in the country. In order to remove NOM from water in a water treatment train, the composition of the NOM in the source water must be taken into account, especially as it may not necessarily be uniform since the composition is dependent on local environmental situation. The primary objective of this study was to characterise the NOM present in South African source waters through an extensive sampling of representative water types across the country and then develop a rapid NOM characterisation protocol. Water samples were thus collected from eight different water treatment plants located throughout the country at different sites of their water treatment trains. Raw water samples, the intermediate samples before filtration and water samples before disinfection were collected at these drinking water treatment plants. The fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (FEEMs), biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC), ultraviolet (UV) characterisation (200-900 nm) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) analysis were used to characterise the NOM in the water samples. The FEEM and UV results revealed that the samples were composed mainly of humic substances with a high UV-254 absorbance, while some samples had marine humic substances and non-humic substances. The sample’s DOC results were within the range of 3.25-21.44 mg C/L, which was indicative of the varying nature of the NOM composition in the regions where samples were obtained. The BDOC fraction of the NOM, on the other hand, ranged from 20% to 65%, depending on the geographical location of the sampling site. It is evident from the results obtained that the NOM composition varied per sampling site which would eventually have a bearing on its treatability. The various water treatment

  14. The improvement of removal effects on organic pollutants in Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marincas, O.; Petrov, P.; Ternes, T.; Avram, V.; Moldovan, Z.

    2009-08-01

    Purpose of this study is to improve the efficiency of removal in wastewater treatment plants of some organic pollutants like pharmaceuticals, antioxidants, pesticides (triazines, phenylurea herbicides), personal care products (PCPs) musk fragrances (galaxolide and tonalide) and estrogens using zeolites with excellent absorption capacity. The zeolite selected for all experiments was Szedimentin-MW. The experiment took place in three stages: no zeolite addition, zeolite added at the end of the bioreactor and zeolite added at the start of the bioreactor. The water samples were pre-concentrated with solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure and analyzed with analytical system Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS).

  15. The carbon isotope composition of ancient CO2 based on higher-plant organic matter.

    PubMed

    Gröcke, Darren R

    2002-04-15

    Carbon isotope ratios in higher-plant organic matter (delta(13)C(plant)) have been shown in several studies to be closely related to the carbon isotope composition of the ocean-atmosphere carbon reservoir, and, in particular, the isotopic composition of CO(2). These studies have primarily been focused on geological intervals in which major perturbations occur in the oceanic carbon reservoir, as documented in organic carbon and carbonates phases (e.g. Permian-Triassic and Triassic-Jurassic boundary, Early Toarcian, Early Aptian, Cenomanian-Turonian boundary, Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM)). All of these events, excluding the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary, record negative carbon isotope excursions, and many authors have postulated that the cause of such excursions is the massive release of continental-margin marine gas-hydrate reservoirs (clathrates). Methane has a very negative carbon isotope composition (delta(13)C, ca. 60 per thousand ) in comparison with higher-plant and marine organic matter, and carbonate. The residence time of methane in the ocean-atmosphere reservoir is short (ca. 10 yr) and is rapidly oxidized to CO(2), causing the isotopic composition of CO(2) to become more negative from its assumed background value (delta(13)C, ca. -7 per thousand ). However, to date, only the Early Toarcian, Early Aptian and PETM are well-constrained chronometric sequences that could attribute clathrate release as a viable cause to create such rapid negative delta(13)C excursions. Notwithstanding this, the isotopic analysis of higher-plant organic matter (e.g. charcoal, wood, leaves, pollen) has the ability to (i) record the isotopic composition of palaeoatmospheric CO(2) in the geological record, (ii) correlate marine and non-marine stratigraphic successions, and (iii) confirm that oceanic carbon perturbations are not purely oceanographic in their extent and affect the entire ocean-atmosphere system. A case study from the Isle of Wight, UK, indicates that the

  16. Resolving the 'nitrogen paradox' of arbuscular mycorrhizas: fertilization with organic matter brings considerable benefits for plant nutrition and growth.

    PubMed

    Thirkell, Tom J; Cameron, Duncan D; Hodge, Angela

    2016-08-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can transfer nitrogen (N) to host plants, but the ecological relevance is debated, as total plant N and biomass do not generally increase. The extent to which the symbiosis is mutually beneficial is thought to rely on the stoichiometry of N, phosphorus (P) and carbon (C) availability. While inorganic N fertilization has been shown to elicit strong mutualism, characterized by improved plant and fungal growth and mineral nutrition, similar responses following organic N addition are lacking. Using a compartmented microcosm experiment, we determined the significance to a mycorrhizal plant of placing a (15) N-labelled, nitrogen-rich patch of organic matter in a compartment to which only AMF hyphae had access. Control microcosms denied AMF hyphal access to the patch compartment. When permitted access to the patch compartment, the fungus proliferated extensively in the patch and transferred substantial quantities of N to the plant. Moreover, our data demonstrate that allowing hyphal access to an organic matter patch enhanced total plant N and P contents, with a simultaneous and substantial increase in plant biomass. Furthermore, we demonstrate that organic matter fertilization of arbuscular mycorrhizal plants can foster a mutually beneficial symbiosis based on nitrogen transfer, a phenomenon previously thought irrelevant. PMID:26510552

  17. Influence of biochar and plant growth on organic matter dynamics in a reclaimed mine residue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Barriga, Fabián; Díaz, Vicente; Alberto, Jose; Faz, Ángel; Zornoza, Raúl

    2016-04-01

    This study aims at assessing the impact of biochar and marble waste amendment and the development of vegetation in acidic mine wastes on organic matter dynamics. For this purpose, a mine residue was collected in a tailing pond from the Sierra Minera of Cartagena-La Unión (SE Spain), and a greenhouse experiment was established for 120 days. Marble waste (MW) was added in a rate of 200 g kg-1 as a source of calcium carbonate to increase the pH from 3 to 7.5-8 (average pH in the native soils of the area). We added biochar as a source of organic carbon and nutrients, in two different rates, 50 g kg-1 (BC1) and 100 g kg-1 (BC2). To assess the influence of vegetation growth on the creation of a technosoil from mine residues and its impact on organic matter dynamics, the plant species Piptatherum miliaceum (PM) was planted in half the pots with the different amendments. Thus, five treatments were established: unamended and unplanted control (CT), BC1, BC2, BC1+PM and BC2+PM. Results showed that the different treatments had no significant effect on aggregates stability, microbial biomass carbon and the emission of N2O and CH4. So, it seems that longer periods are needed to increase the stability of aggregates and microbial populations, since even the combined use of biochar, marble waste and vegetation was not enough to increase these properties in 120 days. Nonetheless, it was positive that the addition of biochar and the release of root exudates did not trigger the emission of greenhouse gases. Organic carbon significantly increased with the addition of biochar, with values similar to the dose applied, indicating high stability and low mineralization of the amendment. The addition of amendments significantly increased arylesterase activity, while the growth of the plant was needed to significantly increase β-glucosidase activity. The soluble carbon significantly decreased in BC1 and BC2 with regards to CT, while no significant differences were observed among CT and

  18. HPLC-Profiles of Tocopherols, Sugars, and Organic Acids in Three Medicinal Plants Consumed as Infusions.

    PubMed

    Roriz, Custódio Lobo; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2014-01-01

    Pterospartum tridentatum (L.) Willk, Gomphrena globosa L., and Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf are medicinal plants that require a more detailed chemical characterization, given the importance of their consumption as infusions. Therefore, the individual profiles in tocopherols, free sugars, and organic acids were obtained by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to different detectors (fluorescence, refraction index, and photodiode array, resp.). C. citratus revealed the highest content of α-, and total tocopherols, glucose, sucrose, succinic, and ascorbic acids. P. tridentatum presented the highest fructose and total sugars content. Otherwise, G. globosa showed the highest organic acids concentration. As far as we know, this is the first study reporting the mentioned chemical compounds in G. globosa and C. citratus. PMID:26904623

  19. Characteristics and transformations of dissolved organic nitrogen in municipal biological nitrogen removal wastewater treatment plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Shouliang; Xi, Beidou; Yu, Honglei; Qin, Yanwen; Zan, Fengyu; Zhang, Jingtian

    2013-12-01

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) represents most of the dissolved nitrogen in the effluent of biological nitrogen removal (BNR) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The characteristics of wastewater-derived DON in two different WWTPs were investigated by several different methods. The major removals of DON and biodegradable dissolved organic nitrogen (BDON) along the treatment train were observed in the anaerobic process. Dissolved combined amino acids (DCAA) and dissolved free amino acids (DFAA) in the effluent accounted approximately for less than 4% and 1% of the effluent DON, respectively. Approximately half of wastewater-derived DON was capable of passing through a 1 kDa ultrafilter, and low MW DON cannot effectively be removed by BNR processes. More than 80% of effluent DON was composed of hydrophilic compounds, which stimulate algal growth. The study provided important information for future upgrading of WWTPs or the selection of DON removal systems to meet more demanding nitrogen discharge limits.

  20. HPLC-Profiles of Tocopherols, Sugars, and Organic Acids in Three Medicinal Plants Consumed as Infusions

    PubMed Central

    Roriz, Custódio Lobo; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2014-01-01

    Pterospartum tridentatum (L.) Willk, Gomphrena globosa L., and Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf are medicinal plants that require a more detailed chemical characterization, given the importance of their consumption as infusions. Therefore, the individual profiles in tocopherols, free sugars, and organic acids were obtained by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to different detectors (fluorescence, refraction index, and photodiode array, resp.). C. citratus revealed the highest content of α-, and total tocopherols, glucose, sucrose, succinic, and ascorbic acids. P. tridentatum presented the highest fructose and total sugars content. Otherwise, G. globosa showed the highest organic acids concentration. As far as we know, this is the first study reporting the mentioned chemical compounds in G. globosa and C. citratus. PMID:26904623

  1. Recent Advances in the Application of Metabolomics to Studies of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC) Produced by Plant

    PubMed Central

    Iijima, Yoko

    2014-01-01

    In many plants, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are produced as specialized metabolites that contribute to the characteristics of each plant. The varieties and composition of BVOCs are chemically diverse by plant species and the circumstances in which the plants grow, and also influenced by herbivory damage and pathogen infection. Plant-produced BVOCs are receptive to many organisms, from microorganisms to human, as both airborne attractants and repellants. In addition, it is known that some BVOCs act as signals to prime a plant for the defense response in plant-to-plant communications. The compositional profiles of BVOCs can, thus, have profound influences in the physiological and ecological aspects of living organisms. Apart from that, some of them are commercially valuable as aroma/flavor compounds for human. Metabolomic technologies have recently revealed new insights in biological systems through metabolic dynamics. Here, the recent advances in metabolomics technologies focusing on plant-produced BVOC analyses are overviewed. Their application markedly improves our knowledge of the role of BVOCs in chemosystematics, ecological influences, and aroma research, as well as being useful to prove the biosynthetic mechanisms of BVOCs. PMID:25257996

  2. Variable Contribution of Soil and Plant Derived Carbon to Dissolved Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbeiss, S.; Gleixner, G.

    2005-12-01

    The seasonal variation in the amount and sources of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in soil profiles was investigated. In general DOM in soil solution can evolve from the decomposition and mobilization of soil organic matter (SOM), dissolution of dead microbial cells or from the input of plant material such as root exudates or decomposing litter. Here we used vegetation change from C3 to C4 plants to quantify the plant derived carbon in DOM. In 2002 an agricultural field was converted to an experimental grass land. The average carbon isotope value of SOM was -26.5 per mill (sd = 0.2) for the plough horizon. On two independent plots, each 10 x 20 m, we used Amaranthus retroflexus as C4 plant with a carbon isotope label of 13.0 per mill to distinguish unlabeled SOM and plant derived carbon sources. To quantify the contribution of litter input on DOM formation we applied a split plot design. One half had no litter and the other half double amount of above ground litter. Soil water was collected in 10, 20 and 30 cm depth biweekly and DOM concentrations in solution and carbon isotope ratios of the freeze dried and decarbonized material were investigated. During winter uniform concentrations of DOM of about 7 mg/l were measured throughout all depth and treatments. In spring when soil temperatures increase and water availability decreases DOM concentrations increased with similar rates in all depth. Even in the second year of Amaranth growth the carbon isotope ratios of DOM in winter and spring had no C4 signal. The carbon isotope ratios of -26 to -27 per mill suggest SOM as carbon source and contradict a contribution of root exudates to the DOM pool. During summer almost no soil solution was collected. After rewetting in fall DOM concentrations up to 50 mg/l in 10 cm depth and up to 35 mg/l in deeper layers were found. These high concentrations held carbon isotope signals from -25 to -26.5 per mill contradicting carbon input from plant material. With ongoing wetting of

  3. Trends in quantitative aerial thermography

    SciTech Connect

    Schott, J.R.; Wilkinson, E.P.

    1983-06-01

    Recent improvements in aerial thermographic techniques, particularly in achievable spatial resolution and noise equivalent temperature variation, have enabled the use of thermography in a more objective fashion. Interpretation of the information contained in thermograms has also been improved through the use of certain techniques accounting for roof material type (emissivity), background effects, and atmospheric variables. With current methods, roof surface temperature from aerial imagery can be measured to within 1.8/sup 0/F (1.0/sup 0/C) of the actual temperature. These advances in thermogram analysis have opened the door for potential direct measurement of rooftop heat-loss levels from thermogram data. Ultimately, it is felt that this type of information would make it feasible to direct intensive energy-conservation efforts toward a smaller population, where the need and cost benefits will be the greatest.

  4. Aerial Photographs and Satellite Images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1997-01-01

    Photographs and other images of the Earth taken from the air and from space show a great deal about the planet's landforms, vegetation, and resources. Aerial and satellite images, known as remotely sensed images, permit accurate mapping of land cover and make landscape features understandable on regional, continental, and even global scales. Transient phenomena, such as seasonal vegetation vigor and contaminant discharges, can be studied by comparing images acquired at different times. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), which began using aerial photographs for mapping in the 1930's, archives photographs from its mapping projects and from those of some other Federal agencies. In addition, many images from such space programs as Landsat, begun in 1972, are held by the USGS. Most satellite scenes can be obtained only in digital form for use in computer-based image processing and geographic information systems, but in some cases are also available as photographic products.

  5. Determination of low molecular weight organic acids in soil, plants, and water by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying-Hui; Huang, Bi-Xia; Shan, Xiao-Quan

    2003-03-01

    Determination of low molecular weight organic acids in soils and plants by capillary zone electrophoresis was accomplished using a phthalate buffer and indirect UV detection mode. The influence of some crucial parameters, such as pH, buffer concentration and surfactant were investigated. A good separation of seven organic acids was achieved within 5 min using an electrolyte containing 15 mmol L(-1) potassium hydrogen phthalate, 0.5 mmol L(-1) myristyltrimethylammonium bromide (MTAB), and 5% methanol (MeOH) (v/v) at pH 5.60, separation voltage -20 kV, and temperature 25 degrees C. The relative standard deviation (n=5) of the method was found to be in range 0.18-0.56% for migration time and 3.2-4.8% for peak area. The limit of detection ranged between 0.5 micro mol L(-1) to 6 micro mol L(-1) at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The recovery of standard organic acids added to real samples ranged from 87 to 119%. This method was simple, rapid and reproducible, and could be applied to the simultaneous determination of organic acids in environmental samples. PMID:12664177

  6. Experimental charcoalification of plant reproductive organs: Taphonomic implications for taxonomic information loss

    SciTech Connect

    Lupia, R. )

    1992-01-01

    Charcoalification can preserve reproductive organs of plants in exceptional detail, but it has not been clear to what extent these taxonomically important structures suffer non-allometric size reduction during this process. To address this problem, seven angiosperm and two gymnosperm species were buried in sand and experimentally charcoalified in a muffle furnace at 325--350 degrees Celsius for two hours, and percent size reduction measured. Carpels, stamens, and petals never shrank by the same amount for a given angiosperm species. To determine the effect of different periods of heating on organs, one angiosperm species was treated for 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours. Organs continued to shrink over this entire period without reaching a plateau. This is important in designing future experiments, and in terms of interpreting fossils, since heat treatment varies across a single site in natural fires. Observations made during this study suggest that some carpels and petals never become charcoalified, that stamens are particularly susceptible to fragmentation after charcoalification, that some organs show predictable damage which is correlated with time, and that the saturation of a structure with water can significantly retard charcoalification for heat exposure of less than one hour. These factors may severely affect the entry of the charred remains into the fossil record. Despite the suggestion that female structures can be expected to shrink the least, it is impossible to prescribe quantitative correction factors to permit accurate reconstructions without constraining additional variables such as temperature and duration of heating.

  7. Organic matrix based slow release fertilizer enhances plant growth, nitrate assimilation and seed yield of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vinod K; Singh, Rana P

    2011-09-01

    Field experiments were conducted to study the effect of organic matrix based slow release fertilizers (SRFs) on plant growth, nitrate assimilation and seed yield of Brassica juncea L. cv, pusa bold. The agro-waste materials like cow dung, clay soil, neem leaves and rice bran were mixed together in 2:2:1:1 ratio and used as organic matrix for the immobilization of chemical fertilizer nutrients with commercial grade saresh (Acacia gum, 15% solution) as binder. Different fertilizer treatments were organic matrix based slow release fertilizers, SRF-I (542.0 kg ha(-1)); SRF-II (736.5 kg ha(-1)) and chemical fertilizer combinations, boron (3 kg ha(-1))+sulphur (15 kg ha(-1))+nitrogen (80 kg ha(-1)) and boron (3 kg ha(-1)) + sulphur (15 kg ha(-1))+nitrogen (80 kg ha(-1))+phosphorus (15 kg ha(-1))+potassium (100 kg ha(-1)). Organic matrix based SRF-II released ammonium up to 50-d in wetsoil under laboratory conditions which showed maximum retention of the nutrients. Avery significant increase in plant growth, nitrate assimilation and seed yield was recorded in organic matrix based SRF-II applied plants. The maximum percent increase in biomass production was observed with organic matrix based SRF-II (increase of 65.8% in root fresh weight, 38.0% in root dry weight, 45.9% in leaf fresh weight plant(-1) and 27.5 % in leaf dry weight plant(-1) in 60-d old plants). It also increased the acquisition and assimilation of nitrate from the plant's rhizosphere which was evident by 45.6% increase in nitrate, 27.5% in nitrite and 11.7% in nitrate reductase activity (NRA) in leaves of 45-d old plants over control. The organic matrix based SRF-II significantly increased the seed yield by 28% in Indian mustard. Cost analysis revealed thatthis formulation is cost effective as it is based on agro waste materials. PMID:22319878

  8. Aerial robotic data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Hayes, D.W.; Pendergast, M.M.; Corban, J.E.

    1993-12-31

    A small, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), equipped with sensors for physical and chemical measurements of remote environments, is described. A miniature helicopter airframe is used as a platform for sensor testing and development. The sensor output is integrated with the flight control system for real-time, interactive, data acquisition and analysis. Pre-programmed flight missions will be flown with several sensors to demonstrate the cost-effective surveillance capabilities of this new technology.

  9. Plant inter-species effects on rhizosphere priming of soil organic matter decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pausch, Johanna; Zhu, Biao; Cheng, Weixin

    2015-04-01

    Living roots and their rhizodeposits can stimulate microbial activity and soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition up to several folds. This so-called rhizosphere priming effect (RPE) varies widely among plant species possibly due to species-specific differences in the quality and quantity of rhizodeposits and other root functions. However, whether the RPE is influenced by plant inter-species interactions remains largely unexplored, even though these interactions can fundamentally shape plant functions such as carbon allocation and nutrient uptake. In a 60-day greenhouse experiment, we continuously labeled monocultures and mixtures of sunflower, soybean and wheat with 13C-depleted CO2 and partitioned total CO2 efflux released from soil at two stages of plant development for SOM- and root-derived CO2. The RPE was calculated as the difference in SOM-derived CO2 between the planted and the unplanted soil, and was compared among the monocultures and mixtures. We found that the RPE was positive under all plants, ranging from 43% to 136% increase above the unplanted control. There were no significant differences in RPE at the vegetative stage. At the flowering stage however, the RPE in the soybean-wheat mixture was significantly higher than those in the sunflower monoculture, the sunflower-wheat mixture, and the sunflower-soybean mixture. These results indicated that the influence of plant inter-specific interactions on the RPE is case-specific and phenology-dependent. To evaluate the intensity of inter-specific effects on priming, we calculated an expected RPE for the mixtures based on the RPE of the monocultures weighted by their root biomass and compared it to the measured RPE under mixtures. At flowering, the measured RPE was significantly lower for the sunflower-wheat mixture than what can be expected from their monocultures, suggesting that RPE was significantly reduced by the inter-species effects of sunflower and wheat. In summary, our results clearly demonstrated

  10. Telemetry of Aerial Radiological Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    H. W. Clark, Jr.

    2002-10-01

    Telemetry has been added to National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA's) Aerial Measuring System (AMS) Incident Response aircraft to accelerate availability of aerial radiological mapping data. Rapid aerial radiological mapping is promptly performed by AMS Incident Response aircraft in the event of a major radiological dispersal. The AMS airplane flies the entire potentially affected area, plus a generous margin, to provide a quick look at the extent and severity of the event. The primary result of the AMS Incident Response over flight is a map of estimated exposure rate on the ground along the flight path. Formerly, it was necessary to wait for the airplane to land before the map could be seen. Now, while the flight is still in progress, data are relayed via satellite directly from the aircraft to an operations center, where they are displayed and disseminated. This permits more timely utilization of results by decision makers and redirection of the mission to optimize its value. The current telemetry capability can cover all of North America. Extension to a global capability is under consideration.

  11. 52. Neg. No.none, ca. 1950's, PhotographerUnknown, AERIAL VIEWS OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. Neg. No.-none, ca. 1950's, Photographer-Unknown, AERIAL VIEWS OF THE FORD MOTOR COMPANY ASSEMBLY PLANT, SOMETIME AFTER THE ADDITION OF THE NORTHERN WING - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. 5. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTH AT THE PLUTONIUM BUILDINGS (700S). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTH AT THE PLUTONIUM BUILDINGS (700S). BUILDING 776/777 IS THE LARGE BUILDING IN THE CENTER PORTION OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. BUILDING 771 IS IN THE LOWER RIGHT CORNER, AND BUILDING 707 IS TO THE SOUTH OF BUILDING 776/777. (6/21/88) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  13. Predator foraging altitudes reveal the structure of aerial insect communities.

    PubMed

    Helms, Jackson A; Godfrey, Aaron P; Ames, Tayna; Bridge, Eli S

    2016-01-01

    The atmosphere is populated by a diverse array of dispersing insects and their predators. We studied aerial insect communities by tracking the foraging altitudes of an avian insectivore, the Purple Martin (Progne subis). By attaching altitude loggers to nesting Purple Martins and collecting prey delivered to their nestlings, we determined the flight altitudes of ants and other insects. We then tested hypotheses relating ant body size and reproductive ecology to flight altitude. Purple Martins flew up to 1,889 meters above ground, and nestling provisioning trips ranged up to 922 meters. Insect communities were structured by body size such that species of all sizes flew near the ground but only light insects flew to the highest altitudes. Ant maximum flight altitudes decreased by 60% from the lightest to the heaviest species. Winged sexuals of social insects (ants, honey bees, and termites) dominated the Purple Martin diet, making up 88% of prey individuals and 45% of prey biomass. By transferring energy from terrestrial to aerial food webs, mating swarms of social insects play a substantial role in aerial ecosystems. Although we focus on Purple Martins and ants, our combined logger and diet method could be applied to a range of aerial organisms. PMID:27352817

  14. Predator foraging altitudes reveal the structure of aerial insect communities

    PubMed Central

    Helms, Jackson A.; Godfrey, Aaron P.; Ames, Tayna; Bridge, Eli S.

    2016-01-01

    The atmosphere is populated by a diverse array of dispersing insects and their predators. We studied aerial insect communities by tracking the foraging altitudes of an avian insectivore, the Purple Martin (Progne subis). By attaching altitude loggers to nesting Purple Martins and collecting prey delivered to their nestlings, we determined the flight altitudes of ants and other insects. We then tested hypotheses relating ant body size and reproductive ecology to flight altitude. Purple Martins flew up to 1,889 meters above ground, and nestling provisioning trips ranged up to 922 meters. Insect communities were structured by body size such that species of all sizes flew near the ground but only light insects flew to the highest altitudes. Ant maximum flight altitudes decreased by 60% from the lightest to the heaviest species. Winged sexuals of social insects (ants, honey bees, and termites) dominated the Purple Martin diet, making up 88% of prey individuals and 45% of prey biomass. By transferring energy from terrestrial to aerial food webs, mating swarms of social insects play a substantial role in aerial ecosystems. Although we focus on Purple Martins and ants, our combined logger and diet method could be applied to a range of aerial organisms. PMID:27352817

  15. Assessment of plant uptake models used in exposure assessment tools for soils contaminated with organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Takaki, Koki; Wade, Andrew J; Collins, Chris D

    2014-10-21

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and improve the accuracy of plant uptake models for neutral hydrophobic organic pollutants (1 < logK(OW) < 9, -8 < logK(AW) < 0) used in regulatory exposure assessment tools, using uncertainty and sensitivity analyses. The models considered were RAIDAR, EUSES, CSOIL, CLEA, and CalTOX. In this research, CSOIL demonstrated the best performance of all five exposure assessment tools for root uptake from polluted soil in comparison with observed data, but no model predicted shoot uptake well. Recalibration of the transpiration and volatilisation parameters improved the performance of CSOIL and CLEA. The dominant pathway for shoot uptake simulated differed according to the properties of the chemical under consideration; those with a higher air-water partition coefficient were transported into shoots via the soil-air-plant pathway, while chemicals with a lower octanol-water partition coefficient and air-water partition coefficient were transported via the root. The soil organic carbon content was a particularly sensitive parameter in each model and using a site specific value improved model performance. PMID:25203369

  16. In vivo endocrine disruption assessment of wastewater treatment plant effluents with small organisms.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Luis; Seriki, Kemi; Mateos, Stéphanie; Loire, Nicolas; Guédon, Nathalie; Lemkine, Gregory F; Demeneix, Barbara A; Tindall, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    Surface water receives a variety of micro-pollutants that could alter aquatic organisms' reproduction and development. It is known that a few nanograms per litre of these compounds can induce endocrine-disrupting effects in aquatic species. Many compounds are released daily in wastewater, and identifying the compounds responsible for inducing such disruption is difficult. Methods using biological analysis are therefore an alternative to chemical analysis, as the endocrine disruption potential of the stream as a whole is considered. To detect hormonal disruption of thyroid and oestrogenic functions, fluorescent Xenopus laevis tadpoles and medaka (Oryzias latipes) fish larvae bearing genetic constructs integrating hormonal responsive elements were used for physiological screens for potential endocrine disruption in streams from an urban wastewater treatment plant. The Xenopus model was used to assess thyroid disruption and the medaka model oestrogenic disruption in wastewater samples. Assays using the genetically modified organisms were conducted on 9 influent and 32 effluent samples. The thyroidal effect of wastewater was either reduced or removed by the treatment plant; no oestrogenic effect was detected in any of the wastewater samples. PMID:23823564

  17. Functions of tocopherols in the cells of plants and other photosynthetic organisms.

    PubMed

    Mokrosnop, V M

    2014-01-01

    Tocopherol synthesis has only been observed in photosynthetic organisms (plants, algae and some cyanobacteria). Tocopherol is synthesized in the inner membrane of chloroplasts and distributed between chloroplast membranes, thylakoids and plastoglobules. Physiological significance of tocopherols for human and animal is well-studied, but relatively little is known about their function in plant organisms. Among the best characterized functions oftocopherols in cells is their ability to scavenge and quench reactive oxygen species and fat-soluble by-products of oxidative stress. There are the data on the participation of different mechanisms of α-tocopherol action in protecting photosystem II (PS II) from photoinhibition both by deactivation of singlet oxygen produced by PSII and by reduction of proton permeability of thylakoid membranes, leading to acidification of lumen under high light conditions and activation of violaxanthin de-epoxidase. Additional biological activity of tocopherols, independent of its antioxidant functions have been demonstrated. Basic mechanisms for these effects are connected with the modulation of signal transduction pathways by specific tocopherols and, in some instances, by transcriptional activation of gene expression. PMID:25816585

  18. Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhancing tomato plant growth and productivity.

