Science.gov

Sample records for aerial pure tones

  1. Localization of aerial pure tones by pinnipeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Marla M.; Schusterman, Ronald J.; Kastak, David; Southall, Brandon L.

    2005-12-01

    In this study, minimum audible angles (MAAs) of aerial pure tones were measured in and compared between a northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Testing was conducted between 0.8 and 16 kHz in the elephant seal and 0.8 and 20 kHz in the harbor seal and sea lion in a hemi-anechoic chamber using a left/right psychophysical procedure. Performance for the same frequencies was also quantified for discrete speaker separation of 5° from the mid-line. For all subjects, MAAs ranged from approximately 3° to 15° and were generally equal to or larger than those previously measured in the same subjects with a broadband signal. Performance at 5° ranged from chance to 97% correct, depending on frequency and subject. Poorest performance in the sea lion and harbor seal occurred at intermediate frequencies, which is consistent with the duplex theory of sound localization. In contrast, the elephant seal's poorest performance occurred at higher frequencies. The elephant seal's result suggests an inferior ability to utilize interaural level differences and is perhaps related to best hearing sensitivity shifted toward lower frequencies in this species relative to other pinnipeds.

  2. Minimum audible angles for aerial pure tones in a northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Marla M.; Schusterman, Ronald J.; Southall, Brandon L.; Kastak, David

    2005-04-01

    Recent work has shown that several pinniped species localize aerial broadband signals as accurately as some terrestrial carnivores. Additionally, both harbor seals and California sea lions can better localize both the lower and higher frequencies of their hearing range compared to performance at intermediate frequencies. These results are congruent with the duplex theory of sound localization which states that low frequencies are localized by interaural time differences while high frequencies are localized by interaural intensity differences. Northern elephant seals are land breeding pinnipeds whose range of best hearing sensitivity is shifted toward lower frequencies compared to other pinnipeds tested thus far. In this study, we tested a female northern elephant seal in a hemi-anechoic chamber at six frequencies ranging between 0.8 and 16 kHz that were presented at levels approximately 25 dB above threshold. A left/right behavioral procedure was used to measure minimum audible angles (MAAs) at 75 percent correct discrimination. MAAs ranged from approximately three to fifteen degrees. Best performance occurred at the lower frequencies while worse performance occurred at the two highest test frequencies. Unlike sea lions and harbor seals, this subject showed a decreased ability to utilize interaural intensity differences above 4 kHz.

  3. Multiple pure tone noise prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Fei; Sharma, Anupam; Paliath, Umesh; Shieh, Chingwei

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a fully numerical method for predicting multiple pure tones, also known as “Buzzsaw” noise. It consists of three steps that account for noise source generation, nonlinear acoustic propagation with hard as well as lined walls inside the nacelle, and linear acoustic propagation outside the engine. Noise generation is modeled by steady, part-annulus computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. A linear superposition algorithm is used to construct full-annulus shock/pressure pattern just upstream of the fan from part-annulus CFD results. Nonlinear wave propagation is carried out inside the duct using a pseudo-two-dimensional solution of Burgers' equation. Scattering from nacelle lip as well as radiation to farfield is performed using the commercial solver ACTRAN/TM. The proposed prediction process is verified by comparing against full-annulus CFD simulations as well as against static engine test data for a typical high bypass ratio aircraft engine with hardwall as well as lined inlets. Comparisons are drawn against nacelle unsteady pressure transducer measurements at two axial locations as well as against near- and far-field microphone array measurements outside the duct. This is the first fully numerical approach (no experimental or empirical input is required) to predict multiple pure tone noise generation, in-duct propagation and far-field radiation. It uses measured blade coordinates to calculate MPT noise.

  4. Underwater loudness for pure tones: Duration effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cudahy, Edward A.; Schwaller, Derek; Fothergill, David; Wolgemuth, Keith

    2003-04-01

    The loudness of underwater pure tones was measured by loudness matching for pure tones from 100 to 16,000 Hz. The standard was a one second tone at 1000 Hz. The signal duration was varied from 20 milliseconds to 5 seconds. Subjects were instructed to match the loudness of the comparison tone at one of the test frequencies to the loudness of the standard tone. Loudness was measured at the threshold, the most comfortable loudness, and the maximum tolerable loudness. The intensity of the standard was varied randomly across the test series. The subjects were bareheaded U.S. Navy divers tested at a depth of 3 meters. All subjects had normal in-air hearing. Tones were presented to the right side of the subject from an array of underwater sound projectors. The sound pressure level was calibrated at the location of the subject's head with the subject absent. Loudness increased and threshold decreased as duration increased. The effect was greatest at the lowest and highest frequencies. The shape of the loudness contours across frequency and duration derived from these measurements are different from in-air measurements. [Research supported by ONR.

  5. Multiple pure tone noise generation and control.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benzakein, M. J.; Kazin, S. B.; Savell, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    The generation of multiple pure tones in supersonic fans is discussed. The theoretical results of Kurasaka are reviewed and compared with experimental data obtained on a 36-in. diameter, 1550 ft/sec, 1.6 pressure ratio fan. Detailed measurements on bow shock locations taken with pressure transducers indicate that blade to blade discrepancies are the source of MPT generation. The paper presents some experimental results on an attempt to reduce the shock strength, and subsequently the MPT's, through blade modifications. Other attempts at reducing the MPT's through wall treatment, high inlet flow Mach number, acoustically treated splitters - are discussed. Experimental data is presented on the validity of these noise reduction methods.

  6. Memory for pure tone sequences without contour.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Christine; Jolicœur, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    We presented pure tones interspersed with white noise sounds to disrupt contour perception in an acoustic short-term memory (ASTM) experiment during which we recorded the electroencephalogram. The memory set consisted of seven stimuli, 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 of which were to-be-remembered tones. We estimated each participant׳s capacity, K, for each set size and measured the amplitude of the SAN (sustained anterior negativity, an ERP related to acoustic short-term memory). We correlated their K slopes with their SAN amplitude slopes as a function of set size, and found a significant link between performance and the SAN: a larger increase in SAN amplitude was linked with a larger number of stimuli maintained in ASTM. The SAN decreased in amplitude in the later portion of the silent retention interval, but the correlation between the SAN and capacity remained strong. These results show the SAN is not an index of contour but rather an index of the maintenance of individual objects in STM. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. PMID:26903419

  7. Newborn's Motor Response to Pure-Tone Stimulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsho, Lynne Werner; Gillenwater, Jay M.

    The effects of pure tone stimulation on ongoing motor activity of infants 1 to 4 days of age were studied using a passive, contactless monitoring device. Stimuli were pure tone bursts of 0.5, 1, and 4 kHz presented free field at an approximate level of 70 dB A. Signal trials consisted of 500 ms tone bursts, with rise/fall time equal to 10 ms, and…

  8. Pure-tone birdsong by resonance filtering of harmonic overtones

    PubMed Central

    Beckers, Gabriël J. L.; Suthers, Roderick A.; Cate, Carel ten

    2003-01-01

    Pure-tone song is a common and widespread phenomenon in birds. The mechanistic origin of this type of phonation has been the subject of long-standing discussion. Currently, there are three hypotheses. (i) A vibrating valve in the avian vocal organ, the syrinx, generates a multifrequency harmonic source sound, which is filtered to a pure tone by a vocal tract filter (“source-filter” model, analogous to human speech production). (ii) Vocal tract resonances couple with a vibrating valve source, suppressing the normal production of harmonic overtones at this source (“soprano” model, analogous to human soprano singing). (iii) Pure-tone sound is produced as such by a sound-generating mechanism that is fundamentally different from a vibrating valve. Here we present direct evidence of a source-filter mechanism in the production of pure-tone birdsong. Using tracheal thermistors and air sac pressure cannulae, we recorded sound signals close to the syringeal sound source during spontaneous, pure-tone vocalizations of two species of turtledove. The results show that pure-tone dove vocalizations originate through filtering of a multifrequency harmonic sound source. PMID:12764226

  9. Infant Auditory Sensitivity to Pure Tones and Frequency-Modulated Tones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leibold, Lori J.; Werner, Lynne A.

    2007-01-01

    It has been suggested that infants respond preferentially to infant-directed speech because their auditory sensitivity to sounds with extensive frequency modulation (FM) is better than their sensitivity to less modulated sounds. In this experiment, auditory thresholds for FM tones and for unmodulated, or pure, tones in a background of noise were…

  10. Frequency ratios and the discrimination of pure tone sequences.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, E G; Trehub, S E

    1994-10-01

    We examined the effect of frequency ratios on the discrimination of patterns of alternating pure tones (ABABA). Listeners heard a repeating pattern presented in transposition (same frequency ratios between successive tones, different absolute frequencies) and were required to indicate when the pattern changed (different frequency ratios and absolute frequencies). Changes from patterns with simple frequency ratios to those with more complex ratios were more readily detected than were changes from complex ratios to simpler ratios. PMID:7984402

  11. Localization of airborne pure tones by pinnipeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Marla M.; Schusterman, Ronald J.; Southall, Brandon L.; Kastak, David

    2001-05-01

    Although all pinnipeds communicate acoustically in air, most previous research on sound localization has been done under water. We have recently shown that several pinniped species localize aerial broadband signals as well as some terrestrial carnivores [Holt et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 113 (2003)]. However, it is unclear which frequencies are particularly important for localization in these animals. In this study, we tested a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) and a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) in a hemianechoic chamber at frequencies ranging between 0.8 and 20 kHz. A left/right procedure was used to measure minimum audible angles (MAAs) corresponding to 75%-correct discrimination. MAAs ranged from approximately 4 to 13 deg in both subjects, with the largest MAAs or poorest acuity measured at the intermediate frequencies tested. These results are consistent with the duplex theory of sound localization in that low-frequency sounds appear to be localized on the basis of interaural time differences, while high-frequency sounds appear to be localized on the basis of interaural intensity differences. Testing with a northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) will provide further insight on the use of binaural cues and head-size effects with respect to localization in pinnipeds.

  12. Computer Pure-Tone and Operator Stress: Report III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dow, Caroline; Covert, Douglas C.

    Pure-tone sound at 15,750 Herz generated by flyback transformers in many computer and video display terminal (VDT) monitors has stress-related productivity effects in some operators, especially women. College-age women in a controlled experiment simulating half a normal work day showed responses within the first half hour of exposure to a tone…

  13. Sequential Grouping of Pure-Tone Percepts Evoked by the Segregation of Components from a Complex Tone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haywood, Nicholas R.; Roberts, Brian

    2011-01-01

    A sudden change applied to a single component can cause its segregation from an ongoing complex tone as a pure-tone-like percept. Three experiments examined whether such pure-tone-like percepts are organized into streams by extending the research of Bregman and Rudnicky (1975). Those authors found that listeners struggled to identify the…

  14. Time-intensity trading functions for selected pure tones.

    PubMed

    Young, L L

    1976-03-01

    A substantial number of investigations have examined the ability of the auditory system to trade time for intensity on a lateralization task. Most of these investigations, however, have employed clicks and noise bursts as stimuli with interaural disparities between onset times. Consequently, there is a lack of quantitative data for time-intensity trades where pure tones that had identical onset times but disparate phase were employed as signals. For this reason we employed sinusoids ranging from 200 to 2000 Hz and determined the extent to which the intensity of one signal must be decreased to achieve a midline image when interaural phase disparities of 0 degrees to 360 degrees were imposed between the binaural signals in 30 degree increments. The time-intensity trading functions yielded in this experiment demonstrate that (1) not unexpectedly, the largest time-intensity trades were accomplished for the lower frequencies; (2) the maximum time-intensity trade for each frequency occurred at interaural phase disparities of 90 degrees and 270 degrees; and (3) when the low-frequency tones were 180 degrees out of phase, essentially the same intraaural intensity relationship was required to achieve midline as was needed for the 0 degree interaural phase condition. PMID:1271802

