Science.gov

Sample records for aerial power transmission

  1. Factors influencing efficiency of laser wireless power transmission system for micro unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoguang; Hua, Wenshen; Liu, Xun

    2014-12-01

    Micro unmanned aerial vehicle, mostly powered by electricity, plays an important role in many military and civil applications, e.g. military detection, communication relay et al. But restricted endurance ability severely limits its applications. To solve the problem, laser wireless power transmission system is proposed. However, overall efficiency of the system is quite low. This paper describes basic structure of laser wireless power transmission system and its working process. The system consists of two major modules: a high power laser source transmitting energy and a photovoltaic receiver converting optical energy into electricity. Then factors influencing efficiency of the system are analyzed. It suggests that electro-optical efficiency of laser, atmospheric impact on laser beam and photo-electric efficiency of photovoltaic receiver play significant role in overall efficiency of the system. Atmospheric impact on laser beam mostly derived from refraction, absorption, scattering and turbulence effects, leads to drop in energy and quality of laser beam. Efficiency of photovoltaic receiver is affected by photovoltaic materials. In addition, matching degree between intensity distribution of laser beam and layout of photovoltaic receiver also obviously influence efficiency of photovoltaic receiver. Experiment results suggest that under non-uniform laser beam illumination, efficiency of photovoltaic receiver mostly depends on layout of photovoltaic receiver. Through optimizing the layout of photovoltaic receiver based on intensity distribution of laser beam, output power is significantly improved. The analysis may help to take corresponding measures to alleviate negative effects of these factors and improve performance of laser wireless power transmission system.

  2. Number of lightning discharges causing damage to lightning arrester cables for aerial transmission lines in power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nikiforov, E. P.

    2009-07-15

    Damage by lightning discharges to lightning arrester cables for 110-175 kV aerial transmission lines is analyzed using data from power systems on incidents with aerial transmission lines over a ten year operating period (1997-2006). It is found that failures of lightning arrester cables occur when a tensile force acts on a cable heated to the melting point by a lightning current. The lightning currents required to heat a cable to this extent are greater for larger cable cross sections. The probability that a lightning discharge will develop decreases as the amplitude of the lightning current increases, which greatly reduces the number of lightning discharges which damage TK-70 cables compared to TK-50 cables. In order to increase the reliability of lightning arrester cables for 110 kV aerial transmission lines, TK-70 cables should be used in place of TK-50 cables. The number of lightning discharges per year which damage lightning arrester cables is lowered when the density of aerial transmission lines is reduced within the territory of electrical power systems. An approximate relationship between these two parameters is obtained.

  3. Design and experiment for realization of laser wireless power transmission for small unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qi; Zhang, Dechen; Zhu, Dandi; Shi, Qianyun; Gu, Jian; Ai, Yong

    2015-10-01

    Currently various types of aircraft booming and maturing, however, their long-time navigational capability should be improved urgently. This paper aims at studying laser power beaming, which includes the technology of high-efficient photoelectric conversion and APT(acquiring, pointing and tracking) technology, to provide power for flying UAV(unmanned aerial vehicles) and improve their flight endurance. The experiment of testing different types of solar cells under various conditions has been done to choose the solar cell which has the highest photoelectric conversion rate and find its most sensitive wavelength. In addition, the charge management module has been chose on the base of the characteristics of lithium batteries. Besides, a laser APT system was designed and set up, at the same time FSM (Fast Scan Mirror) control program and digital image processing program were used to control the system. The success of the indoor experiment of scan-tracking and charging for the moving UAV model via laser proves that this system is workable. And in this experiment, the photoelectric conversion rate of the whole system is up to 17.55%.

  4. Feasibility of Laser Power Transmission to a High-Altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    10 60 0 380360340 InGaAs (approximate) CIS at φ = 10,000 W/m2 CIS at φ = 1,000 W/m2 Laser Power Beaming to a Photovoltaic Cell 15 Indium gallium ...arsenide (InGaAs) PV cells could also be tailored to convert near- infrared light by adjusting the relative quantities of indium and gallium . Although...8 1.9. Efficiency of Spectrolab CDO-100 Solar Cells , as a Function of Temperature and Incident Light Intensity

  5. Power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Yale, O.S.

    1989-12-12

    This patent describes a power transmission. It comprises: in combination, a master gear having at least one annular tooth set, means for drivingly engaging the master gear with a power source, driven shaft, a yoke member attached to the shaft and including a screw pump housing extending radially with respect to the shaft with a pair of ports in spaced relation, a pump screw rotatable in the housing and a pump gear attached to the screw and engaging the annular tooth set, and a casing for transmission fluid. The pump housing being located for immersion in the fluid.

  6. Aeolic vibration of aerial electricity transmission cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, A.; Rodriguez-Vera, Ramon; Rayas, Juan A.; Barrientos, Bernardino

    2005-02-01

    A feasibility study for amplitude and frequency vibration measurement in aerial electricity transmission cable has been made. This study was carried out incorporating a fringe projection method for the experimental part and horizontal taut string model for theoretical one. However, this kind of model ignores some inherent properties such as cable sag and cable inclination. Then, this work reports advances on aeolic vibration considering real cables. Catenary and sag are considered in our theoretical model in such a way that an optical theodolite for measuring has been used. Preliminary measurements of the catenary as well as numerical simulation of a sagged cable vibration are given.

  7. Power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ordo, J.P.; Raszkowski, J.A.; Klemen, D.

    1991-04-23

    This patent describes a transmission. It comprises a housing having first and second end covers; an input shaft rotatably mounted in the first end cover; an output shaft rotatably supported on the input shaft and in the second end cover; first and second countershafts rotatably supported in the end covers for rotation on respective axis parallel with the input shaft and the output shaft; a first head gear continuously rotatable with the input shaft; second and third head gears meshing with the first head gear and continuously rotatable with the first and second countershafts respectively; ratio gears rotatably supported on each of the countershafts including a first ratio gear on the first countershaft and a second ratio gear on the second countershaft; reverse gear means including a first ratio gear on the first countershaft and a second ratio gear on the second countershaft; reverse gear means including a first member rotatable with the first ratio gear means including a first member rotatable with the first ratio gear and a second member rotatably supported on the second countershaft; synchronizer clutch means selectively and alternatively connectible with the second ratio gear and the second member of the reverse gear means; output gear means drivingly connected with the output shaft and including a first ratio output gear meshing with the second ratio gear; first selectively engageable friction clutch means for connecting the first ratio gear with the first countershaft for completing a low forward drive ratio between the input and output shafts; and second selectively engageable friction clutch means for selectively connecting the synchronizer clutch means to the second countershaft and cooperating therewith to selectively alternatively complete a reverse drive ratio between the input shaft and the output shaft and another forward drive ratio between the input and output shafts.

  8. Power Sprayers, Power Dusters, and Aerial Equipment for Pesticide Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Herbert, Jr.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University discusses agricultural pesticide application equipment. The three sections of the publication are Power Sprayers, Power Dusters, and Aerial Equipment. In the section discussing power sprayers, subtopics include hydraulic sprayers, component parts, multi-purpose farm…

  9. Power superconducting power transmission cable

    DOEpatents

    Ashworth, Stephen P.

    2003-06-10

    The present invention is for a compact superconducting power transmission cable operating at distribution level voltages. The superconducting cable is a conductor with a number of tapes assembled into a subconductor. These conductors are then mounted co-planarly in an elongated dielectric to produce a 3-phase cable. The arrangement increases the magnetic field parallel to the tapes thereby reducing ac losses.

  10. Power superconducting power transmission cable

    DOEpatents

    Ashworth, Stephen P.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is for a compact superconducting power transmission cable operating at distribution level voltages. The superconducting cable is a conductor with a number of tapes assembled into a subconductor. These conductors are then mounted co-planarly in an elongated dielectric to produce a 3-phase cable. The arrangement increases the magnetic field parallel to the tapes thereby reducing ac losses.

  11. Laser power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Edmund J.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of previous studies related to laser power transmission is presented. Particular attention is given to the use of solar pumped lasers for space power applications. Three general laser mechanisms are addressed: photodissociation lasing driven by sunlight, photoexcitation lasing driven directly by sunlight, and photoexcitation lasing driven by thermal radiation.

  12. Multistage Planetary Power Transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadden, G. B.; Dyba, G. J.; Ragen, M. A.; Kleckner, R. J.; Sheynin, L.

    1986-01-01

    PLANETSYS simulates thermomechanical performance of multistage planetary performance of multistage planetary power transmission. Two versions of code developed, SKF version and NASA version. Major function of program: compute performance characteristics of planet bearing for any of six kinematic inversions. PLANETSYS solves heat-balance equations for either steadystate or transient thermal conditions, and produces temperature maps for mechanical system.

  13. Simplified power shift transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, R.A.

    1987-04-21

    A multi-speed transmission is described for transferring power between a first shaft and a second shaft, the transmission comprising: a compound planetary assembly including a sun gear, a ring gear concentric with the sun gear, a reaction gear concentric with the ring gear, a planetary gear carrier rotatably supporting first and second sets of planet gears, the first planet gear set intermeshing with the ring gear. The sun gear and the second planet gear set intermesh with the first planet gear set and the reaction gear, means for selectively coupling the first shaft with the sun gear and the reaction gear, and means for selectively preventing rotation of the ring gear, and reaction gear and the planetary carrier; a simple planetary assembly comprising a sun gear component concentric with the sun gear of the compound planetary assembly, a ring gear component concentric with both of the sun gears, and a planetary gear carrier component rotatably supporting a set of planet gears, the planet gear set meshing with the sun gear and the ring gear of the simple planetary.

  14. 77 FR 6554 - Zephyr Power Transmission, LLC; Pathfinder Power Transmission, LLC; Duke-American Transmission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Zephyr Power Transmission, LLC; Pathfinder Power Transmission, LLC; Duke-American Transmission Company, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that on January 30... (Commission), 18 CFR 381.302, Zephyr Power Transmission, LLC (Zephyr), Pathfinder Power Transmission, LLC...

  15. Free-Space Power Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center organized a workshop on technology availability for free-space power transmission (beam power). This document contains a collection of viewgraph presentations that describes the effort by academia, industry, and the national laboratories in the area of high-frequency, high-power technology applicable to free-space power transmission systems. The areas covered were rectenna technology, high-frequency, high-power generation (gyrotrons, solar pumped lasers, and free electron lasers), and antenna technology.

  16. Autonomous Aerial Sensors for Wind Power Meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giebel, Gregor; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Reuder, Joachim; La Cour-Harbo, Anders; Thomsen, Carsten; Bange, Jens; Buschmann, Marco

    2010-05-01

    This poster describes a new approach for measurements in wind power meteorology using small unmanned flying platforms. During a week of flying a lighter-than-air vehicle, two small electrically powered aeroplanes and a larger helicopter at the Risø test station at Høvsøre, we will compare wind speed measurements with fixed mast and LIDAR measurements, investigate optimal flight patterns for each measurement task, and measure other interesting meteorological features like the air-sea boundary in the vicinity of the wind farm. In order to prepare the measurement campaign, a workshop is held, soliciting input from various communities. Large-scale wind farms, especially offshore, need an optimisation between installed wind power density and the losses in the wind farm due to wake effects between the turbines. While the wake structure behind single wind turbines onshore is fairly well understood, there are different problems offshore, thought to be due mainly to the low turbulence. Good measurements of the wake and wake structure are not easy to come by, as the use of a met mast is static and expensive, while the use of remote sensing instruments either needs significant access to the turbine to mount an instrument, or is complicated to use on a ship due to the ship's own movement. In any case, a good LIDAR or SODAR will cost many tens of thousands of euros. Another current problem in wind energy is the coming generation of wind turbines in the 10-12 MW class, with tip heights of over 200 m. Very few measurement masts exist to verify our knowledge of atmospheric physics - all that is known is that the boundary layer description we used so far is not valid any more. Here, automated Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) could be used as either an extension of current high masts or to build a network of very high ‘masts' in a region of complex terrain or coastal flow conditions. In comparison to a multitude of high masts, UAVs could be quite cost-effective. In order to test

  17. Transmission series power flow control

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.J.; Bian, J.; Williams, S.L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the characteristics of two gate turn-off (GTO) thyristor voltage-sourced inverter based series power flow control devices, namely the Series Power Flow Controller (SPFC) and the Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC). These devices represent series extensions of the STATCON, an inverter-based shunt device developed under a tailored collaboration by EPRI, TVA and the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, which will soon be placed in service on the TVA 161kV transmission system for transmission voltage control. Operation of the SPFC and UPFC is illustrated through the use of easily-constructed circle diagrams on the P-Q plane. The circle diagrams provide the transmission planning engineer with a simple means to assess the performance of these devices on the transmission system. A concluding example illustrates that the UPFC provides a level of power now control which is unattainable with more conventional devices.

  18. Transmission series power flow control

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.J.; Bian, J.; Williams, S.L.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents the characteristics of two gate turn-off (GTO) thyristor voltage-sourced inverter-based series power flow control devices, namely the Series Power Flow Controller (SPFC) and the Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC). These devices represent series extensions of the STATCON, an inverter-based shunt device developed under a tailored collaboration by EPRI, TVA and the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, which will soon be placed in service on the TVA 161kV transmission system for transmission voltage control. Operation of the SPFC and UPFC is illustrated through the use of easily-constructed circle diagrams on the P-Q plane. The circle diagrams provide the transmission planning engineer with a simple means to assess the performance of these devices on the transmission system. A concluding example illustrates that the UPFC provides a level of power flow control which is unattainable with more conventional devices.

  19. Power transmission line monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Seppa, T.O.

    1993-08-17

    A method for monitoring the sag of an overhead power transmission line comprising the steps of: measuring the tension of the power line; producing an electrical signal representative of the tension measurement; processing said electrical signal in accordance with a predetermined tension-sag relationship to produce a second signal which is a function of sag of the power line; transmitting said second electrical signal to a distant location in a predetermined transmission mode; receiving the second signal at the distant location whereby current in the power line is adjusted in accordance with the received second signal.

  20. HVDC power transmission technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hauth, R.L.; Tatro, P.J.; Railing, B.D.; Johnson, B.K.; Stewart, J.R.; Fink, J.L.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an assessment of the national utility system`s needs for electric transmission during the period 1995-2020 that could be met by future reduced-cost HVDC systems. The assessment was to include an economic evaluation of HVDC as a means for meeting those needs as well as a comparison with competing technologies such as ac transmission with and without Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) controllers. The role of force commutated dc converters was to be assumed where appropriate. The assessment begins by identifying the general needs for transmission in the U.S. in the context of a future deregulated power industry. The possible roles for direct current transmission are then postulated in terms of representative scenarios. A few of the scenarios are illustrated with the help of actual U.S. system examples. non-traditional applications as well as traditional applications such as long lines and asynchronous interconnections are discussed. The classical ``break-even distance`` concept for comparing HVDC and ac lines is used to assess the selected scenarios. The impact of reduced-cost converters is reflected in terms of the break-even distance. This report presents a comprehensive review of the functional benefits of HVDC transmission and updated cost data for both ac and dc system components. It also provides some provocative thoughts on how direct current transmission might be applied to better utilize and expand our nation`s increasingly stressed transmission assets.

  1. Wildlife and electric power transmission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Goodwin, J.G.; Hunt, J.R.; Fletcher, John L.; Busnel, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    Hundreds of thousands of miles of transmission lines have been introduced into our natural environment. These lines and their corridors can be damaging or beneficial to wildlife communities depending on how they are designed, where they are placed, and when they are constructed and maintained. With the current trend toward UHV systems, new problems (associated with additional increments in audible noise, electric and magnetic force fields, etc.) must be addressed. We recommend the following areas for careful study: (1) the response of wilderness species to transmission lines and line construction and maintenance activities (2) the magnitude of bird collision and electrocution mortality, (3) the response of power corridor and power tower in habiting wildlife to laboratory and field doses of electro-chemical oxidants, corona noise, electric and magnetic fields, etc., (4) the productivity of tower inhabiting birds compared with nearby non-tower nesters, and (5) the influence of powerline corridors on mammalian and avian migration patterns. It is our hope that the questions identified in this study will help stimulate further research so that we can maximize wildlife benefits and minimize wildlife detriments.

  2. Microwave transmission system for space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    The system considered makes use of a combined dipole antenna and rectifier. The dipole elements feed a balanced transmission line low-pass filter. A description of a laboratory model microwave power transmission system is given and a higher-power project with a longer range is discussed. Space power transmission experiments are also considered. It is pointed out that the investigations have shown that high overall transmission link efficiencies are possible.

  3. Feasibility study of wireless power transmission systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, W. J., Jr.

    1968-01-01

    Wireless microwave or laser energy transfers power from a manned earth-orbiting central station to unmanned astronomical substations. More efficient systems are required for the microwave power transmission.

  4. Solar Power Satellite Microwave Transmission and Reception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, R. H.

    1980-01-01

    Numerous analytical and experimental investigations related to SPS microwave power transmission and reception are reported. Aspects discussed include system performance, phase control, power amplifiers, radiating elements, rectenna, solid state configurations, and planned program activities.

  5. 1993 Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules.

    SciTech Connect

    US Bonneville Power Administration

    1993-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration 1993 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and 1993 Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions, contained herein, were approved on an interim basis effective October 1, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions were approved by the Federal Energy Commission, United States Department of Energy, in September, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions supersede the Administration`s Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions effective October 1, 1991.

  6. Aerial thermography studies of power plant heated lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Villa-Aleman, E.

    2000-01-26

    Remote sensing temperature measurements of water bodies is complicated by the temperature differences between the true surface or skin water and the bulk water below. Weather conditions control the reduction of the skin temperature relative to the bulk water temperature. Typical skin temperature depressions range from a few tenths of a degree Celsius to more than one degree. In this research project, the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) used aerial thermography and surface-based meteorological and water temperature measurements to study a power plant cooling lake in South Carolina. Skin and bulk water temperatures were measured simultaneously for imagery calibration and to produce a database for modeling of skin temperature depressions as a function of weather and bulk water temperatures. This paper will present imagery that illustrates how the skin temperature depression was affected by different conditions in several locations on the lake and will present skin temperature modeling results.

  7. Photovoltaic electric power applied to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geis, Jack; Arnold, Jack H.

    1994-01-01

    Photovoltaic electric-powered flight is receiving a great deal of attention in the context of the United States' Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) program. This paper addresses some of the enabling technical areas and their potential solutions. Of particular interest are the long-duration, high-altitude class of UAV's whose mission it is to achieve altitudes between 60,000 and 100,000 feet, and to remain at those altitudes for prolonged periods performing various mapping and surveillance activities. Addressed herein are studies which reveal the need for extremely light-weight and efficient solar cells, high-efficiency electric motor-driven propeller modules, and power management and distribution control elements. Since the potential payloads vary dramatically in their power consumption and duty cycles, a typical load profile has been selected to provide commonality for the propulsion power comparisons. Since missions vary widely with respect to ground coverage requirements, from repeated orbiting over a localized target to long-distance routes over irregular terrain, we have also averaged the power requirements for on-board guidance and control power, as well as ground control and communication link utilization. In the context of the national technology reinvestment program, wherever possible we modeled components and materials which have been qualified for space and defense applications, yet are compatible with civilian UAV activities. These include, but are not limited to, solar cell developments, electric storage technology for diurnal operation, local and ground communications, power management and distribution, and control servo design. And finally, the results of tests conducted by Wright Laboratory on ultralight, highly efficient MOCVD GaAs solar cells purchased from EPI Materials Ltd. (EML) of the UK are presented. These cells were also used for modeling the flight characteristics of UAV aircraft.

  8. Photovoltaic electric power applied to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geis, Jack; Arnold, Jack H.

    1994-09-01

    Photovoltaic electric-powered flight is receiving a great deal of attention in the context of the United States' Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) program. This paper addresses some of the enabling technical areas and their potential solutions. Of particular interest are the long-duration, high-altitude class of UAV's whose mission it is to achieve altitudes between 60,000 and 100,000 feet, and to remain at those altitudes for prolonged periods performing various mapping and surveillance activities. Addressed herein are studies which reveal the need for extremely light-weight and efficient solar cells, high-efficiency electric motor-driven propeller modules, and power management and distribution control elements. Since the potential payloads vary dramatically in their power consumption and duty cycles, a typical load profile has been selected to provide commonality for the propulsion power comparisons. Since missions vary widely with respect to ground coverage requirements, from repeated orbiting over a localized target to long-distance routes over irregular terrain, we have also averaged the power requirements for on-board guidance and control power, as well as ground control and communication link utilization. In the context of the national technology reinvestment program, wherever possible we modeled components and materials which have been qualified for space and defense applications, yet are compatible with civilian UAV activities. These include, but are not limited to, solar cell developments, electric storage technology for diurnal operation, local and ground communications, power management and distribution, and control servo design. And finally, the results of tests conducted by Wright Laboratory on ultralight, highly efficient MOCVD GaAs solar cells purchased from EPI Materials Ltd. (EML) of the UK are presented. These cells were also used for modeling the flight characteristics of UAV aircraft.

  9. Direct current power transmission systems

    SciTech Connect

    Padiyar, K.R.

    1991-01-01

    This book represents text on HVDC transmission available. It deals with the various aspects of the state of the art in HVDC transmission technology. This book presents many aspects of interactions of AC/DC systems. Modeling and analysis of DC systems are also discussed in detail.

  10. Analysis of the reasons for accidents and of protective measures against induced voltage on aerial electrical transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Misrikhanov, M. Sh.; Mirzaabdullaev, A. O.

    2009-01-15

    The problem of safety during work on aerial transmission lines under an induced voltage is examined. Results are presented from a study of the causes of accidents over the last 20 years in electrical grids in this country. A determination of different levels of induced voltage on disconnected aerial transmission lines as a function of their grounding scheme is proposed. The order of magnitudes for each level are given, along with approximate expressions for calculating them.

  11. Space-to-earth power transmission system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, G. H.; Schuh, R.

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary analysis was conducted to establish the requirements of a space-to-earth microwave power transmission system. The need for accurate phase control on the transmitter was established and methods for assessing the impact of power density and thermal constraints on system performance were demonstrated. Potential radio frequency interference was considered. The sensitivity of transmission system scale to variations in power source, transportation and orbital fabrication and assembly costs was also determined.

  12. High Voltage Power Transmission for Wind Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young il

    The high wind speeds and wide available area at sea have recently increased the interests on offshore wind farms in the U.S.A. As offshore wind farms become larger and are placed further from the shore, the power transmission to the onshore grid becomes a key feature. Power transmission of the offshore wind farm, in which good wind conditions and a larger installation area than an onshore site are available, requires the use of submarine cable systems. Therefore, an underground power cable system requires unique design and installation challenges not found in the overhead power cable environment. This paper presents analysis about the benefit and drawbacks of three different transmission solutions: HVAC, LCC/VSC HVDC in the grid connecting offshore wind farms and also analyzed the electrical characteristics of underground cables. In particular, loss of HV (High Voltage) subsea power of the transmission cables was evaluated by the Brakelmann's theory, taking into account the distributions of current and temperature.

  13. Laser power transmission concepts for Martian applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Young, R. J.; Conway, E. J.; Meador, W. E.; Humes, D. H.

    1989-01-01

    Long-term, highly reliable, flexible power will be required to support many diverse activities on Mars and for rapid development of the Mars environment. The potential of laser power transmission for supporting science, materials processing, transportation, and human habitats is discussed. Some advantageous locations for laser power stations in Mars orbit are developed.

  14. Aerial Radiation Measurements from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Guss, P. P.

    2012-07-16

    This document is a slide show type presentation concerning DOE and Aerial Measuring System (AMS) activities and results with respect to assessing the consequences of the releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. These include ground monitoring and aerial monitoring.

  15. Solar Power Satellite Microwave Power Transmission System Description Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    The history of the concept of microwave power beaming to Earth is reviewed with emphasis on transmission frequency selection. Constraints on the system power level results from (1) required rejection of waste heat resulting from inefficiencies in the cover conversion of dc electric power to microwave power; (2) the rf power intensity in the ionosphere; and (3) the effect of sidelobe level on aperture illumination factors. Transmitter arrangement, the power distribution system, attitude control, subarrays, waveguides, and alignment are discussed.

  16. Wireless power transmission for battery charging

    SciTech Connect

    Mi, Chris; Li, Siqi; Nguyen, Trong-Duy; Wang, Junhua; Li, Jiangui; Li, Weihan; Xu, Jun

    2016-11-15

    A wireless power transmission system is provided for high power applications. The power transmission system is comprised generally of a charging unit configured to generate an alternating electromagnetic field and a receive unit configured to receive the alternating electromagnetic field from the charging unit. The charging unit includes a power source; an input rectifier; an inverter; and a transmit coil. The transmit coil has a spirangle arrangement segmented into n coil segments with capacitors interconnecting adjacent coil segments. The receive unit includes a receive coil and an output rectifier. The receive coil also has a spirangle arrangement segmented into m coil segments with capacitors interconnecting adjacent coil segments.

  17. Microwave transmission system for space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    A small total system model and a large subsystem element similar to those that could be eventually used for wireless power transmission experiments in space have been successfully demonstrated by NASA. The short range, relatively low-power laboratory system achieved a dc-to-dc transmission efficiency of 54%. A separate high-power-level receiving subsystem, tested over a 1.54-km range at Goldstone, California, has achieved the transportation of over 30 kW of dc output power. Both tests used 12-cm wavelength microwaves.

  18. ULTRA HIGH POWER TRANSMISSION LINE TECHNIQUES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The ultra-high power transmission line techniques including both failure mechanisms and component design are discussed. Failures resulting from...a waveguide. In view of the many advantages of the low loss mode in circular waveguide for ultra-high power levels, a mode transducer and a two...percent of the peak power of a standard rectangular wave guide. Water cooling is provided for high average power operation. Analysis of mode sup pression

  19. Concurrent Wind Cooling in Power Transmission Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Jake P Gentle

    2012-08-01

    Idaho National Laboratory and the Idaho Power Company, with collaboration from Idaho State University, have been working on a project to monitor wind and other environmental data parameters along certain electrical transmission corridors. The combination of both real-time historical weather and environmental data is being used to model, validate, and recommend possibilities for dynamic operations of the transmission lines for power and energy carrying capacity. The planned results can also be used to influence decisions about proposed design criteria for or upgrades to certain sections of the transmission lines.

  20. Transmission Line Adapted Analytical Power Charts Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakala, Japhet D.; Daka, James S. J.; Setlhaolo, Ditiro; Malichi, Alec Pulu

    2016-08-01

    The performance of a transmission line has been assessed over the years using power charts. These are graphical representations, drawn to scale, of the equations that describe the performance of transmission lines. Various quantities that describe the performance, such as sending end voltage, sending end power and compensation to give zero voltage regulation, may be deduced from the power charts. Usually required values are read off and then converted using the appropriate scales and known relationships. In this paper, the authors revisit this area of circle diagrams for transmission line performance. The work presented here formulates the mathematical model that analyses the transmission line performance from the power charts relationships and then uses them to calculate the transmission line performance. In this proposed approach, it is not necessary to draw the power charts for the solution. However the power charts may be drawn for the visual presentation. The method is based on applying derived equations and is simple to use since it does not require rigorous derivations.

  1. Potential of laser for SPS power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bain, C. N.

    1978-01-01

    Research on the feasibility of using a laser subsystem as an additional option for the transmission of the satellite power system (STS) power is presented. Current laser work and predictions for future laser performance provide a level of confidence that the development of a laser power transmission system is technologically feasible in the time frame required to develop the SBS. There are significant economic advantages in lower ground distribution costs and a reduction of more than two orders of magnitude in real estate requirements for ground based receiving/conversion sites.

  2. Rectangular coils optimization for wireless power transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Zhu; Guo, Yong-Xin; Kwong, Dim-Lee

    2012-01-01

    Wirelessly coupled coils are crucial for efficient power transmission in various applications. Previous design methods are only eligible for improving the efficiency of circular or square coils. This paper presents a method of characterizing and optimizing rectangular coils used in inductively coupled systems. After setting up a lumped component model for inductive coils, the efficiency can be expressed in terms of geometrical parameters of the coils. Subsequently, the power efficiency can be plotted versus these parameters in Matlab, thus getting the desired coils for optimum power transfer. With this design procedure from mathematical optimization, we eventually designed two rectangular coils spaced 10 mm apart, which achieves a power transmission efficiency of 46.4% at a frequency of 3 MHz. The design methodology is verified by simulation and measurement.

  3. How financial transmission rights curb market power

    SciTech Connect

    Stoft, S.

    1997-06-01

    This paper demonstrates that financial transmission rights allow their owners to capture at least a portion, and sometimes all, of the congestion rents. This extends work in this area by Shmuel Oren which was limited to the case in which generators could not purchase financial transmission rights. One form of financial rights, Transmission Congestion Contracts (TCCs), is shown to be so effective in reducing market power that as few as two generators facing a demand curve with zero elasticity may be forced to sell at marginal cost. The extent to which market power is limited depends on the extent to which total generation capacity exceeds export capacity and on the size of individual generators. A relationship is derived that determines when TCCs will eliminate market power. In the case of a three line network, it is shown that the reduction in market power that can be accomplished with {open_quotes}active transmission rights{close_quotes} can also be accomplished with simple contracts for differences.

  4. Termination for superconducting power transmission systems

    DOEpatents

    Forsyth, E.B.; Jensen, J.E.

    1975-08-26

    This patent relates to a cold, electrical gradient, terminal section for a superconducting cable for alternating current power transmission. A cold electrical gradient section filled with a gaseous coolant acting as an insulator is provided in series with a separate thermal gradient section. (auth)

  5. Four speed ratio automatic power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Daggett, W.E.; Zaracki, S.J.

    1989-12-05

    This patent describes a multiple speed power transmission. It comprises: a power input shaft, a power output shaft and an intermediate shaft located between the input shaft and the output shaft, each shaft being coaxially aligned; first, second and third planetary gear units, each unit having a ring gear, a sun gear, a carrier and planet pinions mounted on the carrier in neshing engagement with the sun gear and ring gear; overdrive brake means; coast clutch means; direct clutch means; band brake means; intermediate brake means; a first overrunning brake; and a second overrunning clutch.

  6. Power electronics in electric utilities: HVDC power transmission systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nozari, F.; Patel, H.S.

    1988-04-01

    High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) power transmission systems constitute an important application of power electronics technology. This paper reviews salient aspects of this growing industry. The paper summarizes the history of HVDC transmission and discusses the economic and technical reasons responsible for development of HVDC systems. The paper also describes terminal design and basic configurations of HVDC systems, as well as major equipments of HVDC transmission system. In this regard, the state-of-the-art technology in the equipments constructions are discussed. Finally, the paper reviews future developments in the HVDC transmission systems, including promising technologies, such as multiterminal configurations, Gate Turn-Off (GTO) devices, forced commutation converters, and new advances in control electronics.

  7. 1996 Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1996-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) 1996 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules, 1996 Ancillary Products and Services Rate Schedule, 1996 Transmission Rate Schedules, and General Rate Schedule Provisions, contained herein, were approved on an interim basis effective October 1, 1996. These rate schedules and provisions were approved by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), United States Department of Energy, in September 1996 (Docket Nos EF96-2011-000 and EF96f-2021-000). These rate schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions were approved on a final basis by the FERC July 30, 1997, in Dept. of Energy--Bonneville Power Administration, Docket Nos. EF96-2011-000 and EF96-2021-000. Except as noted elsewhere, these 1996 rate schedules and provisions supersede BPA`s Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions, and Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions, effective October 1, 1995. These rate schedules and general rate schedule provisions include all errata.

  8. Acoustic Power Transmission Through a Ducted Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Ed

    2016-01-01

    For high-speed ducted fans, when the rotor flowfield is shock-free, the main contribution to the inlet radiated acoustic power comes from the portion of the rotor stator interaction sound field that is transmitted upstream through the rotor. As such, inclusion of the acoustic transmission is an essential ingredient in the prediction of the fan inlet noise when the fan tip relative speed is subsonic. This paper describes a linearized Euler based approach to computing the acoustic transmission of fan tones through the rotor. The approach is embodied in a code called LINFLUX was applied to a candidate subsonic fan called the Advanced Ducted Propulsor (ADP). The results from this study suggest that it is possible to make such prediction with sufficient fidelity to provide an indication of the acoustic transmission trends with the fan tip speed.

  9. Power transmission studies for tethered SP-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.

    1988-01-01

    The tether and/or transmission line connecting the SP-100 to Space Station presents some unorthodox challenges in high voltage engineering, power transmission, and distribution. The line, which doubles as a structural element of this unusual spacecraft, will convey HVDC from SP-100 to the platform in low Earth orbit, and environment where the local plasma is sufficient to cause breakdown of exposed conductors at potentials of only a few hundred volts. Its anticipated several years operation, and continuously accumulating exposure to meteoroids and debris, raises an increasing likelihood that mechanical damage, including perforation, will be sustained in service. The present concept employs an array of gas insulated solid wall aluminum coaxial tubes; a conceptual design which showed basic feasibility of the SP-100 powered Space Station. Practical considerations of launch, deployment and assembly have led to investigation of reel deployable, dielectric insulated coaxial cables. To be competitive, the dielectric would have to operate reliably in a radiation environment under electrical stresses exceeding 50 kV/cm. The SP-100 transmission line high voltage interfaces are also considered.

  10. Power transmission studies for tethered SP-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.

    1988-01-01

    The tether and/or transmission line connecting the SP-100 to space station presents some unorthodox challenges in high voltage engineering, power transmission, and distribution. The line, which doubles as a structural element of this unusual spacecraft, will convey HVDC from SP-100 to the platform in low Earth orbit, and environment where the local plasma is sufficient to cause breakdown of exposed conductors at potentials of only a few hundred volts. Its anticipated several years operation, and continuously accumulating exposure to meteoroids and debris, raises an increasing likelihood that mechanical damage, including perforation, will be sustained in service. The present concept employs an array of gas insulated solid wall aluminum coaxial tubes; a conceptual design which showed basic feasibility of the SP-100 powered space station. Practical considerations of launch, deployment and assembly have lead to investigation of reel deployable, dielectric insulated coaxial cables. To be competitive, the dielectric would have to operate reliably in a radiation environment under electrical stresses exceeding 50 kV/cm. The SP-100 transmission line high voltage interfaces are also considered.

  11. LPT. Aerial of low power test (TAN640 and 641) and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LPT. Aerial of low power test (TAN-640 and -641) and shield test (TAN-645 and -646) facilities. Camera facing southwest. Road at upper right leads to administrative area. Photographer: Jack L. Anderson. Date: March 27, 1959. INEEL negative no. 59-1644. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. 32 CFR 644.431 - Power transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Power transmission lines. 644.431 Section 644... Power transmission lines. (a) Authority. Pursuant to the provisions of section 13(d) of the Surplus... power transmission line and the right of way acquired for its construction is needed for or adaptable...

  13. 32 CFR 644.431 - Power transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Power transmission lines. 644.431 Section 644... Power transmission lines. (a) Authority. Pursuant to the provisions of section 13(d) of the Surplus... power transmission line and the right of way acquired for its construction is needed for or adaptable...

  14. Parameters optimization for magnetic resonance coupling wireless power transmission.

    PubMed

    Li, Changsheng; Zhang, He; Jiang, Xiaohua

    2014-01-01

    Taking maximum power transmission and power stable transmission as research objectives, optimal design for the wireless power transmission system based on magnetic resonance coupling is carried out in this paper. Firstly, based on the mutual coupling model, mathematical expressions of optimal coupling coefficients for the maximum power transmission target are deduced. Whereafter, methods of enhancing power transmission stability based on parameters optimal design are investigated. It is found that the sensitivity of the load power to the transmission parameters can be reduced and the power transmission stability can be enhanced by improving the system resonance frequency or coupling coefficient between the driving/pick-up coil and the transmission/receiving coil. Experiment results are well conformed to the theoretical analysis conclusions.

  15. Transmission Of Power Via Combined Laser Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, Jin H.; Lee, Ja H.

    1992-01-01

    Laser Diode Array (LDA) appears to be most efficient means of transferring power from Earth to satellites and between satellites, in terms of mass and size, of various laser configurations. To form large-scale-array amplifier (LSAA), element LDA's must generate well-defined diffraction-limited beams. Coherent matching of phases among LDA's enables system to generate good beam pattern in far field over thousands of kilometers. By passing beam from master laser through number of LDA amplifiers simultaneously, one realizes coherence among amplified output beams. LSAA used for transmission of power with efficiency of approximately 80 percent into receiver of moderate size at 5,000 km. Also transmits data at high rates by line-of-sight rather than fiber optics.

  16. LPT. Aerial of low power test (TAN640 and 641) and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LPT. Aerial of low power test (TAN-640 and -641) and shield test (TAN-645 and -646) facilities. Camera facing north west. Low power test facility at right. Shield test facility at left. Flight engine test area in background at center left of view. Administrative and A&M areas at right. Photographer: Lowin. Date: February 24, 1965. INEEL negative no. 65-991 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. LPT. Aerial of low power test facility (TAN640 and 641) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LPT. Aerial of low power test facility (TAN-640 and -641) and shield test facility (TAN-645 and -646). Camera facing south. Low power reactor cells at left, then one-story control building; diagonal fence; shield test control building, then (high-bay) pool room. In foreground are electrical pad, water tanks and guard house. Photographer: Lowin. Date: February 24, 1965. INEEL negative no. 65-987 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. Wireless Power Transmission Options for Space Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Seth; Henley, Mark; Davis, Dean; Born, Andrew; Howell, Joe; Mankins, John

    2008-01-01

    Space Solar Power (SSP), combined with Wireless Power Transmission (WPT), offers the far-term potential to solve major energy problems on Earth. In the long-term, we aspire to beam energy to Earth from geostationary Earth orbit (GEO), or even further distances in space. In the near-term, we can beam power over more moderate distances, but still stretch the limits of today s technology. In recent studies, a 100 kWe-class "Power Plug" Satellite and a 10 kWe-class Lunar Polar Solar Power outpost have been considered as the first steps in using these WPT options for SSP. Our current assessments include consideration of orbits, wavelengths, and structural designs to meet commercial, civilian government, and military needs. Notional transmitter and receiver sizes are considered for use in supplying 5 to 15 MW of power. In the longer term, lunar or asteroidal material can be used. By using SSP and WPT technology for near-term missions, we gain experience needed for sound decisions in designing and developing larger systems to send power from space to Earth.

  19. Wireless Power Transmission Options for Space Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Seth; Davis, Dean; Born, Martin; Bayer, Martin; Howell, Joe; Mankins, John

    2008-01-01

    Space Solar Power (SSP), combined with Wireless Power Transmission (WPT), offers the far-term potential to solve major energy problems on Earth. In the long term, we aspire to beam energy to Earth from geostationary Earth orbit (GEO), or even further distances in space. In the near term, we can beam power over more moderate distances, but still stretch the limits of today s technology. In recent studies, a 100 kWe-class "Power Plug" Satellite and a 10 kWe-class Lunar Polar Solar Power outpost have been considered as the first steps in using these WPT options for SSP. Our current assessments include consideration of orbits, wavelengths, and structural designs to meet commercial, civilian government, and military needs. Notional transmitter and receiver sizes are considered for use in supplying 5 to 40 MW of power. In the longer term, lunar or asteroidal material can be used. By using SSP and WPT technology for near-term missions, we gain experience needed for sound decisions in designing and developing larger systems to send power from space to Earth.

  20. Wireless Power Transmission Options for Space Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henley, Mark; Potter, Seth; Howell, Joseph; Mankins, John

    2002-01-01

    Space Solar Power (SSP), combined with Wireless Power Transmission (WPT), offers the far-term potential to solve major energy problems on Earth. In this paper two basic WPT options, using radio waves and light waves, are considered for both long-term and near-term SSP applications. In the long-term, we aspire to beam energy to Earth from geostationary Earth orbit (GEO), or even further distances in space. Accordingly, radio- and light- wave WPT options are compared through a wide range of criteria, each showing certain strengths. In the near-term, we plan to beam power over more moderate distances, but still stretch the limits of today's technology. For the near-term, a 100 kWe-class 'Power Plug' Satellite and a 10 kWe-class Lunar Polar Solar Power outpost are considered as the first steps in using these WPT options for SSP. By using SSP and WPT technology in near-term space science and exploration missions, we gain experience needed for sound decisions in designing and developing larger systems to send power from Space to Earth.

  1. Wireless Power Transmission Options for Space Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henley, Mark; Potter, Seth; Howell, Joseph; Mankins, John

    2007-01-01

    Space Solar Power (SSP), combined with Wireless Power Transmission (WPT), offers the far-term potential to solve major energy problems on Earth. In this presentation, two basic WPT options, using radio waves an d light waves, are considered for both long-term and near-term SSP applications. In the long-term, we aspire to beam energy to Earth from geostationary Earth orbit (GEO), or even further distances in space. Accordingly, radio- and light- wave WPT options are compared through a wide range of criteria, each showing certain strengths. In the near-term, we plan to beam power over more moderate distances, but still stretch the limits of today's technology. For the near-term, a 100 kWe-class "Power Plug" Satellite and a 10 kWe-class Lunar Polar Solar Power outpost are considered as the first steps in using these WPT options for SSP. By using SSP and WPT technology in nearterm space science and exploration missions, we gain experience needed for sound decisions in designing and developing larger systems to send power from Space to Earth.

  2. Wireless Power Transmission Options for Space Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henley, M. W.; Potter, Seth D.; Howell, J.; Mankins, J. C.; Fikes, John C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Space Solar Power (SSP). combined with Wireless Power Transmission (WPT), offers the far-term potential to solve major energy problems on Earth. In this paper WPT options using radio waves and light waves are considered for both long-term and near-term SSP applications. In the long-term, we aspire to beam energy to Earth from geostationary Earth orbit (GEO), or even from the moon. Accordingly, radio- and light- wave WPT options are compared through a wide range of criteria, each showing certain strengths. In the near-term. we plan to beam power over more moderate distances, but still stretch the limits of today's technology. For the near-term, a 100 kWe-class 'Power Plug' Satellite and a 10 kWe-class Lunar Polar Solar Power outpost are considered as the first steps in using these WPT options for SSP. By using SSP and WPT technology in near-term space science and exploration missions, we gain experience needed for sound decisions in designing and developing larger systems to send power from Space to Earth. Power Relay Satellites are also considered as a potential near- to mid-term means to transmit power from Earth to Space and back to distant receiving sites on Earth. This paper briefly considers microwave and laser beaming for an initial Power Relay Satellite system, and concludes that anticipated advancements in laser technology make laser-based concepts more attractive than microwave-based concepts. Social and economic considerations are briefly discussed, and a conceptual description for a laser-based system is offered for illustrative purposes. Continuing technological advances are needed if laser-based systems are to become practical and efficient or near- and far-term applications.

  3. Microwave power - An energy transmission alternative for the year 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalos, E.; Sperber, R.

    1980-01-01

    Recent technological advances related to the feasibility of efficient RF-dc rectification make it likely that by the year 2000 the transmission of power through space will have become a practical reality. Proposals have been made to power helicopters, aircraft, balloons, and rockets remotely. Other proposals consider the transfer of power from point to point on earth via relay through space or a transmission of power from large power sources in space. Attention has also been given to possibilities regarding the transmission of power between various points in the solar system. An outline is provided of the microwave power transmission system envisaged for the solar power satellite, taking into account the transmitting antenna, the receiver on earth, aspects of beam formation and control, transmitter options, the receiving antenna design, and cost and efficiency considerations.

  4. 32 CFR 644.431 - Power transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Power transmission lines. 644.431 Section 644.431... transmission lines. (a) Authority. Pursuant to the provisions of section 13(d) of the Surplus Property Act of... transmission line and the right of way acquired for its construction is needed for or adaptable to...

  5. 32 CFR 644.431 - Power transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Power transmission lines. 644.431 Section 644.431... transmission lines. (a) Authority. Pursuant to the provisions of section 13(d) of the Surplus Property Act of... transmission line and the right of way acquired for its construction is needed for or adaptable to...

  6. 32 CFR 644.431 - Power transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Power transmission lines. 644.431 Section 644.431... transmission lines. (a) Authority. Pursuant to the provisions of section 13(d) of the Surplus Property Act of... transmission line and the right of way acquired for its construction is needed for or adaptable to...

  7. Electricity generation and transmission planning in deregulated power markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yang

    This dissertation addresses the long-term planning of power generation and transmission facilities in a deregulated power market. Three models with increasing complexities are developed, primarily for investment decisions in generation and transmission capacity. The models are presented in a two-stage decision context where generation and transmission capacity expansion decisions are made in the first stage, while power generation and transmission service fees are decided in the second stage. Uncertainties that exist in the second stage affect the capacity expansion decisions in the first stage. The first model assumes that the electric power market is not constrained by transmission capacity limit. The second model, which includes transmission constraints, considers the interactions between generation firms and the transmission network operator. The third model assumes that the generation and transmission sectors make capacity investment decisions separately. These models result in Nash-Cournot equilibrium among the unregulated generation firms, while the regulated transmission network operator supports the competition among generation firms. Several issues in the deregulated electric power market can be studied with these models such as market powers of generation firms and transmission network operator, uncertainties of the future market, and interactions between the generation and transmission sectors. Results deduced from the developed models include (a) regulated transmission network operator will not reserve transmission capacity to gain extra profits; instead, it will make capacity expansion decisions to support the competition in the generation sector; (b) generation firms will provide more power supplies when there is more demand; (c) in the presence of future uncertainties, the generation firms will add more generation capacity if the demand in the future power market is expected to be higher; and (d) the transmission capacity invested by the

  8. Ecological benefits of dc power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Kutuzova, N. B.

    2011-05-15

    The environmental effects of dc overhead transmission lines are examined. The major effects of ac and dc transmission lines are compared. Dc lines have advantages compared to ac lines in terms of electrical safety for people under the lines, biological effects, corona losses, and clearance width.

  9. An aerial radiological survey of the Pilgrim Station Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Plymouth, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, A.E.

    1997-06-01

    Terrestrial radioactivity surrounding the Pilgrim Station Nuclear Power Plant was measured using aerial radiolog- ical survey techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates near the plant and to identify unexpected, man-made radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included land areas within a three-mile radius of the plant site. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that employs sodium iodide, thallium-activated detectors. Exposure rate and photopeak counts were computed from these data and plotted on aerial photographs of the survey area. Several ground-based exposure measurements were made for comparison with the,aerial survey results. Exposure rates in areas surrounding the plant site varied from 6 to 10 microroentgens per hour, with exposure rates below 6 microroentgens per hour occurring over bogs and marshy areas. Man-made radiation was found to be higher than background levels at the plant site. Radation due to nitrogen-1 6, which is produced in the steam cycle of a boiling-water reactor, was the primaty source of activity found at the plant site. Cesium-137 activity at levels slightly above those expected from natural fallout was found at isolated locations inland from the plant site. No other detectable sources of man-made radioactivity were found.

  10. Demonstration of microwave power transmission in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, K.; Patton, A. D.; Kennedy, M. O.; Little, F. E.; Pollock, M. A.; Hummer, K. A.; Mccleary, J. C.; Wei, B. S.; Brown, A. M.; Mcspadden, J.O.

    1991-01-01

    Three experiments are proposed to demonstrate the feasibility of converting dc power into microwave or millimeter-wave beam and transmitting it to users through free space. The generator could be located on earth or on a utility power satellite. The received power would be converted back into dc or ac power. The success of the experiments could lead to the commercial use of this technology.

  11. DC power transmission from the Leningradskaya Nuclear Power Plant to Vyborg

    SciTech Connect

    Koshcheev, L. A.; Shul'ginov, N. G.

    2011-05-15

    DC power transmission from the Leningradskaya Nuclear Power Plant (LAES) to city of Vyborg is proposed. This will provide a comprehensive solution to several important problems in the development and control of the unified power system (EES) of Russia.

  12. Enabling lunar and space missions by laser power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deyoung, R. J.; Nealy, J. E.; Humes, D. H.; Meador, W. E.

    1992-01-01

    Applications are proposed for laser power transmission on the Moon. A solar-pumped laser in lunar orbit would beam power to the lunar surface for conversion into either electricity or propulsion needs. For example, lunar rovers could be much more flexible and lighter than rovers using other primary power sources. Also, laser power could be absorbed by lunar soil to create a hard glassy surface for dust-free roadways and launch pads. Laser power could also be used to power small lunar rockets or orbital transfer vehicles, and finally, photovoltaic laser converters could power remote excavation vehicles and human habitats. Laser power transmission is shown to be a highly flexible, enabling primary power source for lunar missions.

  13. Enabling lunar and space missions by laser power transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Young, R. J.; Nealy, J. E.; Humes, D. H.; Meador, W. E.

    1992-09-01

    Applications are proposed for laser power transmission on the Moon. A solar-pumped laser in lunar orbit would beam power to the lunar surface for conversion into either electricity or propulsion needs. For example, lunar rovers could be much more flexible and lighter than rovers using other primary power sources. Also, laser power could be absorbed by lunar soil to create a hard glassy surface for dust-free roadways and launch pads. Laser power could also be used to power small lunar rockets or orbital transfer vehicles, and finally, photovoltaic laser converters could power remote excavation vehicles and human habitats. Laser power transmission is shown to be a highly flexible, enabling primary power source for lunar missions.

  14. Workshop on Microwave Power Transmission and Reception. Workshop Paper Summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Microwave systems performance and phase control are discussed. Component design and reliability are highlighted. The power amplifiers, radiating elements, rectennas, and solid state configurations are described. The proper sizing of microwave transmission systems is also discussed.

  15. Interference-Aware Transmission Power Control for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Junseok; Kwon, Younggoo

    Maintaining the lowest possible transmission power in the wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is vulnerable to the interference fluctuations because of the bad signal-to-interference-plus-noise-ratio (SINR). The previous transmission power control (TPC) algorithms do not consider much for the interferences from other 2.4GHz devices, which can cause significant performance degradations in real world deployments. This paper proposes the interference-aware transmission power control (I-TPC) algorithm for WSNs. In the proposed algorithm, each node dynamically adjusts the transmission power and the received signal strength (RSS) target, hence the appropriate SINR is provided even when the wireless LAN (WLAN) interferences become strong. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the previous algorithms in terms of the energy and the packet reception ratio (PRR) performance in WLAN interference environments.

  16. Pulse transmission transceiver architecture for low power communications

    DOEpatents

    Dress, Jr., William B.; Smith, Stephen F.

    2003-08-05

    Systems and methods for pulse-transmission low-power communication modes are disclosed. A method of pulse transmission communications includes: generating a modulated pulse signal waveform; transforming said modulated pulse signal waveform into at least one higher-order derivative waveform; and transmitting said at least one higher-order derivative waveform as an emitted pulse. The systems and methods significantly reduce lower-frequency emissions from pulse transmission spread-spectrum communication modes, which reduces potentially harmful interference to existing radio frequency services and users and also simultaneously permit transmission of multiple data bits by utilizing specific pulse shapes.

  17. Diode laser power module for beamed power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. H.; Williams, M. D.; Lee, J. H.; Conway, E. J.

    1991-01-01

    Recent progress with powerful, efficient, and coherent monolithic diode master-oscillator/power-amplifier (M-MOPA) systems is promising for the development of a space-based diode laser power station. A conceptual design of a 50-kW diode laser power module was made for space-based power stations capable of beaming coherent power to the moon, Martian rovers, or other satellites. The laser diode power module consists of a solar photovoltaic array or nuclear power source, diode laser arrays (LDAs), a phase controller, beam-steering optics, a thermal management unit, and a radiator. Thermal load management and other relevant aspects of the system (such as power requirements and system mass) are considered. The 50-kW power module described includes the highest available efficiency of LD M-MOPA system to date. However, the overall efficiency of three amplifier stages, including the coupling efficiency, turns out to be 55.5 percent. Though a chain of PA stages generates a high-power coherent beam, there is a penalty due to the coupling loss between stages. The specific power of the 50-kW module using solar power is 6.58 W/kg.

  18. Power Management for Fuel Cell and Battery Hybrid Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Jared Robert

    As electric powered unmanned aerial vehicles enter a new age of commercial viability, market opportunities in the small UAV sector are expanding. Extending UAV flight time through a combination of fuel cell and battery technologies enhance the scope of potential applications. A brief survey of UAV history provides context and examples of modern day UAVs powered by fuel cells are given. Conventional hybrid power system management employs DC-to-DC converters to control the power split between battery and fuel cell. In this study, a transistor replaces the DC-to-DC converter which lowers weight and cost. Simulation models of a lithium ion battery and a proton exchange membrane fuel cell are developed and integrated into a UAV power system model. Flight simulations demonstrate the operation of the transistor-based power management scheme and quantify the amount of hydrogen consumed by a 5.5 kg fixed wing UAV during a six hour flight. Battery power assists the fuel cell during high throttle periods but may also augment fuel cell power during cruise flight. Simulations demonstrate a 60 liter reduction in hydrogen consumption when battery power assists the fuel cell during cruise flight. Over the full duration of the flight, averaged efficiency of the power system exceeds 98%. For scenarios where inflight battery recharge is desirable, a constant current battery charger is integrated into the UAV power system. Simulation of inflight battery recharge is performed. Design of UAV hybrid power systems must consider power system weight against potential flight time. Data from the flight simulations are used to identify a simple formula that predicts flight time as a function of energy stored onboard the modeled UAV. A small selection of commercially available batteries, fuel cells, and compressed air storage tanks are listed to characterize the weight of possible systems. The formula is then used in conjunction with the weight data to generate a graph of power system weight

  19. Reception-Conversion Subsystem (RXCV) for microwave power transmission system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    As part of a program to demonstrate the feasibility of power transmission from space, an approximately 25 sq m Reception-Conversion Subsystem was designed and tested. The device collects high power microwave energy, converts it into dc, and dissipates it in an instrumented demonstration load.

  20. Power transmission and reception. An overview and perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietz, R. H.

    1980-07-01

    Systems definition and assessment of the microwave power transmission and reception (PTAR) system for the solar power satellite are surveyed. Five different options are discussed and the separate antenna concept using the linear beam klystron to convert from dc to RF energy is described in detail.

  1. A Novel Oscillating Rectenna for Wireless Microwave Power Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McSpadden, J. O.; Dickinson, R. M.; Fan, L.; Chang, K.

    1998-01-01

    A new concept for solid state wireless microwave power transmission is presented. A 2.45 GHz rectenna element that was designed for over 85% RF to dc power conversion efficiency has been used to oscillate at 3.3 GHz with an approximate 1% dc to RF conversion efficiency.

  2. Power transmission and reception. An overview and perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, R. H.

    1980-01-01

    Systems definition and assessment of the microwave power transmission and reception (PTAR) system for the solar power satellite are surveyed. Five different options are discussed and the separate antenna concept using the linear beam klystron to convert from dc to RF energy is described in detail.

  3. Gear synchronizer assembly for power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ikemoto, K.; Terakura, Y.; Funato, Y.

    1987-06-23

    This patent describes a gear synchronizer assembly comprising a gear member rotatable on a transmission shaft, a spline piece mounted on the gear member for rotation and formed at one side with a conical portion with external spline teeth. The improvement on the clutch sleeve is formed at an inner periphery with a first internal radial projection of large circumferential width. A pair of circumferentially spaced second internal radial projections of small circumferential width are arranged at opposite sides of the first internal radial projection. The first and second internal radial projections each are formed at one side with a pair of chamfers and axially movable in corresponding axial grooves in the cylindrical hub portion of the hub member. The synchronizer ring is formed with a pair of raised portions arranged to be engaged with the first internal radial projection. Synchronizer ring is further formed with another pair of raised portions which are arranged to be engaged with the second internal radial projections.