    PubMed

    Sortino, Orazio; Dipasquale, Mauro; Montoneri, Enzo; Tomasso, Lorenzo; Perrone, Daniele G; Vindrola, Daniela; Negre, Michele; Piccone, Giuseppe

    2012-10-01

    Municipal bio-refuse (CVD), containing kitchen wastes, home gardening residues and public park trimmings, was treated with alkali to yield a soluble bio-organic fraction (SBO) and an insoluble residue. These materials were characterized using elemental analysis, potentiometric titration, and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and then applied as organic fertilizers to soil for tomato greenhouse cultivation. Their performance was compared with a commercial product obtained from animal residues. Plant growth, fruit yield and quality, and soil and leaf chemical composition were the selected performance indicators. The SBO exhibited the best performance by enhancing leaf chlorophyll content, improving plant growth and fruit ripening rate and yield. No product performance-chemical composition relationship could be assessed. Solubility could be one reason for the superior performance of SBO as a tomato growth promoter. The enhancement of leaf chlorophyll content is discussed to identify a possible link with the SBO photosensitizing properties that have been demonstrated in other work, and thus with photosynthetic performance. PMID:22658869

  19. Impact of liquid fertilizers on plant growth, yield, fruit quality and fertigation management in an organic processing blackberry production system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of organic fertilizer source on the growth, fruit quality, and yield of blackberry cultivars (‘Marion’ and ‘Black Diamond’) grown in machine-harvested, organic production systems for the processed market was evaluated from 2011-13. The planting was established in spring 2010 using approve...

  20. Plant-specific volatile organic compound emission rates from young and mature leaves of Mediterranean vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracho-Nunez, Araceli; Welter, Saskia; Staudt, Michael; Kesselmeier, Jürgen

    2011-08-01

    The seasonality of vegetation, i.e., developmental stages and phenological processes, affects the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Despite the potential significance, the contributions of seasonality to VOC emission quality and quantity are not well understood and are therefore often ignored in emission simulations. We investigated the VOC emission patterns of young and mature leaves of several Mediterranean plant species in relation to their physiological and developmental changes during the growing period and estimated Es. Foliar emissions of isoprenoids and oxygenated VOCs like methanol and acetone were measured online by means of a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and offline with gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer and flame ionization detector. The results suggest that VOC emission is a developmentally regulated process and that quantitative and qualitative variability is plant species specific. Leaf ontogeny clearly influenced both the VOC Es and the relative importance of different VOCs. Methanol was the major compound contributing to the sum of target VOC emissions in young leaves (11.8 ± 10.4 μg g-1 h-1), while its contribution was minor in mature leaves (4.1 ± 4.1 μg g-1 h-1). Several plant species showed a decrease or complete subsidence of monoterpene, sesquiterpene, and acetone emissions upon maturity, perhaps indicating a potential response to the higher defense demands of young emerging leaves.

  1. Impacts of simulated herbivory on volatile organic compound emission profiles from coniferous plants

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Faiola, C. L.; Jobson, B. T.; VanReken, T. M.

    2015-01-28

    The largest global source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere is from biogenic emissions. Plant stressors associated with a changing environment can alter both the quantity and composition of the compounds that are emitted. This study investigated the effects of one global change stressor, increased herbivory, on plant emissions from five different coniferous species: bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata), blue spruce (Picea pungens), western redcedar (Thuja plicata), grand fir (Abies grandis), and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). Herbivory was simulated in the laboratory via exogenous application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a herbivory proxy. Gas-phase species were measured continuously with a gasmore » chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer and flame ionization detector (GC–MS–FID). Stress responses varied between the different plant types and even between experiments using the same set of saplings. The compounds most frequently impacted by the stress treatment were alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, 1,8-cineol, beta-myrcene, terpinolene, limonene, and the cymene isomers. Individual compounds within a single experiment often exhibited a different response to the treatment from one another.« less

  2. Light represses transcription of asparagine synthetase genes in photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic organs of plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Fongying; Coruzzi, G. )

    1991-10-01

    Asparagine synthetase (AS) mRNA in Pisum sativum accumulates preferentially in plants grown in the dark. Nuclear run-on experiments demonstrate that expression of both the AS1 and AS2 genes is negatively regulated by light at the level of transcription. A decrease in the transcriptional rate of the AS1 gene can be detected as early as 20 min after exposure to light. Time course experiments reveal that the levels of AS mRNA fluctuate dramatically during a normal light/dark cycle. This is due to a direct effect of light and not to changes associated with circadian rhythm. A novel finding is that the light-repressed expression of the AS1 gene is as dramatic nonphotosynthetic organs such as roots as it is in leaves. Experiments demonstrate that the small amount of light which passes through the soil is sufficient to repress AS1 expression in roots, indicating that light has a direct effect on AS1 gene expression in roots. The negative regulation of AS gene expression by light was shown to be a general phenomenon in plants which also occurs in nonlegumes such as Nicotiana plumbaginifolia and Nicotiana tabacum. Thus, the AS genes can serve as a model with which to dissect the molecular basis for light-regulated transcriptional repression in plants.

  3. Impacts of simulated herbivory on volatile organic compound emission profiles from coniferous plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faiola, C. L.; Jobson, B. T.; VanReken, T. M.

    2015-01-01

    The largest global source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere is from biogenic emissions. Plant stressors associated with a changing environment can alter both the quantity and composition of the compounds that are emitted. This study investigated the effects of one global change stressor, increased herbivory, on plant emissions from five different coniferous species: bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata), blue spruce (Picea pungens), western redcedar (Thuja plicata), grand fir (Abies grandis), and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). Herbivory was simulated in the laboratory via exogenous application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a herbivory proxy. Gas-phase species were measured continuously with a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer and flame ionization detector (GC-MS-FID). Stress responses varied between the different plant types and even between experiments using the same set of saplings. The compounds most frequently impacted by the stress treatment were alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, 1,8-cineol, beta-myrcene, terpinolene, limonene, and the cymene isomers. Individual compounds within a single experiment often exhibited a different response to the treatment from one another.

  4. Mechanisms of Heavy Metal Sequestration in Soils: Plant-Microbe Interactions and Organic Matter Aging

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Teresa W.-M; Higashi, Richard M.

    2001-06-01

    The myriad of human activities including strategic and energy development at various DOE installations have resulted in the contamination of soils and waterways that can seriously threaten human and ecosystem health. Development of efficacious and economical remediation technologies is needed to ameliorate these immensely costly problems. Bioremediation (both plant and microbe-based) has promising potential to meet this demand but still requires advances in fundamental knowledge. For bioremediation of heavy metals, the three-way interaction of plant root, microbial community, and soil organic matter (SOM)1 in the rhizosphere is critically important for long-term sustainability but often underconsidered. Particularly urgent is the need to understand processes that lead to metal ion stabilization in soils, which is crucial to all of the goals of bioremediation: removal, stabilization, and transformation. This project will build on the knowledge that we have generated on the role of root exudation and metabolism for metal mobilization and accumulation, to address the following objectives: (1) Identify molecular markers and characterize the chemical nature of recalcitrant SOM pools that are involved in belowground metal ion interactions, which are likely to be markers for sustainable sequestration; (2) Utilize (1) to determine plant and microbial factors that contribute to sustainable metal sequestration or mobility, as well as bioavailability; (3) Utilize information from (1) and (2) to explore efficacious means for enhancing sustainable phytostabilization of heavy metals in the subsurface zone.

  5. Mechanisms of Heavy Metal Sequestration in Soils: Plant-Microbe Interactions and Organic Matter Aging

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Teresa W. M.; Higashi, Richard M.; Crowley

    2001-06-25

    The myriad of human activities including strategic and energy development at various DOE installations have resulted in the contamination of soils and waterways that can seriously threaten human and ecosystem health. Development of efficacious and economical remediation technologies is needed to ameliorate these immensely costly problems. Bioremediation (both plant and microbe-based) has promising potential to meet this demand but still requires advances in fundamental knowledge. For bioremediation of heavy metals, the three-way interaction of plant root, microbial community, and soil organic matter (SOM)1 in the rhizosphere is critically important for long-term sustainability but often underconsidered. Particularly urgent is the need to understand processes that lead to metal ion stabilization in soils, which is crucial to all of the goals of bioremediation: removal, stabilization, and transformation. This project will build on the knowledge that we have generated on the role of root exudation and metabolism for metal mobilization and accumulation, to address the following objectives: (1) Identify molecular markers and characterize the chemical nature of recalcitrant SOM pools that are involved in below ground metal ion interactions, which are likely to be markers for sustainable sequestration; (2) Utilize (1) to determine plant and microbial factors that contribute to sustainable metal sequestration or mobility, as well as bioavailability; (3) Utilize information from (1) and (2) to explore efficacious means for enhancing sustainable phytostabilization of heavy metals in the subsurface zone.

  6. Roles of Organic Acid Anion Secretion in Aluminium Tolerance of Higher Plants

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lin-Tong; Qi, Yi-Ping; Jiang, Huan-Xin; Chen, Li-Song

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 30% of the world's total land area and over 50% of the world's potential arable lands are acidic. Furthermore, the acidity of the soils is gradually increasing as a result of the environmental problems including some farming practices and acid rain. At mildly acidic or neutral soils, aluminium(Al) occurs primarily as insoluble deposits and is essentially biologically inactive. However, in many acidic soils throughout the tropics and subtropics, Al toxicity is a major factor limiting crop productivity. The Al-induced secretion of organic acid (OA) anions, mainly citrate, oxalate, and malate, from roots is the best documented mechanism of Al tolerance in higher plants. Increasing evidence shows that the Al-induced secretion of OA anions may be related to the following several factors, including (a) anion channels or transporters, (b) internal concentrations of OA anions in plant tissues, (d) temperature, (e) root plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase, (f) magnesium (Mg), and (e) phosphorus (P). Genetically modified plants and cells with higher Al tolerance by overexpressing genes for the secretion and the biosynthesis of OA anions have been obtained. In addition, some aspects needed to be further studied are also discussed. PMID:23509687

  7. Assessment of volatile organic compound removal by indoor plants--a novel experimental setup.

    PubMed

    Dela Cruz, Majbrit; Müller, Renate; Svensmark, Bo; Pedersen, Jakob Skov; Christensen, Jan H

    2014-01-01

    Indoor plants can remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the air. The majority of knowledge comes from laboratory studies where results cannot directly be transferred to real-life settings. The aim of this study was to develop an experimental test system to assess VOC removal by indoor plants which allows for an improved real-life simulation. Parameters such as relative humidity, air exchange rate and VOC concentration are controlled and can be varied to simulate different real-life settings. For example, toluene diffusion through a needle gave concentrations in the range of 0.10-2.35 μg/L with deviations from theoretical values of 3.2-10.5%. Overall, the system proved to be functional for the assessment of VOC removal by indoor plants with Hedera helix reaching a toluene removal rate of up to 66.5 μg/m(2)/h. The mode of toluene exposure (semi-dynamic or dynamic) had a significant influence on the removal rate obtained by H. helix. PMID:24638833

  8. Roles of organic acid anion secretion in aluminium tolerance of higher plants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin-Tong; Qi, Yi-Ping; Jiang, Huan-Xin; Chen, Li-Song

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 30% of the world's total land area and over 50% of the world's potential arable lands are acidic. Furthermore, the acidity of the soils is gradually increasing as a result of the environmental problems including some farming practices and acid rain. At mildly acidic or neutral soils, aluminium (Al) occurs primarily as insoluble deposits and is essentially biologically inactive. However, in many acidic soils throughout the tropics and subtropics, Al toxicity is a major factor limiting crop productivity. The Al-induced secretion of organic acid (OA) anions, mainly citrate, oxalate, and malate, from roots is the best documented mechanism of Al tolerance in higher plants. Increasing evidence shows that the Al-induced secretion of OA anions may be related to the following several factors, including (a) anion channels or transporters, (b) internal concentrations of OA anions in plant tissues, (d) temperature, (e) root plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase, (f) magnesium (Mg), and (e) phosphorus (P). Genetically modified plants and cells with higher Al tolerance by overexpressing genes for the secretion and the biosynthesis of OA anions have been obtained. In addition, some aspects needed to be further studied are also discussed. PMID:23509687

  9. Plant specific volatile organic compound emission factors from young and mature leaves of Mediterranean vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracho-Nunez, Araceli; Welter, Saskia; Staudt, Michael; Kesselmeier, Jürgen

    2010-05-01

    Terrestrial vegetation is the most important source of atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOC) with significant influence on the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere. VOCs influence the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere and contribute to the formation and growth of secondary organic aerosols affecting cloud development and precipitation. The aim of our study was to investigate potential quantitative and qualitative differences in VOC emission patterns of young and mature leaves for nine typical Mediterranean plant species. The Mediterranean area was chosen due to its special diversity in VOC emitting plant species. Foliar isoprenoid emissions as well as emissions of oxygenated VOC like methanol and acetone were measured under standard light and temperature conditions during spring and summer 2008 at the CEFE-CNRS institute in Montpellier, France. A proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) was used for online measurement of VOCs. While PTR-MS is an excellent technique for fast chemical measurements it lacks specificity and compounds with the same mass cannot be distinguished. For this reason, cartridge samples were collected and afterwards analyzed with GC-FID. In parallel offline VOC analyses were performed with gas chromatography (GC) coupled to a mass spectrometer and flame ionization detector, enabling assignment of the observed PTR-MS mass to charge ratios (m/z) to specific identification based on the GC-FID retention times. Thus, combining the PTR-MS and GC-FID analyses enabled accurate and online identification of the VOCs emitted. The results emphasise that VOC emission is a developmentally regulated process and quantitative and qualitative variability is plant species specific. Leaf ontogeny clearly influenced not only the standard emission rate but also the VOC composition, with methanol being the major compound that contributes to the total VOC emissions in young leaves and maintaining or decreasing its contribution with maturity.

  10. Conventional and organic soil fertility management practices affect corn plant nutrition and Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larval performance.

    PubMed

    Murrell, Ebony G; Cullen, Eileen M

    2014-10-01

    Few studies compare how different soil fertilization practices affect plant mineral content and insect performance in organic systems. This study examined: 1) The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), larval response on corn (Zea mays L.) grown in field soils with different soil management histories; and 2) resilience of these plants to O. nubilalis herbivory. Treatments included: 1) standard organic--organically managed soil fertilized with dairy manure and 2 yr of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in the rotation; 2) basic cation saturation ratio--organically managed soil fertilized with dairy manure and alfalfa nitrogen credits, plus addition of gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) according to the soil balance hypothesis; and 3) conventional--conventionally managed soil fertilized with synthetic fertilizers. Corn plants were reared to maturity in a greenhouse, and then infested with 0-40 O. nubilalis larvae for 17 d. O. nubilalis exhibited negative competitive response to increasing larval densities. Mean development time was significantly faster for larvae consuming basic cation saturation ratio plants than those on standard organic plants, with intermediate development time on conventional plants. Neither total yield (number of kernels) nor proportion kernels damaged differed among soil fertility treatments. Soil nutrients differed significantly in S and in Ca:Mg and Ca:K ratios, but principal components analysis of plant tissue samples taken before O. nubilalis infestation showed that S, Fe, and Cu contributed most to differences in plant nutrient profiles among soil fertility treatments. Results demonstrate that different fertilization regimens can significantly affect insect performance within the context of organic systems, but the effects in this study were relatively minor compared with effects of intraspecific competition. PMID:25203485

  11. Applications of Fluorescence Spectroscopy for dissolved organic matter characterization in wastewater treatment plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goffin, Angélique; Guérin, Sabrina; Rocher, Vincent; Varrault, Gilles

    2016-04-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) influences wastewater treatment plants efficiency (WTTP): variations in its quality and quantity can induce a foaming phenomenon and a fouling event inside biofiltration processes. Moreover, in order to manage denitrification step (control and optimization of the nitrate recirculation), it is important to be able to estimate biodegradable organic matter quantity before biological treatment. But the current methods used to characterize organic matter quality, like biological oxygen demand are laborious, time consuming and sometimes not applicable to directly monitor organic matter in situ. In the context of MOCOPEE research program (www.mocopee.com), this study aims to assess the use of optical techniques, such as UV-Visible absorbance and more specifically fluorescence spectroscopy in order to monitor and to optimize process efficiency in WWTP. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy was employed to prospect the possibility of using this technology online and in real time to characterize dissolved organic matter in different effluents of the WWTP Seine Centre (240,000 m3/day) in Paris, France. 35 sewage water influent samples were collected on 10 days at different hours. Data treatment were performed by two methods: peak picking and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). An evolution of DOM quality (position of excitation - emission peaks) and quantity (intensity of fluorescence) was observed between the different treatment steps (influent, primary treatment, biological treatment, effluent). Correlations were found between fluorescence indicators and different water quality key parameters in the sewage influents. We developed different multivariate linear regression models in order to predict a variety of water quality parameters by fluorescence intensity at specific excitation-emission wavelengths. For example dissolved biological oxygen demand (r2=0,900; p<0,0001) and ammonium concentration (r2=0,898; p<0

  12. 11. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT THE BUILDING 800 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT THE BUILDING 800 - AREA COMPLEX. ENRICHED URANIUM COMPONENTS WERE MANUFACTURED IN THIS AREA OF THE SITE. BUILDING 881, IN THE RIGHT FOREGROUND OF THE PHOTOGRAPH, WAS THE ORIGINAL PLANT B. BUILDING 883, USED FOR ROLLING AND FORMING URANIUM COMPONENTS, IS DIRECTLY TO THE NORTH OF BUILDING 881. TO THE EAST OF BUILDING 883 IS BUILDING 885, A RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT FACILITY FOR ALLOYS AND NON-PLUTONIUM METALS. IN THE FOREGROUND TO THE WEST OF BUILDING 881 IS AN OFFICE BUILDING, 850 (6/7/90). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  13. The Organization of Controller Motifs Leading to Robust Plant Iron Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Agafonov, Oleg; Selstø, Christina Helen; Thorsen, Kristian; Xu, Xiang Ming; Drengstig, Tormod; Ruoff, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Iron is an essential element needed by all organisms for growth and development. Because iron becomes toxic at higher concentrations iron is under homeostatic control. Plants face also the problem that iron in the soil is tightly bound to oxygen and difficult to access. Plants have therefore developed special mechanisms for iron uptake and regulation. During the last years key components of plant iron regulation have been identified. How these components integrate and maintain robust iron homeostasis is presently not well understood. Here we use a computational approach to identify mechanisms for robust iron homeostasis in non-graminaceous plants. In comparison with experimental results certain control arrangements can be eliminated, among them that iron homeostasis is solely based on an iron-dependent degradation of the transporter IRT1. Recent IRT1 overexpression experiments suggested that IRT1-degradation is iron-independent. This suggestion appears to be misleading. We show that iron signaling pathways under IRT1 overexpression conditions become saturated, leading to a breakdown in iron regulation and to the observed iron-independent degradation of IRT1. A model, which complies with experimental data places the regulation of cytosolic iron at the transcript level of the transcription factor FIT. Including the experimental observation that FIT induces inhibition of IRT1 turnover we found a significant improvement in the system’s response time, suggesting a functional role for the FIT-mediated inhibition of IRT1 degradation. By combining iron uptake with storage and remobilization mechanisms a model is obtained which in a concerted manner integrates iron uptake, storage and remobilization. In agreement with experiments the model does not store iron during its high-affinity uptake. As an iron biofortification approach we discuss the possibility how iron can be accumulated even during high-affinity uptake. PMID:26800438

  14. Transcriptional repression by MYB3R proteins regulates plant organ growth

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Kosuke; Suzuki, Toshiya; Iwata, Eriko; Nakamichi, Norihito; Suzuki, Takamasa; Chen, Poyu; Ohtani, Misato; Ishida, Takashi; Hosoya, Hanako; Müller, Sabine; Leviczky, Tünde; Pettkó-Szandtner, Aladár; Darula, Zsuzsanna; Iwamoto, Akitoshi; Nomoto, Mika; Tada, Yasuomi; Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Demura, Taku; Doonan, John H; Hauser, Marie-Theres; Sugimoto, Keiko; Umeda, Masaaki; Magyar, Zoltán; Bögre, László; Ito, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    In multicellular organisms, temporal and spatial regulation of cell proliferation is central for generating organs with defined sizes and morphologies. For establishing and maintaining the post-mitotic quiescent state during cell differentiation, it is important to repress genes with mitotic functions. We found that three of the Arabidopsis MYB3R transcription factors synergistically maintain G2/M-specific genes repressed in post-mitotic cells and restrict the time window of mitotic gene expression in proliferating cells. The combined mutants of the three repressor-type MYB3R genes displayed long roots, enlarged leaves, embryos, and seeds. Genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that MYB3R3 binds to the promoters of G2/M-specific genes and to E2F target genes. MYB3R3 associates with the repressor-type E2F, E2FC, and the RETINOBLASTOMA RELATED proteins. In contrast, the activator MYB3R4 was in complex with E2FB in proliferating cells. With mass spectrometry and pairwise interaction assays, we identified some of the other conserved components of the multiprotein complexes, known as DREAM/dREAM in human and flies. In plants, these repressor complexes are important for periodic expression during cell cycle and to establish a post-mitotic quiescent state determining organ size. PMID:26069325

  15. Colloidal organic matter from wastewater treatment plant effluents: Characterization and role in metal distribution.

    PubMed

    Worms, Isabelle A M; Al-Gorani Szigeti, Zsofia; Dubascoux, Stephane; Lespes, Gaetane; Traber, Jacqueline; Sigg, Laura; Slaveykova, Vera I

    2010-01-01

    Colloidal organic matter from wastewater treatment plants was characterized and examined with respect to its role in metal distribution by using tangential flow ultrafiltration, liquid chromatography coupled with organic carbon and UV detectors, and an asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AFlFFF) multidetection platform. Results revealed that a humic-like fraction of low aromaticity with an average molar mass ranging from 1600 to 2600Da was the main colloidal component. High molar mass fractions (HMM), with molar mass ranges between 20 and 200kDa, were present in lower proportions. Ag, Cd, Cu, Cr, Mn and Zn were found mainly in the dissolved phase (<0.45microm) and their distribution between colloidal and truly dissolved fractions was strongly influenced by the distribution of dissolved organic carbon. AFlFFF coupled to ICP-MS showed that Ag, Cd, Cu, Cr, Mn and Zn associate to the low molar mass fraction of the colloidal pool, whereas Al, Fe and Pb were equally bound to low and high molar mass fractions. PMID:19836819

  16. Effects of Water Stress on the Organic Acid and Carbohydrate Compositions of Cotton Plants

    PubMed Central

    Timpa, Judy D.; Burke, John J.; Quisenberry, Jerry E.; Wendt, Charles W.

    1986-01-01

    Two photoperiodic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) strains (T185 and T466) which had been empirically selected because of poor performance and two strains (T25 and T256) selected because of enhanced performance under field water stress were evaluated for stress-induced changes in their organic acids and carbohydrates. Profiles and quantitation of organic acids and carbohydrates from aqueous extractions of cotton leaf tissue were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. In all cases, the water-stressed plants showed two to five times greater amounts of organic acids and carbohydrates over the values determined for the irrigated samples. Under stress, sucrose accumulation was observed in wilting strains (poor performers) probably related to rate of translocation out of the leaf. The most dramatic response to water stress was the accumulation of citric acid in strains T25 and T256 as compared to T185 and T466. Citric/malic acid ratios for both the irrigated and water-stressed samples of T25 and T256 were twice those of T185 and T466. PMID:16665100

  17. Air monitoring for volatile organic compounds at the Pilot Plant Complex, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.F.; O`Neill, H.J.; Raphaelian, L.A.; Tomczyk, N.A.; Sytsma, L.F.; Cohut, V.J.; Cobo, H.A.; O`Reilly, D.P.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    The US Army`s Aberdeen Proving Ground has been a test site for a variety of munitions, including chemical warfare agents (CWA). The Pilot Plant Complex (PPC) at Aberdeen was the site of development, manufacture, storage, and disposal of CWA. Deterioration of the buildings and violations of environmental laws led to closure of the complex in 1986. Since that time, all equipment, piping, and conduit in the buildings have been removed. The buildings have been declared free of surface CWA contamination as a result of air sampling using the military system. However, no air sampling has been done to determine if other hazardous volatile organic compounds are present in the PPC, although a wide range of toxic and/or hazardous materials other than CWA was used in the PPC. The assumption has been that the air in the PPC is not hazardous. The purpose of this air-monitoring study was to screen the indoor air in the PPC to confirm the assumption that the air does not contain volatile organic contaminants at levels that would endanger persons in the buildings. A secondary purpose was to identify any potential sources of volatile organic contaminants that need to be monitored in subsequent sampling efforts.

  18. Vertex-element models for anisotropic growth of elongated plant organs

    PubMed Central

    Fozard, John A.; Lucas, Mikaël; King, John R.; Jensen, Oliver E.

    2013-01-01

    New tools are required to address the challenge of relating plant hormone levels, hormone responses, wall biochemistry and wall mechanical properties to organ-scale growth. Current vertex-based models (applied in other contexts) can be unsuitable for simulating the growth of elongated organs such as roots because of the large aspect ratio of the cells, and these models fail to capture the mechanical properties of cell walls in sufficient detail. We describe a vertex-element model which resolves individual cells and includes anisotropic non-linear viscoelastic mechanical properties of cell walls and cell division whilst still being computationally efficient. We show that detailed consideration of the cell walls in the plane of a 2D simulation is necessary when cells have large aspect ratio, such as those in the root elongation zone of Arabidopsis thaliana, in order to avoid anomalous transverse swelling. We explore how differences in the mechanical properties of cells across an organ can result in bending and how cellulose microfibril orientation affects macroscale growth. We also demonstrate that the model can be used to simulate growth on realistic geometries, for example that of the primary root apex, using moderate computational resources. The model shows how macroscopic root shape can be sensitive to fine-scale cellular geometries. PMID:23847638

  19. From genes to ecosystems: a synthesis of the effects of plant genetic factors across levels of organization

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Joseph K.; Schweitzer, Jennifer A.; Úbeda, Francisco; Koricheva, Julia; LeRoy, Carri J.; Madritch, Michael D.; Rehill, Brian J.; Bangert, Randy K.; Fischer, Dylan G.; Allan, Gerard J.; Whitham, Thomas G.

    2009-01-01

    Using two genetic approaches and seven different plant systems, we present findings from a meta-analysis examining the strength of the effects of plant genetic introgression and genotypic diversity across individual, community and ecosystem levels with the goal of synthesizing the patterns to date. We found that (i) the strength of plant genetic effects can be quite high; however, the overall strength of genetic effects on most response variables declined as the levels of organization increased. (ii) Plant genetic effects varied such that introgression had a greater impact on individual phenotypes than extended effects on arthropods or microbes/fungi. By contrast, the greatest effects of genotypic diversity were on arthropods. (iii) Plant genetic effects were greater on above-ground versus below-ground processes, but there was no difference between terrestrial and aquatic environments. (iv) The strength of the effects of intraspecific genotypic diversity tended to be weaker than interspecific genetic introgression. (v) Although genetic effects generally decline across levels of organization, in some cases they do not, suggesting that specific organisms and/or processes may respond more than others to underlying genetic variation. Because patterns in the overall impacts of introgression and genotypic diversity were generally consistent across diverse study systems and consistent with theoretical expectations, these results provide generality for understanding the extended consequences of plant genetic variation across levels of organization, with evolutionary implications. PMID:19414474

  20. Monitoring plant bioremediation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using open path Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, R.M.; Visser, V.P.; Davis, L.C.; Erickson, L.E.; Muralidharan, N.; Hammaker, R.M.; Fateley, W.G.