  15. Attention deficits revealed by passive auditory change detection for pure tones and lexical tones in ADHD children.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-Tao; Hsu, Chun-Hsien; Yeh, Pei-Wen; Lee, Wang-Tso; Liang, Jao-Shwann; Fu, Wen-Mei; Lee, Chia-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Inattention (IA) has been a major problem in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), accounting for their behavioral and cognitive dysfunctions. However, there are at least three processing steps underlying attentional control for auditory change detection, namely pre-attentive change detection, involuntary attention orienting, and attention reorienting for further evaluation. This study aimed to examine whether children with ADHD would show deficits in any of these subcomponents by using mismatch negativity (MMN), P3a, and late discriminative negativity (LDN) as event-related potential (ERP) markers, under the passive auditory oddball paradigm. Two types of stimuli-pure tones and Mandarin lexical tones-were used to examine if the deficits were general across linguistic and non-linguistic domains. Participants included 15 native Mandarin-speaking children with ADHD and 16 age-matched controls (across groups, age ranged between 6 and 15 years). Two passive auditory oddball paradigms (lexical tones and pure tones) were applied. The pure tone oddball paradigm included a standard stimulus (1000 Hz, 80%) and two deviant stimuli (1015 and 1090 Hz, 10% each). The Mandarin lexical tone oddball paradigm's standard stimulus was /yi3/ (80%) and two deviant stimuli were /yi1/ and /yi2/ (10% each). The results showed no MMN difference, but did show attenuated P3a and enhanced LDN to the large deviants for both pure and lexical tone changes in the ADHD group. Correlation analysis showed that children with higher ADHD tendency, as indexed by parents' and teachers' ratings on ADHD symptoms, showed less positive P3a amplitudes when responding to large lexical tone deviants. Thus, children with ADHD showed impaired auditory change detection for both pure tones and lexical tones in both involuntary attention switching, and attention reorienting for further evaluation. These ERP markers may therefore be used for the evaluation of anti-ADHD drugs that aim to

  16. Attention deficits revealed by passive auditory change detection for pure tones and lexical tones in ADHD children

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ming-Tao; Hsu, Chun-Hsien; Yeh, Pei-Wen; Lee, Wang-Tso; Liang, Jao-Shwann; Fu, Wen-Mei; Lee, Chia-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Inattention (IA) has been a major problem in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), accounting for their behavioral and cognitive dysfunctions. However, there are at least three processing steps underlying attentional control for auditory change detection, namely pre-attentive change detection, involuntary attention orienting, and attention reorienting for further evaluation. This study aimed to examine whether children with ADHD would show deficits in any of these subcomponents by using mismatch negativity (MMN), P3a, and late discriminative negativity (LDN) as event-related potential (ERP) markers, under the passive auditory oddball paradigm. Two types of stimuli—pure tones and Mandarin lexical tones—were used to examine if the deficits were general across linguistic and non-linguistic domains. Participants included 15 native Mandarin-speaking children with ADHD and 16 age-matched controls (across groups, age ranged between 6 and 15 years). Two passive auditory oddball paradigms (lexical tones and pure tones) were applied. The pure tone oddball paradigm included a standard stimulus (1000 Hz, 80%) and two deviant stimuli (1015 and 1090 Hz, 10% each). The Mandarin lexical tone oddball paradigm’s standard stimulus was /yi3/ (80%) and two deviant stimuli were /yi1/ and /yi2/ (10% each). The results showed no MMN difference, but did show attenuated P3a and enhanced LDN to the large deviants for both pure and lexical tone changes in the ADHD group. Correlation analysis showed that children with higher ADHD tendency, as indexed by parents’ and teachers’ ratings on ADHD symptoms, showed less positive P3a amplitudes when responding to large lexical tone deviants. Thus, children with ADHD showed impaired auditory change detection for both pure tones and lexical tones in both involuntary attention switching, and attention reorienting for further evaluation. These ERP markers may therefore be used for the evaluation of anti-ADHD drugs that

  17. A Multinomial Model for Identifying Significant Pure-Tone Threshold Shifts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlauch, Robert S.; Carney, Edward

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Significant threshold differences on retest for pure-tone audiometry are often evaluated by application of ad hoc rules, such as a shift in a pure-tone average or in 2 adjacent frequencies that exceeds a predefined amount. Rules that are so derived do not consider the probability of observing a particular audiogram. Methods: A general…

  18. The theoretical and experimental investigations on multiple pure tone noise, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantola, R. A.; Kurosaka, M.

    1971-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental investigation is described on multiple pure tone noise. Based on a two-dimensional and inviscid flow model, an analysis is developed to predict the generation and subsequent evolution of multiple pure tone noise from prescribed blade-to-blade nonuniformities in the rotor geometry. The results show that even small nonuniformities within manufacturing tolerances can cause a significant amount of multiple pure tone noise. Among the different kinds of nonuniformities investigated, errors in blade spacings are a weaker generator of multiple pure tone noise than errors in blade stagger or blade contours. Experimental investigations of the effects of the rotor relative Mach number, incidence angle and length of the inlet duct on the evolution of the multiple pure tone noise are conducted with a known distribution of rotor nonuniformities. The model fan is operated, in Freon 12, in a closed loop acoustical facility.

  19. Influence of auditory fatigue on masked pure-tone thresholds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, D. E.; Tubbs, R. L.; Johnston, P. A.; Johnston, L. S.

    1976-01-01

    A description is presented of four related experiments involving conditions of 3-kHz low-intensity masking, a replication of experiment I with slight variations, 3-kHz high-intensity masking, and 6-kHz low-intensity masking. The frequencies of the tones which the observers detected were 3 and 6 kHz. The observed change in masked-tone threshold as a function of fatigue is discussed. It is found that masked-tone-detection thresholds remain essentially unchanged following fatigue if the masking-noise intensity is sufficiently great.

  20. Relations among pure-tone sound stimuli, neural activity, and the loudness sensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howes, W. L.

    1972-01-01

    Both the physiological and psychological responses to pure-tone sound stimuli are used to derive formulas which: (1) relate the loudness, loudness level, and sound-pressure level of pure tones; (2) apply continuously over most of the acoustic regime, including the loudness threshold; and (3) contain no undetermined coefficients. Some of the formulas are fundamental for calculating the loudness of any sound. Power-law formulas relating the pure-tone sound stimulus, neural activity, and loudness are derived from published data.

  1. Multiple pure tone elimination strut assembly. [air breathing engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, F. W. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An acoustic noise elimination assembly is disclosed which has a capability for disrupting the continuity of fields of sound pressures forwardly projected from fans or rotors of a type commonly found in the fan or compressor first stage for air-breathing engines, when operating at tip speeds in the supersonic range. The assembly includes a tubular cowl defining a duct for delivering an air stream axially into the intake for a jet engine. A sound barrier, defined by a number of intersecting flat plates or struts has a line of intersection coincident with a longitudinal axis of the tubular cowl, which serves to disrupt the continuity of rotating fields of multiple pure tonal components of noise.

  2. Flow Measurements and Multiple Pure Tone Noise From a Forward Swept Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weir, Donald S.; Podboy, Gary G.

    2005-01-01

    A forward-swept fan, designated the Quiet High Speed Fan (QHSF), was tested in the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel to investigate its noise reduction relative to a baseline fan of the same aerodynamic performance. The objective of the Quiet High Speed Fan was a 6-dB reduction in the Effective Perceived Noise Level relative to the baseline fan at the takeoff condition. The intent of the Quiet High Speed Fan design was to provide both a multiple pure tone noise reduction from the forward sweep of the fan rotor and a rotor-stator interaction blade passing tone noise reduction from a leaned stator. The tunnel noise data indicted that the Quiet High Speed Fan was quieter than the baseline fan for a significant portion of the operating line and was 6 dB quieter near the takeoff condition. Although reductions in the multiple pure tones were observed, the vast majority of the EPNdB reduction was a result of the reduction in the blade passing tone and its harmonics. Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) and shroud unsteady pressure measurement data were obtained upstream of the QHSF and baseline rotors to improve the understanding of the shocks which propagate upstream of the two fans when they are operated at high speeds. The flow phenomena that produce multiple pure tone noise is discussed and compared to measurements of the fan acoustic inlet modes and the far field noise signature of the fan.

  3. Flight test of a pure-tone acoustic source. [aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, A. W.; Preisser, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    Static and flight testing of a pure-tone acoustic source were conducted in order to: (1) determine if a 4-KHz tone radiated by a source in flight and mixed with broadband aircraft flyover noise could be measured on the ground with a high degree of statistical confidence; (2) determine how well a comparison could be made of flight-to-static tone radiation pattern and a static radiation pattern; and (3) determine if there were any installation effects on the radiation pattern due to the flight vehicle. Narrow-band acoustic data were measured and averaged over eight microphones to obtain a high statistical confidence. The flight data were adjusted to an equivalent static condition by applying corrections for retarded time, spherical spreading, atmospheric absorption, ground impedance, instrumentation constraints, convective amplification, and the Doppler shift. The flight-to-static results are in excellent agreement with the measured static data. No installation effects were observed on the radiation pattern.

  4. Processing of pure-tone and FM stimuli in the auditory cortex of the FM bat, Myotis lucifugus.

    PubMed

    Shannon-Hartman, S; Wong, D; Maekawa, M

    1992-08-01

    FM bats perceive their surroundings during echolocation by analyzing frequency-modulated (FM) acoustic signals. Results from this study indicate a cortical organization in Myotis lucifugus which is largely made up of neurons sensitive to FM sounds (FM-sensitive neurons). Three types of neurons were distinguished by their responses to pure-tone and FM stimuli: (1) Type I FM-sensitive units (83%), Type II FM-sensitive units (13%) and pure-tone sensitive units (4%). Type I FM-sensitive units responded to pure tones, but exhibited greater response magnitudes to FM stimuli when the best FM swept through the BF. An orderly frequency representation was found when the frequencies of pure tones essential for response (EPTs) in Type I units were mapped along the cortical surface. The EPTs for Type I neurons were usually found within the last millisecond of a downward FM sweep. As outlined by two neuronal network models, both the responses of Type I and II units could likely result from the convergence of excitatory and inhibitory lower level neurons with slightly differing BFs. Type II units were selective for an FM sweep and showed negligible to no response to pure-tone stimuli. Pure-tone sensitive units exhibited weak or no responses to FM stimuli. These neurons were clustered in a small area located rostrodorsal to the tonotopic zone and had significantly lower best frequencies than adjacent EPT frequencies of Type I FM-sensitive neurons. PMID:1326505

  5. An experimental investigation of pure tone generation by vortex shedding in a duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nomoto, H.; Culick, F. E. C.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been carried out for acoustic oscillations sustained by flow through a duct containing two baffles. Pure acoustic tones corresponding to longitudinal resonant modes of the duct are produced when certain flow and geometrical conditions are satisfied. The conditions are such as to ensure close coincidence between the frequency of vortex shedding from the forward baffle, and a natural frequency of the duct. Flow visualization has shown that under these conditions a stable vortex structure exists between the baffles, containing at all times an integral number of vortices.

  6. Relevance of Pure Tone Average (PTA) as a Predictor for Incus Erosion.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Sanjeev; Gopinath, M; Subramanian, Mukundan; Vijayan, Nisha

    2012-12-01

    Between 40 and 90% of tympanoplasty require middle ear ossicular chain reconstruction. Ossicular discontinuity usually cannot be determined unless an operation is performed. The main objective was to determine the predictive value of pre-operative audiological factors in diagnosing incudal necrosis in patients with tubotympanic chronic suppurative otitis media. A retrospective clinical study of 20 patients who underwent ossicular reconstruction with autologous incus over a period of two years was performed. The mean pre-operative pure tone average was 49.18 dB HL.The minimum value being 45 dB HL and the maximum value being 64 dB HL. PMID:24294583

  7. Temporal coherence for pure tones in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and humans (Homo sapiens).

    PubMed

    Neilans, Erikson G; Dent, Micheal L

    2015-02-01

    Auditory scene analysis has been suggested as a universal process that exists across all animals. Relative to humans, however, little work has been devoted to how animals perceptually isolate different sound sources. Frequency separation of sounds is arguably the most common parameter studied in auditory streaming, but it is not the only factor contributing to how the auditory scene is perceived. Researchers have found that in humans, even at large frequency separations, synchronous tones are heard as a single auditory stream, whereas asynchronous tones with the same frequency separations are perceived as 2 distinct sounds. These findings demonstrate how both the timing and frequency separation of sounds are important for auditory scene analysis. It is unclear how animals, such as budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), perceive synchronous and asynchronous sounds. In this study, budgerigars and humans (Homo sapiens) were tested on their perception of synchronous, asynchronous, and partially overlapping pure tones using the same psychophysical procedures. Species differences were found between budgerigars and humans in how partially overlapping sounds were perceived, with budgerigars more likely to segregate overlapping sounds and humans more apt to fuse the 2 sounds together. The results also illustrated that temporal cues are particularly important for stream segregation of overlapping sounds. Lastly, budgerigars were found to segregate partially overlapping sounds in a manner predicted by computational models of streaming, whereas humans were not. PMID:25419717

  8. Responses of neurons in the marmoset primary auditory cortex to interaural level differences: comparison of pure tones and vocalizations