  4. Microwave Power Transmission System Studies. Volume 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, O. E.; Brown, W. C.; Edwards, A.; Meltz, G.; Haley, J. T.; Howell, J. M.; Nathan, A.

    1975-01-01

    A study of microwave power generation, transmission, reception and control was conducted as a part of a program to demonstrate the feasibility of power transmission from geosynchronous orbit. A summary is presented of results concerning design approaches, estimated costs (ROM), critical technology, associated ground and orbital test programs with emphasis on dc to rf conversion, transmitting antenna, phase control, mechanical systems, flight operations, ground power receiving-rectifying antenna with systems analysis, and evaluation. Recommendations for early further in-depth studies complementing the technology program are included.

  5. Resonant ultrasonic wireless power transmission for bio-implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sung Q.; Youm, Woosub; Hwang, Gunn; Moon, Kee S.; Ozturk, Yusuf

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we present the ultrasonic wireless power transmission system as part of a brain-machine interface (BMI) system in development to supply the required electric power. Making a small-size implantable BMI, it is essential to design a low power unit with a rechargeable battery. The ultrasonic power transmission system has two piezoelectric transducers, facing each other between skin tissues converting electrical energy to mechanical vibrational energy or vice versa. Ultrasound is free from the electromagnetic coupling effect and medical frequency band limitations which making it a promising candidate for implantable purposes. In this paper, we present the design of piezoelectric composite transducer, the rectifier circuit, and rechargeable battery that all packaged in biocompatible titanium can. An initial prototype device was built for demonstration purpose. The early experimental results demonstrate the prototype device can reach 50% of energy transmission efficiency in a water medium at 20mm distance and 18% in animal skin tissue at 18mm distance, respectively.

  6. Watt-level wireless power transmission to multiple compact receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garraud, A.; Munzer, D. J.; Althar, M.; Garraud, N.; Arnold, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports an electrodynamic wireless power transmission (EWPT) system using a low-frequency (300 Hz) magnetic field to transmit watt-scale power levels to multiple compact receivers. As compared to inductively or resonantly coupled coils, EWPT facilitates transmission to multiple non-interacting receivers with little restriction on their orientation. A single 3.0 cm3 receiver achieves 1.25 W power transmission with 8% efficiency at a distance of 1 cm (350 mW/cm3 power density) from the transmitter. The same prototype achieves 9 mW at a distance of 9 cm. Moreover, we demonstrate simultaneous recharge of two wearable devices, using two receivers located in arbitrary positions and orientations.

  7. Radiated microwave power transmission system efficiency measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, R. M.; Brown, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    The measured and calculated results from determining the operating efficiencies of a laboratory version of a system for transporting electric power from one point to another via a wireless free space radiated microwave beam are reported. The system's overall end-to-end efficiency as well as intermediated conversion efficiencies were measured. The maximum achieved end-to-end dc-to-ac system efficiency was 54.18% with a probable error of + or - 0.94%. The dc-to-RF conversion efficiency was measured to be 68.87% + or - 1.0% and the RF-to-dc conversion efficiency was 78.67 + or - 1.1%. Under these conditions a dc power of 495.62 + or - 3.57 W was received with a free space transmitter antenna receiver antenna separation of 170.2 cm (67 in).

  8. Microwave power transmission system wherein level of transmitted power is controlled by reflections from receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, W. J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A microwave, wireless, power transmission system is described in which the transmitted power level is adjusted to correspond with power required at a remote receiving station. Deviations in power load produce an antenna impedance mismatch causing variations in energy reflected by the power receiving antenna employed by the receiving station. The variations in reflected energy are sensed by a receiving antenna at the transmitting station and used to control the output power of a power transmitter.

  9. Portable ammonia-borane-based H2 power-pack for unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jung-Eun; Kim, Yujong; Kim, Yongmin; Kim, Kibeom; Lee, Jin Hee; Lee, Dae Hyung; Kim, Yeongcheon; Shin, Seock Jae; Kim, Dong-Min; Kim, Sung-Yug; Kim, Taegyu; Yoon, Chang Won; Nam, Suk Woo

    2014-05-01

    An advanced ammonia borane (AB)-based H2 power-pack is designed to continually drive an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for 57 min using a 200-We polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). In a flight test with the UAV platform integrated with the developed power-pack, pure hydrogen with an average flow rate of 3.8 L(H2) min-1 is generated by autothermal H2-release from AB with tetraethylene glycol dimethylether (T4EGDE) as a promoter. During take-off, a hybridized power management system (PMS) consisting of the fuel cell and an auxiliary lithium-ion battery supplies 500 We at full power simultaneously, while the fuel cell alone provides 150-200 We and further recharges the auxiliary battery upon cruising. Gaseous byproducts identified by in situ Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy during AB dehydrogenation are sequestrated using a mixed absorbent in an H2 purification system. In addition, a real-time monitoring system is employed to determine the remaining filter capacity of the purifier at a ground control system for rapidly responding unpredictable circumstances during flight. Separate experiments are conducted to screen potential materials and methods for enhancing filter capacity in the current H2 refining system. A prospective reactor concept for long-term fuel cell applications is proposed based on the results.

  10. Gear synchronizer assembly for power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ikemoto, K.; Terakura, Y.

    1986-12-02

    This patent describes a gear synchronizer assembly comprising a gear member rotatable on a transmission shaft, a spline piece formed at one side thereof with a conical portion and thereon with external splines and mounted on a hub portion of the gear member for rotation therewith, and a synchronizer ring mounted on the conical portion of the spline piece for frictional engagement therewith. A hub member is fixedly mounted on the shaft for rotation therewith and has a cylindrical hub portion encircling the synchronizer ring and is formed thereon with external splines. A clutch sleeve encircles the cylindrical hub portion of the hub member and has internal splines in continual engagement with the external splines of the hub member. The clutch sleeve is axially shiftable toward and away from the gear member to be engaged at the internal splines thereof with the external splines of the spline piece. A thrust means is included for moving the synchronizer ring toward the spline piece in shifting operation of the clutch sleeve toward the gear member to effect the frictional engagement of the synchronizer ring with the spline piece. The improvement described here wherein the clutch sleeve is formed at its inner periphery with an internal radial projection axially movable in a corresponding axial groove formed in the cylindrical hub portion of the hub member, and wherein the thrust means comprises a radially contractible annular resilient member arranged in surrounding relationship with the synchronizer ring.

  11. Power transmission with parallel identical countershafts

    SciTech Connect

    Raszkowski, J.A.; Klemen, D.

    1991-04-23

    This patent describes an improvement in multiple countershaft transmissions. It includes a housing having a casing, a first end support and a second end support; an input shaft rotatably mounted in the first end support; an output shaft rotatably supported on the input shaft and in the casing; first and second countershafts rotatably supported in one of the end supports and in the casing for rotation on respective axis parallel with the input shaft and the output shaft; a first head gear continuously rotatable with the input shaft; a first head gear continuously rotatable with the input shaft; second and third head gears meshing with the first head gear and continuously rotatable with the first and second countershafts respectively; a plurality of ratio gears rotatably supported on each of the countershafts including a first ratio gear on the first countershaft and a second ratio gear on the second countershaft; reverse gear means including a first member rotatable with the first ratio gear and a second member rotatably supported on the second countershaft; synchronizer clutch means selectively and alternatively connectable with the second ratio gear and the second member of the reverse gear means; output gear means drivingly connected with the output shaft and including a first ratio output gear meshing with the first ratio gear and a second ratio output gear meshing with the second ratio gear; first selectively engageable friction clutch means for connecting the first ratio gear with the first countershaft for completing a low forward drive ratio between the input and output shafts.

  12. A sonic satellite power system microwave power transmission simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, J. H.; Rice, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    A simulator is described which generates and transmits a beam of audible sound energy mathematically similar to the SPS power beam. The simulator provides a laboratory means for analysis of ground based closed loop SPS phase control and of ionospheric effects on the SPS microwave power beam.

  13. Rate and power efficient image compressed sensing and transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olanigan, Saheed; Cao, Lei; Viswanathan, Ramanarayanan

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a suboptimal quantization and transmission scheme for multiscale block-based compressed sensing images over wireless channels. The proposed method includes two stages: dealing with quantization distortion and transmission errors. First, given the total transmission bit rate, the optimal number of quantization bits is assigned to the sensed measurements in different wavelet sub-bands so that the total quantization distortion is minimized. Second, given the total transmission power, the energy is allocated to different quantization bit layers based on their different error sensitivities. The method of Lagrange multipliers with Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions is used to solve both optimization problems, for which the first problem can be solved with relaxation and the second problem can be solved completely. The effectiveness of the scheme is illustrated through simulation results, which have shown up to 10 dB improvement over the method without the rate and power optimization in medium and low signal-to-noise ratio cases.

  14. Transmission grating stretcher for contrast enhancement of high power lasers.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yunxin; Hooker, Chris; Chekhlov, Oleg; Hawkes, Steve; Collier, John; Rajeev, P P

    2014-12-01

    We propose, for the first time, a transmission grating stretcher for high power lasers and demonstrate its superiority over conventional, reflective gold grating stretchers in terms of pulse temporal quality. We show that, compared to a conventional stretcher with the same stretching factor, the transmission-grating based stretcher yields more than an order of magnitude improvement in the contrast pedestal. We have also quantitatively characterized the roughness of the grating surfaces and estimated its impact on the contrast pedestal.

  15. Continuously-Variable Positive-Mesh Power Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    Proposed transmission with continuously-variable speed ratio couples two mechanical trigonometric-function generators. Transmission is expected to handle higher loads than conventional variable-pulley drives; and, unlike variable pulley, positive traction through entire drive train with no reliance on friction to transmit power. Able to vary speed continuously through zero and into reverse. Possible applications in instrumentation where drive-train slippage cannot be tolerated.

  16. Flex-gear electrical power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John; Peritt, Jonathan

    1993-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop an alternative way of transferring electricity across a continuously rotating joint, with little wear and the potential for low electrical noise. The problems with wires, slip rings, electromagnetic couplings, and recently invented roll-rings are discussed. Flex-gears, an improvement of roll-rings, are described. An entire class of flexgear devices is developed. Finally, the preferred flex-gear device is optimized for maximum electrical contact and analyzed for average mechanical power loss and maximum stress. For a device diameter of six inches, the preferred device is predicted to have a total electrical contact area of 0.066 square inches. In the preferred device, a small amount of internal sliding produces a 0.003 inch-pound torque that resists the motion of the device.

  17. HVDC power transmission electrode siting and design

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, R.J.; Dabkowski, J.; Hauth, R.L.

    1997-04-01

    This research strives to shed light on the feasibility and practicality of using deep earth electrodes to permit their use for extended periods without adverse consequences. This report begins with a review of the fundamentals associated with current conduction in earth, including the various techniques available for measuring the earth`s electrical properties. The sources of existing data are discussed and some specific data for selected regions of the U.S. and Canada are reviewed as examples. Electrode technology and design issues are reviewed and recent experience gained by New England Power and Hydro-Quebec is discussed. The issues associated with direct current flowing in underground pipelines (and other facilities) are described and the present-day mitigation measures are evaluated. Suggestions are made for further R&D in the coordination of cathodic protection systems, an area that has evolved as an empirical, trial- and-error art more than a science.

  18. Meteorological effects on laser propagation for power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beverly, R. E., III

    1982-01-01

    An examination of possible laser operating parameters for power transmission to earth from solar power satellites is presented, with particular attention paid to assuring optimal delivery at midlatitudes. The degradation of beam efficiency due to molecular scattering, molecular absorption, aerosol scattering, and aerosol absorption during beam propagation through the atmosphere can be alleviated by judicious choice of wavelength windows, elevating the receptor sites, using a vertical propagation path, or by hole boring, i.e., vaporizing the aerosol particles in the beam path. Analyses are given for the beam propagation through fog, haze, clouds, and snow using various transitions. Only weapons-quality lasers are seen as being capable of boring through clouds and aerosols, employing a CW beam with superimposed pulses at high power densities. It is concluded that further short wavelength transmission experiments be performed to demonstrate transmission feasibility with the CW/pulsed mode of beam propagation.

  19. Free-space microwave power transmission study, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    The results of an investigation of the technology of free-space power transmission by microwave beam are presented. A description of the steps that were taken to increase the overall dc to dc efficiency of microwave power transmission from 15 percent to over 50 percent is given. Included in this overall efficiency were the efficiencies of the dc to microwave conversion, the microwave transmission itself, and the microwave to dc conversion. Improvements in launching the microwave beam with high efficiency by means of a dual mode horn resulted in 95 percent of the output of the microwave generator reaching the receiving area. Emphasis was placed upon successive improvements in reception and rectification of the microwave power, resulting in the design of a rectenna device for this purpose whose efficiency was 75 percent. The procedures and the hardware developed were the basis for tests certified by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in which an overall dc to dc efficiency of 54 percent was achieved.

  20. European Transmission Interconnection; Eurasian power grid

    SciTech Connect

    Posch, J. )

    1991-09-01

    Systems and philosophies perceived on a grand scale, encompassing new ideas, are often characterized as a dream. But in fact, such dreams often lead to the first step to fruitful development. This article is based on a preliminary study of the existing electrical high-tension networks of Western Europe, Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union - which, as explained herein, may be merged into a multinational energy supply system. Such a system would constitute a completely interconnected Eurasian Power Grid. The idea of a Eurasian super grid, spanning from the Atlantic to the Ural and Siberia, is not new. Various studies have been conducted by both western Europe and the Soviet Union on this topic. Our world is currently in an era of extra high voltage (EHV) and ultra high voltage (UHV) electrical systems. This translates into existing UHV lines of 1150 kV which have already been proven in successful operation. Such UHV systems are capable of transmitting thousands of megawatts over a distance of a 1000 miles. Furthermore, national boundaries are not more a hindrance than the challenge of interconnecting complete networks into an overall synchronized working system with load exchange capabilities in all directions.

  1. Dynamic Power Flow Controller: Compact Dynamic Phase Angle Regulators for Transmission Power Routing

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-03

    GENI Project: Varentec is developing compact, low-cost transmission power controllers with fractional power rating for controlling power flow on transmission networks. The technology will enhance grid operations through improved use of current assets and by dramatically reducing the number of transmission lines that have to be built to meet increasing contributions of renewable energy sources like wind and solar. The proposed transmission controllers would allow for the dynamic control of voltage and power flow, improving the grid’s ability to dispatch power in real time to the places where it is most needed. The controllers would work as fail-safe devices whereby the grid would be restored to its present operating state in the event of a controller malfunction instead of failing outright. The ability to affordably and dynamically control power flow with adequate fail-safe switchgear could open up new competitive energy markets which are not possible under the current regulatory structure and technology base.

  2. Microwave beam power transmission at an arbitrary range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinero, L. R.; Christian, J. L., Jr.; Acosta, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    The power transfer efficiency between two circular apertures at an arbitrary range is obtained numerically. The apertures can have generally different sizes and arbitrary taper illuminations. The effects of distance and taper illumination on the transmission efficiency are investigated for equal size apertures. The result shows that microwave beam power is more effective at close ranges, namely distances less than 2D(exp 2)/lambda. Also shown was the power transfer efficiency increase with taper illumination for close range distances. A computer program was developed for calculating the power transfer efficiency at an arbitrary range.

  3. Enhanced Wireless Power Transmission Using Strong Paramagnetic Response.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Dukju; Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2014-03-01

    A method of quasi-static magnetic resonant coupling has been presented for improving the power transmission efficiency (PTE) in near-field wireless power transmission, which improves upon the state of the art. The traditional source resonator on the transmitter side is equipped with an additional resonator with a resonance frequency that is tuned substantially higher than the magnetic field excitation frequency. This additional resonator enhances the magnetic dipole moment and the effective permeability of the power transmitter, owing to a phenomenon known as the strong paramagnetic response. Both theoretical calculations and experimental results show increased PTE due to amplification of the effective permeability. In measurements, the PTE was improved from 57.8% to 64.2% at the nominal distance of 15 cm when the effective permeability was 2.6. The power delivered to load was also improved significantly, with the same 10 V excitation voltage, from 0.38 to 5.26 W.

  4. Portable wireless power transmission system for video capsule endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhiwei, Jia; Guozheng, Yan; Bingquan, Zhu

    2014-10-01

    Wireless power transmission is considered a practical way of overcoming the power shortage of wireless capsule endoscopy (VCE). However, most patients cannot tolerate the long hours of lying in a fixed transmitting coil during diagnosis. To develop a portable wireless power transmission system for VCE, a compact transmitting coil and a portable inverter circuit driven by rechargeable batteries are proposed. The couple coils, optimized considering the stability and safety conditions, are 28 turns of transmitting coil and six strands of receiving coil. The driven circuit is designed according to the portable principle. Experiments show that the integrated system could continuously supply power to a dual-head VCE for more than 8 h at a frame rate of 30 frames per second with resolution of 320 × 240. The portable VCE exhibits potential for clinical applications, but requires further improvement and tests.

  5. Beamed microwave power transmission and its application to space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, William C.; Eves, E. E.

    1992-01-01

    The general principles and special components of beamed microwave power transmission systems are outlined and their application to the space program are discussed. The beamed system is defined as starting with a dc source of power at the transmitting end, converting it to a microwave beam for transmission through space, and ending with the dc power output at the receiving end. An experimentally measured and certified dc-to-dc efficiency of 54 percent has been achieved, using this definition. The application discussed is that of a LEO to GEO transportation system that depends upon vehicles propelled by electric thrusters whose power is supplied by a microwave beam originating at the earth's surface. The advantages of the all-electronic system over a chemically propelled system are enumerated. The principles of space propulsion, particularly as they relate to electric propulsion, are outlined. Key components of the system and environmental considerations are discussed.

  6. Fuel cell powered small unmanned aerial systems (UASs) for extended endurance flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Deryn; Jiang, R.; Dunbar, Z.; Grew, Kyle; McClure, J.

    2015-05-01

    Small unmanned aerial systems (UASs) have been used for military applications and have additional potential for commercial applications [1-4]. For the military, these systems provide valuable intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance and target acquisition (ISRTA) capabilities for units at the infantry, battalion, and company levels. The small UASs are light-weight, manportable, can be hand-launched, and are capable of carrying payloads. Currently, most small UASs are powered by lithium-ion or lithium polymer batteries; however, the flight endurance is usually limited less than two hours and requires frequent battery replacement. Long endurance small UAS flights have been demonstrated through the implementation of a fuel cell system. For instance, a propane fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack has been used to power a small UAS and shown to extend mission flight time. The research and development efforts presented here not only apply to small UASs, but also provide merit to the viability of extending mission operations for other unmanned systems applications.

  7. Reducing Size, Weight, and Power (SWaP) of Perception Systems in Small Autonomous Aerial Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Kennie H.; Gross, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The objectives are to examine recent trends in the reduction of size, weight, and power (SWaP) requirements of sensor systems for environmental perception and to explore new technology that may overcome limitations in current systems. Improving perception systems to facilitate situation awareness is critical in the move to introduce increasing autonomy in aerial systems. Whether the autonomy is in the current state-of-the-art of increasing automation or is enabling cognitive decisions that facilitate adaptive behavior, collection of environmental information and fusion of that information into knowledge that can direct actuation is imperative to decisions resulting in appropriate behavior. Artificial sensory systems such as cameras, radar, LIDAR, and acoustic sensors have been in use on aircraft for many years but, due to the large size and weight of the airplane and electrical power made available through powerful engines, the SWaP requirements of these sensors was inconsequential. With the proliferation of Remote Piloted Vehicles (RPV), the trend is in significant reduction in SWaP of the vehicles. This requires at least an equivalent reduction in SWaP for the sensory systems. A survey of some currently available sensor systems and changing technology will reveal the trend toward reduction of SWaP of these systems and will predict future reductions. A new technology will be introduced that provides an example of a desirable new trend. A new device replaces multiple conventional sensory devices facilitating synchronization, localization, altimetry, collision avoidance, terrain mapping, and data communication in a single integrated, small form-factor, extremely lightweight, and low power device that it is practical for integration into small autonomous vehicles and can facilitate cooperative behavior. The technology is based on Ultra WideBand (UWB) radio using short pulses of energy rather than continuous sine waves. The characteristics of UWB yield several

  8. Case study on the US superconducting power transmission program

    SciTech Connect

    Hammel, E.F.

    1996-02-01

    After the 1911 discovery of superconductivity (the abrupt loss of electrical resistance in certain materials at very low temperatures), attempts were made to make practical use of this phenomenon. Initially these attempts failed, but in the early 1960s (after 50 years of research) they succeeded. By then, the projected growth in the production and consumption of electrical energy required much higher capacity power transmission capabilities than were available or likely to become available from incremental improvements in existing transmission technology. Since superconductors were capable in principle of transmitting huge amounts of power, research programs to develop and demonstrate superconducting transmission lines were initiated in the US and abroad. The history of the US program, including the participants, their objectives, funding and progress made, is outlined. Since the R&D program was terminated before the technology was completely demonstrated, the reasons for and consequences of this action are discussed in a final section.

  9. Transmission Reinforcements in the Central American Regional Power System

    SciTech Connect

    Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Vallem, Mallikarjuna R.; Samaan, Nader A.; Makarov, Yuri V.; Vyakaranam, Bharat; Nguyen, Tony B.; Munoz, Christian; Herrera, Ricardo; Midence, Diego; Shpitsberg, Anna

    2016-07-25

    The Central American regional interconnected power system (SER) connects the countries members of the Central American regional electricity market (MER): Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. The SER was a result of a long term regional effort, and was initially conceived to transfer 300 MW between countries. However, the current transfer limits between countries range from 70 MW to 300 MW. Regional entities, like CRIE (Regional Commission of Electrical Interconnection), EOR (Central American Regional System Operator), and CDMER (Board of Directors of the Central American Market) are working on coordinating the national transmission expansion plans with regional transmission planning efforts. This paper presents experience in Central America region to recommend transmission reinforcements to achieve 300 MW transfer capacity between any pair of member countries of the Central American regional electricity market (MER). This paper also provides a methodology for technical analysis and for coordination among the regional and national entities. This methodology is unique for transmission systems of these characteristics.

  10. Lightning location system supervising Swedish power transmission network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melin, Stefan A.

    1991-01-01

    For electric utilities, the ability to prevent or minimize lightning damage on personnel and power systems is of great importance. Therefore, the Swedish State Power Board, has been using data since 1983 from a nationwide lightning location system (LLS) for accurately locating lightning ground strikes. Lightning data is distributed and presented on color graphic displays at regional power network control centers as well as at the national power system control center for optimal data use. The main objectives for use of LLS data are: supervising the power system for optimal and safe use of the transmission and generating capacity during periods of thunderstorms; warning service to maintenance and service crews at power line and substations to end operations hazardous when lightning; rapid positioning of emergency crews to locate network damage at areas of detected lightning; and post analysis of power outages and transmission faults in relation to lightning, using archived lightning data for determination of appropriate design and insulation levels of equipment. Staff have found LLS data useful and economically justified since the availability of power system has increased as well as level of personnel safety.

  11. Diode laser satellite systems for beamed power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M. D.; Kwon, J. H.; Walker, G. H.; Humes, D. H.

    1990-01-01

    A power system composed of an orbiting laser satellite and a surface-based receiver/converter is described. Power is transmitted from the satellite to the receiver/converter by laser beam. The satellite components are: (1) solar collector; (2) blackbody; (3) photovoltaic cells; (4) heat radiators; (5) laser system; and (6) transmission optics. The receiver/converter components are: receiver dish; lenticular lens; photocells; and heat radiator. Although the system can be adapted to missions at many locations in the solar system, only two are examined here: powering a lunar habitat; and powering a lunar rover. Power system components are described and their masses, dimensions, operating powers, and temperatures, are estimated using known or feasible component capabilities. The critical technologies involved are discussed and other potential missions are mentioned.

  12. Complex dynamics of blackouts in power transmission systems.

    PubMed

    Carreras, B A; Lynch, V E; Dobson, I; Newman, D E

    2004-09-01

    In order to study the complex global dynamics of a series of blackouts in power transmission systems a dynamical model of such a system has been developed. This model includes a simple representation of the dynamical evolution by incorporating the growth of power demand, the engineering response to system failures, and the upgrade of generator capacity. Two types of blackouts have been identified, each having different dynamical properties. One type of blackout involves the loss of load due to transmission lines reaching their load limits but no line outages. The second type of blackout is associated with multiple line outages. The dominance of one type of blackout over the other depends on operational conditions and the proximity of the system to one of its two critical points. The model displays characteristics such as a probability distribution of blackout sizes with power tails similar to that observed in real blackout data from North America.

  13. High-Power Microwave Transmission and Mode Conversion Program

    SciTech Connect

    Vernon, Ronald J.

    2015-08-14

    This is a final technical report for a long term project to develop improved designs and design tools for the microwave hardware and components associated with the DOE Plasma Fusion Program. We have developed basic theory, software, fabrication techniques, and low-power measurement techniques for the design of microwave hardware associated gyrotrons, microwave mode converters and high-power microwave transmission lines. Specifically, in this report we discuss our work on designing quasi-optical mode converters for single and multiple frequencies, a new method for the analysis of perturbed-wall waveguide mode converters, perturbed-wall launcher design for TE0n mode gyrotrons, quasi-optical traveling-wave resonator design for high-power testing of microwave components, and possible improvements to the HSX microwave transmission line.

  14. An automotive transmission for automotive gas turbine power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polak, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    A joint government-industry program was initiated to investigate the two-shaft gas turbine concept as an alternative to present-day automotive powerplants. Both were examined, compared and evaluated on the basis of the federal automotive driving cycle in terms of specific fuel/power/speed characteristics of the engine and the efficiency and performance of the transmission. The results showed that an optimum match of vehicle, gas turbine engine, and conventional automatic transmission is capable of a significant improvement in fuel economy. This system offers many advantages that should lead to its wide acceptance in future vehicles.

  15. Computation of electric power production cost with transmission contraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earle, Robert Leonard

    The production cost in operating an electric power system is the cost of generation to meet the customer load or demand. Production costing models are used in analysis of electric power systems to estimate this cost for various purposes such as evaluating long term investments in generating capacity, contracts for sales, purchases, or trades of power. A multi-area production costing model includes the effects of transmission constraints in calculating costs. Including transmission constraints in production costing models is important because the electric power industry is interconnected and trades or sales of power amongst systems can lower costs. This thesis develops an analytical model for multi-area production costing. The advantage of this approach is that it explicitly examines the underlying structure of the problem. The major contributions of our research are as follows. First, we develop the multivariate model not just for transportation type models of electric power network flows, but also for the direct current power flow model. Second, this thesis derives the multi-area production cost curve in the general case. This new result gives a simple formula for determination of system cost and the gradient of cost with respect to transmission capacities. Third, we give an algorithm for generating the non-redundant constraints from a Gale-Hoffman type region. The Gale-Hoffman conditions characterize feasibility of flow in a network. We also gather together some existing and new results on Gale-Hoffman regions and put them in a unified framework. Fourth, in order to derive the multi-area production cost curves and also to perform the integration of the multivariate Edgeworth series, we need wedge shaped regions (a wedge is the affine image of an orthant). We give an algorithm for decomposing any polyhedral set into wedges. Fifth, this thesis gives a new method for one dimensional numerical integration of the trivariate normal. The best methods previously known

  16. Impedance matching wireless power transmission system for biomedical devices.

    PubMed

    Lum, Kin Yun; Lindén, Maria; Tan, Tian Swee

    2015-01-01

    For medical application, the efficiency and transmission distance of the wireless power transfer (WPT) are always the main concern. Research has been showing that the impedance matching is one of the critical factors for dealing with the problem. However, there is not much work performed taking both the source and load sides into consideration. Both sides matching is crucial in achieving an optimum overall performance, and the present work proposes a circuit model analysis for design and implementation. The proposed technique was validated against experiment and software simulation. Result was showing an improvement in transmission distance up to 6 times, and efficiency at this transmission distance had been improved up to 7 times as compared to the impedance mismatch system. The system had demonstrated a near-constant transfer efficiency for an operating range of 2cm-12cm.

  17. Electric power transmission for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center (HNEC)

    SciTech Connect

    Harty, H.; Dowis, W.J.

    1983-06-01

    The original study of transmission for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center (HNEC), which was completed in September 1975, was updated in June 1978. The present 1983 revision takes cognizance of recent changes in the electric power situation of the PNW with respect to: (1) forecasts of load growth, (2) the feasibility of early use of 1100 kV transmission, and (3) the narrowing opportunities for siting nuclear plants in the region. The purpose of this update is to explore and describe additions to the existing transmission system that would be necessary to accommodate three levels of generation at HNEC. Comparisons with a PNW system having new thermal generating capacity distributed throughout the marketing region are not made as was done in earlier versions.

  18. A Q-Modulation Technique for Efficient Inductive Power Transmission.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Mehdi; Lee, Byunghun; Yeon, Pyungwoo; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2015-12-01

    A fully-integrated power management ASIC for efficient inductive power transmission has been presented capable of automatic load transformation using a method, called Q-modulation. Q-modulation is an adaptive scheme that offers load matching against a wide range of loading (RL ) and coupling distance (d23 ) variations in inductive links to maintain high power transfer efficiency (PTE). It is suitable for inductive powering implantable microelectronic devices (IMDs), recharging mobile electronics, and electric vehicles. In Q-modulation, the zero-crossings of the induced current in the receiver (Rx) LC-tank are detected and a low-loss switch chops the Rx LC-tank for part of the power carrier cycle to form a high-Q LC-tank and store the maximum energy, which is then transferred to RL by opening the switch. By adjusting the duty cycle (D), the loaded-Q of the Rx LC-tank can be dynamically modulated to compensate for variations in RL . A Q-modulation power management (QMPM) prototype chip was fabricated in a 0.35-μm standard CMOS process, occupying 4.8 mm(2). In a 1.45 W wireless power transfer setup, using a class-E power amplifier (PA) operating at 2 MHz, the QMPM successfully increased the inductive link PTE and the overall power efficiency by 98.5% and 120.7% at d23 = 8 cm, respectively, by compensating for 150 Ω variation in RL at D = 45%.

  19. Transmission media appropriate laser-microwave solar power satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, C. A.; Gray, D.

    2012-10-01

    As a solution to the most critical problems with Solar power Satellite (SPS) development, a system is proposed which uses laser power transmission in space to a receiver high in the atmosphere that relays the power to Earth by either cable or microwave power transmission. It has been shown in the past that such hybrid systems have the advantages of a reduction in the mass of equipment required in geostationary orbit and avoidance of radio frequency interference with other satellites and terrestrial communications systems. The advantage over a purely laser power beam SPS is that atmospheric absorption is avoided and outages due to clouds and precipitation will not occur, allowing for deployment in the equatorial zone and guaranteeing year round operation. This proposal is supported by brief literature surveys and theoretical calculations to estimate crucial parameters in this paper. In relation to this concept, we build on a recently proposed method to collect solar energy by a tethered balloon at high altitude because it enables a low-cost start for bringing the first Watt of power to Earth giving some quick return on investment, which is desperately missing in the traditional SPS concept. To tackle the significant problem of GW-class SPSs of high launch cost per kg mass brought to space, this paper introduces a concept which aims to achieve a superior power over mass ratio compared to traditional satellite designs by the use of thin-film solar cells combined with optical fibres for power delivery. To minimise the aperture sizes and cost of the transmitting and receiving components of the satellite and high altitude receiver, closed-loop laser beam pointing and target tracking is crucial for pointing a laser beam onto a target area that is of similar size to the beam's diameter. A recently developed technique based on optical phase conjugation is introduced and its applicability for maintaining power transmission between the satellite and high altitude receiver is

  20. HIGH FREQUENCY POWER TRANSMISSION LINE FOR CYCLOTRONS AND THE LIKE

    DOEpatents

    Armstrong, W.J.

    1954-04-20

    High-frequency power transmission systems, particularly a stacked capacitance alternating power current transmission line wherein maximum utilization of the effective conductios skin of the line conductors is achieved while enabling a low impedance to be obtained are reported. The transmission line consists of a number of flat metal strips with interleaved dielectric strips. The metal dielectric strips are coiled spirally with the axis of the spiral extending along the length of the strips, and the alternating metal strips at the output end have outwardly extending aligned lugs which are directly strapped together and connected to the respective terminals on the load. At the input end of the transmission line, similarly, the alternate metal strips are directly strapped together and connected to an altereating current source. With the arrangement described each metal strip conducts on both sides, so that the metal strips are designed to have a thickness corresponding to twice the depth of the "skin effect" conducting lamina of each conductor at the source frequency.

  1. Power transmission line operating modes calculation with controllable phase shifters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astashev, M. G.; Novikov, M. A.; Panfilov, D. I.; Rashitov, P. A.; Remizevich, T. V.; Fedorova, M. I.

    2016-12-01

    The article contains the analysis of the influence of the phase shifter (PS) on the energy processes in the power transmission line in terms of the two-unit model of the electric network. The approach to synthesis of the models regulated by the phase shifter providing for both calculation of the steady operation modes of the electric networks with the phase shifters and research of the electromagnetic processes and designing of the device itself is offered.

  2. Factors that affect the fatigue strength of power transmission shafting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1984-01-01

    A long standing objective in the design of power transmission shafting is to eliminate excess shaft material without compromising operational reliability. A shaft design method is presented which accounts for variable amplitude loading histories and their influence on limited life designs. The effects of combined bending and torsional loading are considered along with a number of application factors known to influence the fatigue strength of shafting materials. Among the factors examined are surface condition, size, stress concentration, residual stress and corrosion fatigue.

  3. American lifelines alliance efforts to improve electric power transmission reliability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nishenko, S.P.; Savage, W.U.; Honegger, D.G.; McLane, T.R.; ,

    2002-01-01

    A study was performed on American Lifelines Alliance (ALA) efforts to improve electric power transmission reliability. ALA is a public-private partnership project, with the goal of reducing risks to lifelines from natural hazards and human threat events. The mechanism used by ALA for developing national guidelines for lifeline systems is dependent upon using existing Standards Developing Organizations (SDO) accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) as means to achieve national consensus.

  4. Power transmission coefficients for multi-step index optical fibres.

    PubMed

    Aldabaldetreku, Gotzon; Zubia, Joseba; Durana, Gaizka; Arrue, Jon

    2006-02-20

    The aim of the present paper is to provide a single analytical expression of the power transmission coefficient for leaky rays in multi-step index (MSI) fibres. This expression is valid for all tunnelling and refracting rays and allows us to evaluate numerically the power attenuation along an MSI fibre of an arbitrary number of layers. We validate our analysis by comparing the results obtained for limit cases of MSI fibres with those corresponding to step-index (SI) and graded-index (GI) fibres. We also make a similar comparison between this theoretical expression and the use of the WKB solutions of the scalar wave equation.

  5. Power and signal transmission for mobile teleoperated systems

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, A.C. Jr.; Hamel, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    Appropriate means must be furnished for supplying power and for sending controlling commands to mobile teleoperated systems. Because a sizable number of possibilities are available for such applications, methods used in designing both the power and communications systems built into mobile vehicles that serve in radiological emergencies must be carefully selected. This paper describes a number of umbilical, on-board, and wireless systems used in tranmitting power that are available for mobile teleoperator services. The pros and cons of selecting appropriate methods from a list of possible communication systems (wired, fiber optic, and radio frequency) are also examined. Moreover, hybrid systems combining wireless power transmissions with command-information signals are also possible.

  6. Investigation of a stripline transmission line structure for gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line high power microwave sources.

    PubMed

    Reale, D V; Parson, J M; Neuber, A A; Dickens, J C; Mankowski, J J

    2016-03-01

    A stripline gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line (NLTL) was constructed out of yttrium iron garnet ferrite and tested at charge voltages of 35 kV-55 kV with bias fields ranging from 10 kA/m to 20 kA/m. Typically, high power gyromagnetic NLTLs are constructed in a coaxial geometry. While this approach has many advantages, including a uniform transverse electromagnetic (TEM) mode, simple interconnection between components, and the ability to use oil or pressurized gas as an insulator, the coaxial implementation suffers from complexity of construction, especially when using a solid insulator. By moving to a simpler transmission line geometry, NLTLs can be constructed more easily and arrayed on a single substrate. This work represents a first step in exploring the suitability of various transmission line structures, such as microstrips and coplanar waveguides. The resulting high power microwave (HPM) source operates in ultra high frequency (UHF) band with an average bandwidth of 40.1% and peak rf power from 2 MW to 12.7 MW.

  7. Lock-up control system for automobile automatic power transmissions

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuoka, T.; Sumida, S.

    1986-04-08

    This patent describes a lock-up control system for an automobile's automatic power transmission. This system consists of a hydraulic torque converter including an input member and an output member, multiple stage transmission gear, the transmission gear means being provided with gear stages which are selected by changing power transmitting paths therein. An engine speed sensor for sensing engine load. A gear stage selector connected with the engine speed sensing means and the load sensor to receive output signals from the speed sensor and the load sensing means. A lock-up zone discriminator is connected with the engine speed sensor and the load sensor to receive the output signals from each of the sensors. The lock-up zone discriminator includes lock-up control map means having at least one lock-up release data line and at least one lock-up engage data line which are drawn on the basis of engine speed and engine load for at least one of the gear stages. The lock-up engage data line is located at a higher engine speed side than the release data line. In the lock-up zone are discriminating means for comparing the output signals with the data lines and generating a control signal for controlling engagement of the lock-up means, gear shift means for selectively shifting the gear stage by changing the power transmitting path in the multiple stage transmission gear means. Electro-megnetic means are responsive to the signal from the gear stage selecting means for controlling the gear shift means. Lock-up control means for releasing the lock-up means are irrespective of the control signal from the lock-up zone discriminating means when en engine throttle valve is full closed and enlarging the lock-up zone so that the lock-up means is engaged when the engine throttle valve is opened again to a position included in the enlarged lock-up zone.

  8. A portable wireless power transmission system for video capsule endoscopes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yu; Yan, Guozheng; Zhu, Bingquan; Liu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Wireless power transmission (WPT) technology can solve the energy shortage problem of the video capsule endoscope (VCE) powered by button batteries, but the fixed platform limited its clinical application. This paper presents a portable WPT system for VCE. Besides portability, power transfer efficiency and stability are considered as the main indexes of optimization design of the system, which consists of the transmitting coil structure, portable control box, operating frequency, magnetic core and winding of receiving coil. Upon the above principles, the correlation parameters are measured, compared and chosen. Finally, through experiments on the platform, the methods are tested and evaluated. In the gastrointestinal tract of small pig, the VCE is supplied with sufficient energy by the WPT system, and the energy conversion efficiency is 2.8%. The video obtained is clear with a resolution of 320×240 and a frame rate of 30 frames per second. The experiments verify the feasibility of design scheme, and further improvement direction is discussed.

  9. Power transmission for four-wheel drive vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuzuki, I.

    1987-03-17

    A power transmission is described for a vehicle having front and rear wheel drive and a prime mover, the transmission comprising: a change-speed gearing operatively disposed in a transmission casing secured to the prime mover, the gearing including an input shaft drivingly connected to the prime mover, and an output shaft drivingly connected to the input shaft; a first drive shaft drivingly connected to the front wheels; a second drive shaft coaxial with the first drive shaft and drivingly connected to the rear wheels; and an intermediate differential unit drivingly interconnecting the output shaft and the first and second drive shafts, the differential unit comprising: an input gear coaxially surrounding the first drive shaft and drivingly connected to the output shaft; coaxial planetary gear sets providing a plurality of drive power trains at different gear ratios, each of the gear set including sun, planet and ring gears. The gear sets are drivingly connected to one of the input gear and second drive shaft, and a portion of the other of the input gear and second drive shaft coaxially surround and define the ring gears of the gear sets; and means drivingly connected to the first drive shaft for selectively engaging one of the gear sets into driving connection with the first and second drive shafts.

  10. Power transmission device for four wheel drive vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Iwatsuki, T.; Kawamoto, M.; Kano, T.

    1988-12-13

    This patent describes a power transmission device with an improved differential motion limiting mechanism for a four wheel drive vehicle having automatic transmission means, front wheel differential gear means, differential motion limiting means and transfer unit means including center differential gear means, comprising: a first gear mount casing having a gear adapted to mesh with an output of a transmission; a differential motion limiting device arranged together with a front wheel differential gear in the first gear mount casing. The front wheel differential gear having a first diff-carrier and the differential motion limiting device comprising a hydraulic friction clutch for engaging and disengaging the first gear mount casing with the first diff-carrier of the front wheel differential gear; a second gear mount casing disposed coaxially with respect to the first gear mount casing; and a transfer unit including a center differential gear arranged in the second gear mount casing, the center differential gear comprising a second diff-carrier coupled with the first gear mount casing, a first side gear coupled with the first diff-carrier of the front wheel differential gear, and a second side gear coupled with the second gear mount casing for transmitting power to the rear wheels.

  11. Normalized power transmission between ABP and ICP in TBI.

    PubMed

    Shahsavari, S; Hallen, T; McKelvey, T; Ritzen, C; Rydenhag, B

    2009-01-01

    A new approach to study the pulse transmission between the cerebrovascular bed and the intracranial space is presented. In the proposed approach, the normalized power transmission between ABP and ICP has got the main attention rather than the actual power transmission. Evaluating the gain of the proposed transfer function at any single frequency can reveal how the percentage of contribution of that specific frequency component has been changed through the cerebrospinal system. The gain of the new transfer function at the fundamental cardiac frequency was utilized to evaluate the state of the brain in three TBI patients. Results were assessed using the reference evaluations achieved by a novel CT scan-based scoring scheme. In all three study cases, the gain of the transfer function showed a good capability to follow the trend of the CT scores and describe the brain state. Comparing the new transfer function with the traditional one and also the index of compensatory reserve, the proposed transfer function was found more informative about the state of the brain in the patients under study.

  12. Bonneville Power Administration Transmission System Vegetation Management Program - Final Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2000-06-23

    Bonneville is responsible for maintaining a network of 24,000 kilometers (km) or 15,000 miles (mi.) of electric transmission lines and 350 substations in a region of diverse vegetation. This vegetation can interfere with electric power flow, pose safety problems for us and the public, and interfere with our ability to maintain these facilities. We need to (1) keep vegetation away from our electric facilities; (2) increase our program efficiency and consistency; (3) review herbicide use (under increased public scrutiny); and (4) maximize the range of tools we can use while minimizing environmental impact (Integrated Vegetation Management). This Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) establishes Planning Steps for managing vegetation for specific projects (to be tiered to this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)). In addition to No Action (current practice), alternatives are presented for Rights-of-way, Electric Yards, and Non-electric Facilities (landscaping, work yards). Four vegetation control methods are analyzed manual, mechanical, herbicide, and biological. Also evaluated are 23 herbicide active ingredients and 4 herbicide application techniques (spot, localized, broadcast, and aerial). For rights-of-way, we consider three sets of alternatives: alternative management approaches (time-driven or establishing low-growing plant communities); alternative method packages; and, if herbicides are in a methods package, alternative vegetation selections (noxious weeds, deciduous, or any vegetation). For electric yards, one herbicide-use alternative is considered. For non-electric facilities, two method package alternatives are considered. For rights-of-way, the environmentally preferred alternative(s) would use manual, mechanical, and biological control methods, as well as spot and localized herbicide applications for noxious and deciduous plant species; the BPA-preferred alternative(s) would add broadcast and aerial herbicide applications, and would use herbicides

  13. Bonneville Power Administration Transmission System Vegetation Management Program Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1999-08-20

    Bonneville is responsible for maintaining a network of 24,000 kilometers (km) or 15,000 miles (mi.) of electric transmission lines and 350 substations in a region of diverse vegetation. This vegetation can interfere with electric power flow, pose safety problems for us and the public, and interfere with our ability to maintain these facilities. We need to (1) keep vegetation away from the electric facilities; (2) increase the program efficiency and consistency; (3) review herbicide use (under increased public scrutiny); and (4) maximize the range of tools we can use while minimizing environmental impact (Integrated Vegetation Management). This DEIS establishes Planning Steps for managing vegetation for specific projects (to be tiered to this EIS). In addition to No Action (current practice), alternatives are presented for Rights-of-way, Electric Yards, and Non-electric Facilities (landscaping, work yards). Four vegetation control methods are analyzed: manual, mechanical, herbicide, and biological. Also evaluated are 24 herbicide active ingredients and 4 herbicide application techniques (spot, localized, broadcast, and aerial). For rights-of-way, they consider three sets of alternatives: alternative management approaches (time-driven or establishing low-growing plant communities); alternative method packages; and, if herbicides are in a methods package, alternative vegetation selections (noxious weeds, deciduous, or any vegetation). For electric yards, one herbicide-use alternative is considered. For non-electric facilities, two method package alternatives are considered. For rights-of-way, the environmentally preferred alternative(s) would use manual, mechanical, and biological control methods, as well as spot and localized herbicide applications for noxious and deciduous plant species; the BPA-preferred alternative(s) would add broadcast and aerial herbicide applications, and would use herbicides on any vegetation. Both would factor a management approach that

  14. 76 FR 4103 - Central Minnesota Municipal Power Agency, Midwest Municipal Transmission Group; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Central Minnesota Municipal Power Agency, Midwest Municipal Transmission... Municipal Power Agency and Midwest Municipal Transmission Group submitted an amendment to a petition for...

  15. 75 FR 81264 - Critical Path Transmission, LLC; Clear Power, LLC; v. California Independent System Operator, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Critical Path Transmission, LLC; Clear Power, LLC; v. California Independent... (2006), Critical Path Transmission, LLC and Clear Power LLC (Complainants) filed a complaint...

  16. Optimal Operation of Energy Storage in Power Transmission and Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhavan Hejazi, Seyed Hossein

    In this thesis, we investigate optimal operation of energy storage units in power transmission and distribution grids. At transmission level, we investigate the problem where an investor-owned independently-operated energy storage system seeks to offer energy and ancillary services in the day-ahead and real-time markets. We specifically consider the case where a significant portion of the power generated in the grid is from renewable energy resources and there exists significant uncertainty in system operation. In this regard, we formulate a stochastic programming framework to choose optimal energy and reserve bids for the storage units that takes into account the fluctuating nature of the market prices due to the randomness in the renewable power generation availability. At distribution level, we develop a comprehensive data set to model various stochastic factors on power distribution networks, with focus on networks that have high penetration of electric vehicle charging load and distributed renewable generation. Furthermore, we develop a data-driven stochastic model for energy storage operation at distribution level, where the distribution of nodal voltage and line power flow are modelled as stochastic functions of the energy storage unit's charge and discharge schedules. In particular, we develop new closed-form stochastic models for such key operational parameters in the system. Our approach is analytical and allows formulating tractable optimization problems. Yet, it does not involve any restricting assumption on the distribution of random parameters, hence, it results in accurate modeling of uncertainties. By considering the specific characteristics of random variables, such as their statistical dependencies and often irregularly-shaped probability distributions, we propose a non-parametric chance-constrained optimization approach to operate and plan energy storage units in power distribution girds. In the proposed stochastic optimization, we consider

  17. A Q-Modulation Technique for Efficient Inductive Power Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byunghun; Yeon, Pyungwoo; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2015-01-01

    A fully-integrated power management ASIC for efficient inductive power transmission has been presented capable of automatic load transformation using a method, called Q-modulation. Q-modulation is an adaptive scheme that offers load matching against a wide range of loading (RL) and coupling distance (d23) variations in inductive links to maintain high power transfer efficiency (PTE). It is suitable for inductive powering implantable microelectronic devices (IMDs), recharging mobile electronics, and electric vehicles. In Q-modulation, the zero-crossings of the induced current in the receiver (Rx) LC-tank are detected and a low-loss switch chops the Rx LC-tank for part of the power carrier cycle to form a high-Q LC-tank and store the maximum energy, which is then transferred to RL by opening the switch. By adjusting the duty cycle (D), the loaded-Q of the Rx LC-tank can be dynamically modulated to compensate for variations in RL. A Q-modulation power management (QMPM) prototype chip was fabricated in a 0.35-μm standard CMOS process, occupying 4.8 mm2. In a 1.45 W wireless power transfer setup, using a class-E power amplifier (PA) operating at 2 MHz, the QMPM successfully increased the inductive link PTE and the overall power efficiency by 98.5% and 120.7% at d23 = 8 cm, respectively, by compensating for 150 Ω variation in RL at D = 45%. PMID:27087699

  18. Modeling and Power Flow Analysis for Herringbone Gears Power Dual-Branching Transmission System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaofang; Zhu, Yanxiang; Fang, Zongde; Gu, Jiangong

    Based on power dual-branching transmission system of herringbone gears, the mechanical structural model was established. This study represented the simplified algorithm to obtain its power flow situations through formulating the deformation compatibility condition for the linear relationship between the torque and transverse deformation of tooth surface and the torque equilibrium condition. Besides, the effects on the power flow of system were calculated under all kinds of the installation error and processing error of gear pairs. Finally, the power flow situations of dual branches were solved via Programming. A numerical example that illustrated the developed theory was provided. The research results can be applied to analyze the actual application of herringbone gears power split-path transmission system.

  19. Power Flow Controller for Renewables: Transformer-less Unified Power Flow Controller for Wind and Solar Power Transmission

    SciTech Connect

    2012-02-08

    GENI Project: MSU is developing a power flow controller to improve the routing of electricity from renewable sources through existing power lines. The fast, innovative, and lightweight circuitry that MSU is incorporating into its controller will eliminate the need for a separate heavy and expensive transformer, as well as the construction of new transmission lines. MSU’s controller is better suited to control power flows from distributed and intermittent wind and solar power systems than traditional transformer-based controllers are, so it will help to integrate more renewable energy into the grid. MSU‘s power flow controller can be installed anywhere in the existing grid to optimize energy transmission and help reduce transmission congestion.

  20. 78 FR 4873 - Electrical Protective Equipment Standard and the Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... on Electrical Protective Equipment (29 CFR 1910.137) and Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and... Equipment Standard (29 CFR 1910.137) and the Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and Distribution... the equipment-testing requirements of the Standard. Electric Power Generation, Transmission,...

  1. 50 CFR 29.21-8 - Electric power transmission line rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electric power transmission line rights-of... General Regulations § 29.21-8 Electric power transmission line rights-of-way. By accepting a right-of-way for a power transmission line, the applicant thereby agrees and consents to comply with and be...

  2. 50 CFR 29.21-8 - Electric power transmission line rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electric power transmission line rights-of... General Regulations § 29.21-8 Electric power transmission line rights-of-way. By accepting a right-of-way for a power transmission line, the applicant thereby agrees and consents to comply with and be...

  3. 50 CFR 29.21-8 - Electric power transmission line rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electric power transmission line rights-of... General Regulations § 29.21-8 Electric power transmission line rights-of-way. By accepting a right-of-way for a power transmission line, the applicant thereby agrees and consents to comply with and be...

  4. 50 CFR 29.21-8 - Electric power transmission line rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric power transmission line rights-of... General Regulations § 29.21-8 Electric power transmission line rights-of-way. By accepting a right-of-way for a power transmission line, the applicant thereby agrees and consents to comply with and be...

  5. 50 CFR 29.21-8 - Electric power transmission line rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electric power transmission line rights-of... General Regulations § 29.21-8 Electric power transmission line rights-of-way. By accepting a right-of-way for a power transmission line, the applicant thereby agrees and consents to comply with and be...

  6. An aerial radiological survey of the Robert Emmett Ginna Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Ontario, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, A.E.

    1997-06-01

    Terrestrial radioactivity surrounding the Robert Emmett Ginna Nuclear Power Plant was measured using aerial radiological surveying techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates near the plant and to identify unexpected, man-made radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included land areas within a three-mile radius of the plant site. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that employed sodium iodide, thallium-activated detectors. Exposure-rate and photopeak counts were computed from these data and plotted on aerial photographs of the survey area. Several ground-based exposure measurements were made for comparison with the aerial survey results. Exposure rates in the area surrounding the plant site varied from 6 to 10 microroentgens per hour. Man-made radiation (cobalt-60 within the plant site and cesium-1 37 directly over the reactor) was found at the plant site. In addition, small areas of suspected cesium-137 activity were found within the survey areas. Other than these small sites, the survey area was free of man-made radioac- tivity.

  7. Multi-angle pinion and gear power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, F.M.

    1986-02-04

    This patent describes a worm and gear power transmission which consists of a housing, an input shaft, two axially aligned, different ratio worms formed on the input shaft in the housing. It also includes a pair of gears spaced apart in the housing such that a first gear of the pair meshes with one of the worms, and a second gear of the pair meshes with the other worm, the first and second gears positioned such that planes through the gears and the axis of the input shaft are at a right angle to one another, and output shafts extending out of the housing from the respective gears.

  8. Study of novel concepts of power transmission gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivin, Eugene I.

    1991-01-01

    Two concepts in power transmission gear design are proposed which provide a potential for large noise reduction and for improving weight to payload ratio due to use of advanced fiber reinforced and ceramic materials. These concepts are briefly discussed. Since both concepts use ultrathin layered rubber-metal laminates for accommodating limited travel displacements, properties of the laminates, such as their compressive strength, compressive and shear moduli were studied. Extensive testing and computational analysis were performed on the first concept gears (laminate coated conformal gears). Design and testing of the second conceptual design (composite gear with separation of sliding and rolling motions) are specifically described.

  9. Recent Accomplishments in Laser-Photovoltaic Wireless Power Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fikes, John C.; Henley, Mark W.; Mankins, John C.; Howell, Joe T.; Fork, Richard L.; Cole, Spencer T.; Skinner, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Wireless power transmission can be accomplished over long distances using laser power sources and photovoltaic receivers. Recent research at AMOS has improved our understanding of the use of this technology for practical applications. Research by NASA, Boeing, the University of Alabama-Huntsville, the University of Colorado, Harvey Mudd College, and the Naval Postgraduate School has tested various commercial lasers and photovoltaic receiver configurations. Lasers used in testing have included gaseous argon and krypton, solid-state diodes, and fiber optic sources, at wavelengths ranging from the visible to the near infra-red. A variety of Silicon and Gallium Arsenide photovoltaic have been tested with these sources. Safe operating procedures have been established, and initial tests have been conducted in the open air at AMOS facilities. This research is progressing toward longer distance ground demonstrations of the technology and practical near-term space demonstrations.

  10. The unified power flow controller: A new approach to power transmission control

    SciTech Connect

    Gyugyi, L.; Schauder, C.D.; Williams, S.L.; Rietman, T.R.; Torgerson, D.R.; Edris, A.

    1995-04-01

    This paper shows that the Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) is able to control both the transmitted real power and, independently, the reactive power flows at the sending-and the receiving-end of the transmission line. The unique capabilities of the UPFC in multiple line compensation are integrated into a generalized power flow controller that is able to maintain prescribed, and independently controllable, real power and reactive power flow in the line. The paper describes the basic concepts of the proposed generalized P and Q controller and compares it to the more conventional, but related power flow controller, such as the Thyristor-Controlled Series Capacitor and Thyristor-Controlled Phase Angle Regulator. The paper also presents results of computer simulations showing the performance of the UPFC under different system conditions.