    1994-12-31

    This study addresses a viable and natural solution to the elimination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are pollutants, through the bioremediation process. Plants and associated rhizosphere bacteria have the ability to bioremediate both volatile and non-volatile organic compounds. For volatile compounds, intersystem transfer by transpiration may be a matter for concern when plants interact with such materials. The authors have monitored, using FT-IR, the potential transfer from subsurface water in the presence of toluene-adapted alfalfa plants. These experiments show that the plants and/or their associated micro-organisms effectively degrade toluene so that potential intersystem transfer of VOCs by transpiration may be quite manageable with adapted plants. Presently, the authors are monitoring 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA), chloroform (CHCl{sub 3}), and, trichloroethylene (TCE) from the subsurface water and the gas phase above the plants. TCA does not show an indication of degradation, whereas TCE does. Methane is produced in the groundwater but not transferred to the atmosphere, indicating the presence of a consortium of methanogens and methanotrophs in this soil. The TCE presumably is the substrate for methane production based on chloride ion accumulation. The majority of the TCE must be degraded aerobically to yield CO{sub 2} in the vadose zone. The FT-IR spectrometer can quickly determine and analyze contaminants in the gas phase, groundwater and plant tissue.

  1. Nutrient allocation among plant organs across 13 tree species in three Bornean rain forests with contrasting nutrient availabilities.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Ryota; Kitayama, Kanehiro

    2016-07-01

    Allocation of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) among plant organs is an important factor regulating growth rate, which is a key ecological process associated with plant life-history strategies. However, few studies have explored how N and P investment in photosynthetic (leaves) and non-photosynthetic (stems and roots) organs changes in relation to depletion of each element. We investigated nutrient concentrations of plant organs in relation to whole-plant nutrient concentration (total nutrient weight per total biomass) as an index of nutrient status of each individual using the saplings of the 13 species in three tropical rain forests with contrasting N and P availabilities (tropical evergreen forests and tropical heath forests). We found a steeper decrease in foliar N concentration than foliar P concentration with decreasing whole-plant nutrient concentration. Moreover, the steeper decrease in foliar N concentration was associated with relatively stable N concentration in stems, and vice versa for P. We suggest that the depletion of N is associated with a rapid dilution of foliar N because the cell walls in non-photosynthetic organs function as an N sink. On the other hand, these species can maintain foliar P concentration by decreasing stem P concentrations despites the depletion of P. Our results emphasize the significance of non-photosynthetic organs as an N sink for understanding the variation of foliar nutrient concentrations for the tree species in the three Bornean rain forests with different N and P availabilities. PMID:27056098

  2. Exudation of organic acids by a marsh plant and implications on trace metal availability in the rhizosphere of estuarine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucha, Ana P.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Bordalo, Adriano A.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2005-10-01

    The aim of this work was to identify a variety of low molecular weight organic acids exuded by the sea rush Juncus maritimus collected at two locations with different sediment characteristics (sandy and muddy) and to examine whether specific differences in physico-chemical sediment characteristics influenced plant exudation. Just after collection, plant roots were rinsed and put in contact with deionised water for 2 h. In the obtained solution the organic acids, exuded by the plants, were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Juncus maritimus was shown to be capable of releasing malonate and oxalate. Sediments and rhizosediments (sediment in contact with the plant roots and rhizomes, corresponding to the area of higher belowground biomass) from the areas where the plants had been collected were characterised in terms of physical and chemical composition, including acid volatile sulphide and total-recoverable metals (Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni and Cd). It was found that the extent of exudation varied markedly between sites. The identified organic acids were used as extractants of metals from sediments and rhizosediments and the results were compared with those provided by a very commonly used sequential extraction approach, which was carried out in parallel. This work demonstrates that J. maritimus can release organic compounds that can act as complexing agents of trace metal and therefore organic exudates should be accounted for when dealing with estuarine environment quality.

  3. Plant cyclins: a unified nomenclature for plant A-, B- and D-type cyclins based on sequence organization.

    PubMed

    Renaudin, J P; Doonan, J H; Freeman, D; Hashimoto, J; Hirt, H; Inzé, D; Jacobs, T; Kouchi, H; Rouzé, P; Sauter, M; Savouré, A; Sorrell, D A; Sundaresan, V; Murray, J A

    1996-12-01

    The comparative analysis of a large number of plant cyclins of the A/B family has recently revealed that plants possess two distinct B-type groups and three distinct A-type groups of cyclins. Despite earlier uncertainties, this large-scale comparative analysis has allowed an unequivocal definition of plant cyclins into either A or B classes. We present here the most important results obtained in this study, and extend them to the case of plant D-type cyclins, in which three groups are identified. For each of the plant cyclin groups, consensus sequences have been established and a new, rational, plant-wide naming system is proposed in accordance with the guidelines of the Commission on Plant Gene Nomenclature. This nomenclature is based on the animal system indicating cyclin classes by an upper-case roman letter, and distinct groups within these classes by an arabic numeral suffix. The naming of plant cyclin classes is chosen to indicate homology to their closest animal class. The revised nomenclature of all described plant cyclins is presented, with their classification into groups CycA1, CycA2, CycA3, CycB1, CycB2, CycD1, CycD2 and CycD3. PMID:9002599

  4. Elevated CO2 increases plant uptake of organic and inorganic N in the desert shrub Larrea tridentata.

    PubMed

    Jin, Virginia L; Evans, R D

    2010-05-01

    Resource limitations, such as the availability of soil nitrogen (N), are expected to constrain continued increases in plant productivity under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)). One potential but under-studied N source for supporting increased plant growth under elevated CO(2) is soil organic N. In arid ecosystems, there have been no studies examining plant organic N uptake to date. To assess the potential effects of elevated atmospheric CO(2) on plant N uptake dynamics, we quantified plant uptake of organic and inorganic N forms in the dominant desert shrub Larrea tridentata under controlled environmental conditions. Seedlings of L. tridentata were grown in the Mojave Desert (NV, USA) soils that had been continuously exposed to ambient or elevated atmospheric CO(2) for 8 years at the Nevada Desert FACE Facility. After 6 months of growth in environmentally controlled chambers under ambient (380 micromol mol(-1)) or elevated (600 micromol mol(-1)) CO(2), pots were injected with stable isotopically labeled sole-N sources ((13)C-[2]-(15)N glycine, (15)NH(4) (+), or (15)NO(3) (-)) and moved back to their respective chambers for the remainder of the study. Plants were destructively harvested at 0, 2, 10, 24, and 49 days. Plant uptake of soil N derived from glycine, NH(4) (+), and NO(3) (-) increased under elevated CO(2) at days 2 and 10. Further, root uptake of organic N as glycine occurred as intact amino acid within the first hour after N treatment, indicated by approximately 1:1 M enrichment ratios of (13)C:(15)N. Plant N uptake responses to elevated CO(2) are often species-specific and could potentially shift competitive interactions between co-occurring species. Thus, physiological changes in root N uptake dynamics coupled with previously observed changes in the availability of soil N resources could impact plant community structure as well as ecosystem nutrient cycling under increasing atmospheric CO(2) levels in the Mojave Desert. PMID:20094733

  5. Structure, histochemistry and phytochemical profile of the bark of the sobol and aerial stem of Tontelea micrantha (Celastraceae - Hippocrateoideae).

    PubMed

    Mercadante-Simões, Maria Olívia; Mazzottini-Dos-Santos, Hellen C; Nery, Lays A; Ferreira, Peracio R B; Ribeiro, Leonardo M; Royo, Vanessa A; de Oliveira, Dario A

    2014-09-01

    The bark of the underground stem of Tontelea micrantha (Mart. ex. Schult.) A. C. Sm., a native Brazilian Cerrado species, is used in folk medicine for treating kidney ailments. The structures of the underground and the aerial stems were examined and their barks were analyzed for the presence of secondary metabolites. Bark fragments were processed according to conventional techniques in plant anatomy and their chemical compositions examined using histochemical and phytochemical tests, thin layer chromatography, and high-efficiency liquid chromatography. The underground stem is a sobol with unusual cambial activity. Laticifers that secrete terpenoids were present in the cortex and phloem of both organs and can contribute to the identification of the species in field. Druses were present in both barks, but mono-crystals were only observed in the sobol. Tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, and terpenoids occurred in both types of bark, but carotenoids were only detected in the sobol. The similarities between these two organs indicate that the aerial stem bark has potential medicinal use and represents a plausible alternative to harvesting the sobol, which could contribute to the preservation of natural populations of this species. PMID:25211103

  6. Tracing subsoil organic matter compositional changes by radiocarbon and plant leaf wax distributional changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Stephan; Angst, Gerrit; Mueller, Carsten W.; Heinze, Stefanie; Marschner, Bernd; Rethemeyer, Janet

    2014-05-01

    The carbon pool in subsoils is thought to be considerably larger than in the upper 30 cm. However, factors like turnover, stabilization and distribution of organic matter (OM) are less well understood than in topsoils. The investigation of changes in OM composition with depth enables a better understanding of the peculiarity of subsoil OM in contrast to the already extensively studied topsoil OM. Analysis of long chained n-alkanes and n-fatty acids in soil profiles sampled in high resolution, combined with radiocarbon data of bulk soil, is a tool to demonstrate spatial distribution and the degradation of plant leaf wax-derived material as a defined source of soil organic. We analysed the OM in 3.15 m long soil transects under an even aged European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest in Northern Germany (Grinderwald, Lower Saxony) for lipid and radiocarbon analysis. Samples were taken from a grid raster with eight sampling points increasing in distance to the main tree (45cm grid dimension) and from five depths (10, 35, 60, 85, 110 cm) resulting 40 samples per transect. Organic carbon contents in the podzolic Cambisol decrease from 1.69 % in the A-horizon to 0.02 % in the C-horizon at 110 cm depth. The distribution of organic carbon contents shows no significant trend with increasing distance to the beeches in all transects. We compare the distribution of long-chain n-alkanes (C27, C29 and C31) and n-fatty acids (>C20), known as components mainly derived from leaf waxes of higher plants, in the different transect/depth intervals. Distributional and quantitative changes in the transects, combined with bulk soil 14C-analyses, reflecting apparent mean residence time of OM, are used to identify how fast OM is degraded from surface to subsoil horizons. Furthermore, spatial OM heterogeneity in the transects is investigated. We expect a more significant heterogeneity in the lipid distribution and nearly similar decreasing contents for n-alkanes as well as n-fatty acids

  7. A Spherical Aerial Terrestrial Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, Christopher J.

    This thesis focuses on the design of a novel, ultra-lightweight spherical aerial terrestrial robot (ATR). The ATR has the ability to fly through the air or roll on the ground, for applications that include search and rescue, mapping, surveillance, environmental sensing, and entertainment. The design centers around a micro-quadcopter encased in a lightweight spherical exoskeleton that can rotate about the quadcopter. The spherical exoskeleton offers agile ground locomotion while maintaining characteristics of a basic aerial robot in flying mode. A model of the system dynamics for both modes of locomotion is presented and utilized in simulations to generate potential trajectories for aerial and terrestrial locomotion. Details of the quadcopter and exoskeleton design and fabrication are discussed, including the robot's turning characteristic over ground and the spring-steel exoskeleton with carbon fiber axle. The capabilities of the ATR are experimentally tested and are in good agreement with model-simulated performance. An energy analysis is presented to validate the overall efficiency of the robot in both modes of locomotion. Experimentally-supported estimates show that the ATR can roll along the ground for over 12 minutes and cover the distance of 1.7 km, or it can fly for 4.82 minutes and travel 469 m, on a single 350 mAh battery. Compared to a traditional flying-only robot, the ATR traveling over the same distance in rolling mode is 2.63-times more efficient, and in flying mode the system is only 39 percent less efficient. Experimental results also demonstrate the ATR's transition from rolling to flying mode.

  8. The safety assessment of food ingredients derived from plant cell, tissue and organ cultures: a review.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Georgiev, Milen I; Park, So-Young; Dandin, Vijayalaxmi S; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2015-06-01

    Plant cell, tissue and organ cultures (PCTOC) have become an increasingly attractive alternative for the production of various high molecular weight molecules which are used as flavourings, fragrances, colouring agents and food additives. Although PCTOC products are cultivated in vitro in a contamination free environment, the raw material produced from PCTOC may contain many components apart from the target compound. In some cases, PCTOC raw materials may also carry toxins, which may be naturally occurring or accumulated during the culture process. Assessment of the safety of PCTOC products is, therefore, a priority of the biotech industries involved in their production. The safety assessment involves the evaluation of starting material, production process and the end product. Before commercialisation, PCTOC products should be evaluated for their chemical and biological properties, as well as for their toxicity. In this review, measures and general criteria for biosafety evaluation of PCTOC products are addressed and thoroughly discussed. PMID:25624252

  9. Photocatalytic: oxidation of volatile organic compounds present in airborne environment adjacent to sewage treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Raillard, C; Héquet, V; Le Cloirec, P; Legrand, J

    2004-01-01

    Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from wastewater in municipal sewage or industrial wastewater treatment plants are often overlooked as sources of exposure to hazardous substances. The impact of such emissions on local airborne environments represents a growing source of scientific, toxicological and public health interest. Actually, VOCs are suspected to be quite dangerous for human health. Some of them belong to the family of odorous compounds and can cause serious annoyance in the neighbourhood of the emission sources. A way to remove VOCs released from sewers and wastewater treatment facilities could be to degrade them by photocatalytic oxidation. TiO2-based photocatalysts are known to be efficient for this kind of application. In the present work TiO2 P25 Degussa was deposited on glass supports. These materials were tested for the degradation of butanone-2 in a photocatalytic reactor. The influence of water vapour (relative humidity) was shown using the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model. PMID:14979545

  10. Plant diversity effects on leaching of nitrate, ammonium, and dissolved organic nitrogen from an experimental grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leimer, Sophia; Oelmann, Yvonne; Wirth, Christian; Wilcke, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    Leaching of nitrogen (N) from soil represents a resource loss and, in particular leaching of nitrate, can threaten drinking water quality. As plant diversity leads to a more exhaustive resource use, we investigated the effects of plant species richness, functional group richness, and the presence of specific functional groups on nitrate, ammonium, dissolved organic N (DON), and total dissolved N (TDN) leaching from an experimental grassland in the first 4 years after conversion from fertilized arable land to unfertilized grassland. The experiment is located in Jena, Germany, and consists of 82 plots with 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, or 60 plant species and 1-4 functional groups (legumes, grasses, non-leguminous tall herbs, non-leguminous small herbs). Nitrate, ammonium, and TDN concentrations in soil solution in the 0-0.3 m soil layer were measured every second week during 4 years on 62 plots and DON concentrations were calculated as difference between TDN and inorganic N. Missing concentrations in soil solution were estimated using a Bayesian statistical model. Downward water fluxes (DF) per plot from the 0-0.3 m soil layer were simulated in weekly resolution with a water balance model in connection with a Bayesian model for simulating missing soil water content measurements. To obtain annual nitrate, ammonium, and DON leaching from the 0-0.3 m soil layer per plot, we multiplied the respective concentrations in soil solution with DF and aggregated the data to annual sums. TDN leaching resulted from summation of nitrate, ammonium, and DON leaching. DON leaching contributed most to TDN leaching, particularly in plots without legumes. Dissolved inorganic N leaching in this grassland was dominated by nitrate. The amount of annual ammonium leaching was small and little influenced by plant diversity. Species richness affected DON leaching only in the fourth and last investigated year, possibly because of a delayed soil biota effect that increased microbial transformation of organic

  11. Soil Organic Matter Quality of an Oxisol Affected by Plant Residues and Crop Sequence under No-Tillage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cora, Jose; Marcelo, Adolfo

    2013-04-01

    Plant residues are considered the primarily resource for soil organic matter (SOM) formation and the amounts and properties of plant litter are important controlling factors for the SOM quality. We determined the amounts, quality and decomposition rate of plant residues and the effects of summer and winter crop sequences on soil organic C (TOC) content, both particulate organic C (POC) and mineral-associated organic C (MOC) pools and humic substances in a Brazilian Rhodic Eutrudox soil under a no-tillage system. The organic C analysis in specifics pools used in this study was effective and should be adopted in tropical climates to evaluate the soil quality and the sustainability of various cropping systems. Continuous growth of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) on summer provided higher contents of soil POC and continuous growth of maize (Zea mays L.) provided higher soil humic acid and MOC contents. Summer soybean-maize rotation provided the higher plant diversity, which likely improved the soil microbial activity and the soil organic C consumption. The winter sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp), oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke) enhanced the soil MOC, a finding that is attributable to the higher N content of the crop residue. Sunn hemp and pigeon pea provided the higher soil POC content. Sunn hemp showed better performance and positive effects on the SOM quality, making it a suitable winter crop choice for tropical conditions with a warm and dry winter.

  12. Influence of conventional and organic agricultural practices on the phenolic content in eggplant pulp: Plant-to-plant variation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumer awareness, pesticide and fertilizer contaminations, and environmental concerns have resulted in increased demand for organically grown farm products. The present study evaluates the influence that organic versus conventional farming practices exert on the total phenolic content in eggplant...

  13. Reconnaissance of selected organic contaminants in effluent and ground water at fifteen municipal wastewater treatment plants in Florida, 1983- 84

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pruitt, J.B.; Troutman, D.E.; Irwin, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    Results of a 1983-84 reconnaissance of 15 municipal wastewater treatment plants in Florida indicated that effluent from most of the plants contains trace concentrations of volatile organic compounds. Chloroform was detected in the effluent at 11 of the 15 plants and its common occurrence was likely the result of chlorination. The maximum concentration of chloroform detected in the effluent sampled was 120 micrograms/L. Detectable concentrations of selected organophosphorus insecticides were also common. For example, diazinon was detected in the effluent at 12 of the 15 plants with a maximum concentration of 1.5 micrograms/L. Organochlorine insecticides, primarily lindane, were detected in the effluent at 8 of the 15 plants with a maximum concentration of 1.0 micrograms/L. Volatile compounds, primarily chloroform, were detected in water from monitor wells at four plants and organophosphorus insecticides, primarily diazinon, were present in the groundwater at three treatment plants. Organochlorine insecticides were not detected in any samples from monitor wells. Based on the limited data available, this cursory reconaissance suggests that the organic contaminants commonly occurring in the effluent of many of the treatment plants are not transported into the local groundwater. (Author 's abstract)

  14. A Comparative study of Volatile Organic Compounds from two desert plant species growing in Southern Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paasche, K. M.; Meyers, K.; Jardine, K.

    2012-12-01

    Throughout their lives, plants are subjected to a multitude of stressors, ranging from herbivory to changes in weather. In order to survive, plants have created an arsenal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including green leaf volatiles (GLVs) and aromatic compounds, to combat these stressors. In this study, two plant species, Baccharis salicifolia (Seep willow) and Dodonaea viscosa (Hopbush) were examined for isoprenoids, GLVs, and aromatic compound emissions. Although, the species are not related, they should share some emitted compounds as they can be seen growing in the same environment, though the majority of the emitted compounds should remain unique to each species type. Both the Seep willow, sampled in Catalina State Park, and the Hopbush, sampled at Biosphere 2, were sampled using a Teflon bag enclosure connected to an apex lite air-sampling device and a thermal desorption (TD) tube, which was used to collect the emitted compounds. TD tube samples were analyzed using a Unity 2 thermal desorption system, which was directly connected to a 5975C series gas chromatograph/electron impact mass spectrometer with a triple-axis detector. The major compounds emitted from the Seep willow were GLVs (Octanal, Decanal, and Nonanal) and aromatics (Benzoic acid, Benzaldehyde, 1,2,3-Trifluorobenzene, and Acetophenone). The major compounds emitted from the Hopbush were isoprene and monoterpenes (1R-α-Pinene, Limonene, and α-Phellandrene.) Our results show the two species emit completely different compounds from each other, which could indicate adaptive differences. The Hopbush may be a hardier species better adapted to the Arizona environment as isoprene and monoterpenes have been indicated in thermo tolerance. GLVs on the other hand indicate the Seep willow is under severe stress.

  15. Accumulation of plant small heat-stress proteins in storage organs.

    PubMed

    Lubaretz, Olga; Zur Nieden, Uta

    2002-06-01

    Plant small heat-stress proteins (sHSPs) have been shown to be expressed not only after exposure to elevated temperatures, but also at particular developmental stages such as embryogenesis, microsporogenesis, and fruit maturation. This paper presents new data on the occurrence of sHSPs in vegetative tissues, their tissue-specific distribution, and cellular localization. We have found sHSPs in 1-year-old twigs of Acer platanoides L. and Sambucus nigra L. and in the liana Aristolochia macrophylla Lamk. exclusively in the winter months. In tendrils of Aristolochia, sHSPs were localized in vascular cambium cells. After budding, in spring, these proteins were no longer present. Furthermore, accumulation of sHSPs was demonstrated in tubers and bulbs of Allium cepa L., Amaryllis ( Hippeastrum hybridum hort.), Crocus albiflorus L., Hyacinthus orientalis L., Narcissus pseudonarcissus L., Tulipa gesneriana L., and Solanum tuberosum L. (potato). In potato tubers and bulb scales of Narcissus the stress proteins were localized in the central vacuoles of storage parenchyma cells. In order to obtain more information on a possible functional correlation between storage proteins and sHSPs, the accumulation of both types of protein in tobacco seeds during seed ripening and germination was monitored. The expression of sHSPs and globulins started simultaneously at about the 17th day after anthesis. During seed germination the sHSPs disappeared in parallel with the storage proteins. Furthermore, in embryos of transgenic tobacco plants, which do not contain any protein bodies or storage proteins, no sHSPs were found. Thus, the occurrence of sHSPs in perennial plant storage organs seems to be associated with the presence of storage proteins. PMID:12029471

  16. Influence of two plant extracts on broilers performance, digestibility, and digestive organ size.

    PubMed

    Hernández, F; Madrid, J; García, V; Orengo, J; Megías, M D

    2004-02-01

    A 42-d trial was conducted to study the influence of 2 plant extracts on performance, digestibility, and digestive organ weights in broilers. The feeding program consisted of a starter diet until 21 d and a finisher diet until 42 d. There were 4 treatment groups: control; 10 ppm avilamycin (AB); 200 ppm essential oil extract (EOE) from oregano, cinnamon, and pepper; and 5,000 ppm Labiatae extract (LE) from sage, thyme, and rosemary. No differences in feed intake or feed conversion were observed. From 14 to 21 d of age, broilers fed the LE diet grew faster than the broilers fed the control or EOE feeds (68.8 vs. 63.9 and 61.6 g/d, respectively). Antibiotic and plant extract supplementation improved apparent whole-tract and ileal digestibility of the nutrients. For starter feed, LE supplementation improved apparent fecal digestibility of DM (P < 0.01), and all additives increased ether extract digestibility (P < 0.001). However, no effect was detected for CP digestibility (P > 0.1). At the ileal level, the AB, EOE, and LE supplementation of the starter feed increased DM and starch (P < 0.01) digestibility but not CP digestibility (P > 0.1). All additives improved apparent fecal digestibility of DM and CP of the finisher diet. No differences were observed for proventriculus, gizzard, liver, pancreas, or large or small intestine weight. In the present study, both plant extracts improved the digestibility of the feeds for broilers. The effect of different additives on digestibility improved the performance slightly, but this effect was not statistically significant. PMID:14979566

  17. Cyanide-resistant respiration in photosynthetic organs of freshwater aquatic plants. [Myriophyllum spicatum

    SciTech Connect

    Azcon-Bieto, J.; Murillo, J.; Penuelas, J.

    1987-07-01

    The rate and sensitivity to inhibitors (KCN and salicylhydroxamic acid(SHAM)) of respiratory oxygen uptake has been investigated in photosynthetic organs of several freshwater aquatic plant species. The oxygen uptake rates on a dry weigh basis of angiosperm leaves were generally higher than those of the corresponding stems. Leaves also had a higher chlorophyll content than stems. Respiration of leaves and stems of aquatic angiosperms was generally cyanide-resistant. The cyanide resistance of respiration of whole shoots of two aquatic bryophytes and an alga was lower. These results suggested that the photosynthetic tissues of aquatic plants have a considerable alternative pathway capacity. The angiosperm leaves generally showed the largest alternative path capacity. In all cases, the respiration rate of the aquatic plants studied was inhibited by SHAM alone by about 13 to 31%. These results were used for calculating the actual activities of the cytochrome and alternative pathways. These activities were generally higher in the leaves of angiosperms. The basal oxygen uptake rate of Myriophyllum spicatum leaves was greatly increased by CCCP, either in the presence or in the absence of substrates. These results suggest that respiration was limited by the adenylate system, and not by substrate availability. The increase in the respiratory rate by CCCP was due to a large increase in the activities of both the cytochrome and alternative pathways. The respiration rate of M. spicatum leaves in the presence of substrates was little inhibited by SHAM alone, but the SHAM-resistant rate (that is, the cytochrome path) was greatly stimulated by the further addition of CCCP. Similarly, the cyanide-resistant rate of O/sub 2/ uptake was also increased by the uncoupler.

  18. On the use of plant emitted volatile organic compounds for atmospheric chemistry simulation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Hohaus, T.; Yu, Z.; Tillmann, R.; Kuhn, U.; Andres, S.; Kaminski, M.; Wegener, R.; Novelli, A.; Fuchs, H.; Wahner, A.

    2015-12-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) contribute to about 90% of the emitted VOC globally with isoprene being one of the most abundant BVOC (Guenther 2002). Intensive efforts in studying and understanding the impact of BVOC on atmospheric chemistry were undertaken in the recent years. However many uncertainties remain, e.g. field studies have shown that in wooded areas measured OH reactivity can often not be explained by measured BVOC and their oxidation products (e.g. Noelscher et al. 2012). This discrepancy may be explained by either a lack of understanding of BVOC sources or insufficient understanding of BVOC oxidation mechanisms. Plants emit a complex VOC mixture containing likely many compounds which have not yet been measured or identified (Goldstein and Galbally 2007). A lack of understanding BVOC sources limits bottom-up estimates of secondary products of BVOC oxidation such as SOA. Similarly, the widespread oversimplification of atmospheric chemistry in simulation experiments, using single compound or simple BVOC mixtures to study atmospheric chemistry processes limit our ability to assess air quality and climate impacts of BVOC. We will present applications of the new extension PLUS (PLant chamber Unit for Simulation) to our atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR. PLUS is used to produce representative BVOC mixtures from direct plant emissions. We will report on the performance and characterization of the newly developed chamber. As an exemplary application, trees typical of a Boreal forest environment were used to compare OH reactivity as directly measured by LIF to the OH reactivity calculated from BVOC measured by GC-MS and PTRMS. The comparison was performed for both, primary emissions of trees without any influence of oxidizing agents and using different oxidation schemes. For the monoterpene emitters investigated here, we show that discrepancies between measured and calculated total OH reactivity increase with increasing degree of oxidation

  19. Myosin-dependent endoplasmic reticulum motility and F-actin organization in plant cells

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Haruko; Yokota, Etsuo; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Shimada, Tomoo; Tamura, Kentaro; Shimmen, Teruo; Hasezawa, Seiichiro; Dolja, Valerian V.; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko

    2010-01-01

    Plants exhibit an ultimate case of the intracellular motility involving rapid organelle trafficking and continuous streaming of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Although it was long assumed that the ER dynamics is actomyosin-driven, the responsible myosins were not identified, and the ER streaming was not characterized quantitatively. Here we developed software to generate a detailed velocity-distribution map for the GFP-labeled ER. This map revealed that the ER in the most peripheral plane was relatively static, whereas the ER in the inner plane was rapidly streaming with the velocities of up to ∼3.5 μm/sec. Similar patterns were observed when the cytosolic GFP was used to evaluate the cytoplasmic streaming. Using gene knockouts, we demonstrate that the ER dynamics is driven primarily by the ER-associated myosin XI-K, a member of a plant-specific myosin class XI. Furthermore, we show that the myosin XI deficiency affects organization of the ER network and orientation of the actin filament bundles. Collectively, our findings suggest a model whereby dynamic three-way interactions between ER, F-actin, and myosins determine the architecture and movement patterns of the ER strands, and cause cytosol hauling traditionally defined as cytoplasmic streaming. PMID:20351265

  20. Spatial organization and correlation properties quantify structural changes on mesoscale of parenchymatous plant tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valous, N. A.; Delgado, A.; Drakakis, K.; Sun, D.-W.