    PubMed Central

    Lui, Leo L.; Mokri, Yasamin; Reser, David H.; Rosa, Marcello G. P.; Rajan, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Interaural level differences (ILDs) are the dominant cue for localizing the sources of high frequency sounds that differ in azimuth. Neurons in the primary auditory cortex (A1) respond differentially to ILDs of simple stimuli such as tones and noise bands, but the extent to which this applies to complex natural sounds, such as vocalizations, is not known. In sufentanil/N2O anesthetized marmosets, we compared the responses of 76 A1 neurons to three vocalizations (Ock, Tsik, and Twitter) and pure tones at cells' characteristic frequency. Each stimulus was presented with ILDs ranging from 20 dB favoring the contralateral ear to 20 dB favoring the ipsilateral ear to cover most of the frontal azimuthal space. The response to each stimulus was tested at three average binaural levels (ABLs). Most neurons were sensitive to ILDs of vocalizations and pure tones. For all stimuli, the majority of cells had monotonic ILD sensitivity functions favoring the contralateral ear, but we also observed ILD sensitivity functions that peaked near the midline and functions favoring the ipsilateral ear. Representation of ILD in A1 was better for pure tones and the Ock vocalization in comparison to the Tsik and Twitter calls; this was reflected by higher discrimination indices and greater modulation ranges. ILD sensitivity was heavily dependent on ABL: changes in ABL by ±20 dB SPL from the optimal level for ILD sensitivity led to significant decreases in ILD sensitivity for all stimuli, although ILD sensitivity to pure tones and Ock calls was most robust to such ABL changes. Our results demonstrate differences in ILD coding for pure tones and vocalizations, showing that ILD sensitivity in A1 to complex sounds cannot be simply extrapolated from that to pure tones. They also show A1 neurons do not show level-invariant representation of ILD, suggesting that such a representation of auditory space is likely to require population coding, and further processing at subsequent hierarchical stages

  9. Lipreading and covert speech production similarly modulate human auditory-cortex responses to pure tones.

    PubMed

    Kauramäki, Jaakko; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Hari, Riitta; Möttönen, Riikka; Rauschecker, Josef P; Sams, Mikko

    2010-01-27

    Watching the lips of a speaker enhances speech perception. At the same time, the 100 ms response to speech sounds is suppressed in the observer's auditory cortex. Here, we used whole-scalp 306-channel magnetoencephalography (MEG) to study whether lipreading modulates human auditory processing already at the level of the most elementary sound features, i.e., pure tones. We further envisioned the temporal dynamics of the suppression to tell whether the effect is driven by top-down influences. Nineteen subjects were presented with 50 ms tones spanning six octaves (125-8000 Hz) (1) during "lipreading," i.e., when they watched video clips of silent articulations of Finnish vowels /a/, /i/, /o/, and /y/, and reacted to vowels presented twice in a row; (2) during a visual control task; (3) during a still-face passive control condition; and (4) in a separate experiment with a subset of nine subjects, during covert production of the same vowels. Auditory-cortex 100 ms responses (N100m) were equally suppressed in the lipreading and covert-speech-production tasks compared with the visual control and baseline tasks; the effects involved all frequencies and were most prominent in the left hemisphere. Responses to tones presented at different times with respect to the onset of the visual articulation showed significantly increased N100m suppression immediately after the articulatory gesture. These findings suggest that the lipreading-related suppression in the auditory cortex is caused by top-down influences, possibly by an efference copy from the speech-production system, generated during both own speech and lipreading. PMID:20107058

  10. Pure tone audiograms and possible aminoglycoside-induced hearing loss in belugas (Delphinapterus leucas)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finneran, James J.; Carder, Donald A.; Dear, Randall; Belting, Traci; McBain, Jim; Dalton, Les; Ridgway, Sam H.

    2005-06-01

    A behavioral response paradigm was used to measure pure-tone hearing sensitivities in two belugas (Delphinapterus leucas). Tests were conducted over a 20-month period at the Point Defiance Zoo and Aquarium, in Tacoma, WA. Subjects were two males, aged 8-10 and 9-11 during the course of the study. Subjects were born in an oceanarium and had been housed together for all of their lives. Hearing thresholds were measured using a modified up/down staircase procedure and acoustic response paradigm where subjects were trained to produce audible responses to test tones and to remain quiet otherwise. Test frequencies ranged from approximately 2 to 130 kHz. Best sensitivities ranged from approximately 40 to 50 dB re 1 μPa at 50-80 kHz and 30-35 kHz for the two subjects. Although both subjects possessed traditional ``U-shaped'' mammalian audiograms, one subject exhibited significant high-frequency hearing loss above 37 kHz compared to previously published data for belugas. Hearing loss in this subject was estimated to approach 90 dB for frequencies above 50 kHz. Similar ages, ancestry, and environmental conditions between subjects, but a history of ototoxic drug administration in only one subject, suggest that the observed hearing loss was a result of the aminoglycoside antibiotic amikacin. .

  11. Effects of Bilateral Olivocochlear Lesions on Pure-Tone Intensity Discrimination in Cats

    PubMed Central

    MAY, BRADFORD J.; McQUONE, SHELLY J.

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral experiments examined the effects of olivocochlear efferent lesions on performance in an intensity discrimination task. Five cats were trained with food reinforcement to signal the detection of a change in the intensity of pure tones by releasing a response lever. Intensity cues were conveyed by 1 and 8-kHz tone bursts in quiet and in the presence of continuous broadband noise. After the collection of baseline behavioral data, the olivocochlear bundle (OCB) was sectioned with bilateral knife cuts on the floor of the IVth ventricle. The completeness of OCB lesions was evaluated at the conclusion of post-lesion behavioral testing by light microscopic examination of cochlear acetylcholinesterase staining and electrophysiological measures of contralateral noise suppression of compound action potentials (CAPs). Cats with OCB lesions showed greatest performance deficits for the discrimination of 8-kHz intensity changes in continuous background noise. The subjects’ ability to discriminate 1-kHz intensity changes in noise was poor prior to OCB lesioning and did not change after the surgical procedure. Lesioning effects were not observed at either frequency when tests were conducted in quiet. These results suggest that olivocochlear feedback contributes to the auditory processing of mid-frequency acoustic signals in noisy backgrounds. PMID:23814451

  12. The effect of temporal asymmetry on amplitude modulation detection using pure-tone carriers (L).

    PubMed

    Shen, Yi; Lentz, Jennifer J

    2011-11-01

    The effect of temporal asymmetry on amplitude modulation detection was studied using sawtooth modulators with rising (ramped) or falling (damped) temporal envelopes within each period of modulation. For pure-tone carriers, damped modulation was more detectable than ramped modulation for a 5-kHz carrier (by a threshold difference of 3.2 dB on average) but not for a 1-kHz carrier. The threshold difference obtained at 5 kHz between the ramped and damped modulators was consistent across modulation rates (8-128 Hz). This carrier frequency dependence suggests that the effect of temporally asymmetry on modulation detection originates from envelope-based, within-channel mechanisms. PMID:22087889

  13. Pure tone hearing thresholds and leisure noise: Is there a relationship?

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Warwick; Carter, Lyndal; Seeto, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the examination of the relationship between self-reported historical noise exposure during leisure activities and audiological indicators: Measured hearing threshold levels (HTLs) and otoacoustic emissions (OAEs). The research was conducted by a cross-sectional survey of 1,432 individuals whose ages ranged from 11 years to 35 years. Methodology included a comprehensive audiometric assessment including otoscopy, pure tone audiometry (PTA) (air- and bone-conduction), OAEs, and tympanometry. A comprehensive questionnaire gathered information on demographics, hearing health status, and participation in work, nonwork, and leisure activities. Using the history of work, nonwork, and leisure noise exposure, a cumulative lifetime noise exposure was estimated. No correlation was found between cumulative lifetime noise exposure and audiometric PTA or OAE parameters. PMID:26356379

  14. Statistical Analysis of Pure Tone Audiometry and Caloric Test in Herpes Zoster Oticus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin; Jung, Jinsei; Moon, In Seok; Lee, Ho-Ki

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Pure tone audiometry and caloric test in patients with herpes zoster oticus were performed to determine the biologic features of the varicella zoster virus (VZV) and the pathogenesis of vestibulocochlear nerve disease in herpes zoster oticus. Study Design A retrospective chart review of 160 patients with herpes zoster oticus was designed in order to determine the classic characteristics of vestibulocochlear nerve disease associated with the syndrome. Speech frequency and isolated high frequency acoustic thresholds were analyzed based on severity of facial paralysis and patient age. Patients without cochlear symptoms were selected randomly, and audiological function was evaluated. Patients with symptoms of vestibular dysfunction underwent the caloric test, and canal paresis was analyzed according to the severity of facial paralysis and the age of each patient. Results Among the 160 patients, 111 exhibited pure tone audiometry; 26 (79%) of the patients with cochlear symptoms and 44 (56%) of the patients without cochlear symptoms had abnormal audiological data. Among the patients without cochlear symptoms, 15 (19%) had hearing loss at speech frequency, and 42 (54%) had hearing loss isolated to high frequency. The incidence of cochlear symptoms in herpes zoster oticus was not related to the severity of facial paralysis. The incidence of patients with isolated high frequency hearing loss statistically increased with age, however the incidence of patients with speech frequency hearing loss did not increase. Thirteen patients complained vertigo, and the incidence of vestibular disturbances and the value of canal paresis in the caloric test increased to statistical significance in parallel with increasing severity of facial paralysis. Conclusion Mild or moderate cochlear symptoms with high frequency hearing loss were related to age, and severe vestibular symptoms were related to the severity of facial paralysis after onset of herpetic symptoms. This study might

  15. Three-dimensional effects on pure tone fan noise due to inflow distortion. [rotor blade noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, H.

    1978-01-01

    Two dimensional, quasi three dimensional and three dimensional theories for the prediction of pure tone fan noise due to the interaction of inflow distortion with a subsonic annular blade row were studied with the aid of an unsteady three dimensional lifting surface theory. The effects of compact and noncompact source distributions on pure tone fan noise in an annular cascade were investigated. Numerical results show that the strip theory and quasi three-dimensional theory are reasonably adequate for fan noise prediction. The quasi three-dimensional method is more accurate for acoustic power and model structure prediction with an acoustic power estimation error of about plus or minus 2db.

  16. Pediatric central auditory processing disorder showing elevated threshold on pure tone audiogram.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Yukihide; Nakagawa, Atsuko; Nagayasu, Rie; Sugaya, Akiko; Omichi, Ryotaro; Kariya, Shin; Fukushima, Kunihiro; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2016-10-01

    Central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) is a condition in which dysfunction in the central auditory system causes difficulty in listening to conversations, particularly under noisy conditions, despite normal peripheral auditory function. Central auditory testing is generally performed in patients with normal hearing on the pure tone audiogram (PTA). This report shows that diagnosis of CAPD is possible even in the presence of an elevated threshold on the PTA, provided that the normal function of the peripheral auditory pathway was verified by distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE), auditory brainstem response (ABR), and auditory steady state response (ASSR). Three pediatric cases (9- and 10-year-old girls and an 8-year-old boy) of CAPD with elevated thresholds on PTAs are presented. The chief complaint was difficulty in listening to conversations. PTA showed elevated thresholds, but the responses and thresholds for DPOAE, ABR, and ASSR were normal, showing that peripheral auditory function was normal. Significant findings of central auditory testing such as dichotic speech tests, time compression of speech signals, and binaural interaction tests confirmed the diagnosis of CAPD. These threshold shifts in PTA may provide a new concept of a clinical symptom due to central auditory dysfunction in CAPD. PMID:26922127

  17. Perception of Pure Tones and Iterated Rippled Noise for Normal Hearing and Cochlear Implant Users

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Wade W.; Jiradejvong, Patpong; Boeke, Emily; Carver, Courtney L.; Limb, Charles J.