  11. Risk measures for power failures in transmission systems.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Alex; Feinstein, Zachary; Nehorai, Arye

    2016-11-01

    We present a novel framework for evaluating the risk of failures in power transmission systems. We use the concept of systemic risk measures from the financial mathematics literature with models of power system failures in order to quantify the risk of the entire power system for design and comparative purposes. The proposed risk measures provide the collection of capacity vectors for the components in the system that lead to acceptable outcomes. Keys to the formulation of our measures of risk are two elements: a model of system behavior that provides the (distribution of) outcomes based on component capacities and an acceptability criterion that determines whether a (random) outcome is acceptable from an aggregated point of view. We examine the effects of altering the line capacities on energy not served under a variety of networks, flow manipulation methods, load shedding schemes, and load profiles using Monte Carlo simulations. Our results provide a quantitative comparison of the performance of these schemes, measured by the required line capacity. These results provide more complete descriptions of the risks of power failures than the previous, one-dimensional metrics.

  12. Risk measures for power failures in transmission systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, Alex; Feinstein, Zachary; Nehorai, Arye

    2016-11-01

    We present a novel framework for evaluating the risk of failures in power transmission systems. We use the concept of systemic risk measures from the financial mathematics literature with models of power system failures in order to quantify the risk of the entire power system for design and comparative purposes. The proposed risk measures provide the collection of capacity vectors for the components in the system that lead to acceptable outcomes. Keys to the formulation of our measures of risk are two elements: a model of system behavior that provides the (distribution of) outcomes based on component capacities and an acceptability criterion that determines whether a (random) outcome is acceptable from an aggregated point of view. We examine the effects of altering the line capacities on energy not served under a variety of networks, flow manipulation methods, load shedding schemes, and load profiles using Monte Carlo simulations. Our results provide a quantitative comparison of the performance of these schemes, measured by the required line capacity. These results provide more complete descriptions of the risks of power failures than the previous, one-dimensional metrics.

  13. Unified active and reactive power modulation of HVDC transmission systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grund, C. E.; Pohl, R. V.

    1981-11-01

    The power modulation of a high voltage direct current (HVDC) system for stabilization of an ac/dc network was investigated. It was found that simultaneous modulation of both dc current and voltage was more effective than just current modulation by itself, since the dc voltage modulation could be used to minimize the reactive power changes resulting from a change of the dc current. This helps stabilize the ac busbar voltages at the converters, which reduces undesirable load flow changes to voltage dependent ac loads, thus improving the effectiveness of the dc power modulation. This unified modulation control concept was evaluated by means of digital computer studies as well as a special purpose HVDC simulator. Several combined ac/dc power transmission systems were synthesized for testing of different modulation controller concepts. An optimum controller design incorporating a linear quadratic control algorithm with full state feedback was first studied. This provided a basis for comparison of suboptimal controller designs utilizing reduced state feedback and a Kalman filter state reconstruction technique.

  14. Performance evaluation of power transmission coils for powering endoscopic wireless capsules.

    PubMed

    Basar, Md Rubel; Ahmad, Mohd Yazed; Cho, Jongman; Ibrahim, Fatimah

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of H-field generated by a simple solenoid, pair of solenoids, pair of double-layer solenoids, segmented-solenoid, and Helmholtz power transmission coils (PTCs) to power an endoscopic wireless capsule (WC). The H-fields were computed using finite element analysis based on partial differential equations. Three parameters were considered in the analysis: i) the maximum level of H-field (Hmax) to which the patient's body would be exposed, ii) the minimum level of H-field (Hmin) effective for power transmission, and iii) uniformity of H-field. We validated our analysis by comparing the computed data with data measured from a fabricated Helmholtz PTC. This analysis disclosed that at the same excitation power, all the PTCs are able to transfer same amount of minimum usable power since they generated almost equal value of Hmin. The level of electromagnetic exposure and power transfer stability across all the PTCs would vary significantly which is mainly due to the different level of Hmax and H-field uniformity. The segmented solenoid PTC would cause the lowest exposure and this PTC can transfer the maximum amount of power. The Helmholtz PTC would be able to transfer the most stable power with a moderate level of exposure.

  15. Space Solar Power Technology Demonstration for Lunar Polar Applications: Laser-Photovoltaic Wireless Power Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henley, M. W.; Fikes, J. C.; Howell, J.; Mankins, J. C.; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Space Solar Power technology offers unique benefits for near-term NASA space science missions, which can mature this technology for other future applications. "Laser-Photo-Voltaic Wireless Power Transmission" (Laser-PV WPT) is a technology that uses a laser to beam power to a photovoltaic receiver, which converts the laser's light into electricity. Future Laser-PV WPT systems may beam power from Earth to satellites or large Space Solar Power satellites may beam power to Earth, perhaps supplementing terrestrial solar photo-voltaic receivers. In a near-term scientific mission to the moon, Laser-PV WPT can enable robotic operations in permanently shadowed lunar polar craters, which may contain ice. Ground-based technology demonstrations are proceeding, to mature the technology for this initial application, in the moon's polar regions.

  16. A methodology for the validated design space exploration of fuel cell powered unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffitt, Blake Almy

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are the most dynamic growth sector of the aerospace industry today. The need to provide persistent intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance for military operations is driving the planned acquisition of over 5,000 UAVs over the next five years. The most pressing need is for quiet, small UAVs with endurance beyond what is capable with advanced batteries or small internal combustion propulsion systems. Fuel cell systems demonstrate high efficiency, high specific energy, low noise, low temperature operation, modularity, and rapid refuelability making them a promising enabler of the small, quiet, and persistent UAVs that military planners are seeking. Despite the perceived benefits, the actual near-term performance of fuel cell powered UAVs is unknown. Until the auto industry began spending billions of dollars in research, fuel cell systems were too heavy for useful flight applications. However, the last decade has seen rapid development with fuel cell gravimetric and volumetric power density nearly doubling every 2--3 years. As a result, a few design studies and demonstrator aircraft have appeared, but overall the design methodology and vehicles are still in their infancy. The design of fuel cell aircraft poses many challenges. Fuel cells differ fundamentally from combustion based propulsion in how they generate power and interact with other aircraft subsystems. As a result, traditional multidisciplinary analysis (MDA) codes are inappropriate. Building new MDAs is difficult since fuel cells are rapidly changing in design, and various competitive architectures exist for balance of plant, hydrogen storage, and all electric aircraft subsystems. In addition, fuel cell design and performance data is closely protected which makes validation difficult and uncertainty significant. Finally, low specific power and high volumes compared to traditional combustion based propulsion result in more highly constrained design spaces that are

  17. Power transmission cable development for the Space Station Freedom electrical power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Gregory V.; Biess, John J.

    1989-01-01

    Power transmission cable is presently being evaluated under a NASA Lewis Research Center advanced development contract for application in the Space Station Freedom (SSF) electrical power system (EPS). Evaluation testing has been performed by TRW and NASA Lewis Research Center. The results of this development contract are presented. The primary cable design goals are to provide (1) a low characteristic inductance to minimize line voltage drop at 20 kHz, (2) electromagnetic compatibility control of the 20-kHz ac power current, (3) a physical configuration that minimizes ac resistance and (4) release of trapped air for corona-free operation.

  18. Development and Integration of a Solar Powered Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and a Wireless Sensor Network to Monitor Greenhouse Gases

    PubMed Central

    Malaver, Alexander; Motta, Nunzio; Corke, Peter; Gonzalez, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Measuring gases for environmental monitoring is a demanding task that requires long periods of observation and large numbers of sensors. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) currently represent the best alternative to monitor large, remote, and difficult access areas, as these technologies have the possibility of carrying specialized gas sensing systems. This paper presents the development and integration of a WSN and an UAV powered by solar energy in order to enhance their functionality and broader their applications. A gas sensing system implementing nanostructured metal oxide (MOX) and non-dispersive infrared sensors was developed to measure concentrations of CH4 and CO2. Laboratory, bench and field testing results demonstrate the capability of UAV to capture, analyze and geo-locate a gas sample during flight operations. The field testing integrated ground sensor nodes and the UAV to measure CO2 concentration at ground and low aerial altitudes, simultaneously. Data collected during the mission was transmitted in real time to a central node for analysis and 3D mapping of the target gas. The results highlights the accomplishment of the first flight mission of a solar powered UAV equipped with a CO2 sensing system integrated with a WSN. The system provides an effective 3D monitoring and can be used in a wide range of environmental applications such as agriculture, bushfires, mining studies, zoology and botanical studies using a ubiquitous low cost technology. PMID:25679312

  19. Development and integration of a solar powered unmanned aerial vehicle and a wireless sensor network to monitor greenhouse gases.

    PubMed

    Malaver, Alexander; Motta, Nunzio; Corke, Peter; Gonzalez, Felipe

    2015-02-11

    Measuring gases for environmental monitoring is a demanding task that requires long periods of observation and large numbers of sensors. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) currently represent the best alternative to monitor large, remote, and difficult access areas, as these technologies have the possibility of carrying specialized gas sensing systems. This paper presents the development and integration of a WSN and an UAV powered by solar energy in order to enhance their functionality and broader their applications. A gas sensing system implementing nanostructured metal oxide (MOX) and non-dispersive infrared sensors was developed to measure concentrations of CH4 and CO2. Laboratory, bench and field testing results demonstrate the capability of UAV to capture, analyze and geo-locate a gas sample during flight operations. The field testing integrated ground sensor nodes and the UAV to measure CO2 concentration at ground and low aerial altitudes, simultaneously. Data collected during the mission was transmitted in real time to a central node for analysis and 3D mapping of the target gas. The results highlights the accomplishment of the first flight mission of a solar powered UAV equipped with a CO2 sensing system integrated with a WSN. The system provides an effective 3D monitoring and can be used in a wide range of environmental applications such as agriculture, bushfires, mining studies, zoology and botanical studies using a ubiquitous low cost technology.

  20. Self-powered system with wireless data transmission.

    PubMed

    Hu, Youfan; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Chen; Lin, Long; Snyder, Robert L; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2011-06-08

    We demonstrate the first self-powered system driven by a nanogenerator (NG) that works wirelessly and independently for long-distance data transmission. The NG was made of a free cantilever beam that consisted of a five-layer structure: a flexible polymer substrate, ZnO nanowire textured films on its top and bottom surfaces, and electrodes on the surfaces. When it was strained to 0.12% at a strain rate of 3.56% S(-1), the measured output voltage reached 10 V, and the output current exceeded 0.6 μA (corresponding power density 10 mW/cm(3)). A system was built up by integrating a NG, rectification circuit, capacitor for energy storage, sensor, and RF data transmitter. Wireless signals sent out by the system were detected by a commercial radio at a distance of 5-10 m. This study proves the feasibility of using ZnO nanowire NGs for building self-powered systems, and its potential application in wireless biosensing, environmental/infrastructure monitoring, sensor networks, personal electronics, and even national security.

  1. Evaluation of a microwave high-power reception-conversion array for wireless power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    Initial performance tests of a 24-sq m area array of rectenna elements are presented. The array is used as the receiving portion of a wireless microwave power transmission engineering verification test system. The transmitting antenna was located at a range of 1.54 km. Output dc voltage and power, input RF power, efficiency, and operating temperatures were obtained for a variety of dc load and RF incident power levels at 2388 MHz. Incident peak RF intensities of up to 170 mW/sq cm yielded up to 30.4 kW of dc output power. The highest derived collection-conversion efficiency of the array was greater than 80 percent.

  2. Pulsed Power for a Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscope

    SciTech Connect

    dehope, w j; browning, n; campbell, g; cook, e; king, w; lagrange, t; reed, b; stuart, b; Shuttlesworth, R; Pyke, B

    2009-06-25

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has converted a commercial 200kV transmission electron microscope (TEM) into an ultrafast, nanoscale diagnostic tool for material science studies. The resulting Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscope (DTEM) has provided a unique tool for the study of material phase transitions, reaction front analyses, and other studies in the fields of chemistry, materials science, and biology. The TEM's thermionic electron emission source was replaced with a fast photocathode and a laser beam path was provided for ultraviolet surface illumination. The resulting photoelectron beam gives downstream images of 2 and 20 ns exposure times at 100 and 10 nm spatial resolution. A separate laser, used as a pump pulse, is used to heat, ignite, or shock samples while the photocathode electron pulses, carefully time-synchronized with the pump, function as probe in fast transient studies. The device functions in both imaging and diffraction modes. A laser upgrade is underway to make arbitrary cathode pulse trains of variable pulse width of 10-1000 ns. Along with a fast e-beam deflection scheme, a 'movie mode' capability will be added to this unique diagnostic tool. This talk will review conventional electron microscopy and its limitations, discuss the development and capabilities of DTEM, in particularly addressing the prime and pulsed power considerations in the design and fabrication of the DTEM, and conclude with the presentation of a deflector and solid-state pulser design for Movie-Mode DTEM.

  3. Ultra high performance connectors for power transmission applications

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Jy-An; Ren, Fei; Lee, Dominic F; Jiang, Hao

    2014-03-04

    Disclosed are several examples of an apparatus for connecting the free ends of two electrical power transmission lines having conductor strands disposed around a central, reinforcing core. The examples include an inner sleeve having a body defining an inner bore passing through an axially-extending, central axis, an outer rim surface disposed radially outward from the central bore, and one or more axially-extending grooves penetrating the body at the outer rim surface. Also included is an outer splice having a tubular shaped body with a bore passing coaxially through the central axis, the bore defining an inner rim surface for accepting the inner sleeve. The inner bore of the inner sleeve accepts the reinforcement cores of the two conductors, and the grooves accept the conductor strands in an overlapping configuration so that a majority of the electrical current flows between the overlapped conductor strands when the conductors are transmitting electrical current.

  4. Power Grids and Climate Information: supporting transmission system operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Felice, Matteo; Alessandri, Andrea; Catalano, Franco

    2015-04-01

    The activities of electricity transmission system operators (TSO) may be affected by weather conditions and for this reason the availability of accurate information about past and future states can be useful for power grids management. ENEA is supporting TERNA (Italian TSO) since 2012 providing them weather and climate information related to electricity demand and renewable energies management. The first task has been an assessment on the use of weather and climate information to predict electricity demand at short (1-5 days) and long (1-3 months) time scales. The second task was focused on the possibility to estimate and predict the electricity production coming from photovoltaic (PV) using different data sources (satellite, reanalysis, weather stations, climate models). The outcome of this collaboration has been two-fold: i) we had the occasion to evaluate the "quality" of weather/climate information considering power grid operational aspects and ii) more challenging questions, not considered at the beginning, have been raised, providing further interesting research goals.

  5. Thermoelectronic laser energy conversion for power transmission in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, E. J.; Yuen, C.

    1977-01-01

    Long distance transmission of power in space by means of laser beams is an attractive concept because of the very narrow beam divergence. Such a system requires efficient means to both generate the laser beam and to convert the light energy in the beam into useful electric output at the receiver. A plasma-type device known as a Thermo-Electronic Laser Energy Converter (TELEC) has been studied as a method of converting a 10.6 micron CO2 laser beam into electric power. In the TELEC process, electromagnetic radiation is absorbed directly in the plasma electrons producing a high electron temperature. The energetic electrons diffuse out of the plasma striking two electrodes with different areas. Since more electrons are collected by the larger electrode there is a net transport of current, and an EMF is generated in the external circuit. The smaller electrode functions as an electron emitter to provide continuity of the current. Waste heat is rejected from the large electrode. A design for a TELEC system with an input 1 MW laser beam was developed as part of the study. The calculated performance of the system showed an overall efficiency of about 42%.

  6. Research progress of wireless power transmission technology and the related problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianliang

    2017-03-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) has been widely used in recent years, it has the advantages of high transmission efficiency, long transmission distance, and so on. Firstly, this paper introduces the application progress of transmission technology at home and abroad. Secondly, combined with the development of the current technology, this paper puts forward the basic problems of wireless power transmission technology from four aspects. Lastly, the paper summarizes and puts forward the current hot and difficult problems.

  7. 78 FR 76140 - Extension of Public Comment Period for the Champlain Hudson Power Express Transmission Line...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ... Extension of Public Comment Period for the Champlain Hudson Power Express Transmission Line Project Draft... Hudson Power Express Transmission Line Project Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0447). The... permit to the Applicant, Champlain Hudson Power Express, Inc. (CHPEI), to construct, operate,...

  8. Choice of antenna geometry for microwave power transmission from solar power satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Seth D.

    1992-01-01

    A comparison is made between square and circular transmitting antennas for solar power satellite microwave power transmission. It is seen that the exclusion zone around the rectenna needed to protect populations from microwaves is smaller for a circular antenna operating at 2.45 GHz than it is for a square antenna at that frequency. If the frequency is increased, the exclusion zone size remains the same for a square antenna, but becomes even smaller for a circular antenna. Peak beam intensity is the same for both antennas if the frequency and antenna area are equal. The circular antenna puts a somewhat greater amount of power in the main lobe and somewhat less in the side lobes. Since rain attenuation and atmospheric heating remain problems above 10 GHz, it is recommended that future solar power satellite work concentrate on circular transmitting antennas at frequencies of roughly 10 GHz.

  9. Status of the microwave power transmission components for the solar power satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. C.

    1981-01-01

    During the 1970-1980 time period a substantial advance has been made in developing all portions of a microwave power transmission system for the solar power satellite (SPS). The most recent advances pertain to the transmitting portion of the system in the satellite and are based upon experimental observations of the use of the magnetron combined with a passive directional device to convert it into a highly efficient directional amplifier with excellent low-noise properties and potentially very long life. The ability of its microwave output to track a phase reference makes it possible to combine it with many other radiating units to provide a highly coherent microwave beam. The ability of its output to track an amplitude reference while operating from a dc power source with varying voltage makes it possible to eliminate most of the power conditioning equipment that would otherwise be necessary.

  10. Development of a Cross-Flow Fan Powered Quad-Rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    and Batteries: Various motors were tried and the ones that were sufficiently powerful were the Scorpion Power System HKIII-4035–560KV motors. The...most recent motors tested that were not powerful enough were the Scorpion Power System HKIII-4025–330KV motors. The batteries chosen were Thunder Power...Innovations, “NAZA-M,” DJI, [Online]. Available: http://www.dji.com/product/naza-m/spec. [Accessed 12 May 2015]. [18] Scoprion Power System LTD, “ Scorpion

  11. A Follow-up Study on Wireless Power Transmission for Unmanned Air Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    Popovic, “Wireless Powering for Low-Power Distributed Sensors,” Sixth International Symposium Nikola Tesla , 18-20 October 2006. [32] Avago...1 I. INTRODUCTION A. MICROWAVE WIRELESS POWER TRANSMISSION The concept of power transmission dates back to Heinrich Hertz [1] and Nikola ... Tesla [2]. Tesla aimed to develop a high power transmitter to ascertain the law of propagation of current through the earth and the atmosphere. Although

  12. Linear Algebraic Modeling of Power Flow in the HMP500-3 Transmission

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    Vehicle. Power transmission and steering is accomplished through the interaction of six planetary gear sets and two variable displacement hydrostatic...pump / motor units (HSUs). Power flow in the HMPT500-3 is extremely complex, with numerous feedback paths within the planetary gear train. Without a...tracked vehicle transmission. Power transmission and steering is accomplished through the interaction of six planetary gear sets and two variable

  13. Linear Algebraic Modeling of Power Flow in the HMPT500-3 Transmission

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    Vehicle. Power transmission and steering is accomplished through the interaction of six planetary gear sets and two variable displacement hydrostatic...pump / motor units (HSUs). Power flow in the HMPT500-3 is extremely complex, with numerous feedback paths within the planetary gear train. Without a...tracked vehicle transmission. Power transmission and steering is accomplished through the interaction of six planetary gear sets and two variable

  14. Interference Cancellation for Coexisting Wireless Data and Power Transmission in the Same Frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Keita; Sugiyama, Yusuke; Kawahara, Yoshihiro; Saruwatari, Shunsuke; Watanabe, Takashi

    2014-11-01

    Combining wireless transmission of data and power signals enables wireless sensor networks to drive perpetually without changing batteries. To achieve the simultaneous data and power transmission, the present paper proposes power signal interference cancellation for wireless data and power transmission at the same time in the same frequency. We evaluate the performance of the proposed power signal interference cancellation using Universal Software Radio Peripheral N200 (USRP N200) software defined radio. Evaluations show that the proposed interference cancellation is feasible to receive data while transmitting power.

  15. Face Gear Technology for Aerospace Power Transmission Progresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The use of face gears in an advanced rotorcraft transmission design was first proposed by the McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Company during their contracted effort with the U.S. Army under the Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program. Face gears would be used to turn the corner between the horizontal gas turbine engine and the vertical output rotor shaft--a function currently done by spiral bevel gears. This novel gearing arrangement would substantially lower the drive system weight partly because a face gear mesh would be used to split the input power between two output gears. However, the use of face gears and their ability to operate successfully at the speeds and loads required for an aerospace environment was unknown. Therefore a proof-of-concept phase with an existing test stand at the NASA Lewis Research Center was pursued. Hardware was designed that could be tested in Lewis' Spiral Bevel Gear Test Rig. The initial testing indicated that the face gear mesh was a feasible design that could be used at high speeds and load. Surface pitting fatigue was the typical failure mode, and that could lead to tooth fracture. An interim project was conducted to see if slight modifications to the gear tooth geometry or an alternative heat treating process could overcome the surface fatigue problems. From the initial and interim tests, it was apparent that for the surface fatigue problems to be overcome the manufacturing process used for this component would have to be developed to the level used for spiral bevel gears. The current state of the art for face gear manufacturing required using less than optimal gear materials and manufacturing techniques because the surface of the tooth form does not receive final finishing after heat treatment as it does for spiral bevel gears. This resulted in less than desirable surface hardness and manufacturing tolerances. An Advanced Research and Projects Agency (ARPA) Technology Reinvestment Project has been funded to investigate

  16. [Design and optimization of wireless power and data transmission for visual prosthesis].

    PubMed

    Lei, Xuping; Wu, Kaijie; Zhao, Lei; Chai, Xinyu

    2013-11-01

    Boosting spatial resolution of visual prostheses is an effective method to improve implant subjects' visual perception. However, power consumption of visual implants greatly rises with the increasing number of implanted electrodes. In respond to this trend, visual prostheses need to develop high-efficiency wireless power transmission and high-speed data transmission. This paper presents a review of current research progress on wireless power and data transmission for visual prostheses, analyzes relative principles and requirement, and introduces design methods of power and data transmission.

  17. Novel binary PSO algorithm based optimization of transmission expansion planning considering power losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astuty; Haryono, T.

    2016-04-01

    Transmission expansion planning (TEP) is one of the issue that have to be faced caused by addition of large scale power generation into the existing power system. Optimization need to be conducted to get optimal solution technically and economically. Several mathematic methods have been applied to provide optimal allocation of new transmission line such us genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization and tabu search. This paper proposed novel binary particle swarm optimization (NBPSO) to determine which transmission line should be added to the existing power system. There are two scenerios in this simulation. First, considering transmission power losses and the second is regardless transmission power losses. NBPSO method successfully obtain optimal solution in short computation time. Compare to the first scenario, the number of new line in second scenario which regardless power losses is less but produces high power losses that cause the cost becoming extremely expensive.

  18. Design study for a gound microwave power transmission system for use with a high-altitude powered platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. C.

    1983-01-01

    The conceptual design of a ground-based microwave power transmission system is described. This system is intended to supply electrical power via an air link to a high-altitude (21 km) powered platform. The platform must be equipped with the required instrumentation (RECTENNA) to convert the RF energy to dc power.

  19. Aerial Survey Results for 131I Deposition on the Ground after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Torii, Tatsuo; Sugita, Takeshi; Okada, Colin E.; Reed, Michael S.; Blumenthal, Daniel J.

    2013-08-01

    In March 2011 the second largest accidental release of radioactivity in history occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant following a magnitude 9.0 earthquake and subsequent tsunami. Teams from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Emergency Response performed aerial surveys to provide initial maps of the dispersal of radioactive material in Japan. The initial results from the surveys did not report the concentration of 131I. This work reports on analyses performed on the initial survey data by a joint Japan-US collaboration to determine 131I ground concentration. This information is potentially useful in reconstruction of the inhalation and external exposure doses from this short-lived radionuclide. The deposited concentration of 134Cs is also reported.

  20. Power transmission mechanism equipped with fluid and centrifugal clutch

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, K.; Takeshita, S.; Fukunaga, T.

    1986-12-30

    This patent describes a power transmission mechanism equipped with a fluid coupling, an input shaft thereof interconnected to a power source being interconnected through the fluid coupling to an output shaft, and the output shaft being interconnected to a forward-rearward changeover mechanism including a speed changer. It is characterized in that the fluid coupling includes a shell, an impeller in the shell and a centrifugal clutch means in the shell for engaging the impeller and for driving the impeller when the shell is rotated by the input shaft at a speed above idle speed and for disengaging the impeller and the driving of the impeller when the shell is rotated by the input shaft at the idle speed. A turbine is included in the shell for standing idle in the shell when the centrifugal clutch means is disengaged and for drive by the impeller when the centrifugal clutch means is engaged and for driving the output shaft. The centrifugal clutch means comprises a support member fixed to the shell, a centrifugal shoe mounted on the support member for radial movement outwardly of the support member by centrifugal force and radial movement inwardly toward the support member. It also comprises spring means for moving the shoe inwardly toward the support member when the shell is rotated at idle speed, a cylindrical casing fixed to the impeller radially outward from the shoe and having an engaging surface for engagement by the centrifugal shoe when the shell is rotated at a speed above idle speed and the centrifugal shoe is moved radially outward by centrifugal force. The forward-rearward changeover mechanism, including the speed changer, is driven by the turbine when the centrifugal clutch means is engaged with the engaging surface and standing idle when the centrifugal clutch means is disengaged from the engaging surface and the turbine is standing idle.

  1. An aerial radiological survey of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Forked River, New Jersey. Date of survey: September 18--25, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, H.A.; McCall, K.A.

    1994-05-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant in Forked River, New Jersey, during the period September 18 through September 24, 1992. The survey was conducted at an altitude of 150 feet (46 meters) over a 26-square-mile (67-square-kilometer) area centered on the power station. The purpose of the survey was to document the terrestrial gamma radiation environment of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power plant and surrounding area. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a contour map. Outside the plant boundary, exposure rates were found to vary between 4 and 10 microroentgens per hour and were attributed to naturally-occurring uranium, thorium, and radioactive potassium gamma emitters. The aerial data were compared to ground-based benchmark exposure rate measurements and radionuclide assays of soil samples obtained within the survey boundary. The ground-based measurements were found to be in good agreement with those inferred from the aerial measuring system. A previous survey of the power plant was conducted in August 1969 during its initial startup phase. Exposure rates and radioactive isotopes revealed in both surveys were consistent and within normal terrestrial background levels.

  2. Near field effects of millimeter-wave power transmission for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Hargsoon; Song, Kyo D.; Lee, Kunik; Kim, Jaehwan; Choi, Sang H.

    2011-04-01

    An integration of micro devices system and wireless power transmission (WPT) technology offers a great potential to revolutionize current health care devices. The system integration of wireless power transmission devices with smart microsensors is crucial for replacing a power storage devices and miniaturizing wireless biomedical systems. Our research goal is to replace battery power supply with an implantable millimeter-wave rectenna. Recently, a hat system with a small millimeter-wave antenna which can feed millimeter-wave power to thin-film rectenna array embedding Schottky diodes was introduced for neural sensing and stimulation applications. In order to prove the design concept and investigate wireless power coupling efficiency under the system design, near-field wireless power transmission was studied in terms of wave frequency and distance. Also, in this paper, we will present the influence of biological objects to the wireless power transmission, simulating the experimental conditions of human objects for future medical applications.

  3. [Research progress on key technology of power and signal transmission in neuroprosthetic].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing; Peng, Chenglin; Liu, Tao; Wang, Rui; Hou, Wensheng; Zheng, Xiaolin; Zheng, Erxin

    2011-10-01

    The power and signal transmission technology is one of the key technologies in neuroprosthetic research. This paper proposes firstly the related theory of power and signal transmission technology in neuroprosthetic, then summarizes the three key aspects of the power and signal transmission technology in neuroprosthetic. After analyzed the development of the inductive wireless power harvesting technology, the wireless telemetry technology and the wireless power harvesting telemetry technology, the emphasis on research contents will be proposed and discussed, which will help accelerate the further research of prosthetic.

  4. An Insight on Right of Way and its Cost for Power Transmission Cable and Conventional Overhead Transmission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandelwal, P.; Pachori, A.; Khandelwal, T.

    2013-12-01

    This paper provides the complete information related to Right of Way (RoW) for the construction of new power transmission line (TL) in terms of present cost for overhead transmission line and underground XLPE transmission cable. The former part of the paper describes the general procedure and rules for acquisition of land for RoW by transmission asset owner (TAO) while in the later part the cost associated to acquire RoW and its impact on the cost of adjacent land have been detailed. It also discusses the actual dismantling cost including the cost of waste metal what TAO get after completion of lifecycle of TL due to increase in metal prices. In this paper cost of RoW after completion of lifecycle of TL is also highlighted. This paper compares the cost of RoW for overhead transmission line and underground XLPE transmission cable for construction of new TL. Also for old transmission infrastructure cost of RoW for change from overhead transmission line to underground XLPE transmission cable is detailed by application of replacement model.

  5. 47 CFR 74.795 - Digital low power TV and TV translator transmission system facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... transmission system facilities. 74.795 Section 74.795 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... translator transmission system facilities. (a) A digital low power TV or TV translator station shall operate... consumer receiving equipment based on the digital broadcast television transmission standard in §...

  6. Performance Characterization of a Lithium-ion Gel Polymer Battery Power Supply System for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Logan, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are currently under development for NASA missions, earth sciences, aeronautics, the military, and commercial applications. The design of an all electric power and propulsion system for small UAVs was the focus of a detailed study. Currently, many of these small vehicles are powered by primary (nonrechargeable) lithium-based batteries. While this type of battery is capable of satisfying some of the mission needs, a secondary (rechargeable) battery power supply system that can provide the same functionality as the current system at the same or lower system mass and volume is desired. A study of commercially available secondary battery cell technologies that could provide the desired performance characteristics was performed. Due to the strict mass limitations and wide operating temperature requirements of small UAVs, the only viable cell chemistries were determined to be lithium-ion liquid electrolyte systems and lithium-ion gel polymer electrolyte systems. Two lithium-ion gel polymer cell designs were selected as candidates and were tested using potential load profiles for UAV applications. Because lithium primary batteries have a higher specific energy and energy density, for the same mass and volume allocation, the secondary batteries resulted in shorter flight times than the primary batteries typically provide. When the batteries were operated at lower ambient temperatures (0 to -20 C), flight times were even further reduced. Despite the reduced flight times demonstrated, for certain UAV applications, the secondary batteries operated within the acceptable range of flight times at room temperature and above. The results of this testing indicate that a secondary battery power supply system can provide some benefits over the primary battery power supply system. A UAV can be operated for hundreds of flights using a secondary battery power supply system that provides the combined benefits of rechargeability and an inherently safer

  7. A proposal to Improve Electric Power Transmission Efficiency of the Transmission line from Yekepa to Buchanan of the CLSG Power System Redevelopment Interconnection Project Using FACTS Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Samuel Mulbah

    This Work examined improving the electric power transmission efficiency of a portion of the CLSG (Cote d'Ivoire, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea) Interconnection Redevelopment Project of 1141 km high voltage transmission line. As with all ac transmission, present, new, and upgraded, they exhibit four electrical properties: resistance, inductance, capacitance, and conductance. These parameters affect the transmission line's ability to fulfil its function as part of the power system. A transmission system functions are to transport electric power from a generating source to a central point, to transport bulk power from a central point to wholesale delivery points (sub transmission substations), and to act as a tie points with interconnecting transmission lines from other power systems for emergency or economic reasons. In this work a portion of the CLSG Interconnection was simulated in MATLAB using different loading conditions. In determining voltage, current, and power, all sending end and receiving end quantities were determined at different sending end power levels. This was done on an incremental basis starting from 25 MW to 300 MW at 0.8 power factor. The results obtained from these produced data that were then used to plot graphs, among them the voltage profiles of the line at different loading conditions. The line loadability curves produced at different loading conditions were also plotted. So these curves provided illumination on the behavior and deficiencies of the line. Those deficiencies meant that there was a need for modification so as to keep the system in a safe operating voltage condition at different loading conditions. The line was compensated where needed, employing shunt capacitive compensation under different loading conditions for the purpose of making the receiving end voltage equal with the sending end voltage or within usable voltage levels. The line compensation provided a flat voltage profile at those loading conditions.

  8. 75 FR 6199 - Central Minnesota Municipal Power Agency and Midwest Municipal Transmission Group, Inc.; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Central Minnesota Municipal Power Agency and Midwest Municipal Transmission Group, Inc.; Notice of Filing February 1, 2010. Take notice that on January 25, 2010, Central Minnesota Municipal Power Agency and Midwest Municipal Transmission Group, Inc. (CMMPA/ MMTG) filed with...

  9. 76 FR 56428 - Southern Cross Transmission LLC; Pattern Power Marketing LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Cross Transmission LLC; Pattern Power Marketing LLC; Notice of..., Southern Cross Transmission, LLC (SCT) and Pattern Power Marketing LLC (PPM) jointly filed an...

  10. Electrical Power Transmission and Distribution Safety. Module SH-40. Safety and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on electrical power transmission and distribution safety is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module focuses on some of the general safety rules, techniques, and procedures that are essential in establishing a safe environment for the electrical power transmission worker. Following the introduction,…

  11. An asymmetric resonant coupling wireless power transmission link for Micro-Ball Endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tianjia; Xie, Xiang; Li, Guolin; Gu, Yingke; Deng, Yangdong; Wang, Ziqiang; Wang, Zhihua

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the design and optimization of a wireless power transmission link targeting Micro-Ball Endoscopy applications. A novel asymmetric resonant coupling structure is proposed to deliver power to an endoscopic Micro-Ball system for image read-out after it is excreted. Such a technology enables many key medical applications with stringent requirements for small system volume and high power delivery efficiency. A prototyping power transmission sub-system of the Micro-Ball system was implemented. It consists of primary coil, middle resonant coil, and cube-like full-direction secondary receiving coils. Our experimental results proved that 200mW of power can be successfully delivered. Such a wireless power transmission capability could satisfy the requirements of the Micro-Ball based endoscopy application. The transmission efficiency is in the range of 41% (worst working condition) to 53% (best working condition). Comparing to conventional structures, Asymmetric Resonant Coupling Structure improves power efficiency by 13%.

  12. 47 CFR 74.795 - Digital low power TV and TV translator transmission system facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Digital low power TV and TV translator... DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.795 Digital low power TV and TV translator transmission system facilities. (a) A digital low power TV or TV translator station shall...

  13. 47 CFR 74.795 - Digital low power TV and TV translator transmission system facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Digital low power TV and TV translator... DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.795 Digital low power TV and TV translator transmission system facilities. (a) A digital low power TV or TV translator station shall...

  14. 47 CFR 74.795 - Digital low power TV and TV translator transmission system facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Digital low power TV and TV translator... DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.795 Digital low power TV and TV translator transmission system facilities. (a) A digital low power TV or TV translator station shall...

  15. Design And Structural Analysis Of A Powered Wheelchair Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geonea, Ionut Daniel; Dumitru, Nicolae; Margine, Alexandru

    2015-09-01

    In this paper are presented the author's researches on designing, dynamical and structural evaluation of a transmission for a wheelchair, intended to persons with locomotors disabilities. The kinematics of proposed transmission is analyzed in order to realize a proper synthesis and design of gears. A 3D model of the transmission and wheelchair are designed in Solid Works, and they will be used for the dynamic simulation of the wheelchair robotic system in Adams software. In Adams is analyzed wheelchair trajectory and dynamics for a combined trajectory: linear motion and steering. Dynamic parameters obtained from simulation are used to perform a finite element analysis of bevel and worm gears. Simulation results reveal the transmission dynamics parameters, emphasize the efficiency of the transmission and enable implementation of this design to a wheelchair model.

  16. Mathematical model for the power supply system of an autonomous object with an AC power transmission over a cable rope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rulevskiy, V. M.; Bukreev, V. G.; Shandarova, E. B.; Kuleshova, E. O.; Shandarov, S. M.; Vasilyeva, Yu Z.

    2017-02-01

    A modeling problem of the power system, which provides an AC power transmission to a submersible device over the conducting rope, was considered. The power supply system units and their parameters are described. The system multi-dimensional mathematical model in the variables state space with regard to the nonlinear characteristic of system elements is proposed.

  17. Low-power system-on-chip implementation for respiratory rate detection and transmission.

    PubMed

    Padasdao, Bryson; Yee, Roxanne; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Recent biosensors can measure respiratory rate non-invasively, but limits patient mobility or requires regular battery replacement. Respiratory effort, which can scavenge mW, may power the sensor, but requires minimal sensor power usage. This paper demonstrates feasibility of respiratory rate measurement by using a comparator instead of ADC. A low-power system-on-chip can implement respiratory rate detection and wireless data transmission with a total power consumption under 82 µW. This approach produces significant power savings, and transmission uses under 30% of total power consumption.

  18. Millimeter-Gap Magnetically Insulated Transmission Line Power Flow Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hutsel, Brian Thomas; Stoltzfus, Brian S.; Fowler, William E.; LeChien, Keith R.; Mazarakis, Michael G.; Moore, James K.; Mulville, Thomas D.; Savage, Mark E.; Stygar, William A.; McKenney, John L.; Jones, Peter A.; MacRunnels, Diego J.; Long, Finis W.; Porter, John L.

    2014-09-01

    An experiment platform has been designed to study vacuum power flow in magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs). The platform was driven by the 400-GW Mykonos-V accelerator. The experiments conducted quantify the current loss in a millimeter-gap MITL with respect to vacuum conditions in the MITL for two different gap distances, 1.0 and 1.3 mm. The current loss for each gap was measured for three different vacuum pump down times. As a ride along experiment, multiple shots were conducted with each set of hardware to determine if there was a conditioning effect to increase current delivery on subsequent shots. The experiment results revealed large differences in performance for the 1.0 and 1.3 mm gaps. The 1.0 mm gap resulted in current loss of 40%-60% of peak current. The 1.3 mm gap resulted in current losses of less than 5% of peak current. Classical MITL models that neglect plasma expansion predict that there should be zero current loss, after magnetic insulation is established, for both of these gaps. The experiments result s indicate that the vacuum pressure or pump down time did not have a significant effect on the measured current loss at vacuum pressures between 1e-4 and 1e-5 Torr. Additionally, there was not repeatable evidence of a conditioning effect that reduced current loss for subsequent full-energy shots on a given set of hardware. It should be noted that the experiments conducted likely did not have large loss contributions due to ion emission from the anode due to the relatively small current densi-ties (25-40 kA/cm) in the MITL that limited the anode temperature rise due to ohmic heating. The results and conclusions from these experiments may have limited applicability to MITLs of high current density (>400 kA/cm) used in the convolute and load region of the Z which experience temperature increases of >400° C and generate ion emission from anode surfaces.

  19. Identification of gas powered motor propulsion group for small unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldziej, Daniel; Walendziuk, Wojciech; Mirek, Karol

    2016-09-01

    The present work aims at the dynamics identification of gas powered motor propulsion applied in remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) of the small or medium class. In subsequent chapters, the criteria indicating the choice of an electric or a gas power system are described. Moreover, the classification and characteristics of gas powered motor propulsions are presented. The main body of the article contains a laboratory stand dedicated to test the fumes from the motor propulsions in order to measure their static and dynamic characteristics. A wireless solution of acquiring the measurement data from the laboratory stand reflecting real working conditions of the repulsion is suggested. In further parts, the dynamics identification is done, and the transfer function of the object is presented.

  20. Space power by ground-based laser transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Landis, G.A. NASA, Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH )

    1992-07-01

    A new method for providing power to space vehicles consists of using high-power CW lasers on the ground to beam power to photovoltaic receivers in space. Such large lasers could be located at cloud-free sites at one or more ground locations, and use large mirrors with adaptive optical correction to reduce the beam spread due to diffraction or atmospheric turbulence. This can result in lower requirements for battery storage, due to continuous illumination of arrays even during periods of shadow by the earth, and higher power output, due to the higher efficiency of photovoltaic arrays under laser illumination compared to solar and the ability to achieve higher intensities of illumination. Applications include providing power for satellites during eclipse, providing power to resurrect satellites which are failing due to solar array degradation, powering orbital transfer vehicles or lunar transfer shuttles, and providing night power to a solar array on the moon. 22 refs.

  1. Comparison of electrically driven lasers for space power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deyoung, R. J.; Lee, J. H.; Williams, M. D.; Schuster, G.; Conway, E. J.

    1988-01-01

    High-power lasers in space could provide power for a variety of future missions such as spacecraft electric power requirements and laser propulsion. This study investigates four electrically pumped laser systems, all scaled to 1-MW laser output, that could provide power to spacecraft. The four laser systems are krypton fluoride, copper vapor, laser diode array, and carbon dioxide. Each system was powered by a large solar photovoltaic array which, in turn, provided power for the appropriate laser power conditioning subsystem. Each system was block-diagrammed, and the power and efficiency were found for each subsystem block component. The copper vapor system had the lowest system efficiency (6 percent). The CO2 laser was found to be the most readily scalable but has the disadvantage of long laser wavelength.

  2. Location estimation of an in vivo robotic capsule relative to arrayed power transmission coils.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Dae; Ryu, Munho; Hwang, Ji Soo; Kim, Jongwon

    2008-06-01

    A tracking method is presented here for an in vivo robotic capsule with power supplied from one of the multiple power transmission coils. The proposed method aims to select the best coupled coil among the array of power transmission coils. It relies on the fact that the driving current of the power transmitter increases with inductive coupling of the receiver coil inside the capsule with the transmitter coil. Investigation of the current increase characteristic according to its location relative to the transmission coils allows development of a strategy for the in vivo robotic capsule. This study shows results with two transmission coils and a two-dimensional power receiver. Experimental results present the possibility of selecting the best coil by estimating the relative location of the capsule.

  3. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power transmission systems

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P.R.; Dykas, W.P.; Kirby, B.J.; Purucker, S.L.; Lawler, J.S.

    1995-07-01

    Renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaics, solar thermal power plants, and wind turbines are nonconventional, environmentally attractive sources of energy that can be considered for electric power generation. Many of the areas with abundant renewable energy resources (very sunny or windy areas) are far removed from major load centers. Although electrical power can be transmitted over long distances of many hundreds of miles through high-voltage transmission lines, power transmission systems often operate near their limits with little excess capacity for new generation sources. This study assesses the available capacity of transmission systems in designated abundant renewable energy resource regions and identifies the requirements for high-capacity plant integration in selected cases. In general, about 50 MW of power from renewable sources can be integrated into existing transmission systems to supply local loads without transmission upgrades beyond the construction of a substation to connect to the grid. Except in the Southwest, significant investment to strengthen transmission systems will be required to support the development of high-capacity renewable sources of 1000 MW or greater in areas remote from major load centers. Cost estimates for new transmission facilities to integrate and dispatch some of these high-capacity renewable sources ranged from several million dollars to approximately one billion dollars, with the latter figure an increase in total investment of 35%, assuming that the renewable source is the only user of the transmission facility.

  4. 25. PRIMARY POWER TRANSMISSION BELT HOLES IN 1st FLOOR MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. PRIMARY POWER TRANSMISSION BELT HOLES IN 1st FLOOR MILL NO. 1 CEILING. WATER-POWERED MACHINERY LOCATED IN BASEMENT RAN LEATHER BELTS THROUGH THESE HOLES. POWER WAS THEN TRANSMITTED TO SHAFTS AND PULLEYS TO RUN MACHINERY ON MILL FLOORS. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  5. 76 FR 44320 - Buckeye Power, Inc. v. American Transmission Systems, Incorporated; Notice of Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Buckeye Power, Inc. v. American Transmission Systems, Incorporated; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on July 18, 2011, pursuant to sections 206 and 306 of the Federal Power... (Commission), Buckeye Power, Inc. (Buckeye or Complainant) filed a formal complaint against...

  6. 18 CFR 2.22 - Pricing policy for transmission services provided under the Federal Power Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pricing policy for transmission services provided under the Federal Power Act. 2.22 Section 2.22 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL POLICY...

  7. 18 CFR 2.22 - Pricing policy for transmission services provided under the Federal Power Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pricing policy for transmission services provided under the Federal Power Act. 2.22 Section 2.22 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL POLICY...

  8. 47 CFR 74.795 - Digital low power TV and TV translator transmission system facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital low power TV and TV translator transmission system facilities. 74.795 Section 74.795 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.795 Digital low power TV and...

  9. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT XXI, MICHIGAN/CLARK TRANSMISSION--COMPLETE POWER TRAIN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MOSULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF A SPECIFIC POWER TRAIN SYSTEM USED ON DIESEL POWERED EQUIPMENT. TOPICS ARE EXAMINING THE POWER FLOW, UNIT OIL FLOW, AND OIL PRESSURE IN THE CONVERTER AND TRANSMISSION SYSTEM. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM TRAINING FILM "UNDERSTANDING THE…

  10. Station-keeping of a high-altitude balloon with electric propulsion and wireless power transmission: A concept study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wynsberghe, Erinn; Turak, Ayse

    2016-11-01

    A stable, ultra long-duration high-altitude balloon (HAB) platform which can maintain stationary position would represent a new paradigm for telecommunications and high-altitude observation and transmission services, with greatly reduced cost and complexity compared to existing technologies including satellites, telecom towers, and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). This contribution proposes a lightweight superpressure balloon platform for deployment to an altitude of 25 km. Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) thrusters are presented to maintain position by overcoming stratospheric winds. Critical to maintaining position is a continual supply of electrical power to operate the on-board propulsion system. One viable solution is to deliver power wirelessly to a high-altitude craft from a ground-based transmitter. Microwave energy, not heavily attenuated by the atmosphere, can be provided remotely from a ground-based generator (magnetron, klystron, etc.) and steered electrically with an antenna array (phased array) at a designated frequency (such as 2.45 or 5.8 GHz). A rectifying antenna ("rectenna") on the bottom of the balloon converts waves into direct current for on-board use. Preliminary mission architecture, energy requirements, and safety concerns for a proposed system are presented along with recommended future work.

  11. Aerial radiation monitoring around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant using an unmanned helicopter.

    PubMed

    Sanada, Yukihisa; Torii, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 generated a series of large tsunami that seriously damaged the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), which resulted in the release of radioactive materials into the environment. To provide further details regarding the distribution of air dose rate and the distribution of radioactive cesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) deposition on the ground within a radius of approximately 5 km from the nuclear power plant, we carried out measurements using an unmanned helicopter equipped with a radiation detection system. The distribution of the air dose rate at a height of 1 m above the ground and the radioactive cesium deposition on the ground was calculated. Accordingly, the footprint of radioactive plumes that extended from the FDNPP was illustrated.

  12. Numerical simulation of overvoltage caused by lightning on aerial power lines, including the corona effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahcene, Z.; Bernard, G.

    1981-12-01

    A corona effect analog model is studied, and the influence of surges due to lightning on power lines is discussed. The effect of a lightning strike on lines with and without guard cables was simulated. Results show that the surge is very strongly damped as it travels away from the strike point. The corona effect lengthens front times and dampens the high frequency components of the propagated waves.

  13. Aerial Explorers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg; Ippolito, Corey

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents recent results from a mission architecture study of planetary aerial explorers. In this study, several mission scenarios were developed in simulation and evaluated on success in meeting mission goals. This aerial explorer mission architecture study is unique in comparison with previous Mars airplane research activities. The study examines how aerial vehicles can find and gain access to otherwise inaccessible terrain features of interest. The aerial explorer also engages in a high-level of (indirect) surface interaction, despite not typically being able to takeoff and land or to engage in multiple flights/sorties. To achieve this goal, a new mission paradigm is proposed: aerial explorers should be considered as an additional element in the overall Entry, Descent, Landing System (EDLS) process. Further, aerial vehicles should be considered primarily as carrier/utility platforms whose purpose is to deliver air-deployed sensors and robotic devices, or symbiotes, to those high-value terrain features of interest.

  14. Power transmission by laser beam from lunar-synchronous satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M. D.; Deyoung, R. J.; Schuster, G. L.; Choi, S. H.; Dagle, J. E.; Coomes, E. P.; Antoniak, Z. I.; Bamberger, J. A.; Bates, J. M.; Chiu, M. A.

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of beaming power from synchronous lunar orbits (the L1 and L2 Lagrange points) to a manned long-range lunar rover is addressed. The rover and two versions of a satellite system (one powered by a nuclear reactor, the other by photovoltaics) are described in terms of their masses, geometries, power needs, missions, and technological capabilities. Laser beam power is generated by a laser diode array in the satellite and converted to 30 kW of electrical power at the rover. Present technological capabilities, with some extrapolation to near future capabilities, are used in the descriptions. The advantages of the two satellite/rover systems over other such systems and over rovers with onboard power are discussed along with the possibility of enabling other missions.

  15. Power transmission by laser beam from lunar-synchronous satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, M. D.; De Young, R. J.; Schuster, G. L.; Choi, S. H.; Dagle, J. E.; Coomes, E. P.; Antoniak, Z. I.; Bamberger, J. A.; Bates, J. M.; Chiu, M. A.

    1993-11-01

    The possibility of beaming power from synchronous lunar orbits (the L1 and L2 Lagrange points) to a manned long-range lunar rover is addressed. The rover and two versions of a satellite system (one powered by a nuclear reactor, the other by photovoltaics) are described in terms of their masses, geometries, power needs, missions, and technological capabilities. Laser beam power is generated by a laser diode array in the satellite and converted to 30 kW of electrical power at the rover. Present technological capabilities, with some extrapolation to near future capabilities, are used in the descriptions. The advantages of the two satellite/rover systems over other such systems and over rovers with onboard power are discussed along with the possibility of enabling other missions.

  16. Architecture Analysis of Wireless Power Transmission for Lunar Outposts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    kg. Completed in 2011, a group of academics studied the impact space solar power might have to satisfy the global energy demand in the 21st century...kg. These results show that a low energy and long duration transfer will be required for inefficient and therefore high mass solar power satellites...collecting and converting sunlight and transmitting this energy via wireless power transfer to a lunar outpost receiver. The user of this system will be

  17. 78 FR 65641 - Recommendation From the Western Area Power Administration To Pursue Regional Transmission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... formal negotiations with the Southwest Power Pool (SPP), a Regional Transmission Organization (RTO... other stakeholders regarding its recommendation to pursue formal negotiations with SPP regarding... forward with formal negotiations with SPP will result in detailed membership discussions consistent...

  18. RSSI/LQI-based transmission power control for body area networks in healthcare environment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seungku; Kim, Seokhwan; Eom, Doo-Seop

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a novel transmission power control protocol for body area networks. Conventional transmission power control protocols adjust the transmission power on the basis of the received signal strength indication (RSSI). However, in case of the presence of interference, the RSSI is not a correct indicator to determine the link state. We first present the empirical evidence for this and then propose a practical protocol to discriminate between the signal attenuation and interference using the RSSI and link quality indication (LQI). This protocol controls the transmission power and avoids interference based on the link state. Finally, we discuss the implementation of the proposed protocol on Tmote Sky and evaluate the performance in the presence and absence of interference. The experimental results showed that the proposed protocol has high energy-efficiency and reliability, even in the presence of interference.

  19. Title V Operating Permit: Deseret Generation and Transmission Cooperative, Bonanza Power Plant

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Response to Public Comments and Final Operating Permit for the Deseret Generation and Transmission Cooperative Bonanza Power Plant, located within the exterior boundaries of the Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation in Uintah County, Utah.

  20. Critical points and transitions in an electric power transmission model for cascading failure blackouts.

    PubMed

    Carreras, B. A.; Lynch, V. E.; Dobson, I.; Newman, D. E.

    2002-12-01

    Cascading failures in large-scale electric power transmission systems are an important cause of blackouts. Analysis of North American blackout data has revealed power law (algebraic) tails in the blackout size probability distribution which suggests a dynamical origin. With this observation as motivation, we examine cascading failure in a simplified transmission system model as load power demand is increased. The model represents generators, loads, the transmission line network, and the operating limits on these components. Two types of critical points are identified and are characterized by transmission line flow limits and generator capability limits, respectively. Results are obtained for tree networks of a regular form and a more realistic 118-node network. It is found that operation near critical points can produce power law tails in the blackout size probability distribution similar to those observed. The complex nature of the solution space due to the interaction of the two critical points is examined.(c) 2002 American Institute of Physics.

  1. 75 FR 41895 - Emerson Power Transmission, a Division of Emerson Electric Co., Including On-Site Leased From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Employment and Training Administration Emerson Power Transmission, a Division of Emerson Electric Co..., 2010, applicable to workers of Emerson Power Transmission, a Division of Emerson Electric Co... were employed on-site at the Ithaca, New York, location of Emerson Power Transmission, a Division...

  2. 75 FR 9573 - Minnkota Power Cooperative, Inc: Bemidji-Grand Rapids 230kV Transmission Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... Rural Utilities Service Minnkota Power Cooperative, Inc: Bemidji-Grand Rapids 230kV Transmission Project... Minnkota Power Cooperative, Inc (Minnkota) for the construction of a 230 kilovolt (kV) kV transmission line... Minnesota Power, proposes to construct and operate a 230 kV transmission line between the Wilton...

  3. A study of electric power transmission lines for use on the lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Lloyd B.; Gaustad, Krista L.

    1991-01-01

    Analytical models have been developed to study the operating characteristics of electrical transmission lines for use on the lunar surface. Important design considerations for a transmission line operating on the lunar surface are mass, temperature, and efficiency. Transmission line parameters which impact these considerations include voltage, power loss, and waveform. The electrical and thermal models developed are used to calculate transmission line mass, size, and temperature as a function of voltage, geometry, waveform, location, and efficiency. The analyses include ac and dc for above and below ground operation. Geometries studied include a vacuum-insulated, two-wire transmission line and a solid-dielectric insulated, coaxial transmission line. A brief discussion of design considerations and the models developed is followed by results for parameter studies for both dc and ac transmission lines.