    2014-02-01

    The study of plant tissue parenchyma's intercellular air spaces contributes to the understanding of anatomy and physiology. This is challenging due to difficulty in making direct measurements of the pore space and the complex mosaic of parenchymatous tissue. The architectural complexity of pore space has shown that single geometrical measurements are not sufficient for characterization. The inhomogeneity of distribution depends not only on the percentage content of phase, but also on how the phase fills the space. The lacunarity morphometric, as multiscale measure, provides information about the distribution of gaps that correspond to degree of spatial organization in parenchyma. Additionally, modern theories have suggested strategies, where the focus has shifted from the study of averages and histograms to the study of patterns in data fluctuations. Detrended fluctuation analysis provides information on the correlation properties of the parenchyma at different spatial scales. The aim is to quantify (with the aid of the aforementioned metrics), the mesostructural changes—that occur from one cycle of freezing and thawing—in the void phase of pome fruit parenchymatous tissue, acquired with X-ray microcomputed tomography. Complex systems methods provide numerical indices and detailed insights regarding the freezing-induced modifications upon the arrangement of cells and voids. These structural changes have the potential to lead to physiological disorders. The work can further stimulate interest for the analysis of internal plant tissue structures coupled with other physico-chemical processes or phenomena.

  1. Spatial organization and correlation properties quantify structural changes on mesoscale of parenchymatous plant tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Valous, N. A.; Delgado, A.; Sun, D.-W.; Drakakis, K.

    2014-02-14

    The study of plant tissue parenchyma's intercellular air spaces contributes to the understanding of anatomy and physiology. This is challenging due to difficulty in making direct measurements of the pore space and the complex mosaic of parenchymatous tissue. The architectural complexity of pore space has shown that single geometrical measurements are not sufficient for characterization. The inhomogeneity of distribution depends not only on the percentage content of phase, but also on how the phase fills the space. The lacunarity morphometric, as multiscale measure, provides information about the distribution of gaps that correspond to degree of spatial organization in parenchyma. Additionally, modern theories have suggested strategies, where the focus has shifted from the study of averages and histograms to the study of patterns in data fluctuations. Detrended fluctuation analysis provides information on the correlation properties of the parenchyma at different spatial scales. The aim is to quantify (with the aid of the aforementioned metrics), the mesostructural changes—that occur from one cycle of freezing and thawing—in the void phase of pome fruit parenchymatous tissue, acquired with X-ray microcomputed tomography. Complex systems methods provide numerical indices and detailed insights regarding the freezing-induced modifications upon the arrangement of cells and voids. These structural changes have the potential to lead to physiological disorders. The work can further stimulate interest for the analysis of internal plant tissue structures coupled with other physico-chemical processes or phenomena.

  2. Volatiles emission patterns of different plant organs and pollen of Citrus limon.

    PubMed

    Flamini, Guido; Tebano, Marianna; Cioni, Pier Luigi

    2007-04-18

    The volatiles emitted in vivo by different plant parts of Citrus limon (Rutaceae) have been identified by mean of head space-solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. In particular, the profiles of flower buds, mature flowers, petals, stamens, gynaecium, pericarp of unripe and ripe fruits, young and adult leaves and pollen have been examined. Furthermore, the essential oil obtained from expression of ripe pericarp was studied. Volatiles were produced in distinctive amounts by the different plant organs, creating an interesting contrast, particularly within the flower parts: the highest amount of limonene (62.5%) was emitted by gynaecium, followed by stamens (22.9%) and petals (3.1%). Pollen did not produce limonene at all. The same compound is contained in higher amounts in the young leaves than in old ones (65.3% versus 30.1%). A possible defensive role of limonene and other volatiles, mainly terpene aldehydes, produced by young leaves has been hypothesized. PMID:17397661

  3. Source location and characterization of volatile organic compound emissions at a petrochemical plant in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chin-Liang; Fang, Hung Yuan; Shu, Chi-Min

    2005-10-01

    This paper elucidated a novel approach to locating volatile organic compound (VOC) emission sources and characterizing their VOCs by database and contour plotting. The target of this survey was a petrochemical plant in Linyan, Kaohsiung County, Taiwan. Samples were taken with canisters from 25 sites inside this plant, twice per season, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The survey covered 1 whole year. By consolidated into a database, the data could be readily retrieved, statistically analyzed, and clearly presented in both table and graph forms. It followed from the cross-analysis of the database that the abundant types of VOCs were alkanes, alkenes/dienes, and aromatics, all of which accounted for 99% of total VOCs. By contour plotting, the emission sources for alkanes, aromatics, and alkenes/ dienes were successfully located. Through statistical analysis, the database could provide the range and 90% confidence interval of each species from each emission source. Both alkanes and alkene/dienes came from tank farm and naphtha cracking units and were mainly composed of C3-C5 members. Regarding aromatics, benzene, toluene, and xylenes were the primary species; they were emitted from tank farm, aromatic units, and xylene units. PMID:16295274

  4. Anaerobic transformations of wastewater organic matter and sulfide production--investigations in a pilot plant pressure sewer.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, N; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T

    2002-01-01

    Anaerobic transformations of wastewater organic matter and sulfide production rate were studied using a pilot plant pressure sewer (inner diameter: 102 mm, length: 47 m). Furthermore, a process model description including carbon and sulfur cycle was presented. Wastewater characterization based on oxygen utilization rate (OUR) measurement and VFA analysis was employed. Under anaerobic conditions, a net production of readily biodegradable substrate was observed, which fact is important for biological removal of nitrogen and phosphorus at subsequent wastewater treatment plants. Model parameters were determined on the basis of experimental findings. The model simulation of transformations of organic matter in sewers can be used as input to the model simulation and evaluation of the processes in wastewater treatment plants. The model is also useful to evaluate the problems in both sewers themselves and treatment plants caused by hydrogen sulfide. PMID:11902483

  5. Experimental and modeling studies of the fate of organic contaminants in the presence of alfalfa plants

    SciTech Connect

    Muralidharan, N.; Davis, L.C.; Erickson, L.E.; Green, R.; Tracy, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    Experimental investigations were carried out in the laboratory to study the impact of vegetation in bioremediating soil and groundwater contaminated with hazardous organic substances. A 90 cm long chamber with 2 U-shaped channels, each 10 cm in width and 35 cm in depth, was set up. Alfalfa plants were chosen and they have been growing in the channels under laboratory conditions for nearly 2 years. The channels were packed with fine sandy soil collected from near a landfill. The groundwater fed to one channel was water contaminated with toluene solution at saturated concentrations {at} 25 C, whereas, the other channel was fed with water contaminated with phenol solution {at} 500 ppm (v/v). The contaminant concentrations in the groundwater of the channels were monitored at the sampling wells located along each of the channels. The influent and effluent flow rates from each channel were measured every day and recorded. Evapotranspiration significantly influenced the fate of the pollutants. Dispersion and adsorption processes in the channel were studied by introducing bromide tracer, as a broad pulse, into the toluene fed channel and by observing toluene and phenol concentrations, following a feed step change to pure water. Tracer studies indicated that short-circuiting in the end of the channel was quite significant. Models which were previously developed to describe the fate of the contaminants in variably-saturated soils in the presence of vegetation are being employed to simulate the fate of these hazardous organic substances in the laboratory chamber.

  6. Factors affecting the uptake of 14C-labeled organic chemicals by plants from soil

    SciTech Connect

    Topp, E.; Scheunert, I.; Attar, A.; Korte, F.

    1986-04-01

    The uptake of /sup 14/C from various /sup 14/C-labeled organic chemicals from different chemical classes by barley and cress seedlings from soil was studied for 7 days in a closed aerated laboratory apparatus. Uptake by roots and by leaves via the air was determined separately. Although comparative long-term outdoor studies showed that an equilibrium is not reached within a short time period, plant concentration factors after 7 days could be correlated to some physicochemical and structural substance properties. Barley root concentration factors due to root uptake, expressed as concentration in roots divided by concentration in soil, gave a fairly good negative correlation to adsorption coefficients based on soil organic carbon. Barley root concentration factors, expressed as concentration in roots divided by concentration in soil liquid, gave a positive correlation to the n-octanol/water partition coefficients. Uptake of chemicals by barley leaves via air was strongly positively correlated to volatilization of chemicals from soil. Both root and foliar uptake by barley could be correlated well to the molecular weight of 14 chemicals. Uptake of chemicals by cress differed from that by barley, and correlations to physicochemical substance properties mostly were poor.

  7. Microbial inoculants and organic amendment improves plant establishment and soil rehabilitation under semiarid conditions.

    PubMed

    Mengual, Carmen; Schoebitz, Mauricio; Azcón, Rosario; Roldán, Antonio

    2014-02-15

    The re-establishment of autochthonous shrub species is an essential strategy for recovering degraded soils under semiarid Mediterranean conditions. A field assay was carried out to determine the combined effects of the inoculation with native rhizobacteria (Bacillus megaterium, Enterobacter sp, Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus sp) and the addition of composted sugar beet (SB) residue on physicochemical soil properties and Lavandula dentata L. establishment. One year after planting, Bacillus sp. and B. megaterium + SB were the most effective treatments for increasing shoot dry biomass (by 5-fold with respect to control) and Enterobacter sp + SB was the most effective treatments for increasing dry root biomass. All the treatments evaluated significantly increased the foliar nutrient content (NPK) compared to control values (except B. thuringiensis + SB). The organic amendment had significantly increased available phosphorus content in rhizosphere soil by 29% respect to the control. Enterobacter sp combined with sugar beet residue improved total N content in soil (by 46% respect to the control) as well as microbiological and biochemical properties. The selection of the most efficient rhizobacteria strains and their combined effect with organic residue seems to be a critical point that drives the effectiveness of using these biotechnological tools for the revegetation and rehabilitation of degraded soils under semiarid conditions. PMID:24463051

  8. Astronomical Methods in Aerial Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beij, K Hilding

    1925-01-01

    The astronomical method of determining position is universally used in marine navigation and may also be of service in aerial navigation. The practical application of the method, however, must be modified and adapted to conform to the requirements of aviation. Much of this work of adaptation has already been accomplished, but being scattered through various technical journals in a number of languages, is not readily available. This report is for the purpose of collecting under one cover such previous work as appears to be of value to the aerial navigator, comparing instruments and methods, indicating the best practice, and suggesting future developments. The various methods of determining position and their application and value are outlined, and a brief resume of the theory of the astronomical method is given. Observation instruments are described in detail. A complete discussion of the reduction of observations follows, including a rapid method of finding position from the altitudes of two stars. Maps and map cases are briefly considered. A bibliography of the subject is appended.

  9. Detecting climate-change responses of plants and soil organic matter using isotopomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleucher, Jürgen; Ehlers, Ina; Segura, Javier; Haei, Mahsa; Augusti, Angela; Köhler, Iris; Zuidema, Pieter; Nilsson, Mats; Öquist, Mats

    2015-04-01

    Responses of vegetation and soils to environmental changes will strongly influence future climate, and responses on century time scales are most important for feedbacks on the carbon cycle, climate models, prediction of crop productivity, and for adaptation to climate change. That plants respond to increasing CO2 on century time scales has been proven by changes in stomatal index, but very little is known beyond this. In soil, the complexity of soil organic matter (SOM) has hampered a sufficient understanding of the temperature sensitivity of SOM turnover. Here we present new stable isotope methodology that allows detecting shifts in metabolism on long time scales, and elucidating SOM turnover on the molecular level. Compound-specific isotope analysis measures isotope ratios of defined metabolites, but as average of the entire molecule. Here we demonstrate how much more detailed information can be obtained from analyses of intramolecular distributions of stable isotopes, so-called isotopomer abundances. As key tool, we use nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, which allows detecting isotope abundance with intramolecular resolution and without risk for isotope fractionation during analysis. Enzyme isotope fractionations create non-random isotopomer patterns in biochemical metabolites. At natural isotope abundance, these patterns continuously store metabolic information. We present a strategy how these patterns can be used as to extract signals on plant physiology, climate variables, and their interactions. Applied in retrospective analyses to herbarium samples and tree-ring series, we detect century-time-scale metabolic changes in response to increasing atmospheric CO2, with no evidence for acclimatory reactions by the plants. In trees, the increase in photosynthesis expected from increasing CO2 ("CO2 fertilization) was diminished by increasing temperatures, which resolves the discrepancy between expected increases in photosynthesis and commonly observed

  10. Tracing CO2 fluxes and plant volatile organic compound emissions by stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Christiane; Wegener, Frederik; Jardine, Kolby

    2014-05-01

    Plant metabolic processes exert a large influence on global climate and air quality through the emission of the greenhouse gas CO2 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Despite the enormous importance, processes controlling plant carbon allocation into primary and secondary metabolism, such as respiratory CO2 emission and VOC synthesis, remains unclear. The vegetation exerts a large isotopic imprint on the atmosphere through both, photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination and fractionation during respiratory CO2 release (δ13Cres). While the former is well understood, many processes driving carbon isotope fractionation during respiration are unknown1. There are striking differences in variations of δ13Cres between plant functional groups, which have been proposed to be related to carbon partitioning in the metabolic branching points of the respiratory pathways and secondary metabolism, which are linked via a number of interfaces including the central metabolite pyruvate2. Notably, it is a known substrate in a large array of secondary pathways leading to the biosynthesis of many volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as volatile isoprenoids, oxygenated VOCs, aromatics, fatty acid oxidation products, which can be emitted by plants. Here we investigate if carbon isotope fractionation in light and dark respired CO2 is associated with VOC emissions in the atmosphere. Specifically, we hypothesize that a high carbon flux through the pyruvate into various VOC synthesis pathways is associated with a pronounced 13C-enrichment of respired CO2 above the putative substrate, as it involves the decarboxylation of the 13C-enriched C-1 from pyruvate. Based on simultaneous real-time measurements of stable carbon isotope composition of branch respired CO2 (CRDS) and VOC fluxes (PTR-MS) we traced carbon flow into these pathways by pyruvate positional labeling. We demonstrated that in a Mediterranean shrub the 13C-enriched C-1 from pyruvate is released in substantial amounts as

  11. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aerial lifts. 1926.453 Section 1926.453 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Scaffolds § 1926.453 Aerial lifts. (a) General requirements. (1) Unless otherwise provided...

  12. A Classroom Simulation of Aerial Photography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Simon

    1981-01-01

    Explains how a simulation of aerial photography can help students in a college level beginning course on interpretation of aerial photography understand the interrelationships of the airplane, the camera, and the earth's surface. Procedures, objectives, equipment, and scale are discussed. (DB)

  13. BOREAS Level-0 ER-2 Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominquez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), the ER-2 and other aerial photography was collected to provide finely detailed and spatially extensive documentation of the condition of the primary study sites. The ER-2 aerial photography consists of color-IR transparencies collected during flights in 1994 and 1996 over the study areas.

  14. LMWOA (low molecular weight organic acid) exudation by salt marsh plants: Natural variation and response to Cu contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucha, Ana P.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Bordalo, Adriano A.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2010-06-01

    This work aimed to evaluate, in vitro, the capability of roots of two salt marsh plants to release low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) and to ascertain whether Cu contamination would stimulate or not organic acids exudation. The sea rush Juncus maritimus and the sea-club rush Scirpus maritimus, both from the lower Douro river estuary (NW Portugal), were used. Plants were collected seasonally, four times a year in 2004, during low tide. After sampling, plant roots were washed for removal of adherent particles and immersed for 2 h in a solution that matched salinity (3) and pH (7.5) of the pore water from the same location to obtain plant exudates. In one of the seasons, similar experiments were carried out but spiking the solution with different amounts of Cu in order to embrace the range between 0 and 1600 nM. In the final solutions as well as in sediment pore water LMWOAs were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Plants were able to release, in a short period of time, relatively high amounts of LMWOAs (oxalate, citrate, malate, malonate, and succinate). In the sediment pore water oxalate, succinate and acetate were also detected. Therefore, plant roots probably contributed to the presence of some of these organic compounds in pore water. Exudation differed between the plant species and also showed some seasonally variation, particularly for S. maritimus. The release of oxalate by J. maritimus increased with Cu increase in the media. However, exudation of the other LMWOAs did not seem to be stimulated by Cu contamination in the media. This fact is compatible with the existence of alternative internal mechanisms for Cu detoxification, as denoted by the fact that in media contaminated with Cu both plant species accumulated relatively high amounts (29-83%) of the initially dissolved Cu. This study expands our knowledge on the contribution of globally dominant salt marsh plants to the release of LMWOAs into the environment.

  15. The biocontrol endophytic bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 induces systemic defense responses in aerial tissues upon colonization of olive roots

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Lama Cabanás, Carmen; Schilirò, Elisabetta; Valverde-Corredor, Antonio; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7, a native olive root endophyte and effective biocontrol agent (BCA) against Verticillium wilt of olive, is able to trigger a broad range of defense responses in root tissues of this woody plant. In order to elucidate whether strain PICF7 also induces systemic defense responses in above-ground organs, aerial tissues of olive plants grown under non-gnotobiotic conditions were collected at different time points after root bacterization with this endophytic BCA. A suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library, enriched in up-regulated genes, was generated. This strategy enabled the identification of 376 ESTs (99 contigs and 277 singlets), many of them related to response to different stresses. Five ESTs, involved in defense responses, were selected to carry out time-course quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) experiments aiming to: (1) validate the induction of these genes, and (2) shed light on their expression pattern along time (from 1 to 15 days). Induction of olive genes potentially coding for lipoxygenase 2, catalase, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase, and phenylananine ammonia-lyase was thus confirmed at some time points. Computational analysis also revealed that different transcription factors were up-regulated in olive aerial tissues (i.e., JERF, bHLH, WRKY), as previously reported for roots. Results confirmed that root colonization by this endophytic bacterium does not only trigger defense responses in this organ but also mounts a wide array of systemic defense responses in distant tissues (stems, leaves). This sheds light on how olive plants respond to the “non-hostile” colonization by a bacterial endophyte and how induced defense response can contribute to the biocontrol activity of strain PICF7. PMID:25250017

  16. Multi-Megawatt Organic Rankine Engine power plant (MORE). Phase IA final report: system design of MORE power plant for industrial energy conservation emphasizing the cement industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bair, E.K.; Breindel, B.; Collamore, F.N.; Hodgson, J.N.; Olson, G.K.

    1980-01-31

    The Multi-Megawatt Organic Rankine Engine (MORE) program is directed towards the development of a large, organic Rankine power plant for energy conservation from moderate temperature industrial heat streams. Organic Rankine power plants are ideally suited for use with heat sources in the temperature range below 1100/sup 0/F. Cement manufacture was selected as the prototype industry for the MORE system because of the range of parameters which can be tested in a cement application. This includes process exit temperatures of 650/sup 0/F to 1110/sup 0/F for suspension preheater and long dry kilns, severe dust loading, multi-megawatt power generation potential, and boiler exhaust gas acid dew point variations. The work performed during the Phase IA System Design contract period is described. The System Design task defines the complete MORE system and its installation to the level necessary to obtain detailed performance maps, equipment specifications, planning of supporting experiments, and credible construction and hardware cost estimates. The MORE power plant design is based upon installation in the Black Mountain Quarry Cement Plant near Victorville, California.

  17. Adaptive planning of emergency aerial photogrammetric mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Fuqiang; Zhu, Qing; Zhang, Junxiao; Miao, Shuangxi; Zhou, Xingxia; Cao, Zhenyu

    2015-12-01

    Aiming at the diversity of emergency aerial photogrammetric mission requirements, complex ground and air environmental constraints make the planning mission time-consuming. This paper presents a fast adaptation for the UAV aerial photogrammetric mission planning. First, Building emergency aerial UAVs mission the unified expression of UAVs model and mechanical model of performance parameters in the semantic space make the integrated expression of mission requirements and low altitude environment. Proposed match assessment method which based on resource and mission efficiency. Made the Adaptive match of UAV aerial resources and mission. According to the emergency aerial resource properties, considering complex air-ground environment and mission requirements constraints. Made accurate design of UAV route. Experimental results show, the method scientific and efficient, greatly enhanced the emergency response rate.

  18. Ocean Surface Winds Drive Dynamics of Transoceanic Aerial Movements

    PubMed Central

    Felicísimo, Ángel M.; Muñoz, Jesús; González-Solis, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Global wind patterns influence dispersal and migration processes of aerial organisms, propagules and particles, which ultimately could determine the dynamics of colonizations, invasions or spread of pathogens. However, studying how wind-mediated movements actually happen has been hampered so far by the lack of high resolution global wind data as well as the impossibility to track aerial movements. Using concurrent data on winds and actual pathways of a tracked seabird, here we show that oceanic winds define spatiotemporal pathways and barriers for large-scale aerial movements. We obtained wind data from NASA SeaWinds scatterometer to calculate wind cost (impedance) models reflecting the resistance to the aerial movement near the ocean surface. We also tracked the movements of a model organism, the Cory's shearwater (Calonectris diomedea), a pelagic bird known to perform long distance migrations. Cost models revealed that distant areas can be connected through “wind highways” that do not match the shortest great circle routes. Bird routes closely followed the low-cost “wind-highways” linking breeding and wintering areas. In addition, we found that a potential barrier, the near surface westerlies in the Atlantic sector of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), temporally hindered meridional trans-equatorial movements. Once the westerlies vanished, birds crossed the ITCZ to their winter quarters. This study provides a novel approach to investigate wind-mediated movements in oceanic environments and shows that large-scale migration and dispersal processes over the oceans can be largely driven by spatiotemporal wind patterns. PMID:18698354

  19. Assessment of published literature pertaining to the uptake/accumulation, translocation, adhesion and biotransformation of organic chemicals by vascular plants

    SciTech Connect

    Nellessen, J.E.; Fletcher, J.S. . Dept. of Botany and Microbiology)

    1993-11-01

    Information in the UTAB data base was used to determine the general makeup of published data pertaining to how vascular plants influence organic chemicals in the environment. UTAB contains information on the uptake-accumulation, translocation, adhesion, and biotransformation of xenobiotic organic chemicals by vascular plants. The percentage distribution of data in UTAB among four important fate processes was 58, 16, 7, and 19 for uptake/accumulation, translocation, adhesion, and biotransformation, respectively. The tabulated data show the 30 most frequently reported chemicals, the 30 plants most often studied, and the frequency of examining plants maintained under different experimental conditions (contaminated site, controlled environments, etc.). Sixty-five percent of the 1,047 chemicals in the data base are pesticides, and data pertaining to these compounds account for 90% of the information in the data base. Crop species account for 33% of the plants and 77% of the data in UTAB. These summary values illustrate the imbalance of attention given to agrichemicals vs. industrial and municipal waste compounds, and emphasize the need for additional research addressing influence of plants on environmental pollutants with special attention given to industrial pollutants and native plants.

  20. Aerial spray deposition on corn silks applied at high and low spray rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn earworm is a major pest of sweet corn, especially when grown organically. Aerial application of insecticides is important for both conventionally- and organically-grown sweet corn production as sweet corn is frequently irrigated to assure return on investment given the high production costs. ...

  1. “Comprehensive emission measurements from prescribed burning in Florida: field and laboratory, aerial and ground”

    EPA Science Inventory

    Simultaneous aerial- and ground-based emission sampling was conducted during prescribed burns at Eglin Air Force Base in November 2012 on a short grass/shrub field and a pine forest. Cumulative emission samples for volatile organic comounds, elemental carbon, organic carbon, ch...

  2. Comprehensive emission measurements from prescribed burning in Florida: field and laboratory, aerial and ground

    EPA Science Inventory

    Simultaneous aerial- and ground-based emission sampling was conducted during prescribed burns at Eglin Air Force Base in November 2012 on a short grass/shrub field and a pine forest. Cumulative emission samples for volatile organic compounds, elemental carbon, organic carbon, c...

  3. Biogeochemical cycling in an organic-rich coastal marine basin. 9. Sources and accumulation rates of vascular plant-derived organic material

    SciTech Connect

    Haddad, R.I.; Martens, C.S. )

    1987-11-01

    The sources, degradation and burial of vascular plant debris deposited over the past several decades in the lagoonal sediments of Cape Lookout Bight, North Carolina, are quantified using alkaline cupric oxide lignin oxidation product (LOP) analysis. Non-woody angiosperms, accounting for 92 {plus minus} 32% of the recognizable sedimentary vascular plant debris, are calculated to contribute 23 {plus minus} 17% of the total organic carbon buried over the past decade. When combined with a previously established sedimentary organic carbon budget for this site a vascular plant derived carbon burial rate of 26 {plus minus}20 mole C m{sup {minus}2} yr{sup {minus}1} is calculated for this same time interval. The refractory nature and invariant depth distributions of the lignin oxidation products (LOP), when coupled with evidence for constant degradation rates of metabolizable materials, indicate that sediment accumulation at this site has been a steady state process with respect to source and burial of organic carbon since its conversion from an inner-continental shelf to a lagoonal environment during the late 1960's. Thus systematic down-core decreases in labile organic matter result from early diagenetic processes rather than input rate variations.

  4. 7 CFR 340.2 - Groups of organisms which are or contain plant pests and exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... containing plant viruses, and all other plant and insect viruses Kingdom Monera Division Bacteria Family... Genus Curtobacterium Genus Corynebacteria Gram-negative phloem-limited bacteria associated with plant diseases Gram-negative xylem-limited bacteria associated with plant diseases And all other...

  5. Techniques for Short and Long-Term Preservation of Plant Tissues and Organs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preservation of plant tissues can be accomplished using a range of technologies. Whole plants or plant parts from temperate regions can usually be stored under cool to cold conditions for several months to a year. For example, whole strawberry plants can be held at 4°C for up to 6 months. In vitro...

  6. Use of aerial photography to inventory aquatic vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Donald W.; Brown, Charles L.; Manny, Bruce A.

    1988-01-01

    This study demonstrates the feasibility of using low-altitude aerial photography to inventory submersed macrophytes in the connecting channels of the Great Lakes. For this purpose, we obtained aerial color transparencies and collateral ground truth information about submersed vegetation at 160 stations within four study sites in the St. Clair and Detroit rivers, September 17 to October 4, 1984. Photographs were interpreted by five test subjects to determine with what accuracy they could detect beds of submersed macrophytes, and the precision of delineating the extent of such vegetation beds. The interpreters correctly determined the presence or absence of vegetation 80% of the time (range 73-86%). Differences between individuals were statistically significant. Determination of the presence or absence of macrophytes depended partly on their relative abundance and water clarity. Analysis of one photograph from each of the four study sites revealed that photointerpreters delineated between 35 and 75 ha of river bottom covered by vegetation. This wide range indicates that individuals should be tested to assess their relative capability and be trained before they are employed to delineate plant beds in large-scale inventories. Within limits, low-altitude aerial photography, combined with collateral ground truth information, can be used to determine the presence or absence and delineate the extent of submersed macrophytes in connecting channels of the Great Lakes.

  7. The use of color infrared aerial photography in determining salt marsh vegetation and delimiting man-made structures of Lynnhaven Bay, Virginia. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, R. E., III

    1974-01-01

    Color infrared aerial photography was found to be superior to color aerial photography in an ecological study of Lynnhaven Bay, Virginia. The research was divided into three phases: (1) Determination of the feasibility of correlating color infrared aerial photography with saline wetland species composition and zonation patterns, (2) determination of the accuracy of the aerial interpretation and problems related to the aerial method used; and (3) comparison of developed with undeveloped areas along Lynnhaven Bay's shoreline. Wetland species composition and plant community zonation bands were compared with aerial infrared photography and resulted in a high degree of correlation. Problems existed with changing physical conditions; time of day, aircraft angle and sun angle, making it necessary to use several different characteristics in wetland species identification. The main characteristics used were known zonation patterns, textural signatures and color tones. Lynnhaven Bay's shoreline was 61.5 percent developed.