    2013-01-01

    Cochlear Implant (CI) users typically perform poorly on musical tasks, especially those based on pitch ranking and melody recognition. It was hypothesized that CI users would demonstrate deterioration in performance for a pitch ranking and a melody recognition task presented with iterated rippled noise (IRN) in comparison to pure tones (PT). In Addition, it was hypothesized that normal hearing (NH) listeners would show fewer differences in performance between IRN and PT for these two tasks. In this study, the ability of CI users and NH subjects to rank pitches and to identify melodies created with IRN and PT was assessed in free field in a sound-isolated room. CI subjects scored significantly above chance level with PT stimuli in both tasks. With IRN stimuli their performance was around chance level. NH subjects scored significantly above chance level in both tasks and with all stimuli. NH subjects performed significantly better than CI subjects in both tasks. These results illustrate the difficulties of CI subjects to rank pitches and to identify melodies. PMID:23539260

  18. Perception of pure tones and iterated rippled noise for normal hearing and cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Penninger, Richard T; Chien, Wade W; Jiradejvong, Patpong; Boeke, Emily; Carver, Courtney L; Limb, Charles J

    2013-03-01

    Cochlear Implant (CI) users typically perform poorly on musical tasks, especially those based on pitch ranking and melody recognition. It was hypothesized that CI users would demonstrate deterioration in performance for a pitch ranking and a melody recognition task presented with iterated rippled noise (IRN) in comparison to pure tones (PT). In Addition, it was hypothesized that normal hearing (NH) listeners would show fewer differences in performance between IRN and PT for these two tasks. In this study, the ability of CI users and NH subjects to rank pitches and to identify melodies created with IRN and PT was assessed in free field in a sound-isolated room. CI subjects scored significantly above chance level with PT stimuli in both tasks. With IRN stimuli their performance was around chance level. NH subjects scored significantly above chance level in both tasks and with all stimuli. NH subjects performed significantly better than CI subjects in both tasks. These results illustrate the difficulties of CI subjects to rank pitches and to identify melodies. PMID:23539260

  19. Investigation of the Statistics of Pure Tone Sound Power Injection from Low Frequency, Finite Sized Sources in a Reverberant Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Wayne Farrior

    1973-01-01

    The effect of finite source size on the power statistics in a reverberant room for pure tone excitation was investigated. Theoretical results indicate that the standard deviation of low frequency, pure tone finite sources is always less than that predicted by point source theory and considerably less when the source dimension approaches one-half an acoustic wavelength or greater. A supporting experimental study was conducted utilizing an eight inch loudspeaker and a 30 inch loudspeaker at eleven source positions. The resulting standard deviation of sound power output of the smaller speaker is in excellent agreement with both the derived finite source theory and existing point source theory, if the theoretical data is adjusted to account for experimental incomplete spatial averaging. However, the standard deviation of sound power output of the larger speaker is measurably lower than point source theory indicates, but is in good agreement with the finite source theory.

  20. The Relevance of the High Frequency Audiometry in Tinnitus Patients with Normal Hearing in Conventional Pure-Tone Audiometry

    PubMed Central

    Vielsmeier, Veronika; Lehner, Astrid; Strutz, Jürgen; Steffens, Thomas; Kreuzer, Peter M.; Schecklmann, Martin; Landgrebe, Michael; Langguth, Berthold; Kleinjung, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The majority of tinnitus patients suffer from hearing loss. But a subgroup of tinnitus patients show normal hearing thresholds in the conventional pure-tone audiometry (125 Hz–8 kHz). Here we explored whether the results of the high frequency audiometry (>8 kHz) provide relevant additional information in tinnitus patients with normal conventional audiometry by comparing those with normal and pathological high frequency audiometry with respect to their demographic and clinical characteristics. Subjects and Methods. From the database of the Tinnitus Clinic at Regensburg we identified 75 patients with normal hearing thresholds in the conventional pure-tone audiometry. We contrasted these patients with normal and pathological high-frequency audiogram and compared them with respect to gender, age, tinnitus severity, pitch, laterality and duration, comorbid symptoms and triggers for tinnitus onset. Results. Patients with pathological high frequency audiometry were significantly older and had higher scores on the tinnitus questionnaires in comparison to patients with normal high frequency audiometry. Furthermore, there was an association of high frequency audiometry with the laterality of tinnitus. Conclusion. In tinnitus patients with normal pure-tone audiometry the high frequency audiometry provides useful additional information. The association between tinnitus laterality and asymmetry of the high frequency audiometry suggests a potential causal role for the high frequency hearing loss in tinnitus etiopathogenesis. PMID:26583098

  1. A broadband acoustic stimulus is more likely than a pure tone to elicit a startle reflex and prepared movements

    PubMed Central

    Carlsen, Anthony N

    2015-01-01

    A loud acoustic stimulus that elicits a startle reflex has long been used to study the neurophysiology of cortical and subcortical neural circuits. More recent investigations have shown that startle can act as an early trigger for prepared actions, suggesting a brainstem role in the preparation and initiation of actions. However, in order to attribute any startle-triggered voluntary responses to activation in subcortical structures it is necessary to measure a startle-related activity in these structures. The current study investigated the most effective stimulus for eliciting a detectible startle reflex. While more intense stimuli are more likely to elicit a startle reflex, the current study examined whether broadband noise is more likely than a pure tone to produce a startle at various intensities above 100 dB. Participants performed a button release reaction time task in response to either a 1 kHz tone or a broadband noise pulse with intensities ranging from 82 to 124 dB. Reaction time and EMG from the wrist extensors and the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) were measured. Results showed that startle-related SCM EMG was elicited more frequently by broadband noise compared to pure tones. The higher proportion of startle reflexes observed in SCM was associated with a higher incidence of the voluntary task being triggered early. A higher incidence of startle following broadband noise is attributed to the activation of a larger proportion of the basilar membrane; thus, a lower intensity broadband noise stimulus may be used to elicit startle reflex at a similar rate as a higher intensity pure tone. PMID:26311832

  2. Behavioral avoidance threshold level of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) for a continuous 50 kHz pure tone.

    PubMed

    Kastelein, Ronald A; Verboom, Willem C; Jennings, Nancy; de Haan, Dick

    2008-04-01

    The use of ultrasonic sounds in alarms for gillnets may be advantageous, but the deterring effects of ultrasound on porpoises are not well understood. Therefore a harbor porpoise in a large floating pen was subjected to a continuous 50 kHz pure tone with a source level of 122+/-3 dB (re 1 microPa, rms). When the test signal was switched on during test periods, the animal moved away from the sound source. Its respiration rate was similar to that during baseline periods, when the sound was switched off. The behavior of the porpoise was related to the sound pressure level distribution in the pen. The sound level at the animal's average swimming location during the test periods was approximately 107+/-3 dB (re 1 microPa, rms). The avoidance threshold sound pressure level for a continuous 50 kHz pure tone for this porpoise, in the context of this study, is estimated to be 108+/-3 dB (re 1 microPa, rms). This study demonstrates that porpoises may be deterred from an area by high frequency sounds that are not typically audible to fish and pinnipeds and would be less likely masked by ambient noise. PMID:18396994

  3. Comparison of measured and predicted pure tone propagation levels from JAPE-1: An evaluation of the performance of ASOPRAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederickson, Carl K.; Bass, Henry E.; Raspet, Richard; Messer, John

    1993-01-01

    Joint Acoustic Propagation Experiment Phase One (JAPE-1 ) short range propagation data has been used to evaluate the performance of the Advanced Sound Propagation in the Atmosphere (ASOPRAT) prediction code. The pure tone short range data was Fourier analyzed giving the propagated pressure levels as a function of frequency. Meteorological profiles measured at the experimental site were used as input for the acoustic prediction routine ASOPRAT. Predicted and measured propagation levels are compared in decibels (dB) relative to one of the measurement positions for receivers on the line passing between the two thirty meter towers. Agreement between predicted and measured levels is very good. Source strength data was not available, hence the comparisons show good agreement as to the shape of the propagation loss curve not necessarily the propagation levels.

  4. Pure-tone masking profiles for human auditory brainstem and middle latency responses.

    PubMed

    Mackersie, C; Down, K E; Stapells, D R

    1993-02-01

    Several studies have compared the frequency selectivity of waves I and V of the auditory brainstem response (ABR) in humans, however little is known about the frequency selectivity of the middle latency response (MLR). Simultaneous recordings of ABRs and MLRs to 60 dB peSPL 2000-Hz probe tones were obtained in the presence of 0.5, 1.0, 1.41, 2.0, 2.83 and 4.0 kHz maskers presented at 40, 60, and 80 dB SPL. ABR/MLR iso-intensity masking profiles showing the percentage of the unmasked amplitudes as a function of frequency were constructed for ABR peak V-Vn and MLR peaks Na-Pa and Nb-Pb at each masker intensity. No significant differences were found between the frequency selectivity of the ABR and MLR, and the effects of masking on the amplitudes of these responses were similar. These results are consistent with the suggestion that frequency tuning is similar up to the level of the primary auditory cortex. PMID:8458760

  5. The Speech Intelligibility Index and the Pure-Tone Average as Predictors of Lexical Ability in Children Fit with Hearing Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiles, Derek J.; Bentler, Ruth A.; McGregor, Karla K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether a clinically obtainable measure of audibility, the aided Speech Intelligibility Index (SII; American National Standards Institute, 2007), is more sensitive than the pure-tone average (PTA) at predicting the lexical abilities of children who wear hearing aids (CHA). Method: School-age CHA and age-matched children with…

  6. Color tone and interfacial microstructure of white oxide layer on commercially pure Ti and Ti-Nb-Ta-Zr alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura-Fujiwara, Eri; Mizushima, Keisuke; Watanabe, Yoshimi; Kasuga, Toshihiro; Niinomi, Mitsuo

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the relationships among oxidation condition, color tone, and the cross-sectional microstructure of the oxide layer on commercially pure (CP) Ti and Ti-36Nb-2Ta-3Zr-0.3O were investigated. “White metals” are ideal metallic materials having a white color with sufficient strength and ductility like a metal. Such materials have long been sought for in dentistry. We have found that the specific biomedical Ti alloys, such as CP Ti, Ti-36Nb-2Ta-3Zr-0.3O, and Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr, form a bright yellowish-white oxide layer after a particular oxidation heat treatment. The brightness L* and yellowness +b* of the oxide layer on CP Ti and Ti-36Nb-2Ta-3Zr-0.3O increased with heating time and temperature. Microstructural observations indicated that the oxide layer on Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr and Ti-36Nb-2Ta-3Zr-0.3O was dense and firm, whereas a piecrust-like layer was formed on CP Ti. The results obtained in this study suggest that oxide layer coating on Ti-36Nb-2Ta-3Zr-0.3O is an excellent technique for dental applications.

  7. Manipulation of BDNF Signaling Modifies the Experience-Dependent Plasticity Induced by Pure Tone Exposure during the Critical Period in the Primary Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Anomal, Renata; de Villers-Sidani, Etienne; Merzenich, Michael M.; Panizzutti, Rogerio

    2013-01-01

    Sensory experience powerfully shapes cortical sensory representations during an early developmental “critical period” of plasticity. In the rat primary auditory cortex (A1), the experience-dependent plasticity is exemplified by significant, long-lasting distortions in frequency representation after mere exposure to repetitive frequencies during the second week of life. In the visual system, the normal unfolding of critical period plasticity is strongly dependent on the elaboration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which promotes the establishment of inhibition. Here, we tested the hypothesis that BDNF signaling plays a role in the experience-dependent plasticity induced by pure tone exposure during the critical period in the primary auditory cortex. Elvax resin implants filled with either a blocking antibody against BDNF or the BDNF protein were placed on the A1 of rat pups throughout the critical period window. These pups were then exposed to 7 kHz pure tone for 7 consecutive days and their frequency representations were mapped. BDNF blockade completely prevented the shaping of cortical tuning by experience and resulted in poor overall frequency tuning in A1. By contrast, BDNF infusion on the developing A1 amplified the effect of 7 kHz tone exposure compared to control. These results indicate that BDNF signaling participates in the experience-dependent plasticity induced by pure tone exposure during the critical period in A1. PMID:23700463

  8. Racial and gender effects on pure-tone thresholds and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) in normal-hearing young adults.

    PubMed

    Dreisbach, Laura E; Kramer, Steven J; Cobos, Sandra; Cowart, Kristin

    2007-08-01

    This study examined racial and gender effects on behavioral thresholds and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) in the same subjects. Pure-tone behavioral thresholds and DPOAEs were measured in 60 young normal-hearing adult subjects (20 Caucasian, 20 Asian, 20 African-American, with ten females and ten males in each group). Behavioral thresholds were measured from 1000 through 16,000 Hz using Békèsy tracking. A DPOAE frequency sweep was measured with primary stimulus levels of L(1)/L(2)=60/45 dB SPL, and an f(2)/f(1) of 1.2 at discrete f(2) frequencies between 2000 through 12,000 Hz for each subject. Significant racial and gender differences in behavioral thresholds were found at 14,000 and 16,000 Hz, with the African Americans and females having the best hearing sensitivity. Based on the current results, similar findings for DPOAE frequency sweeps can be expected amongst different racial groups given that no significant differences were identified between the groups. To further define the effects of race and gender on auditory measures, future studies should include larger numbers of subjects, measurement of body size and middle ear reflectance, and examine emission generators. PMID:17654083

  9. Reconnaissance mapping from aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeden, H. A.; Bolling, N. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Engineering soil and geology maps were successfully made from Pennsylvania aerial photographs taken at scales from 1:4,800 to 1:60,000. The procedure involved a detailed study of a stereoscopic model while evaluating landform, drainage, erosion, color or gray tones, tone and texture patterns, vegetation, and cultural or land use patterns.