  4. Extra high voltage power transmission. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, construction, and use of extra high voltage power transmission lines. Both underground and overhead lines are discussed, as well as superconducting and resistive cryogenic lines. Health, safety, and psychological aspects of the electrical field, corona, ozone, and acoustic effects of these lines are discussed. New conductors, insulators, mounting, monitoring, control, and lightning protection of EHV power transmission lines are presented. (Contains a minimum of 82 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. An Improved Rectenna for Wireless Power Transmission for Unmanned Air Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    A. Background The concept of wireless power transmission (WPT) dates back to the days of Heinrich Hertz and Nikola Tesla [1], who discovered that...energy could be transported by electromagnetic waves in free space. Tesla considered the use of wireless power transmission employing low-frequency...his article, Brown wrote a description of the development of WPT and the milestones along the way. Previously, Tesla carried out numerous

  6. Evaluation of power system security and development of transmission pricing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyungchul

    The electric power utility industry is presently undergoing a change towards the deregulated environment. This has resulted in unbundling of generation, transmission and distribution services. The introduction of competition into unbundled electricity services may lead system operation closer to its security boundaries resulting in smaller operating safety margins. The competitive environment is expected to lead to lower price rates for customers and higher efficiency for power suppliers in the long run. Under this deregulated environment, security assessment and pricing of transmission services have become important issues in power systems. This dissertation provides new methods for power system security assessment and transmission pricing. In power system security assessment, the following issues are discussed (1) The description of probabilistic methods for power system security assessment; (2) The computation time of simulation methods; (3) on-line security assessment for operation. A probabilistic method using Monte-Carlo simulation is proposed for power system security assessment. This method takes into account dynamic and static effects corresponding to contingencies. Two different Kohonen networks, Self-Organizing Maps and Learning Vector Quantization, are employed to speed up the probabilistic method. The combination of Kohonen networks and Monte-Carlo simulation can reduce computation time in comparison with straight Monte-Carlo simulation. A technique for security assessment employing Bayes classifier is also proposed. This method can be useful for system operators to make security decisions during on-line power system operation. This dissertation also suggests an approach for allocating transmission transaction costs based on reliability benefits in transmission services. The proposed method shows the transmission transaction cost of reliability benefits when transmission line capacities are considered. The ratio between allocation by transmission line

  7. Reliability modeling and evaluation of HVDC power transmission systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dialynas, E.N.; Koskolos, N.C. . Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering)

    1994-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to present an improved computational method for evaluating the reliability indices of HVdc transmission systems. The developed models and computational techniques are described. These can be used to simulate the operational practices and characteristics of a system under study efficiently and realistically. This method is based on the failure modes and effects analysis and uses the event tree method and the minimal cut set approach to represent the system's operational behavior and deduce the appropriate system's failure modes. A set of five reliability indices is evaluated for each output node being analyzed together with the probability and frequency of encountering particular regions of system performance levels. The analysis of an assumed HVdc bipolar transmission system is also included.

  8. Test Results from a Simulated High Voltage Lunar Power Transmission Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenough, Arthur; Hervol, David

    2008-01-01

    The Alternator Test Unit (ATU) in the Lunar Power System Facility (LPSF) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, OH was modified to simulate high voltage transmission capability. The testbed simulated a 1 km transmission cable length from the ATU to the LPSF using resistors and inductors installed between the distribution transformers. Power factor correction circuitry was used to compensate for the reactance of the distribution system to improve the overall power factor. This test demonstrated that a permanent magnet alternator can successfully provide high frequency AC power to a lunar facility located at a distance.

  9. Test Results From a Simulated High-Voltage Lunar Power Transmission Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenough, Arthur; Hervol, David

    2008-01-01

    The Alternator Test Unit (ATU) in the Lunar Power System Facility (LPSF) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio was modified to simulate high-voltage transmission capability. The testbed simulated a 1 km transmission cable length from the ATU to the LPSF using resistors and inductors installed between the distribution transformers. Power factor correction circuitry was used to compensate for the reactance of the distribution system to improve the overall power factor. This test demonstrated that a permanent magnet alternator can successfully provide high-frequency ac power to a lunar facility located at a distance.

  10. Transmission of High-Power Electron Beams Through Small Apertures

    SciTech Connect

    Tschalaer, Christoph; Alarcon, Ricardo O.; Balascuta, S.; Benson, Stephen V.; Bertozzi, William; Boyce, James R.; Cowan, Ray Franklin; Douglas, David R.; Evtushenko, Pavel; Fisher, Peter H.; Ihloff, Ernest E.; Kalantarians, Narbe; Kelleher, Aidan Michael; Legg, Robert A.; Milner, Richard; Neil, George R.; Ou, Longwu; Schmookler, Barak Abraham; Tennant, Christopher D.; Williams, Gwyn P.; Zhang, Shukui

    2013-11-01

    Tests were performed to pass a 100 MeV, 430 kWatt c.w. electron beam from the energy-recovery linac at the Jefferson Laboratory's FEL facility through a set of small apertures in a 127 mm long aluminum block. Beam transmission losses of 3 p.p.m. through a 2 mm diameter aperture were maintained during a 7 hour continuous run.

  11. The power supply system model of the process submersible device with AC power transmission over the cable-rope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rulevskiy, V. M.; Bukreev, V. G.; Kuleshova, E. O.; Shandarova, E. B.; Shandarov, S. M.; Vasilyeva, Yu Z.

    2017-02-01

    A practical problem of power supply system modeling for the process submersible device with AC power transmission over the cable-rope was considered. The problem is highly relevant in developing and operation of submersible centrifugal pumps and submersibles. The results of modeling a symmetrical three-phase power supply system and their compliance with the real data are given at the paper. The obtained results in the mathematical and simulation models were similar.

  12. A novel power efficient location-based cooperative routing with transmission power-upper-limit for wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Shi, Juanfei; Calveras, Anna; Cheng, Ye; Liu, Kai

    2013-05-15

    The extensive usage of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has led to the development of many power- and energy-efficient routing protocols. Cooperative routing in WSNs can improve performance in these types of networks. In this paper we discuss the existing proposals and we propose a routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks called Power Efficient Location-based Cooperative Routing with Transmission Power-upper-limit (PELCR-TP). The algorithm is based on the principle of minimum link power and aims to take advantage of nodes cooperation to make the link work well in WSNs with a low transmission power. In the proposed scheme, with a determined transmission power upper limit, nodes find the most appropriate next nodes and single-relay nodes with the proposed algorithm. Moreover, this proposal subtly avoids non-working nodes, because we add a Bad nodes Avoidance Strategy (BAS). Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm with BAS can significantly improve the performance in reducing the overall link power, enhancing the transmission success rate and decreasing the retransmission rate.

  13. Transmission Power Control using Small-Capacity UPFC under Output Voltage Saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Takeshi; Takeshita, Takaharu; Fujita, Hideki

    This paper presents a fast transmission power control scheme using a UPFC (Unified Power Flow Controller) under the output voltage saturation. For practical use of the UPFC, the fast and stable power response and the reduced power converter capacity are desired. The authors propose the fast and stable control scheme under the output voltage saturation of the reduced capacity UPFC. The effectiveness of the proposed control algorithm of the UPFC has been verified by experiments.

  14. Electric Power Generation, Transmission and Distribution (NAICS 2211)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find EPA regulatory information for electrical utilities, including coal-fired power plants. Includes links to NESHAPs for RICE, stationary combustion engines, fossil fuel waste, cooling water, effluent guidelines. Find information on the MATS rule.

  15. Method and apparatus for power transmission from an engine

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriele, D.

    1986-04-01

    An apparatus for transmitting power is described consisting of: a first discrete source of rotary power having a first output coupling means; a second discrete source of rotary power having a second output coupling means; drive shaft velocity control means cooperable with at least one of the first and second sources of rotary power for controlling the absolute speed of at least one of the first and second sources without affecting the speed of the other; a pair of intercoupled planetary gear assemblies each having a ring gear, a sun gear and a planetary carrier cage, the pair of gear assemblies including: (a) a first planetary gear assembly having a primary driving member, a secondary driving member, and a driven follower member corresponding to one of the ring gear, sun gear and carrier cage; (b) a second planetary gear assembly having a primary driving member, a secondary driving member and a driven follower corresponding to one of the ring gear, sun gear, and carrier cage; (c) the primary driving member of the first assembly being coupled by the first coupling means to the first discrete source of rotary power, and the second driving members of both assemblies being coupled by means of the second coupling means to the second discrete source of rotary power; (d) the driven follower member of the first assembly being coupled to the primary driving member of the second assembly; (e) the driven follower member of the second assembly being other than the carrier cage; and (f) an output shaft coupled to the driven follower member of the second assembly for driving a load, the output shaft driven by the first and second sources of rotary power via the pair of planetary gear assemblies under most operation conditions.

  16. Wireless Power Transmission Technology State-Of-The-Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, R. M. T.

    2002-01-01

    This first Bill Brown SSP La Crescenta, CA 91214 technology , including microwave and laser systems for the transfer of electric , as related to eventually developing Space Solar Power (SSP) systems. Current and past technology accomplishments in ground based and air and space applied energy conversion devices, systems and modeling performance and cost information is presented, where such data are known to the author. The purpose of the presentation is to discuss and present data to encourage documenting and breaking the current technology records, so as to advance the SOA in WPT for SSP . For example, regarding DC to RF and laser converters, 83% efficient 2.45 GHz cooker-tube magnetrons with 800W CW output have been jointly developed by Russia and US. Over 50% wa11-plug efficient 1.5 kW/cm2 CW, water cooled, multibeam, solid state laser diode bar-arrays have been developed by LLNL at 808 nm wavelength. The Gennans have developed a 36% efficient, kW level, sing1e coherent beam, lateral pumped semiconductor laser. The record for end-to-end DC input to DC output power overall WPT link conversion efficiency is 54% during the Raytheon-JPL experiments in 1975 for 495.6 W recovered at 1.7-mrange at 2.4469 GAz. The record for usefully recovered electric power output ( as contrasted with thennally induced power in structures) is 34 kW OC output at a range of 1.55 km, using 2.388 GHz microwaves, during the JPL- Raytheon experiments by Bill Brown and the author at Goldstone, CA in 1975. The GaAs-diode rectenna array had an average collection-conversion efficiency of 82.5%. A single rectenna element operating a 6W RF input, developed by Bill Brown demonstrated 91.4% efficiency. The comparable record for laser light to OC output power conversion efficiency of photovoltaics is 590/0. for AlGaAs at 1.7 Wand 826nm wavelength. Russian cyclotron-wave converters have demonstrated 80% rectification efficiency at S-band. Concerning WPT technology equipment costs, magnetron conversion

  17. Mobile Robot Positioning with 433-MHz Wireless Motes with Varying Transmission Powers and a Particle Filter

    PubMed Central

    Canedo-Rodriguez, Adrian; Rodriguez, Jose Manuel; Alvarez-Santos, Victor; Iglesias, Roberto; Regueiro, Carlos V.

    2015-01-01

    In wireless positioning systems, the transmitter's power is usually fixed. In this paper, we explore the use of varying transmission powers to increase the performance of a wireless localization system. To this extent, we have designed a robot positioning system based on wireless motes. Our motes use an inexpensive, low-power sub-1-GHz system-on-chip (CC1110) working in the 433-MHz ISM band. Our localization algorithm is based on a particle filter and infers the robot position by: (1) comparing the power received with the expected one; and (2) integrating the robot displacement. We demonstrate that the use of transmitters that vary their transmission power over time improves the performance of the wireless positioning system significantly, with respect to a system that uses fixed power transmitters. This opens the door for applications where the robot can localize itself actively by requesting the transmitters to change their power in real time. PMID:25942641

  18. Power Supply Reliability Assessment in UPFC-installed Transmission System for ATC Enhancement Considering Transient Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuta, Taisuke; Yokoyama, Akihiko

    With recent development of power electronics technology, power system stability enhancement and optimal power flow control by using Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) devices have so far been studied. The FACTS devices to relieve multiple constraints can also make it possible to enhance Available Transfer Capability (ATC) without construction of new transmission lines. The previous research revealed that ATC is expanded by avoiding multiple constraints in OPF using Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC). For long-term operation of such ATC-expanded power system, it is necessary to evaluate power system reliability. In this paper, the evaluation method of supply reliability for UPFC-installed power system is proposed. Both thermal capacity and transient stability constraints are considered. The effectiveness of the proposed method is shown by numerical examples for IEEJ East10-machine test system.

  19. Adaptive low-power listening MAC protocol based on transmission rates.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kwang-il; Yi, Gangman

    2014-01-01

    Even though existing low-power listening (LPL) protocols have enabled ultra-low-power operation in wireless sensor networks (WSN), they do not address trade-off between energy and delay, since they focused only on energy aspect. However, in recent years, a growing interest in various WSN applications is requiring new design factors, such as minimum delay and higher reliability, as well as energy efficiency. Therefore, in this paper we propose a novel sensor multiple access control (MAC) protocol, transmission rate based adaptive low-power listening MAC protocol (TRA-MAC), which is a kind of preamble-based LPL but is capable of controlling preamble sensing cycle adaptively to transmission rates. Through experiments, it is demonstrated that TRA-MAC enables LPL cycle (LC) and preamble transmission length to adapt dynamically to varying transmission rates, compensating trade-off between energy and response time.

  20. Enhanced Electric Power Transmission by Hybrid Compensation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanichamy, C.; Kiu, G. Q.

    2015-04-01

    In today's competitive environment, new power system engineers are likely to contribute immediately to the task, without years of seasoning via on-the-job training, mentoring, and rotation assignments. At the same time it is becoming obligatory to train power system engineering graduates for an increasingly quality-minded corporate environment. In order to achieve this, there is a need to make available better-quality tools for educating and training power system engineering students and in-service system engineers too. As a result of the swift advances in computer hardware and software, many windows-based computer software packages were developed for the purpose of educating and training. In line with those packages, a simulation package called Hybrid Series-Shunt Compensators (HSSC) has been developed and presented in this paper for educational purposes.

  1. Wireless power and data transmission system for a micro implantable intraocular vision aid.

    PubMed

    Hijazi, N; Krisch, I; Hosticka, B J

    2002-01-01

    Wireless power and data transmission system developed for an intraocular vision aid for blind patients will be described. This system is applicable for patients suffering from bilateral corneal opacification but with intact posterior ocular. The system consists of an external unit as well as an implant. The external unit is required for image acquisition, channel coding, IR data transmission, and RF power transmission to the implant. The implantable unit contains a CMOS receiver, a receiver antenna coil, and the microdisplay based on a LED array. The CMOS receiver serves for reception and decoding of image data as well as driving circuits for the miniaturized LED array. In this case, mechanical wiring between the external unit and the implant is neither useful nor comfortable. An optimal technical solution needs a wireless data transfer. If the power is transferred to the implant wireless, too, the solution grows ideal. The system described in this communication employs wireless power and data transmission using an 13.56 MHz RF link for power transmission and an near IR (NIR) optical link for data transmission from an external CMOS camera and telemetry unit to the implantable micro display.

  2. Advanced Receiver/Converter Experiments for Laser Wireless Power Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Joe T.; ONeill, Mark; Fork, Richard

    2004-01-01

    For several years NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, UAH and ENTECH have been working on various aspects of space solar power systems. The current activity was just begun in January 2004 to further develop this new photovoltaic concentrator laser receiver/converter technology. During the next few months, an improved prototype will be designed, fabricated, and thoroughly tested under laser illumination. The final paper will describe the new concept, present its advantages over other laser receiver/converter approaches (including planar photovoltaic arrays), and provide the latest experiment results on prototype hardware (including the effects of laser irradiance level and cell temperature). With NASA's new human exploration plans to first return to the Moon, and then to proceed to Mars, the new photovoltaic concentrator laser receiver/converter technology could prove to be extremely useful in providing power to the landing sites and other phases of the missions. For example, to explore the scientifically interesting and likely resource-rich poles of the Moon (which may contain water) or the poles of Mars (which definitely contain water and carbon dioxide), laser power beaming could represent the simplest means of providing power to these regions, which receive little or no sunlight, making solar arrays useless there. In summary, the authors propose a paper on definition and experimental results of a novel photovoltaic concentrator approach for collecting and converting laser radiation to electrical power. The new advanced photovoltaic concentrator laser receiver/converter offers higher performance, lighter weight, and lower cost than competing concepts, and early experimental results are confirming the expected excellent Performance levels. After the small prototypes are successfully demonstrated, a larger array with even better performance is planned for the next phase experiments and demonstrations. Thereafter, a near-term flight experiment of the new technology

  3. Electrical Collection and Transmission Systems for Offshore Wind Power: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J.; Bowen, A.; Fingersh, L.J.; Wan, Y.

    2007-03-01

    The electrical systems needed for offshore wind farms to collect power from wind turbines--and transmit it to shore--will be a significant cost element of these systems. This paper describes the development of a simplified model of the cost and performance of such systems.

  4. 78 FR 35017 - Prairie Power, Inc. v. Ameren Services Company, Ameren Illinois Company, Ameren Transmission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Prairie Power, Inc. v. Ameren Services Company, Ameren Illinois Company, Ameren Transmission Company of Illinois; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on May 31, 2013, pursuant to section 206 of the Federal Power Act (FPA), 16 USC 825(e) and Rule 206 of the Federal...

  5. 77 FR 10489 - Xcel Energy Services Inc., Northern States Power Company v. American Transmission Company, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Xcel Energy Services Inc., Northern States Power Company v. American Transmission Company, LLC; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on February 14, 2012, pursuant to section 206 of the Federal Power Act and Rule 206 of the Rules of Practice and Procedure of the Federal...

  6. Research Plan for Study of Biological and Ecological Effects of the Solar Power Satellite Transmission System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, B. D.

    1978-01-01

    A programmatic research plan for a three year study is presented to generate knowledge on effects of the continuous wave 2.45 GHz microwave power transmission that the Solar Power Satellite might have on biological and ecological elements, within and around the rectenna receiving site.

  7. A survey of beam-combining technologies for laser space power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, J. H.; Williams, M. D.; Lee, J. H.

    1988-01-01

    The combination of laser beams holds much promise for obtaining powerful beams. Methods are surveyed for beam combination (coherent and incoherent) and two of them are identified as the most effective means for achieving high power transmission in space. The two methods as applied to laser diode arrays are analyzed, and potentially productive work areas for the advancement of technology are delineated.

  8. Solid state sandwich concept: Designs, considerations and issues. [solar power satellite transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, O. E.

    1980-01-01

    Progress in analysis and design of solid state approaches to the solar power satellite microwave power transmission system is reviewed with special emphasis on the Sandwich concept and the issues of maintenance of low junction temperatures for amplifiers to assure acceptable lifetime. Ten specific issues or considerations are discussed and their resolution or status is presented.

  9. An efficient transmission power control scheme for temperature variation in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jungwook; Chung, Kwangsue

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks collect data from several nodes dispersed at remote sites. Sensor nodes can be installed in harsh environments such as deserts, cities, and indoors, where the link quality changes considerably over time. Particularly, changes in transmission power may be caused by temperature, humidity, and other factors. In order to compensate for link quality changes, existing schemes detect the link quality changes between nodes and control transmission power through a series of feedback processes, but these approaches can cause heavy overhead with the additional control packets needed. In this paper, the change of the link quality according to temperature is examined through empirical experimentation. A new power control scheme combining both temperature-aware link quality compensation and a closed-loop feedback process to adapt to link quality changes is proposed. We prove that the proposed scheme effectively adapts the transmission power to the changing link quality with less control overhead and energy consumption.

  10. An Efficient Transmission Power Control Scheme for Temperature Variation in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jungwook; Chung, Kwangsue

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks collect data from several nodes dispersed at remote sites. Sensor nodes can be installed in harsh environments such as deserts, cities, and indoors, where the link quality changes considerably over time. Particularly, changes in transmission power may be caused by temperature, humidity, and other factors. In order to compensate for link quality changes, existing schemes detect the link quality changes between nodes and control transmission power through a series of feedback processes, but these approaches can cause heavy overhead with the additional control packets needed. In this paper, the change of the link quality according to temperature is examined through empirical experimentation. A new power control scheme combining both temperature-aware link quality compensation and a closed-loop feedback process to adapt to link quality changes is proposed. We prove that the proposed scheme effectively adapts the transmission power to the changing link quality with less control overhead and energy consumption. PMID:22163787

  11. MEMS Based Micro Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Niranjan; Köhler, Elof; Enoksson, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Designing a flapping wing insect robot requires understanding of insect flight mechanisms, wing kinematics and aerodynamic forces. These subsystems are interconnected and their dependence on one another affects the overall performance. Additionally it requires an artificial muscle like actuator and transmission to power the wings. Several kinds of actuators and mechanisms are candidates for this application with their own strengths and weaknesses. This article provides an overview of the insect scaled flight mechanism along with discussion of various methods to achieve the Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) flight. Ongoing projects in Chalmers is aimed at developing a low cost and low manufacturing time MAV. The MAV design considerations and design specifications are mentioned. The wings are manufactured using 3D printed carbon fiber and are under experimental study.

  12. Progress in Acoustic Transmission of Power through Walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit,Stewart; Coty, Benjamin; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea; Chang, Zensheu

    2008-01-01

    A document presents updated information on implementation of the wireless acoustic-electric feed-through (WAEF) concept, which was reported in Using Piezoelectric Devices To Transmit Power Through Walls (NPO-41157), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 6 (June 2008), page 70. To recapitulate: In a basic WAEF setup, a transmitting piezoelectric transducer on one side of a wall is driven at resonance to excite ultrasonic vibrations in the wall. A receiving piezoelectric transducer on the opposite side of the wall converts the vibrations back to an ultrasonic AC electric signal, which is then detected and otherwise processed in a manner that depends on the modulation (if any) applied to the signal and whether the signal is used to transmit power, data, or both. The present document expands upon the previous information concerning underlying physical principles, advantages, and potential applications of WAEF. It discusses the design and construction of breadboard prototype piezoelectric transducers for WAEF. It goes on to present results of computational simulations of performance and results of laboratory tests of the prototypes. In one notable test, a 100-W light bulb was lit by WAEF to demonstrate the feasibility of powering a realistic load.

  13. Through-Metal-Wall Power Delivery and Data Transmission for Enclosed Sensors: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ding-Xin; Hu, Zheng; Zhao, Hong; Hu, Hai-Feng; Sun, Yun-Zhe; Hou, Bao-Jian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to assess the current viable technologies for wireless power delivery and data transmission through metal barriers. Using such technologies sensors enclosed in hermetical metal containers can be powered and communicate through exterior power sources without penetration of the metal wall for wire feed-throughs. In this review, we first discuss the significant and essential requirements for through-metal-wall power delivery and data transmission and then we: (1) describe three electromagnetic coupling based techniques reported in the literature, which include inductive coupling, capacitive coupling, and magnetic resonance coupling; (2) present a detailed review of wireless ultrasonic through-metal-wall power delivery and/or data transmission methods; (3) compare various ultrasonic through-metal-wall systems in modeling, transducer configuration and communication mode with sensors; (4) summarize the characteristics of electromagnetic-based and ultrasound-based systems, evaluate the challenges and development trends. We conclude that electromagnetic coupling methods are suitable for through thin non-ferromagnetic metal wall power delivery and data transmission at a relatively low data rate; piezoelectric transducer-based ultrasonic systems are particularly advantageous in achieving high power transfer efficiency and high data rates; the combination of more than one single technique may provide a more practical and reliable solution for long term operation. PMID:26694392

  14. Through-Metal-Wall Power Delivery and Data Transmission for Enclosed Sensors: A Review.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ding-Xin; Hu, Zheng; Zhao, Hong; Hu, Hai-Feng; Sun, Yun-Zhe; Hou, Bao-Jian

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this review was to assess the current viable technologies for wireless power delivery and data transmission through metal barriers. Using such technologies sensors enclosed in hermetical metal containers can be powered and communicate through exterior power sources without penetration of the metal wall for wire feed-throughs. In this review, we first discuss the significant and essential requirements for through-metal-wall power delivery and data transmission and then we: (1) describe three electromagnetic coupling based techniques reported in the literature, which include inductive coupling, capacitive coupling, and magnetic resonance coupling; (2) present a detailed review of wireless ultrasonic through-metal-wall power delivery and/or data transmission methods; (3) compare various ultrasonic through-metal-wall systems in modeling, transducer configuration and communication mode with sensors; (4) summarize the characteristics of electromagnetic-based and ultrasound-based systems, evaluate the challenges and development trends. We conclude that electromagnetic coupling methods are suitable for through thin non-ferromagnetic metal wall power delivery and data transmission at a relatively low data rate; piezoelectric transducer-based ultrasonic systems are particularly advantageous in achieving high power transfer efficiency and high data rates; the combination of more than one single technique may provide a more practical and reliable solution for long term operation.

  15. 77 FR 24950 - Meeting Related to the Transmission Planning Activities of the Southwest Power Pool, Inc.; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... transmission planning activities of the Southwest Power Pool, Inc. (SPP): Strategic Planning Committee Task... Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc. Docket No. ER11-3967-002, Southwest Power Pool, Inc. Docket No... Energy Regulatory Commission Meeting Related to the Transmission Planning Activities of the...

  16. Automatic power transmission mechanism for a four wheel drive vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, R.J.

    1987-11-17

    In a transmission for a vehicle having two forward traction wheels and two rear traction wheels, this patent describes a multiple ratio transaxle having an input shaft adapted to be connected to an engine and arranged on a first axis and planetary gearing coaxially disposed relative to the input shaft and an output shaft; a first differential gear mechanism forming a part of the transaxle and having a torque output gear and side gears adapted to be connected to axle shafts for the forward wheels; a torque transfer drive means connecting the output shaft with the torque output gear including a first drive gear coaxially mounted relative to the torque output gear; an interaxle geared differential having a differential carrier and a pair of side gears, an interaxle torque input shaft having a third axis parallel to the second axis; a rear axle drive means connected to one of the interaxle differential side gears; a second drive gear and a third drive gear coaxially mounted with respect to the interaxle differential side gears; and first, second, third and fourth clutch means coaxially arranged with respect to the interaxle torque input shaft and independently actuatable for selectively connecting respectively (i) the third drive gear with the second drive gear, (ii) the second drive gear with the intermediate shaft, (iii) the third drive gear with the other side gear of the interaxle differential and (iv) the rear axle drive means with the carrier of the interaxle differential.

  17. A role for high frequency superconducting devices in free space power transmission systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, Jose L., Jr.; Cull, Ronald C.

    1988-01-01

    Major advances in space power technology are being made in photovoltaic, solar thermal, and nuclear systems. Despite these advances, the power systems required by the energy and power intensive mission of the future will be massive due to the large collecting surfaces, large thermal management systems, and heavy shielding. Reducing this mass on board the space vehicle can result in significant benefits because of the high cost of transporting and moving mass about in space. An approach to this problem is beaming the power from a point where the massiveness of the power plant is not such a major concern. The viability of such an approach was already investigated. Efficient microwave power beam transmission at 2.45 GHz was demonstrated over short range. Higher frequencies are desired for efficient transmission over several hundred or thousand kilometers in space. Superconducting DC-RF conversion as well as RF-DC conversion offers exciting possibilities. Multivoltage power conditioning for multicavity high power RF tubes could be eliminated since only low voltages are required for Josephson junctions. Small, high efficiency receivers may be possible using the reverse Josephson effects. A conceptual receiving antenna design using superconducting devices to determine possible system operating efficiency is assessed. If realized, these preliminary assessments indicate a role for superconducting devices in millimeter and submillimeter free space power transmission systems.

  18. Wireless power transmission for biomedical implants: The role of near-zero threshold CMOS rectifiers.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Ali; Redoute, Jean-Michel; Yuce, Mehmet R

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical implants require an electronic power conditioning circuitry to provide a stable electrical power supply. The efficiency of wireless power transmission is strongly dependent on the power conditioning circuitry specifically the rectifier. A cross-connected CMOS bridge rectifier is implemented to demonstrate the impact of thresholds of rectifiers on wireless power transfer. The performance of the proposed rectifier is experimentally compared with a conventional Schottky diode full wave rectifier over 9 cm distance of air and tissue medium between the transmitter and receiver. The output voltage generated by the CMOS rectifier across a 1 KΩ resistive load is around twice as much as the Schottky rectifier.

  19. Space-based solar power generation using a distributed network of satellites and methods for efficient space power transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLinko, Ryan M.; Sagar, Basant V.

    2009-12-01

    Space-based solar power (SSP) generation is being touted as a solution to our ever-increasing energy consumption and dependence on fossil fuels. Satellites in Earth's orbit can capture solar energy through photovoltaic cells and transmit that power to ground based stations. Solar cells in orbit are not hindered by weather, clouds, or night. The energy generated by this process is clean and pollution-free. Although the concept of space-based solar power was initially proposed nearly 40 years ago, the level of technology in photovoltaics, power transmission, materials, and efficient satellite design has finally reached a level of maturity that makes solar power from space a feasible prospect. Furthermore, new strategies in methods for solar energy acquisition and transmission can lead to simplifications in design, reductions in cost and reduced risk. This paper proposes using a distributed array of small satellites to collect power from the Sun, as compared to the more traditional SSP design that consists of one monolithic satellite. This concept mitigates some of SSP's most troublesome historic constraints, such as the requirement for heavy lift launch vehicles and the need for significant assembly in space. Instead, a larger number of smaller satellites designed to collect solar energy are launched independently. A high frequency beam will be used to aggregate collected power into a series of transmission antennas, which beam the energy to Earth's surface at a lower frequency. Due to the smaller power expectations of each satellite and the relatively short distance of travel from low earth orbit, such satellites can be designed with smaller arrays. The inter-satellite rectenna devices can also be smaller and lighter in weight. Our paper suggests how SSP satellites can be designed small enough to fit within ESPA standards and therefore use rideshare to achieve orbit. Alternatively, larger versions could be launched on Falcon 9s or on Falcon 1s with booster stages

  20. Transmission Benefits of Co-Locating Concentrating Solar Power and Wind

    SciTech Connect

    Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

    2012-03-01

    In some areas of the U.S. transmission constraints are a limiting factor in deploying new wind and concentrating solar power (CSP) plants. Texas is an example of one such location, where the best wind and solar resources are in the western part of the state, while major demand centers are in the east. The low capacity factor of wind is a compounding factor, increasing the relative cost of new transmission per unit of energy actually delivered. A possible method of increasing the utilization of new transmission is to co-locate both wind and concentrating solar power with thermal energy storage. In this work we examine the benefits and limits of using the dispatachability of thermal storage to increase the capacity factor of new transmission developed to access high quality solar and wind resources in remote locations.

  1. Demonstration of low power penalty of silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator in long-haul transmission.

    PubMed

    Yi, Huaxiang; Long, Qifeng; Tan, Wei; Li, Li; Wang, Xingjun; Zhou, Zhiping

    2012-12-03

    We demonstrate error-free 80km transmission by a silicon carrier-depletion Mach-Zehnder modulator at 10Gbps and the power penalty is as low as 1.15dB. The devices were evaluated through the bit-error-rate characterizations under the system-level analysis. The silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator was also analyzed comparatively with a lithium niobate Mach-Zehnder modulator in back-to-back transmission and long-haul transmission, respectively, and verified the negative chirp parameter of the silicon modulator through the experiment. The result of low power penalty indicates a practical application for the silicon modulator in the middle- or long-distance transmission systems.

  2. Rocket experiment on microwave power transmission with Furoshiki deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Nobuyuki; Iwashita, Masashi; Tanaka, Kohei; Nakasuka, Shinichi; Summerer, Leopold

    2009-07-01

    Huge antennas has many useful applications in space as well as on the ground, for example, Solar Power Satellite to provide electricity to the ground, telecommunication for cellular phones, radars for remote sensing, navigation and observation, and so on. The S-310-36 sounding rocket was successfully launched on 22 January 2006 to verify our newly proposed scheme to construct huge antennas under microgravity condition in space. The rocket experiment has three main objectives, the first objective of which is to verify the Furoshiki deployment system [S. Nakasuka, R. Funase, K. Nakada, N. Kaya, J. Mankins, Large membrane "FUROSHIKI Satellite" applied to phased array antenna and its sounding rocket experiment, in: Proceedings of the 54th International Astronautical Congress, 2003. [1

  3. Decorative power generating panels creating angle insensitive transmissive colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae Yong; Lee, Kyu-Tae; Seo, Sungyong; Guo, L. Jay

    2014-02-01

    We present ultra-thin (6 to 31 nm) undoped amorphous silicon/organic hybrid solar cell structure, which can transmit desired color of light. The transmitted colors show great angular tolerance due to the negligible optical phase associated with light propagating in ultra-thin amorphous silicon (a-Si) layers. We achieved the power conversion efficiency of the hybrid cells up to 2 %; and demonstrated that most of the absorbed photons in the undoped a-Si layer contributed to the extracted electric charges due to the suppressed electron-hole recombination in the ultra-thin a-Si layer. We also show the resonance is invariant with respect to the angle of incidence up to +/-70° regardless of the polarization of the incident light. Our exploration provides a design to realize energy harvesting colored photovoltaic panels for innovative applications.

  4. Decorative power generating panels creating angle insensitive transmissive colors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Yong; Lee, Kyu-Tae; Seo, Sungyong; Guo, L. Jay

    2014-01-01

    We present ultra-thin (6 to 31 nm) undoped amorphous silicon/organic hybrid solar cell structure, which can transmit desired color of light. The transmitted colors show great angular tolerance due to the negligible optical phase associated with light propagating in ultra-thin amorphous silicon (a-Si) layers. We achieved the power conversion efficiency of the hybrid cells up to 2 %; and demonstrated that most of the absorbed photons in the undoped a-Si layer contributed to the extracted electric charges due to the suppressed electron-hole recombination in the ultra-thin a-Si layer. We also show the resonance is invariant with respect to the angle of incidence up to ±70° regardless of the polarization of the incident light. Our exploration provides a design to realize energy harvesting colored photovoltaic panels for innovative applications. PMID:24577075

  5. Decorative power generating panels creating angle insensitive transmissive colors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Yong; Lee, Kyu-Tae; Seo, Sungyong; Guo, L Jay

    2014-02-28

    We present ultra-thin (6 to 31 nm) undoped amorphous silicon/organic hybrid solar cell structure, which can transmit desired color of light. The transmitted colors show great angular tolerance due to the negligible optical phase associated with light propagating in ultra-thin amorphous silicon (a-Si) layers. We achieved the power conversion efficiency of the hybrid cells up to 2 %; and demonstrated that most of the absorbed photons in the undoped a-Si layer contributed to the extracted electric charges due to the suppressed electron-hole recombination in the ultra-thin a-Si layer. We also show the resonance is invariant with respect to the angle of incidence up to ± 70° regardless of the polarization of the incident light. Our exploration provides a design to realize energy harvesting colored photovoltaic panels for innovative applications.

  6. Comprehensive evaluation of power grid projects' investment benefits under the reform of transmission and distribution price

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongli; Wang, Gang; Zuo, Yi; Fan, Lisha; Ling, Yunpeng

    2017-03-01

    On March 15, 2015, the Central Office issued the "Opinions on Further Deepening the Reform of Electric Power System" (Zhong Fa No. 9). This policy marks the central government officially opened a new round of electricity reform. As a programmatic document under the new situation to comprehensively promote the reform of the power system, No. 9 document will be approved as a separate transmission and distribution of electricity prices, which is the first task of promoting the reform of the power system. Grid tariff reform is not only the transmission and distribution price of a separate approval, more of the grid company input-output relationship and many other aspects of deep-level adjustments. Under the background of the reform of the transmission and distribution price, the main factors affecting the input-output relationship, such as the main business, electricity pricing, and investment approval, financial accounting and so on, have changed significantly. The paper designed the comprehensive evaluation index system of power grid projects' investment benefits under the reform of transmission and distribution price to improve the investment efficiency of power grid projects after the power reform in China.

  7. Investigation of energy harvesting for magnetic sensor arrays on Mars by wireless power transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chunhua; Chau, K. T.; Qiu, Chun; Lin, Fei

    2014-05-01

    This paper proposes the energy harvesting for magnetic sensor arrays on Mars, which can receive the power from Mars Rover by wireless power transmission (WPT). The schematic idea is presented with the energy receiver as the magnetic sensor and the energy transmitter as the transducer on Mars Rover. The key is to adopt the resonant inductive power transmission (IPT) topology between the magnetic sensor and Mars Rover. The basic topology and its operating principle are discussed. By using the magnetic frequency analysis with the finite element method, the output power and efficiency of the WPT system are calculated. The results show that Mars Rover could flexibly transmit its power to different types of small-size magnetic sensors based on their energy on demand using different resonant frequencies and distances.

  8. Toward space solar power: Wireless energy transmission experiments past, present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Frank E.; McSpadden, James O.; Chang, Kai; Kaya, Nobuyuki

    1998-01-01

    Solar power is a reality. Today, increasing numbers of photovoltaic and other solar-powered installations are in service around the world and in space. These uses range from the primary electric power source for satellites, remote site scientific experiments and villages in developing countries to augmenting the commercial electric grid and providing partial power for individual businesses and homeowners in developed countries. In space, electricity generated by photovoltaic conversion of solar energy is the mainstay of power for low Earth and geostationary satellite constellations. Still, for all its acceptance as a benign and environmentally friendly energy source, terrestrial solar power has yet to be seriously considered a viable technology for providing base electrical generating capacity. The obvious reason is sunshine on Earth is too unreliable. In addition to the diurnal and seasonal cycles, inclement weather reduces the average daily period and intensity of insolation. However, the Sun shines constantly in space. The challenge is to harvest and transmit the energy from space to Earth. The concept of space solar power based on microwave wireless energy transmission was first put forth more than 25 years ago by Dr. Peter Glaser. We review historical experiments in wireless energy transmission which have brought the technology from a laboratory curiosity to its present status. Results from recent experiments and their implications for wireless energy transmission as an enabling technology for space solar power are reviewed. Current developments are discussed along with proposed terrestrial and space experiments.

  9. Modeling the Impacts of Geomagnetic Disturbances on the New York State Power Transmission System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouedraogo, D.; Castillo, O. L.; Mohamed, A.; Damas, M. C.; Ngwira, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Our society today relies heavily on electricity in order to meet its essential basic needs. However, to meet the rising demands for this energy, all power companies require smooth and efficient delivery of services to the consumers. The US power grid is a complex electrical apparatus that has well known sensitivities to space weather disturbances. Events produced by space weather includes solar storms or geomagnetic disturbances [GMD]. The propagation of such events in the direction of Earth perturbs the electric currents in the magnetosphere and the ionosphere, causing a unique effect known as a Geomagnetically Induced Current [GIC]. GICs are known to saturate and overheat transformers in the power grid, threatening the safe operation of the power system. A GMD induces a geoelectric field in high-voltage and extra high-voltage transmission circuits. This geoelectric field represents electromotive force, and causes GICs to circulate through transmission circuits and transformers. Power models are being developed using MATLAB/Simulink® software to simulate the propagation of GIC flows in a power system, while using New York State (NYS) power transmission network as an example. We will present results of the models used to assess the impacts of possible GMD strikes on the various parts of the power network.

  10. Proactive and Reactive Transmission Power Control for Energy-Efficient On-Body Communications

    PubMed Central

    Vallejo, Mónica; Recas, Joaquín.; Ayala, José L.

    2015-01-01

    In wireless body sensor network (WBSNs), the human body has an important effect on the performance of the communication due to the temporal variations caused and the attenuation and fluctuation of the path loss. This fact suggests that the transmission power must adapt to the current state of the link in a way that it ensures a balance between energy consumption and packet loss. In this paper, we validate our two transmission power level policies (reactive and predictive approaches) using the Castalia simulator. The integration of our experimental measurements in the simulator allows us to easily evaluate complex scenarios, avoiding the difficulties associated with a practical realization. Our results show that both schemes perform satisfactorily, providing overall energy savings of 24% and 22% for a case of study, as compared to the maximum transmission power mode. PMID:25769049

  11. Proactive and reactive transmission power control for energy-efficient on-body communications.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Mónica; Recas, Joaquín; Ayala, José L

    2015-03-11

    In wireless body sensor network (WBSNs), the human body has an important effect on the performance of the communication due to the temporal variations caused and the attenuation and fluctuation of the path loss. This fact suggests that the transmission power must adapt to the current state of the link in a way that it ensures a balance between energy consumption and packet loss. In this paper, we validate our two transmission power level policies (reactive and predictive approaches) using the Castalia simulator. The integration of our experimental measurements in the simulator allows us to easily evaluate complex scenarios, avoiding the difficulties associated with a practical realization. Our results show that both schemes perform satisfactorily, providing overall energy savings of 24% and 22% for a case of study, as compared to the maximum transmission power mode.

  12. Design and application research of implantable wireless power transmission micro electro mechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Longbin; Shao, Xiaotao; Wu, Fan; Huo, Xingying; Li, Weiyuan; Mo, Ling

    2011-05-01

    With the rapid development of medical technology currently, the types of medical micro system which can be embedded to human body and satisfied with different purposes of treatment and diagnosis are in increasing numbers, and how to provide long-term, stable and effective electric energy is a key problem. The research illustrates the design and realization of Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) planar inductor; method of design and manufacture of planar and circular spiral inductor of printed board with high quality factor is introduced; a set of MEMS which is suitable for implantable wireless power transmission is developed in order to realize the conversion from magnetic energy to electric energy. With theoretical analysis and experimental data, the scheme is confirmed to be suitable for the wireless power transmission to the implantable micro parts, which provides important reference value for the research of implantable wireless power transmission in the future.

  13. Design and application research of implantable wireless power transmission micro electro mechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Longbin; Shao, Xiaotao; Wu, Fan; Huo, Xingying; Li, Weiyuan; Mo, Ling

    2010-12-01

    With the rapid development of medical technology currently, the types of medical micro system which can be embedded to human body and satisfied with different purposes of treatment and diagnosis are in increasing numbers, and how to provide long-term, stable and effective electric energy is a key problem. The research illustrates the design and realization of Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) planar inductor; method of design and manufacture of planar and circular spiral inductor of printed board with high quality factor is introduced; a set of MEMS which is suitable for implantable wireless power transmission is developed in order to realize the conversion from magnetic energy to electric energy. With theoretical analysis and experimental data, the scheme is confirmed to be suitable for the wireless power transmission to the implantable micro parts, which provides important reference value for the research of implantable wireless power transmission in the future.

  14. The effect analysis of strain rate on power transmission tower-line system under seismic excitation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Li; Wang, Wenming; Qian, Hui

    2014-01-01

    The effect analysis of strain rate on power transmission tower-line system under seismic excitation is studied in this paper. A three-dimensional finite element model of a transmission tower-line system is created based on a real project. Using theoretical analysis and numerical simulation, incremental dynamic analysis of the power transmission tower-line system is conducted to investigate the effect of strain rate on the nonlinear responses of the transmission tower and line. The results show that the effect of strain rate on the transmission tower generally decreases the maximum top displacements, but it would increase the maximum base shear forces, and thus it is necessary to consider the effect of strain rate on the seismic analysis of the transmission tower. The effect of strain rate could be ignored for the seismic analysis of the conductors and ground lines, but the responses of the ground lines considering strain rate effect are larger than those of the conductors. The results could provide a reference for the seismic design of the transmission tower-line system.

  15. The Effect Analysis of Strain Rate on Power Transmission Tower-Line System under Seismic Excitation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenming

    2014-01-01

    The effect analysis of strain rate on power transmission tower-line system under seismic excitation is studied in this paper. A three-dimensional finite element model of a transmission tower-line system is created based on a real project. Using theoretical analysis and numerical simulation, incremental dynamic analysis of the power transmission tower-line system is conducted to investigate the effect of strain rate on the nonlinear responses of the transmission tower and line. The results show that the effect of strain rate on the transmission tower generally decreases the maximum top displacements, but it would increase the maximum base shear forces, and thus it is necessary to consider the effect of strain rate on the seismic analysis of the transmission tower. The effect of strain rate could be ignored for the seismic analysis of the conductors and ground lines, but the responses of the ground lines considering strain rate effect are larger than those of the conductors. The results could provide a reference for the seismic design of the transmission tower-line system. PMID:25105157

  16. [An implantable micro-device using wireless power transmission for measuring aortic aneurysm sac pressure].

    PubMed

    Guo, Xudong; Ge, Bin; Wang, Wenxing

    2013-08-01

    In order to detect endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), we developed an implantable micro-device based on wireless power transmission to measure aortic aneurysm sac pressure. The implantable micro-device is composed of a miniature wireless pressure sensor, an energy transmitting coil, a data recorder and a data processing platform. Power transmission without interconnecting wires is performed by a transmitting coil and a receiving coil. The coupling efficiency of wireless power transmission depends on the coupling coefficient between the transmitting coil and the receiving coil. With theoretical analysis and experimental study, we optimized the geometry of the receiving coil to increase the coupling coefficient. In order to keep efficiency balance and satisfy the maximizing conditions, we designed a closed loop power transmission circuit, including a receiving voltage feedback module based on wireless communication. The closed loop improved the stability and reliability of transmission energy. The prototype of the micro-device has been developed and the experiment has been performed. The experiments showed that the micro-device was feasible and valid. For normal operation, the distance between the transmitting coil and the receiving coil is smaller than 8cm. Besides, the distance between the micro-device and the data recorder is within 50cm.

  17. Improvement of wireless power transmission efficiency of implantable subcutaneous devices by closed magnetic circuit mechanism.

    PubMed

    Jo, Sung-Eun; Joung, Sanghoon; Suh, Jun-Kyo Francis; Kim, Yong-Jun

    2012-09-01

    Induction coils were fabricated based on flexible printed circuit board for inductive transcutaneous power transmission. The coil had closed magnetic circuit (CMC) structure consisting of inner and outer magnetic core. The power transmission efficiency of the fabricated device was measured in the air and in vivo condition. It was confirmed that the CMC coil had higher transmission efficiency than typical air-core coil. The power transmission efficiency during a misalignment between primary coil and implanted secondary coil was also evaluated. The decrease of mutual inductance between the two coils caused by the misalignment led to a low efficiency of the inductive link. Therefore, it is important to properly align the primary coil and implanted secondary coil for effective power transmission. To align the coils, a feedback coil was proposed. This was integrated on the backside of the primary coil and enabled the detection of a misalignment of the primary and secondary coils. As a result of using the feedback coil, the primary and secondary coils could be aligned without knowledge of the position of the implanted secondary coil.

  18. Design and application of a test rig for super-critical power transmission shafts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darlow, M.; Smalley, A.

    1979-01-01

    The design, assembly, operational check-out and application of a test facility for testing supercritical power transmission shafts under realistic conditions of size, speed and torque are described. Alternative balancing methods and alternative damping mechanisms are demonstrated and compared. The influence of torque upon the unbalance distribution is studied, and its effect on synchronous vibrations is investigated. The feasibility of operating supercritical power transmission shafting is demonstrated, but the need for careful control, by balancing and damping, of synchronous and nonsynchronous vibrations is made clear. The facility was demonstrated to be valuable for shaft system development programs and studies for both advanced and current-production hardware.

  19. Control system and method for a power delivery system having a continuously variable ratio transmission

    DOEpatents

    Frank, Andrew A.

    1984-01-01

    A control system and method for a power delivery system, such as in an automotive vehicle, having an engine coupled to a continuously variable ratio transmission (CVT). Totally independent control of engine and transmission enable the engine to precisely follow a desired operating characteristic, such as the ideal operating line for minimum fuel consumption. CVT ratio is controlled as a function of commanded power or torque and measured load, while engine fuel requirements (e.g., throttle position) are strictly a function of measured engine speed. Fuel requirements are therefore precisely adjusted in accordance with the ideal characteristic for any load placed on the engine.

  20. Control system and method for a power delivery system having a continuously variable ratio transmission

    DOEpatents

    Frank, A.A.

    1984-07-10

    A control system and method for a power delivery system, such as in an automotive vehicle, having an engine coupled to a continuously variable ratio transmission (CVT). Totally independent control of engine and transmission enable the engine to precisely follow a desired operating characteristic, such as the ideal operating line for minimum fuel consumption. CVT ratio is controlled as a function of commanded power or torque and measured load, while engine fuel requirements (e.g., throttle position) are strictly a function of measured engine speed. Fuel requirements are therefore precisely adjusted in accordance with the ideal characteristic for any load placed on the engine. 4 figs.

  1. Nonlinear behavior of electric power transmission through an elastic wall by acoustic waves and piezoelectric transducers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zengtao; Yang, Jiashi; Hu, Yuantai

    2008-11-01

    Weakly nonlinear behavior of electric power transmission through an elastic wall by piezoelectric transducers and acoustic waves near resonance is studied based on the cubic theory of nonlinear electroelasticity. An approximate analytical solution is obtained. Output voltage is calculated and plotted. Basic nonlinear behaviors of the power transmission structure are examined. It is found that near nonlinear resonance the electrical input-output relation loses its linearity, becomes multi-valued, and experiences jumps due to large mechanical deformations. The behavior below and above resonance is qualitatively different and is qualitatively material dependent.

  2. Marine High Voltage Power Conditioning and Transmission System with Integrated Storage DE-EE0003640 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Frank Hoffmann, PhD; Aspinall, Rik

    2012-12-10

    Design, Development, and test of the three-port power converter for marine hydrokinetic power transmission. Converter provides ports for AC/DC conversion of hydrokinetic power, battery storage, and a low voltage to high voltage DC port for HVDC transmission to shore. The report covers the design, development, implementation, and testing of a prototype built by PPS.

  3. Micro-size antenna structure with vertical nanowires for wireless power transmission and communication.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jong-Gu; Jeong, Yeri; Shin, Jeong Hee; Choi, Ji-Woong; Sohn, Jung Inn; Cha, Seung Nam; Jang, Jae Eun

    2014-11-01

    For biomedical implanted devices, a wireless power or a signal transmission is essential to protect an infection and to enhance durability. In this study, we present a magnetic induction technique for a power transmission without any wire connection between transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) in a micro scale. Due to a micro size effect of a flat spiral coil, a magnetic inductance is not high. To enhance the magnetic inductance, a three dimensional magnetic core is added to an antenna structure, which is consisted of ZnO nano wires coated by a nickel (Ni) layer. ZnO nano wires easily supply a large effective surface area with a vertical structural effect to the magnetic core structure, which induces a higher magnetic inductance with a ferro-magnetic material Ni. The magnetic induction antenna with the magnetic core shows a high inductance value, a low reflection power and a strong power transmission. The power transmission efficiencies are tested under the air and the water medium are almost the same values, so that the magnetic induction technique is quite proper to body implanted systems.

  4. GPS-Like Phasing Control of the Space Solar Power System Transmission Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Psiaki, Mark L.

    2003-01-01

    The problem of phasing of the Space Solar Power System's transmission array has been addressed by developing a GPS-like radio navigation system. The goal of this system is to provide power transmission phasing control for each node of the array that causes the power signals to add constructively at the ground reception station. The phasing control system operates in a distributed manner, which makes it practical to implement. A leader node and two radio navigation beacons are used to control the power transmission phasing of multiple follower nodes. The necessary one-way communications to the follower nodes are implemented using the RF beacon signals. The phasing control system uses differential carrier phase relative navigation/timing techniques. A special feature of the system is an integer ambiguity resolution procedure that periodically resolves carrier phase cycle count ambiguities via encoding of pseudo-random number codes on the power transmission signals. The system is capable of achieving phasing accuracies on the order of 3 mm down to 0.4 mm depending on whether the radio navigation beacons operate in the L or C bands.

  5. Power-based Shift Schedule for Pure Electric Vehicle with a Two-speed Automatic Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiaqi; Liu, Yanfang; Liu, Qiang; Xu, Xiangyang

    2016-11-01

    This paper introduces a comprehensive shift schedule for a two-speed automatic transmission of pure electric vehicle. Considering about driving ability and efficiency performance of electric vehicles, the power-based shift schedule is proposed with three principles. This comprehensive shift schedule regards the vehicle current speed and motor load power as input parameters to satisfy the vehicle driving power demand with lowest energy consumption. A simulation model has been established to verify the dynamic and economic performance of comprehensive shift schedule. Compared with traditional dynamic and economic shift schedules, simulation results indicate that the power-based shift schedule is superior to traditional shift schedules.

  6. Understanding the power reflection and transmission coefficients of a plane wave at a planar interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Qian; Jiang, Yikun; Lin, Haoze

    2017-03-01

    In most textbooks, after discussing the partial transmission and reflection of a plane wave at a planar interface, the power (energy) reflection and transmission coefficients are introduced by calculating the normal-to-interface components of the Poynting vectors for the incident, reflected and transmitted waves, separately. Ambiguity arises among students since, for the Poynting vector to be interpreted as the energy flux density, on the incident (reflected) side, the electric and magnetic fields involved must be the total fields, namely, the sum of incident and reflected fields, instead of the partial fields which are just the incident (reflected) fields. The interpretation of the cross product of partial fields as energy flux has not been obviously justified in most textbooks. Besides, the plane wave is actually an idealisation that is only ever found in textbooks, then what do the reflection and transmission coefficients evaluated for a plane wave really mean for a real beam of limited extent? To provide a clearer physical picture, we exemplify a light beam of finite transverse extent by a fundamental Gaussian beam and simulate its reflection and transmission at a planar interface. Due to its finite transverse extent, we can then insert the incident fields or reflected fields as total fields into the expression of the Poynting vector to evaluate the energy flux and then power reflection and transmission coefficients. We demonstrate that the power reflection and transmission coefficients of a beam of finite extent turn out to be the weighted sum of the corresponding coefficients for all constituent plane wave components that form the beam. The power reflection and transmission coefficients of a single plane wave serve, in turn, as the asymptotes for the corresponding coefficients of a light beam as its width expands infinitely.

  7. In-Containment Signal Acquisition and Data Transmission via Power Lines within High Dose Areas of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller Steffen; Wibbing Sascha; Weigel Robert; Koelpin Alexander; Dennerlein, Juergen; Janke, Iryna; Weber, Johannes

    2015-07-01

    Signal acquisition and data transmission for innovative sensor systems and networks inside the containment of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is still a challenge with respect to safety, performance, reliability, availability, and costs. This especially applies to equipment upgrades for existing plants, special measurements, but also for new builds. This paper presents a novel method for efficient and cost-effective sensor signal acquisition and data transmission via power lines, in order to cope with the disadvantages of common system architectures that often suffer from poor signal integrity due to raw data transmissions via long cables, huge efforts and costs for installation, and low flexibility with respect to maintenance and upgrades. A transmitter-receiver architecture is proposed that allows multiplexing of multiple sensor inputs for unidirectional point-to-point transmission by superimposing information signals on existing AC or DC supply lines, but also on active and inactive sensor wires, or spare cables, using power line communication (PLC) technology. Based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) electronic parts, a radiation hard transmitter hardware is designed to operate in harsh environment within the containment during full plant operation. The system's modular approach allows application specific trade-offs between redundancy and throughput regarding data transmission, as well as various sensor input front-ends which are compatible with state of the art systems. PLC technology eliminates the need for costly installation of additional cables and wall penetrations, while providing a complementary and diverse communication technology for upgrades of existing systems. At the receiver side in low dose areas, signals are extracted from the power line, demodulated, and de-multiplexed, in order to regain the original sensor signal information and provide it either in analog or digital output format. Successful laboratory qualification tests, field trails, and a

  8. Magnet Lattice Design for the Transmission of Power Using Particle Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, Daniel; /North Carolina State U. /SLAC

    2012-08-24

    As the amount of electricity generated by renewable energy sources continues to increase, the current method of power transmission will not serve as an adequate method for transmitting power over very long distances. A new method for transmitting power is proposed using particle beams in a storage ring. Particle beams offer an incredibly energy efficient alternative to transmission lines in transmitting power over very long distances. A thorough investigation of the magnet lattice design for this storage ring is presented. The design demonstrates the ability to design a ring with stable orbits over a 381.733 km circumference. Double bend achromats and FODO cells are implemented to achieve appropriate {beta} functions and dispersion functions for 9-11 GeV electron beams.

  9. High precision ultrasonic guided wave technique for inspection of power transmission line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jun; Qiu, Jinhao; Ji, Hongli; Wang, Enrong; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Uchimoto, Tetsuya

    2017-01-01

    Due to the merits of high inspection speed and long detecting distance, Ultrasonic Guided Wave(UGW) method has been commonly applied to the on-line maintenance of power transmission line. However, the guided wave propagation in this structure is very complicated, leading to the unfavorable defect localization accuracy. Aiming at this situation, a high precision UGW technique for inspection of local surface defect in power transmission line is proposed. The technique is realized by adopting a novel segmental piezoelectric ring transducer and transducer mounting scheme, combining with the comprehensive characterization of wave propagation and circumferential defect positioning with multiple piezoelectric elements. Firstly, the propagation path of guided waves in the multi-wires of transmission line under the proposed technique condition is investigated experimentally. Next, the wave velocities are calculated by dispersion curves and experiment test respectively, and from comparing of the two results, the guided wave mode propagated in transmission line is confirmed to be F(1,1) mode. Finally, the axial and circumferential positioning of local defective wires in transmission line are both achieved, by using multiple piezoelectric elements to surround the stands and send elastic waves into every single wire. The proposed research can play a role of guiding the development of highly effective UGW method and detecting system for multi-wire transmission line.