  8. Occurrence and fate of emerging trace organic chemicals in wastewater plants in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Anumol, Tarun; Vijayanandan, Arya; Park, Minkyu; Philip, Ligy; Snyder, Shane A

    2016-01-01

    The presence of pharmaceuticals, hormones, pesticides and industrial contaminants collectively termed as trace organic compounds (TOrCs) in wastewater has been well-documented in USA, Europe, China and other regions. However, data from India, the second most populous country in the world is severely lacking. This study investigated the occurrence and concentrations of twenty-two indicator TOrCs at three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in South India serving diverse communities across three sampling campaigns. Samples were collected after each WWTP treatment unit and removal efficiencies for TOrCs were determined. Eleven TOrCs were detected in every sample from every location at all sites, while only five TOrCs were detected consistently in effluent samples. Caffeine was present at greatest concentration in the influent of all three plants with average concentrations ranging between 56 and 65μg/L. In contrast, the x-ray contrast media pharmaceutical, iohexol, was the highest detected compound on average in the effluent at all three WWTPs (2.1-8.7μg/L). TOrCs were not completely removed in the WWTPs with removal efficiencies being compound specific and most of the attenuation being attributed to the biological treatment processes. Caffeine and triclocarban were well removed (>80%), while other compounds were poorly removed (acesulfame, sucralose, iohexol) or maybe even formed (carbamazepine) within the WWTPs. The effluent composition of the 22 TOrCs were similar within the three WWTPs but quite different to those seen in the US, indicating the importance of region-specific monitoring. Diurnal trends indicated that variability is compound specific but trended within certain classes of compounds (artificial sweeteners, and pharmaceuticals). The data collected on TOrCs from this study can be used as a baseline to identify potential remediation and regulatory strategies in this understudied region of India. PMID:27054837

  9. A Framework to Predict Uptake of Trace Organic Compounds by Plants.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kuldip; Gupta, Satish C

    2016-03-01

    Application of manure, biosolids, and recycled wastewater to croplands could be a potential pathway through which trace organic compounds (TOrCs) may be taken up by food crops. We present a framework to prepare a short list of TOrCs for detailed risk assessment and evaluation in terms of bioaccumulation. The framework was modified from Lipinski's method to predict drug permeability based on four critical properties: (i) molecular weight (MW); (ii) lipophilicity (expressed as log, the octanol-water partition coefficient); (iii) H-bond acceptors; and (iv) H-bond donors. The literature shows that the compounds with MW ranging from 200 to 500 can readily diffuse through mammalian membranes, the uptake of compounds with log >5 is hindered, and an excessive number of H-bond donors and H-bond acceptors reduces the permeability across a mammalian membrane bilayer. In general, mammalian and plant membranes are similar in structure and functions. Based on these four properties, we developed the "Rule of 3," which states that greater absorption and higher permeability of a TOrC is likely when its log is <3, its MW is <300, H-bond donors are <3, and H-bond acceptors are <6. Applicability of the framework was tested with published data, which showed that uptake and bioaccumulation of TOrCs in plants decreased in the order: Rule of 3 > Rule of 3 to 5 (log between 3 and 5, MW between 300 and 500, H-bond acceptors between 3 and 6, and H-bond donors between 3 and 5) > Rule of 5 (log >5, MW >500, H-bond acceptors >10, and H-bond donors <5). We conclude that TOrCs following the "Rule of 3" could be prioritized for detailed risk assessment involving dietary exposure. PMID:27065403

  10. Rendering plant emissions of volatile organic compounds during sterilization and cooking processes.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Z A; Maqbool, F; Langenhove, H V

    2014-01-01

    The rendering process emits odorous volatile compounds in the atmosphere; if these volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are not handled properly they can cause a serious environmental problem. During this process not all emitted compounds are odorous and hazardous but some of them have been found associated with health problems. Samples were collected in the plastic bags from the Arnout rendering plant. In this study, VOCs emission from two different processes (cooking and sterilization) was compared. For the analysis of various emitted compounds, gas chromatograph and mass spectrophotometer were used. A sterilization process was added in the rendering plant to inactivate the prion protein from meat bone meal prepared during the rendering process. The identification of mass spectrum was performed by using a mass spectral database system. The most odorous classes of compounds identified were aliphatic hydrocarbons (HCs) (29.24%), furans (28.74%), aromatic HCs (18.32%), most important sulphur-containing compounds (12.15%), aldehyde (10.91%) and ketones (0.60%). Emissions released during cooking and sterilization were 32.73 x 10(2) and 36.85 x 10(2) mg m(-3), respectively. In this study, it was observed that after the addition of the sterilization process VOCs' emissions were increased. A total of 87 mg m(-3) dimethyl disulphide (DMS) was detected only during the cooking process, whereas dimethly trisulphide (DMTS) was detected in both cooking (300 mg m(-3)) and sterilization (301 mg m(-3)) processes. About 11 mg m3 of DMS was detected during the cooking process, which was a small concentration compared with 299 mg m(-3) found during the sterilization process. At high temperature and pressure, DMTS and DMS were released more than any other sulphur-containing compounds. A condenser was applied to control the combined emission and it was successful in the reduction of VOCs to 22.83 x 10(2) mg m(-3) (67% reduction). PMID:24701929

  11. Leak detectors for organic Rankine cycle power plants: on-line and manual methods

    SciTech Connect

    Robertus, R.J.; Pool, K.H.; Kindle, C.H.; Sullivan, R.G.; Shannon, D.W.; Pierce, D.D.

    1984-10-01

    Two leak detector systems have been designed, built, and tested at a binary-cycle (organic Rankine cycle) geothermal plant. One system is capable of detecting water in hydrocarbon streams down to 100 ppM liquid water in liquid isobutane. The unit first cools and/or condenses the hydrocarbon sample stream in a small heat exchanger. The cooled liquid stream flows to a large settling chamber where the water and isobutane separate because of density differences. Any water present is collected in a pipe and automatically dumped using a solenoid operated valve when the level reaches a certain point. The magnitude of the leak is estimated from the frequency at which the solenoid operated valve opens and closes, i.e. the amount of water collected in a known period of time is directly related to the number of dump cycles. The second system can detect the presence of isobutane in water or brine streams down to 2 ppM liquid isobutane in liquid water or brine. The unit first cools the liquid stream if necessary then reduces the pressure in an expansion chamber so the hydrocarbon will vaporize. In brine streams flashed CO/sub 2/ carries the hydrocarbon to a non-dispersive infrared analyzer (NDIR). (In cooling water streams a nitrogen carrier gas is used to transport the hydrocarbon to the analyzer). The NDIR has been modified to be highly selective for isobutane. One can estimate the size of a leak knowing the total gas-to-liquid ratio entering the leak detection system and the concentration of hydrocarbon in the gas phase. Four of the leak detector systems will be installed in the Heber Geothermal Demonstration Plant at Heber, California. Two will be on the hydrocarbon system, one on the brine system, and one on the cooling water system.

  12. [Death by explosion of an aerial mine].

    PubMed

    Stockhausen, Sarah; Wöllner, Kirsten; Madea, Burkhard; Doberentz, Elke

    2014-01-01

    Civilians are rarely killed by military weapons except in times of war. In early 2014, a 50-year-old man died in an explosion of an aerial mine from the Second World War when he was crushing concrete chunks with an excavator at a recycling plant. In the burned operator's cab, the remains of a body were found on the driver's seat. The thorax and the head were missing. Still sticking in the shoe, the right foot severed at the ankle was found about 7 m from the excavator together with numerous small to tiny body parts. At autopsy, the completely disrupted, strongly charred lower torso of a male connected to the left extremities as well as a large number of small tissue fragments and calcined bones were found. According to calculations performed by the seismographical station on the basis of seismic data, only about 45-60 percent of the charge had detonated. The autopsy results illustrate all the more the massive impact of such an explosion. PMID:26548019

  13. Genotoxicity of dried Hoodia parviflora aerial parts.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Barry; Lau, Annette; Baldwin, Nigel; Hofman-Hüther, Hana; Bauter, Mark R; Marone, Palma Ann

    2013-05-01

    Hoodia parviflora is being developed commercially for use in weight loss food and dietary supplement products. Its effects are ascribed to a number of glycosides that have been shown to be present in plant extracts from several Hoodia species, the best known of which is H. gordonii. H. parviflora has been identified as an alternative to H. gordonii, and, as part of the process to develop H. parviflora, in vitro genotoxicity tests, as recommended by recent European Food Safety Authority guidance, were conducted on a dried powder preparation of H. parviflora aerial parts. The preparation was tested for reverse mutation at doses up to 5,000μg/plate in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA100, TA1535, and TA1537, and in Escherichia coli WP2 uvrA TA, both in the presence and in the absence of an exogenous source of metabolic activation (rat liver S9). In addition, the dried powder was evaluated in an in vitro cytotoxicity chromosome aberration assay using human lymphocytes. Test conditions included both a 4 (up to 2500μg/mg) and 44-h exposure period (up to 1000μg/mg) and the incorporation of an exogenous source of metabolic activation (4-h exposure only). H. parviflora dried powder was non-genotoxic in both in vitro assays. PMID:23348409

  14. Estimation of aerial deposition and foliar uptake of xenobiotics: Assessment of current models

    SciTech Connect

    Link, S.O.; Fellows, R.J.; Cataldo, D.A.; Droppo, J.G.; Van Voris, P.

    1987-10-01

    This report reviews existing mathematical and/or computer simulation models that estimate xenobiotic deposition to and transport through (both curricular and stomatal) vegetative surfaces. The report evaluates the potential for coupling the best of those models to the existing Uptake, Translocation, Accumulation, and Biodegradation model to be used for future xenobiotic exposure assessments. Here xenobiotic compounds are defined as airborne contaminants, both organic and gaseous pollutants, that are introduced into the environment by man. Specifically this document provides a detailed review of the state-of-the-art models that addressed aerial deposition of particles and gases to foliage; foliar and cuticular transport, metabolism, and uptake of organic xenobiotics; and stomatal transport of gaseous and volatile organic xenobiotic pollutants. Where detailed information was available, parameters for each model are provided on a chemical by chemical as well as species by species basis. Sufficient detail is provided on each model to assess the potential for adapting or coupling the model to the existing UTAB plant exposure model. 126 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. Characteristics of microbial volatile organic compound flux rates from soil and plant litter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, C. M.; Fierer, N.

    2013-12-01

    Our knowledge of microbial production and consumption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from soil and litter, as well as which microorganisms are involved, is relatively limited compared to what we know about VOC emissions from terrestrial plants. With climate change expecting to alter plant community composition, nitrogen (N) deposition rates, mean annual temperatures, precipitation patterns, and atmospheric VOC concentrations, it is unknown how microbial production and consumption of VOCs from litter and soil will respond. We have spent the last 5 years quantifying VOC flux rates in decaying plant litter, mineral soils and from a subalpine field site using a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). Microbial production, relative to abiotic sources, accounted for 78% to 99% of the total VOC emissions from decomposing litter, highlighting the importance of microbial metabolisms in these systems. Litter chemistry correlated with the types of VOCs emitted, of which, methanol was emitted at the highest rates from all studies. The net emissions of carbon as VOCs was found to be up to 88% of that emitted as CO2 suggesting that VOCs likely represent an important component of the carbon cycle in many terrestrial systems. Nitrogen additions drastically reduced VOC emissions from litter to near zero, though it is still not understood whether this was due to an increase in consumption or a decrease in production. In the field, the root system contributed to 53% of the carbon that was emitted as VOCs from the soil with increasing air temperatures correlating to an increase in VOC flux rates from the soil system. Finally, we are currently utilizing next generation sequencing techniques (Illumina MiSeq) along with varying concentrations of isoprene, the third most abundant VOC in the atmosphere behind methane and methanol, above soils in a laboratory incubation to determine consumption rates and the microorganisms (bacteria, archaea and fungi) associated with the

  16. Cycloartane Triterpenes from the Aerial Parts of Actaea racemosa.

    PubMed

    Imai, Ayano; Lankin, David C; Nikolić, Dejan; Ahn, Soyoun; van Breemen, Richard B; Farnsworth, Norman R; McAlpine, James B; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F

    2016-03-25

    Investigating the phytochemical equivalence of the aerial parts of Actaea racemosa (syn. Cimicifuga racemosa) relative to the widely used roots/rhizomes, this study provides a perspective for the potential use of renewable ("green") plant parts as a source of black cohosh botanical preparations. In addition to the characterization of Nω-methylserotonin as one representative marker of the Actaea alkaloids, nine cycloartane triterpenes were isolated and characterized, including the two new triterpene glycosides (1S,15R)-1,15,25-trihydroxy-3-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-acta-(16S,23R,24R)-16,23;16,24-binoxoside (1) and 3-O-α-l-arabinopyranosyl-(1S,24R)-1,24,25-trihydroxy-15-oxo-acta-(16R,23R)-16,23-monoxoside (2). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data interpretation. The relative configuration of 1 was deduced by (1)H iterative full-spin analysis (HiFSA), making it the first example of the complete analysis of the complex (1)H NMR spectrum of a triterpene glycoside. In addition to the new compounds 1 and 2, the aerial plant parts were shown to contain the previously known binoxosides 3, 4, 6, and 7, the monoxoside 8, and the binoxols 5 and 9. Overall, the metabolome of the aerial plant parts consists of a variety of Actaea triterpenes, similar to those found in roots/rhizomes, a tendency toward C-1 and C-7 hydroxylation of the cycloartanol skeleton, a greater abundance of aglycones, and the presence of comparable amounts of Nω-methylserotonin. PMID:26760374

  17. COCOA: tracking in aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Saad; Shah, Mubarak

    2006-05-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are becoming a core intelligence asset for reconnaissance, surveillance and target tracking in urban and battlefield settings. In order to achieve the goal of automated tracking of objects in UAV videos we have developed a system called COCOA. It processes the video stream through number of stages. At first stage platform motion compensation is performed. Moving object detection is performed to detect the regions of interest from which object contours are extracted by performing a level set based segmentation. Finally blob based tracking is performed for each detected object. Global tracks are generated which are used for higher level processing. COCOA is customizable to different sensor resolutions and is capable of tracking targets as small as 100 pixels. It works seamlessly for both visible and thermal imaging modes. The system is implemented in Matlab and works in a batch mode.

  18. Plant-parasitic Nematode Communities and Their Associations with Soil Factors in Organically Farmed Fields in Minnesota

    PubMed Central

    Chen, S. Y.; Sheaffer, C. C.; Wyse, D. L.; Nickel, P.; Kandel, H.

    2012-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the assemblage and abundance of plant-parasitic nematodes and their associations with soil factors in organically farmed fields in Minnesota. A total of 31 soil samples were collected from southeast (SE), 26 samples from southwest (SW), 28 from west-central (WC), and 23 from northwest (NW) Minnesota. The assemblage and abundance of plant-parasitic nematodes varied among the four regions. The soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, the most destructive pathogen of soybean, was detected in 45.2, 88.5, 10.7, and 0% of organically farmed fields with relative prominence (RP) values of 10.3, 26.5, 0.6, and 0 in the SE, SW, WC, and NW regions, respectively. Across the four regions, other common genera of plant-parasitic nematodes were Helicotylenchus (42.6, RP value, same below), Pratylenchus (26.9), Tylenchorhynchus and related genera (9.4), Xiphinema (5.6), and Paratylenchus (5.3). Aphelenchoides, Meloidogyne, Hoplolaimus, Mesocriconema, and Trichodorus were also detected at low frequencies and/or low population densities. The similarity index of plant-parasitic nematodes between two regions ranged from 0.44 to 0.71 and the similarity increased with decreasing distance between regions. The densities of most plant-parasitic nematodes did not correlate with measured soil factors (organic matter, pH, texture). However, the densities of Pratylenchus correlated negatively with % sand, and Xiphinema was correlated negatively with soil pH. PMID:23482641

  19. EU-wide monitoring survey on emerging polar organic contaminants in wastewater treatment plant effluents.

    PubMed

    Loos, Robert; Carvalho, Raquel; António, Diana C; Comero, Sara; Locoro, Giovanni; Tavazzi, Simona; Paracchini, Bruno; Ghiani, Michela; Lettieri, Teresa; Blaha, Ludek; Jarosova, Barbora; Voorspoels, Stefan; Servaes, Kelly; Haglund, Peter; Fick, Jerker; Lindberg, Richard H; Schwesig, David; Gawlik, Bernd M

    2013-11-01

    In the year 2010, effluents from 90 European wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were analyzed for 156 polar organic chemical contaminants. The analyses were complemented by effect-based monitoring approaches aiming at estrogenicity and dioxin-like toxicity analyzed by in vitro reporter gene bioassays, and yeast and diatom culture acute toxicity optical bioassays. Analyses of organic substances were performed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) or liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) or gas chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). Target microcontaminants were pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), veterinary (antibiotic) drugs, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), organophosphate ester flame retardants, pesticides (and some metabolites), industrial chemicals such as benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors), iodinated x-ray contrast agents, and gadolinium magnetic resonance imaging agents; in addition biological endpoints were measured. The obtained results show the presence of 125 substances (80% of the target compounds) in European wastewater effluents, in concentrations ranging from low nanograms to milligrams per liter. These results allow for an estimation to be made of a European median level for the chemicals investigated in WWTP effluents. The most relevant compounds in the effluent waters with the highest median concentration levels were the artificial sweeteners acesulfame and sucralose, benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors), several organophosphate ester flame retardants and plasticizers (e.g. tris(2-chloroisopropyl)phosphate; TCPP), pharmaceutical compounds such as carbamazepine, tramadol, telmisartan, venlafaxine, irbesartan, fluconazole, oxazepam, fexofenadine, diclofenac, citalopram, codeine, bisoprolol, eprosartan, the antibiotics trimethoprim, ciprofloxacine, sulfamethoxazole, and clindamycine, the insect repellent N,N'-diethyltoluamide (DEET), the pesticides

  20. Disinfection of model indicator organisms in a drinking water pilot plant by using PEROXONE

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, R.L.; Stewart, M.H.; Liang, S.; McGuire, M.J. )

    1989-09-01

    PEROXONE is an advanced oxidation process generated by combining ozone and hydrogen peroxide. This process stimulates the production of hydroxyl radicals, which have been shown to be superior to ozone for the destruction of some organic contaminants. In this study, pilot-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the microbicidal effectiveness of PEROXONE and ozone against three model indicator groups. Escherichia coli and MS2 coliphage were seeded into the influent to the preozonation contactors of a pilot plant simulating conventional water treatment and were exposed to four ozone dosages, four hydrogen peroxide/ozone weight ratios, and four contact times in two source waters--Colorado River water and state project water--of different quality. The removal of heterotrophic plate count bacteria was also monitored. Results of the study indicated that the microbicidal activity of PEROXONE was greatly affected by the applied ozone dose, H2O2/O3 ratio, contact time, source water quality, and type of microorganism tested. At contact times of 5 min or less, ozone alone was a more potent bactericide than PEROXONE at all H2O2/O3 ratios tested. However, this decrease in the bactericidal potency of PEROXONE was dramatic only as the H2O2/O3 ratio was increased from 0.5 to 0.8. The fact that the bactericidal activity of PEROXONE generally decreased with increasing H2O2/O3 ratios was thought to be related to the lower ozone residuals produced. The viricidal activity of PEROXONE and ozone was comparable at all of the H2O2/O3 ratios. Heterotrophic plate count bacteria were the most resistant group of organisms. Greater inactivation of E. coli and MS2 was observed in Colorado River water than in state project water and appeared to result from differences in the turbidity and alkalinity of the two waters. Regardless of source water, greater than 4.5 log10 of E.

  1. Unmanned aerial survey of elephants.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Cédric; Lejeune, Philippe; Lisein, Jonathan; Sawadogo, Prosper; Bouché, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The use of a UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System) was tested to survey large mammals in the Nazinga Game Ranch in the south of Burkina Faso. The Gatewing ×100™ equipped with a Ricoh GR III camera was used to test animal reaction as the UAS passed, and visibility on the images. No reaction was recorded as the UAS passed at a height of 100 m. Observations, made on a set of more than 7000 images, revealed that only elephants (Loxodonta africana) were easily visible while medium and small sized mammals were not. The easy observation of elephants allows experts to enumerate them on images acquired at a height of 100 m. We, therefore, implemented an aerial strip sample count along transects used for the annual wildlife foot count. A total of 34 elephants were recorded on 4 transects, each overflown twice. The elephant density was estimated at 2.47 elephants/km(2) with a coefficient of variation (CV%) of 36.10%. The main drawback of our UAS was its low autonomy (45 min). Increased endurance of small UAS is required to replace manned aircraft survey of large areas (about 1000 km of transect per day vs 40 km for our UAS). The monitoring strategy should be adapted according to the sampling plan. Also, the UAS is as expensive as a second-hand light aircraft. However the logistic and flight implementation are easier, the running costs are lower and its use is safer. Technological evolution will make civil UAS more efficient, allowing them to compete with light aircraft for aerial wildlife surveys. PMID:23405088

  2. Unmanned Aerial Survey of Elephants

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Cédric; Lejeune, Philippe; Lisein, Jonathan; Sawadogo, Prosper; Bouché, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The use of a UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System) was tested to survey large mammals in the Nazinga Game Ranch in the south of Burkina Faso. The Gatewing ×100™ equipped with a Ricoh GR III camera was used to test animal reaction as the UAS passed, and visibility on the images. No reaction was recorded as the UAS passed at a height of 100 m. Observations, made on a set of more than 7000 images, revealed that only elephants (Loxodonta africana) were easily visible while medium and small sized mammals were not. The easy observation of elephants allows experts to enumerate them on images acquired at a height of 100 m. We, therefore, implemented an aerial strip sample count along transects used for the annual wildlife foot count. A total of 34 elephants were recorded on 4 transects, each overflown twice. The elephant density was estimated at 2.47 elephants/km2 with a coefficient of variation (CV%) of 36.10%. The main drawback of our UAS was its low autonomy (45 min). Increased endurance of small UAS is required to replace manned aircraft survey of large areas (about 1000 km of transect per day vs 40 km for our UAS). The monitoring strategy should be adapted according to the sampling plan. Also, the UAS is as expensive as a second-hand light aircraft. However the logistic and flight implementation are easier, the running costs are lower and its use is safer. Technological evolution will make civil UAS more efficient, allowing them to compete with light aircraft for aerial wildlife surveys. PMID:23405088

  3. Weed management practices for organic production of trailing blackberry. II. Accumulation and loss of plant biomass and nutrients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to assess the impact of cultivar and weed management on accumulation and loss of plant biomass and nutrients during the first 3 years of establishment when using organic fertilizer in trailing blackberry. Treatments included two cultivars, Marion and Black Diamond, each with ei...

  4. Weed management, training, and irrigation practices for organic production of trailing blackberry: II. Soil and plant nutrient concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic production of blackberries is increasing, but there is relatively little known about how production practices affect plant and soil nutrient status. The impact of cultivar (‘Black Diamond’ and ‘Marion’), weed management (weed mat, hand weeding, and no weeding), primocane training time (Augus...

  5. Weed management, training, and irrigation practices for organic production of trailing blackberry: I. Mature plant growth and fruit production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed management, training time, and irrigation practices were evaluated from 2013-2014 in a mature field of trailing blackberry (Rubus L. subgenus Rubus Watson) established in western Oregon. The field was planted in 2010 and certified organic in 2012, before the first harvest season. Treatments inc...

  6. Weed management, training, and irrigation practices for organic production of trailing blackberry: II. Soil and plant nutrient concentrations.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic production of blackberries is increasing, but there is relatively little known about how production practices affect plant and soil nutrient status. The impact of cultivar (‘Black Diamond’ and ‘Marion’), weed management (weed mat, hand weeding, and no weeding), primocane training time (Augus...

  7. Costs of establishing northern highbush blueberry in organic systems: impacts of planting method, fertilization, and mulch type

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A systems trial was established to evaluate factorial management practices for organic production of northern highbush blueberry. The practices include: flat and raised planting beds; feather meal and fish emulsion fertilizer applied at 29 and 57 kg/ha N; sawdust mulch, compost topped with sawdust m...

  8. Aerial videotape mapping of coastal geomorphic changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Debusschere, Karolien; Penland, Shea; Westphal, Karen A.; Reimer, P. Douglas; McBride, Randolph A.

    1991-01-01

    An aerial geomorphic mapping system was developed to examine the spatial and temporal variability in the coastal geomorphology of Louisiana. Between 1984 and 1990 eleven sequential annual and post-hurricane aerial videotape surveys were flown covering periods of prolonged fair weather, hurricane impacts and subsequent post-storm recoveries. A coastal geomorphic classification system was developed to map the spatial and temporal geomorphic changes between these surveys. The classification system is based on 10 years of shoreline monitoring, analysis of aerial photography for 1940-1989, and numerous field surveys. The classification system divides shorelines into two broad classes: natural and altered. Each class consists of several genetically linked categories of shorelines. Each category is further subdivided into morphologic types on the basis of landform relief, elevation, habitat type, vegetation density and type, and sediment characteristics. The classification is used with imagery from the low-altitude, high-resolution aerial videotape surveys to describe and quantify the longshore and cross-shore geomorphic, sedimentologic, and vegetative character of Louisiana's shoreline systems. The mapping system makes it possible to delineate and map detailed geomorphic habitat changes at a resolution higher than that of conventional vertical aerial photography. Morphologic units are mapped parallel to the regional shoreline from the aerial videotape imagery onto the base maps at a scale of 1:24,000. The base maps were constructed from vertical aerial photography concurrent with the data of the video imagery.

  9. Modes of Action and Functions of ERECTA-family Receptor-like Kinases in Plant Organ Growth and Development

    SciTech Connect

    TORII, Keiko U.

    2012-05-01

    Higher plants constitute the central resource for renewable lignocellulose biomass that can supplement for the world's depleting stores of fossil fuels. As such, understanding the molecular and genetic mechanisms of plant organ growth will provide key knowledge and genetic resources that enables manipulation of plant biomass feedstock for better growth and productivity. The goal of this proposal is to understand how cell proliferation and growth are coordinated during aboveground organ morphogenesis, and how cell-cell signaling mediated by a family of receptor kinases coordinates plant organogenesis. The well-established model plant Arabidopsis thaliana is used for our research to facilitate rapid progress. Specifically, we focus on how ERECTA-family leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases (LRR-RLKs) interact in a synergistic manner to promote organogenesis and pattern formation in Arabidopsis. This project was highly successful, resulted in fourteen publications including nine peer-reviewed original research articles. One provisional US patent has been filed through this DOE funding. We have addressed the critical roles for a family of receptor kinases in coordinating proliferation and differentiation of plants, and we successfully elucidated the downstream targets of this signaling pathway in specifying stomatal patterning.