  10. A source of almost pure methyl chavicol: volatile oil from the aerial parts of Tagetes lucida (Asteraceae) cultivated in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Cicció, José F

    2004-12-01

    The plant Tagetes lucida Cav. (syn. T. florida Sweet, T. schiedeana Less.) is an aromatic herb distributed naturally from Mexico to Honduras, at elevations between 1 000 and 2 000 m. It is used as a spice, for medicine, as insecticide and as ornamental plant. It is cultivated commercially in Costa Rica as a spice herb; it contains an oil having an anise-like odor, and the fresh aerial parts of this plant are sold in the supermarket as a substitute of tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.). The essential oils isolated from aerial parts bought, at May and October, in a supermarket in San José (Costa Rica). Fresh flowering aerial parts, flowers and leaves plus stems, were subjected to hydrodistillation for 3 hr using a modified Clevenger-type apparatus. The distilled oils were collected and dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate and stored in a freezer (0-10 degrees C). The light yellow green oil yield was about 0.07% (v/w). GC/MS analyses were performed using a Shimadzu GCMS-QP5050 apparatus and CLASS 5000 software with Wiley 139 computer database. Identification of the components of the oil was performed using the retention indices, which were calculated in relation to a homologous series of hydrocarbons, and by comparison of their mass spectra with those published in the literature or those of our own database. Thirty compounds were identified, of which methyl chavicol (95-97%) was the major constituent. From flower oil, two bithienyls were detected as minor constituents. PMID:17354394

  11. Just-noticeable difference of tone pitch contour change for Mandarin congenital amusics.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wan-Ting; Nan, Yun; Dong, Qi; Liu, Chang

    2015-07-01

    Congenital amusia is a neuro-developmental disorder that may affect the processing of both music pitch and lexical tone. In the present study, the just-noticeable differences (JNDs) of tone pitch contour change were examined for three groups of Mandarin-native listeners: amusics with (tone agnosics) and without lexical tone difficulties (pure amusics), and matched controls. Tone agnosics showed significantly larger JNDs than normal controls, while pure amusics performed comparably with the controls. These results suggest that only those amusics with behavioral lexical tone deficits might be psychophysically impaired in pitch contour discrimination. PMID:26233070

  12. Categorical perception of lexical tones in mandarin-speaking congenital amusics

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wan-Ting; Liu, Chang; Dong, Qi; Nan, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests that within Mandarin-speaking congenital amusics, only a subgroup has behavioral lexical tone perception impairments (tone agnosia), whereas the rest of amusics do not. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the categorical nature of lexical tone perception in Mandarin-speaking amusics with and without behavioral lexical tone deficits. Three groups of listeners (controls, pure amusics, and amusics with tone agnosia) participated in tone identification and discrimination tasks. Indexes of the categorical perception (CP) of a physical continuum of fundamental frequencies ranging from a rising to level tone were measured. Specifically, the stimulus durations were manipulated at 100 and 200 ms. For both stimulus durations, all groups exhibited similar categorical boundaries. The pure amusics showed sharp identification slopes and significantly peaked discrimination functions similar to those of normal controls. However, such essential characteristics for the CP of lexical tones were not observed in amusics with tone agnosia. An enlarged step-size from 20 to 35 Hz was not able to produce any discrimination peaks in tone agnosics either. The current study revealed that only amusics with tone agnosia showed a lack of categorical tone perception, while the pure amusics demonstrated typical CP of lexical tones, indicating that the deficit of pitch processing in music does not necessarily result in the deficit in the CP of lexical tones. The different performance between congenital amusics with and without tone agnosia provides a new perspective on the proposition of the relationship between music and speech perception. PMID:26136714

  13. Are Tones Phones?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnham, Denis; Kim, Jeesun; Davis, Chris; Ciocca, Valter; Schoknecht, Colin; Kasisopa, Benjawan; Luksaneeyanawin, Sudaporn

    2011-01-01

    The psycholinguistic status of lexical tones and phones is indexed via phonological and tonological awareness (PA and TA, respectively) using Thai speech. In Experiment 1 (Thai participants, alphabetic script and orthographically explicit phones/tones), PA was better than TA in children and primary school-educated adults, and TA improved to PA…

  14. Subgroup differences in the lexical tone mismatch negativity (MMN) among Mandarin speakers with congenital amusia.

    PubMed

    Nan, Yun; Huang, Wan-ting; Wang, Wen-jing; Liu, Chang; Dong, Qi

    2016-01-01

    The association/dissociation of pitch processing between music and language is a long lasting debate. We examined this music-language relationship by investigating to what extent pitch deficits in these two domains were dissociable. We focused on a special neurodevelopmental pitch disorder - congenital amusia, which primarily affects musical pitch processing. Recent research has also revealed lexical tone deficits in speech among amusics. Approximately one-third of Mandarin amusics exhibits behavioural difficulties in lexical tone perception, which is known as tone agnosia. Using mismatch negativities (MMNs), our current work probed lexical tone encoding at the pre-attentive level among the Mandarin amusics with (tone agnosics) and without (pure amusics) behavioural lexical tone deficits compared with age- and IQ-matched controls. Relative to the controls and the pure amusics, the tone agnosics exhibited reduced MMNs specifically in response to lexical tone changes. Their tone-consonant MMNs were intact and similar to those of the other two groups. Moreover, the tone MMN reduction over the left hemisphere was tightly linked to behavioural insensitivity to lexical tone changes. The current study thus provides the first psychophysiological evidence of subgroup differences in lexical tone processing among Mandarin amusics and links amusics' behavioural tone deficits to impaired pre-attentive tone processing. Despite the overall music pitch deficits, the subgroup differences in lexical tone processing in Mandarin-speaking amusics suggest dissociation of pitch deficits between music and speech. PMID:26638759

  15. Tone and Depression in Phuthi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Simon

    2009-01-01

    This paper outlines key tone and voice quality properties in Phuthi, a Nguni (Bantu) language spoken in southern Lesotho and the northern Transkei (South Africa). The focus is the phonological presence of high tone (H) in Phuthi, and its interaction with other tones, both H and L. From verbs that employ a single H tone sponsor (lexical paradigms),…

  16. Monitor Tone Generates Stress in Computer and VDT Operators: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dow, Caroline; Covert, Douglas C.

    A near-ultrasonic pure tone of 15,570 Herz generated by flyback transformers in computer and video display terminal (VDT) monitors may cause severe non-specific irritation or stress disease in operators. Women hear higher frequency sounds than men and are twice as sensitive to "too loud" noise. Pure tones at high frequencies are more annoying than…

  17. Aerial Explorers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg; Ippolito, Corey

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents recent results from a mission architecture study of planetary aerial explorers. In this study, several mission scenarios were developed in simulation and evaluated on success in meeting mission goals. This aerial explorer mission architecture study is unique in comparison with previous Mars airplane research activities. The study examines how aerial vehicles can find and gain access to otherwise inaccessible terrain features of interest. The aerial explorer also engages in a high-level of (indirect) surface interaction, despite not typically being able to takeoff and land or to engage in multiple flights/sorties. To achieve this goal, a new mission paradigm is proposed: aerial explorers should be considered as an additional element in the overall Entry, Descent, Landing System (EDLS) process. Further, aerial vehicles should be considered primarily as carrier/utility platforms whose purpose is to deliver air-deployed sensors and robotic devices, or symbiotes, to those high-value terrain features of interest.

  18. Phonetics and Phonology of Chicahuaxtla Triqui Tones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsukawa, Kosuke

    2012-01-01

    Chicahuaxtla Triqui (Otomanguean, Mexico) is one of the rare tone languages with five contrastive level tones and its underlying tone system is even more complicated than its surface five-level tone system. The complexity of its underlying tone system has developed through the historical tone shifts from Proto-Triqui. The surface tone system of…

  19. Tones for Profoundly Deaf Tone-Language Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ching, Teresa

    A study assessed the practical use of the simplified speech pattern approach to teaching lipreading in a tone language by comparing performance using an acoustic hearing-aid and a Sivo-aid in a tone labelling task. After initial assessment, subjects were given training to enhance perception of lexically contrastive tones, then post-tested. The…

  20. Effects of tone training on Cantonese tone-word learning.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Angela; Wang, Yue

    2013-08-01

    The present study examined the effect of improving lexical tone identification abilities on Cantonese tone-word learning. Native English non-musicians received training on Cantonese tones before learning the meanings of words distinguished by these tones. Their results were compared to English non-musicians and musicians who received no tone training. The tone-trainees obtained a similar level of word identification proficiency as musicians by the end of training and were significantly better than non-tone trained non-musicians. These results lend support for phonetic-phonological-lexical continuity in learning because enhancing listeners' perception of lower-level tonal information significantly contributed to success in a higher-level linguistic task. PMID:23927215

  1. Light-toned Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    1 January 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a scene reminiscent of some of the Mars Exploration Rover (MER-B), Opportunity, images of terrain in the vicinity of Erebus Crater -- a substrate of light-toned rock, broken into polygonal forms, overlain by large, dark-toned, ripple-like drifts. However, this scene is many hundreds of kilometers away from Meridiani Planum -- it lies on the floor of an old impact crater near the northwest rim of the giant Hellas Basin.

    Location near: 21.0oS, 312.0oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  2. Tone clarity in mixed pitch/phonation type tones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andruski, Jean E.

    2001-05-01

    Lexical tone identity is often determined by a complex of acoustic cues. In Green Mong, a Hmong-Mien language of Southeast Asia, a small subset of tones is characterized by phonation type in addition to pitch height, pitch contour, and duration, which characterize the remaining tones of the language. In tones that incorporate multiple cues to tonal identity, what makes a tone clear, or easy to recognize? This study examines acoustic and perceptual data to address this question. Six native speakers of Green Mong were asked to produce 132 phonological CV words in sentence context, using a conversational speaking style. Seventeen native speakers of the language were then asked to categorize three tones which have similar falling contours, but are differentiated by phonation type (breathy, creaky, and modal). Tokens that were correctly identified by 100% of the listeners were compared with tokens that were relatively poorly identified. Data indicate that the breathy- and creaky-voiced tones are less susceptible to identification errors than the modal-voiced tone. However, the clearest tokens of the three tones are also differentiated by details of pitch contour shape, and by duration. Similarities and differences between acoustic cue values for the best and worst tokens will be discussed.

  3. Tone Features, Tone Perception, and Peak Alignment in Thai

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zsiga, Elizabeth; Nitisaroj, Rattima

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between the phonological features of tone and tone perception in Thai. Specifically, it tests the hypothesis (proposed by Moren & Zsiga, 2006) that the principle perceptual cues to the five-way tonal contrast in Thai are high and low pitch targets aligned to moras. Results of four perception studies, one…

  4. Recommendations for organising the calibration of pure-tone audiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipton, M. S.

    1987-07-01

    A three-tier strategy for maintaining correct calibration of audiometric test equipment is described. The first two tiers represent routine checking performed on the equipment in situ, and the third tier represents nonroutine, on demand, repair at a central laboratory with a full recalibration and a check to specification.

  5. Distribution Characteristics of Normal Pure-Tone Thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, Robert H.; Wilson, Richard H.; Popelka, Gerald R.; Eikelboom, Robert H.; Swanepoel, De Wet; Saly, George L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study examined the statistical properties of normal air-conduction thresholds obtained with automated and manual audiometry to test the hypothesis that thresholds are normally distributed and to examine the distributions for evidence of bias in manual testing. Design Four databases were mined for normal thresholds. One contained audiograms obtained with an automated method. The other three were obtained with manual audiometry. Frequency distributions were examined for four test frequencies (250, 500, 1000, and 2000 Hz). Study Sample The analysis is based on 317,569 threshold determinations of 80,547 subjects from four clinical databases. Results Frequency distributions of thresholds obtained with automated audiometry are normal in form. Corrected for age, the mean thresholds are within 1.5 dB of Reference Equivalent Threshold Sound Pressure Levels. Frequency distributions of thresholds obtained by manual audiometry are shifted toward higher thresholds. Two of the three datasets obtained by manual audiometry are positively skewed. Conclusions The positive shift and skew of the manual audiometry data may result from tester bias. The striking scarcity of thresholds below 0 dB HL suggests that audiologists place less importance on identifying low thresholds than they do for higher-level thresholds. We refer to this as the Good Enough Bias and suggest that it may be responsible for differences in distributions of thresholds obtained by automated and manual audiometry. PMID:25938502

  6. Broadband jet noise amplification by a pure tone excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, P. J.

    1980-01-01

    A model is proposed for the change in turbulent structure of a round jet in the presence of an acoustic excitation. The excitation is initial amplitude at the jet exit. As these waves propagate downstream they extract energy from the mean flow and transfer it to the random turbulence. This results in an increase in the levels of the turbulence and a resulting increase in the radiated broadband noise. An examination is made of the effect of excitation level and frequency on the jet flow. The numerical procedure allows for radial as well as axial variations in the averaged properties of jet to be calculated. The results indicate that the presence of a finite amplitude instability wave increases the spreading of the jet.