  10. A Beacon Transmission Power Control Algorithm Based on Wireless Channel Load Forecasting in VANETs

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Yuanfu; Yu, Dexin; Song, Jun; Zheng, Kun; Guo, Yajuan

    2015-01-01

    In a vehicular ad hoc network (VANET), the periodic exchange of single-hop status information broadcasts (beacon frames) produces channel loading, which causes channel congestion and induces information conflict problems. To guarantee fairness in beacon transmissions from each node and maximum network connectivity, adjustment of the beacon transmission power is an effective method for reducing and preventing channel congestion. In this study, the primary factors that influence wireless channel loading are selected to construct the KF-BCLF, which is a channel load forecasting algorithm based on a recursive Kalman filter and employs multiple regression equation. By pre-adjusting the transmission power based on the forecasted channel load, the channel load was kept within a predefined range; therefore, channel congestion was prevented. Based on this method, the CLF-BTPC, which is a transmission power control algorithm, is proposed. To verify KF-BCLF algorithm, a traffic survey method that involved the collection of floating car data along a major traffic road in Changchun City is employed. By comparing this forecast with the measured channel loads, the proposed KF-BCLF algorithm was proven to be effective. In addition, the CLF-BTPC algorithm is verified by simulating a section of eight-lane highway and a signal-controlled urban intersection. The results of the two verification process indicate that this distributed CLF-BTPC algorithm can effectively control channel load, prevent channel congestion, and enhance the stability and robustness of wireless beacon transmission in a vehicular network. PMID:26571042

  11. A Beacon Transmission Power Control Algorithm Based on Wireless Channel Load Forecasting in VANETs.

    PubMed

    Mo, Yuanfu; Yu, Dexin; Song, Jun; Zheng, Kun; Guo, Yajuan

    2015-01-01

    In a vehicular ad hoc network (VANET), the periodic exchange of single-hop status information broadcasts (beacon frames) produces channel loading, which causes channel congestion and induces information conflict problems. To guarantee fairness in beacon transmissions from each node and maximum network connectivity, adjustment of the beacon transmission power is an effective method for reducing and preventing channel congestion. In this study, the primary factors that influence wireless channel loading are selected to construct the KF-BCLF, which is a channel load forecasting algorithm based on a recursive Kalman filter and employs multiple regression equation. By pre-adjusting the transmission power based on the forecasted channel load, the channel load was kept within a predefined range; therefore, channel congestion was prevented. Based on this method, the CLF-BTPC, which is a transmission power control algorithm, is proposed. To verify KF-BCLF algorithm, a traffic survey method that involved the collection of floating car data along a major traffic road in Changchun City is employed. By comparing this forecast with the measured channel loads, the proposed KF-BCLF algorithm was proven to be effective. In addition, the CLF-BTPC algorithm is verified by simulating a section of eight-lane highway and a signal-controlled urban intersection. The results of the two verification process indicate that this distributed CLF-BTPC algorithm can effectively control channel load, prevent channel congestion, and enhance the stability and robustness of wireless beacon transmission in a vehicular network.

  12. COE projection for the modular WARP{trademark} wind power system for wind farms and electric utility power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Weisbrich, A.L.; Ostrow, S.L.; Padalino, J.

    1995-09-01

    Wind power has emerged as an attractive alternative source of electricity for utilities. Turbine operating experience from wind farms has provided corroborating data of wind power potential for electric utility application. Now, a patented modular wind power technology, the Toroidal Accelerator Rotor Platform (TARP{trademark}) Windframe{trademark}, forms the basis for next generation megawatt scale wind farm and/or distributed wind power plants. When arranged in tall vertically clustered TARP{trademark} module stacks, such power plant units are designated Wind Amplified Rotor Platform (WARP{trademark}) Systems. While heavily building on proven technology, these systems are projected to surpass current technology windmills in terms of performance, user-friendly operation and ease of maintenance. In its unique generation and transmission configuration, the WARP{trademark}-GT System combines both electricity generation through wind energy conversion and electric power transmission. Furthermore, environmental benefits include dramatically less land requirement, architectural appearance, lower noise and EMI/TV interference, and virtual elimination of bird mortality potential. Cost-of-energy (COE) is projected to be from under $0.02/kWh to less than $0.05/kWh in good to moderate wind resource sites.

  13. Bias-field controlled phasing and power combination of gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission lines.

    PubMed

    Reale, D V; Bragg, J-W B; Gonsalves, N R; Johnson, J M; Neuber, A A; Dickens, J C; Mankowski, J J

    2014-05-01

    Gyromagnetic Nonlinear Transmission Lines (NLTLs) generate microwaves through the damped gyromagnetic precession of the magnetic moments in ferrimagnetic material, and are thus utilized as compact, solid-state, frequency agile, high power microwave (HPM) sources. The output frequency of a NLTL can be adjusted by control of the externally applied bias field and incident voltage pulse without physical alteration to the structure of the device. This property provides a frequency tuning capability not seen in many conventional e-beam based HPM sources. The NLTLs developed and tested are mesoband sources capable of generating MW power levels in the L, S, and C bands of the microwave spectrum. For an individual NLTL the output power at a given frequency is determined by several factors including the intrinsic properties of the ferrimagnetic material and the transmission line structure. Hence, if higher power levels are to be achieved, it is necessary to combine the outputs of multiple NLTLs. This can be accomplished in free space using antennas or in a transmission line via a power combiner. Using a bias-field controlled delay, a transient, high voltage, coaxial, three port, power combiner was designed and tested. Experimental results are compared with the results of a transient COMSOL simulation to evaluate combiner performance.

  14. Bias-field controlled phasing and power combination of gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Reale, D. V. Bragg, J.-W. B.; Gonsalves, N. R.; Johnson, J. M.; Neuber, A. A.; Dickens, J. C.; Mankowski, J. J.

    2014-05-15

    Gyromagnetic Nonlinear Transmission Lines (NLTLs) generate microwaves through the damped gyromagnetic precession of the magnetic moments in ferrimagnetic material, and are thus utilized as compact, solid-state, frequency agile, high power microwave (HPM) sources. The output frequency of a NLTL can be adjusted by control of the externally applied bias field and incident voltage pulse without physical alteration to the structure of the device. This property provides a frequency tuning capability not seen in many conventional e-beam based HPM sources. The NLTLs developed and tested are mesoband sources capable of generating MW power levels in the L, S, and C bands of the microwave spectrum. For an individual NLTL the output power at a given frequency is determined by several factors including the intrinsic properties of the ferrimagnetic material and the transmission line structure. Hence, if higher power levels are to be achieved, it is necessary to combine the outputs of multiple NLTLs. This can be accomplished in free space using antennas or in a transmission line via a power combiner. Using a bias-field controlled delay, a transient, high voltage, coaxial, three port, power combiner was designed and tested. Experimental results are compared with the results of a transient COMSOL simulation to evaluate combiner performance.

  15. Experimental study on guide friction contribution in global power loss of a tooth chain transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velicu, R.; Papuc, R.; Gavrila, C. C.; Popa, S.

    2017-02-01

    The subject of the paper is the friction between a tooth chain and the guide. An experimental study is developed with the aim of determining the contribution of chain-guide friction on the global friction of a basic tooth chain transmission. The measurements have been made on a chain friction rig, testing a basic tooth chain transmission with transmission ratio equal to 1, with a controlled tensioning device. The following parameters can be adjusted and measured: rotational speed, tensioning force in the chain, position of the guide, temperature and pressure of the oil used for lubrication. Friction torque at the input shaft is a sum of friction torques coming from bearings, chain and guide. The paper presents the contribution of the guide in the power loss by friction, as percent of the power loss from friction in chain and guide together. Influences of speed, tensioning force and oil temperature are presented.

  16. Analysis of electromagnetic interference from power system processing and transmission components for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, Peter W.; Demerdash, Nabeel A. O.; Wang, R.; Hurysz, B.; Luo, Z.

    1991-01-01

    The goal is to analyze the potential effects of electromagnetic interference (EMI) originating from power system processing and transmission components for Space Station Freedom.The approach consists of four steps: (1) develop analytical tools (models and computer programs); (2) conduct parameterization studies; (3) predict the global space station EMI environment; and (4) provide a basis for modification of EMI standards.

  17. Asymptotically Optimal Transmission Policies for Large-Scale Low-Power Wireless Sensor Networks

    SciTech Connect

    I. Ch. Paschalidis; W. Lai; D. Starobinski

    2007-02-01

    We consider wireless sensor networks with multiple gateways and multiple classes of traffic carrying data generated by different sensory inputs. The objective is to devise joint routing, power control and transmission scheduling policies in order to gather data in the most efficient manner while respecting the needs of different sensing tasks (fairness). We formulate the problem as maximizing the utility of transmissions subject to explicit fairness constraints and propose an efficient decomposition algorithm drawing upon large-scale decomposition ideas in mathematical programming. We show that our algorithm terminates in a finite number of iterations and produces a policy that is asymptotically optimal at low transmission power levels. Furthermore, we establish that the utility maximization problem we consider can, in principle, be solved in polynomial time. Numerical results show that our policy is near-optimal, even at high power levels, and far superior to the best known heuristics at low power levels. We also demonstrate how to adapt our algorithm to accommodate energy constraints and node failures. The approach we introduce can efficiently determine near-optimal transmission policies for dramatically larger problem instances than an alternative enumeration approach.

  18. Non-Orthogonal Random Access in MIMO Cognitive Radio Networks: Beamforming, Power Allocation, and Opportunistic Transmission.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huifa; Shin, Won-Yong

    2017-01-01

    We study secondary random access in multi-input multi-output cognitive radio networks, where a slotted ALOHA-type protocol and successive interference cancellation are used. We first introduce three types of transmit beamforming performed by secondary users, where multiple antennas are used to suppress the interference at the primary base station and/or to increase the received signal power at the secondary base station. Then, we show a simple decentralized power allocation along with the equivalent single-antenna conversion. To exploit the multiuser diversity gain, an opportunistic transmission protocol is proposed, where the secondary users generating less interference are opportunistically selected, resulting in a further reduction of the interference temperature. The proposed methods are validated via computer simulations. Numerical results show that increasing the number of transmit antennas can greatly reduce the interference temperature, while increasing the number of receive antennas leads to a reduction of the total transmit power. Optimal parameter values of the opportunistic transmission protocol are examined according to three types of beamforming and different antenna configurations, in terms of maximizing the cognitive transmission capacity. All the beamforming, decentralized power allocation, and opportunistic transmission protocol are performed by the secondary users in a decentralized manner, thus resulting in an easy implementation in practice.

  19. Link-state-estimation-based transmission power control in wireless body area networks.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seungku; Eom, Doo-Seop

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a novel transmission power control protocol to extend the lifetime of sensor nodes and to increase the link reliability in wireless body area networks (WBANs). We first experimentally investigate the properties of the link states using the received signal strength indicator (RSSI). We then propose a practical transmission power control protocol based on both short- and long-term link-state estimations. Both the short- and long-term link-state estimations enable the transceiver to adapt the transmission power level and target the RSSI threshold range, respectively, to simultaneously satisfy the requirements of energy efficiency and link reliability. Finally, the performance of the proposed protocol is experimentally evaluated in two experimental scenarios-body posture change and dynamic body motion-and compared with the typical WBAN transmission power control protocols, a real-time reactive scheme, and a dynamic postural position inference mechanism. From the experimental results, it is found that the proposed protocol increases the lifetime of the sensor nodes by a maximum of 9.86% and enhances the link reliability by reducing the packet loss by a maximum of 3.02%.

  20. RF beam center location method and apparatus for power transmission system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, R. M. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    The receiving element in wireless power transmission systems intercepts the greatest possible portion of the transmitted energy beam. Summing the output energy of all receivers in a planar array makes it possible to determine the location of the center of energy of the incident beam on a receiving array of antenna elements so that the incident beam is in the microwave region.

  1. Comprehensive evaluation of power grid enterprises' credit rating under the reform of transmission and distribution price

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongli; Wang, Gang; Zuo, Yi; Fan, Lisha; Wei, Jiaxiang

    2017-03-01

    On March 15, 2015, the central office issued the "Opinions on Further Deepening the Reform of Electric Power System" (in the 2015 No. 9). This policy marks the central government officially opened a new round of electricity reform. As a programmatic document under the new situation to comprehensively promote the reform of the power system, No. 9 document will be approved as a separate transmission and distribution of electricity prices, which is the first task of promoting the reform of the power system. Grid tariff reform is not only the transmission and distribution price of a separate approval, more of the grid company input-output relationship and many other aspects of deep-level adjustments. Under the background of the reform of the transmission and distribution price, the main factors affecting the input-output relationship, such as the main business, electricity pricing, and investment approval, financial accounting and so on, have changed significantly. The paper designed the comprehensive evaluation index system of power grid enterprises' credit rating under the reform of transmission and distribution price to reduce the impact of the reform on the company's international rating results and the ability to raise funds.

  2. Non-Orthogonal Random Access in MIMO Cognitive Radio Networks: Beamforming, Power Allocation, and Opportunistic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Huifa; Shin, Won-Yong

    2017-01-01

    We study secondary random access in multi-input multi-output cognitive radio networks, where a slotted ALOHA-type protocol and successive interference cancellation are used. We first introduce three types of transmit beamforming performed by secondary users, where multiple antennas are used to suppress the interference at the primary base station and/or to increase the received signal power at the secondary base station. Then, we show a simple decentralized power allocation along with the equivalent single-antenna conversion. To exploit the multiuser diversity gain, an opportunistic transmission protocol is proposed, where the secondary users generating less interference are opportunistically selected, resulting in a further reduction of the interference temperature. The proposed methods are validated via computer simulations. Numerical results show that increasing the number of transmit antennas can greatly reduce the interference temperature, while increasing the number of receive antennas leads to a reduction of the total transmit power. Optimal parameter values of the opportunistic transmission protocol are examined according to three types of beamforming and different antenna configurations, in terms of maximizing the cognitive transmission capacity. All the beamforming, decentralized power allocation, and opportunistic transmission protocol are performed by the secondary users in a decentralized manner, thus resulting in an easy implementation in practice. PMID:28076402

  3. Effects of Scandinavian hydro power on storage needs in a fully renewable European power system for various transmission capacity scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kies, Alexander; Nag, Kabitri; von Bremen, Lueder; Lorenz, Elke; Heinemann, Detlev

    2015-04-01

    The penetration of renewable energies in the European power system has increased in the last decades (23.5% share of renewables in the gross electricity consumption of the EU-28 in 2012) and is expected to increase further up to very high shares close to 100%. Planning and organizing this European energy transition towards sustainable power sources will be one of the major challenges of the 21st century. It is very likely that in a fully renewable European power system wind and photovoltaics (pv) will contribute the largest shares to the generation mix followed by hydro power. However, feed-in from wind and pv is due to the weather dependant nature of their resources fluctuating and non-controllable. To match generation and consumption several solutions and their combinations were proposed like very high backup-capacities of conventional power generation (e.g. fossile or nuclear), storages or the extension of the transmission grid. Apart from those options hydro power can be used to counterbalance fluctuating wind and pv generation to some extent. In this work we investigate the effects of hydro power from Norway and Sweden on residual storage needs in Europe depending on the overlaying grid scenario. High temporally and spatially resolved weather data with a spatial resolution of 7 x 7 km and a temporal resolution of 1 hour was used to model the feed-in from wind and pv for 34 investigated European countries for the years 2003-2012. Inflow into hydro storages and generation by run-of-river power plants were computed from ERA-Interim reanalysis runoff data at a spatial resolution of 0.75° x 0.75° and a daily temporal resolution. Power flows in a simplified transmission grid connecting the 34 European countries were modelled minimizing dissipation using a DC-flow approximation. Previous work has shown that hydro power, namely in Norway and Sweden, can reduce storage needs in a renewable European power system by a large extent. A 15% share of hydro power in Europe

  4. Impact of power allocation strategies in long-haul few-mode fiber transmission systems.

    PubMed

    Rafique, Danish; Sygletos, Stylianos; Ellis, Andrew D

    2013-05-06

    We report for the first time on the limitations in the operational power range of few-mode fiber based transmission systems, employing 28 Gbaud quadrature phase shift keying transponders, over 1,600 km. It is demonstrated that if an additional mode is used on a preexisting few-mode transmission link, and allowed to optimize its performance, it will have a significant impact on the pre-existing mode. In particular, we show that for low mode coupling strengths (weak coupling regime), the newly added variable power mode does not considerably impact the fixed power existing mode, with performance penalties less than 2dB (in Q-factor). On the other hand, as mode coupling strength is increased (strong coupling regime), the individual launch power optimization significantly degrades the system performance, with penalties up to ~6 dB. Our results further suggest that mutual power optimization, of both fixed power and variable power modes, reduces power allocation related penalties to less than 3 dB, for any given coupling strength, for both high and low differential mode delays.

  5. Satellite power system: Concept development and evaluation program. Volume 3: Power transmission and reception. Technical summary and assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, R. H.; Arndt, G. D.; Seyl, J. W.; Leopold, L.; Kelley, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    Efforts in the DOE/NASA concept development and evaluation program are discussed for the solar power satellite power transmission and reception system. A technical summary is provided together with a summary of system assessment activities. System options and system definition drivers are described. Major system assessment activities were in support of the reference system definition, solid state system studies, critical technology supporting investigations, and various system and subsystem tradeoffs. These activities are described together with reference system updates and alternative concepts for each of the subsystem areas. Conclusions reached as a result of the numerous analytical and experimental evaluations are presented. Remaining issues for a possible follow-on program are identified.

  6. A low-power high-speed ultra-wideband pulse radio transmission system.

    PubMed

    Wei Tang; Culurciello, E

    2009-10-01

    We present a low-power high-speed ultra-wideband (UWB) transmitter with a wireless transmission test platform. The system is specifically designed for low-power high-speed wireless implantable biosensors. The integrated transmitter consists of a compact pulse generator and a modulator. The circuit is fabricated in the 0.5-mum silicon-on-sapphire process and occupies 420 mum times 420 mum silicon area. The transmitter is capable of generating pulses with 1-ns width and the pulse rate can be controlled between 90 MHz and 270 MHz. We built a demonstration/testing system for the transmitter. The transmitter achieves a 14-Mb/s data rate. With 50% duty cycle data, the power consumption of the chip is between 10 mW and 21 mW when the transmission distance is from 3.2 to 4 m. The core circuit size is 70 mum times 130 mum.

  7. Development of a PLC modem for data transmission over a PWM power supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batard, Christophe; Ginot, Nicolas; Mannah, Marc Anthony; Millet, Christophe; Poitiers, Frédéric

    2014-04-01

    In variable-speed electrical drive and online conditioning monitoring, a feedback loop is required in order to transmit the sensor information from the motor to the controller close to the inverter. Additional cabling is used for signalling. This extra cabling has a significant cost and data transmission may not be reliable. Thus, the use of power line communication (PLC) technology to transmit data in motor drive application is quite interesting. The use of a PLC modem dedicated to the home network in a three-phase inverter-fed motor power cable does not work. Therefore, specific coupling interfaces are developed to transmit data through a pulse-width modulated power supply. Laboratory tests have shown that the couplers are operating properly. They ensure reliable data transmission in a motor drive application.

  8. 75 FR 75170 - Minnkota Power Cooperative, Inc.: Bemidji to Grand Rapids 230 kV Transmission Line Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-02

    ... Rural Utilities Service Minnkota Power Cooperative, Inc.: Bemidji to Grand Rapids 230 kV Transmission... to Grand Rapids 230 kV Transmission Line Project (Project) in Beltrami, Hubbard, Itasca, and Cass... construct the 230 kilovolt (kV) transmission line between the Wilton Substation near Bemidji, Minnesota...

  9. Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    John Hill, a pilot and commercial aerial photographer, needed an information base. He consulted NERAC and requested a search of the latest developments in camera optics. NERAC provided information; Hill contacted the manufacturers of camera equipment and reduced his photographic costs significantly.

  10. Analysis of a Mars-stationary orbiting microwave power transmission system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Kenwyn J.

    1990-01-01

    To determine the feasibility of providing efficient RF power transmission from a Mars-stationary orbit to the surface of the planet, an assessment was made focussing on RF propagation in the 2.45- to 300-GHz range. The proposed orbiting system configuration provides for power generation by either photovoltaic array or nuclear reactor, the conversion of the dc output to RF, and subsequent propagation of RF energy from the orbiting array to the Martian surface. On the planet, a rectenna array will convert RF to dc power to be distributed for planetary power needs. Total efficiency of the energy conversion chain from dc to RF in orbit through RF to dc on the planetary surface was derived for several representative frequencies in the range of study. Tradeoffs between component efficiency and transmitting antenna requirements were considered for each of these frequencies. Rectenna element power density thresholds and desired received power levels were used to determine receiving antenna criteria. Recommendations are presented for research into developing technologies which may afford enhanced viability of the proposed microwave power transmission system.

  11. Design and fabrication of the high-power RF transmission line into the PEFP linac tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seol, Kyung-Tae; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Kim, Han-Sung; Cho, Yong-Sub

    2012-07-01

    The 100-MeV proton linear accelerator (linac) for the Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) has been developed and will be installed at the Gyeong-ju site. For the linac, a total of 11 sets of RF systems are required, and the waveguide layout was fixed to install high-power RF (HPRF) systems. One of the important interfaces with the building construction is the high-power radio-frequency (HPRF) transmission line embedded in the tunnel, which is used to transmit 1-MW RF power to each cavity in the tunnel. The waveguide section penetrating into the linac tunnel was designed with a bending structure for radiation shielding, and the dependence of its voltage standing-wave ratio (VSWR) on the chamfer length of the bending was calculated. The HPRF transmission line was fabricated into a piece of waveguide to prevent moisture and any foreign debris inside the 2.5-m thick concrete block. Air leakage was checked with a pressure of 0.25 psig of nitrogen gas, and a maximum VSWR of 1.196 was obtained by measuring the vector reflection coefficients with the quarter-wave transmission section. In this paper, the design and the fabrication of the HPRF transmission line into the PEFP linac tunnel are presented.

  12. Optimization of Passive and Active Non-Linear Vibration Mounting Systems Based on Vibratory Power Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royston, T. J.; Singh, R.

    1996-07-01

    While significant non-linear behavior has been observed in many vibration mounting applications, most design studies are typically based on the concept of linear system theory in terms of force or motion transmissibility. In this paper, an improved analytical strategy is presented for the design optimization of complex, active of passive, non-linear mounting systems. This strategy is built upon the computational Galerkin method of weighted residuals, and incorporates order reduction and numerical continuation in an iterative optimization scheme. The overall dynamic characteristics of the mounting system are considered and vibratory power transmission is minimized via adjustment of mount parameters by using both passive and active means. The method is first applied through a computational example case to the optimization of basic passive and active, non-linear isolation configurations. It is found that either active control or intentionally introduced non-linearity can improve the mount's performance; but a combination of both produces the greatest benefit. Next, a novel experimental, active, non-linear isolation system is studied. The effect of non-linearity on vibratory power transmission and active control are assessed via experimental measurements and the enhanced Galerkin method. Results show how harmonic excitation can result in multiharmonic vibratory power transmission. The proposed optimization strategy offers designers some flexibility in utilizing both passive and active means in combination with linear and non-linear components for improved vibration mounts.

  13. Systems definition space-based power conversion systems. [for satellite power transmission to earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Potential space-located systems for the generation of electrical power for use on Earth are discussed and include: (1) systems producing electrical power from solar energy; (2) systems producing electrical power from nuclear reactors; and (3) systems for augmenting ground-based solar power plants by orbital sunlight reflectors. Systems (1) and (2) would utilize a microwave beam system to transmit their output to Earth. Configurations implementing these concepts were developed through an optimization process intended to yield the lowest cost for each. A complete program was developed for each concept, identifying required production rates, quantities of launches, required facilities, etc. Each program was costed in order to provide the electric power cost appropriate to each concept.

  14. Engineering science research issues in high power density transmission dynamics for aerospace applications. [rotorcraft geared rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Rajendra; Houser, Donald R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses analytical and experimental approaches that will be needed to understand dynamic, vibro-acoustic and design characteristics of high power density rotorcraft transmissions. Complexities associated with mathematical modeling of such systems will be discussed. An overview of research work planned during the next several years will be presented, with emphasis on engineering science issues such as gear contact mechanics, multi-mesh drive dynamics, parameter uncertainties, vibration transmission through bearings, and vibro-acoustic characteristics of geared rotor systems and housing-mount structures. A few examples of work in progress are cited.

  15. Space Weather Impact on the European Interconnected Power Transmission System at High Latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccinelli, Roberta; Krausmann, Elisabeth

    2016-04-01

    High voltage power transmission grids can suffer outages or blackouts during geomagnetic storms (GMS). More specifically, GMS can inject geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) into the power network. Transformers were identified as the most vulnerable components of the power networks: GICs cause transformers to work in saturation regions generating voltage instabilities and eventually driving the system to collapse. Since GMS are expected to cause more pronounced disturbances at high latitudes, we addressed the effects of extreme GMS on the Scandinavian 400 kV interconnected power transmission grid, including Finland, Sweden and Norway. By applying extreme 100-year-benchmark scenarios, we analyzed potential space-weather triggered voltage instabilities in the power grid considering mono-phase transformers, which are known to be more vulnerable to GIC injection, and three-phase transformers, which are more resistant. We assumed that every node of the grid included either transformers of the mono-phase type, or three-phase transformers.Our simulations indicate that the three-phase configuration of the network is significantly more robust than the mono-phase one. Our study indicates that for a system with only three-phase transformers the likelihood of grid collapse is very low, and collapse only occurs for the worst-case scenario with extremely high geoelectric field intensities. In such a case, the increase in reactive power demand caused by transformer saturation is too high for the system to continue to provide power. Our results indicate that lines that experience higher reactive power losses during normal operation are more likely to increase losses during a GMS event. According to our study, the portion of the Scandinavian interconnected power transmission grid most vulnerable to extreme space weather is the part where the highest reactive losses in transmission lines and in voltage magnitudes are observed. This corresponds to the southern parts of Sweden and

  16. In-Containment Signal Conditioning and Transmission via Power Lines within High Dose Rate Areas of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Steffen; Weigel, Robert; Koelpin, Alexander; Dennerlein, Juergen; Janke, Iryna; Weber, Johannes

    2015-07-01

    Signal conditioning and transmission for sensor systems and networks within the containment of nuclear power plants (NPPs) still poses a challenge to engineers, particularly in the case of equipment upgrades for existing plants, temporary measurements, decommissioning of plants, but also for new builds. This paper presents an innovative method for efficient and cost-effective instrumentation within high dose rate areas inside the containment. A transmitter-receiver topology is proposed that allows simultaneous, unidirectional point-to-point transmission of multiple sensor signals by superimposing them on existing AC or DC power supply cables using power line communication (PLC) technology. Thereby the need for costly installation of additional cables and containment penetrations is eliminated. Based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) electronic parts, a radiation hard transmitter is designed to operate in harsh environment within the containment during full plant operation. Hardware modularity of the transmitter allows application specific tradeoffs between redundancy and channel bandwidth. At receiver side in non-radiated areas, signals are extracted from the power line, demodulated, and provided either in analog or digital output format. Laboratory qualification tests and field test results within a boiling water reactor (BWR) are validating the proof of concept of the proposed system. (authors)

  17. Design of a telemetry system based on wireless power transmission for physiological parameter monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Zhiwei; Yan, Guozheng; Zhu, Bingquan

    2015-04-15

    An implanted telemetry system for experimental animals with or without anaesthesia can be used to continuously monitor physiological parameters. This system is significant not only in the study of organisms but also in the evaluation of drug efficacy, artificial organs, and auxiliary devices. The system is composed of a miniature electronic capsule, a wireless power transmission module, a data-recording device, and a processing module. An electrocardiograph, a temperature sensor, and a pressure sensor are integrated in the miniature electronic capsule, in which the signals are transmitted in vitro by wireless communication after filtering, amplification, and A/D sampling. To overcome the power shortage of batteries, a wireless power transmission module based on electromagnetic induction was designed. The transmitting coil of a rectangular-section solenoid and a 3D receiving coil are proposed according to stability and safety constraints. Experiments show that at least 150 mW of power could pick up on the load in a volume of Φ10.5 mm × 11 mm, with a transmission efficiency of 2.56%. Vivisection experiments verified the feasibility of the integrated radio-telemetry system.

  18. Subwavelength elastic joints connecting torsional waveguides to maximize the power transmission coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Joong Seok; Lee, Il Kyu; Seung, Hong Min; Lee, Jun Kyu; Kim, Yoon Young

    2017-03-01

    Joints with slowly varying tapered shapes, such as linear or exponential profiles, are known to transmit incident wave power efficiently between two waveguides with dissimilar impedances. This statement is valid only when the considered joint length is longer than the wavelengths of the incident waves. When the joint length is shorter than the wavelengths, however, appropriate shapes of such subwavelength joints for efficient power transmission have not been explored much. In this work, considering one-dimensional torsional wave motion in a cylindrical elastic waveguide system, optimal shapes or radial profiles of a subwavelength joint maximizing the power transmission coefficient are designed by a gradient-based optimization formulation. The joint is divided into a number of thin disk elements using the transfer matrix approach and optimal radii of the disks are determined by iterative shape optimization processes for several single or bands of wavenumbers. Due to the subwavelength constraint, the optimized joint profiles were found to be considerably different from the slowly varying tapered shapes. Specifically, for bands of wavenumbers, peculiar gourd-like shapes were obtained as optimal shapes to maximize the power transmission coefficient. Numerical results from the proposed optimization formulation were also experimentally realized to verify the validity of the present designs.

  19. Design of a telemetry system based on wireless power transmission for physiological parameter monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Zhiwei; Yan, Guozheng; Zhu, Bingquan

    2015-04-01

    An implanted telemetry system for experimental animals with or without anaesthesia can be used to continuously monitor physiological parameters. This system is significant not only in the study of organisms but also in the evaluation of drug efficacy, artificial organs, and auxiliary devices. The system is composed of a miniature electronic capsule, a wireless power transmission module, a data-recording device, and a processing module. An electrocardiograph, a temperature sensor, and a pressure sensor are integrated in the miniature electronic capsule, in which the signals are transmitted in vitro by wireless communication after filtering, amplification, and A/D sampling. To overcome the power shortage of batteries, a wireless power transmission module based on electromagnetic induction was designed. The transmitting coil of a rectangular-section solenoid and a 3D receiving coil are proposed according to stability and safety constraints. Experiments show that at least 150 mW of power could pick up on the load in a volume of Φ10.5 mm × 11 mm, with a transmission efficiency of 2.56%. Vivisection experiments verified the feasibility of the integrated radio-telemetry system.

  20. Measurements of the Ech Power and of the Transmission Line Losses on Diii-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cengher, M.; Lohr, J.; Gorelov, I. A.; Grosnickle, W. H.; Ponce, D.; Johnson, P.

    2009-04-01

    The measurement of the power injected by the electron cyclotron heating (ECH) system in the DIII-D tokamak is a critical requirement for analysis of experiments, for tuning the gyrotrons for maximum power and efficiency, for tracking long-term operational trends and for providing a warning of problems with the system. The ECH system at General Atomics consists of six 110 GHz, 1 MW class gyrotrons. The rf power generated by each gyrotron is determined from calorimetry, using the relevant temperature and flow measurements from the cooling circuits of cavity, matching optics unit and dummy loads. The rf pulse length and time dependence are measured using an rf monitor at the first miter bend in the transmission line. The direct measurement of the efficiencies of four of the transmission lines was performed using a high power, small dummy load (SDL) placed alternately in 2 positions of each DIII-D waveguide line, at accessible points close the beginning and the end of each line. Total losses in the transmission lines range from 21.2% to 30.7%. Experimental results are compared to theoretical predictions of the performance of the components and waveguide lines.

  1. Magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP) interaction with power transmission and distribution systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tesche, F.M. , Dallas, TX ); Barnes, P.R. ); Meliopoulos, A.P.S. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1992-02-01

    This report discusses the effects of the late-time high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on electrical transmission and distribution (T D) systems. This environment, known as the magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP), is a very slowly varying electric field induced in the earth's surface, similar to the field induced by a geomagnetic storm. It can result in the flow of a quasi-dc current in grounded power lines and in the subsequent magnetic saturation of transformers. This saturation, in turn, causes 6-Hz harmonic distortion and an increase in the reactive power required by generation facilities. This report analyzes and discusses these phenomena. The MHD-EMP environment is briefly discussed, and a simplified form of the earth-induced electric field is developed for use in a parametric study of transmission line responses. Various field coupling models are described, and calculated results for the responses of both transmission- and distribution-class power lines are presented. These calculated responses are compared with measurements of transformer operation under dc excitation to infer the MHD-EMP response of these power system components. It is found that the MHD-EMP environment would have a marked effect on a power system by inducing up to several hundreds of amperes of quasi-dc current on power lines. These currents will cause transformers to saturate which could result in excessive harmonic generation, voltage swings, and voltage suppression. The design of critical facilities which are required to operate during and after MHD-EMP events will have to be modified in order to mitigate the effects of these abnormal power system conditions.

  2. Magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP) interaction with power transmission and distribution systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tesche, F.M.; Barnes, P.R.; Meliopoulos, A.P.S.

    1992-02-01

    This report discusses the effects of the late-time high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on electrical transmission and distribution (T&D) systems. This environment, known as the magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP), is a very slowly varying electric field induced in the earth`s surface, similar to the field induced by a geomagnetic storm. It can result in the flow of a quasi-dc current in grounded power lines and in the subsequent magnetic saturation of transformers. This saturation, in turn, causes 6-Hz harmonic distortion and an increase in the reactive power required by generation facilities. This report analyzes and discusses these phenomena. The MHD-EMP environment is briefly discussed, and a simplified form of the earth-induced electric field is developed for use in a parametric study of transmission line responses. Various field coupling models are described, and calculated results for the responses of both transmission- and distribution-class power lines are presented. These calculated responses are compared with measurements of transformer operation under dc excitation to infer the MHD-EMP response of these power system components. It is found that the MHD-EMP environment would have a marked effect on a power system by inducing up to several hundreds of amperes of quasi-dc current on power lines. These currents will cause transformers to saturate which could result in excessive harmonic generation, voltage swings, and voltage suppression. The design of critical facilities which are required to operate during and after MHD-EMP events will have to be modified in order to mitigate the effects of these abnormal power system conditions.

  3. A closed loop wireless power transmission system using a commercial RFID transceiver for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a standalone closed loop wireless power transmission system that is built around a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radio frequency identification (RFID) transceiver (MLX90121) operating at 13.56 MHz. It can be used for inductively powering implantable biomedical devices in a closed loop fashion. Any changes in the distance and misalignment between transmitter and receiver coils in near-field wireless power transmission can cause a significant change in the received power, which can cause either malfunction or excessive heat dissipation. RFID transceivers are often used open loop. However, their back telemetry capability can be utilized to stabilize the received voltage on the implant. Our measurements showed that the delivered power to the transponder was maintained at 1.48 mW over a range of 6 to 12 cm, while the transmitter power consumption changed from 0.3 W to 1.21 W. The closed loop system can also oppose voltage variations as a result of sudden changes in load current.

  4. Wireless power and data transmission strategies for next-generation capsule endoscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puers, R.; Carta, R.; Thoné, J.

    2011-05-01

    Capsular endoscopy is becoming increasingly popular as an alternative to traditional gastro-intestinal (GI) examination techniques. However, the breakthrough of these devices is hindered by the limited amount of power that can be stored in a tiny pill. Most commercial devices use two watch batteries that can only provide an average power of 25 mW for about 6 h, certainly not sufficient for advanced robotic features. A dedicated inductive powering system, operating at 1 MHz to limit the human body absorption, has been developed which was proven to support the transfer of over 300 mW. The system relies on a condensed set of orthogonal ferrite coils, embedded in the capsule, and an external unit based on a Helmholtz coil driven by a class E amplifier. Control data can be sent through the inductive link by modulating the power carrier, whereas a dedicated high data rate RF link is used to transfer the images from the capsule to the base station. Besides evaluating the compatibility with radio transmission, several demonstrators were assembled combining the wireless powering system with various locomotion strategies and LED illumination. This paper describes the design and implementation of the inductive powering system, its combination with data transmission techniques and the testing activity with other capsule-dedicated modules.

  5. Characterization of high performance silicon-based VMJ PV cells for laser power transmission applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perales, Mico; Yang, Mei-huan; Wu, Cheng-liang; Hsu, Chin-wei; Chao, Wei-sheng; Chen, Kun-hsien; Zahuranec, Terry

    2016-03-01

    Continuing improvements in the cost and power of laser diodes have been critical in launching the emerging fields of power over fiber (PoF), and laser power beaming. Laser power is transmitted either over fiber (for PoF), or through free space (power beaming), and is converted to electricity by photovoltaic cells designed to efficiently convert the laser light. MH GoPower's vertical multi-junction (VMJ) PV cell, designed for high intensity photovoltaic applications, is fueling the emergence of this market, by enabling unparalleled photovoltaic receiver flexibility in voltage, cell size, and power output. Our research examined the use of the VMJ PV cell for laser power transmission applications. We fully characterized the performance of the VMJ PV cell under various laser conditions, including multiple near IR wavelengths and light intensities up to tens of watts per cm2. Results indicated VMJ PV cell efficiency over 40% for 9xx nm wavelengths, at laser power densities near 30 W/cm2. We also investigated the impact of the physical dimensions (length, width, and height) of the VMJ PV cell on its performance, showing similarly high performance across a wide range of cell dimensions. We then evaluated the VMJ PV cell performance within the power over fiber application, examining the cell's effectiveness in receiver packages that deliver target voltage, intensity, and power levels. By designing and characterizing multiple receivers, we illustrated techniques for packaging the VMJ PV cell for achieving high performance (> 30%), high power (> 185 W), and target voltages for power over fiber applications.

  6. Laser power beaming: an emerging technology for power transmission and propulsion in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Harold E.

    1997-05-01

    A ground based laser beam transmitted to space can be used as an electric utility for satellites. It can significantly increase the electric power available to operate a satellite or to transport it from low earth orbit (LEO) to mid earth or geosynchronous orbits. The increase in electrical power compared to that obtainable from the sun is as much as 1000% for the same size solar panels. An increase in satellite electric power is needed to meet the increasing demands for power caused by the advent of 'direct to home TV,' for increased telecommunications, or for other demands made by the burgeoning 'space highway.' Monetary savings as compared to putting up multiple satellites in the same 'slot' can be over half a billion dollars. To obtain propulsion, the laser power can be beamed through the atmosphere to an 'orbit transfer vehicle' (OTV) satellite which travels back and forth between LEO and higher earth orbits. The OTV will transport the satellite into orbit as does a rocket but does not require the heavy fuel load needed if rocket propulsion is used. Monetary savings of 300% or more in launch costs are predicted. Key elements in the proposed concept are a 100 to 200 kW free- electron laser operating at 0.84 m in the photographic infrared region of the spectrum and a novel adaptive optic telescope.

  7. Transmission power requirements for novel ZigBee implants in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Valdastri, Pietro; Menciassi, Arianna; Dario, Paolo

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, a novel multinode wireless monitoring platform, based on ZigBee communication standard, is presented and tested in vivo. The transmission power levels needed to establish a reliable connection from the different gastrointestinal districts are reported and compared with safety levels from international guidelines. These findings can be useful to evaluate the effectiveness of a commercial and standardized approach to implantable and miniaturized monitoring of physiological parameters.

  8. Analysis of electromagnetic interference from power system processing and transmission components for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, Peter W.; Demerdash, Nabeel A. O.; Hurysz, B.; Luo, Z.; Denny, Hugh W.; Millard, David P.; Herkert, R.; Wang, R.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of this research project was to analyze the potential effects of electromagnetic interference (EMI) originating from power system processing and transmission components for Space Station Freedom. The approach consists of four steps: (1) developing analytical tools (models and computer programs); (2) conducting parameterization (what if?) studies; (3) predicting the global space station EMI environment; and (4) providing a basis for modification of EMI standards.

  9. Design and test of a squeeze-film damper for a flexible power transmission shaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darlow, M. S.; Smalley, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    For a flexible shaft designed to pass through a number of bending critical speeds, a squeeze-film damper has been designed and tested. The damper properties were selected to provide control of all critical speeds, while meeting additional constraints of high power transmission requirements and damper simplicity. The damper was fabricated and installed and its ability to control flexible shaft vibrations was demonstrated by the comparison of vibration amplitudes both with and without the damper.

  10. Horizontal cryogenic bushing for the termination of a superconducting power-transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Minati, K.F.; Morgan, G.H.; McNerney, A.J.; Schauer, F.

    1982-07-29

    A termination for a superconducting power transmission line is disclosed which is comprised of a standard air entrance insulated vertical bushing with an elbow, a horizontal cryogenic bushing linking the pressurized cryogenic cable environment to the ambient temperature bushing and a stress cone which terminated the cable outer shield and transforms the large radial voltage gradient in the cable dielectric into a much lower radial voltage gradient in the high density helium coolant at the cold end of the cryogenic bushing.

  11. Termination for a superconducting power transmission line including a horizontal cryogenic bushing

    DOEpatents

    Minati, Kurt F.; Morgan, Gerry H.; McNerney, Andrew J.; Schauer, Felix

    1984-01-01

    A termination for a superconducting power transmission line is disclosed which is comprised of a standard air entrance insulated vertical bushing with an elbow, a horizontal cryogenic bushing linking the pressurized cryogenic cable environment to the ambient temperature bushing and a stress cone which terminates the cable outer shield and transforms the large radial voltage gradient in the cable dielectric into a much lower radial voltage gradient in the high density helium coolant at the cold end of the cryogenic bushing.

  12. Factors that affect the fatigue strength of power transmission shafting and their impact on design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leowenthal, S. H.

    1986-01-01

    A long standing objective in the design of power transmission shafting is to eliminate excess shaft material without compromising operational reliability. A shaft design method is presented which accounts for variable amplitude loading histories and their influence on limited life designs. The effects of combined bending and torsional loading are considered along with a number of application factors known to influence the fatigue strength of shafting materials. Among the factors examined are surface condition, size, stress concentration, residual stress and corrosion fatigue.

  13. Power-efficient method for IM-DD optical transmission of multiple OFDM signals.

    PubMed

    Effenberger, Frank; Liu, Xiang

    2015-05-18

    We propose a power-efficient method for transmitting multiple frequency-division multiplexed (FDM) orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) signals in intensity-modulation direct-detection (IM-DD) optical systems. This method is based on quadratic soft clipping in combination with odd-only channel mapping. We show, both analytically and experimentally, that the proposed approach is capable of improving the power efficiency by about 3 dB as compared to conventional FDM OFDM signals under practical bias conditions, making it a viable solution in applications such as optical fiber-wireless integrated systems where both IM-DD optical transmission and OFDM signaling are important.

  14. Impact of Transmission on Resource Adequacy in Systems with Wind and Solar Power: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ibanez, E.; Milligan, M.

    2012-02-01

    Variable generation is on track to become a significant contributor to electric power systems worldwide. Thus, it is important to analyze the effect that renewables will have on the reliability of systems. In this paper we present a new tool being implemented at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, which allows the inclusion of variable generation in the power system resource adequacy. The tool is used to quantify the potential contribution of transmission to reliability in highly interconnected systems and an example is provided using the Western Interconnection footprint.

  15. Torque generation and elastic power transmission in the rotary F(O)F(1)-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Junge, Wolfgang; Sielaff, Hendrik; Engelbrecht, Siegfried

    2009-05-21

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the universal fuel of the cell, is synthesized from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate (P(i)) by 'ATP synthase' (F(O)F(1)-ATPase). During respiration or photosynthesis, an electrochemical potential difference of protons is set up across the respective membranes. This powers the enzyme's electrical rotary nanomotor (F(O)), which drives the chemical nanomotor (F(1)) by elastic mechanical-power transmission, producing ATP with high kinetic efficiency. Attempts to understand in detail the mechanisms of torque generation in this simple and robust system have been both aided and complicated by a wealth of sometimes conflicting data.

  16. On variable hydrostatic transmission for road vehicles, powered by supply of fluid at constant pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magi, M.; Freivald, A.; Andersson, I.; Ericsson, U.

    1981-01-01

    Various hydrostatic power transmission systems for automotive applications with power supply at constant pressure and unrestricted flow and with a Volvo Flygmotor variable displacement motor as the principal unit were investigated. Two most promising concepts were analyzed in detail and their main components optimized for minimum power loss at the EPA Urban Driving Cycle. The best fuel consumption is less than 10 lit. per 100 kM for a 1542 kG vehicle with a hydrostatic motor and a two speed gear box in series (braking power not recovered). Realistic system pressure affects the fuel consumption just slightly, but the package volume/weight drastically. Back pressure increases losses significantly. Special attention was paid to description of the behavior and modeling of the losses of variable displacement hydrostatic machines.

  17. On variable hydrostatic transmission for road vehicles, powered by supply of fluid at constant pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Magi, M.; Freivald, A.; Anderson, I.

    1981-05-01

    Various hydrostatic power transmission systems for automotive applications with power supply at constant pressure and unrestricted flow and with a Volvo Flygmotor variable displacement motor as the principal unit were investigated. Two most promising concepts were analyzed in detail and their main components optimized for minimum power loss at the EPA Urban Driving Cycle. The best fuel consumption is less than 10 lit. per 100 kM for a 1542 kG vehicle with a hydrostatic motor and a two speed gear box in series (braking power not recovered). Realistic system pressure affects the fuel consumption just slightly, but the package volume/weight drastically. Back pressure increases losses significantly. Special attention was paid to description of the behavior and modeling of the losses of variable displacement hydrostatic machines.

  18. K-Band Power Enbedded Transmission Line (ETL) MMIC Amplifiers for Satellite Communication Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tserng, Hua-Quen; Ketterson, Andrew; Saunier, Paul; McCarty, Larry; Davis, Steve

    1998-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and performance of K-band high-efficiency, linear power pHEMT amplifiers implemented in Embedded Transmission Line (ETL) MMIC configuration with unthinned GaAs substrate and topside grounding are reported. A three-stage amplifier achieved a power-added efficiency of 40.5% with 264 mW output at 20.2 GHz. The linear gain is 28.5 dB with 1-dB gain compression output power of 200 mW and 31% power-added efficiency. The carrier-to-third-order intermodulation ratio is approx. 20 dBc at the 1-dB compression point. A RF functional yield of more than 90% has been achieved.

  19. Parametric analysis of hollow conductor parallel and coaxial transmission lines for high frequency space power distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeffries, K. S.; Renz, D. D.

    1984-01-01

    A parametric analysis was performed of transmission cables for transmitting electrical power at high voltage (up to 1000 V) and high frequency (10 to 30 kHz) for high power (100 kW or more) space missions. Large diameter (5 to 30 mm) hollow conductors were considered in closely spaced coaxial configurations and in parallel lines. Formulas were derived to calculate inductance and resistance for these conductors. Curves of cable conductance, mass, inductance, capacitance, resistance, power loss, and temperature were plotted for various conductor diameters, conductor thickness, and alternating current frequencies. An example 5 mm diameter coaxial cable with 0.5 mm conductor thickness was calculated to transmit 100 kW at 1000 Vac, 50 m with a power loss of 1900 W, an inductance of 1.45 micron and a capacitance of 0.07 micron-F. The computer programs written for this analysis are listed in the appendix.

  20. Inductive power transmission to millimeter-sized biomedical implants using printed spiral coils.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Kiani, Mehdi

    2016-08-01

    The operation frequency (f) has been a key parameter in optimizing wireless power transmission links for biomedical implants with millimeter (mm) dimensions. This paper studies the feasibility of using printed spiral coils (PSCs) for powering mm-sized implants with high power transmission efficiency (PTE) at different fps. Compared to wire-wound coils (WWCs), using a PSC in the implant side allows batch fabrication on rigid or flexible substrates, which can also be used as a platform for integrating implant components. For powering an implant with 1 mm diameter, located 10 mm inside the tissue, the geometries of transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) PSCs were optimized at different fPs of 50 MHz, 200 MHz, and 500 MHz using a commercial field solver (HFSS). In simulations, PSC- and WWC-based links achieved maximum PTE of 0.13% and 3.3%, and delivered power of 65.7 μW and 720 μW under specific absorption rate (SAR) constraints at the optimal fp of 50 MHz and 100 MHz, respectively, suggesting that the performance of the PSC-based link is significantly inferior to that of the WWC-based link.

  1. Application of wireless power transmission systems in wireless capsule endoscopy: an overview.

    PubMed

    Basar, Md Rubel; Ahmad, Mohd Yazed; Cho, Jongman; Ibrahim, Fatimah

    2014-06-19

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is a promising technology for direct diagnosis of the entire small bowel to detect lethal diseases, including cancer and obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). To improve the quality of diagnosis, some vital specifications of WCE such as image resolution, frame rate and working time need to be improved. Additionally, future multi-functioning robotic capsule endoscopy (RCE) units may utilize advanced features such as active system control over capsule motion, drug delivery systems, semi-surgical tools and biopsy. However, the inclusion of the above advanced features demands additional power that make conventional power source methods impractical. In this regards, wireless power transmission (WPT) system has received attention among researchers to overcome this problem. Systematic reviews on techniques of using WPT for WCE are limited, especially when involving the recent technological advancements. This paper aims to fill that gap by providing a systematic review with emphasis on the aspects related to the amount of transmitted power, the power transmission efficiency, the system stability and patient safety. It is noted that, thus far the development of WPT system for this WCE application is still in initial stage and there is room for improvements, especially involving system efficiency, stability, and the patient safety aspects.

  2. Application of Wireless Power Transmission Systems in Wireless Capsule Endoscopy: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Basar, Md Rubel; Ahmad, Mohd Yazed; Cho, Jongman; Ibrahim, Fatimah

    2014-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is a promising technology for direct diagnosis of the entire small bowel to detect lethal diseases, including cancer and obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). To improve the quality of diagnosis, some vital specifications of WCE such as image resolution, frame rate and working time need to be improved. Additionally, future multi-functioning robotic capsule endoscopy (RCE) units may utilize advanced features such as active system control over capsule motion, drug delivery systems, semi-surgical tools and biopsy. However, the inclusion of the above advanced features demands additional power that make conventional power source methods impractical. In this regards, wireless power transmission (WPT) system has received attention among researchers to overcome this problem. Systematic reviews on techniques of using WPT for WCE are limited, especially when involving the recent technological advancements. This paper aims to fill that gap by providing a systematic review with emphasis on the aspects related to the amount of transmitted power, the power transmission efficiency, the system stability and patient safety. It is noted that, thus far the development of WPT system for this WCE application is still in initial stage and there is room for improvements, especially involving system efficiency, stability, and the patient safety aspects. PMID:24949645

  3. Islanding the power grid on the transmission level: less connections for more security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mureddu, Mario; Caldarelli, Guido; Damiano, Alfonso; Scala, Antonio; Meyer-Ortmanns, Hildegard

    2016-10-01

    Islanding is known as a management procedure of the power system that is implemented at the distribution level to preserve sensible loads from outages and to guarantee the continuity in electricity supply, when a high amount of distributed generation occurs. In this paper we study islanding on the level of the transmission grid and shall show that it is a suitable measure to enhance energy security and grid resilience. We consider the German and Italian transmission grids. We remove links either randomly to mimic random failure events, or according to a topological characteristic, their so-called betweenness centrality, to mimic an intentional attack and test whether the resulting fragments are self-sustainable. We test this option via the tool of optimized DC power flow equations. When transmission lines are removed according to their betweenness centrality, the resulting islands have a higher chance of being dynamically self-sustainable than for a random removal. Less connections may even increase the grid’s stability. These facts should be taken into account in the design of future power grids.

  4. Islanding the power grid on the transmission level: less connections for more security.

    PubMed

    Mureddu, Mario; Caldarelli, Guido; Damiano, Alfonso; Scala, Antonio; Meyer-Ortmanns, Hildegard

    2016-10-07

    Islanding is known as a management procedure of the power system that is implemented at the distribution level to preserve sensible loads from outages and to guarantee the continuity in electricity supply, when a high amount of distributed generation occurs. In this paper we study islanding on the level of the transmission grid and shall show that it is a suitable measure to enhance energy security and grid resilience. We consider the German and Italian transmission grids. We remove links either randomly to mimic random failure events, or according to a topological characteristic, their so-called betweenness centrality, to mimic an intentional attack and test whether the resulting fragments are self-sustainable. We test this option via the tool of optimized DC power flow equations. When transmission lines are removed according to their betweenness centrality, the resulting islands have a higher chance of being dynamically self-sustainable than for a random removal. Less connections may even increase the grid's stability. These facts should be taken into account in the design of future power grids.

  5. Alleviation SSR and Low Frequency Power Oscillations in Series Compensated Transmission Line using SVC Supplementary Controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sanjiv; Kumar, Narendra

    2016-07-01

    In this work, supplementary sub-synchronous damping controllers (SSDC) are proposed for damping sub-synchronous oscillations in power systems with series compensated transmission lines. Series compensation have extensively been used as effective means of increasing the power transfer capability of a transmission lines and improving transient stability limits of power systems. Series compensation with transmission lines may cause sub-synchronous resonance (SSR). The eigenvalue investigation tool is used to ascertain the existence of SSR. It is shown that the addition of supplementary controller is able to stabilize all unstable modes for T-network model. Eigenvalue investigation and time domain transient simulation of detailed nonlinear system are considered to investigate the performance of the controllers. The efficacies of the suggested supplementary controllers are compared on the IEEE first benchmark model for computer simulations of SSR by means of time domain simulation in Matlab/Simulink environment. Supplementary SSDC are considered in order to compare effectiveness of SSDC during higher loading in alleviating the small signal stability problem.

  6. Islanding the power grid on the transmission level: less connections for more security

    PubMed Central

    Mureddu, Mario; Caldarelli, Guido; Damiano, Alfonso; Scala, Antonio; Meyer-Ortmanns, Hildegard

    2016-01-01

    Islanding is known as a management procedure of the power system that is implemented at the distribution level to preserve sensible loads from outages and to guarantee the continuity in electricity supply, when a high amount of distributed generation occurs. In this paper we study islanding on the level of the transmission grid and shall show that it is a suitable measure to enhance energy security and grid resilience. We consider the German and Italian transmission grids. We remove links either randomly to mimic random failure events, or according to a topological characteristic, their so-called betweenness centrality, to mimic an intentional attack and test whether the resulting fragments are self-sustainable. We test this option via the tool of optimized DC power flow equations. When transmission lines are removed according to their betweenness centrality, the resulting islands have a higher chance of being dynamically self-sustainable than for a random removal. Less connections may even increase the grid’s stability. These facts should be taken into account in the design of future power grids. PMID:27713509

  7. Performance Of The DIII-D ECH High Power Transmission Lines And Launching Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cengher, Mirela; Lohr, J.; Gorelov, Y.; Torrezan, A.; Ponce, D.; Moeller, C.; Ellis, R. A.; Kolemen, E.