  10. Lignans and other constituents from aerial parts of Haplophyllum villosum.

    PubMed

    Parhoodeh, Parimah; Rahmani, Mawardi; Hashim, Najihah Mohd; Sukari, Mohd Aspollah; Lian, Gwendoline Ee Cheng

    2011-01-01

    During our phytochemical investigation of Haplophyllum villosum (Rutaceae), a perennial herb from Iran, a new 4,8-diaryl-3,7-dioxobicyclo-(3,3,0)-octane type lignan, eudesmin A (1), together with four known compounds--eudesmin (2), haplamine (3), umbelliferone (4) and scopoletin (5)--were isolated from aerial parts of the plant. The structures of the compounds were elucidated using NMR spectral analysis (¹H-NMR, ¹³C-NMR, HSQC, COSY and HMBC) as well as UV, IR and MS spectra and comparison with previously reported data. PMID:21383663

  11. 24. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT BUILDING 371 UNDER CONSTRUCTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT BUILDING 371 UNDER CONSTRUCTION IN 1974. BY 1968, BUILDING 771 WAS OUTMODED AND NEW TECHNOLOGIES HAD BEEN DEVELOPED FOR PLUTONIUM RECOVERY. AS A RESULT, A NEW RECOVERY BUILDING, BUILDING 371 WAS PLANNED. BUILDING 371 SUFFERED FROM VARIOUS DESIGN PROBLEMS, WHICH PREVENTED ITS OPENING UNTIL 1981 AND CAUSED TERMINATION OF RECOVERY OPERATIONS IN 1986. IT NEVER BECAME FULLY OPERATIONAL. TO THE EAST OF BUILDING 371, IS THE 700 BUILDING COMPLEX (4/74). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  12. CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW OF "EXCLUSION" MTR AREA WITH IDAHO CHEMICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW OF "EXCLUSION" MTR AREA WITH IDAHO CHEMICAL PROCESSING PLANT IN BACKGROUND AT CENTER TOP OF VIEW. CAMERA FACING EAST. EXCLUSION GATE HOUSE AT LEFT OF VIEW. BEYOND MTR BUILDING AND ITS WING, THE PROCESS WATER BUILDING AND WORKING RESERVOIR ARE LEFT-MOST. FAN HOUSE AND STACK ARE TO ITS RIGHT. PLUG STORAGE BUILDING IS RIGHT-MOST STRUCTURE. NOTE FAN LOFT ABOVE MTR BUILDING'S ONE-STORY WING. THIS WAS LATER CONVERTED FOR OFFICES. INL NEGATIVE NO. 3610. Unknown Photographer, 10/30/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. Soil organic matter influences cerium translocation and physiological processes in kidney bean plants exposed to cerium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Sanghamitra; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Trujillo-Reyes, Jesica; Sun, Youping; Barrios, Ana C; Niu, Genhua; Margez, Juan P Flores-; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2016-11-01

    Soil organic matter plays a major role in determining the fate of the engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in the soil matrix and effects on the residing plants. In this study, kidney bean plants were grown in soils varying in organic matter content and amended with 0-500mg/kg cerium oxide nanoparticles (nano-CeO2) under greenhouse condition. After 52days of exposure, cerium accumulation in tissues, plant growth and physiological parameters including photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids), net photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance were recorded. Additionally, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities were measured to evaluate oxidative stress in the tissues. The translocation factor of cerium in the nano-CeO2 exposed plants grown in organic matter enriched soil (OMES) was twice as the plants grown in low organic matter soil (LOMS). Although the leaf cover area increased by 65-111% with increasing nano-CeO2 concentration in LOMS, the effect on the physiological processes were inconsequential. In OMES leaves, exposure to 62.5-250mg/kg nano-CeO2 led to an enhancement in the transpiration rate and stomatal conductance, but to a simultaneous decrease in carotenoid contents by 25-28%. Chlorophyll a in the OMES leaves also decreased by 27 and 18% on exposure to 125 and 250mg/kg nano-CeO2. In addition, catalase activity increased in LOMS stems, and ascorbate peroxidase increased in OMES leaves of nano-CeO2 exposed plants, with respect to control. Thus, this study provides clear evidence that the properties of the complex soil matrix play decisive roles in determining the fate, bioavailability, and biological transport of ENMs in the environment. PMID:27343939

  14. Nitrogen control of 13C enrichment in heterotrophic organs relative to leaves in a landscape-building desert plant species

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, J.; Gu, L.; Bao, F.; Cao, Y.; Hao, Y.; He, J.; Li, J.; Li, Y.; Ren, Y.; Wang, F.; et al

    2014-09-10

    A longstanding puzzle in isotope studies of C3 plant species is that heterotrophic plant organs (e.g., stems, roots, seeds, and fruits) tend to be enriched in 13C compared to the autotrophic organ (leaves) that provides them with photosynthate. Our inability to explain this puzzle suggests key deficiencies in understanding post-photosynthetic metabolic processes. It also limits the effectiveness of applications of stable carbon isotope analyses in a variety of scientific disciplines ranging from plant physiology to global carbon cycle studies. To gain insight into this puzzle, we excavated whole plant architectures of Nitraria tangutorum Bobrov, a C3 species that has anmore » exceptional capability of fixing sands and building sand dunes, in two deserts in northwestern China. We systematically and simultaneously measured carbon isotope ratios and nitrogen and phosphorous contents of different parts of the excavated plants. We also determined the seasonal variations in leaf carbon isotope ratios on nearby intact plants of N. tangutorum. We found, for the first time, that higher nitrogen contents in heterotrophic organs were significantly correlated with increased heterotrophic 13C enrichment compared to leaves. However, phosphorous contents had no effect on the enrichment. In addition, new leaves had carbon isotope ratios similar to roots but were progressively depleted in 13C as they matured. We concluded that a nitrogen-mediated process, probably the refixation of respiratory CO2 by phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase, was responsible for the differences in 13C enrichment among different heterotrophic organs while processes within leaves or during phloem loading may contribute to the overall autotrophic – heterotrophic difference in carbon isotope compositions.« less

  15. Nitrogen control of 13C enrichment in heterotrophic organs relative to leaves in a landscape-building desert plant species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Gu, L.; Bao, F.; Cao, Y.; Hao, Y.; He, J.; Li, J.; Li, Y.; Ren, Y.; Wang, F.; Wu, R.; Yao, B.; Zhao, Y.; Lin, G.; Wu, B.; Lu, Q.; Meng, P.

    2015-01-01

    A longstanding puzzle in isotope studies of C3 plant species is that heterotrophic plant organs (e.g., stems, roots, seeds, and fruits) tend to be enriched in 13C compared to the autotrophic organ (leaves) that provides them with photosynthate. Our inability to explain this puzzle suggests key deficiencies in understanding post-photosynthetic metabolic processes. It also limits the effectiveness of applications of stable carbon isotope analyses in a variety of scientific disciplines ranging from plant physiology to global carbon cycle studies. To gain insight into this puzzle, we excavated whole plant architectures of Nitraria tangutorum Bobrov, a C3 species that has an exceptional capability of fixing sands and building sand dunes, in two deserts in northwestern China. We systematically and simultaneously measured carbon isotope ratios and nitrogen and phosphorous contents of different parts of the excavated plants. We also determined the seasonal variations in leaf carbon isotope ratios on nearby intact plants of N. tangutorum. We found, for the first time, that higher nitrogen contents in heterotrophic organs were significantly correlated with increased heterotrophic 13C enrichment compared to leaves. However, phosphorous contents had no effect on the enrichment. In addition, new leaves had carbon isotope ratios similar to roots but were progressively depleted in 13C as they matured. We concluded that a nitrogen-mediated process, hypothesized to be the refixation of respiratory CO2 by phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase, was responsible for the differences in 13C enrichment among different heterotrophic organs, while processes such as fractionating foliar metabolism and preferentially loading into phloem of 13C-enriched sugars may contribute to the overall autotrophic-heterotrophic difference in carbon isotope compositions.

  16. Nitrogen control of 13C enrichment in heterotrophic organs relative to leaves in a landscape-building desert plant species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Gu, L.; Bao, F.; Cao, Y.; Hao, Y.; He, J.; Li, J.; Li, Y.; Ren, Y.; Wang, F.; Wu, R.; Yao, B.; Zhao, Y.; Lin, G.; Wu, B.; Lu, Q.; Meng, P.

    2014-09-01

    A longstanding puzzle in isotope studies of C3 plant species is that heterotrophic plant organs (e.g., stems, roots, seeds, and fruits) tend to be enriched in 13C compared to the autotrophic organ (leaves) that provides them with photosynthate. Our inability to explain this puzzle suggests key deficiencies in understanding post-photosynthetic metabolic processes. It also limits the effectiveness of applications of stable carbon isotope analyses in a variety of scientific disciplines ranging from plant physiology to global carbon cycle studies. To gain insight into this puzzle, we excavated whole plant architectures of Nitraria tangutorum Bobrov, a C3 species that has an exceptional capability of fixing sands and building sand dunes, in two deserts in northwestern China. We systematically and simultaneously measured carbon isotope ratios and nitrogen and phosphorous contents of different parts of the excavated plants. We also determined the seasonal variations in leaf carbon isotope ratios on nearby intact plants of N. tangutorum. We found, for the first time, that higher nitrogen contents in heterotrophic organs were significantly correlated with increased heterotrophic 13C enrichment compared to leaves. However, phosphorous contents had no effect on the enrichment. In addition, new leaves had carbon isotope ratios similar to roots but were progressively depleted in 13C as they matured. We concluded that a nitrogen-mediated process, probably the refixation of respiratory CO2 by phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase, was responsible for the differences in 13C enrichment among different heterotrophic organs while processes within leaves or during phloem loading may contribute to the overall autotrophic - heterotrophic difference in carbon isotope compositions.

  17. Spectroscopic evidence of uranium immobilization in acidic wetlands by natural organic matter and plant roots

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Li, Dien; Kaplan, Daniel I.; Chang, Hyun-Shik; Seaman, John C.; Jaffé, Peter R.; Koster van Groos, Paul; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Segre, Carlo U.; Chen, Ning; Jiang, De-Tong; et al

    2015-03-03

    Biogeochemistry of uranium in wetlands plays important roles in U immobilization in storage ponds of U mining and processing facilities but has not been well understood. The objective of this work was to study molecular mechanisms responsible for high U retention by Savannah River Site (SRS) wetland sediments under varying redox and acidic (pH = 2.6–5.8) conditions using U L₃-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Uranium in the SRS wetland sediments existed primarily as U(VI) bonded as a bidentate to carboxylic sites (U–C bond distance at ~2.88 Å), rather than phenolic or other sites of natural organic matter (NOM). In microcosms simulatingmore » the SRS wetland processes, U immobilization on roots was two orders of magnitude higher than on the adjacent brown or more distant white sands in which U was U(VI). Uranium on the roots were both U(IV) and U(VI), which were bonded as a bidentate to carbon, but the U(VI) may also form a U phosphate mineral. After 140 days of air exposure, all U(IV) was re-oxidized to U(VI) but remained as a bidentate bonding to carbon. This study demonstrated NOM and plant roots can highly immobilize U(VI) in the SRS acidic sediments, which has significant implication for the long-term stewardship of U-contaminated wetlands.« less

  18. Spectroscopic evidence of uranium immobilization in acidic wetlands by natural organic matter and plant roots

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dien; Kaplan, Daniel I.; Chang, Hyun-Shik; Seaman, John C.; Jaffé, Peter R.; Koster van Groos, Paul; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Segre, Carlo U.; Chen, Ning; Jiang, De-Tong; Newville, Matthew; Lanzirotti, Antonio

    2015-03-03

    Biogeochemistry of uranium in wetlands plays important roles in U immobilization in storage ponds of U mining and processing facilities but has not been well understood. The objective of this work was to study molecular mechanisms responsible for high U retention by Savannah River Site (SRS) wetland sediments under varying redox and acidic (pH = 2.6–5.8) conditions using U L₃-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Uranium in the SRS wetland sediments existed primarily as U(VI) bonded as a bidentate to carboxylic sites (U–C bond distance at ~2.88 Å), rather than phenolic or other sites of natural organic matter (NOM). In microcosms simulating the SRS wetland processes, U immobilization on roots was two orders of magnitude higher than on the adjacent brown or more distant white sands in which U was U(VI). Uranium on the roots were both U(IV) and U(VI), which were bonded as a bidentate to carbon, but the U(VI) may also form a U phosphate mineral. After 140 days of air exposure, all U(IV) was re-oxidized to U(VI) but remained as a bidentate bonding to carbon. This study demonstrated NOM and plant roots can highly immobilize U(VI) in the SRS acidic sediments, which has significant implication for the long-term stewardship of U-contaminated wetlands.

  19. Spectroscopic evidence of uranium immobilization in acidic wetlands by natural organic matter and plant roots.

    PubMed

    Li, Dien; Kaplan, Daniel I; Chang, Hyun-Shik; Seaman, John C; Jaffé, Peter R; Koster van Groos, Paul; Scheckel, Kirk G; Segre, Carlo U; Chen, Ning; Jiang, De-Tong; Newville, Matthew; Lanzirotti, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    Biogeochemistry of uranium in wetlands plays important roles in U immobilization in storage ponds of U mining and processing facilities but has not been well understood. The objective of this work was to study molecular mechanisms responsible for high U retention by Savannah River Site (SRS) wetland sediments under varying redox and acidic (pH = 2.6-5.8) conditions using U L3-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Uranium in the SRS wetland sediments existed primarily as U(VI) bonded as a bidentate to carboxylic sites (U-C bond distance at ∼2.88 Å), rather than phenolic or other sites of natural organic matter (NOM). In microcosms simulating the SRS wetland processes, U immobilization on roots was 2 orders of magnitude higher than on the adjacent brown or more distant white sands in which U was U(VI). Uranium on the roots were both U(IV) and U(VI), which were bonded as a bidentate to carbon, but the U(VI) may also form a U phosphate mineral. After 140 days of air exposure, all U(IV) was reoxidized to U(VI) but remained as a bidentate bonding to carbon. This study demonstrated NOM and plant roots can highly immobilize U(VI) in the SRS acidic sediments, which has significant implication for the long-term stewardship of U-contaminated wetlands. PMID:25634067

  20. Cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells emerges naturally by microfilament self-organization

    PubMed Central

    Woodhouse, Francis G.; Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2013-01-01

    Many cells exhibit large-scale active circulation of their entire fluid contents, a process termed cytoplasmic streaming. This phenomenon is particularly prevalent in plant cells, often presenting strikingly regimented flow patterns. The driving mechanism in such cells is known: myosin-coated organelles entrain cytoplasm as they process along actin filament bundles fixed at the periphery. Still unknown, however, is the developmental process that constructs the well-ordered actin configurations required for coherent cell-scale flow. Previous experimental works on streaming regeneration in cells of Characean algae, whose longitudinal flow is perhaps the most regimented of all, hint at an autonomous process of microfilament self-organization driving the formation of streaming patterns during morphogenesis. Working from first principles, we propose a robust model of streaming emergence that combines motor dynamics with both microscopic and macroscopic hydrodynamics to explain how several independent processes, each ineffectual on its own, can reinforce to ultimately develop the patterns of streaming observed in the Characeae and other streaming species. PMID:23940314

  1. Cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells emerges naturally by microfilament self-organization.

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Francis G; Goldstein, Raymond E

    2013-08-27

    Many cells exhibit large-scale active circulation of their entire fluid contents, a process termed cytoplasmic streaming. This phenomenon is particularly prevalent in plant cells, often presenting strikingly regimented flow patterns. The driving mechanism in such cells is known: myosin-coated organelles entrain cytoplasm as they process along actin filament bundles fixed at the periphery. Still unknown, however, is the developmental process that constructs the well-ordered actin configurations required for coherent cell-scale flow. Previous experimental works on streaming regeneration in cells of Characean algae, whose longitudinal flow is perhaps the most regimented of all, hint at an autonomous process of microfilament self-organization driving the formation of streaming patterns during morphogenesis. Working from first principles, we propose a robust model of streaming emergence that combines motor dynamics with both microscopic and macroscopic hydrodynamics to explain how several independent processes, each ineffectual on its own, can reinforce to ultimately develop the patterns of streaming observed in the Characeae and other streaming species. PMID:23940314

  2. Effects of organic pollutants from wastewater treatment plants on aquatic invertebrate communities.

    PubMed

    Bunzel, Katja; Kattwinkel, Mira; Liess, Matthias

    2013-02-01

    Pesticides are a major stressor for stream ecosystem health. They enter surface waters from diffuse agricultural sources but also from point sources such as municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, to date, no studies have focused on the ecological effects of pesticide-contaminated WWTP effluent on macroinvertebrate communities. On the basis of governmental monitoring data of 328 sites in Hesse, Germany, we identified insecticidal long-term effects on the structure of the macroinvertebrate community up to 3 km downstream of WWTPs. The effects were quantified using the trait-based SPEAR(pesticides) index, which has been shown to be an effective tool for identifying community effects of pesticide contamination. In addition, based on the German Saprobic Index, we revealed that WWTPs are still an important source of oxygen-depleting organic pollution, despite the extensive technological improvements in wastewater management over several centuries. In general, our findings emphasize the need to take municipal WWTPs into consideration in the management of river basins under the EU Water Framework Directive to achieve good ecological and chemical status for European streams and rivers. PMID:23174534

  3. Oblique Aerial Imagery for NMA - Some best Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remondino, F.; Toschi, I.; Gerke, M.; Nex, F.; Holland, D.; McGill, A.; Talaya Lopez, J.; Magarinos, A.

    2016-06-01

    Oblique airborne photogrammetry is rapidly maturing and being offered by service providers as a good alternative or replacement of the more traditional vertical imagery and for very different applications (Fig.1). EuroSDR, representing European National Mapping Agencies (NMAs) and research organizations of most EU states, is following the development of oblique aerial cameras since 2013, when an ongoing activity was created to continuously update its members on the developments in this technology. Nowadays most European NMAs still rely on the traditional workflow based on vertical photography but changes are slowly taking place also at production level. Some NMAs have already run some tests internally to understand the potential for their needs whereas other agencies are discussing on the future role of this technology and how to possibly adapt their production pipelines. At the same time, some research institutions and academia demonstrated the potentialities of oblique aerial datasets to generate textured 3D city models or large building block models. The paper provides an overview of tests, best practices and considerations coming from the R&D community and from three European NMAs concerning the use of oblique aerial imagery.

  4. Cadastral Audit and Assessments Using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, K.; Walker, G.; Stahlke, E.; Wilson, R.

    2011-09-01

    Ground surveys and remote sensing are integral to establishing fair and equitable property valuations necessary for real property taxation. The International Association of Assessing Officers (IAAO) has embraced aerial and street-view imaging as part of its standards related to property tax assessments and audits. New technologies, including unmanned aerial systems (UAS) paired with imaging sensors, will become more common as local governments work to ensure their cadastre and tax rolls are both accurate and complete. Trends in mapping technology have seen an evolution in platforms from large, expensive manned aircraft to very small, inexpensive UAS. Traditional methods of photogrammetry have also given way to new equipment and sensors: digital cameras, infrared imagers, light detection and ranging (LiDAR) laser scanners, and now synthetic aperture radar (SAR). At the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF), we work extensively with unmanned aerial systems equipped with each of these newer sensors. UAF has significant experience flying unmanned systems in the US National Airspace, having begun in 1969 with scientific rockets and expanded to unmanned aircraft in 2003. Ongoing field experience allows UAF to partner effectively with outside organizations to test and develop leading-edge research in UAS and remote sensing. This presentation will discuss our research related to various sensors and payloads for mapping. We will also share our experience with UAS and optical systems for creating some of the first cadastral surveys in rural Alaska.

  5. Landscape scale controls on the vascular plant component of dissolved organic carbon across a freshwater delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckard, Robert S.; Hernes, Peter J.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Kendall, Carol

    2007-12-01

    Lignin phenol concentrations and compositions were determined on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) extracts (XAD resins) within the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (the Delta), the tidal freshwater portion of the San Francisco Bay Estuary, located in central California, USA. Fourteen stations were sampled, including the following habitats and land-use types: wetland, riverine, channelized waterway, open water, and island drains. Stations were sampled approximately seasonally from December, 1999 through May, 2001. DOC concentrations ranged from 1.3 mg L -1 within the Sacramento River to 39.9 mg L -1 at the outfall from an island drain (median 3.0 mg L -1), while lignin concentrations ranged from 3.0 μg L -1 within the Sacramento River to 111 μg L -1 at the outfall from an island drain (median 11.6 μg L -1). Both DOC and lignin concentrations varied significantly among habitat/land-use types and among sampling stations. Carbon-normalized lignin yields ranged from 0.07 mg (100 mg OC) -1 at an island drain to 0.84 mg (100 mg OC) -1 for a wetland (median 0.36 mg (100 mg OC) -1), and also varied significantly among habitat/land-use types. A simple mass balance model indicated that the Delta acted as a source of lignin during late autumn through spring (10-83% increase) and a sink for lignin during summer and autumn (13-39% decrease). Endmember mixing models using S:V and C:V signatures of landscape scale features indicated strong temporal variation in sources of DOC export from the Delta, with riverine source signatures responsible for 50% of DOC in summer and winter, wetland signatures responsible for 40% of DOC in summer, winter, and late autumn, and island drains responsible for 40% of exported DOC in late autumn. A significant negative correlation was observed between carbon-normalized lignin yields and DOC bioavailability in two of the 14 sampling stations. This study is, to our knowledge, the first to describe organic vascular plant DOC sources at the level of

  6. Landscape scale controls on the vascular plant component of dissolved organic carbon across a freshwater delta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eckard, Robert S.; Hernes, Peter J.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Kendall, Carol

    2007-01-01

    Lignin phenol concentrations and compositions were determined on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) extracts (XAD resins) within the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (the Delta), the tidal freshwater portion of the San Francisco Bay Estuary, located in central California, USA. Fourteen stations were sampled, including the following habitats and land-use types: wetland, riverine, channelized waterway, open water, and island drains. Stations were sampled approximately seasonally from December, 1999 through May, 2001. DOC concentrations ranged from 1.3 mg L-1 within the Sacramento River to 39.9 mg L-1 at the outfall from an island drain (median 3.0 mg L-1), while lignin concentrations ranged from 3.0 μL-1 within the Sacramento River to 111 μL-1 at the outfall from an island drain (median 11.6 μL-1). Both DOC and lignin concentrations varied significantly among habitat/land-use types and among sampling stations. Carbon-normalized lignin yields ranged from 0.07 mg (100 mg OC)-1 at an island drain to 0.84 mg (100 mg OC)-1 for a wetland (median 0.36 mg (100 mg OC)-1), and also varied significantly among habitat/land-use types. A simple mass balance model indicated that the Delta acted as a source of lignin during late autumn through spring (10-83% increase) and a sink for lignin during summer and autumn (13-39% decrease). Endmember mixing models using S:V and C:V signatures of landscape scale features indicated strong temporal variation in sources of DOC export from the Delta, with riverine source signatures responsible for 50% of DOC in summer and winter, wetland signatures responsible for 40% of DOC in summer, winter, and late autumn, and island drains responsible for 40% of exported DOC in late autumn. A significant negative correlation was observed between carbon-normalized lignin yields and DOC bioavailability in two of the 14 sampling stations. This study is, to our knowledge, the first to describe organic vascular plant DOC sources at the level of localized

  7. Northern elephant seal field bioacoustics and aerial auditory masked hearing thresholds in three pinnipeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southall, Brandon Lee

    This dissertation comprises four interrelated studies on acoustic communication (including both signal production and signal reception) in pinnipeds, primarily northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). Field measurements of vocalization parameters were obtained in elephant seal breeding rookeries. Additionally, auditory masking experiments were conducted with individuals representing three pinniped species, including a northern elephant seal. This study quantified how aerial noise masks aerial hearing and provided preliminary data on auditory frequency filtering. All of these studies were conducted in air for a variety of practical and theoretical reasons. Some governmental, media, and research organizations have recently become concerned with the impacts of underwater anthropogenic noise on aquatic animals. However, little consideration has been given to the dual pressures imposed by aerial and underwater noise on amphibious marine mammals such as the pinnipeds. This dissertation sought to provide some basic data bearing on this matter by investigating aerial signals and aerial masked hearing. Data were obtained on aerial vocalization source levels, signal directivity patterns, natural aerial ambient noise, signal propagation properties, multi-modal aspects of signaling, motivation-specific signal variability, aerial critical masking ratios, and auditory filter bandwidths. The results indicate that different signal components may be more readily detectable in variable noise conditions, frequency resolution likely affects detection ranges, developmental and motivational factors affect signal parameters, and that some pinnipeds apparently detect signals over masking noise relatively well both in air and water. Using the northern elephant seal as a representative model, a model for quantifying constraints on vocal communication was developed to provide first-order predictions about detection ranges for signals in variable noise conditions.

  8. Aerial Terrain Mapping Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahar, K. N.

    2012-08-01

    This paper looks into the latest achievement in the low-cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology in their capacity to map the semi-development areas. The objectives of this study are to establish a new methodology or a new algorithm in image registration during interior orientation process and to determine the accuracy of the photogrammetric products by using UAV images. Recently, UAV technology has been used in several applications such as mapping, agriculture and surveillance. The aim of this study is to scrutinize the usage of UAV to map the semi-development areas. The performance of the low cost UAV mapping study was established on a study area with two image processing methods so that the results could be comparable. A non-metric camera was attached at the bottom of UAV and it was used to capture images at both sites after it went through several calibration steps. Calibration processes were carried out to determine focal length, principal distance, radial lens distortion, tangential lens distortion and affinity. A new method in image registration for a non-metric camera is discussed in this paper as a part of new methodology of this study. This method used the UAV Global Positioning System (GPS) onboard to register the UAV image for interior orientation process. Check points were established randomly at both sites using rapid static Global Positioning System. Ground control points are used for exterior orientation process, and check point is used for accuracy assessment of photogrammetric product. All acquired images were processed in a photogrammetric software. Two methods of image registration were applied in this study, namely, GPS onboard registration and ground control point registration. Both registrations were processed by using photogrammetric software and the result is discussed. Two results were produced in this study, which are the digital orthophoto and the digital terrain model. These results were analyzed by using the root mean square

  9. Bud dormancy in perennial plants: a mechanism for survival. In:Dormancy of Cells and Organisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many plants evolved the ability to reproduce asexually through vegetative buds as a survival mechanism. Identifying the genetic and physiological mechanisms regulating dormancy in these reproductive structures will allow manipulation of plant growth and development in both desirable and undesirable ...

  10. Controls on microbial accessibility to soil organic carbon following woody plant encroachment into grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creamer, Courtney; Boutton, Thomas; Olk, Dan; Filley, Timothy

    2010-05-01

    Woody plant encroachment (WPE) into savannas and grasslands is a global phenomenon that alters soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics through changes in litter quality and quantity, soil structure, microbial ecology, and hydrology. To elucidate the controls on microbial accessibility to SOC, bulk soils from a chronosequence of progressive WPE into native grasslands at the Texas Agrilife La Copita Research Area were incubated for one year. The quantity and stable carbon isotope composition of respired CO2, and plant biopolymer chemistry in SOC were tracked. Respiration rates declined exponentially over the course of the experiment with 15-25% of the total CO2 respired released in the first month of incubation. Between 8 and 18% of the total SOC was mineralized to CO2 throughout the incubation. After day 84 a significantly (p<0.05) greater portion of SOC was mineralized from soils of older woody clusters (34-86 years) than from soils of younger woody clusters (14-23 years) and the native grassland. Invading woody stands of ≃≥35 years of age represent a transition point in WPE where respiration dynamics become distinct in wooded elements compared to grasslands; this distinction has been previously observed through changes in belowground SOC accrual, C input chemistry, and mycorrhizal productivity. Despite documented SOC accrual following WPE at La Copita, we observed no evidence of enhanced SOC stabilization in these respiration experiments. In fact, a greater proportion of total SOC was lost from the soil of mature woody stands than from young stands, suggesting SOC accumulation observed with WPE may be due to greater input rates or microbial dynamics not captured in the laboratory incubation. Compound-specific analyses indicated there was a significant (p<0.05) loss of C from carbohydrates, amino acids, and amino sugars during the incubation. Amino nitrogen tended to become more concentrated during the incubation, although the trend was not significant. Relatively

  11. Effect of plant cover on distribution of soil organic matter pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunina, Anna; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Ryzhova, Irina

    2013-04-01

    ) because of the identical texture of soil parent material. The portion of biochemically protected C was maximal in agricultural soil - 27%, whereas on forest plots it was 2 times less. The amount of C in this pool did not strongly differ among the investigated soils, but C/N ratio was lower under agricultural crops than under forests. This indicates deeper degradation of organics in cultivated soil, N addition by fertilization, and a growing contribution of microbially-derived C to the biochemically protected pool. Wide C/N ratio in biochemically protected pool in the forest soils reflects the accumulation of primary recalcitrant plant substances with high C/N such as lignin and cellulose. Thus, forest vegetation contributes mainly to the SOM sequestration in the spatial inaccessible pool and is source of the high amount of non-protected C. Under agricultural crops however, the most of SOM is stabilized by interactions with silt and clay and is stabilized biochemically.

  12. CHROMOPHORIC DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER (CDOM) DERIVED FROM DECOMPOSITION OF VARIOUS VASCULAR PLANT AND ALGAL SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chromophoric dissolved organic (CDOM) in aquatic environments is derived from the microbial decomposition of terrestrial and microbial organic matter. Here we present results of studies of the spectral properties and photoreactivity of the CDOM derived from several organic matter...

  13. [Role of micro-organisms in adapting plants to environmental stress conditions].

    PubMed

    Hirt, Heribert

    2012-01-01

    Due to their sessile nature, plants have always been confronted to various abiotic and biotic stresses in their immediate environment. As a consequence, the survival of plants depended on their ability to adjust rapidly their physiology, development and growth to escape or mitigate the impacts of stress. All plants are known to perceive and respond to stress signals such as drought, heat, salinity, attacks by herbivores and pathogens. Some biochemical processes are common to all plant stress responses including the production of certain stress proteins and metabolites, as well as the modification of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism. Although there has been extensive research in the plant stress response field, it is not yet known which factors are responsible for conferring to some plant species the capacity to colonize extreme habitats. Although considerable progress has been made in our understanding of plant stress physiology, the contribution of the plant-associated microbial community in the soil, commonly called the rhizosphere, has only recently received enhanced attention. Recent studies showed that some plant species in natural habitats require microbial associations for stress tolerance and survival. Since plants have colonized land, they have evolved mechanisms to respond to changing environmental conditions and settle in extreme habitats. Although many plants lack the adaptive capability to adapt to stress conditions, the ability of a variety of plants to adapt to stress conditions appears to depend on the association with microbes, raising a number of questions: can all plants improve stress tolerance when associated with their appropriate microbial partners? Did we miss identifying the right partners for a given plant species or variety? What distinguishes the microbes and plants that are adapted to extreme environmental conditions from those living in temperate zones? Answers to these questions are likely to revolutionize plant biology

  14. 1. AERIAL VIEW OF SLC3 FROM THE NORTHEAST SHOWING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW OF SLC-3 FROM THE NORTHEAST SHOWING THE EAST (LEFT) AND WEST (RIGHT) LAUNCH PADS, AND CABLE TRAYS FROM SLC-3W. SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT (BLDG. 769) AND STORAGE SHED (BLDG. 773) IN LEFT FOREGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  15. REMOTE SENSING OF SULFUR DIOXIDE EFFECTS ON VEGETATION - PHOTOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spectral reflectances were measured by tri-band densitometry of aerial color-infrared photographs of soybean (Glycine mas fields that had been affected by sulfur dioside (SO2) emissions from large, coal-fired power plants in northwestern Alabama and western Tennessee. The photogr...