  7. Strategies for Analyzing Tone Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coupe, Alexander R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines a method of auditory and acoustic analysis for determining the tonemes of a language starting from scratch, drawing on the author's experience of recording and analyzing tone languages of north-east India. The methodology is applied to a preliminary analysis of tone in the Thang dialect of Khiamniungan, a virtually undocumented…

  8. Rhythm Deficits in "Tone Deafness"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foxton, Jessica M.; Nandy, Rachel K.; Griffiths, Timothy D.

    2006-01-01

    It is commonly observed that "tone deaf" individuals are unable to hear the beat of a tune, yet deficits on simple timing tests have not been found. In this study, we investigated rhythm processing in nine individuals with congenital amusia ("tone deafness") and nine controls. Participants were presented with pairs of 5-note sequences, and were…

  9. Production and Perception of Tone 3 Focus in Mandarin Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong-Cheol; Wang, Ting; Liberman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This study uses production and perception experiments to explore tone 3 focus in Mandarin Chinese. Overall, contrastive focus in Mandarin is clearly marked with increased duration, intensity, and pitch range: in the experiments, listeners identified focused syllables correctly more than 90% of the time. However, a tone 3 syllable offers a smaller capacity for pitch range expansion under focus, and also yields less intensity increase; in addition, local dissimilation increases the duration, intensity, and pitch range of adjacent syllables within the same phrase as a focused tone 3 syllable. As a result, tone 3 focus was less well identified by listeners (77.1%). We suggest that the relatively poor identification of tone 3 focus is due to the smaller capacity for pitch range expansion, the confusion from within-phrase local dissimilatory effects, and the relatively weak intensity of tone 3. This study demonstrates that even within a language where purely prosodic marking of focus is clear, the location of prosodic focus can be difficult to identify in certain circumstances. Our results underline the conclusion, established in other work, that prosodic marking of focus is not universal, but is expressed through the prosodic system of each language. PMID:27507951

  10. Production and Perception of Tone 3 Focus in Mandarin Chinese.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Cheol; Wang, Ting; Liberman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This study uses production and perception experiments to explore tone 3 focus in Mandarin Chinese. Overall, contrastive focus in Mandarin is clearly marked with increased duration, intensity, and pitch range: in the experiments, listeners identified focused syllables correctly more than 90% of the time. However, a tone 3 syllable offers a smaller capacity for pitch range expansion under focus, and also yields less intensity increase; in addition, local dissimilation increases the duration, intensity, and pitch range of adjacent syllables within the same phrase as a focused tone 3 syllable. As a result, tone 3 focus was less well identified by listeners (77.1%). We suggest that the relatively poor identification of tone 3 focus is due to the smaller capacity for pitch range expansion, the confusion from within-phrase local dissimilatory effects, and the relatively weak intensity of tone 3. This study demonstrates that even within a language where purely prosodic marking of focus is clear, the location of prosodic focus can be difficult to identify in certain circumstances. Our results underline the conclusion, established in other work, that prosodic marking of focus is not universal, but is expressed through the prosodic system of each language. PMID:27507951

  11. [Steroid-responsive sensorineural hearing loss with low tone loss].

    PubMed

    Toriya, R; Yamashita, H; Hisashi, K; Komune, S; Komiyama, S

    1995-11-01

    Five cases of sensorineural hearing loss of sudden onset were reviewed. They were not responsive to administration of ATP and Vit. B12, but very responsive to steroid administration. All the patients were male and showed hearing loss in low frequencies in pure tone audiogram. Administration of steroid recovered hearing impairment immediately. However, cessation of steroid aggravated the recovered hearing. Serological and immunological examinations did not show any abnormal findings on all the patients. It was considered that these five patients had characteristics of both steroid-sensitive and low tone-loss type sensorineural hearing losses. PMID:8566929

  12. Supersonic jet screech tone cancellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagel, R. T.; Denham, J. W.; Papathanasiou, A. G.

    1983-01-01

    A new method of supersonic jet screech tone reduction is presented. The method utilizes a sound reflecting surface positioned upstream of the nozzle exit a distance of one-quarter wavelength of the fundamental screech tone. The reflector establishes a standing wave pattern of acoustic waves with a node at the nozzle exit plane. The pressure minimum at the exit halts the screech tone feedback mechanism. Experimental results indicate that the method eliminates supersonic jet screech as effectively as the currently accepted technique using an intrusive tab, but without distortion of the jet flow. The change in shock cell spacing, which occurs with an intrusive tab, does not occur when screech is cancelled with the new technique. The broadband shock-associated noise is also influenced much less when the jet screech tones are eliminated by the new method.

  13. Interactive Enhancement Of Tone Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troxel, Donald E.; Schreiber, William F.; Burzinski, Nancy J.; Matson, Mark D.

    1982-10-01

    The tone scale or gradation of a continuous tone picture is the most important factor related to the quality of an image. We have developed special purpose analog and digital circuitry that enables the real-time (30 updates per second) computation of a tone scale transformation which is then applied to a digitized picture being displayed on a television monitor. In our system the tone scale transformations are controlled by knobs that are labeled in terms meaningful to photographic artisans, rather than requiring an operator to specify points on a transfer characteristic, as is common with other systems. These knobs directly specify minimum and maximum densities, brightness, and shadow, highlight, and overall contrast. These control parameters may be selectively enabled by the operator. After the appropriate aesthetic modifications have been achieved on the television display, the operator may initiate the transformation of the complete stored image prior to subsequent computer processing or hard copy output.

  14. Interactive Enhancement Of Tone Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troxel, Donald E.; Schreiber, William F.; Burzinski, Nancy J.; Matson, Mark D.

    1982-07-01

    The tone scale or gradation of a continuous tone picture is the most important factor related to the quality of an image. We have developed special purpose analog and digital circuitry which enables the real-time (30 updates per second) computation of a tone scale transformation which is then applied to a digitized picture being displayed on a television monitor. In our system the tone scale transformations are controlled by knobs which are labelled in terms meaningful to photographic artisans, rather than requiring an operator to specify points on a transfer characteristic as is common with other systems. These knobs directly specify minimum and maximum densities, brightness, and shadow, highlight and overall contrast. These control parameters may be selectively enabled by the operator. After the appropriate aesthetic modifications have been achieved on the television display, the operator may initiate the transformation of the complete stored image prior to subsequent computer processing or hard copy output.

  15. Neural responses to one- and two-tone stimuli in the hearing organ of the dengue vector mosquito

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, Ben J.; Wyttenbach, Robert A.; Harrington, Laura C.; Hoy, Ronald R.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Recent studies demonstrate that mosquitoes listen to each other's wing beats just prior to mating in flight. Field potentials from sound-transducing neurons in the antennae contain both sustained and oscillatory components to pure and paired tone stimuli. Described here is a direct comparison of these two types of response in the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Across a wide range of frequencies and intensities, sustained responses to one- and two-tone stimuli are about equal in magnitude to oscillatory responses to the beats produced by two-tone stimuli. All of these responses are much larger than the oscillatory responses to one-tone stimuli. Similarly, the frequency range extends up to at least the fifth harmonic of the male flight tone for sustained responses to one- and two-tone stimuli and oscillatory responses at the beat frequency of two-tone stimuli, whereas the range of oscillatory response to a one-tone stimulus is limited to, at most, the third harmonic. Thresholds near the fundamental of the flight tone are lower for oscillatory responses than for sustained deflections, lower for males than for females, and within the behaviorally relevant range. A simple model of the transduction process can qualitatively account for both oscillatory and sustained responses to pure and paired tones. These data leave open the question as to which of several alternative strategies underlie flight tone matching behavior in mosquitoes. PMID:20348350

  16. Temporal Ventriloquism in a Purely Temporal Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartcher-O'Brien, Jessica; Alais, David

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how audiovisual signals are combined in time for a temporal analogue of the ventriloquist effect in a purely temporal context, that is, no spatial grounding of signals or other spatial facilitation. Observers were presented with two successive intervals, each defined by a 1250-ms tone, and indicated in which interval a brief…

  17. Effect of low-frequency tones and turbulent-boundary-layer noise on annoyance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, K. P.; Leatherwood, J. D.; Clevenson, S. A.

    1983-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to examine annoyance to combinations of low-frequency tones and turbulent-boundary-layer noise. A total of 240 sounds, containing tones in the range from 80 to 315 Hz, were rated by 108 test subjects in an anechoic chamber. The results indicated that tone penalties (defines as the failure of a noise metric to account for the presence of pure tones) are highly dependent on the choice of noise metric. A-weighted sound pressure level underpredicted annoyance by as much as the equivalent of 5 db and unweighted sound pressure level overpredicted by as much as the equivalent of db. Tone penalties were observed to be dependent on the shape of the turbulent boundary-layer noise spectrum.

  18. The Myth of Tone Deafness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazez, Daniel

    1985-01-01

    The vague and virtually meaningless term "tone deaf" should be avoided because it encourages students to be incorrectly labeled as hopeless. If a student is oblivious to blatantly faulty intonation, and if his or her playing fails to improve after diligent practicing, a teacher should consider the possibility of diplacusis. (RM)

  19. Cortical Auditory Event Related Potentials (P300) for Frequency Changing Dynamic Tones

    PubMed Central

    Kalaiah, Mohan Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives P300 has been studied with a variety of stimuli. However, the nature of P300 has not been investigated for deviant stimuli which change its characteristics from standard stimuli after a period of time from onset. Subjects and Methods Nine young adults with normal hearing participated in the study. The P300 was elicited using an oddball paradigm, the probability of standard and deviant stimuli was 80% and 20% respectively. Six stimuli were used to elicit P300, it included two pure-tones (1,000 Hz and 2,000 Hz) and four tone-complexes (tones with frequency changes). Among these stimuli, 1,000 Hz tone served as standard while others served as deviant stimuli. The P300 was recorded in five separate blocks, with one of the deviant stimuli as target in each block. Electroencephalographic was recorded from electrode sites Fz, Cz, C3, C4, and Pz. Latency and amplitude of components of the cortical auditory evoked potentials were measured at Cz. Results Waveforms obtained in the present study shows that, all the deviant stimuli elicited obligatory P1-N1-P2 for stimulus onset. 2,000 Hz deviant tone elicited P300 at a latency of 300 ms. While, tone-complexes elicited acoustic change complex (ACC) for frequency changes and finally elicited P300 at a latency of 600 ms. In addition, the results showed shorter latency and larger amplitude ACC and P300 for rising tone-complexes compared to falling tone-complexes. Conclusions Tone-complexes elicited distinct waveforms compared to 2,000 Hz deviant tone. Rising tone-complexes which had an increase in frequency elicited shorter latency and larger amplitude responses, which could be attributed to perceptual bias for frequency changes. PMID:27144230

  20. Perception of pitch height in lexical and musical tones by English-speaking musicians and nonmusicians.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chao-Yang; Lekich, Allison; Zhang, Yu

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the music-speech relationship by examining pitch height perception in lexical and musical tones. English-speaking musicians and nonmusicians identified multispeaker Taiwanese level tones without typical cues for speaker normalization. The musicians also identified note names of piano, viola, and pure tones without a reference pitch. In the Taiwanese task, both the musicians and nonmusicians were able to identify tone height above chance, but only for tones at the extremes of the speakers' overall vocal range. The musicians only had a slight advantage over the nonmusicians. In the music task, none of the musicians met the criterion for absolute pitch. Timbre did not affect how accurately the musical tones were identified. No correlations were found between performance in the Taiwanese task and that in the music task. It was concluded that musicians' advantage in lexical tone perception arose from the ability to track F0 contours. The ability to identify pitch height in lexical tones appears to involve calibrating acoustic input according to gender-specific, internally stored pitch templates. PMID:24606295

  1. Amplitude modulation reduces loudness adaptation to high-frequency tones.

    PubMed

    Wynne, Dwight P; George, Sahara E; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2015-07-01

    Long-term loudness perception of a sound has been presumed to depend on the spatial distribution of activated auditory nerve fibers as well as their temporal firing pattern. The relative contributions of those two factors were investigated by measuring loudness adaptation to sinusoidally amplitude-modulated 12-kHz tones. The tones had a total duration of 180 s and were either unmodulated or 100%-modulated at one of three frequencies (4, 20, or 100 Hz), and additionally varied in modulation depth from 0% to 100% at the 4-Hz frequency only. Every 30 s, normal-hearing subjects estimated the loudness of one of the stimuli played at 15 dB above threshold in random order. Without any amplitude modulation, the loudness of the unmodulated tone after 180 s was only 20% of the loudness at the onset of the stimulus. Amplitude modulation systematically reduced the amount of loudness adaptation, with the 100%-modulated stimuli, regardless of modulation frequency, maintaining on average 55%-80% of the loudness at onset after 180 s. Because the present low-frequency amplitude modulation produced minimal changes in long-term spectral cues affecting the spatial distribution of excitation produced by a 12-kHz pure tone, the present result indicates that neural synchronization is critical to maintaining loudness perception over time. PMID:26233027

  2. Spectral and temporal integration of brief tones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoglund, Evelyn M.