    2015-11-01

    The Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) transmission system on the DIII D tokamak consists of corrugated coaxial 31.75 mm waveguide transmission lines and steerable launching mirrors. Total power injected into plasma can reach up to 3.5 MW, with pulse length up to 5 seconds. The ECH power injected to the tokamak from each gyrotron is measured on a shot-to-shot basis and shows individual average injected powers from a gyrotron into the plasma between 540 and 700 kW. The transmission coefficient including the waveguide line and the MOU is between -1.04 dB and -1.43 dB. The maximum ECH energy injected into DIII-D is 16.6 MJ. The HE11 mode content is over 85 % for all the lines. The four dual waveguide launchers have increased poloidal scanning speed, and can steer the RF beams 40 degrees poloidally in 200 ms, with real-time poloidal motion control by the plasma control system. A new method of in-situ calibration of the mirror angle was used in conjunction with the upgrading of the encoders and motors for the launchers. Work supported by US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698 and DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  8. High-power microwave transmission and launching systems for fusion plasma heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bigelow, T.S.

    1989-01-01

    Microwave power in the 30- to 300-GHz frequency range is becoming widely used for heating of plasma in present-day fusion energy magnetic confinement experiments. Microwave power is effective in ionizing plasma and heating electrons through the electron cyclotron heating (ECH) process. Since the power is absorbed in regions of the magnetic field where resonance occurs and launching antennas with narrow beam widths are possible, power deposition location can be highly controlled. This is important for maximizing the power utilization efficiency and improving plasma parameters. Development of the gyrotron oscillator tube has advanced in recent years so that a 1-MW continuous-wave, 140-GHz power source will soon be available. Gyrotron output power is typically in a circular waveguide propagating a circular electric mode (such as TE/sub 0,2/) or a whispering-gallery mode (such as TE/sub 15,2/), depending on frequency and power level. An alternative high-power microwave source currently under development is the free-electron laser (FEL), which may be capable of generating 2-10 MW of average power at frequencies of up to 500 GHz. The FEL has a rectangular output waveguide carrying the TE/sub 0,1/ mode. Because of its higher complexity and cost, the high-average-power FEL is not yet as extensively developed as the gyrotron. In this paper, several types of operating ECH transmission systems are discussed, as well systems currently being developed. The trend in this area is toward higher power and frequency due to the improvements in plasma density and temperature possible. Every system requires a variety of components, such as mode converters, waveguide bends, launchers, and directional couplers. Some of these components are discussed here, along with ongoing work to improve their performance. 8 refs.

  9. Experimental study on an S-band near-field microwave magnetron power transmission system on hundred-watt level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Biao; Jiang, Wan; Yang, Yang; Yu, Chengyang; Huang, Kama; Liu, Changjun

    2015-11-01

    A multi-magnetron microwave source, a metamaterial transmitting antenna, and a large power rectenna array are presented to build a near-field 2.45 GHz microwave power transmission system. The square 1 m2 rectenna array consists of sixteen rectennas with 2048 Schottky diodes for large power microwave rectifying. It receives microwave power and converts them into DC power. The design, structure, and measured performance of a unit rectenna as well as the entail rectenna array are presented in detail. The multi-magnetron microwave power source switches between half and full output power levels, i.e. the half-wave and full-wave modes. The transmission antenna is formed by a double-layer metallic hole array, which is applied to combine the output power of each magnetron. The rectenna array DC output power reaches 67.3 W on a 1.2 Ω DC load at a distance of 5.5 m from the transmission antenna. DC output power is affected by the distance, DC load, and the mode of microwave power source. It shows that conventional low power Schottky diodes can be applied to a microwave power transmission system with simple magnetrons to realise large power microwave rectifying.

  10. Transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Sugano, K.

    1988-12-27

    A transmission is described which consists of: an input shaft; an output shaft; a first planetary gear set including a first sun gear selectively connectable by a first clutch to the input shaft, a first carrier selectively connectable by a second clutch to the input shaft and a first ring gear connected to the output shaft. The first sun gear selectively held stationary by a first brake, the first carrier is allowed to rotate in the same forward direction as the input shaft when the second clutch is engaged, but prevented from rotating in a reverse direction opposite to the forward direction by a first one-way clutch, the first carrier being selectively held stationary by a second brake; a second planetary gear set including a second sun gear connected to the input shaft, a second carrier connected to the first ring gear and also the the output shaft, and a second ring gear.

  11. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dynamic-Tracking Directional Wireless Antennas for Low Powered Applications that Require Reliable Extended Range Operations in Time Critical Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Scott G. Bauer; Matthew O. Anderson; James R. Hanneman

    2005-10-01

    The proven value of DOD Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) will ultimately transition to National and Homeland Security missions that require real-time aerial surveillance, situation awareness, force protection, and sensor placement. Public services first responders who routinely risk personal safety to assess and report a situation for emergency actions will likely be the first to benefit from these new unmanned technologies. ‘Packable’ or ‘Portable’ small class UAVs will be particularly useful to the first responder. They require the least amount of training, no fixed infrastructure, and are capable of being launched and recovered from the point of emergency. All UAVs require wireless communication technologies for real- time applications. Typically on a small UAV, a low bandwidth telemetry link is required for command and control (C2), and systems health monitoring. If the UAV is equipped with a real-time Electro-Optical or Infrared (EO/Ir) video camera payload, a dedicated high bandwidth analog/digital link is usually required for reliable high-resolution imagery. In most cases, both the wireless telemetry and real-time video links will be integrated into the UAV with unity gain omni-directional antennas. With limited on-board power and payload capacity, a small UAV will be limited with the amount of radio-frequency (RF) energy it transmits to the users. Therefore, ‘packable’ and ‘portable’ UAVs will have limited useful operational ranges for first responders. This paper will discuss the limitations of small UAV wireless communications. The discussion will present an approach of utilizing a dynamic ground based real-time tracking high gain directional antenna to provide extend range stand-off operation, potential RF channel reuse, and assured telemetry and data communications from low-powered UAV deployed wireless assets.

  12. Critical Assessment of the Foundations of Power Transmission and Distribution Reliability Metrics and Standards.

    PubMed

    Nateghi, Roshanak; Guikema, Seth D; Wu, Yue Grace; Bruss, C Bayan

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. federal government regulates the reliability of bulk power systems, while the reliability of power distribution systems is regulated at a state level. In this article, we review the history of regulating electric service reliability and study the existing reliability metrics, indices, and standards for power transmission and distribution networks. We assess the foundations of the reliability standards and metrics, discuss how they are applied to outages caused by large exogenous disturbances such as natural disasters, and investigate whether the standards adequately internalize the impacts of these events. Our reflections shed light on how existing standards conceptualize reliability, question the basis for treating large-scale hazard-induced outages differently from normal daily outages, and discuss whether this conceptualization maps well onto customer expectations. We show that the risk indices for transmission systems used in regulating power system reliability do not adequately capture the risks that transmission systems are prone to, particularly when it comes to low-probability high-impact events. We also point out several shortcomings associated with the way in which regulators require utilities to calculate and report distribution system reliability indices. We offer several recommendations for improving the conceptualization of reliability metrics and standards. We conclude that while the approaches taken in reliability standards have made considerable advances in enhancing the reliability of power systems and may be logical from a utility perspective during normal operation, existing standards do not provide a sufficient incentive structure for the utilities to adequately ensure high levels of reliability for end-users, particularly during large-scale events.

  13. Wind power development in the United States: Effects of policies and electricity transmission congestion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitaj, Claudia

    In this dissertation, I analyze the drivers of wind power development in the United States as well as the relationship between renewable power plant location and transmission congestion and emissions levels. I first examine the role of government renewable energy incentives and access to the electricity grid on investment in wind power plants across counties from 1998-2007. The results indicate that the federal production tax credit, state-level sales tax credit and production incentives play an important role in promoting wind power. In addition, higher wind power penetration levels can be achieved by bringing more parts of the electricity transmission grid under independent system operator regulation. I conclude that state and federal government policies play a significant role in wind power development both by providing financial support and by improving physical and procedural access to the electricity grid. Second, I examine the effect of renewable power plant location on electricity transmission congestion levels and system-wide emissions levels in a theoretical model and a simulation study. A new renewable plant takes the effect of congestion on its own output into account, but ignores the effect of its marginal contribution to congestion on output from existing plants, which results in curtailment of renewable power. Though pricing congestion removes the externality and reduces curtailment, I find that in the absence of a price on emissions, pricing congestion may in some cases actually increase system-wide emissions. The final part of my dissertation deals with an econometric issue that emerged from the empirical analysis of the drivers of wind power. I study the effect of the degree of censoring on random-effects Tobit estimates in finite sample with a particular focus on severe censoring, when the percentage of uncensored observations reaches 1 to 5 percent. The results show that the Tobit model performs well even at 5 percent uncensored observations

  14. Solar power satellite system definition study. Part 2, volume 4: Microwave power transmission systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A slotted waveguide planar array was established as the baseline design for the spaceborne transmitter antenna. Key aspects of efficient energy conversion at both ends of the power transfer link were analyzed and optimized alternate approaches in the areas of antenna and tube design are discussed. An integrated design concept was developed which meets design requirements, observes structural and thermal constraints, exhibits good performance and was developed in adequate depth to permit cost estimating at the subsystem/component level.

  15. Design and Optimization of a 3-Coil Inductive Link for Efficient Wireless Power Transmission.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Mehdi; Jow, Uei-Ming; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2011-07-14

    Inductive power transmission is widely used to energize implantable microelectronic devices (IMDs), recharge batteries, and energy harvesters. Power transfer efficiency (PTE) and power delivered to the load (PDL) are two key parameters in wireless links, which affect the energy source specifications, heat dissipation, power transmission range, and interference with other devices. To improve the PTE, a 4-coil inductive link has been recently proposed. Through a comprehensive circuit based analysis that can guide a design and optimization scheme, we have shown that despite achieving high PTE at larger coil separations, the 4-coil inductive links fail to achieve a high PDL. Instead, we have proposed a 3-coil inductive power transfer link with comparable PTE over its 4-coil counterpart at large coupling distances, which can also achieve high PDL. We have also devised an iterative design methodology that provides the optimal coil geometries in a 3-coil inductive power transfer link. Design examples of 2-, 3-, and 4-coil inductive links have been presented, and optimized for 13.56 MHz carrier frequency and 12 cm coupling distance, showing PTEs of 15%, 37%, and 35%, respectively. At this distance, the PDL of the proposed 3-coil inductive link is 1.5 and 59 times higher than its equivalent 2- and 4-coil links, respectively. For short coupling distances, however, 2-coil links remain the optimal choice when a high PDL is required, while 4-coil links are preferred when the driver has large output resistance or small power is needed. These results have been verified through simulations and measurements.

  16. Optimal wireless receiver structure for omnidirectional inductive power transmission to biomedical implants.

    PubMed

    Gougheri, Hesam Sadeghi; Kiani, Mehdi

    2016-08-01

    In order to achieve omnidirectional inductive power transmission to biomedical implants, the use of several orthogonal coils in the receiver side (Rx) has been proposed in the past. In this paper, the optimal Rx structure for connecting three orthogonal Rx coils and the power management is found to achieve the maximum power delivered to the load (PDL) in the presence of any Rx coil tilting. Unlike previous works, in which a separate power management has been used for each coil to deliver power to the load, different resonant Rx structures for connecting three Rx coils to a single power management are studied. In simulations, connecting three Rx coils with the diameters of 3 mm, 3.3 mm, and 3.6 mm in series and resonating them with a single capacitor at the operation frequency of 100 MHz led to the maximum PDL for large loads when the implant was tilted for 45o. This optimal Rx structure achieves higher PDL in worst-case scenarios as well as reduces the number of power managements to only one.

  17. A Study on Modeling of Transmission Line in Digital Type Real-Time Power System Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Yuji; Yokoyama, Akihiko; Tada, Yasuyuki

    In modern power systems, it is important to analyze various kindes of dynamic phenomena which appear in the system. When the effectiveness of new power electronics based apparatus, protective relay systems and etc. is tested, a real-time power system simulator is becoming a very effective tool. In general, however, it is very expensive and it is very difficult for beginners to understand how to use it. Therefore, studies on low-cost and easy-use real-time power system simulators have so far been done. We have developed models of power system components for the real-time power system simulator using DSP (Digital Signal Processor) combined with commercial CAD (Computer Aided Design) soft "MATLAB/SIMULINK". The use of commercial softwares can drastically decrease the development cost of the simulator. In this paper, a simplified reduction model of unbalanced three-phase transmission network with mutual impedance is proposed for analysis of various kinds of stability phenomena by use of the digital simulator. The proposed network model is constructed automatically and efficiently even for connection of both current source type models and voltage source type models of power apparatus such as generators, FACTS devices and loads.

  18. Evaluation of a closed loop inductive power transmission system on an awake behaving animal subject.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Mehdi; Kwon, Ki Yong; Zhang, Fei; Oweiss, Karim; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents in vivo experimental results for a closed loop wireless power transmission system to implantable devices on an awake behaving animal subject. In this system, wireless power transmission takes place across an inductive link, controlled by a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radio frequency identification (RFID) transceiver (TRF7960) operating at 13.56 MHz. Induced voltage on the implantable secondary coil is rectified, digitized by a 10-bit analog to digital converter, and transmitted back to the primary via back telemetry. Transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) circuitry were mounted on the back of an adult rat with a nominal distance of ~7 mm between their coils. Our experiments showed that the closed loop system was able to maintain the Rx supply voltage at the designated 3.8 V despite changes in the coils' relative distance and alignment due to animal movements. The Tx power consumption changed between 410 ~ 560 mW in order to deliver 27 mW to the receiver. The open loop system, on the other hand, showed undesired changes in the Rx supply voltage while the Tx power consumption was constant at 660 mW.

  19. Design of an effective energy receiving adapter for microwave wireless power transmission application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Peng; Wang, Shen-Yun; Geyi, Wen

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the viability of an energy receiving adapter in a 8×8 array form with high power reception efficiency with the resonator of artificial electromagnetic absorber being used as the element. Unlike the conventional reported rectifying antenna resonators, both the size of the element and the separations between the elements are electrically small in our design. The energy collecting process is explained with an equivalent circuit model, and a RF combining network is designed to combine the captured AC power from each element to one main terminal for AC-to-DC conversion. The energy receiving adapter yields a total reception efficiency of 67% (including the wave capture efficiency of 86% and the AC-to-DC conversion efficiency of 78%), which is quite promising for microwave wireless power transmission.

  20. Multivariable time series prediction for the icing process on overhead power transmission line.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Zhao, Na; Zhou, Donghua; Cao, Min; Li, Jingjie; Shi, Xinling

    2014-01-01

    The design of monitoring and predictive alarm systems is necessary for successful overhead power transmission line icing. Given the characteristics of complexity, nonlinearity, and fitfulness in the line icing process, a model based on a multivariable time series is presented here to predict the icing load of a transmission line. In this model, the time effects of micrometeorology parameters for the icing process have been analyzed. The phase-space reconstruction theory and machine learning method were then applied to establish the prediction model, which fully utilized the history of multivariable time series data in local monitoring systems to represent the mapping relationship between icing load and micrometeorology factors. Relevant to the characteristic of fitfulness in line icing, the simulations were carried out during the same icing process or different process to test the model's prediction precision and robustness. According to the simulation results for the Tao-Luo-Xiong Transmission Line, this model demonstrates a good accuracy of prediction in different process, if the prediction length is less than two hours, and would be helpful for power grid departments when deciding to take action in advance to address potential icing disasters.

  1. Power Distortion Optimization for Uncoded Linear Transformed Transmission of Images and Videos.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ruiqin; Zhang, Jian; Wu, Feng; Xu, Jizheng; Gao, Wen

    2017-01-01

    Recently, there is a resurgence of interest in uncoded transmission for wireless visual communication. While conventional coded systems suffer from cliff effect as the channel condition varies dynamically, uncoded linear-transformed transmission (ULT) provides elegant quality degradation for wide channel SNR range. ULT skips non-linear operations, such as quantization and entropy coding. Instead, it utilizes linear decorrelation transform and linear scaling power allocation to achieve optimized transmission. This paper presents a theoretical analysis for power-distortion optimization of ULT. In addition to the observation in our previous work that a decorrelation transform can bring significant performance gain, this paper reveals that exploiting the energy diversity in transformed signal is the key to achieve the full potential of decorrelation transform. In particular, we investigated the efficiency of ULT with exact or inexact signal statistics, highlighting the impact of signal energy modeling accuracy. Based on that, we further proposed two practical energy modeling schemes for ULT of visual signals. Experimental results show that the proposed schemes improve the quality of reconstructed images by 3~5 dB, while reducing the signal modeling overhead from hundreds or thousands of meta data to only a few meta data. The perceptual quality of reconstruction is significantly improved.

  2. Power-Distortion Optimization for Uncoded Linear-Transformed Transmission of Images and Videos.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ruiqin; Zhang, Jian; Wu, Feng; Xu, Jizheng; Gao, Wen

    2016-10-26

    Recently there is a resurgence of interest in uncoded transmission for wireless visual communication. While conventional coded systems suffer from cliff effect as the channel condition varies dynamically, uncoded linear-transformed transmission (ULT) provides elegant quality degradation for wide channel SNR range. ULT skips non-linear operations such as quantization and entropy coding. Instead, it utilizes linear decorrelation transform and linear scaling power allocation to achieve optimized transmission. This paper presents a theoretical analysis for power-distortion optimization of ULT. In addition to the observation in our previous work that a decorrelation transform can bring significant performance gain, this work reveals that exploiting the energy diversity in transformed signal is the key to achieve the full potential of decorrelation transform. In particular, we investigated the efficiency of ULT with exact or inexact signal statistics, highlighting the impact of signal energy modeling accuracy. Based on that, we further proposed two practical energy modeling schemes for ULT of visual signals. Experimental results show that the proposed schemes improve the quality of reconstructed images by 3 5dB, while reducing the signal modeling overhead from hundreds or thousands of meta data to only a few meta data. The perceptual quality of reconstruction is significantly improved.

  3. Final environmental impact statement, Washington Water Power/B.C. Hydro Transmission Interconnection Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    Washington Water Power (WWP) proposes to construct and operate an electric transmission line that would connect with the electrical system of the British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority (B.C. Hydro). The project would be composed of a double-circuit, 230-kilovolt (kV) transmission line from WWP`s existing Beacon Substation located northeast of Spokane, Washington to the international border located northwest of Metaline Falls, Washington. The original Presidential permit application and associated proposed route presented in the draft environmental impact statement (DEIS) have been modified to terminate at the Beacon Substation, instead of WWP`s initially proposed termination point at the planned Marshall Substation located southwest of Spokane. A supplemental draft EIS was prepared and submitted for review to not only examine the new proposed 5.6 miles of route, but to also compare the new Proposed Route to the other alternatives previously analyzed in the DEIS. This final EIS (FEIS) assesses the environmental effects of the proposed transmission line through construction, operation, maintenance, and abandonment activities and addresses the impacts associated with the Proposed Action, Eastern Alternative, Western Alternative, Northern Crossover Alternative, Southern Crossover Alternative, and No Action Alternative. The FEIS also contains the comments received and the responses to these comments submitted on the DEIS and Supplemental DEIS.

  4. Multivariable Time Series Prediction for the Icing Process on Overhead Power Transmission Line

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Zhao, Na; Zhou, Donghua; Cao, Min; Li, Jingjie; Shi, Xinling

    2014-01-01

    The design of monitoring and predictive alarm systems is necessary for successful overhead power transmission line icing. Given the characteristics of complexity, nonlinearity, and fitfulness in the line icing process, a model based on a multivariable time series is presented here to predict the icing load of a transmission line. In this model, the time effects of micrometeorology parameters for the icing process have been analyzed. The phase-space reconstruction theory and machine learning method were then applied to establish the prediction model, which fully utilized the history of multivariable time series data in local monitoring systems to represent the mapping relationship between icing load and micrometeorology factors. Relevant to the characteristic of fitfulness in line icing, the simulations were carried out during the same icing process or different process to test the model's prediction precision and robustness. According to the simulation results for the Tao-Luo-Xiong Transmission Line, this model demonstrates a good accuracy of prediction in different process, if the prediction length is less than two hours, and would be helpful for power grid departments when deciding to take action in advance to address potential icing disasters. PMID:25136653

  5. The voltage profile improvement using static var compensator (SVC) in power system transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramdan, G. M.; Mulyadi, Y.; Hasbullah

    2016-04-01

    In transmission system named ‘Subsistem Bandung Selatan dan New Ujungberung’ there are the voltage drop which relatively high and the voltage profile at the receiving ends below 0.95 p.u. Therefore, this research proposed a method to improve the voltage profile in the transmission system using one of Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) technology which is Static Var Compensator (SVC) and ‘Subsistem Bandung Selatan and New Ujungberung’ as the object. This research aims to get the voltage profile in ‘Subsistem Bandung Selatan dan New Ujungberung’ before and after connected to SVC and to set optimal location and rating of SVC to maintain the voltage profile at the system that has desire range (0.95 p.u - 1.05 p.u). To get the result in accordance with these objects, Newton -Raphson power flow solution is applied to the system. The result of Newton- Raphson power flow solution of the system shows the voltage profile before connecting to SVC are averagely 140.95 kV or 0.94 p.u while after connecting to SVC are 145.28 kV or 0.97 p.u. The SVC installation is connected to ‘Bandung Utara I’ as the weakest bus, and the SVC rating is -250 Mvar to 300 Mvar.

  6. Self-tuning wireless power transmission scheme based on on-line scattering parameters measurement and two-side power matching.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yanting; Yang, Yongmin; Chen, Zhongsheng

    2014-04-10

    Sub-resonances often happen in wireless power transmission (WPT) systems using coupled magnetic resonances (CMR) due to environmental changes, coil movements or component degradations, which is a serious challenge for high efficiency power transmission. Thus self-tuning is very significant to keep WPT systems following strongly magnetic resonant conditions in practice. Traditional coupled-mode ways is difficult to solve this problem. In this paper a two-port power wave model is presented, where power matching and the overall systemic power transmission efficiency are firstly defined by scattering (S) parameters. Then we propose a novel self-tuning scheme based on on-line S parameters measurements and two-side power matching. Experimental results testify the feasibility of the proposed method. These findings suggest that the proposed method is much potential to develop strongly self-adaptive WPT systems with CMR.

  7. A wearable wireless ECG monitoring system with dynamic transmission power control for long-term homecare.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yishan; Doleschel, Sammy; Wunderlich, Ralf; Heinen, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a wearable wireless ECG monitoring system based on novel 3-Lead electrode placements for long-term homecare. The experiment for novel 3-Lead electrode placements is carried out, and the results show that the distance between limb electrodes can be significantly reduced. Based on the new electrode position, a small size sensor node, which is powered by a rechargeable battery, is designed to detect, amplify, filter and transmit the ECG signals. The coordinator receives the data and sends it to PC. Finally the signals are displayed on the GUI. In order to control the power consumption of sensor node, a dynamic power adjustment method is applied to automatically adjust the transmission power of the sensor node according to the received signal strength indicator (RSSI), which is related to the distance and obstacle between sensor node and coordinator. The system is evaluated when the user, who wears the sensor, is walking and running. A promising performance is achieved even under body motion. The power consumption can be significantly reduced with this dynamic power adjustment method.

  8. Three-Phase Time-Multiplexed Planar Power Transmission to Distributed Implants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byunghun; Ahn, Dukju; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2016-03-01

    A platform has been presented for wireless powering of receivers (Rx's) that are arbitrarily distributed over a large area. A potential application could be powering of small Rx implants, distributed over large areas of the brain. The transmitter (Tx) consists of three overlapping layers of hexagonal planar spiral coils (hex-PSC) that are horizontally shifted to provide the strongest and most homogeneous electromagnetic flux coverage. The three-layer hex-PSC array is driven by a three-phase time-division-multiplexed power Tx that takes the advantage of the carrier phase shift, coil geometries, and Rx time constant to homogeneously power the arbitrarily distributed Rx's regardless of their misalignments. The functionality of the proposed three-phase power transmission concept has been verified in a detailed scaled-up high-frequency structure simulator Advanced Design System simulation model and measurement setup, and compared with a conventional Tx. The new Tx delivers 5.4 mW to each Rx and achieves, on average, 5.8% power transfer efficiency to the Rx at the worst case 90° angular misalignment, compared with 1.4% by the conventional Tx.

  9. Three-Phase Time-Multiplexed Planar Power Transmission to Distributed Implants

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byunghun; Ahn, Dukju; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2015-01-01

    A platform has been presented for wireless powering of receivers (Rx's) that are arbitrarily distributed over a large area. A potential application could be powering of small Rx implants, distributed over large areas of the brain. The transmitter (Tx) consists of three overlapping layers of hexagonal planar spiral coils (hex-PSC) that are horizontally shifted to provide the strongest and most homogeneous electromagnetic flux coverage. The three-layer hex-PSC array is driven by a three-phase time-division-multiplexed power Tx that takes the advantage of the carrier phase shift, coil geometries, and Rx time constant to homogeneously power the arbitrarily distributed Rx's regardless of their misalignments. The functionality of the proposed three-phase power transmission concept has been verified in a detailed scaled-up high-frequency structure simulator Advanced Design System simulation model and measurement setup, and compared with a conventional Tx. The new Tx delivers 5.4 mW to each Rx and achieves, on average, 5.8% power transfer efficiency to the Rx at the worst case 90° angular misalignment, compared with 1.4% by the conventional Tx. PMID:27034913

  10. 1KW Power Transmission Using Wireless Acoustic-Electric Feed-Through (WAEF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, S.; Bao, X.; Badescu, M.; Aldrich, J.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Biederman, W.

    2008-01-01

    A variety of space applications require the delivery of power into sealed structures. Since the structural integrity can be degraded by holes for cabling we present an alternative method of delivering power and information using stress waves to the internal space of a sealed structure. One particular application of this technology is in sample return missions where it is critical to preserve the sample integrity and to prevent earth contamination. Therefore, the container has to be hermetically sealed and the integrity of the seal must be monitored in order to insure to a high degree of reliability the integrity of the sample return vessel. In this study we investigated the use of piezoelectric acoustic-electric power feed-through devices to transfer electric power wirelessly through a solid wall by using elastic or acoustic waves. The technology is applicable to a range of space and terrestrial applications where power is required by electronic equipment inside sealed containers, vacuum or pressure vessels, etc., where holes in the wall are prohibitive or may result in significant structural performance degradation or unnecessarily complex designs. To meet requirements of higher power applications, the feasibility to transfer kilowatts level power was investigated. Pre-stressed longitudinal piezoelectric feed-through devices were analyzed by finite element models and an equivalent circuit model was developed to predict the power transfer characteristics to different electric loads. Based on the results of the analysis a prototype device was designed, fabricated and a demonstration of the transmission of electric power up to 1.068-kW was successfully conducted. Efficiencies in the 80-90% range were also demonstrated and methods to increase the efficiency further are currently being considered.

  11. Energy harvesting and wireless energy transmission for powering SHM sensor nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Stuart G; Farinholt, Kevin M; Park, Gyuhae; Farrar, Charles R

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a feasibility study of using energy harvesting and wireless energy transmission systems to operate SHM sensor nodes. The energy harvesting approach examines the use of kinetic energy harvesters to scavenge energy from the ambient sources. Acceleration measurements were made on a bridge, and serve as the basis for a series of laboratory experiments that replicate these sources using an electromagnetic shaker. We also investigated the use of wireless energy transmission systems to operate SHM sensor nodes. The goal of this investigation is to develop SHM sensing systems which can be permanently embedded in the host structure and do not require on-board power sources. This paper summarizes considerations needed to design such systems, experimental procedures and results, and additional issues that can be used as guidelines for future investigations.

  12. Transmission line design for a power distribution system at 20 kHz for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelby, L. W.; Mathes, J. B.; Shawver, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    A low inductance, low characteristic impedance transmission line was designed for a 20 kHz power distribution system. Several different conductor configurations were considered: strip lines, interdigitated metal ribbons, and standard insulated wires in multiwire configurations (circular and rectangular cylindrical arrangements). The final design was a rectangular arrangement of multiple wires of the same gauge with alternating polarities from wire to wire. This offered the lowest inductance per unit length (on the order of several nanohenries/meter) and the lowest characteristic impedance (on the order of one Ohm). Standard multipin connectors with gold-plated elements were recommended with this transmission line, the junction boxes to be internally connected with flat metal ribbons for low inductance, and the line to be constructed in sections of suitable length. Computer programs for the calculation of inductance of multiwire lines and of capacitances of strip lines were developed.

  13. A Preliminary Study of Building a Transmission Overlay for Regional US Power Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Yin; Li, Yalong; Liu, Yilu; Tomsovic, Kevin; Wang, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Many European countries have taken steps toward a Supergrid in order to transmit large amount of intermittent and remote renewable energy over long distance to load centers. In the US, as the expected increase in renewable generation and electricity demand, similar problem arises. A potential solution is to upgrade the transmission system at a higher voltage by constructing a new overlay grid. This paper will first address basic requirements for such an overlay grid. Potential transmission technologies will also be discussed. A multi-terminal VSC HVDC model is developed in DSATools to implement the overlay grid and a test case on a regional NPCC system will be simulated. Another test system of entire US power grid, with three different interconnections tied together using back-to-back HVDC, is also introduced in this paper. Building an overlay system on top of this test case is ongoing, and will be discussed in future work.

  14. Transmissive concentrator multijunction solar cells with over 47% in-band power conversion efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qi; Ji, Yaping; Krut, Dimitri D.; Ermer, Jim H.; Escarra, Matthew D.

    2016-11-01

    Transmissive concentrator multijunction (TCMJ) solar cells with over 47% in-band power conversion efficiency (PCE) have been designed and realized. These TCMJ solar cells have been characterized under 1 sun and concentrated 500 sun solar spectra, showing that the PCE for in-band light (photon energies above the cell's lowest bandgap) can reach up to 47.6% (29.5% for the full solar spectrum). Temperature coefficients of electrical parameters (Voc, Jsc, fill factor) have been derived from measurements within the temperature range of 20 °C-130 °C, showing linear variations versus temperature change. Optical measurements demonstrate that the cells show 76.5% solar-weighted optical transmission for the out-of-band light (photon energy below the cell's lowest bandgap). This TCMJ solar cell exhibits promising spectrum splitting capability, which has the potential for use in hybrid photovoltaic-solar thermal applications.

  15. Management of the geomagnetically induced current risks on the national grid company's electric power transmission system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erinmez, I. Arslan; Kappenman, John G.; Radasky, William A.

    2002-03-01

    The National Grid Company plc (NGC) is the owner and operator of one of the world's largest privatised high-voltage electric power transmission systems in England and Wales at 400 and 275kV. As owner operator it is responsible for the secure and reliable delivery of electrical energy to all the 25 million electricity supply customers in England and Wales. The transmission and distribution systems in UK have experienced significant effects during past geomagnetic storm events especially during solar cycles 21 and 22. These effects included generator reactive power output swings, voltage dips, negative sequence alarms and transformer failures. Geomagnetically induced current (GIC) monitoring was installed in 1989 and operational procedures were put in place based on global solar weather forecasts. These measures were not capable of delivering reliable information and thus gave many false operational alarms. Their only real use was for post event forensic purposes. Since the cycle 22 solar peak activity the UK transmission system has developed to become more meshed, heavily loaded and dependent on the availability of reactive compensation equipment for voltage control. NGC carried out GIC impact risk assessment in 1998. This reviewed available options for managing this risk including investigation of blocking measures, a reliable local GIC forecast, GIC monitoring, a review of transmission equipment capabilities to withstand GIC conditions and operational procedures to manage the risk. As a result of the risk assessment NGC completed installation of a Metatech Spacecast/Powercast space weather forecasting system in May 1999. EPRI Sunburst 2000 based transformer monitoring systems were fully integrated in January 2000 in time for peak solar storm activity in solar cycle 23. This paper will describe the risk analysis undertaken, the risk management processes put in place and the performance of the forecasting and monitoring systems, respectively.

  16. An Adaptive Reconfigurable Active Voltage Doubler/Rectifier for Extended-Range Inductive Power Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyung-Min; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2014-01-01

    We present an adaptive reconfigurable active voltage doubler (VD)/rectifier (REC) (VD/REC) in standard CMOS, which can adaptively change its topology to either a VD or a REC by sensing the output voltage, leading to more robust inductive power transmission over an extended range. Both active VD and REC modes provide much lower dropout voltage and far better power conversion efficiency (PCE) compared to their passive counterparts by adopting offset-controlled high-speed comparators that drive the rectifying switches at proper times in the high-frequency band. We have fabricated the active VD/REC in a 0.5-µm 3-metal 2-poly CMOS process, occupying 0.585 mm2 of chip area. In an exemplar setup, VD/REC extended the power transmission range by 33% (from 6 to 8 cm) in relative coil distance and 41.5% (from 53° to 75°) in relative coil orientation compared to using the REC alone. While providing 3.1-V dc output across a 500-Ω load from 2.15- (VD) and 3.7-V (REC) peak ac inputs at 13.56 MHz, VD/REC achieved measured PCEs of 70% and 77%, respectively. PMID:24633369

  17. 41 CFR 102-75.380 - May power transmission lines and rights-of-way be disposed of in other ways?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May power transmission... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Surplus Real Property Disposal Power Transmission Lines § 102-75.380 May power transmission lines and rights-of-way be disposed of in other ways? Yes,...

  18. BPA/Puget Power Northwest Washington Transmission Project Final Environmental Impact Statement.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-08-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Puget Sound Power & Light Company (Puget Power) propose to upgrade the existing high-voltage transmission system in the Whatcom and Skagit counties area between the towns of Custer and Sedro Woolley, including some areas within the City of Bellingham, starting in 1995. A Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the project was issued in November 1993, followed by a 45-day public comment period. Public response to the DEIS included the identification of several new transmission route alternatives in the Lake Whatcom area. BPA issued a Supplemental DEIS in April 1995 to provide a second public review-and-comment period. Rebuilding an existing 230-kV line to a double-circuit 230-kV transmission line was identified in the Supplemental DEIS as the Proposed Action. The Supplemental DEIS also examined in detail a North Shore Road alternative which was proposed by some members of the public. Public comments on the EIS were listed and responded to in the Supplemental DEIS. In May 1995, a second set of open houses and public meetings was held to review the Supplemental DEIS. Electromagnetic field (EMF) effects raised as an issue in the DEIS continued to be an issue of public concern in the meetings. The EIS has identified impacts that would generally be classified as low to moderate and localized. Effects on soils and water resources in sensitive areas (e.g., near Lake Whatcom) would be low to moderate; there would be little change in magnetic fields; noise levels would remain at existing levels; and land use and property value impacts would be minimal. Threatened and endangered species would not be adversely affected, and all proposed actions in wetlands would be covered by a Corps of Engineers Nationwide Permit. Visual and socioeconomic would be low to moderate. There would be no effect on cultural resources.

  19. On-Line Condition Monitoring of a Power Transmission Unit of a Rail Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deuszkiewicz, P.; Radkowski, S.

    2003-11-01

    The paper addresses the issue of selection of diagnostic parameters and methods of an object's condition classification. The research was conducted for a power transmission unit of a commuter train. We analysed the vibration of the axle box as measured on the track for systems before and after an overhaul. In the final part of the paper, we proposed an algorithm that can be used to identify the technical condition of a machine while using neural networks and we also described the operation of an on-line diagnostic system.

  20. Efficiencies of photovoltaic cell receivers for laser power transmission under the lunar environment

    SciTech Connect

    Yugami, H.; Naito, H.; Itagaki, H.

    1998-07-01

    Major space activities in the next century will substantially increase the demand for power. The system of powering a very diverse set of remote missions will be an important infrastructure in space. Especially, the nighttime power supply to a space base placed on the Moon is a central problem in the development and utilization of the Moon, because the period of the nighttime on the Moon corresponds to 15 Earth-days. Photovoltaic cells could potentially be used as power receivers for several lasers at visible and near infrared regions. Several paper studies on the solar-cell response to laser illumination are available. However, the efficiency and response of cells would be quite different if these were used on the nighttime Moon surface since the temperature of lunar environment drops very low during the nighttime (about {minus}170 C). A feasibility of a laser energy transmission concept for a first stage lunar mission on 2005--2015 has been studied by NASDA. The lunar energy system consists of a small battery and a receiver (solar cell panel) on the lunar surface and a laser power transmission satellite on the moon orbit. In order to study the plausible lunar laser energy transmission system based on the state of the art of lasers and PV cell technologies, the authors report the cell efficiencies illuminated with several kinds of CW and pulsed lasers under the temperature range from {minus}190 C to 60 C. Solar cells of c-Si, GaAs for space use, CuInSe{sub 2} and infrared enhanced c-Si photodiode have been tested by changing the laser power from 3mW/cm{sup 2} to 1000mW/cm{sup 2}. The authors observed that the temperature dependence of the efficiency for YAG fundamental laser light is quite different from that for LD and Ar ion laser. In the latter cases, the efficiency increases with decreasing temperature. This is the general feature for the efficiency of conventional solar cells. In contrast with those, the PV cell efficiency under YAG fundamental light

  1. Tucson Electric Power Company Sahuarita-Nogales Transmission Line Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-08-27

    Tucson Electric Power Company (TEP) has applied to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for a Presidential Permit to construct and operate a double-circuit, 345,000-volt (345-kV) electric transmission line across the United States border with Mexico. Under Executive Order (EO) 10485 of September 3, 1953, as amended by EO 12038 of February 3, 1978, a Presidential Permit is required to construct, connect, operate, or maintain facilities at the U.S. international border for the transmission of electric energy between the United States and a foreign country. DOE has determined that the issuance of a Presidential Permit to TEP for the proposed project would constitute a major Federal action that may have a significant impact on the environment within the meaning of the ''National Environmental Policy Act of 1969'' (NEPA) 42 United States Code (U.S.C.) {section}4321 et seq. For this reason, DOE has prepared this Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to evaluate potential environmental impacts from the proposed Federal action (granting a Presidential Permit for the proposed transmission facilities) and reasonable alternatives, including the No Action Alternative. This EIS was prepared in accordance with Section 102(2)(c) of NEPA, Council of Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations (40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 1500-1508), and DOE NEPA Implementing Procedures (10 CFR 1021). DOE is the lead Federal Agency, as defined by 40 CFR 1501.5. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USFS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) of the U.S. Department of the Interior, and the U.S. Section of the International Boundary and Water Commission, U.S. and Mexico (USIBWC), are cooperating agencies. Each of these organizations will use the EIS for its own NEPA purposes, as described in the Federal Agencies' Purpose and Need and Authorizing Actions section of this summary. The 345-kV double-circuit transmission line would consist of twelve transmission line wires, or

  2. A Figure-of-Merit for Designing High-Performance Inductive Power Transmission Links.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2012-11-16

    Power transfer efficiency (PTE) and power delivered to the load (PDL) are two key inductive link design parameters that relate to the power source and driver specs, power loss, transmission range, robustness against misalignment, variations in loading, and interference with other devices. Designers need to strike a delicate balance between these two because designing the link to achieve high PTE will degrade the PDL and vice versa. We are proposing a new figure-of-merit (FoM), which can help designers to find out whether a two-, three-, or four-coil link is appropriate for their particular application and guide them through an iterative design procedure to reach optimal coil geometries based on how they weigh the PTE versus PDL for that application. Three design examples at three different power levels have been presented based on the proposed FoM for implantable microelectronic devices, handheld mobile devices, and electric vehicles. The new FoM suggests that the two-coil links are suitable when the coils are strongly coupled, and a large PDL is needed. Three-coil links are the best when the coils are loosely coupled, the coupling distance varies considerably, and large PDL is necessary. Finally, four-coil links are optimal when the PTE is paramount, the coils are loosely coupled, and their relative distance and alignment are stable. Measurement results support the accuracy of the theoretical design procedure and conclusions.

  3. Modular high-voltage bias generator powered by dual-looped self-adaptive wireless power transmission.

    PubMed

    Xie, Kai; Huang, An-Feng; Li, Xiao-Ping; Guo, Shi-Zhong; Zhang, Han-Lu

    2015-04-01

    We proposed a modular high-voltage (HV) bias generator powered by a novel transmitter-sharing inductive coupled wireless power transmission technology, aimed to extend the generator's flexibility and configurability. To solve the problems caused through an uncertain number of modules, a dual-looped self-adaptive control method is proposed that is capable of tracking resonance frequency while maintaining a relatively stable induction voltage for each HV module. The method combines a phase-locked loop and a current feedback loop, which ensures an accurate resonance state and a relatively constant boost ratio for each module, simplifying the architecture of the boost stage and improving the total efficiency. The prototype was built and tested. The input voltage drop of each module is less than 14% if the module number varies from 3 to 10; resonance tracking is completed within 60 ms. The efficiency of the coupling structure reaches up to 95%, whereas the total efficiency approaches 73% for a rated output. Furthermore, this technology can be used in various multi-load wireless power supply applications.

  4. Modular high-voltage bias generator powered by dual-looped self-adaptive wireless power transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Kai; Huang, An-Feng; Li, Xiao-Ping; Guo, Shi-Zhong; Zhang, Han-Lu

    2015-04-01

    We proposed a modular high-voltage (HV) bias generator powered by a novel transmitter-sharing inductive coupled wireless power transmission technology, aimed to extend the generator's flexibility and configurability. To solve the problems caused through an uncertain number of modules, a dual-looped self-adaptive control method is proposed that is capable of tracking resonance frequency while maintaining a relatively stable induction voltage for each HV module. The method combines a phase-locked loop and a current feedback loop, which ensures an accurate resonance state and a relatively constant boost ratio for each module, simplifying the architecture of the boost stage and improving the total efficiency. The prototype was built and tested. The input voltage drop of each module is less than 14% if the module number varies from 3 to 10; resonance tracking is completed within 60 ms. The efficiency of the coupling structure reaches up to 95%, whereas the total efficiency approaches 73% for a rated output. Furthermore, this technology can be used in various multi-load wireless power supply applications.

  5. Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Projections 1993--2014 and Historical Wholesale Power Rates 1939--1992.

    SciTech Connect

    US Bonneville Power Administration

    1993-11-01

    This document provides a range of high, medium, and low case long-term projections of Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) wholesale power rates and a medium case long-term projection of BPA`s wheeling rates. These projections are produced annually by BPA. BPA uses these projections in long-term marketing, resource, transmission, and financial planning assessments. BPA`s projections also are used by public utility commissions, utilities, and others for a variety of planning purposes. The analysis used for these rate projections assumes that current rate making methodologies continue into the future and are further based on certain assumptions about regional loads, extra-regional markets, the costs of resources, BPA`s financial requirements, and the capability of the region`s power plants. While these projections are intended to address the overall uncertainty in rate levels, BPA realizes that the future will not reflect any specific set of assumptions. The rate projections in this document have been prepared prior to the Draft 1993 BPA Marketing Plan, the implementation of which is almost certain to push BPA away from any set of assumptions in this document. Therefore, this document can be thought of as representing the ``old`` BPA with its products and policies. It can be viewed as a starting point or reference point to measure the impact of the ``new`` BPA with its Marketing Plan, and the broader undertaking referred to as the Competitiveness Project.

  6. Independent transmission system operators and their role in maintaining reliability in a restructured electric power industry

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the current status of proposals to form Independent System Operators (ISOs) to operate high-voltage transmission systems in the United States and reviews their potential role in maintaining bulk power system reliability. As background information, the likely new industry structure, nature of deregulated markets, and institutional framework for bulk power system reliability are reviewed. The report identifies issues related to the formation of ISOs and their roles in markets and in reliability, and describes potential policy directions for encouraging the formation of effective ISOs and ensuring bulk system reliability. Two appendices are provided, which address: (1) system operation arrangements in other countries, and (2) summaries of regional U.S. ISO proposals.

  7. A Triple-Loop Inductive Power Transmission System for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byunghun; Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2016-02-01

    A triple-loop wireless power transmission (WPT) system equipped with closed-loop global power control, adaptive transmitter (Tx) resonance compensation (TRC), and automatic receiver (Rx) resonance tuning (ART) is presented. This system not only opposes coupling and load variations but also compensates for changes in the environment surrounding the inductive link to enhance power transfer efficiency (PTE) in applications such as implantable medical devices (IMDs). The Tx was built around a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radio-frequency identification (RFID) reader, operating at 13.56 MHz. A local Tx loop finds the optimal capacitance in parallel with the Tx coil by adjusting a varactor. A global power control loop maintains the received power at a desired level in the presence of changes in coupling distance, coil misalignments, and loading. Moreover, a local Rx loop is implemented inside a power management integrated circuit (PMIC) to avoid PTE degradation due to the Rx coil surrounding environment and process variations. The PMIC was fabricated in a 0.35- μm 4M2P standard CMOS process with 2.54 mm(2) active area. Measurement results show that the proposed triple-loop system improves the overall PTE by up to 10.5% and 4.7% compared to a similar open- and single closed-loop system, respectively, at nominal coil distance of 2 cm. The added TRC and ART loops contribute 2.3% and 1.4% to the overall PTE of 13.5%, respectively. This is the first WPT system to include three loops to dynamically compensate for environment and circuit variations and improve the overall power efficiency all the way from the driver output in Tx to the load in Rx.

  8. Characterizing the topological and controllability features of U.S. power transmission networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian; Dueñas-Osorio, Leonardo; Chen, Changkun; Berryhill, Benjamin; Yazdani, Alireza

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the controllability of complex networks continues to gain traction across disciplinary fields, including the exploration of infrastructure systems such as power grids. Through topological principles, this paper investigates the controllability features of an ensemble of 58 U.S. city-level power transmission networks in seven U.S. states. To perform structural controllability analyses, the topological characteristics of the ensemble of networks are first quantified, including degree, shortest path length, clustering coefficient, meshedness and betweenness centrality, as well as the uncertainty associated with these and related properties. Then, the paper focuses on the controllability features of complex networks so as to detect the minimal sets of driver nodes to possibly control the networks given system linearity assumptions. Accordingly, a node is critical, intermittent or redundant if it acts as a driver node in all, some, or none of the potentially controllable system configurations. Moreover, this paper constructs a new methodology to quantify the probability of being a driver node among the intermittent nodes, and reveals the controllability importance of system components. Results show that a small proportion of driver nodes can provide the conditions for controlling the slow dynamics of entire power transmission networks from a topological perspective, despite variations in network sizes and configurations. This paper also reveals that the driver nodes tend to avoid high degree nodes and high triangulation sub-graph nodes as well as high betweenness centrality nodes. The identification of topological differences for different categories of nodes (critical, intermittent or redundant) could help researchers and utilities understand the conditions for future functional controllability of power networks while improving their reliability and resilience as well as facilitating their transition into smart grid systems.

  9. Self-powered wireless carbohydrate/oxygen sensitive biodevice based on radio signal transmission.

    PubMed

    Falk, Magnus; Alcalde, Miguel; Bartlett, Philip N; De Lacey, Antonio L; Gorton, Lo; Gutierrez-Sanchez, Cristina; Haddad, Raoudha; Kilburn, Jeremy; Leech, Dónal; Ludwig, Roland; Magner, Edmond; Mate, Diana M; Conghaile, Peter Ó; Ortiz, Roberto; Pita, Marcos; Pöller, Sascha; Ruzgas, Tautgirdas; Salaj-Kosla, Urszula; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Sebelius, Fredrik; Shao, Minling; Stoica, Leonard; Sygmund, Cristoph; Tilly, Jonas; Toscano, Miguel D; Vivekananthan, Jeevanthi; Wright, Emma; Shleev, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Here for the first time, we detail self-contained (wireless and self-powered) biodevices with wireless signal transmission. Specifically, we demonstrate the operation of self-sustained carbohydrate and oxygen sensitive biodevices, consisting of a wireless electronic unit, radio transmitter and separate sensing bioelectrodes, supplied with electrical energy from a combined multi-enzyme fuel cell generating sufficient current at required voltage to power the electronics. A carbohydrate/oxygen enzymatic fuel cell was assembled by comparing the performance of a range of different bioelectrodes followed by selection of the most suitable, stable combination. Carbohydrates (viz. lactose for the demonstration) and oxygen were also chosen as bioanalytes, being important biomarkers, to demonstrate the operation of the self-contained biosensing device, employing enzyme-modified bioelectrodes to enable the actual sensing. A wireless electronic unit, consisting of a micropotentiostat, an energy harvesting module (voltage amplifier together with a capacitor), and a radio microchip, were designed to enable the biofuel cell to be used as a power supply for managing the sensing devices and for wireless data transmission. The electronic system used required current and voltages greater than 44 µA and 0.57 V, respectively to operate; which the biofuel cell was capable of providing, when placed in a carbohydrate and oxygen containing buffer. In addition, a USB based receiver and computer software were employed for proof-of concept tests of the developed biodevices. Operation of bench-top prototypes was demonstrated in buffers containing different concentrations of the analytes, showcasing that the variation in response of both carbohydrate and oxygen biosensors could be monitored wirelessly in real-time as analyte concentrations in buffers were changed, using only an enzymatic fuel cell as a power supply.

  10. Self-Powered Wireless Carbohydrate/Oxygen Sensitive Biodevice Based on Radio Signal Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Magnus; Alcalde, Miguel; Bartlett, Philip N.; De Lacey, Antonio L.; Gorton, Lo; Gutierrez-Sanchez, Cristina; Haddad, Raoudha; Kilburn, Jeremy; Leech, Dónal; Ludwig, Roland; Magner, Edmond; Mate, Diana M.; Conghaile, Peter Ó.; Ortiz, Roberto; Pita, Marcos; Pöller, Sascha; Ruzgas, Tautgirdas; Salaj-Kosla, Urszula; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Sebelius, Fredrik; Shao, Minling; Stoica, Leonard; Sygmund, Cristoph; Tilly, Jonas; Toscano, Miguel D.; Vivekananthan, Jeevanthi; Wright, Emma; Shleev, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Here for the first time, we detail self-contained (wireless and self-powered) biodevices with wireless signal transmission. Specifically, we demonstrate the operation of self-sustained carbohydrate and oxygen sensitive biodevices, consisting of a wireless electronic unit, radio transmitter and separate sensing bioelectrodes, supplied with electrical energy from a combined multi-enzyme fuel cell generating sufficient current at required voltage to power the electronics. A carbohydrate/oxygen enzymatic fuel cell was assembled by comparing the performance of a range of different bioelectrodes followed by selection of the most suitable, stable combination. Carbohydrates (viz. lactose for the demonstration) and oxygen were also chosen as bioanalytes, being important biomarkers, to demonstrate the operation of the self-contained biosensing device, employing enzyme-modified bioelectrodes to enable the actual sensing. A wireless electronic unit, consisting of a micropotentiostat, an energy harvesting module (voltage amplifier together with a capacitor), and a radio microchip, were designed to enable the biofuel cell to be used as a power supply for managing the sensing devices and for wireless data transmission. The electronic system used required current and voltages greater than 44 µA and 0.57 V, respectively to operate; which the biofuel cell was capable of providing, when placed in a carbohydrate and oxygen containing buffer. In addition, a USB based receiver and computer software were employed for proof-of concept tests of the developed biodevices. Operation of bench-top prototypes was demonstrated in buffers containing different concentrations of the analytes, showcasing that the variation in response of both carbohydrate and oxygen biosensors could be monitored wirelessly in real-time as analyte concentrations in buffers were changed, using only an enzymatic fuel cell as a power supply. PMID:25310190

  11. Mitigating the Detrimental Impacts of Solar PV Penetration on Electric Power Transmission Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Nitin

    At present, almost 70% of the electric energy in the United States is produced utilizing fossil fuels. Combustion of fossil fuels contributes CO 2 to the atmosphere, potentially exacerbating the impact on global warming. To make the electric power system (EPS) more sustainable for the future, there has been an emphasis on scaling up generation of electric energy from wind and solar resources. These resources are renewable in nature and have pollution free operation. Various states in the US have set up different goals for achieving certain amount of electrical energy to be produced from renewable resources. The Southwestern region of the United States receives significant solar radiation throughout the year. High solar radiation makes concentrated solar power and solar PV the most suitable means of renewable energy production in this region. However, the majority of the projects that are presently being developed are either residential or utility owned solar PV plants. This research explores the impact of significant PV penetration on the steady state voltage profile of the electric power transmission system. This study also identifies the impact of PV penetration on the dynamic response of the transmission system such as rotor angle stability, frequency response and voltage response after a contingency. The light load case of spring 2010 and the peak load case of summer 2018 have been considered for analyzing the impact of PV. If the impact is found to be detrimental to the normal operation of the EPS, mitigation measures have been devised and presented in the thesis. Commercially available software tools/packages such as PSLF, PSS/E, DSA Tools have been used to analyze the power network and validate the results.

  12. System for interactive management of aerial imaging campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wypych, Tom; Kuester, Falko

    We present a system to enable real time management of interchangeable imaging platforms aboard commodity unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to improve interactivity during aerial imaging campaigns. We argue that this improvement in interactivity enables powerful immediate-mode inspection by the ground operator, and implements a more intuitive, flexible, and ultimately useful control interface to aerial imaging systems.

  13. Transmission line pulse system for avalanche characterization of high power semiconductor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccio, Michele; Ascione, Giovanni; De Falco, Giuseppe; Maresca, Luca; De Laurentis, Martina; Irace, Andrea; Breglio, Giovanni

    2013-05-01

    Because of the increasing in power density of electronic devices for medium and high power application, reliabilty of these devices is of great interest. Understanding the avalanche behaviour of a power device has become very important in these last years because it gives an indication of the maximum energy ratings which can be seen as an index of the device ruggedness. A good description of this behaviour is given by the static IV blocking characteristc. In order to avoid self heating, very relevant in high power devices, very short pulses of current have to be used, whose value can change from few milliamps up to tens of amps. The most used method to generate short pulses is the TLP (Transmission Line Pulse) test, which is based on charging the equivalent capacitance of a transmission line to high value of voltage and subsequently discharging it onto a load. This circuit let to obtain very short square pulses but it is mostly used for evaluate the ESD capability of semiconductor and, in this environment, it generates pulses of low amplitude which are not high enough to characterize the avalanche behaviour of high power devices . Advanced TLP circuit able to generate high current are usually very expensive and often suffer of distorption of the output pulse. In this article is proposed a simple, low cost circuit, based on a boosted-TLP configuration, which is capable to produce very square pulses of about one hundreds of nanosecond with amplitude up to some tens of amps. A prototype is implemented which can produce pulses up to 20A of amplitude with 200 ns of duration which can characterize power devices up to 1600V of breakdown voltage. Usage of microcontroller based logic make the circuit very flexible. Results of SPICE simulation are provided, together with experimental results. To prove the effectiveness of the circuit, the I-V blocking characteristics of two commercial devices, namely a 600V PowerMOS and a 1200V Trench-IGBT, are measured at different

  14. Optimal resonance configuration for ultrasonic wireless power transmission to millimeter-sized biomedical implants.

    PubMed

    Miao Meng; Kiani, Mehdi

    2016-08-01

    In order to achieve efficient wireless power transmission (WPT) to biomedical implants with millimeter (mm) dimensions, ultrasonic WPT links have recently been proposed. Operating both transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) ultrasonic transducers at their resonance frequency (fr) is key in improving power transmission efficiency (PTE). In this paper, different resonance configurations for Tx and Rx transducers, including series and parallel resonance, have been studied to help the designers of ultrasonic WPT links to choose the optimal resonance configuration for Tx and Rx that maximizes PTE. The geometries for disk-shaped transducers of four different sets of links, operating at series-series, series-parallel, parallel-series, and parallel-parallel resonance configurations in Tx and Rx, have been found through finite-element method (FEM) simulation tools for operation at fr of 1.4 MHz. Our simulation results suggest that operating the Tx transducer with parallel resonance increases PTE, while the resonance configuration of the mm-sized Rx transducer highly depends on the load resistance, Rl. For applications that involve large Rl in the order of tens of kΩ, a parallel resonance for a mm-sized Rx leads to higher PTE, while series resonance is preferred for Rl in the order of several kΩ and below.