  16. USE OF A SPECTRORADIOMETER TO STUDY AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS OF OZONE-TREATED SOYBEANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A scanning spectroradiometer was used to measure the optical densities of an aerial photograph of an experimental field in which soybeans were growing in response to different concentrations of ozone, an air pollutant. he plants were growing in 3 m diameter, 2.4m high open top ex...

  17. Complementary effects of soil organism and plant propagule introductions in restoration of species-rich grassland communities.

    SciTech Connect

    Kardol, Paul; Bezemer, T Martijn; van der Putten, Wim H.

    2009-01-01

    A common practice in biodiversity conservation is restoration of former species-rich grassland on ex-arable land. Major constraints for grassland restoration are high soil fertility and limited dispersal ability of plant species to target sites. Usually, studies focus on soil fertility or on methods to introduce plant seeds. However, the question is whether soil fertility reduction is always necessary for getting plant species established on target sites. In a three-year field experiment with ex-arable soil with intensive farming history, we tested single and combined effects of soil fertility reduction and sowing mid-successional plant species on plant community development and soil biological properties. A controlled microcosm study was performed to test short-term effects of soil fertility reduction measures on biomass production of mid-successional species. Soil fertility was manipulated by adding carbon (wood or straw) to incorporate plant-available nutrients into organic matter, or by removing nutrients through top soil removal (TSR). The sown species established successfully and their establishment was independent of carbon amendments. TSR reduced plant biomass, and effectively suppressed arable weeds, however, created a desert-like environment, inhibiting the effectiveness of sowing mid-successional plant species. Adding straw or wood resulted in short-term reduction of plant biomass, suggesting a temporal decrease in plant-available nutrients by microbial immobilisation. Straw and wood addition had little effects on soil biological properties, whereas TSR profoundly reduced numbers of bacteria, fungal biomass and nematode abundance. In conclusion, in ex-arable soils, on a short term sowing is more effective for grassland restoration than strategies aiming at soil fertility reduction.

  18. [Aerosol size distribution of organic carbon and elemental carbon on the top of coke oven and in the plant area].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Feng; Peng, Lin; Bai, Hui-Ling; Mu, Ling; Song, Chong-Fang

    2013-08-01

    In order to investigate the characteristic of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in particles on the top of coke oven and in the plant area, the particle matter samples of five size fraction including < or = 1.4 microm, 1.4-2.1 microm, 2.1-4.2 microm, 4.2-10.2 microm and > or = 10.2 microm were collected using Staplex234 cascade impactor, and OC and EC were analyzed by Elementar Analysensysteme GmbH vario EL cube. The mass concentrations of OC and EC associated with TSP on the top of coke oven were 291.6 microg x m(-3) and 255.1 microg x m(-3), while those in the plant area were 377.8 microg x m(-3) and 151.7 microg x m(-3). The mass concentration of secondary organic carbon (SOC) in particles with size of < or = 1.4 microm was 147.3 microg x m(-3) in the plant area. The value of OC/EC in particles less than 2.1 microm was 1.3 on the top of coke oven. The mass concentration of EC in TSP in the plant area was lower than that on the top of coke oven, while the mass concentration of OC in the plant area was significantly higher than that on the top of coke oven. The mass concentrations of OC and EC associated with particles less than 10.2 microm in the plant area were far higher than those in the atmosphere of area where the coke plant is located. The OC and EC in particles, which were collected both on the top of coke oven and in the plant area, were mainly enriched in fine particles. The size distribution of OC showed a clear distinction between the coke oven top and the plant area, which revealed that OC in the plant area was more preferably enriched in fine particles than that on the top of coke oven, and the same size distribution of EC was found on the top of coke oven and in the plant area. In the plant area, the mass concentration of SOC and the contribution of SOC to OC increased with the decreasing diameter in particles with diameter of less than 10.2 microm. PMID:24191535

  19. Tracing pharmaceuticals in a municipal plant for integrated wastewater and organic solid waste treatment.

    PubMed

    Jelic, Aleksandra; Fatone, Francesco; Di Fabio, Silvia; Petrovic, Mira; Cecchi, Franco; Barcelo, Damia

    2012-09-01

    The occurrence and removal of 42 pharmaceuticals, belonging to different therapeutic groups (analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-ulcer agent, psychiatric drugs, antiepileptic drug, antibiotics, ß-blockers, diuretics, lipid regulator and cholesterol lowering statin drugs and anti-histamines), were studied in the wastewater and sewage sludge trains of a full scale integrated treatment plant. The plant employs a biological nutrient removal (BNR) process for the treatment of municipal wastewater, and a single-stage mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion for the treatment of wasted activated sludge mixed with the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), followed by a short-cut nitrification-denitrification of the anaerobic supernatant in a sequential batch reactor. Influent and effluent wastewater, as well as thickened, digested and treated sludge were sampled and analyzed for the selected pharmaceuticals in order to study their presence and fate during the treatment. Twenty three compounds were detected in influent and effluent wastewater and eleven in sludge. Infiltration of groundwater in the sewer system led to a dilution of raw sewage, resulting in lower concentrations in wastewater (up to 0.7 μg/L in influent) and sludge (70 ng/g d.w.). Due to the dilution, overall risk quotient for the mixture of pharmaceuticals detected in effluent wastewater was less than one, indicating no direct risk for the aquatic environment. A wide range of removal efficiencies during the treatment was observed, i.e. <20% to 90%. The influent concentrations of the target pharmaceuticals, as polar compounds, were undoubtedly mostly affected by BNR process in the wastewater train, and less by anaerobic-co-digestion. Mass balance calculations showed that less than 2% of the total mass load of the studied pharmaceuticals was removed by sorption. Experimentally estimated distribution coefficients (<500 L/kg) also indicated that the selected pharmaceuticals preferably remain in

  20. Controls upon microbial accessibility to soil organic matter following woody plant encroachment into grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creamer, C. A.; Boutton, T. W.; Filley, T. R.

    2009-12-01

    Woody plant encroachment (WPE) into savannas and grasslands is a global phenomenon that alters soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics through changes in litter quality and quantity, soil structure, microbial ecology, and soil hydrology. To elucidate the controls upon microbial accessibility to SOM, bulk soils from a chronosequence of progressive WPE into native grasslands at the Texas A&M Agricultural Experimental Station La Copita Research Area were incubated for one year. The quantity and stable carbon isotope composition of respired CO2, plant biopolymer chemistry in SOM, and microbial community structure were tracked. Respiration rates declined steadily over the course of the experiment with 15-25% of the total CO2 respired released in the first month of incubation. Between 8 and 18% of the total carbon was mineralized to CO2 throughout the incubation. After day 84 a significantly (p < 0.05) greater portion of carbon was mineralized from soils of older woody clusters (34-86 years) than from soils of younger clusters (14-23 years) and the native grassland. Approximately 80% of patterns seen in cumulative CO2 loss could be explained by the proportions of macro- and micro-aggregates within each soil, suggesting soil structure is a major controlling factor of respiration rates. Despite documented carbon accrual within La Copita soils due to WPE, we observed no evidence of enhanced carbon stabilization in these respiration experiments. In fact, a greater proportion of total carbon was lost from the soil of mature woody stands than from young stands, suggesting carbon accumulation observed with WPE may be due to greater input rates or microbial dynamics not captured in the laboratory incubation. A cluster approximately 34 years in age represents a transition point in WPE where respiration dynamics become distinct between grassland and wooded elements. By day 84 of the incubation CO2 respired from all soils was depleted with respect to bulk SOM (1.5 to 5‰) and this

  1. Soil organic carbon can be up-taken by plant roots and stored in plant biosilica: NanoSIMS and isotopic labeling evidences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandre, Anne; Santos, Guaciara M.; balesdent, Jerôme; Basile-Doelsch, Isabelle; Borschneck, Daniel; Cazevieille, Patrick; Chevassus-Rosset, Claire; Doelsch, Emmanuel; Harutyunyan, Araks; Lemee, Laurent; Mazur, Jean-Charles; Reyerson, Paul; Signoret, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Plant biosilica particles called phytoliths contain occluded organic compounds (phytC). Over the last few years, phytC content, nature, origin, paleoenvironmental meaning and impact in the global C cycle has been the subject of increasing debate[1, 2]. Inconsistencies in phytC quantification were fed by the scarcity of in-situ characterization of phytC in phytoliths and by inadequate extraction methods[3]. Very recently, 14C-AMS analyses of soil organic matter (SOM), amendments, plant tissues, atmospheric CO2 and phytolith samples, evidenced that a small but significant pool of phytC is not photosynthetic but derived from old SOM[4,5]. From there, several investigations were started to go further into the characterization of phytC and the mechanisms in play behind old SOM absorption by plant roots and old SOM occlusion in plant biosilica. Here, we first reconstruct at high spatial resolution the 3-dimentional location of phytC and its C/N signature using 3D X-ray microscopy and Nano-scale Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (NanoSIMS). A pool of phytC appears homogeneously distributed in the silica structure and its C:N estimate is in the range of amino acid signatures[6]. Then, we use 13C and 15N-labelled amino acids monitored from an hydroponic solution to grass roots, stems, leaves and phytoliths to evidence that amino acids are absorbed as such by the roots and are concentrated in phytC rather than in the plant tissues. These findings strengthen and complement the 14C evidences. Both of them dissuade attempts to use phytC as a proxy of plant C. Further, they open new avenues of investigation regarding the processes which drive SOM mobilization by plant uptake, for a better understanding of soil/plant interactions involved in the terrestrial C cycle. [1] Santos et al. 2010. Radiocarbon 52:113 [2] Santos et al. 2012. Biogeosci. 9:1873 [3] Corbineau et al. 2013 R. Paleobot. Palyn. 197: 179 [4] Reyerson et al. 2013 AGU Fall meeting 2013 (1803125) [5] Santos et al. 2014

  2. Verification of Potency of Aerial Digital Oblique Cameras for Aerial Photogrammetry in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakada, Ryuji; Takigawa, Masanori; Ohga, Tomowo; Fujii, Noritsuna

    2016-06-01

    Digital oblique aerial camera (hereinafter called "oblique cameras") is an assembly of medium format digital cameras capable of shooting digital aerial photographs in five directions i.e. nadir view and oblique views (forward and backward, left and right views) simultaneously and it is used for shooting digital aerial photographs efficiently for generating 3D models in a wide area. For aerial photogrammetry of public survey in Japan, it is required to use large format cameras, like DMC and UltraCam series, to ensure aerial photogrammetric accuracy. Although oblique cameras are intended to generate 3D models, digital aerial photographs in 5 directions taken with them should not be limited to 3D model production but they may also be allowed for digital mapping and photomaps of required public survey accuracy in Japan. In order to verify the potency of using oblique cameras for aerial photogrammetry (simultaneous adjustment, digital mapping and photomaps), (1) a viewer was developed to interpret digital aerial photographs taken with oblique cameras, (2) digital aerial photographs were shot with an oblique camera owned by us, a Penta DigiCAM of IGI mbH, and (3) accuracy of 3D measurements was verified.

  3. Plant uptake of pharmaceutical chemicals detected in recycled organic manure and reclaimed wastewater.

    PubMed

    Tanoue, Rumi; Sato, Yuri; Motoyama, Miki; Nakagawa, Shuhei; Shinohara, Ryota; Nomiyama, Kei

    2012-10-17

    Land application of recycled manure produced from biosolids and reclaimed wastewater can transfer pharmaceutical chemicals to terrestrial environments, giving rise to potential accumulation of these residues in edible plants. In this study, the potential for plant uptake of 13 pharmaceutical chemicals, and the relation between the accumulation features within the plant and the physicochemical properties were examined by exposing pea and cucumber to an aqueous solution containing pharmaceutical chemicals. Ten of 13 compounds tested were detected in plant leaves and stems. Comparison of the plant uptake characteristics and the octanol-water partition coefficient of pharmaceutical chemicals showed that compounds with an intermediate polarity such as carbamazepine and crotamiton could be easily transported to plant shoots. Moreover, these results suggest the possibility of highly hydrophilic pharmaceutical chemicals such as trimethoprim and sulfonamides to be accumulated in plant roots owing to their low permeability in root cell membranes. PMID:23003104

  4. Draper Laboratory small autonomous aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBitetto, Paul A.; Johnson, Eric N.; Bosse, Michael C.; Trott, Christian A.

    1997-06-01

    The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc. and students from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Boston University have cooperated to develop an autonomous aerial vehicle that won the 1996 International Aerial Robotics Competition. This paper describes the approach, system architecture and subsystem designs for the entry. This entry represents a combination of many technology areas: navigation, guidance, control, vision processing, human factors, packaging, power, real-time software, and others. The aerial vehicle, an autonomous helicopter, performs navigation and control functions using multiple sensors: differential GPS, inertial measurement unit, sonar altimeter, and a flux compass. The aerial transmits video imagery to the ground. A ground based vision processor converts the image data into target position and classification estimates. The system was designed, built, and flown in less than one year and has provided many lessons about autonomous vehicle systems, several of which are discussed. In an appendix, our current research in augmenting the navigation system with vision- based estimates is presented.

  5. Officials: Aerial Spraying Working Against Miami Mosquitoes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Officials: Aerial Spraying Working Against Miami Mosquitoes The insects are to blame for first cases of Zika ... mosquitoes in a part of Miami where the insects have been linked to 16 cases of Zika ...

  6. Rangeland monitoring with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have great potential for rangeland management applications, such as monitoring vegetation change, developing grazing strategies, determining rangeland health, and assessing remediation treatment effectiveness. UAVs have several advantages: they can be deployed quickly...

  7. Locating buildings in aerial photos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James S.

    1994-01-01

    Algorithms and techniques for use in the identification and location of large buildings in digitized copies of aerial photographs are developed and tested. The building data would be used in the simulation of objects located in the vicinity of an airport that may be detected by aircraft radar. Two distinct approaches are considered. Most building footprints are rectangular in form. The first approach studied is to search for right-angled corners that characterize rectangular objects and then to connect these corners to complete the building. This problem is difficult because many nonbuilding objects, such as street corners, parking lots, and ballparks often have well defined corners which are often difficult to distinguish from rooftops. Furthermore, rooftops come in a number of shapes, sizes, shadings, and textures which also limit the discrimination task. The strategy used linear sequences of different samples to detect straight edge segments at multiple angles and to determine when these segments meet at approximately right-angles with respect to each other. This technique is effective in locating corners. The test image used has a fairly rectangular block pattern oriented about thirty degrees clockwise from a vertical alignment, and the overall measurement data reflect this. However, this technique does not discriminate between buildings and other objects at an operationally suitable rate. In addition, since multiple paths are tested for each image pixel, this is a time consuming task. The process can be speeded up by preprocessing the image to locate the more optimal sampling paths. The second approach is to rely on a human operator to identify and select the building objects and then to have the computer determine the outline and location of the selected structures. When presented with a copy of a digitized aerial photograph, the operator uses a mouse and cursor to select a target building. After a button on the mouse is pressed, with the cursor fully within

  8. Reliable aerial thermography for energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, J. R.; Bowman, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    A method for energy conservation, the aerial thermography survey, is discussed. It locates sources of energy losses and wasteful energy management practices. An operational map is presented for clear sky conditions. The map outlines the key environmental conditions conductive to obtaining reliable aerial thermography. The map is developed from defined visual and heat loss discrimination criteria which are quantized based on flat roof heat transfer calculations.

  9. Aerial righting reflexes in flightless animals.

    PubMed

    Jusufi, Ardian; Zeng, Yu; Full, Robert J; Dudley, Robert

    2011-12-01

    Animals that fall upside down typically engage in an aerial righting response so as to reorient dorsoventrally. This behavior can be preparatory to gliding or other controlled aerial behaviors and is ultimately necessary for a successful landing. Aerial righting reflexes have been described historically in various mammals such as cats, guinea pigs, rabbits, rats, and primates. The mechanisms whereby such righting can be accomplished depend on the size of the animal and on anatomical features associated with motion of the limbs and body. Here we apply a comparative approach to the study of aerial righting to explore the diverse strategies used for reorientation in midair. We discuss data for two species of lizards, the gecko Hemidactylus platyurus and the anole Anolis carolinensis, as well as for the first instar of the stick insect Extatosoma tiaratum, to illustrate size-dependence of this phenomenon and its relevance to subsequent aerial performance in parachuting and gliding animals. Geckos can use rotation of their large tails to reorient their bodies via conservation of angular momentum. Lizards with tails well exceeding snout-vent length, and correspondingly large tail inertia to body inertia ratios, are more effective at creating midair reorientation maneuvers. Moreover, experiments with stick insects, weighing an order of magnitude less than the lizards, suggest that aerodynamic torques acting on the limbs and body may play a dominant role in the righting process for small invertebrates. Both inertial and aerodynamic effects, therefore, can play a role in the control of aerial righting. We propose that aerial righting reflexes are widespread among arboreal vertebrates and arthropods and that they represent an important initial adaptation in the evolution of controlled aerial behavior. PMID:21930662

  10. Disinfection of model indicator organisms in a drinking water pilot plant by using PEROXONE.

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, R L; Stewart, M H; Liang, S; McGuire, M J

    1989-01-01

    PEROXONE is an advanced oxidation process generated by combining ozone and hydrogen peroxide. This process stimulates the production of hydroxyl radicals, which have been shown to be superior to ozone for the destruction of some organic contaminants. In this study, pilot-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the microbicidal effectiveness of PEROXONE and ozone against three model indicator groups. Escherichia coli and MS2 coliphage were seeded into the influent to the preozonation contactors of a pilot plant simulating conventional water treatment and were exposed to four ozone dosages (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg/liter), four hydrogen peroxide/ozone (H2O2/O3) weight ratios (0, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.8), and four contact times (4, 5, 12, and 16 min) in two source waters--Colorado River water and state project water--of different quality. The removal of heterotrophic plate count bacteria was also monitored. Results of the study indicated that the microbicidal activity of PEROXONE was greatly affected by the applied ozone dose, H2O2/O3 ratio, contact time, source water quality, and type of microorganism tested. At contact times of 5 min or less, ozone alone was a more potent bactericide than PEROXONE at all H2O2/O3 ratios tested. However, this decrease in the bactericidal potency of PEROXONE was dramatic only as the H2O2/O3 ratio was increased from 0.5 to 0.8. The fact that the bactericidal activity of PEROXONE generally decreased with increasing H2O2/O3 ratios was thought to be related to the lower ozone residuals produced. The viricidal activity of PEROXONE and ozone was comparable at all of the H2O2/O3 ratios. Heterotrophic plate count bacteria were the most resistant group of organisms. Greater inactivation of E. coli and MS2 was observed in Colorado River water than in state project water and appeared to result from differences in the turbidity and alkalinity of the two waters. Regardless of source water, greater than 4.5 log10 of E. coli and MS2 was inactivated

  11. Change of soil organic matter quality and quantity by deep-rooting plants - a molecular approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gocke, Martina; Derenne, Sylvie; Anquetil, Christelle; Huguet, Arnaud; Dignac, Marie-France; Rumpel, Cornelia; Wiesenberg, Guido L. B.

    2015-04-01

    Under predicted rising atmospheric CO2 concentration, soils are discussed to potentially act as C sinks. Stability and long-term storage of soil OM are affected by both molecular structure of incorporated organic remains and environmental factors. It is increasingly accepted that roots contribute to significant portions of topsoil OM, whereas their role for C cycling is less known for depths >> 1 m, i.e. the deep subsoil and underlying soil parent material like terrestrial sediments. To trace root-related features and organic remains, transects were sampled from ancient (3-10 ky) and recent calcified roots (rhizoliths) via surrounding sediment towards sediment free of visible root remains, at two sites. At the Nussloch loess-paleosol sequence (SW Germany), transects were collected as intact cores and scanned by X-ray microtomography for visualization of rhizoliths and rhizosphere. Afterwards, cores were cut into concentric slices and, similar to rhizolith and sediment samples from the sandy deep subsoil at Sopron (NW Hungary), analyzed for suberin molecular markers. Suberin biomarkers were found in both recent and ancient root systems, demonstrating their suitability to identify root-derived OM in terrestrial sediments with ages of several tens of ky. Varying relative portions of the respective suberin markers enabled the attribution of Sopron rhizoliths to oak origin, and assessment of the rhizosphere, which extended up to several cm. This confirms recent studies which demonstrated the possible postsedimentary incorporation of considerable amounts of root and rhizomicrobial remains in loess, based on biomarkers deriving either from plants and microorganisms (alkanes, fatty acids) or solely from microorganisms (GDGTs). 3D scanning of Nussloch rhizoliths and surrounding loess showed large channels of former root growth, whereas the root tissue was commonly degraded. Additionally, microtomography enabled assessment of abundant fine calcified roots as well as biopores

  12. Ecological responses to UV radiation: interactions between the biological effects of UV on plants and on associated organisms.

    PubMed

    Paul, Nigel D; Moore, Jason P; McPherson, Martin; Lambourne, Cathryn; Croft, Patricia; Heaton, Joanna C; Wargent, Jason J

    2012-08-01

    Solar ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation (280-315 nm) has a wide range of effects on terrestrial ecosystems, yet our understanding of how UV-B influences the complex interactions of plants with pest, pathogen and related microorganisms remains limited. Here, we report the results of a series of experiments in Lactuca sativa which aimed to characterize not only key plant responses to UV radiation in a field environment but also consequential effects for plant interactions with a sap-feeding insect, two model plant pathogens and phylloplane microorganism populations. Three spectrally modifying filters with contrasting UV transmissions were used to filter ambient sunlight, and when compared with our UV-inclusive filter, L. sativa plants grown in a zero UV-B environment showed significantly increased shoot fresh weight, reduced foliar pigment concentrations and suppressed population growth of green peach aphid (Myzus persicae). Plants grown under a filter which allowed partial transmission of UV-A radiation and negligible UV-B transmission showed increased density of leaf surface phylloplane microbes compared with the UV-inclusive treatment. Effects of UV treatment on the severity of two plant pathogens, Bremia lactucae and Botrytis cinerea, were complex as both the UV-inclusive and zero UV-B filters reduced the severity of pathogen persistence. These results are discussed with reference to known spectral responses of plants, insects and microorganisms, and contrasted with established fundamental responses of plants and other organisms to solar UV radiation, with particular emphasis on the need for future integration between different experimental approaches when investigating the effects of solar UV radiation. PMID:22150399

  13. A genetically-based latitudinal cline in the emission of herbivore-induced plant volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Wason, Elizabeth L; Agrawal, Anurag A; Hunter, Mark D

    2013-08-01

    The existence of predictable latitudinal variation in plant defense against herbivores remains controversial. A prevailing view holds that higher levels of plant defense evolve at low latitudes compared to high latitudes as an adaptive plant response to higher herbivore pressure on low-latitude plants. To date, this prediction has not been examined with respect to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that many plants emit, often thus attracting the natural enemies of herbivores. Here, we compared genetically-based constitutive and herbivore-induced aboveground vegetative VOC emissions from plants originating across a gradient of more than 10° of latitude (>1,500 km). We collected headspace VOCs from Asclepias syriaca (common milkweed) originating from 20 populations across its natural range and grown in a common garden near the range center. Feeding by specialist Danaus plexippus (monarch) larvae induced VOCs, and field environmental conditions (temperature, light, and humidity) also influenced emissions. Monarch damage increased plant VOC concentrations and altered VOC blends. We found that genetically-based induced VOC emissions varied with the latitude of plant population origin, although the pattern followed the reverse of that predicted-induced VOC concentration increased with increasing latitude. This pattern appeared to be driven by a greater induction of sesquiterpenoids at higher latitudes. In contrast, constitutive VOC emission did not vary systematically with latitude, and the induction of green leafy volatiles declined with latitude. Our results do not support the prevailing view that plant defense is greater at lower than at higher latitudes. That the pattern holds only for herbivore-induced VOC emission, and not constitutive emission, suggests that latitudinal variation in VOCs is not a simple adaptive response to climatic factors. PMID:23888386

  14. Dual, differential isotope labeling shows the preferential movement of labile plant constituents into mineral-bonded soil organic matter.

    PubMed

    Haddix, Michelle L; Paul, Eldor A; Cotrufo, M Francesca

    2016-06-01

    The formation and stabilization of soil organic matter (SOM) are major concerns in the context of global change for carbon sequestration and soil health. It is presently believed that lignin is not selectively preserved in soil and that chemically labile compounds bonding to minerals comprise a large fraction of the SOM. Labile plant inputs have been suggested to be the main precursor of the mineral-bonded SOM. Litter decomposition and SOM formation are expected to have temperature sensitivity varying with the lability of plant inputs. We tested this framework using dual (13) C and (15) N differentially labeled plant material to distinguish the metabolic and structural components within a single plant material. Big Bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) seedlings were grown in an enriched (13) C and (15) N environment and then prior to harvest, removed from the enriched environment and allowed to incorporate natural abundance (13) C-CO2 and (15) N fertilizer into the metabolic plant components. This enabled us to achieve a greater than one atom % difference in (13) C between the metabolic and structural components within the plant litter. This differentially labeled litter was incubated in soil at 15 and 35 °C, for 386 days with CO2 measured throughout the incubation. After 14, 28, 147, and 386 days of incubation, the soil was subsequently fractionated. There was no difference in temperature sensitivity of the metabolic and structural components with regard to how much was respired or in the amount of litter biomass stabilized. Only the metabolic litter component was found in the sand, silt, or clay fraction while the structural component was exclusively found in the light fraction. These results support the stabilization framework that labile plant components are the main precursor of mineral-associated organic matter. PMID:27142168

  15. Endurance bounds of aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Aaron M.; Kroninger, Christopher M.

    2014-06-01

    Within the past few years micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) have received much more attention and are starting to proliferate into military as well as civilian roles. However, one of the major drawbacks for this technology currently, has been their poor endurance, usually below 10 minutes. This is a direct result of the inefficiencies inherent in their design. Often times, designers do not consider the various components in the vehicle design and match their performance to the desired mission for the vehicle. These vehicles lack a prescribed set of design guidelines or empirically derived design equations which often limits their design to selection of commercial off-the-shelf components without proper consideration of their affect on vehicle performance. In the current study, the design space for different vehicle configurations has been examined including insect flapping, avian flapping, rotary wing, and fixed wing, and their performance bounds are established. The propulsion system typical of a rotary wing vehicle is analyzed to establish current baselines for efficiency of vehicles at this scale. The power draw from communications is analyzed to determine its impact on vehicle performance. Finally, a representative fixed wing MAV is examined and the effects of adaptive structures as a means for increasing vehicle endurance and range are examined. This paper seeks to establish the performance bounds for micro air vehicles and establish a path forward for future designs so that efficiency may be maximized.