    Spectral and temporal processing have an extensive history of research for the discrimination and integration of tones. The integration of both dimensions simultaneously, however, has received little attention in psychoacoustics. This dual integration is vital to our daily processing of sounds around us, and has also not been effectively addressed in the ecological acoustics research. For this reason, we still have essentially no understanding of how the auditory system processes sounds that are changing in both frequency and time domains at the same time. This study was designed to begin the process of measuring the basic detection of signals that vary in both spectral and temporal dimensions. Baseline measures of detection for 10 msec pure tones were taken and the levels adjusted so that all the frequencies could be detected at the same level of attenuation. The thresholds were then obtained for spectral integration of the signals and for temporal integration, so that these results could be compared with prior research. The signals were then varied on both dimensions simultaneously in several ways: with equal spectral and temporal step sizes, different spectral and temporal step sizes, random presentation, and with doubled spectral or temporal information. The data were also analyzed along several differences: spectral step size, temporal step size, frequency range, direction, slope, and predictability. The spectral and temporal integration conditions showed a good match with the results of prior research, showing that the current procedures and signals could be used to reliably compare to existing results. The spectrotemporal integration conditions showed the threshold for overall detection of the signals to be limited by the ability to integrate spectral information, while the temporal integration was much better. Additionally, very little influence could be seen by most of the differences in signals. Surprisingly, random presentation of frequencies did not

  3. Root Tone: A Holistic Approach to Tone Pedagogy of Western Classical Flute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BastaniNezhad, Arya

    2012-01-01

    This article examines how key components of holistic tone production can help flutists form a resonant tone. This is framed in an exploration of tone pedagogy and includes a model of tone evaluation and education. This research is also applicable to other instrumentalists, especially wind players. In this case study information was collected by…

  4. Perception of Mandarin Chinese Tone 2/Tone 3 and the Role of Creaky Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Rui

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that lexical tones, a suprasegmental feature, are processed by native speakers as linguistic elements just like other segmental information. Among the four tones of Mandarin Chinese, in particular, Tone 2 and Tone 3 are very similar in their pitch contour shapes and thus can be difficult to distinguish in native and nonnative…

  5. The Role of Tone Height, Melodic Contour, and Tone Chroma in Melody Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massaro, Dominic W.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Relationships among tone height, melodic contour, tone chroma, and recognition of recently learned melodies were investigated. Results replicated previous studies using familiar folk songs, providing evidence that melodic contour, tone chroma, and tone height contribute to recognition of both highly familiar and recently learned melodies.…

  6. Neural signatures of lexical tone reading.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Veronica P Y; Wang, Tianfu; Chen, Siping; Yakpo, Kofi; Zhu, Linlin; Fox, Peter T; Tan, Li Hai

    2015-01-01

    Research on how lexical tone is neuroanatomically represented in the human brain is central to our understanding of cortical regions subserving language. Past studies have exclusively focused on tone perception of the spoken language, and little is known as to the lexical tone processing in reading visual words and its associated brain mechanisms. In this study, we performed two experiments to identify neural substrates in Chinese tone reading. First, we used a tone judgment paradigm to investigate tone processing of visually presented Chinese characters. We found that, relative to baseline, tone perception of printed Chinese characters were mediated by strong brain activation in bilateral frontal regions, left inferior parietal lobule, left posterior middle/medial temporal gyrus, left inferior temporal region, bilateral visual systems, and cerebellum. Surprisingly, no activation was found in superior temporal regions, brain sites well known for speech tone processing. In activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis to combine results of relevant published studies, we attempted to elucidate whether the left temporal cortex activities identified in Experiment one is consistent with those found in previous studies of auditory lexical tone perception. ALE results showed that only the left superior temporal gyrus and putamen were critical in auditory lexical tone processing. These findings suggest that activation in the superior temporal cortex associated with lexical tone perception is modality-dependent. PMID:25196948

  7. Aerial radiation surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Jobst, J.

    1980-01-01

    A recent aerial radiation survey of the surroundings of the Vitro mill in Salt Lake City shows that uranium mill tailings have been removed to many locations outside their original boundary. To date, 52 remote sites have been discovered within a 100 square kilometer aerial survey perimeter surrounding the mill; 9 of these were discovered with the recent aerial survey map. Five additional sites, also discovered by aerial survey, contained uranium ore, milling equipment, or radioactive slag. Because of the success of this survey, plans are being made to extend the aerial survey program to other parts of the Salt Lake valley where diversions of Vitro tailings are also known to exist.

  8. Explaining the Railsback stretch in terms of the inharmonicity of piano tones and sensory dissonance.

    PubMed

    Giordano, N

    2015-10-01

    The perceptual results of Plomp and Levelt [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 38, 548-560 (1965)] for the sensory dissonance of a pair of pure tones are used to estimate the dissonance of pairs of piano tones. By using the spectra of tones measured for a real piano, the effect of the inharmonicity of the tones is included. This leads to a prediction for how the tuning of this piano should deviate from an ideal equal tempered scale so as to give the smallest sensory dissonance and hence give the most pleasing tuning. The results agree with the well known "Railsback stretch," the average tuning curve produced by skilled piano technicians. The authors' analysis thus gives a quantitative explanation of the magnitude of the Railsback stretch in terms of the human perception of dissonance. PMID:26520317

  9. Perceptual image quality: Effects of tone characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Delahunt, Peter B.; Zhang, Xuemei; Brainard, David H.

    2007-01-01

    Tone mapping refers to the conversion of luminance values recorded by a digital camera or other acquisition device, to the luminance levels available from an output device, such as a monitor or a printer. Tone mapping can improve the appearance of rendered images. Although there are a variety of algorithms available, there is little information about the image tone characteristics that produce pleasing images. We devised an experiment where preferences for images with different tone characteristics were measured. The results indicate that there is a systematic relation between image tone characteristics and perceptual image quality for images containing faces. For these images, a mean face luminance level of 46–49 CIELAB L* units and a luminance standard deviation (taken over the whole image) of 18 CIELAB L* units produced the best renderings. This information is relevant for the design of tone-mapping algorithms, particularly as many images taken by digital camera users include faces. PMID:17235365

  10. Aerial Image Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, Robert E.

    1987-09-01

    Aerial images produce the best stereoscopic images of the viewed world. Despite the fact that every optic in existence produces an aerial image, few persons are aware of their existence and possible uses. Constant reference to the eye and other optical systems have produced a psychosis of design that only considers "focal planes" in the design and analysis of optical systems. All objects in the field of view of the optical device are imaged by the device as an aerial image. Use of aerial images in vision and visual display systems can provide a true stereoscopic representation of the viewed world. This paper discusses aerial image systems - their applications and designs and presents designs and design concepts that utilize aerial images to obtain superior visual displays, particularly with application to visual simulation.

  11. Effects of Lexical Tone Contour on Mandarin Sentence Intelligibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Fei; Wong, Lena L. N.; Hu, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of lexical tone contour on the intelligibility of Mandarin sentences in quiet and in noise. Method: A text-to-speech synthesis engine was used to synthesize Mandarin sentences with each word carrying the original lexical tone, flat tone, or a tone randomly selected from the 4 Mandarin lexical tones. The…

  12. The Phonology and Phonetics of Tone Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramadoss, Deepti

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation studies the perception of tones in Thai, and aims to contribute to a formal characterization of speech perception more generally. Earlier work had argued that perception of tones involves retrieval of some abstract "autosegmental" representation provided by the phonology, while another line of work had argued for the…

  13. Clause Structure and Tone in Sandawe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elderkin, Edward D.

    1991-01-01

    In a tone language, tonal distinctions between words in sequence can often be analyzed using the same devices that are applied within the word (e.g., downdrift or downstep). However, it is proposed here that Sandawe is a tone language in which the tonal relationships between constituents in clause structure, and between constituents in phrase…

  14. Aerial photographic reproductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1975-01-01

    The National Cartographic Information Center of the U.S. Geological Survey maintains records of aerial photographic coverage of the United States and its Territories, based on reports from other Federal agencies as well as State governmental agencies and commercial companies. From these records, the Center furnishes data to prospective purchasers on available photography and the agency holding the aerial film.

  15. Children's Acquisition of Tone 3 Sandhi in Mandarin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chiung-Yao

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the dissertation is to examine Mandarin-speaking children's acquisition of a syntax-dependent phonological rule Tone 3 Sandhi (T3S). A Tone 3 (low dipping tone) is changed to a Tone 2 (mid rising tone) when it is followed by another Tone 3. Application of T3S in fact involves a complex process. In setting up the prosodic domains…

  16. Sleep physiology: setting the right tone.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, Mark S

    2013-09-23

    Humans prone to cataplexy experience sudden losses of postural muscle tone without a corresponding loss of conscious awareness. The brain mechanisms underlying this debilitating decoupling are now better understood, thanks to a new study using cataplectic mice. PMID:24070441

  17. Positive tone oxide nanoparticle EUV (ONE) photoresists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Mufei; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.; Ober, Christopher K.

    2016-03-01

    Nanoparticles with a variety of organic/inorganic combinations have been investigated and the negative tone patterning was demonstrated using EUV radiation. Zirconium methacrylate (ZrMAA) nanoparticles had sensitivity with EUV exposure as high as 4.2 mJ/cm2 with a resolution up to 22 nm, and an LER of 5.6 nm. Meanwhile, the dual-tone behavior of ZrMAA photoresists using e-beam and deep UV exposures is another attractive feature of the nanoparticle photoresists, which may be further applied with EUV lithography. The current study investigates the positive tone patterning of ZrMAA and the process-dependent image reversal. Our proposed patterning mechanism is further illustrated and optimized based in a positive tone behavior study.

  18. Tone-activated, remote, alert communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, C. D.; Couvillon, L. A.; Hubbard, W. P.; Kollar, F. J.; Postal, R. B.; Tegnelia, C. R.

    1971-01-01

    Pocket sized transmitter, frequency modulated by crystal derived tones, with integral loop antenna provides police with easy operating alert signal communicator which uses patrol car radio to relay signal. Communication channels are time shared by several patrol units.

  19. Tone and prosodic organization in Cherokee nouns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Keith; Haag, Marcia

    2005-04-01

    Preliminary observations in the speech of one speaker of Cherokee led us to postulate three factors affecting tone in Cherokee. (1) Tone may be lexically specified with distinctive low, low fall, low rise, and high tones. (2) There is a metrically determined high fall pattern which may be distributed over not more than 2 syllables from the right edge of a prosodic domain. (3) Intonational domains may be associated with discourse functions, marked by high fall, or by pitch range upstep. This paper tests these observations in recordings of word lists and sentences produced by five additional speakers. The analysis we give, positing both lexical tone and metrical prosodic accent, is not unique in descriptions of language, but is different from the usual description of Cherokee. [Work supported by NSF.

  20. Negative-tone 193-nm resists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sungseo; Vander Heyden, Anthony; Byers, Jeff D.; Willson, C. Grant

    2000-06-01

    A great deal of progress has been made in the design of single layer positive tone resists for 193 nm lithography. Commercial samples of such materials are now available from many vendors. The patterning of certain levels of devices profits from the use of negative tone resists. There have been several reports of work directed toward the design of negative tones resists for 193 nm exposure but, none have performed as well as the positive tone systems. Polymers with alicyclic structures in the backbone have emerged as excellent platforms from which to design positive tone resists for 193 nm exposure. We now report the adaptation of this class of polymers to the design of high performance negative tone 193 nm resists. New systems have been prepared that are based on a polarity switch mechanism for modulation of the dissolution rate. The systems are based on a polar, alicyclic polymer backbone that includes a monomer bearing a glycol pendant group that undergoes the acid catalyzed pinacol rearrangement upon exposure and bake to produce the corresponding less polar ketone. This monomer was copolymerized with maleic anhydride and a norbornene bearing a bis-trifluoromethylcarbinol. The rearrangement of the copolymer was monitored by FT-IR as a function of temperature. The synthesis of the norbornene monomers will be presented together with characterization of copolymers of these monomers with maleic anhydride. The lithographic performance of the new resist system will also be presented.