  15. Effects of neutral gas collisions on the power transmission factor at the divertor sheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futch, A. H.; Hill, D. N.; Jong, R. A.; Porter, G. D.; Matthews, G. F.; Buchenauer, D.

    1992-03-01

    We show that charge-exchange and other ion-neutral collisions can reduce the power transmission factor of the plasma sheath, thereby lowering the ion impact energy and target plate sputtering. The power transmission factor relates the heat flux reaching the divertor target to the surface: Delta= Q(sub surf)/n(sub e)T(sub e)C(sub s). Experimental data from the D3-D tokamak suggest that Delta could be as low as 2-3 near the region of peak divertor particle flux, instead of the 7-8 expected from usual sheath theory. Several effects combine to allow ion-neutral interactions to be important in the divertor plasma sheath. The shallow angle of incidence of the magnetic field (1-3 degrees in D3-D) leads to the spatial extension of the sheath from approximately (pi)i approximately = 1 mm normal to the plate to several centimeters along the field lines. Ionization reduces the sheath potential, and collisions reduce the ion impact energy.

  16. Communication Range Dynamics and Performance Analysis for a Self-Adaptive Transmission Power Controller.

    PubMed

    Lucas Martínez, Néstor; Martínez Ortega, José-Fernán; Hernández Díaz, Vicente; Del Toro Matamoros, Raúl M

    2016-05-12

    The deployment of the nodes in a Wireless Sensor and Actuator Network (WSAN) is typically restricted by the sensing and acting coverage. This implies that the locations of the nodes may be, and usually are, not optimal from the point of view of the radio communication. Additionally, when the transmission power is tuned for those locations, there are other unpredictable factors that can cause connectivity failures, like interferences, signal fading due to passing objects and, of course, radio irregularities. A control-based self-adaptive system is a typical solution to improve the energy consumption while keeping good connectivity. In this paper, we explore how the communication range for each node evolves along the iterations of an energy saving self-adaptive transmission power controller when using different parameter sets in an outdoor scenario, providing a WSAN that automatically adapts to surrounding changes keeping good connectivity. The results obtained in this paper show how the parameters with the best performance keep a k-connected network, where k is in the range of the desired node degree plus or minus a specified tolerance value.

  17. Cooling test of the 500 m class superconducting DC power transmission system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Hirofumi; Ivanov, Yury V.; Chikumoto, Noriko; Inoue, Noriyuki; Takano, Hirohisa; Yamaguchi, Satarou; Ishiyama, Kotaro; Oishi, Zenji; Koshizuka, Hiromi; Watanabe, Michihiko; Masuda, Takato; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Sawamura, Toru

    2017-02-01

    Recently, 500 m and 1000 m class superconducting DC power transmission systems were constructed in the Ishikari area in Japan and the cooling test of the 500 m system was performed. The heat leak of the cryogenic pipe and the total heat load of the system were estimated in the cooling test. The cryogenic pipe of the system has two inner pipes in one outer pipe for circulation. The heat leak was 0.98 W/m and 0.44 W/m for each inner pipe. The total heat load of the system was 1.37 kW except for the heat load by the current feeding and the circulation pumps, while the total cooling power of the system was approximately 3 kW. The pressure drop of the circulation was measured to be 19.5 kPa at the rated flow rate of 30 L/min for the 1000 m circulation both ways in the 500 m transmission line. By the cooling test, it was confirmed that the system can be operated stably.

  18. Design and cost estimate of an 800 MVA superconducting power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Alex, P.; Ernst, A. ); Forsyth, E.; Gibbs, R.; Thomas, R.; Muller, T. )

    1990-10-18

    Numerous studies involving cost estimates have been performed for superconducting power transmission systems. As these systems were usually aimed at providing transmission from large clusters of generation the base power rating of the corridor was very high; in the case of the most comprehensive study it was 10,000 MVA. The purpose of this study is to examine a system which is very closely based on the prototype 1000 MVA system which was operated at Brookhaven National Laboratory over a four year period. The purpose of the study is to provide cost estimates for the superconducting system and to compare these estimates with a design based on the use of advanced but conventional cable designs. The work is supported by funding from the Office of Energy Research's Industry/Laboratory Technology Exchange Program. This program is designed to commercialize energy technologies. The technical design of the superconducting system was prepared by the BNL staff, the design of the 800 MVA conventional cable system was done by engineers from Underground Systems Incorporated. Both institutions worked on the cost estimate of the superconducting system. The description and cost estimate of the conventional cable system is given in the Appendix. 5 refs.

  19. Communication Range Dynamics and Performance Analysis for a Self-Adaptive Transmission Power Controller †

    PubMed Central

    Lucas Martínez, Néstor; Martínez Ortega, José-Fernán; Hernández Díaz, Vicente; del Toro Matamoros, Raúl M.

    2016-01-01

    The deployment of the nodes in a Wireless Sensor and Actuator Network (WSAN) is typically restricted by the sensing and acting coverage. This implies that the locations of the nodes may be, and usually are, not optimal from the point of view of the radio communication. Additionally, when the transmission power is tuned for those locations, there are other unpredictable factors that can cause connectivity failures, like interferences, signal fading due to passing objects and, of course, radio irregularities. A control-based self-adaptive system is a typical solution to improve the energy consumption while keeping good connectivity. In this paper, we explore how the communication range for each node evolves along the iterations of an energy saving self-adaptive transmission power controller when using different parameter sets in an outdoor scenario, providing a WSAN that automatically adapts to surrounding changes keeping good connectivity. The results obtained in this paper show how the parameters with the best performance keep a k-connected network, where k is in the range of the desired node degree plus or minus a specified tolerance value. PMID:27187397

  20. Estimating magnetic fields of homes near transmission lines in the California Power Line Study.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Ximena P; Kavet, Robert; Crespi, Catherine M; Hooper, Chris; Silva, J Michael; Kheifets, Leeka

    2015-07-01

    The California Power Line Study is a case-control study investigating the relation between residences near transmission lines and risk of childhood leukemia. It includes 5788 childhood leukemia cases and 5788 matched primary controls born between 1986 and 2007. We describe the methodology for estimating magnetic fields at study residences as well as for characterizing sources of uncertainty in these estimates. Birth residences of study subjects were geocoded and their distances to transmission lines were ascertained. 302 residences were deemed sufficiently close to transmission lines to have non-zero magnetic fields attributable to the lines. These residences were visited and detailed data, describing the physical configuration and dimensions of the lines contributing to the magnetic field at the residence, were collected. Phasing, loading, and directional load flow data for years of birth and diagnosis for each subject as well as for the day of site visit were obtained from utilities when available; when yearly average load for a particular year was not available, extrapolated values based on expert knowledge and prediction models were obtained. These data were used to estimate the magnetic fields at the center, closest and farthest point of each residence. We found good correlation between calculated fields and spot measurements of fields taken on site during visits. Our modeling strategies yielded similar calculated field estimates, and they were in high agreement with utility extrapolations. Phasing was known for over 90% of the lines. Important sources of uncertainty included a lack of information on the precise location of residences located within apartment buildings or other complexes. Our findings suggest that we were able to achieve high specificity in exposure assessment, which is essential for examining the association between distance to or magnetic fields from power lines and childhood leukemia risk.

  1. An implantable neural sensing microsystem with fiber-optic data transmission and power delivery.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmee; Borton, David A; Kang, Mingyu; Nurmikko, Arto V; Song, Yoon-Kyu

    2013-05-10

    We have developed a prototype cortical neural sensing microsystem for brain implantable neuroengineering applications. Its key feature is that both the transmission of broadband, multichannel neural data and power required for the embedded microelectronics are provided by optical fiber access. The fiber-optic system is aimed at enabling neural recording from rodents and primates by converting cortical signals to a digital stream of infrared light pulses. In the full microsystem whose performance is summarized in this paper, an analog-to-digital converter and a low power digital controller IC have been integrated with a low threshold, semiconductor laser to extract the digitized neural signals optically from the implantable unit. The microsystem also acquires electrical power and synchronization clocks via optical fibers from an external laser by using a highly efficient photovoltaic cell on board. The implantable unit employs a flexible polymer substrate to integrate analog and digital microelectronics and on-chip optoelectronic components, while adapting to the anatomical and physiological constraints of the environment. A low power analog CMOS chip, which includes preamplifier and multiplexing circuitry, is directly flip-chip bonded to the microelectrode array to form the cortical neurosensor device.

  2. Optical retrodirective tracking system approach using an array of phase conjugators for communication and power transmission.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Christian A; Matoba, Osamu; Kaya, Nobuyuki

    2007-07-20

    A new concept for a retrodirective tracking system applicable for communication and power transmission is proposed. In the proposed concept, the power transmitter utilizes a receiver's pilot signal to obtain information about its direction by conjugating the signal's phase inside a nonlinear medium. Power is therefore transmitted back to the receiver by the phase-conjugated signal beam. The power can be concentrated by an array of phase conjugators, which provides a large aperture so that the intensity can be increased on the receiver's photovoltaic panels compared to a single element. Controlling the phase and the direction of the readout beams in the four-wave-mixing process provides control over the interference pattern, its position, and its size. A numerical analysis is given for the phase and spot size control, and measurements with two Co-doped Sr(x)Ba(1-x)Nb(2)O(6) (Co:SBN) crystals confirm the occurrence of interference that is achieved for the case of two beams.

  3. A wireless transmission low-power radiation sensor for in vivo dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuschino, F.; Gabrielli, A.; Baldazzi, G.; Campana, R.; Valentinetti, S.; Crepaldi, M.; Demarchi, D.; Villani, G.

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the paper is to illustrate the design and the performance of a microelectronic circuit composed of a dosimeter, an oscillator, a modulator, a transmitter and an antenna. The device was designed for specific in vivo dosimetry applications. However, the layout area of less than 1 mm2 makes it suitable for a large variety of applications, from spot radiation monitoring systems in medicine to accurate measurements of radiation level in high-energy physics experiments. Moreover, due to its extremely low-power budget, it might be also of interest for space applications. The chip embeds a re-programmable floating-gate transistor configured as a radiation sensor and a read-out circuit. Prototype chips have been fabricated and tested exploiting a commercial 180 nm, four-metal CMOS technology. Characterization tests of the performance of the Ultra-Wide Band transmission are summarized. The dosimeter prototype has an estimated sensitivity of 1 mV/rad within a total absorbed dose range up to 10 krad. The read-out circuit is powered with 3.3 V and the total power consumption is very low, i.e. about 165 μW, making it also upgradable with a remote power system.

  4. High power microwave beam steering based on gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Romanchenko, I. V. Rostov, V. V.; Gunin, A. V.; Konev, V. Yu.

    2015-06-07

    We demonstrate electronically controlled beam steering by high power RF pulses produced by two gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission lines (NLTLs) connected to a one high voltage driver. Each NLTL is capable of producing several ns RF pulses with peak power from 50 to 700 MW (6% standard deviation) at frequencies from 0.5 to 1.7 GHz (1% standard deviation) with 100 Hz repetition rate. Using a helix antenna allows irradiating of RF pulses with almost circular polarization and 350 MW maximum peak power, which corresponds to 350 kV effective potential of radiation. At the installation of two identical channels, we demonstrate the possibility of beam steering within ±15° in the horizontal plane by coherent RF pulses with circular polarization at 1.0 GHz center frequency. Fourfold increase in the power flux density for in-phase irradiation of RF pulses is confirmed by comparison with one-channel operation.

  5. An Implantable Neural Sensing Microsystem with Fiber-Optic Data Transmission and Power Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sunmee; Borton, David A.; Kang, Mingyu; Nurmikko, Arto V.; Song, Yoon-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a prototype cortical neural sensing microsystem for brain implantable neuroengineering applications. Its key feature is that both the transmission of broadband, multichannel neural data and power required for the embedded microelectronics are provided by optical fiber access. The fiber-optic system is aimed at enabling neural recording from rodents and primates by converting cortical signals to a digital stream of infrared light pulses. In the full microsystem whose performance is summarized in this paper, an analog-to-digital converter and a low power digital controller IC have been integrated with a low threshold, semiconductor laser to extract the digitized neural signals optically from the implantable unit. The microsystem also acquires electrical power and synchronization clocks via optical fibers from an external laser by using a highly efficient photovoltaic cell on board. The implantable unit employs a flexible polymer substrate to integrate analog and digital microelectronics and on-chip optoelectronic components, while adapting to the anatomical and physiological constraints of the environment. A low power analog CMOS chip, which includes preamplifier and multiplexing circuitry, is directly flip-chip bonded to the microelectrode array to form the cortical neurosensor device. PMID:23666130

  6. Co-optimizing Generation and Transmission Expansion with Wind Power in Large-Scale Power Grids Implementation in the US Eastern Interconnection

    DOE PAGES

    You, Shutang; Hadley, Stanton W.; Shankar, Mallikarjun; ...

    2016-01-12

    This paper studies the generation and transmission expansion co-optimization problem with a high wind power penetration rate in the US Eastern Interconnection (EI) power grid. In this paper, the generation and transmission expansion problem for the EI system is modeled as a mixed-integer programming (MIP) problem. Our paper also analyzed a time series generation method to capture the variation and correlation of both load and wind power across regions. The obtained series can be easily introduced into the expansion planning problem and then solved through existing MIP solvers. Simulation results show that the proposed planning model and series generation methodmore » can improve the expansion result significantly through modeling more detailed information of wind and load variation among regions in the US EI system. Moreover, the improved expansion plan that combines generation and transmission will aid system planners and policy makers to maximize the social welfare in large-scale power grids.« less

  7. Co-optimizing Generation and Transmission Expansion with Wind Power in Large-Scale Power Grids Implementation in the US Eastern Interconnection

    SciTech Connect

    You, Shutang; Hadley, Stanton W.; Shankar, Mallikarjun; Liu, Yilu

    2016-01-12

    This paper studies the generation and transmission expansion co-optimization problem with a high wind power penetration rate in the US Eastern Interconnection (EI) power grid. In this paper, the generation and transmission expansion problem for the EI system is modeled as a mixed-integer programming (MIP) problem. Our paper also analyzed a time series generation method to capture the variation and correlation of both load and wind power across regions. The obtained series can be easily introduced into the expansion planning problem and then solved through existing MIP solvers. Simulation results show that the proposed planning model and series generation method can improve the expansion result significantly through modeling more detailed information of wind and load variation among regions in the US EI system. Moreover, the improved expansion plan that combines generation and transmission will aid system planners and policy makers to maximize the social welfare in large-scale power grids.

  8. Design and Optimization of Ultrasonic Wireless Power Transmission Links for Millimeter-Sized Biomedical Implants.

    PubMed

    Meng, Miao; Kiani, Mehdi

    2017-02-01

    Ultrasound has been recently proposed as an alternative modality for efficient wireless power transmission (WPT) to biomedical implants with millimeter (mm) dimensions. This paper presents the theory and design methodology of ultrasonic WPT links that involve mm-sized receivers (Rx). For given load (RL) and powering distance (d), the optimal geometries of transmitter (Tx) and Rx ultrasonic transducers, including their diameter and thickness, as well as the optimal operation frequency (fc) are found through a recursive design procedure to maximize the power transmission efficiency (PTE). First, a range of realistic fcs is found based on the Rx thickness constrain. For a chosen fc within the range, the diameter and thickness of the Rx transducer are then swept together to maximize PTE. Then, the diameter and thickness of the Tx transducer are optimized to maximize PTE. Finally, this procedure is repeated for different fcs to find the optimal fc and its corresponding transducer geometries that maximize PTE. A design example of ultrasonic link has been presented and optimized for WPT to a 1 mm(3) implant, including a disk-shaped piezoelectric transducer on a silicon die. In simulations, a PTE of 2.11% at fc of 1.8 MHz was achieved for RL of 2.5 [Formula: see text] at [Formula: see text]. In order to validate our simulations, an ultrasonic link was optimized for a 1 mm(3) piezoelectric transducer mounted on a printed circuit board (PCB), which led to simulated and measured PTEs of 0.65% and 0.66% at fc of 1.1 MHz for RL of 2.5 [Formula: see text] at [Formula: see text], respectively.

  9. Investigation of potential driver modules and transmission lines for a high frequency power system on the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brush, Harold T.

    1986-01-01

    The feasibility of using Series Resonant Inverter as the driver module for high frequency power system on the Space Station was assessed. The performance of the Series Resonant Inverter that was used in the testing of the single-phase, 2.0-kw resonant AC power system breadboard is summarized. The architecture is descirbed and the driver modules of the 5.0 kw AC power system breadboard are analyzed. An investigation of the various types of transmission lines is continued. Measurements of equivalent series resistor and inductor and equivalent parallel capacitors are presented. In particular, a simplified approach is utilized to describe the optimal transmission line.

  10. Harmonic Resonance in Power Transmission Systems due to the Addition of Shunt Capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Hardik U.

    Shunt capacitors are often added in transmission networks at suitable locations to improve the voltage profile. In this thesis, the transmission system in Arizona is considered as a test bed. Many shunt capacitors already exist in the Arizona transmission system and more are planned to be added. Addition of these shunt capacitors may create resonance conditions in response to harmonic voltages and currents. Such resonance, if it occurs, may create problematic issues in the system. It is main objective of this thesis to identify potential problematic effects that could occur after placing new shunt capacitors at selected buses in the Arizona network. Part of the objective is to create a systematic plan for avoidance of resonance issues. For this study, a method of capacitance scan is proposed. The bus admittance matrix is used as a model of the networked transmission system. The calculations on the admittance matrix were done using Matlab. The test bed is the actual transmission system in Arizona; however, for proprietary reasons, bus names are masked in the thesis copy intended for the public domain. The admittance matrix was obtained from data using the PowerWorld Simulator after equivalencing the 2016 summer peak load (planning case). The full Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) system data were used. The equivalencing procedure retains only the Arizona portion of the WECC. The capacitor scan results for single capacitor placement and multiple capacitor placement cases are presented. Problematic cases are identified in the form of 'forbidden response. The harmonic voltage impact of known sources of harmonics, mainly large scale HVDC sources, is also presented. Specific key results for the study indicated include: (1) The forbidden zones obtained as per the IEEE 519 standard indicates the bus 10 to be the most problematic bus. (2) The forbidden zones also indicate that switching values for the switched shunt capacitor (if used) at bus 3 should be

  11. Optimal Design of Wireless Power Transmission Links for Millimeter-Sized Biomedical Implants.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Dukju; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a design methodology for RF power transmission to millimeter-sized implantable biomedical devices. The optimal operating frequency and coil geometries are found such that power transfer efficiency (PTE) and tissue-loss-constrained allowed power are maximized. We define receiver power reception susceptibility (Rx-PRS) and transmitter figure of merit (Tx-FoM) such that their multiplication yields the PTE. Rx-PRS and Tx-FoM define the roles of the Rx and Tx in the PTE, respectively. First, the optimal Rx coil geometry and operating frequency range are identified such that the Rx-PRS is maximized for given implant constraints. Since the Rx is very small and has lesser design freedom than the Tx, the overall operating frequency is restricted mainly by the Rx. Rx-PRS identifies such operating frequency constraint imposed by the Rx. Secondly, the Tx coil geometry is selected such that the Tx-FoM is maximized under the frequency constraint at which the Rx-PRS was saturated. This aligns the target frequency range of Tx optimization with the frequency range at which Rx performance is high, resulting in the maximum PTE. Finally, we have found that even in the frequency range at which the PTE is relatively flat, the tissue loss per unit delivered power can be significantly different for each frequency. The Rx-PRS can predict the frequency range at which the tissue loss per unit delivered power is minimized while PTE is maintained high. In this way, frequency adjustment for the PTE and tissue-loss-constrained allowed power is realized by characterizing the Rx-PRS. The design procedure was verified through full-wave electromagnetic field simulations and measurements using de-embedding method. A prototype implant, 1 mm in diameter, achieved PTE of 0.56% ( -22.5 dB) and power delivered to load (PDL) was 224 μW at 200 MHz with 12 mm Tx-to-Rx separation in the tissue environment.

  12. Joint optimization of sensing threshold and transmission power in wideband cognitive radio with energy detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Bi, Guoan; Jia, Min; Guan, Yong Liang; Zhong, Weizhi; Lin, Rui

    2013-07-01

    this paper, we consider a wideband cognitive radio system that operates over multiple idle subchannels. A joint optimization of sensing threshold and transmission power is proposed, which maximizes the total throughput subject to the constraints on the total interference, the total power, and the probabilities of false alarm and detection of each subchannel. An alternative joint optimization is proposed, which minimizes the total interference under the constraint of the total throughput. The bilevel optimization method is used to solve the proposed optimization problems with a minimized iteration complexity. The mixed-variable optimization problem is divided into two single-variable convex optimization subproblems: the upper level for threshold optimization and the lower level for power optimization. Weighed cooperative sensing is proposed to maximize the detection probability by choosing the optimal weighed factors. The simulations show that the proposed joint optimization algorithm can achieve desirable improvement on the throughput of cognitive radio at the same interference level to primary user, or vice versa within the limits on the probabilities of false alarm and miss detection, and the weighed cooperative sensing can considerably improve sensing performance compared with the unweighed cooperative sensing and single-user sensing.

  13. Vibration transmission through periodic structures using a mobility power flow approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuschieri, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    The transmission of vibrational power (time averaged) through multiple coupled (periodic) structures is examined. The analysis is performed in the frequency domain and the coupling between the sub-elements of the periodic structure is expressed in terms of structural mobility functions for the junction points and between the junction points of the sub-elements. Equal length spans between stiffeners or supports of the periodic structure are considered. Through the use of the mobility power flow approach, the influence of sub-element and junction parameters, including damping at the joints, can be investigated. The results from the analysis can be in the form of either structural intensity or alternatively structural power content for each of the sub-elements. The examples discussed are for a thin, perfectly periodic beam with a finite number of spans with different types of stiffeners and/or supports between the spans. The excitation of the structure is by a point load located midway along the first span.

  14. The Circuit Theory Behind Coupled-Mode Magnetic Resonance-Based Wireless Power Transmission.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2012-09-01

    Inductive coupling is a viable scheme to wirelessly energize devices with a wide range of power requirements from nanowatts in radio frequency identification tags to milliwatts in implantable microelectronic devices, watts in mobile electronics, and kilowatts in electric cars. Several analytical methods for estimating the power transfer efficiency (PTE) across inductive power transmission links have been devised based on circuit and electromagnetic theories by electrical engineers and physicists, respectively. However, a direct side-by-side comparison between these two approaches is lacking. Here, we have analyzed the PTE of a pair of capacitively loaded inductors via reflected load theory (RLT) and compared it with a method known as coupled-mode theory (CMT). We have also derived PTE equations for multiple capacitively loaded inductors based on both RLT and CMT. We have proven that both methods basically result in the same set of equations in steady state and either method can be applied for short- or midrange coupling conditions. We have verified the accuracy of both methods through measurements, and also analyzed the transient response of a pair of capacitively loaded inductors. Our analysis shows that the CMT is only applicable to coils with high quality factor (Q) and large coupling distance. It simplifies the analysis by reducing the order of the differential equations by half compared to the circuit theory.

  15. Intelligent Video Surveillance for Detecting Snow and Ice Coverage on Electrical Insulators of Power Transmission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Irene Y. H.; Sistiaga, Unai; Berlijn, Sonja M.; Fahlström, Anders

    One of the problems for electrical power delivery through power lines in northern countries is when snow or ice accumulates on electrical insulators. This could lead to snow or ice-induced outages and voltage collapse, causing huge economic loss. This paper proposes a novel real-time intelligent surveillance and image analysis system for detecting and estimating the snow and ice coverage on electric insulators using images captured from an outdoor 420 kV power transmission line. In addition, the swing angle of insulators is estimated, as large swing angles due to wind cause short circuits. Hybrid techniques by combining histogram, edges, boundaries and cross-correlations are employed for handling a broad range of scenarios caused by changing weather and lighting conditions. Experiments have been conducted on the captured images over several month periods. Results have shown that the proposed system has provided valuable estimation results. For image pixels related to snows on the insulator, the current system has yielded an average detection rate of 93% for good quality images, and 67.6% for images containing large amount of poor quality ones, and the corresponding average false alarm ranges from 9% to 18.1%. Further improvement may be achieved by using video-based analysis and improved camera settings.

  16. Novel high-frequency, high-power, pulsed oscillator based on a transmission line transformer.

    PubMed

    Burdt, R; Curry, R D

    2007-07-01

    Recent analysis and experiments have demonstrated the potential for transmission line transformers to be employed as compact, high-frequency, high-power, pulsed oscillators with variable rise time, high output impedance, and high operating efficiency. A prototype system was fabricated and tested that generates a damped sinusoidal wave form at a center frequency of 4 MHz into a 200 Omega load, with operating efficiency above 90% and peak power on the order of 10 MW. The initial rise time of the pulse is variable and two experiments were conducted to demonstrate initial rise times of 12 and 3 ns, corresponding to a spectral content from 4-30 and from 4-100 MHz, respectively. A SPICE model has been developed to accurately predict the circuit behavior and scaling laws have been identified to allow for circuit design at higher frequencies and higher peak power. The applications, circuit analysis, test stand, experimental results, circuit modeling, and design of future systems are all discussed.

  17. A monolithic integrated low-voltage deep brain stimulator with wireless power and data transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhang; Ye, Tan; Jianmin, Zeng; Xu, Han; Xin, Cheng; Guangjun, Xie

    2016-09-01

    A monolithic integrated low-voltage deep brain stimulator with wireless power and data transmission is presented. Data and power are transmitted to the stimulator by mutual inductance coupling, while the in-vitro controller encodes the stimulation parameters. The stimulator integrates the digital control module and can generate the bipolar current with equal amplitude in four channels. In order to reduce power consumption, a novel controlled threshold voltage cancellation rectifier is proposed in this paper to provide the supply voltage of the stimulator. The monolithic stimulator was fabricated in a SMIC 0.18 μm 1-poly 6-metal mixed-signal CMOS process, occupying 0.23 mm2, and consumes 180 μW on average. Compared with previously published stimulators, this design has advantages of large stimulated current (0-0.8 mA) with the double low-voltage supply (1.8 and 3.3 V), and high-level integration. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61404043, 61401137), the Key Laboratory of Infrared Imaging Materials and Detectors, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Nos. IIMDKFJJ-13-06, IIMDKFJJ-14-03), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 2015HGZX0026).

  18. A novel wireless power and data transmission AC to DC converter for an implantable device.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jhao-Yan; Tang, Kea-Tiong

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a novel AC to DC converter implemented by standard CMOS technology, applied for wireless power transmission. This circuit combines the functions of the rectifier and DC to DC converter, rather than using the rectifier to convert AC to DC and then supplying the required voltage with regulator as in the transitional method. This modification can reduce the power consumption and the area of the circuit. This circuit also transfers the loading condition back to the external circuit by the load shift keying(LSK), determining if the input power is not enough or excessive, which increases the efficiency of the total system. The AC to DC converter is fabricated with the TSMC 90nm CMOS process. The circuit area is 0.071mm(2). The circuit can produce a 1V DC voltage with maximum output current of 10mA from an AC input ranging from 1.5V to 2V, at 1MHz to 10MHz.

  19. Vegetation Height Estimation Near Power transmission poles Via satellite Stereo Images using 3D Depth Estimation Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qayyum, A.; Malik, A. S.; Saad, M. N. M.; Iqbal, M.; Abdullah, F.; Rahseed, W.; Abdullah, T. A. R. B. T.; Ramli, A. Q.

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring vegetation encroachment under overhead high voltage power line is a challenging problem for electricity distribution companies. Absence of proper monitoring could result in damage to the power lines and consequently cause blackout. This will affect electric power supply to industries, businesses, and daily life. Therefore, to avoid the blackouts, it is mandatory to monitor the vegetation/trees near power transmission lines. Unfortunately, the existing approaches are more time consuming and expensive. In this paper, we have proposed a novel approach to monitor the vegetation/trees near or under the power transmission poles using satellite stereo images, which were acquired using Pleiades satellites. The 3D depth of vegetation has been measured near power transmission lines using stereo algorithms. The area of interest scanned by Pleiades satellite sensors is 100 square kilometer. Our dataset covers power transmission poles in a state called Sabah in East Malaysia, encompassing a total of 52 poles in the area of 100 km. We have compared the results of Pleiades satellite stereo images using dynamic programming and Graph-Cut algorithms, consequently comparing satellites' imaging sensors and Depth-estimation Algorithms. Our results show that Graph-Cut Algorithm performs better than dynamic programming (DP) in terms of accuracy and speed.

  20. [Study on no-load running-in wear of power-shift steering transmission based on oil spectrum analysis].

    PubMed

    Li, He-yan; Wang, Li-yong; Ma, Biao; Zheng, Chang-song; Chen, Man

    2009-04-01

    The running-in process wear rule of power-shift steering transmission can be studied conveniently and timely by using spectral analysis of oil. The configuration characteristic and the running-in mechanism of power-shift steering transmission were introduced firstly in the present paper. According to the discussion of running-in wear factors such as load, rotation speed, time, oil temperature, shifting number and original concentration of running-in oil, the wear calculation mode was established. The no-load running-in experiments of two power-shift steering transmissions were done, with different rotation speed and time. Based on the spectrum analysis of experiment result, the function relation between running-in wear and the oil original concentration and running-in speed was obtained, so the no-load running-in process wear calculation mode of power-shift steering transmission was confirmed. Through the experiment of other two power-shift steering transmissions, it was validated that the Cu element concentration can be calculated accurately by the wear calculation mode, which included the parameters such as oil original concentration, running-in speed, running-in time and gear shift alternate time. So the reference to evaluate the running-in quality and to constitute running-in regulations was gained.

  1. Mathematical analysis of a power-law form time dependent vector-borne disease transmission model.

    PubMed

    Sardar, Tridip; Saha, Bapi

    2017-03-06

    In the last few years, fractional order derivatives have been used in epidemiology to capture the memory phenomena. However, these models do not have proper biological justification in most of the cases and lack a derivation from a stochastic process. In this present manuscript, using theory of a stochastic process, we derived a general time dependent single strain vector borne disease model. It is shown that under certain choice of time dependent transmission kernel this model can be converted into the classical integer order system. When the time-dependent transmission follows a power law form, we showed that the model converted into a vector borne disease model with fractional order transmission. We explicitly derived the disease-free and endemic equilibrium of this new fractional order vector borne disease model. Using mathematical properties of nonlinear Volterra type integral equation it is shown that the unique disease-free state is globally asymptotically stable under certain condition. We define a threshold quantity which is epidemiologically known as the basic reproduction number (R0). It is shown that if R0 > 1, then the derived fractional order model has a unique endemic equilibrium. We analytically derived the condition for the local stability of the endemic equilibrium. To test the model capability to capture real epidemic, we calibrated our newly proposed model to weekly dengue incidence data of San Juan, Puerto Rico for the time period 30th April 1994 to 23rd April 1995. We estimated several parameters, including the order of the fractional derivative of the proposed model using aforesaid data. It is shown that our proposed fractional order model can nicely capture real epidemic.

  2. Overhead electric power transmission line jumpering system for bundles of five or more subconductors

    DOEpatents

    Winkelman, Paul F.

    1982-01-01

    Jumpering of electric power transmission lines at a dead end tower. Two transmission line conductor bundles each contain five or more spaced apart subconductors (5) arranged in the shape of a cylinder having a circular cross section. The ends of each bundle of subconductors are attached with insulators to a dead end tower (1). Jumpering allows the electric current to flow between the two bundles of subconductors using jumper buses, internal jumper conductors, and external jumper conductors. One or more current collecting jumper buses (37) are located inside each bundle of subconductors with each jumper bus being attached to the end of a subconductor. Small-diameter internal jumper conductors (33) are located in the inherently electrically shielded area inside each bundle of subconductors with each subconductor (except ones having an attached jumper bus) having one internal jumper conductor connected between that subconductor's end and a jumper bus. Large-diameter external jumper conductors (9) are located outside each bundle of subconductors with one or more external jumper conductors being connected between the jumper buses in one bundle of subconductors and the jumper buses in the other bundle.

  3. Development of Face Gear Technology for Industrial and Aerospace Power Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, Gregory F.; Filler, Robert R.; Tan, Jie

    2002-01-01

    Tests of a 250 horsepower proof-of-concept (POC) split torque face gear transmission were completed by The Boeing Company in Mesa, Arizona, while working under a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Technology Reinvestment Program (TRP) This report provides a summary of these cooperative tests, which were jointly funded by Boeing and DARPA Design, manufacture and testing of the scaled-power TRP split torque gearbox followed preliminary evaluations of the concept performed early in the program The testing demonstrated the theory of operation for the concentric, tapered face gear assembly The results showed that the use of floating pinions in a concentric face gear arrangement produces a nearly even torque split The POC split torque tests determined that, with some improvements, face gears can be applied effectively in a split torque configuration which yields significant weight, cost and reliability improvements over conventional designs.

  4. Terahertz laminated-structure polarizer with high extinction ratio and transmission power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishi, Yudai; Nagai, Masaya; Young, John C.; Takano, Keisuke; Hangyo, Masanori; Suzuki, Takehito

    2015-03-01

    A terahertz polarizer consisting of a laminated metal-slit array on a polymer film is presented. Here, the iterative design is efficiently performed with a mode-matching method; the proposed polarizer’s characteristics are shown to be superior to those of conventional polarizers. To verify the proposed design, a copper metal-slit array was fabricated on a cyclo-olefin polymer film by sputtering and punching. Measurements confirm a high extinction ratio, below -50 dB from 0.28 to 1.09 THz and below -40 dB from 0.2 to 1.98 THz, with a TM-mode transmission power that averages 76% from 0.2 to 1.95 THz.

  5. [Study on fault diagnosis of power-shift steering transmission based on spectrometric analysis and SVM].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Feng; Ma, Biao; Zhang, Jin-Le; Chen, Man; Fan, Yu-Heng; Li, Wen-Chang

    2010-06-01

    Spectrometric oil analysis is an important method to study the running state of Power-Shift Steering Transmission (PSST). A method of multiple out least squares support vector regression was developed using spectrometric oil analysis data and SVM (Support Vector Machine). The spectrometric oil analysis data were studied using multiple out least squares support vector regression. It has been proved that the regression data are good in approximation effect for No. 1 PSST. And the predictive values for No. 2 PSST are highly veracious with the test data. The fault information was found and the fault position was determined through compar4tive analysis. This method has been proved to have practice significance for finding fault-hidden dangers and judging fault positions.

  6. Low power wireless ultra-wide band transmission of bio-signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrielli, A.; Bastianini, S.; Crepaldi, M.; D'Amen, G.; Demarchi, D.; Lax, I.; Motto Ros, P.; Zoccoli, G.

    2014-12-01

    The paper shows the design of microelectronic circuits composed of an oscillator, a modulator, a transmitter and an antenna. Prototype chips were recently fabricated and tested exploiting commercial 130 nm [1] and 180 nm [2,3] CMOS technologies. Detected signals have been measured using a commercial Ultra-Wide-Band amplifier connected to custom designed filters and a digital demodulator. Preliminary results are summarized along with some waveforms of the transmitted and received signals. A digital Synchronized On-Off Keying (S-OOK) was implemented to exploit the Ultra-Wide-Band transmission. In this way, each transmitted bit is coded with a S-OOK protocol. Wireless transmission capabilities of the system have been also evaluated within a one-meter distance. The chips fit a large variety of applications like spot radiation monitoring, punctual measurements of radiation in High-Energy Physics experiments or, since they have been characterized as low-power components, readout of the system for medical applications. These latter fields are those that we are investigating for in-vivo measurements on small animals. In more detail, if we refer to electromyographic, electrocardiographic or electroencephalographic signals [4], we need to handle very small signal amplitudes, of the order of tens of μV, overwhelmed with a much higher (white) noise. In these cases the front-end of the readout circuit requires a so-called amplifier for instrumentation, here not described, to interface with metal-plate sensor's outputs such those used for electrocardiograms, to normal range of amplitude signals of the order of 1 V. We are also studying these circuits, to be also designed on a microelectronic device, without adding further details since these components are technically well known in the literature [5,6]. The main aim of this research is hence integrating all the described electronic components into a very small, low-powered, microelectronic circuit fully compatible with in

  7. Applications of Microwave Antenna Array for Wireless Power Transmission and Radar Imaging in Complex Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ce

    The focus of my research interests lies in the application of microwave antenna array system and array signal processing techniques to problems in wireless power transmission and radar imaging. The two research areas share the same underlying mathematical principle of time reversality of electromagnetic wave propagation. Based on this principle, the array antenna system and the associated signal processing algorithm are further improved to adapt to different scenarios. In my dissertation, the rest part presents an optimal algorithm for wireless power transmission with beamforming array. The optimal weight distribution on antenna array elements is found based on time reversal eigenmode technique. Our method is adaptive to the medium of the channel and can be applied to arbitrarily positioned antenna without degradation of efficiency. This novel method is analytically studied and verified with numerical electromagnetic simulations. The second part presents a new problem called "Hard-Wall Radar Imaging" (HWRI) has been proposed when the electromagnetic waves cannot penetrate the shielding walls (such as metallic walls). The research methodology involves algorithm development combined with experimental results to gain more insights into the real microwave imaging system. First, we implemented the imaging system with the conventional time reversal DORT (Decomposition of Time-Reversal Operator) imaging algorithm and adapted it into a new signal processing technique (multiplicative array technique) to obtain the image in the proposed scenario. Second, after having identified the drawbacks of the rest imaging system, the imaging system is improved to distributed MIMO radar configuration. The new imaging algorithm is also developed based on the techniques of Direction-of-Arrival(DoA) estimation and adaptive nulling. From this algorithm, the experimental results show that the new imaging system can localize two targets correctly. To resolve the problem of spurious clutter

  8. Soft x-ray blazed transmission grating spectrometer with high resolving power and extended bandpass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilmann, Ralf K.; Bruccoleri, Alexander Robert; Schattenburg, Mark

    2016-04-01

    A number of high priority questions in astrophysics can be addressed by a state-of-the-art soft x-ray grating spectrometer, such as the role of Active Galactic Nuclei in galaxy and star formation, characterization of the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium and the “missing baryon” problem, characterization of halos around the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, as well as stellar coronae and surrounding winds and disks. An Explorer-scale, large-area (> 1,000 cm2), high resolving power (R = λ/Δλ > 3,000) soft x-ray grating spectrometer is highly feasible based on Critical-Angle Transmission (CAT) grating technology. Still significantly higher performance can be provided by a CAT grating spectrometer on an X-ray-Surveyor-type mission. CAT gratings combine the advantages of blazed reflection gratings (high efficiency, use of higher diffraction orders) with those of conventional transmission gratings (low mass, relaxed alignment tolerances and temperature requirements, transparent at higher energies) with minimal mission resource requirements. They are high-efficiency blazed transmission gratings that consist of freestanding, ultra-high aspect-ratio grating bars fabricated from silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers using advanced anisotropic dry and wet etch techniques. Blazing is achieved through grazing-incidence reflection off the smooth grating bar sidewalls. The reflection properties of silicon are well matched to the soft x-ray band. Nevertheless, CAT gratings with sidewalls made of higher atomic number elements allow extension of the CAT grating principle to higher energies and larger dispersion angles. We show x-ray data from metal-coated CAT gratings and demonstrate efficient blazing to higher energies and larger blaze angles than possible with silicon alone. We also report on measurements of the resolving power of a breadboard CAT grating spectrometer consisting of a Wolter-I slumped-glass focusing mirror pair from Goddard Space Flight Center and CAT gratings, to be

  9. A transmission power optimization with a minimum node degree for energy-efficient wireless sensor networks with full-reachability.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Ting; Horng, Mong-Fong; Lo, Chih-Cheng; Chu, Shu-Chuan; Pan, Jeng-Shyang; Liao, Bin-Yih

    2013-03-20

    Transmission power optimization is the most significant factor in prolonging the lifetime and maintaining the connection quality of wireless sensor networks. Un-optimized transmission power of nodes either interferes with or fails to link neighboring nodes. The optimization of transmission power depends on the expected node degree and node distribution. In this study, an optimization approach to an energy-efficient and full reachability wireless sensor network is proposed. In the proposed approach, an adjustment model of the transmission range with a minimum node degree is proposed that focuses on topology control and optimization of the transmission range according to node degree and node density. The model adjusts the tradeoff between energy efficiency and full reachability to obtain an ideal transmission range. In addition, connectivity and reachability are used as performance indices to evaluate the connection quality of a network. The two indices are compared to demonstrate the practicability of framework through simulation results. Furthermore, the relationship between the indices under the conditions of various node degrees is analyzed to generalize the characteristics of node densities. The research results on the reliability and feasibility of the proposed approach will benefit the future real deployments.

  10. Treatment of biodiversity issues in impact assessment of electricity power transmission lines: A Finnish case review

    SciTech Connect

    Soederman, Tarja . E-mail: tarja.soderman@ymparisto.fi

    2006-05-15

    The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process concerning the route of a 400 kV power transmission line between Loviisa and Hikiae in southern Finland was reviewed in order to assess how biodiversity issues are treated and to provide suggestions on how to improve the effectiveness of treatment of biodiversity issues in impact assessment of linear development projects. The review covered the whole assessment process, including interviews of stakeholders, participation in the interest group meetings and review of all documents from the project. The baseline studies and assessment of direct impacts in the case study were detailed but the documentation, both the assessment programme and the assessment report, only gave a partial picture of the assessment process. All existing information, baseline survey and assessment methods should be addressed in the scoping phase in order to promote interaction between all stakeholders. In contrast to the assessment of the direct effects, which first emphasized impacts on the nationally important and protected flying squirrel but later expanded to deal with the assessment of impacts on ecologically important sites, the indirect and cumulative impacts of the power line were poorly addressed. The public was given the opportunity to become involved in the EIA process. However, they were more concerned with impacts on their properties and less so on biodiversity and species protection issues. This suggests that the public needs to become more informed about locally important features of biodiversity.

  11. Power and signal transmission protocol for a contactless subdural spinal cord stimulation device.

    PubMed

    Song, Suk-Heung; Gillies, George T; Howard, Matthew A; Kuhnley, Brian; Utz, Marcel

    2013-02-01

    Wireless signal transmission will play a critical role in developing reliable subdural spinal cord stimulation systems. We have developed an approach to inductively coupling signals across the epidural spacing between the pial and epidural surfaces. The major design constraints include tolerance of coil misalignments from spinal cord geometries in addition to reasonable power efficiencies within the expected range of movement. The design of the primary side as a driving circuit is simplified by several turns of commercial magnetic wire, whereas the implanted secondary side is implemented in a micro-planar spiral coil tuned to a resonant frequency of 1.6 MHz. We present the results of wireless inductive coupling experiments that demonstrate the ability to transmit and receive a frequency modulated 1.6 MHz carrier signal between primary and secondary coil antennae scaled to 10 mm. Power delivery is in the range of 400 mW at a link efficiency of 32 % for strong coupling (coil separations of 0.5 mm ) and in the range of 70 mW at 4 % efficiency for weak coupling (coil separations of 10 mm).

  12. Investigation of potential driver modules and transmission lines for a high frequency power system on the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brush, H. T.

    1986-01-01

    The objective was to assess the feasibility of using the Series Resonant inverter as the driver module for the high frequency power system on the Space Station. This study evaluates the performance of the Series Resonant driver when it was operated with a dc input voltage and run through a series of tests to determine its start-up performance, response to load changes, load regulation, and efficiency. Also, this study compares the Series Resonant driver to another kind of driver that uses a Power Transistor snubber. An investigation of the various types of transmission lines is initiated. In particular, a simplified approach is utilized to describe the optimal transmission line.

  13. Interface Control Document for the EMPACT Module that Estimates Electric Power Transmission System Response to EMP-Caused Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Werley, Kenneth Alan; Mccown, Andrew William

    2016-06-26

    The EPREP code is designed to evaluate the effects of an Electro-Magnetic Pulse (EMP) on the electric power transmission system. The EPREP code embodies an umbrella framework that allows a user to set up analysis conditions and to examine analysis results. The code links to three major physics/engineering modules. The first module describes the EM wave in space and time. The second module evaluates the damage caused by the wave on specific electric power (EP) transmission system components. The third module evaluates the consequence of the damaged network on its (reduced) ability to provide electric power to meet demand. This third module is the focus of the present paper. The EMPACT code serves as the third module. The EMPACT name denotes EMP effects on Alternating Current Transmission systems. The EMPACT algorithms compute electric power transmission network flow solutions under severely damaged network conditions. Initial solutions are often characterized by unacceptible network conditions including line overloads and bad voltages. The EMPACT code contains algorithms to adjust optimally network parameters to eliminate network problems while minimizing outages. System adjustments include automatically adjusting control equipment (generator V control, variable transformers, and variable shunts), as well as non-automatic control of generator power settings and minimal load shedding. The goal is to evaluate the minimal loss of customer load under equilibrium (steady-state) conditions during peak demand.

  14. Power and transmission rate orders and related documents. Office of Power Marketing Coordination, data compiled January 1, 1980-December 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    1982-08-01

    This publication contains the power and transmission rate orders and related documents issued by the Department of Energy. It covers calendar years 1980 and 1981. The first publication, DOE/CE-007 covering the period from March through December 1979, was published July 1981. This publication is a compilation of all rate orders issued by the Assistant Secretary for Resource Applications and the Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Renewable Energy during calendar years 1980 and 1981 under Delegation Order No. 0204-33. It also includes all final approvals, remands, and disapprovals by the FERC, and a petition to the FERC for reconsideration by a Power Marketing Administration during 1980 and 1981. Also included are two delegation orders along with an amendment and a supplement to one delegation order, a departmental order on financial reporting, and Power and Transmission Rate Adjustment Procedures relating to federal power marketing.

  15. Transmission characteristics of high-power 589-nm laser beam in photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Meguru; Hayano, Yutaka; Saito, Norihito; Akagawa, Kazuyuki; Kato, Mayumi; Saito, Yoshihiko; Takazawa, Akira; Takami, Hideki; Iye, Masanori; Wada, Satoshi; Colley, Stephen A.; Dinkins, Matthew C.; Eldred, Michael; Golota, Taras I.; Guyon, Olivier; Hattori, Masayuki; Oya, Shin; Watanabe, Makoto

    2006-06-01

    We are developing Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics (LGSAO) system for Subaru Telescope at Hawaii, Mauna Kea. We achieved an all-solid-state 589.159 nm laser in sum-frequency generation. Output power at 589.159 nm reached 4W in quasi-continuous-wave operation. To relay the laser beam from laser location to laser launching telescope, we used an optical fiber because the optical fiber relay is more flexible and easier than mirror train. However, nonlinear scattering effect, especially stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), will happen when the inputted laser power increases, i.e., intensity at the fiber core exceed each threshold. In order to raise the threshold levels of each nonlinear scattering, we adopt photonic crystal fiber (PCF). Because the PCF can be made larger core than usual step index fiber (SIF), one can reduce the intensity in the core. We inputted the high power laser into the PCF whose mode field diameter (MFD) is 14 μm and the SIF whose MFD is 5 μm, and measured the transmission characteristics of them. In the case of the SIF, the SRS was happen when we inputted 2 W. On the other hand, the SRS and the SBS were not induced in the PCF even for an input power of 4 W. We also investigated polarization of the laser beam transmitting through the PCF. Because of the fact that the backscattering efficiency of exciting the sodium layer with a narrowband laser is dependent on the polarization state of the incident beam, we tried to control the polarization of the laser beam transmitted the PCF. We constructed the system which can control the polarization of input laser and measure the output polarization. The PCF showed to be able to assume as a double refraction optical device, and we found that the output polarization is controllable by injecting beam with appropriate polarization through the PCF. However, the Laser Guide Star made by the beam passed through the PCF had same brightness as the state of the polarization.

  16. PLANETSYS, a Computer Program for the Steady State and Transient Thermal Analysis of a Planetary Power Transmission System: User's Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadden, G. B.; Kleckner, R. J.; Ragen, M. A.; Dyba, G. J.; Sheynin, L.

    1981-01-01

    The material presented is structured to guide the user in the practical and correct implementation of PLANETSYS which is capable of simulating the thermomechanical performance of a multistage planetary power transmission. In this version of PLANETSYS, the user can select either SKF or NASA models in calculating lubricant film thickness and traction forces.

  17. Aerial radiation surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Jobst, J.

    1980-01-01

    A recent aerial radiation survey of the surroundings of the Vitro mill in Salt Lake City shows that uranium mill tailings have been removed to many locations outside their original boundary. To date, 52 remote sites have been discovered within a 100 square kilometer aerial survey perimeter surrounding the mill; 9 of these were discovered with the recent aerial survey map. Five additional sites, also discovered by aerial survey, contained uranium ore, milling equipment, or radioactive slag. Because of the success of this survey, plans are being made to extend the aerial survey program to other parts of the Salt Lake valley where diversions of Vitro tailings are also known to exist.

  18. High-power microwave transmission systems for electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma heating

    SciTech Connect

    Vernon, R.J.

    1991-08-01

    This progress report is for the sixth year of a grant from the US Department of Energy for the design, development, and fabrication of ECRH transmission and mode conversion systems to transport microwave power from a gyrotron to a magnetically confined plasma. The design and low-power testing of new and improved components for such systems and development of underlying theory is the focus of this project. Devising and improving component testing and diagnostic techniques is also an important part of this effort. The development of possible designs for sections of gyrotrons themselves, such as tapers or Vlasov-type launchers, in support of the Varian gyrotron development program is also considered when appropriate. We also provide support to other groups working on ECR heating of magnetically confined plasmas such as the groups at General Atomics, the University of Texas at Austin, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. During the last year, we designed and had fabricated a two-dimensional Vlasov antenna system for a 110 GHz TE{sub 15,2} mode gyrotron for possible use at General Atomics. The system included the launcher section, a visor, main reflector, and focusing reflector. Programs to generate the tool-path profiles to cut the General Atomics'' Vlasov components on a milling machine were developed. We have also developed state-of-the art theory and programs for three-dimensional whispering-gallery-mode Vlasov antenna systems. A design for a 110 GHz TE{sub 01}-TE{sub 15,2} mode converter system for cold testing WGM Vlasov antenna systems was developed and is currently being fabricated also.

  19. Reliability assessment of an OVH HV power line truss transmission tower subjected to seismic loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, Karol; Jakubowska, Patrycja; Soltysik, Barbara

    2017-03-01

    The study focuses on the reliability of a transmission tower OS24 ON150 + 10, an element of an OVH HV power line, under seismic loading. In order to describe the seismic force, the real-life recording of the horizontal component of the El Centro earthquake was adopted. The amplitude and the period of this excitation are assumed random, their variation is described by Weibull distribution. The possible space state of the phenomenon is given in the form of a structural response surface (RSM methodology), approximated by an ANOVA table with directional sampling (DS) points. Four design limit states are considered: stress limit criterion for a natural load combination, criterion for an accidental combination (one-sided cable snap), vertical and horizontal translation criteria. According to these cases the HLRF reliability index β is used for structural safety assessment. The RSM approach is well suited for the analysis - it is numerically efficient, not excessively time consuming, indicating a high confidence level. Given the problem conditions, the seismic excitation is shown the sufficient trigger to the loss of load-bearing capacity or stability of the tower.

  20. Balancing of a power-transmission shaft with the application of axial torque

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zorzi, E. S.; Flemming, D.

    1980-01-01

    Evaluation of power transmission shafting for high-speed balancing has shown that when axial torque is applied, the imbalance response is altered. An increase in synchronous excitation always occurs if the axial torque level is altered from the value used during balancing; this was the case even when the shaft was balanced with torque applied. The twisting of the long slender shaft produces a change in the imbalance distribution sufficient to disrupt the balanced state. This paper presents a review of the analytic development of a weighted least squares approach to influence coefficient balancing and a review of experimental results. The analytic approach takes advantage of the fact that the past testing has shown that the influence coefficients are not significantly affected by the application of axial torque. The 3.60-m (12-ft) long aluminum shaft, 7.62 cm (3 in.) in diameter was run through the first flexural critical speed at torque levels ranging from zero-torque to 903.8 N-M (8000 lb-in.) in 112.9 N-M (1000 lb-in.) increments. Good comparison was achieved between predicted and experimental results.

  1. Environmental justice: a contrary finding for the case of high-voltage electric power transmission lines.

    PubMed

    Wartenberg, Daniel; Greenberg, Michael R; Harris, Gerald

    2010-05-01

    Environmental justice is the consideration of whether minority and/or lower-income residents in a geographic area are likely to have disproportionately higher exposures to environmental toxins than those living elsewhere. Such situations have been identified for a variety of factors, such as air pollution, hazardous waste, water quality, noise, residential crowding, and housing quality. This study investigates the application of this concept to high-voltage electric power transmission lines (HVTL), which some perceive as a health risk because of the magnetic fields they generate, and also as esthetically unpleasing. We mapped all 345 kV and higher voltage HVTL in New York State and extracted and summarized proximate US Census sociodemographic and housing characteristic data into four categories on the basis of distances from HVTL. Contrary to our expectation, people living within 2000 ft from HVTL were more likely to be exposed to magnetic fields, white, of higher income, more educated and home owners, than those living farther away, particularly in urban areas. Possible explanations for these patterns include the desire for the open space created by the rights-of-way, the preference for new homes/subdivisions that are often located near HVTL, and moving closer to HVTL before EMFs were considered a risk. This study suggests that environmental justice may not apply to all environmental risk factors and that one must be cautious in generalizing. In addition, it shows the utility of geographical information system methodology for summarizing information from extremely large populations, often a challenge in epidemiology.

  2. [Failure Prediction of Power-Shift Steering Transmission Based on Oil Spectral Analysis with Wiener Process].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Ma, Biao; Zheng, Chang-song; Xie, Shang-yu

    2015-09-01

    The most common methodology used in element concentration measurement and analyzing of wear particles is Atomic emission (AE) spectroscopy. As an indirect measuring method, the oil spectral data is introduced to indicate the performance degradation and the residual life prediction in the reliability evaluation of Power shift steering transmission (PSST). Stochastic methods especially the Wiener process is convenient in solving and analyzing the unitary degradation failure indicated by the oil spectral data. The oil data have been sampled in the real operating condition, and the data set has more than 50 samples taken from PSST. The mean values and time-dependent characteristics of three indicating elements are statistically obtained by the linear regression analysis. The model of the degradation and failure prediction has been proposed based on the Wiener process with the positive drift. For modeling and simulation the software R was used. Therefore, the trend curves of diffusion process with their First Hitting Time have been predicted. Through comparison, the time intervals of condition-based maintenance have been extended as 27 Mh (15.9%). This will save the cost of maintenances by eliminate the preventive maintained cycles. The advantage and novelty of the outcomes presented in the article are that the stochastic process might be applied for predicting the degradation failure occurrence and also for optimizing the maintenance intervals and the cost-benefit. As might be expected, the method can be extended to other cases of wear prediction and evaluation in complex mechanical system.