  16. The preferential binding of a sensory organ specific odorant binding protein of the alfalfa plant bug Adelphocoris lineolatus AlinOBP10 to biologically active host plant volatiles.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liang; Gu, Shao-Hua; Xiao, Hai-Jun; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Guo, Yu-Yuan; Liu, Ze-Wen; Zhang, Yong-Jun

    2013-09-01

    Semiochemicals such as sex pheromones and plant volatiles are crucial components of insect mating systems and host plant localization. In the olfactory signal transduction pathway, odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are important elements that function in the first step of the pathway by carrying hydrophobic semiochemicals across the sensillum lymph to the olfactory receptors (ORs). In this study, we examined the binding affinities of semiochemicals to AlinOBP10, a putative OBP from the alfalfa plant bug, Adelphocoris lineolatus, that we demonstrate is expressed mainly in sensory organs. We then characterized the biological activities of the high affinity semiochemicals by measuring their electrophysiological activities in antennae and behavioral responses in the plant bug. AlinOBP10 displayed weak binding affinities to two major putative pheromone components, hexyl butyrate and (E)-2-hexenyl butyrate. In contrast, AlinOBP10 exhibited higher binding affinities to six host plant volatiles, namely myrcene, β-pinene, β-ionone, 3-hexanone, (E)-2-hexenal, and 1-hexanol. The biological activities of these six putative ligands were further studied in electroantennogram recordings and Y-tube olfactometer trials. The three compounds, (E)-2-hexenal, 1-hexanol, and 3-hexanone elicited strong electrophysiological responses, but elicited distinct behaviors. While 3-hexanone was attractive to female adults, (E)-2-hexenal and 1-hexanol were significant repellents. Although a weak electrophysiological response was elicited with β-pinene, it was a strong repellent. These results demonstrate that AlinOBP10 can interact with attractants, as well as repellents, with some specificity toward plant volatiles over sex pheromones. PMID:23955060

  17. Soil management, fertilization and plant nutrition in organic systems in Spain: A review of the research in last 20 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalvez, Victor; Raigon Jiménez, M.° Dolores

    2016-04-01

    organic plant health and plant protection. In total 12 % of the papers presented in these events were devoted to soil conservation, soil fertility and plant nutrition management. We have analyzed this papers contributions dividing in five categories: a) organic and mineral fertilization; b) general evaluation of soil fertility under organic management; c) compost making and compost types; d) soil conservation and fertilization; e) crop fertilization and food quality The results shows that over 20 % of the total papers presented were related to general aspects of crop fertilization in 16% types of vegetables crops, 14% on arable crops and pastures and 8% on perennial crops (almonds, citrus, vineyards, olive trees, and banana) have been presented. Most studies were done on vegetables and very few on nutrient balance have been published. Some papers deal with cover crops. The soil fertility impact of organic farming compared with conventional is focused is included in nearly 30 % of all the scientific papers presented. Compost from different crop residues and the effects on soil and on different crops, including waste sludge (not allowed in organic farming) have been researched. Also some studies deal with how to use the residues of the olive oil mills or residues of vineyards as organic fertilizer. Some of the most recent studies are focused on how compost can control pest and diseases in crop cultivation. Another type of study has analyzed the soil disinfection potential of manure with high exposition to the sun (high temperature) to be used in greenhouses. Few studies are concentrated in the application of mycorrhizae to enhance the capacity of the plants to absorber nutrients from soil. We found some few studies on biofertilisers, but there are many different inputs being offered to organic farmers as natural fertilizer. Soil conservation and organic fertilisation studies are scarce and not sufficiently detailed. Finally we found a five category of very few studies on

  18. Influence of two types of organic matter on interaction of CeO2 nanoparticles with plants in hydroponic culture.

    PubMed

    Schwabe, Franziska; Schulin, Rainer; Limbach, Ludwig K; Stark, Wendelin; Bürge, Diane; Nowack, Bernd

    2013-04-01

    An important aspect in risk assessment of nanoparticles (NPs) is to understand their environmental interactions. We used hydroponic plant cultures to study nanoparticle-plant-root interaction and translocation and exposed wheat and pumpkin to suspensions of uncoated CeO2-NP for 8d (primary particle size 17-100 nm, 100 mg L(-1)) in the absence and presence of fulvic acid (FA) and gum arabic (GA) as representatives of different types of natural organic matter. The behavior of CeO2-NPs in the hydroponic solution was monitored regarding agglomeration, sedimentation, particle size distribution, surface charge, amounts of root association, and translocation into shoots. NP-dispersions were stable over 8d in the presence of FA or GA, but with growing plants, changes in pH, particle agglomeration rate, and hydrodynamic diameter were observed. None of the plants exhibited reduced growth or any toxic response during the experiment. We found that CeO2-NPs translocated into pumpkin shoots, whereas this did not occur in wheat plants. The presence of FA and GA affected the amount of CeO2 associated with roots (pure>FA>GA) but did not affect the translocation factor. Additionally, we could confirm via TEM and SEM that CeO2-NPs adhered strongly to root surfaces of both plant species. PMID:23352517

  19. Production of Thermostable Organic Solvent Tolerant Keratinolytic Protease from Thermoactinomyces sp. RM4: IAA Production and Plant Growth Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Amit; Singh, Hukum; Anwar, Mohammad S.; Kumar, Shailendra; Ansari, Mohammad W.; Agrawal, Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    There are several reports about the optimization of protease production, but only few have optimized the production of organic solvent tolerant keratinolytic proteases that show remarkable exploitation in the development of the non-polluting processes in biotechnological industries. The present study was carried with aim to optimize the production of a thermostable organic solvent tolerant keratinolytic protease Thermoactinomyces sp. RM4 utilizing chicken feathers. Thermoactinomyces sp. RM4 isolated from the soil sample collected from a rice mill wasteyard site near Kashipur, Uttrakhand was identified on the basis of 16S rDNA analysis. The production of organic solvent tolerant keratinolytic protease enzyme by Thermoactinomyces sp. RM4 was optimized by varying physical culture conditions such as pH (10.0), temperature (60°C), inoculum percentage (2%), feather concentration (2%) and agitation rate (2 g) for feather degradation. The result showed that Thermoactinomyces sp. RM4 potentially produces extra-cellular thermostable organic solvent tolerant keratinolytic protease in the culture medium. Further, the feather hydrolysate from keratinase production media showed plant growth promoting activity by producing indole-3-acetic acid itself. The present findings suggest that keratinolytic protease from Thermoactinomyces sp. RM4 offers enormous industrial applications due to its organic solvent tolerant property in peptide synthesis, practical role in feather degradation and potential function in plant growth promoting activity, which might be a superior candidate to keep ecosystem healthy and functional. PMID:27555836

  20. Production of Thermostable Organic Solvent Tolerant Keratinolytic Protease from Thermoactinomyces sp. RM4: IAA Production and Plant Growth Promotion.

    PubMed

    Verma, Amit; Singh, Hukum; Anwar, Mohammad S; Kumar, Shailendra; Ansari, Mohammad W; Agrawal, Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    There are several reports about the optimization of protease production, but only few have optimized the production of organic solvent tolerant keratinolytic proteases that show remarkable exploitation in the development of the non-polluting processes in biotechnological industries. The present study was carried with aim to optimize the production of a thermostable organic solvent tolerant keratinolytic protease Thermoactinomyces sp. RM4 utilizing chicken feathers. Thermoactinomyces sp. RM4 isolated from the soil sample collected from a rice mill wasteyard site near Kashipur, Uttrakhand was identified on the basis of 16S rDNA analysis. The production of organic solvent tolerant keratinolytic protease enzyme by Thermoactinomyces sp. RM4 was optimized by varying physical culture conditions such as pH (10.0), temperature (60°C), inoculum percentage (2%), feather concentration (2%) and agitation rate (2 g) for feather degradation. The result showed that Thermoactinomyces sp. RM4 potentially produces extra-cellular thermostable organic solvent tolerant keratinolytic protease in the culture medium. Further, the feather hydrolysate from keratinase production media showed plant growth promoting activity by producing indole-3-acetic acid itself. The present findings suggest that keratinolytic protease from Thermoactinomyces sp. RM4 offers enormous industrial applications due to its organic solvent tolerant property in peptide synthesis, practical role in feather degradation and potential function in plant growth promoting activity, which might be a superior candidate to keep ecosystem healthy and functional. PMID:27555836

  1. An aerial radiological survey of the Millstone Nuclear Power Station and surrounding area

    SciTech Connect

    Vojtech, R.J.

    1994-03-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period of September 10 to 18, 1990, over a 40-square-mile (104-square-kilometer) area surrounding the Millstone Nuclear Power Station (MNPS). The MNPS is located on the Long Island Sound shoreline, three kilometers south of Waterford, Connecticut. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the terrestrial gamma ray environment of the plant and surrounding areas. A contour map showing radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level was constructed from the aerial data and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a United States Geological Survey map of the area. The exposure rates within the survey region are quite uniform. The area is characterized by an exposure rate of 10-12 microroentgens per hour including an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.6 {mu}R/h. This is typical of natural background. The only exception to the natural background readings is the Millstone station itself, which is characterized by an exposure rate consistent with the standard operation of the reactor units. Radionuclide assays of soil samples and pressurized-ion-chamber gamma ray measurements were obtained at five locations within the survey boundaries. These measurements were taken in support of, and are in agreement with, the aerial data. The radiological environment near the plant is consistent with normal plant operation.

  2. Environmental applications utilizing digital aerial imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Monday, H.M.

    1995-06-01

    This paper discusses the use of satellite imagery, aerial photography, and computerized airborne imagery as applied to environmental mapping, analysis, and monitoring. A project conducted by the City of Irving, Texas involves compliance with national pollutant discharge elimination system (NPDES) requirements stipulated by the Environmental Protection Agency. The purpose of the project was the development and maintenance of a stormwater drainage utility. Digital imagery was collected for a portion of the city to map the City`s porous and impervious surfaces which will then be overlaid with property boundaries in the City`s existing Geographic information System (GIS). This information will allow the City to determine an equitable tax for each land parcel according to the amount of water each parcel is contributing to the stormwater system. Another project involves environmental compliance for warm water discharges created by utility companies. Environmental consultants are using digital airborne imagery to analyze thermal plume affects as well as monitoring power generation facilities. A third project involves wetland restoration. Due to freeway and other forms of construction, plus a major reduction of fresh water supplies, the Southern California coastal wetlands are being seriously threatened. These wetlands, rich spawning grounds for plant and animal life, are home to thousands of waterfowl and shore birds who use this habitat for nesting and feeding grounds. Under the leadership of Southern California Edison (SCE) and CALTRANS (California Department of Transportation), several wetland areas such as the San Dieguito Lagoon (Del Mar, California), the Sweetwater Marsh (San Diego, California), and the Tijuana Estuary (San Diego, California) are being restored and closely monitored using digital airborne imagery.

  3. Determination of volatile organic compounds from biowaste and co-fermentation biogas plants by single-sorbent adsorption.

    PubMed

    Salazar Gómez, J I; Lohmann, H; Krassowski, J

    2016-06-01

    Characterisation of biogases is normally dedicated to the online monitoring of the major components methane and carbon dioxide and, to a lesser extent, to the determination of ammonia and hydrogen sulphide. For the case of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), much less attention is usually paid, since such compounds are normally removed during gas conditioning and with exception of sulphur compounds and siloxanes represent a rather low risk to conventional downstream devices but could be a hindrance for fuel cells. However, there is very little information in the literature about the type of substances found in biogases generated from biowaste or co-fermentation plants and their concentration fluctuations. The main aim of this study was to provide information about the time dependencies of the VOCs in three biogas plants spread out through Germany from autumn until summer, which have different process control, in order to assess their potential as biofuels. Additionally, this study was an attempt to establish a correlation between the nature of the substrates used in the biogas plants and the composition of the VOCs present in the gas phase. Significant time-dependent variations in concentration were observed for most VOCs but only small changes in composition were observed. In general, terpenes and ketones appeared as the predominant VOCs in biogas. Although for substances such as esters, sulphur-organic compounds and siloxanes the average concentrations observed were rather low, they exhibited significant concentration peaks. The second biogas plant which operates with dry fermentation was found to contain the highest levels of VOCs. The amount of total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) for the first, second and third biogas plants ranged from 35 to 259 mg Nm(-3), 291-1731 mg Nm(-3) and 84-528 mg Nm(-3), respectively. PMID:27010166

  4. Organic Acids: The Pools of Fixed Carbon Involved in Redox Regulation and Energy Balance in Higher Plants

    PubMed Central

    Igamberdiev, Abir U.; Eprintsev, Alexander T.

    2016-01-01

    Organic acids are synthesized in plants as a result of the incomplete oxidation of photosynthetic products and represent the stored pools of fixed carbon accumulated due to different transient times of conversion of carbon compounds in metabolic pathways. When redox level in the cell increases, e.g., in conditions of active photosynthesis, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in mitochondria is transformed to a partial cycle supplying citrate for the synthesis of 2-oxoglutarate and glutamate (citrate valve), while malate is accumulated and participates in the redox balance in different cell compartments (via malate valve). This results in malate and citrate frequently being the most accumulated acids in plants. However, the intensity of reactions linked to the conversion of these compounds can cause preferential accumulation of other organic acids, e.g., fumarate or isocitrate, in higher concentrations than malate and citrate. The secondary reactions, associated with the central metabolic pathways, in particularly with the TCA cycle, result in accumulation of other organic acids that are derived from the intermediates of the cycle. They form the additional pools of fixed carbon and stabilize the TCA cycle. Trans-aconitate is formed from citrate or cis-aconitate, accumulation of hydroxycitrate can be linked to metabolism of 2-oxoglutarate, while 4-hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate can be formed from pyruvate and glyoxylate. Glyoxylate, a product of either glycolate oxidase or isocitrate lyase, can be converted to oxalate. Malonate is accumulated at high concentrations in legume plants. Organic acids play a role in plants in providing redox equilibrium, supporting ionic gradients on membranes, and acidification of the extracellular medium. PMID:27471516

  5. Organic Acids: The Pools of Fixed Carbon Involved in Redox Regulation and Energy Balance in Higher Plants.

    PubMed

    Igamberdiev, Abir U; Eprintsev, Alexander T

    2016-01-01

    Organic acids are synthesized in plants as a result of the incomplete oxidation of photosynthetic products and represent the stored pools of fixed carbon accumulated due to different transient times of conversion of carbon compounds in metabolic pathways. When redox level in the cell increases, e.g., in conditions of active photosynthesis, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in mitochondria is transformed to a partial cycle supplying citrate for the synthesis of 2-oxoglutarate and glutamate (citrate valve), while malate is accumulated and participates in the redox balance in different cell compartments (via malate valve). This results in malate and citrate frequently being the most accumulated acids in plants. However, the intensity of reactions linked to the conversion of these compounds can cause preferential accumulation of other organic acids, e.g., fumarate or isocitrate, in higher concentrations than malate and citrate. The secondary reactions, associated with the central metabolic pathways, in particularly with the TCA cycle, result in accumulation of other organic acids that are derived from the intermediates of the cycle. They form the additional pools of fixed carbon and stabilize the TCA cycle. Trans-aconitate is formed from citrate or cis-aconitate, accumulation of hydroxycitrate can be linked to metabolism of 2-oxoglutarate, while 4-hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate can be formed from pyruvate and glyoxylate. Glyoxylate, a product of either glycolate oxidase or isocitrate lyase, can be converted to oxalate. Malonate is accumulated at high concentrations in legume plants. Organic acids play a role in plants in providing redox equilibrium, supporting ionic gradients on membranes, and acidification of the extracellular medium. PMID:27471516

  6. Aerial photo SBVC1962". Photo no. 360. Low oblique aerial view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial photo -SBVC-1962". Photo no. 360. Low oblique aerial view of the campus, looking southeast. Stamped on the rear: "Ron Wilhite, Sun-Telegram photo, file, 10/22/62/ - San Bernardino Valley College, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  7. Physico-chemical changes in dissolved organic matters in the rhizosphere of plants grown in soil amended with organic wastes: an in-situ investigation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djae, Tanalou; Bravin, Matthieu; Garnier, Cédric; Mayen, Jean-Fabien; Doelsch, Emmanuel

    2014-05-01

    In agricultural context, prerequisite condition to forecast trace metal phytodisponibility is to evaluate trace metal speciation in the rhizosphere solution, especially in soil amended with organic wastes. The most advanced trace metal speciation models (e.g. WHAM, NICA-DONNAN) take into account dissolved organic matter (DOM) reactivity toward trace metals. Generally, the scientific community uses, a fixed percentage of DOM reactivity, usually of 40 % to 80 %, to predict trace metal speciation. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the binding capacity of DOM towards trace metals is much larger than expected. The aim of our study was to investigate the mechanisms supporting the variability in DOM reactivity by assessing the physico-chemical changes of DOM in the bulk-soil and rhizosphere in context of agricultural recycling of organic wastes. An in-situ experiment was conducted in Reunion Island (Indian Ocean). Two plant species, i.e. a graminaceous species the fescue (Festuca rubra) and a dicotyledonous species the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), were grown on a soil where we applied two types of organic wastes (pig manure compost and poultry manure compost) at three rates and a mineral fertilizer. Following this experiment, the soil either adhering to the roots (i.e. rhizosphere) or not (i.e. bulk-soil) was sampled and the soil solution was recovered by chemical extraction. DOM concentration, total acidity and DOM fluorescence were measured. Root activities and organic wastes induced variations in the physico-chemical parameters of DOM. DOM concentration tended to increase in bulk-soil with increasing organic waste application rate. DOM concentrations measured in rhizosphere are significantly greater than those in the bulk-soil especially when organic wastes were applied to soil. Preliminary results allow us to observe a decrease in the density of carboxylic-like (pKa

  8. From plant surface to plant metabolism: the uncertain fate of foliar-applied nutrients.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Victoria; Brown, Patrick H

    2013-01-01

    The application of agrochemical sprays to the aerial parts of crop plants is an important agricultural practice world-wide. While variable effectiveness is often seen in response to foliar treatments, there is abundant evidence showing the beneficial effect of foliar fertilizers in terms of improving the metabolism, quality, and yields of crops. This mini-review is focused on the major bottlenecks associated with the uptake and translocation of foliar-applied nutrient solutions. A better understanding of the complex scenario surrounding the ultimate delivery of foliar-applied nutrients to sink cells and organs is essential for improving the effectiveness and performance of foliar fertilizers. PMID:23914198

  9. Duration of emission of volatile organic compounds from mechanically damaged plant leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical biological control of invasive alien weeds depends on the use of arthropod herbivores that are sufficiently host specific to avoid risk of injuring nontarget plants. Host plant specificity is usually evaluated by using a combination of behavioral and developmental experiments under choice...

  10. 7 CFR 340.2 - Groups of organisms which are or contain plant pests and exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND PRODUCTS ALTERED OR PRODUCED THROUGH GENETIC ENGINEERING WHICH ARE PLANT PESTS OR WHICH THERE IS... for interstate movement shall not be required for genetic material from any plant pest contained in... cloned genetic material is maintained on a nonconjugation proficient plasmid and the host does...

  11. 7 CFR 340.2 - Groups of organisms which are or contain plant pests and exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND PRODUCTS ALTERED OR PRODUCED THROUGH GENETIC ENGINEERING WHICH ARE PLANT PESTS OR WHICH THERE IS... for interstate movement shall not be required for genetic material from any plant pest contained in... cloned genetic material is maintained on a nonconjugation proficient plasmid and the host does...

  12. 7 CFR 340.2 - Groups of organisms which are or contain plant pests and exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND PRODUCTS ALTERED OR PRODUCED THROUGH GENETIC ENGINEERING WHICH ARE PLANT PESTS OR WHICH THERE IS... for interstate movement shall not be required for genetic material from any plant pest contained in... cloned genetic material is maintained on a nonconjugation proficient plasmid and the host does...

  13. 7 CFR 340.2 - Groups of organisms which are or contain plant pests and exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND PRODUCTS ALTERED OR PRODUCED THROUGH GENETIC ENGINEERING WHICH ARE PLANT PESTS OR WHICH THERE IS... for interstate movement shall not be required for genetic material from any plant pest contained in... cloned genetic material is maintained on a nonconjugation proficient plasmid and the host does...

  14. Sustainability of US organic beef and dairy production systems: soil, plant and cattle interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2010, the National Organic Program implemented a rule stating that pasture must be a significant source of feed in organic ruminant systems. This article will focus on how this rule has impacted the management, economics and nutritional value of products derived from organic ruminant systems and ...

  15. 22. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST DOWN CENTRAL AVENUE FROM WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST DOWN CENTRAL AVENUE FROM WEST OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE AND SUPPORT AREA OF THE PLANT. ON THE LEFT (NORTH) SIDE OF THE STREET IN THE FOREGROUND OF THE PHOTOGRAPH IS BUILDING 111, THE GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. TO THE EAST OF BUILDING 111 IS BUILDING 112, THE CAFETERIA. FURTHER TO THE EAST IS BUILDING 331, THE VEHICLE MAINTENANCE GARAGE AND FIRE DEPARTMENT; BUILDING 333, THE PAINT SHOP; BUILDING 334, THE ELECTRICAL AND GENERAL MAINTENANCE SHOP; AND BUILDING 551, THE GENERAL WAREHOUSE. ON THE RIGHT (SOUTH) SIDE OF CENTRAL AVENUE, IN THE FOREGROUND IS BUILDING 121, FIREARMS REPAIR. BEHIND BUILDING 121 IS BUILDING 122, EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES, AND BUILDING 123, HEALTH PHYSICS LABORATORY. BUILDING 441, THE PRODUCTION ... - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  16. [Monomeric indole alkaloids from the aerial parts of Catharanthus roseus].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xiang-Zhang; Wang, Guo-Cai; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2010-04-01

    Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don is a plant of the Catharanthus genus of Apocynaceae which has been reported to have therapeutic effects of detoxication and anticancer. In order to further study the alkaloid constituents of C. roseus, the aerial parts of the plant were extracted with 95% EtOH, and then treated with 2% H2SO4 and NH3H2O to obtain total alkaloids. The total alkaloids were separated and purified by column chromatography over silica gel and prepared by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral data. A new alkaloid together with five known compounds were isolated and identified as vindolinine B (1), lochnericine (2), horhammericine (3), vindorosine (4), vindoline (5), and coronaridine (6). Compound 1 is a new compound and named as vindolinine B. PMID:21355212

  17. Response of pepper plants (Capsicum annum L.) on soil amendment by inorganic and organic compounds of arsenic.

    PubMed

    Száková, Jirina; Tlustos, Pavel; Goessler, Walter; Pavlíková, Daniela; Schmeisser, Ernst

    2007-01-01

    The influence of soil contamination by inorganic and organic arsenic compounds on uptake, accumulation, and transformation of arsenic in pepper (Capsicum annum L.) was investigated in greenhouse pot experiments under controlled conditions. Pepper plants were cultivated in substrate amended by aqueous solutions of arsenite, arsenate, methylarsonic acid (MA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) applied individually into cultivation substrate at concentrations of 15 mg As per kg of substrate. The plant availability of the arsenicals increased in the order arsenite = arsenate < MA < DMA. The highest arsenic concentrations were found in roots followed by stems, leaves, and fruits regardless of arsenic compound applied. In the control samples of pepper fruits, As(III), As(V), and DMA were present (25%, 37%, and 39% of the water-extractable arsenic). In control stems + leaves and roots, As(V) was the major compound (63% and 53% in a phosphate buffer extract) followed by As(III) representing 33% and 42%. Additionally, low concentrations (not exceeding 5%) of DMA and MA were detected as well. In all the soils analyzed after the first harvest of pepper fruits, arsenate was the dominating compound followed by arsenite. Methylarsonic acid, methylarsonous acid, and DMA were present at varying concentrations depending on the individual soil treatments. In the treated plants, the arsenic compounds in plant tissues reflected predominantly the extractable portions of arsenic compounds present in soil after amendment, and this pattern was more significant in the first part of vegetation period. The results confirmed the ability of generative parts of plants to accumulate preferably organic arsenic compounds, whereas in the roots and aboveground biomass, mainly inorganic arsenic species are present. Evidently, the source of soil arsenic contamination affects significantly the extractable portions of arsenic compounds in soil and subsequently the distribution of arsenic compounds within

  18. Vermicomposting eliminates the toxicity of Lantana (Lantana camara) and turns it into a plant friendly organic fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Hussain, N; Abbasi, Tasneem; Abbasi, S A

    2015-11-15

    In evidently the first study of its kind, vermicompost derived solely from a weed known to possess plant and animal toxicity was used to assess its impact on the germination and early growth of several plant species. No pre-composting or supplementation of animal manure was done to generate the vermicompost in order to ensure that the impact is clearly attributable to the weed. Whereas the weed used in this study, Lantana (Lantana camara), is known to possess strong negative allelopathy, besides plant/animal toxicity in other forms, its vermicompost was seen to be a good organic fertilizer as it increased germination success and encouraged growth of all the three botanical species explored by the authors - green gram (Vigna radiata), ladies finger (Abelmoschus esculentus) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus). In terms of several physical, chemical and biochemical attributes that were studied, the vermicompost appeared plant-friendly, giving best results in general when employed at concentrations of 1.5% in soil (w/w). Fourier transform infrared spectrometry revealed that the phenols and the sesquiterpene lactones that are responsible for the allelopathic impact of Lantana were largely destroyed in the course of vermicomposting. There is also an indication that lignin content of Lantana was reduced during its vermicomposting. The findings open up the possibility that the billions of tons of phytomass that is generated annually by Lantana and other invasives can be gainfully utilized in generating organic fertilizer via vermicomposting. PMID:26073377

  19. Utilization of Local Law Enforcement Aerial Resources in Consequence Management (CM) Response

    SciTech Connect

    Wasiolek, Piotr T.; Malchow, Russell L.

    2013-03-12

    During the past decade the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) was instrumental in enhancing the nation’s ability to detect and prevent a radiological or nuclear attack in the highest risk cities. Under the DHS Securing the Cities initiative, nearly 13,000 personnel in the New York City region have been trained in preventive radiological and nuclear detection operations, and nearly 8,500 pieces of radiological detection equipment have been funded. As part of the preventive radiological/nuclear detection (PRND) mission, several cities have received funding to purchase commercial aerial radiation detection systems. In 2008, the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Aerial Measuring System (AMS) program started providing Mobile Aerial Radiological Surveillance (MARS) training to such assets, resulting in over 150 HAZMAT teams’ officers and pilots from 10 law enforcement organizations and fire departments being trained in the aerial radiation detection. From the beginning, the MARS training course covered both the PRND and consequence management (CM) missions. Even if the law enforcement main focus is PRND, their aerial assets can be utilized in the collection of initial radiation data for post-event radiological CM response. Based on over 50 years of AMS operational experience and information collected during MARS training, this presentation will focus on the concepts of CM response using aerial assets as well as utilizing law enforcement/fire department aerial assets in CM. Also discussed will be the need for establishing closer relationships between local jurisdictions’ aerial radiation detection capabilities and state and local radiation control program directors, radiological health department managers, etc. During radiological events these individuals may become primary experts/advisers to Incident Commanders for radiological emergency response, especially in the early stages of a response. The knowledge of the existence

  20. Woody plant encroachment effect on soil organic carbon dynamics: results from a latitudinal gradient in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellis, Guido; Chiti, Tommaso; Moscatelli, Maria Cristina; Marinari, Sara; Papale, Dario

    2016-04-01

    Woody plant encroachment into pastures and grasslands represents a significant land cover change phenomenon, with a considerable impact on carbon dynamics at an ecosystem level. It was estimated that 7.64% of the Southern Europe land was subject to that process between 1950 to 2010. As a result of woody encroachment, changes in vegetation composition can produce substantial changes to the soil organic carbon (SOC) cycle. Despite the numerous papers published on land-use change, an evaluation of the IPCC terrestrial carbon pools changes occurring during woody encroachment on abandoned pastures and grasslands is still lacking, particularly for the Italian territory. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of woody encroachment on carbon sequestration over abandoned pastures and grasslands in Alpine and Apennine ecosystems, with a particular focus on the SOC. We applied a chronosequence approach to seven selected sites located along a latitudinal gradient in Italy. Each chronosequence consisted of a pasture currently managed, three sites abandoned at different times in the past and, finally, a mature forest stand representing the last phase of the succession. The European Commission sampling protocols to certify SOC changes was adopted to estimate the variations following woody encroachment. Soil samples were collected at different depths in the topsoil (0-30 cm) and subsoil (30-70 cm), despite the original protocol formulation being limited to the topsoil only. In addition, aboveground living biomass (AGB), dead wood and litter were also measured following international protocols. Considering all C pools together, woody plant encroachment leads to a progressive C stock accumulation in all the chronosequences. The total C stock of mature forest stands ranges from 1.78±0.11 times (Eastern Alps) to 2.48±0.31 times (central Apennine) the initial value on pastures. Unsurprisingly, the C stocks of AGB, dead wood and litter all increase during the