  3. Folsom-Nimbus 115 kV transmission line replacement for Western Area Power Administration: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to replace the existing Folsom-Nimbus 115 kV electrical transmission line along the American River between Folsom Dam and Nimbus Dam in Sacramento County, California. The need to replace the line is attributed to the deterioration of the existing wood pole structures by the acorn woodpecker; thus resulting in increased maintenance and hazard potential. The need for the replacement of the Folsom-Nimbus transmission line has resulted in the evaluation by Western of various routing alternatives. These alternatives were evaluated in terms of design, economic and environmental considerations. 60 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Electric Power High-Voltage Transmission Lines: Design Options, Cost, and Electric and Magnetic Field Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Stoffel, J. B.; Pentecost, E. D.; Roman, R. D.; Traczyk, P. A.

    1994-11-01

    The aim of this report is to provide background information about (1) the electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) of high-voltage transmission lines at typical voltages and line configurations and (2) typical transmission line costs to assist preparers and reviewers of the section on alternatives in environmental documents. This report will give the reviewing individual a better appreciation of the factors affecting EMF strengths near high-voltage transmission lines and the approaches that might be used to reduce EMF impacts on humans and other biological species in the vicinity of high-voltage overhead or underground alternating-current (ac) or direct-current (dc) transmission lines.

  5. Effects of submarine power transmission cables on a glass sponge reef and associated megafaunal community.

    PubMed

    Dunham, A; Pegg, J R; Carolsfeld, W; Davies, S; Murfitt, I; Boutillier, J

    2015-06-01

    We examined the effects of submarine power transmission cable installation and operation on glass sponge reef condition and associated megafauna. Video and still imagery were collected using a Remotely Operated Vehicle twice a year for 4 years following cable installation. The effects of cables on glass sponges were assessed by comparing sponge cover along fixed transects and at marked index sites. Megafauna counts along transects were used to explore the effects on associated community. We found no evidence of cable movement across the sponge reef surface. Live sponge cover was found to be consistently lower along cable transects and at cable index sites compared to controls. Live sponge cover was the lowest (55 ± 1.1% decrease) at cable index sites 1.5 years after installation and recovered to 85 ± 30.6% of the original size over the following 2 years. Our data suggest 100% glass sponge mortality along the direct cable footprint and 15% mortality in the surrounding 1.5 m corridor 3.5 years after cable installation. Growth rate of a new glass sponge was 1 and 3 cm/year in first and second year, respectively, and appeared to be seasonal. We observed a diverse megafaunal community with representatives from 7 phyla and 14 classes. Total megafauna, spot prawn, and other Arthropoda abundances were slightly lower along cable transects although the effect of cable presence was not statistically significant. The following measures could be taken to reduce the amount of damage to glass sponge reefs and associated fauna: routing the cable around reefs, whenever possible, minimizing cable movement across the surface of the reef at installation and routine operation, and assessing potential damage to glass sponges prior to decommissioning.

  6. Generation of Acoustic Gravity Waves by Periodic Radio Transmissions from a High-Power Ionospheric Heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, Vladimir; Chernogor, Leonid; Rozumenko, Victor

    The Radiophysical Research Institute (Nizhny Novgorod, Russia) and Kharkiv V. N. Karazin National University (Kharkiv, Ukraine) have studied opportunities for the effective generation of acoustic gravity waves (AGWs) in 3 - 180-min period range. The excitation of such waves was conducted for the last several years using the SURA heating facility (Nizhny Novgorod). The detection of the HF-induced AGWs was carried out in the Radiophysical Observatory located near Kharkiv City at a distance of about 960 km from the SURA. A coherent radar for vertical sounding, an ionosonde, and magnetometer chains were used in our measurements. The main results are the following (see [1-5]): 1. Infrasound oscillation trains with a period of 6 min are detected during periodic SURA heater turn-on and -off. Similar oscillation trains are detected after long time pumping, during periodic transmissions with a period of 20 s, as well as after pumping turn-off. The train recordings begin 28 - 54 min after the heater turn-on or -off, and the train propagation speeds are about 300 - 570 m/s, the value of which is close to the sound speed at upper atmospheric altitudes. The amplitude of the Doppler shift frequency is of 10 - 40 mHz, which fits to the 0.1 - 0.3% electron density disturbances at ionospheric altitudes. The amplitude of the infrasound oscillations depends on the SURA mode of operation and the state of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere. 2. High-power radio transmissions stimulate the generation (or enhancement) of waves at ionospheric altitudes in the range of internal gravity wave periods. The HF-induced waves propagate with speeds of 360 - 460 m/s and produce changes in electron density with amplitudes of 2 - 3%. The generation of such periodic perturbations is more preferable with periods of 10 - 60 minutes. Their features depend significantly on the heater mode of operation. It should be stressed that perturbation intensity increases when a pumping wave frequency approaches

  7. Fully roll-to-roll gravure printed rectenna on plastic foils for wireless power transmission at 13.56 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyejin; Kang, Hwiwon; Lee, Yonggil; Park, Yongsu; Noh, Jinsoo; Cho, Gyoujin

    2012-08-01

    Wireless power transmission to inexpensive and disposable smart electronic devices is one of the key issues for the realization of a ubiquitous society where sensor networks such as RFID tags, price tags, smart logos, signage and sensors could be fully interconnected and utilized by DC power of less than 0.3 W. This DC power can be provided by inductively coupled AC from a 13.56 MHz power transmitter through a rectenna, consisting of an antenna, a diode and a capacitor, which would be cheap to integrate with inexpensive smart electronic devices. To integrate the rectenna with a minimum cost, a roll-to-roll (R2R) gravure printing process has been considered to print the rectenna on plastic foils. In this paper, R2R gravure printing systems including printing condition and four different nanoparticle based inks will be reported to print the rectenna (antenna, diode and capacitor) on plastic foils at a printing speed of 8 m min-1 and more than 90% device yield for a wireless power transmission of 0.3 W using a standard 13.56 MHz power transmitter.

  8. Fully roll-to-roll gravure printed rectenna on plastic foils for wireless power transmission at 13.56 MHz.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyejin; Kang, Hwiwon; Lee, Yonggil; Park, Yongsu; Noh, Jinsoo; Cho, Gyoujin

    2012-08-31

    Wireless power transmission to inexpensive and disposable smart electronic devices is one of the key issues for the realization of a ubiquitous society where sensor networks such as RFID tags, price tags, smart logos, signage and sensors could be fully interconnected and utilized by DC power of less than 0.3 W. This DC power can be provided by inductively coupled AC from a 13.56 MHz power transmitter through a rectenna, consisting of an antenna, a diode and a capacitor, which would be cheap to integrate with inexpensive smart electronic devices. To integrate the rectenna with a minimum cost, a roll-to-roll (R2R) gravure printing process has been considered to print the rectenna on plastic foils. In this paper, R2R gravure printing systems including printing condition and four different nanoparticle based inks will be reported to print the rectenna (antenna, diode and capacitor) on plastic foils at a printing speed of 8 m min(-1) and more than 90% device yield for a wireless power transmission of 0.3 W using a standard 13.56 MHz power transmitter.

  9. Aerial Image Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, Robert E.

    1987-09-01

    Aerial images produce the best stereoscopic images of the viewed world. Despite the fact that every optic in existence produces an aerial image, few persons are aware of their existence and possible uses. Constant reference to the eye and other optical systems have produced a psychosis of design that only considers "focal planes" in the design and analysis of optical systems. All objects in the field of view of the optical device are imaged by the device as an aerial image. Use of aerial images in vision and visual display systems can provide a true stereoscopic representation of the viewed world. This paper discusses aerial image systems - their applications and designs and presents designs and design concepts that utilize aerial images to obtain superior visual displays, particularly with application to visual simulation.

  10. Analysis of dc harmonics using the three-pulse model for the intermountain power project HVDC transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Dickmander, D.L.; Peterson, K.J.

    1989-04-01

    The harmonic analysis of the dc-side of an HVDC line transmission requires realistic models of the converters, the dc line, and other relevant equipment. These models must include all important paths for harmonic current, and appropriate sources of harmonic voltage generation. The classical converter modeling technique has been demonstrated to be insufficient in field measurements and analysis of the harmonic spectra found on recent HVDC line transmission. For this reason, a new model of the converter bridge which takes into account the major stray capacitances in the converter (the three-pulse model) has been developed, and is described in detail elsewhere. This paper presents comparisons between the classical and three-pulse calculations for the Intermountain Power Project (IPP) HVDC transmission. The calculation results from the three-pulse model agree favorably with the harmonics found in field measurements.

  11. Aerosol Impacts on Cirrus Clouds and High-Power Laser Transmission: A Combined Satellite Observation and Modeling Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-28

    Subject: Final Report for AFOSR Grant FA9550-09-1-0386, “Aerosol Impacts on Cirrus Clouds and High-Power Laser Transmission: A Combined Satellite...of the Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model for cirrus cloud simulation and prediction in conjunction with satellite observations to support the...features, the Fu-Liou-Gu scheme is now an ideal tool for the simulation of radiative transfer associated with cirrus clouds in weather and climate

  12. Real-time simulation of power transmission lines using Marti model with optimal fitting on dual-DSP card

    SciTech Connect

    Dufour, C.; Le-Huy, H.; El Hakimi, A.; Soumagne, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Real-time simulation of a small power network containing a Marti modeled transmission line is made using 2 parallel DSP`s. A new fitting method is used in the modeling of the Marti line which is optimized with regards to the fitting error curve. Results are presented which show the time costs of the Marti line modeling versus constant-parameter line modeling and the time savings by using two parallel DSP`s.

  13. Experiments on localized wireless power transmission using a magneto-inductive wave two-dimensional metamaterial cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son Pham, Thanh; Kumara Ranaweera, Aruna; Dinh Lam, Vu; Lee, Jong-Wook

    2016-04-01

    In this letter, we propose a magneto-inductive wave (MIW) metamaterial cavity for enhanced mid-range wireless power transfer (WPT) applications. Cavity operation is achieved by controlling the propagation of MIWs at lower megahertz frequencies. The cavity is realized by omitting a cell and thereby breaking the periodicity of the closely coupled metamaterial slabs. The cavity in the proposed metamaterial effectively confines the MIWs into a subwavelength region. Consequently, it localizes the magnetic field in the WPT region and provides enhanced power transmission. When the proposed MIW metamaterial cavity is used, the measured efficiency improves significantly from 8.7 to 54.9%.

  14. Design and simulation of printed spiral coil used in wireless power transmission systems for implant medical devices.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Fang, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Printed Spiral Coil (PSC) is a coil antenna for near-field wireless power transmission to the next generation implant medical devices. PSC for implant medical device should be power efficient and low electromagnetic radiation to human tissues. We utilized a physical model of printed spiral coil and applied our algorithm to design PSC operating at 13.56 MHz. Numerical and electromagnetic simulation of power transfer efficiency of PSC in air medium is 77.5% and 71.1%, respectively. The simulation results show that the printed spiral coil which is optimized for air will keep 15.2% power transfer efficiency in human subcutaneous tissues. In addition, the Specific Absorption Ratio (SAR) for this coil antenna in subcutaneous at 13.56 MHz is below 1.6 W/Kg, which suggests this coil is implantable safe based on IEEE C95.1 safety guideline.

  15. Simulation study on the operating characteristics of a hybrid hydraulic passenger car with a power split transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Changwei; Zhu, Yongming; Liang, Chen; Liu, Xiaolong

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, a hybrid hydraulic passenger car (HHPC) coupled with a power split continuously variable transmission (P-CVT) is proposed. This P-CVT is capable of splitting the power from the internal combustion engine into mechanical and hydraulic power flows. By adjusting the ratio of the mechanical power to hydraulic power, the P-CVT enables the transmission ratio to be changed continuously. Meanwhile, the P-CVT system can capture the braking energy and store it in the hydraulic accumulator for the next assistant driving. In order to quantitatively investigate the effect of applying P-CVT on improving the fuel economy and operating performance for the HHPC, a numerical simulation is conducted under typical city driving conditions. The simulation results demonstrate that, the P-CVT permits the engine to be run under a more efficient operating range. The total fuel consumption of the HHPC is reduced by 16.4% under the test conditions, compared with that of the original car.

  16. A Figure-of-Merit for Design and Optimization of Inductive Power Transmission Links for Millimeter-Sized Biomedical Implants.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Kiani, Mehdi

    2016-12-01

    Power transmission efficiency (PTE) has been the key parameter for wireless power transmission (WPT) to biomedical implants with millimeter (mm) dimensions. It has been suggested that for mm-sized implants increasing the power carrier frequency (fp) of the WPT link to hundreds of MHz improves PTE. However, increasing fp significantly reduces the maximum allowable power that can be transmitted under the specific absorption rate (SAR) constraints. This paper presents a new figure-of-merit (FoM) and a design methodology for optimal WPT to mm-sized implants via inductive coupling by striking a balance between PTE and maximum delivered power under SAR constraints (PL,SAR). First, the optimal mm-sized receiver (Rx) coil geometry is identified for a wide range of fp to maximize the Rx coil quality factor (Q). Secondly, the optimal transmitter (Tx) coil geometry and fp are found to maximize the proposed FoM under a low-loss Rx matched-load condition. Finally, proper Tx coil and tissue spacing is identified based on FoM at the optimal fp. We demonstrate that fp in order of tens of MHz still offer higher PL,SAR and FoM, which is key in applications that demand high power such as optogenetics. An inductive link to power a 1 mm (3) implant was designed based on our FoM and verified through full-wave electromagnetic field simulations and measurements using de-embedding method. In our measurements, an Rx coil with 1 mm diameter, located 10 mm inside the tissue, achieved PTE and PL,SAR of 1.4% and 2.2 mW at fp of 20 MHz, respectively.

  17. Microwave power transmission system studies. Volume 4: Sections 9 through 14 with appendices. [ground tests and antenna design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, O. E.; Brown, W. C.; Edwards, A.; Haley, J. T.; Meltz, G.; Howell, J. M.; Nathan, A.

    1975-01-01

    The microwave rectifier technology, approaches to the receiving antenna, topology of rectenna circuits, assembly and construction, ROM cost estimates are discussed. Analyses and cost estimates for the equipment required to transmit the ground power to an external user. Noise and harmonic considerations are presented for both the amplitron and klystron and interference limits are identified and evaluated. The risk assessment discussion is discussed wherein technology risks are rated and ranked with regard to their importance in impacting the microwave power transmission system. The system analyses and evaluation are included of parametric studies of system relationships pertaining to geometry, materials, specific cost, specific weight, efficiency, converter packing, frequency selection, power distribution, power density, power output magnitude, power source, transportation and assembly. Capital costs per kW and energy costs as a function of rate of return, power source and transportation costs as well as build cycle time are presented. The critical technology and ground test program are discussed along with ROM costs and schedule. The orbital test program with associated critical technology and ground based program based on full implementation of the defined objectives is discussed.

  18. a High-Power Microwave Transmission and Launching System for Plasma Heating on the Ornl ATF Experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigelow, Timothy Stuart

    1990-01-01

    A high power microwave transmission and launching system has been developed for Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) of plasmas in the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) fusion confinement experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Microwave power is generated by two 53 GHz, 200 KW cw gyrotron tubes. A waveguide transmission and launching system for each tube has been designed and built with the goal of depositing the maximum amount of power at the center of the plasma. Centralized deposition of the microwave power is possible at high frequencies by use of a launcher with a narrow radiated beamwidth and carefully controlled polarization to couple to electrons at the cyclotron resonant surface. In order for the transmission systems to operate at this high frequency and power level, highly over-moded waveguides have been used to reduce losses and arcing. To produce a narrow, polarized beam, the waveguide system was designed for minimum parasitic mode conversion so that the launcher can operate with nearly a single input mode. Several waveguide components were developed for the waveguide system including: a waveguide mode analyzing directional coupler, a rippled-wall mode converter, improved miter bends, and vacuum pumpout sections. To determine the mode purity of these components and efficiency of the system, laboratory measurement techniques for over-moded waveguide component evaluation were developed. A polarization controlled beam launcher was developed which launches a ~ 12 cm (-20 dB) beamwidth linearly polarized beam. The plane of polarization can be rotated to allow optimum coupling to either extra-ordinary or ordinary plasma waves. The transmission and launching system performed reliably. Modeling of electromagnetic wave propagation in the ATF plasma and measurement of beam absorption and plasma parameters were performed to determine the overall effectiveness of the ECH system. A coupled-mode wave propagation code was written to investigate the effect of magnetic

  19. A 13.56-mbps pulse delay modulation based transceiver for simultaneous near-field data and power transmission.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2015-02-01

    A fully-integrated near-field wireless transceiver has been presented for simultaneous data and power transmission across inductive links, which operates based on pulse delay modulation (PDM) technique. PDM is a low-power carrier-less modulation scheme that offers wide bandwidth along with robustness against strong power carrier interference, which makes it suitable for implantable neuroprosthetic devices, such as retinal implants. To transmit each bit, a pattern of narrow pulses are generated at the same frequency of the power carrier across the transmitter (Tx) data coil with specific time delays to initiate decaying ringing across the tuned receiver (Rx) data coil. This ringing shifts the zero-crossing times of the undesired power carrier interference on the Rx data coil, resulting in a phase shift between the signals across Rx power and data coils, from which the data bit stream can be recovered. A PDM transceiver prototype was fabricated in a 0.35- μm standard CMOS process, occupying 1.6 mm(2). The transceiver achieved a measured 13.56 Mbps data rate with a raw bit error rate (BER) of 4.3×10(-7) at 10 mm distance between figure-8 data coils, despite a signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) of -18.5 dB across the Rx data coil. At the same time, a class-D power amplifier, operating at 13.56 MHz, delivered 42 mW of regulated power across a separate pair of high-Q power coils, aligned with the data coils. The PDM data Tx and Rx power consumptions were 960 pJ/bit and 162 pJ/bit, respectively, at 1.8 V supply voltage.

  20. High power free space optical link for rapid energy and data transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhadwal, Harbans S.; Rastegar, Jahangir; Feng, Dake; Kwok, Philip

    2016-05-01

    Design and experimental data for a high power laser diode based free space point-to-point optical power/data link is presented. In time critical power up applications, such as providing power and guidance information to a munition shell just prior to deployment, energy of the order of 100 J needs to be transferred in under 10 s. Current inductive technology is slow and broadcasts a radio-frequency signal which is undesirable for stealth operation. Rapid energy transfer times require high irradiance levels at the surface of the photovoltaic cells, typically, exceeding 1000X suns. Through efficient thermal design of heat sinks, high optical to electrical power conversion efficiencies of 50%, which are usually attainable at low power levels of 1 W, are achievable at higher power levels.

  1. Safe inductive power transmission to millimeter-sized implantable microelectronics devices.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Kiani, Mehdi

    2015-08-01

    Power transfer efficiency (PTE) and power delivered to the load (PDL) are key inductive link design parameters for powering millimeter-sized implants. While several groups have suggested increasing the power carrier frequency (fp) of inductive links to 100s of MHz to maximize PTE, we have demonstrated that operating at 10s of MHz offers higher allowable PDL under the safety absorption rate (SAR) constraints. We have proposed a closed-form power function that relates maximum power levels that can safely be transferred at different frequencies under the SAR constraints. Three sets of inductive links at different frequencies of 50 MHz, 200 MHz, and 400 MHz have been optimized for powering a 1 mm(3)-sized implant. We have shown in simulations that reducing fp from 200 MHz to 50 MHz along with shrinking the size of the transmitter coil results in ~7.8 times higher PDL under SAR constraints, at the cost of only 52% drop in PTE.

  2. Microwave Power Transmission Using Electromagnetic Coupling of Open-Ring Resonators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    micro - strip line with the same distance between the connectors. Fig.4.4. Transmission through de-ionized water. “0” indicates the case of no sheets...for 2.45GHz signal transmission. The ring diameter is 9.9mm. The signal is fed through a 50Ω micro - strip line. The rings are connected to an SMA...connector through the micro - strip line with 18 μm thick copper. The back side of the board is covered with copper which is used as a ground plane. To

  3. Finite time-Lyapunov based approach for robust adaptive control of wind-induced oscillations in power transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghabraei, Soheil; Moradi, Hamed; Vossoughi, Gholamreza

    2016-06-01

    Large amplitude oscillation of the power transmission lines, which is also known as galloping phenomenon, has hazardous consequences such as short circuiting and failure of transmission line. In this article, to suppress the undesirable vibrations of the transmission lines, first the governing equations of transmission line are derived via mode summation technique. Then, due to the occurrence of large amplitude vibrations, nonlinear quadratic and cubic terms are included in the derived linear equations. To suppress the vibrations, arbitrary number of the piezoelectric actuators is assumed to exert the actuation forces. Afterwards, a Lyapunov based approach is proposed for the robust adaptive suppression of the undesirable vibrations in the finite time. To compensate the supposed parametric uncertainties with unknown bands, proper adaption laws are introduced. To avoid the vibration devastating consequences as quickly as possible, appropriate control laws are designed. The vibration suppression in the finite time with supposed adaption and control laws is mathematically proved via Lyapunov finite time stability theory. Finally, to illustrate and validate the efficiency and robustness of the proposed finite time control scheme, a parametric case study with three piezoelectric actuators is performed. It is observed that the proposed active control strategy is more efficient and robust than the passive control methods.

  4. Fabrication of Very High Efficiency 5.8 GHz Power Amplifiers using AlGaN HFETs on SiC Substrates for Wireless Power Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Gerry

    2001-01-01

    For wireless power transmission using microwave energy, very efficient conversion of the DC power into microwave power is extremely important. Class E amplifiers have the attractive feature that they can, in theory, be 100% efficient at converting, DC power to RF power. Aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) semiconductor material has many advantageous properties, relative to silicon (Si), gallium arsenide (GaAs), and silicon carbide (SiC), such as a much larger bandgap, and the ability to form AlGaN/GaN heterojunctions. The large bandgap of AlGaN also allows for device operation at higher temperatures than could be tolerated by a smaller bandgap transistor. This could reduce the cooling requirements. While it is unlikely that the AlGaN transistors in a 5.8 GHz class E amplifier can operate efficiently at temperatures in excess of 300 or 400 C, AlGaN based amplifiers could operate at temperatures that are higher than a GaAs or Si based amplifier could tolerate. Under this program, AlGaN microwave power HFETs have been fabricated and characterized. Hybrid class E amplifiers were designed and modeled. Unfortunately, within the time frame of this program, good quality HFETs were not available from either the RSC laboratories or commercially, and so the class E amplifiers were not constructed.

  5. Power transmission by laser beam from lunar-synchronous satellites to a lunar rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M. D.; Deyoung, R. J.; Schuster, G. L.; Choi, S. H.; Dagle, J. E.; Coomes, E. P.; Antoniak, Z. I.; Bamberger, J. A.; Bates, J. M.; Chiu, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    This study addresses the possibility of beaming laser power from synchronous lunar orbits (L1 and L2 LaGrange points) to a manned long-range lunar rover. The rover and two versions of a satellite system (one powered by a nuclear reactor; the other by photovoltaics) are described in terms of their masses, geometry, power needs, mission and technological capabilities. Laser beam power is generated by a laser diode array in the satellite and converted to 30 kW of electrical power at the rover. Present technological capabilities, with some extrapolation to near future capabilities, are used in the descriptions. The advantages of the two satellite/rover systems over other such systems and over rovers with on-board power are discussed along with the possibility of enabling other missions.

  6. Power transmission by laser beam from lunar-synchronous satellites to a lunar rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, M. D.; De Young, R. J.; Schuster, G. L.; Choi, S. H.; Dagle, J. E.; Coomes, E. P.; Antoniak, Z. I.; Bamberger, J. A.; Bates, J. M.; Chiu, M. A.

    This study addresses the possibility of beaming laser power from synchronous lunar orbits (L1 and L2 LaGrange points) to a manned long-range lunar rover. The rover and two versions of a satellite system (one powered by a nuclear reactor; the other by photovoltaics) are described in terms of their masses, geometry, power needs, mission and technological capabilities. Laser beam power is generated by a laser diode array in the satellite and converted to 30 kW of electrical power at the rover. Present technological capabilities, with some extrapolation to near future capabilities, are used in the descriptions. The advantages of the two satellite/rover systems over other such systems and over rovers with on-board power are discussed along with the possibility of enabling other missions.

  7. Specific features of waveguide heating due to transmission of high-power microwave signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, I. V.; Gotselyuk, O. B.; Novikov, E. S.; Demin, V. G.

    2017-01-01

    Waveguide heating due to transmission of microwave signals is studied. Mathematical models are developed to evaluate heat liberation, and differential equations of thermal balance are derived with allowance for different working conditions of waveguides. The results prove the necessity of the further study of the effect of heat liberation in waveguides on strength and functional characteristics.

  8. Energy trapping in power transmission through an elastic plate by finite piezoelectric transducers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zengtao; Yang, Jiashi; Hu, Yuantai

    2008-11-01

    We study transmission of electric energy through an elastic plate by acoustic wave propagation and piezoelectric transducers. Our mechanics model consists of an elastic plate with finite piezoelectric patches on both sides of the plate. A theoretical analysis using the equations of elasticity and piezoelectricity is performed. Energy trapping that describes the confinement and localization of the vibration energy is examined.

  9. Analytic power and sample size calculation for the genotypic transmission/disequilibrium test in case-parent trio studies.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Christoph; Taub, Margaret A; Younkin, Samuel G; Beaty, Terri H; Ruczinski, Ingo; Schwender, Holger

    2014-11-01

    Case-parent trio studies considering genotype data from children affected by a disease and their parents are frequently used to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with disease. The most popular statistical tests for this study design are transmission/disequilibrium tests (TDTs). Several types of these tests have been developed, for example, procedures based on alleles or genotypes. Therefore, it is of great interest to examine which of these tests have the highest statistical power to detect SNPs associated with disease. Comparisons of the allelic and the genotypic TDT for individual SNPs have so far been conducted based on simulation studies, since the test statistic of the genotypic TDT was determined numerically. Recently, however, it has been shown that this test statistic can be presented in closed form. In this article, we employ this analytic solution to derive equations for calculating the statistical power and the required sample size for different types of the genotypic TDT. The power of this test is then compared with the one of the corresponding score test assuming the same mode of inheritance as well as the allelic TDT based on a multiplicative mode of inheritance, which is equivalent to the score test assuming an additive mode of inheritance. This is, thus, the first time the power of these tests are compared based on equations, yielding instant results and omitting the need for time-consuming simulation studies. This comparison reveals that these tests have almost the same power, with the score test being slightly more powerful.

  10. Current evaluation of hydraulics to replace the cable force transmission system for body-powered upper-limb prostheses.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, M

    1990-01-01

    Present body-powered upper-limb prostheses use a cable control system employing World War II aircraft technology to transmit force from the body to the prosthesis for operation. The cable and associated hardware are located outside the prosthesis. Because individuals with arm amputations want prostheses that are natural looking with a smooth, soft outer surface, a design and development project was undertaken to replace the cable system with hydraulics located inside the prosthesis. Three different hydraulic transmission systems were built for evaluation, and other possibilities were explored. Results indicate that a hydraulic force transmission system remains an unmet challenge as a practical replacement for the cable system. The author was unable to develop a hydraulic system that meets the necessary dynamic requirements and is acceptable in size and appearance.

  11. Benefit and cost competitiveness analysis of wind and solar power inter-continent transmission under global energy interconnection mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaoxia; Ding, Jian; Liu, Jie; Wei, Tiezhong

    2017-01-01

    Relying on the global energy Interconnection, considering the energy implementation, carrying out clean energy alternative is mainly to use the clean energy to take place of fossil energy. Under the green development scenario, This research gives the global energy interconnection development model, makes the Artic and the Equation as the connection points, gives the Northern hemisphere interconnection model and equator interconnection model unite the whole world energy. This research also identifies the factors effecting the transmission changes cost, including generation cost, transmission cost and landing cost. And take two continents connection as the prediction example, estimate these two continents cost benefit and variable power-jointed scheme cost competitiveness. It showed that under the global energy interconnection mode, the trans-continent mode had better benefit, and the landing cost is good to be used, can solve the pollution and energy restriction.

  12. Energy transmission and power sources for mechanical circulatory support devices to achieve total implantability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jake X; Smith, Joshua R; Bonde, Pramod

    2014-04-01

    Left ventricular assist device therapy has radically improved congestive heart failure survival with smaller rotary pumps. The driveline used to power today's left ventricular assist devices, however, continues to be a source of infection, traumatic damage, and rehospitalization. Previous attempts to wirelessly power left ventricular assist devices using transcutaneous energy transfer systems have been limited by restrictions on separation distance and alignment between the transmit and receive coils. Resonant electrical energy transfer allows power delivery at larger distances without compromising safety and efficiency. This review covers the efforts to wirelessly power mechanical circulatory assist devices and the progress made in enhancing their energy sources.

  13. Simultaneous backward data transmission and power harvesting in an ultrasonic transcutaneous energy transfer link employing acoustically dependent electric impedance modulation.

    PubMed

    Ozeri, Shaul; Shmilovitz, Doron

    2014-09-01

    The advancement and miniaturization of body implanted medical devices pose several challenges to Ultrasonic Transcutaneous Energy Transfer (UTET), such as the need to reduce the size of the piezoelectric resonator, and the need to maximize the UTET link power-transfer efficiency. Accordingly, the same piezoelectric resonator that is used for energy harvesting at the body implant, may also be used for ultrasonic backward data transfer, for instance, through impedance modulation. This paper presents physical considerations and design guidelines of the body implanted transducer of a UTET link with impedance modulation for a backward data transfer. The acoustic matching design procedure was based on the 2×2 transfer matrix chain analysis, in addition to the Krimholtz Leedom and Matthaei KLM transmission line model. The UTET power transfer was carried out at a frequency of 765 kHz, continuous wave (CW) mode. The backward data transfer was attained by inserting a 9% load resistance variation around its matched value (550 Ohm), resulting in a 12% increase in the acoustic reflection coefficient. A backward data transmission rate of 1200 bits/s was experimentally demonstrated using amplitude shift keying, simultaneously with an acoustic power transfer of 20 mW to the implant.

  14. Design and Prototype Development of a Wireless Power Transmission System for a Micro Air Vehicle (MAV).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-01

    assembled, each consisting of microwave rectifier, antenna and a miniature DC motor . It was demonstrated that a 1.8-Watt, 1.3-GHz microwave signal could...power the DC motor at free space distance of 30 inches from transmitting antenna to prototype MAV. Greater operating distances are proposed by using higher transmitting power and antenna gain.

  15. Semiannual report for the period October 1, 1979-March 31, 1980 of work on: (1) superconducting power transmission system development; (2) cable insulation development. Power Transmission Project Technical Note No. 106

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-07

    Progress is reported in a program whose objective is to develop an underground superconducting power transmission system which is economical and technically attractive to the utility industry. The system would be capable of carrying very large blocks of electric power, and would supplant overhead lines in urban and suburban areas and regions of natural beauty. The program consisted initially of work in the laboratory to develop suitable materials, cryostats, and cable concepts. The materials work covers the development and testing of suitable superconductors and dielectric insulation. The laboratory work has now been extended to an outside test facility which represents an intermediate step between the laboratory scale and a full-scale system. The facility will allow cables several hundred feet long to be tested under realistic conditions. In addition, the refrigerator has been designed for optimum service for utility applications.

  16. Directly solar-pumped iodine laser for beamed power transmission in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. H.; Meador, W. E.; Lee, J. H.

    1992-01-01

    A new approach for development of a 50-kW directly solar-pumped iodine laser (DSPIL) system as a space-based power station was made using a confocal unstable resonator (CUR). The CUR-based DSPIL has advantages, such as performance enhancement, reduction of total mass, and simplicity which alleviates the complexities inherent in the previous system, master oscillator/power amplifier (MOPA) configurations. In this design, a single CUR-based DSPIL with 50-kW output power was defined and compared to the MOPA-based DSPIL. Integration of multiple modules for power requirements more than 50-kW is physically and structurally a sound approach as compared to building a single large system. An integrated system of multiple modules can respond to various mission power requirements by combining and aiming the coherent beams at the user's receiver.

  17. A method for assessing occupational exposure to power-frequency magnetic fields for electricity generation and transmission workers.

    PubMed

    Renew, D C; Cook, R F; Ball, M C

    2003-09-01

    A new method for assessing both current and historical occupational exposures to magnetic fields has been developed and used in health studies involving a cohort of electricity generation and transmission workers in England and Wales. The exposure values are derived by calculation from engineering and operational data about the power stations rather than from measurements. They are provided for each of 11 job categories for each year of operation of each power station represented in the cohort. The engineering data are used to determine the average magnetic fields in specified areas of work within the power station and then applied to information about the time spent in these areas by each of the job categories. The operational data are used to adjust the exposures for each year according to the power station output for the year. Earlier methods used measurements or the advice of panels of experts to provide exposure scores for a number of job categories across all power stations and years. Such methods were not able to distinguish exposures from different power facilities or during the different years of their operation. Measurement surveys at 10 power stations of the magnetic fields in the work areas gave confidence that the calculations were realistic. Exposure measurements on 215 workers at three power stations were compared in job groups with the exposures predicted by the method. The Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.86 and the slope and intercept of the line of best fit were 0.87 and 0.07 microT respectively. The method gives a good prediction of measured exposure and is being used for studies of occupational exposure to magnetic fields and leukaemia, and of cardiovascular disease, and a reanalysis of brain cancer.

  18. Coaxial line configuration for microwave power transmission study of YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chorey, C. M.; Miranda, F. A.; Bhasin, K. B.

    1991-01-01

    Microwave transmission measurements through YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) (YBCO) high-transition-temperature superconducting thin films on lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO3) have been performed in a coaxial line at 10 GHz. LaAlO3 substrates were ultrasonically machined into washer-shaped discs, polished, and coated with laser-ablated YBCO. These samples were mounted in a 50-ohm coaxial air line to form a short circuit. The power transmitted through the films as a function of temperature was used to calculate the normal state conductivity and the magnetic penetration depth for the films.

  19. Development of simultaneous measurement system of birefringence, optical rotational power, and transmission spectra for chiral liquid crystal phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhengyu; Ishikawa, Ken

    2016-05-01

    A novel experimental setup used to measure the important optical properties of liquid crystal materials is proposed. The setup allows us to measure electric-field-induced birefringence, optical rotational power, and transmission spectra consecutively. This system can be widely applied to characterize liquid crystal materials including blue phases, ferroelectric liquid crystals, and other chiral phases. We adopted this system to study the phase transition behavior of a V-shape switching ferroelectric liquid crystal mixture and made an important correction of experimental results previously reported by Sandhya et al. [ Europhys. Lett. 90, 56005 (2010)]. This finding proves the advantage of this system compared with the measurement method using individual systems.

  20. Coaxial line configuration for microwave power transmission study of YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chorey, C. M.; Miranda, F. A.; Bhasin, K. B.

    1991-12-01

    Microwave transmission measurements through YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) (YBCO) high-transition-temperature superconducting thin films on lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO3) have been performed in a coaxial line at 10 GHz. LaAlO3 substrates were ultrasonically machined into washer-shaped discs, polished, and coated with laser-ablated YBCO. These samples were mounted in a 50-ohm coaxial air line to form a short circuit. The power transmitted through the films as a function of temperature was used to calculate the normal state conductivity and the magnetic penetration depth for the films.

  1. Issues arising with the application of optical fiber transmission in class 1E systems in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Korsah, K.; Antonescu, C.

    1993-12-31

    The application of fiber optic links and networks in safety-critical systems in the next generation of nuclear power plants, as well as in some digital upgrades in present-day plants, will mean that these links must be highly reliable and able to withstand the effect of environmental stressors present at the installation location. This paper discusses the failure modes and age-related mechanisms of fiber optic transmission components and identifies environmental stressors that could adversely affect their reliability over the long term. Some of the standards that could be used in their qualification for safety-critical applications are also discussed briefly.

  2. Linear Algebraic Modeling of Power Flow in the HMP500-3 Transmission

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    Tracked Vehicle Cross-Drive Transmission – Split-Torque Path Hydrostatic / Mechanical CVT – Six Planetary Gear Sets • Three in “Range Pack...becomes a fixed ratio • Model has Four Planetaries , One HSU – Each Planetary has sun gear , planet carrier, ring gear elements – HSU has A-end, B...losses estimated after solution 14-16 AUG 2012 UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release. 4 Planetary Gear Equations

  3. Innovation on Energy Power Technology (8)First HVDC Transmission System in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampei, Masatoshi

    This paper is an episode concerning the Hokkaido-Honshu HVDC Link that is the first High Voltage DC Current transmission system in Japan. The effort to the commissioning of the first stage of this system is explained. Moreover, it explains the research and development executed to achieve 600MW of this system that is the final stage. In addition, the adoption episode of the frequency control method introduced for Hokkaido-Honshu HVDC Link is explained.

  4. Collection and Analysis of Crowd Data with Aerial, Rooftop, and Ground Views

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-10

    and cost, as well as a brief description of the projects on which they were used. We have purchased aerial platforms, imaging systems, and flight...have purchased aerial platforms, imaging systems, and flight control systems and used them different projects that will be discussed in the following...servos Aerial Platform Long flight-time aerial paltform for imaging applications UavFactory Ltd $15,885.00 80W Onboard Generator upgrade Power

  5. A space-to-space microwave wireless power transmission experiential mission using small satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergsrud, Corey; Straub, Jeremy

    2014-10-01

    A space solar microwave power transfer system (SSMPTS) may represent a paradigm shift to how space missions in Earth orbit are designed. A SSMPTS may allow a smaller receiving surface to be utilized on the receiving craft due to the higher-density power transfer (compared to direct solar flux) from a SSMPTS supplier craft; the receiving system is also more efficient and requires less mass and volume. The SSMPTS approach also increases mission lifetime, as antenna systems do not degrade nearly as quickly as solar panels. The SSMPTS supplier craft (instead) can be replaced as its solar panels degrade, a mechanism for replacing panels can be utilized or the SSMPTS can be maneuvered closer to a subset of consumer spacecraft. SSMPTS can also be utilized to supply power to spacecraft in eclipse and to supply variable amounts of power, based on current mission needs, to power the craft or augment other power systems. A minimal level of orbital demonstrations of SSP technologies have occurred. A mission is planned to demonstrate and characterize the efficacy of space-to-space microwave wireless power transfer. This paper presents an overview of this prospective mission. It then discusses the spacecraft system (comprised of an ESPA/SmallSat-class spacecraft and a 1-U CubeSat), launch options, mission operations and the process of evaluating mission outcomes.

  6. The Himalayan hydro machine and space transmission power systems - An Asian dream of 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Admoddie, M.

    The advantages and disadvantages for the development of hydroelectric power are assessed for the Himalayan Rectangle, an area rising 1500 km north of a baseline between Karachi and Mandalay. This area has the potential for possessing one of the world's greatest power production capabilities. Among the disadvantages cited are the political instability and religious fundamentalism of the area, the bankrupt governments, environmental degradation, and inefficient power and irrigation systems. The advantages include the millions of talented and enterprising people in the region awaiting higher opportunities who are eager to improve their families' living standards and the large untapped hydropower resources. The concepts for hydropower development are discussed and go beyond the technologies of power and water. They include catchment ecodevelopment strategies with massive afforestation plans, setting up plans to strengthen village-level institutions to manage local natural biomass and water assets, the conversion of this regional hydropower potential into a subcontinental power system, and the exporting of power and the development of an interregional and international power grid by 2030, when both oil and local ecosystems would be dangerously depleted.

  7. Development of real-time voltage stability monitoring tool for power system transmission network using Synchrophasor data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulok, Md Kamrul Hasan

    Intelligent and effective monitoring of power system stability in control centers is one of the key issues in smart grid technology to prevent unwanted power system blackouts. Voltage stability analysis is one of the most important requirements for control center operation in smart grid era. With the advent of Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) or Synchrophasor technology, real time monitoring of voltage stability of power system is now a reality. This work utilizes real-time PMU data to derive a voltage stability index to monitor the voltage stability related contingency situation in power systems. The developed tool uses PMU data to calculate voltage stability index that indicates relative closeness of the instability by producing numerical indices. The IEEE 39 bus, New England power system was modeled and run on a Real-time Digital Simulator that stream PMU data over the Internet using IEEE C37.118 protocol. A Phasor data concentrator (PDC) is setup that receives streaming PMU data and stores them in Microsoft SQL database server. Then the developed voltage stability monitoring (VSM) tool retrieves phasor measurement data from SQL server, performs real-time state estimation of the whole network, calculate voltage stability index, perform real-time ranking of most vulnerable transmission lines, and finally shows all the results in a graphical user interface. All these actions are done in near real-time. Control centers can easily monitor the systems condition by using this tool and can take precautionary actions if needed.

  8. A figure-of-merit for design of high performance inductive power transmission links for implantable microelectronic devices.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2012-01-01

    Wireless power transfer through inductive coupling is used in many applications such as high performance implantable microelectronic devices (IMDs). Power transfer efficiency (PTE) and power delivered to the load (PDL) are two conventional inductive link design merits that determine the energy source and driver specifications, heat dissipation, power transmission range, and risk of interference with other devices. Unfortunately designing the inductive link to achieve a high PTE will drastically reduce the PDL and vice versa. Therefore, we are proposing a new figure-of-merit (FoM), which includes both PTE and PDL with proper weights, to help designers of inductive power transfer links to strike a balance between high PTE and PDL at the same time. Three design examples based on the PTE, PDL, and the new FoM have been presented for IMDs to demonstrate the usage and efficacy of the FoM. Our measurement results show that the inductive link optimized based on the FoM can achieved 1.65 times higher PTE than the one optimized for the PDL (72.5% vs. 44%) and at the same time provide 20.8 times larger PDL compared to the one optimized for the PTE (177 mW vs. 8.5 mW for 1 V driving voltage). The inductive links optimized for the PTE and PDL provide 24% higher PTE and PDL compared to the one optimized based on the FoM, respectively.

  9. AERIAL METHODS OF EXPLORATION

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The development of photointerpretation techniques for identifying kimberlite pipes on aerial photographs is discussed. The geographic area considered is the Daldyn region, which lies in the zone of Northern Taiga of Yakutiya.

  10. Ka-Band TWT High-Efficiency Power Combiner for High-Rate Data Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wintucky, Edwin G.; Simons, Rainee; Vaden, Karl R.; Lesny, Gary G.; Glass, Jeffrey L.

    2007-01-01

    A four-port magic-T hybrid waveguide junction serves as the central component of a high-efficiency two-way power combiner circuit for transmitting a high-rate phase-modulated digital signal at a carrier frequency in the Ka-band (between 27 and 40 GHz). This power combiner was developed to satisfy a specific requirement to efficiently combine the coherent outputs of two traveling-wavetube (TWT) amplifiers that are typically characterized by power levels on the order of 100 W or more. In this application, the use of a waveguide-based power combiner (instead of a coaxial-cable- or microstrip-based power combiner, for example) is dictated by requirements for low loss, high power-handling capability, and broadband response. Combiner efficiencies were typically 90 percent or more over both the linear and saturated output power regions of operation of the TWTs . Figure 1 depicts the basic configuration of the magic-T hybrid junction. The coherent outputs of the two TWTs enter through ports 1 and 4. As a result of the orientations of the electromagnetic fields, which also provides a needed high port-to-port isolation, of these two input signals and the interior design of the magic-T junction, the input powers are divided so as to add in phase at one output port (port 2), and to be opposite in phase and hence cancel each other at the opposite coplanar output port (port 3). The net result is that the output power at port 2 is essentially double that of the output of one TWT, minus the power lost in the magic-T hybrid junction. Optimum performance as a high-efficiency power combiner thus requires a balance of both power and phase at the input ports of the magic-T. Replicas of this two-way combiner can be arranged in a binary configuration to obtain a 2n-way (where n is an integer) combiner. For example, Figure 2 illustrates the use of three two-way combiners to combine the outputs of four TWTs.

  11. Air quality impact of the coal-fired power plants in the northern passageway of the China West-East Power Transmission Project.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhigang; Hao, Jiming; Chai, Fahe; Duan, Ning; Chen, Yizhen; Li, Jindan; Chen, Fu; Liu, Simei; Pu, Wenqing

    2005-12-01

    This paper analyzes the air quality impacts of coal-fired power plants in the northern passageway of the West-East Power Transmission Project in China. A three-layer Lagrangian model called ATMOS, was used to simulate the spatial distribution of incremental sulfur dioxide (SO2) and coarse particulate matter (PM10) concentrations under different emission control scenarios. In the year 2005, the emissions from planned power plants mainly affected the air quality of Shanxi, Shaanxi, the common boundary of Inner Mongolia and Shanxi, and the area around the boundary between Inner Mongolia and Ningxia. In these areas, the annually averaged incremental SO2 and PM10 concentrations exceed 2 and 2.5 microg/m3, respectively. The maximum increases of the annually averaged SO2 and PM10 concentrations are 8.3 and 7.2 microg/m3, respectively, which occur around Hancheng city, near the boundary of the Shaanxi and Shanxi provinces. After integrated control measures are considered, the maximum increases of annually averaged SO2 and PM10 concentrations fall to 4.9 and 4 microg/m3, respectively. In the year 2010, the areas affected by planned power plants are mainly North Shaanxi, North Ningxia, and Northwest Shanxi. The maximum increases of the annually averaged SO2 and PM10, concentrations are, respectively, 6.3 and 5.6 microg/m3, occurring in Northwest Shanxi, which decline to 4.4 and 4.1 microg/m3 after the control measures are implemented. The results showed that the proposed power plants mainly affect the air quality of the region where the power plants are built, with little impact on East China where the electricity will be used. The influences of planned power plants on air quality will be decreased greatly by implementing integrated control measures.

  12. Factors affecting frequency and orbit utilization by high power transmission satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhns, P. W.; Miller, E. F.; Malley, T. A.

    1972-01-01

    The factors affecting the sharing of the geostationary orbit by high power (primarily television) satellite systems having the same or adjacent coverage areas and by satellites occupying the same orbit segment are examined and examples using the results of computer computations are given. The factors considered include: required protection ratio, receiver antenna patterns, relative transmitter power, transmitter antenna patterns, satellite grouping, and coverage pattern overlap. The results presented indicated the limits of system characteristics and orbit deployment which can result from mixing systems.

  13. Improvement of Steering Feel of Electric Power Steering System with Variable Gear Transmission System Using Decoupling Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Yoshifumi; Yokoi, Akitoshi; Iwasaki, Makoto; Ukai, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Nobuyuki; Ito, Norihisa; Uryu, Nobuhiko; Mukai, Yasuhiko

    In this paper a new control method of Electric Power Steering (EPS) system with Variable Gear Transmission System (VGTS) is proposed. The control purpose is to achieve the desired steering gear ratio and the desired power assist with good steering feel. The basic idea of controller design is to apply decoupling control to this system and to separately design controllers for two decoupled systems. The angle control system and the torque control system are designed for the decoupled systems. In the angle control system the PID control is used for the desired gear ratio. In the torque control system the PID control is used for the desired assist torque designed so as to achieve good steering feel. In order to evaluate steering feel the Lissajous curve between the steering torque and steering angle is used. The effectiveness of the proposed controller is verified experimentally.

  14. A wireless power transmission system for implantable devices in freely moving rodents.

    PubMed

    Eom, Kyungsik; Jeong, Joonsoo; Lee, Tae Hyung; Kim, Jinhyung; Kim, Junghoon; Lee, Sung Eun; Kim, Sung June

    2014-08-01

    Reliable wireless power delivery for implantable devices in animals is highly desired for safe and effective experimental use. Batteries require frequent replacement; wired connections are inconvenient and unsafe, and short-distance inductive coupling requires the attachment of an exterior transmitter to the animal's body. In this article, we propose a solution by which animals with implantable devices can move freely without attachments. Power is transmitted using coils attached to the animal's cage and is received by a receiver coil implanted in the animal. For a three-dimensionally uniform delivery of power, we designed a columnar dual-transmitter coil configuration. A resonator-based inductive link was adopted for efficient long-range power delivery, and we used a novel biocompatible liquid crystal polymer substrate as the implantable receiver device. Using this wireless power delivery system, we obtain an average power transfer efficiency of 15.2% (minimum efficiency of 10% and a standard deviation of 2.6) within a cage of 15×20×15 cm3.

  15. Microwave power transmission system studies. Volume 2: Introduction, organization, environmental and spaceborne systems analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, O. E.; Brown, W. C.; Edwards, A.; Haley, J. T.; Meltz, G.; Howell, J. M.; Nathan, A.

    1975-01-01

    Introduction, organization, analyses, conclusions, and recommendations for each of the spaceborne subsystems are presented. Environmental effects - propagation analyses are presented with appendices covering radio wave diffraction by random ionospheric irregularities, self-focusing plasma instabilities and ohmic heating of the D-region. Analyses of dc to rf conversion subsystems and system considerations for both the amplitron and the klystron are included with appendices for the klystron covering cavity circuit calculations, output power of the solenoid-focused klystron, thermal control system, and confined flow focusing of a relativistic beam. The photovoltaic power source characteristics are discussed as they apply to interfacing with the power distribution flow paths, magnetic field interaction, dc to rf converter protection, power distribution including estimates for the power budget, weights, and costs. Analyses for the transmitting antenna consider the aperture illumination and size, with associated efficiencies and ground power distributions. Analyses of subarray types and dimensions, attitude error, flatness, phase error, subarray layout, frequency tolerance, attenuation, waveguide dimensional tolerances, mechanical including thermal considerations are included. Implications associated with transportation, assembly and packaging, attitude control and alignment are discussed. The phase front control subsystem, including both ground based pilot signal driven adaptive and ground command approaches with their associated phase errors, are analyzed.

  16. Efficient algorithm for locating and sizing series compensation devices in large power transmission grids: II. Solutions and applications

    DOE PAGES

    Frolov, Vladimir; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Misha

    2014-10-01

    In a companion manuscript, we developed a novel optimization method for placement, sizing, and operation of Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices to relieve transmission network congestion. Specifically, we addressed FACTS that provide Series Compensation (SC) via modification of line inductance. In this manuscript, this heuristic algorithm and its solutions are explored on a number of test cases: a 30-bus test network and a realistically-sized model of the Polish grid (~ 2700 nodes and ~ 3300 lines). The results on the 30-bus network are used to study the general properties of the solutions including non-locality and sparsity. The Polishmore » grid is used as a demonstration of the computational efficiency of the heuristics that leverages sequential linearization of power flow constraints and cutting plane methods that take advantage of the sparse nature of the SC placement solutions. Using these approaches, the algorithm is able to solve an instance of Polish grid in tens of seconds. We explore the utility of the algorithm by analyzing transmission networks congested by (a) uniform load growth, (b) multiple overloaded configurations, and (c) sequential generator retirements.« less

  17. Efficient algorithm for locating and sizing series compensation devices in large power transmission grids: I. Model implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Frolov, Vladimir; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Misha

    2014-10-24

    We explore optimization methods for planning the placement, sizing and operations of Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices installed to relieve transmission grid congestion. We limit our selection of FACTS devices to Series Compensation (SC) devices that can be represented by modification of the inductance of transmission lines. Our master optimization problem minimizes the l1 norm of the inductance modification subject to the usual line thermal-limit constraints. We develop heuristics that reduce this non-convex optimization to a succession of Linear Programs (LP) which are accelerated further using cutting plane methods. The algorithm solves an instance of the MatPower Polish Grid model (3299 lines and 2746 nodes) in 40 seconds per iteration on a standard laptop—a speed up that allows the sizing and placement of a family of SC devices to correct a large set of anticipated congestions. We observe that our algorithm finds feasible solutions that are always sparse, i.e., SC devices are placed on only a few lines. In a companion manuscript, we demonstrate our approach on realistically-sized networks that suffer congestion from a range of causes including generator retirement. In this manuscript, we focus on the development of our approach, investigate its structure on a small test system subject to congestion from uniform load growth, and demonstrate computational efficiency on a realistically-sized network.

  18. Efficient algorithm for locating and sizing series compensation devices in large power transmission grids: II. Solutions and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Frolov, Vladimir; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Misha

    2014-10-01

    In a companion manuscript, we developed a novel optimization method for placement, sizing, and operation of Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices to relieve transmission network congestion. Specifically, we addressed FACTS that provide Series Compensation (SC) via modification of line inductance. In this manuscript, this heuristic algorithm and its solutions are explored on a number of test cases: a 30-bus test network and a realistically-sized model of the Polish grid (~ 2700 nodes and ~ 3300 lines). The results on the 30-bus network are used to study the general properties of the solutions including non-locality and sparsity. The Polish grid is used as a demonstration of the computational efficiency of the heuristics that leverages sequential linearization of power flow constraints and cutting plane methods that take advantage of the sparse nature of the SC placement solutions. Using these approaches, the algorithm is able to solve an instance of Polish grid in tens of seconds. We explore the utility of the algorithm by analyzing transmission networks congested by (a) uniform load growth, (b) multiple overloaded configurations, and (c) sequential generator retirements.

  19. Efficient algorithm for locating and sizing series compensation devices in large power transmission grids: I. Model implementation

    DOE PAGES

    Frolov, Vladimir; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Misha

    2014-10-24

    We explore optimization methods for planning the placement, sizing and operations of Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices installed to relieve transmission grid congestion. We limit our selection of FACTS devices to Series Compensation (SC) devices that can be represented by modification of the inductance of transmission lines. Our master optimization problem minimizes the l1 norm of the inductance modification subject to the usual line thermal-limit constraints. We develop heuristics that reduce this non-convex optimization to a succession of Linear Programs (LP) which are accelerated further using cutting plane methods. The algorithm solves an instance of the MatPower Polishmore » Grid model (3299 lines and 2746 nodes) in 40 seconds per iteration on a standard laptop—a speed up that allows the sizing and placement of a family of SC devices to correct a large set of anticipated congestions. We observe that our algorithm finds feasible solutions that are always sparse, i.e., SC devices are placed on only a few lines. In a companion manuscript, we demonstrate our approach on realistically-sized networks that suffer congestion from a range of causes including generator retirement. In this manuscript, we focus on the development of our approach, investigate its structure on a small test system subject to congestion from uniform load growth, and demonstrate computational efficiency on a realistically-sized network.« less

  20. Fiber optic cables for transmission of high-power laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomes, W. Joe, Jr.; Ott, Melanie N.; Chuska, Richard F.; Switzer, Robert C.; Blair, Diana E.

    2011-09-01

    High power pulsed lasers are commonly deployed in harsh environments, like space flight and military missions, for a variety of systems such as LIDAR, optical communications over long distances, or optical firing of explosives. Fiber coupling of the laser pulse from the laser to where it is needed can often save size, reduce weight, and lead to a more robust and reliable system. Typical fiber optic termination procedures are not sufficient for injection of these high power laser pulses without catastrophic damage to the fiber endface. In the current study, we will review the causes of fiber damage during high power injection and discuss methods used to avoid these issues to permit fiber use with high reliability in these applications. A brief review of the design considerations for high peak power laser pulse injection will be presented to familiarize the audience with all the areas that need to be considered during the design phase. The majority of this paper focuses on the proper fiber polishing methods for high power use with an emphasis on laser polishing of the fibers. Results from recently build fibers will be shown to demonstrate the techniques.