  1. Numerical simulation of the edge tone phenomenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dougherty, N. S.; Liu, B. L.; Ofarrell, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    Time accurate Navier-Stokes computations were performed to study a class 2 (acoustic) whistle, the edge tone, and to gain knowledge of the vortex-acoustic coupling mechanisms driving production of these tones. Results were obtained by solving the full Navier-Stokes equations for laminar compressible air flow of a two dimensional jet issuing from a slit interacting with a wedge. Cases considered were determined by varying the distance from the slit to the wedge. Flow speed was kept constant at 1,750 cm/s as was the slit thickness of 0.1 cm, corresponding to conditions in the experiments of Brown. The analytical computations revealed edge tones to be present in four harmonic stages of jet flow instability over the wedge as the jet length was varied from 0.3 to 1.6 cm. Excellent agreement was obtained in all four edge tone stage cases between the present computational results and the experimentally obtained frequencies and flow visualization results of Brown. Specific edge tone generation phenomena and further confirmation of certain theories and empirical formulas concerning these phenomena were brought to light in this analytical simulation of edge tones.

  2. General perceptual contributions to lexical tone normalization.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jingyuan; Holt, Lori L

    2009-06-01

    Within tone languages that use pitch variations to contrast meaning, large variability exists in the pitches produced by different speakers. Context-dependent perception may help to resolve this perceptual challenge. However, whether speakers rely on context in contour tone perception is unclear; previous studies have produced inconsistent results. The present study aimed to provide an unambiguous test of the effect of context on contour lexical tone perception and to explore its underlying mechanisms. In three experiments, Mandarin listeners' perception of Mandarin first and second (high-level and mid-rising) tones was investigated with preceding speech and non-speech contexts. Results indicate that the mean fundamental frequency (f0) of a preceding sentence affects perception of contour lexical tones and the effect is contrastive. Following a sentence with a higher-frequency mean f0, the following syllable is more likely to be perceived as a lower frequency lexical tone and vice versa. Moreover, non-speech precursors modeling the mean spectrum of f0 also elicit this effect, suggesting general perceptual processing rather than articulatory-based or speaker-identity-driven mechanisms. PMID:19507980

  3. Imaging study of positive and negative tone weak phase-shifted 65 nm node contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, James V.; Petersen, John S.; Greenway, Robert T.; Maslow, Mark J.; MacDonald, Susan S.; Margolis, Lee H.; Hughes, Gregory P.

    2005-05-01

    CPL and aerial image mapping type contact designs for both negative and positive tones were created, built and tested for 100 nm and sub-100 nm contacts. Experimental results illustrated the need for electromagnetic-field corrections in the simulations. Resolution down to 80nm dense contacts were seen with both negative and positive resists with acceptable process windows though some process optimization is still required as unacceptable CD variation and a reentrant profile was observed. High MEEF requires strict CD control on the mask. Data volume for the isolated contact designs can also challenge the mask build.

  4. Computational Support for Early Elicitation and Classification of Tone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Steven; Lee, Haejoong

    2014-01-01

    Investigating a tone language involves careful transcription of tone on words and phrases. This is challenging when the phonological categories--the tones or melodies--have not been identified. Effects such as coarticulation, sandhi, and phrase-level prosody appear as obstacles to early elicitation and classification of tone. This article presents…

  5. Comparison of Tone Mode Measurements for a Forward Swept and Baseline Rotor Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidelberg, Laurence J.

    2003-01-01

    A forward swept fan, designated the Quite High Speed Fan (QHSF), was tested in the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel to investigate its noise reduction relative to a baseline fan of the same aerodynamic performance. The design objective of the QHSF was a 6 dB reduction in Effective Perceived Noise Level relative to the baseline fan at the takeoff condition. The design noise reduction was to be a result of lower levels of multiple pure tone noise due to the forward swept rotor, and lower rotor/stator interaction tone noise from a leaned stator. Although the design 6 dB reduction was observed in far-field measurements, the induct mode measurements revealed the reasons for goals. All of the noise reduction was from the blade passing tone and its harmonics and most of this was unexpectedly from rotor/strut interaction modes. The reason for large differences in rotor/strut noise sources could not be determined with certainty. The reductions in the multiple pure tone noise for the forward swept rotor were not observed. this reduction were not the ones related to the design

  6. The Role of Amplitude Envelope in Lexical Tone Perception: Evidence from Cantonese Lexical Tone Discrimination in Adults with Normal Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Yining Victor

    2012-01-01

    Previously published studies on the role of amplitude envelope in lexical tone perception focused on Mandarin only. Amplitude envelope was found to co-vary with fundamental frequency in Mandarin lexical tones, and amplitude envelope alone could cue tone perception in Mandarin which uses primarily tone contour for phonemic tonal contrasts. The…

  7. Studying Emergent Tone-Systems in Nepal: Pitch, Phonation and Word-Tone in Tamang

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazaudon, Martine

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the particular kinds of difficulties which arise in the study of an emergent tone-system, exemplified by Tamang in Nepal, where pitch, phonation and other laryngeal features combine in the definition of a tone. As a consequence, conducting a well-ordered analysis in stages first of phonetic transcription, then variation in…

  8. Beating frequency and amplitude modulation of the piano tone due to coupling of tones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartling, Bo

    2005-04-01

    The influence on a piano tone from weak coexcitation of damped adjacent tones due to coupling via the bridge is studied. The frequency and amplitude modulation of the sound resulting from coexcitation of one strong and one or two weak tones is analyzed. One weak tone causes frequency and amplitude modulation of the sound, and two weak tones produce beating frequency and amplitude modulation, where the beatings of the two modulations are of opposite phase. By digital recording of the sound of piano tones, the appearance of these phenomena is verified. The audibility of the observed frequency and amplitude modulation is discussed in terms of previously determined detection thresholds. The beating character of both frequency and amplitude modulations, however, distinguishes the phenomena from those previously studied and prompts further psychoacoustic investigations. It is shown that detuning of unison strings may significantly increase the frequency deviation of the frequency modulation in conjunction with affected amplitude modulation. The modulatory effects of coupling to adjacent tones therefore may possibly be utilized in the tuning process. A coupling of tones analogous to the situation in a piano may arise in other stringed musical instruments transferring string vibrations to a soundboard via a bridge. .

  9. Beating frequency and amplitude modulation of the piano tone due to coupling of tones.

    PubMed

    Cartling, Bo

    2005-04-01

    The influence on a piano tone from weak coexcitation of damped adjacent tones due to coupling via the bridge is studied. The frequency and amplitude modulation of the sound resulting from coexcitation of one strong and one or two weak tones is analyzed. One weak tone causes frequency and amplitude modulation of the sound, and two weak tones produce beating frequency and amplitude modulation, where the beatings of the two modulations are of opposite phase. By digital recording of the sound of piano tones, the appearance of these phenomena is verified. The audibility of the observed frequency and amplitude modulation is discussed in terms of previously determined detection thresholds. The beating character of both frequency and amplitude modulations, however, distinguishes the phenomena from those previously studied and prompts further psychoacoustic investigations. It is shown that detuning of unison strings may significantly increase the frequency deviation of the frequency modulation in conjunction with affected amplitude modulation. The modulatory effects of coupling to adjacent tones therefore may possibly be utilized in the tuning process. A coupling of tones analogous to the situation in a piano may arise in other stringed musical instruments transferring string vibrations to a soundboard via a bridge. PMID:15898666

  10. Aerial Photography Summary Record System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1998-01-01

    The Aerial Photography Summary Record System (APSRS) describes aerial photography projects that meet specified criteria over a given geographic area of the United States and its territories. Aerial photographs are an important tool in cartography and a number of other professions. Land use planners, real estate developers, lawyers, environmental specialists, and many other professionals rely on detailed and timely aerial photographs. Until 1975, there was no systematic approach to locate an aerial photograph, or series of photographs, quickly and easily. In that year, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) inaugurated the APSRS, which has become a standard reference for users of aerial photographs.

  11. Direct Numerical Simulation of Automobile Cavity Tones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurbatskii, Konstantin; Tam, Christopher K. W.

    2000-01-01

    The Navier Stokes equation is solved computationally by the Dispersion-Relation-Preserving (DRP) scheme for the flow and acoustic fields associated with a laminar boundary layer flow over an automobile door cavity. In this work, the flow Reynolds number is restricted to R(sub delta*) < 3400; the range of Reynolds number for which laminar flow may be maintained. This investigation focuses on two aspects of the problem, namely, the effect of boundary layer thickness on the cavity tone frequency and intensity and the effect of the size of the computation domain on the accuracy of the numerical simulation. It is found that the tone frequency decreases with an increase in boundary layer thickness. When the boundary layer is thicker than a certain critical value, depending on the flow speed, no tone is emitted by the cavity. Computationally, solutions of aeroacoustics problems are known to be sensitive to the size of the computation domain. Numerical experiments indicate that the use of a small domain could result in normal mode type acoustic oscillations in the entire computation domain leading to an increase in tone frequency and intensity. When the computation domain is expanded so that the boundaries are at least one wavelength away from the noise source, the computed tone frequency and intensity are found to be computation domain size independent.

  12. Variation of Taiwanese tones in conversation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Pei-Yu; Tsay, Jane

    2001-05-01

    In laboratory research on tonal coarticulation in Taiwanese, one study [H.-B, Lin, Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. of Connecticut (1988)] reported a perseveratory effect but no anticipatory effect, while another [S.-H. Peng, J. Phonetics 25, 371-400 (1997)] found a significant anticipatory effect. Peng also found tonal variation due to prosodic positions. Unlike these previous laboratory studies, this study attempts to investigate tonal coarticulation and prosodic effects on Taiwanese tones using natural conversations from the Taiwanese Spoken Corpus (Tsay and Myers, 2004), of which 56 min of recorded conversations were analyzed. Consistent with Lin, the results showed that tone is more affected by the preceding tone than by the following tone. The slope is more influenced by the preceding tone as well. As for prosodic effects, the results confirmed Peng, showing that F0 is the lowest in utterance-final position, while in other phrase-final positions it is slightly lower than in non-phrase-final position. This study thus demonstrates the results obtained in the laboratory do indeed carry over into actual conversation.

  13. Pilot-Tone System for Mobile Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davarian, F.

    1986-01-01

    In mobile communication system called tone-calibrated technique, pilot tone provides phase- and amplitude-calibration reference to enable coherent demodulation of signal at receiver despite fading. Signal received by or from mobile terminal faded due to motion of terminal and propagation of signal along multiple paths. Fading introduces random amplitude modulation and phase modulation with bandwidth of twice Doppler frequency shift. Degrading effects of multipath fading reduced. Tonecalibrated technique for use with phase-modulated data or telephony systems using Manchester digital pulse-code modulation.

  14. Aerial Explorers and Robotic Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg

    2004-01-01

    A unique bio-inspired approach to autonomous aerial vehicle, a.k.a. aerial explorer technology is discussed. The work is focused on defining and studying aerial explorer mission concepts, both as an individual robotic system and as a member of a small robotic "ecosystem." Members of this robotic ecosystem include the aerial explorer, air-deployed sensors and robotic symbiotes, and other assets such as rovers, landers, and orbiters.

  15. Twisted partially pure spinors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Rafael; Tellez, Ivan

    2016-08-01

    Motivated by the relationship between orthogonal complex structures and pure spinors, we define twisted partially pure spinors in order to characterize spinorially subspaces of Euclidean space endowed with a complex structure.

  16. Aerial photographic reproductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1971-01-01

    Geological Survey vertical aerial photography is obtained primarily for topographic and geologic mapping. Reproductions from this photography are usually satisfactory for general use. Because reproductions are not stocked, but are custom processed for each order, they cannot be returned for credit or refund.

  17. Aerial of the VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Even in this aerial view at KSC, the Vehicle Assembly Building is imposing. In front of it is the Launch Control Center. In the background is the Rotation/Processing Facility, next to the Banana Creek. In the foreground is the Saturn Causeway that leads to Launch Pads 39A and 39B.

  18. Aerial Perspective Artistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a lesson centering on aerial perspective artistry of students and offers suggestions on how art teachers should carry this project out. This project serves to develop students' visual perception by studying reproductions by famous artists. This lesson allows one to imagine being lured into a landscape capable of captivating…

  19. Local adaptive tone mapping for video enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachine, Vladimir; Dai, Min (.

    2015-03-01

    As new technologies like High Dynamic Range cameras, AMOLED and high resolution displays emerge on consumer electronics market, it becomes very important to deliver the best picture quality for mobile devices. Tone Mapping (TM) is a popular technique to enhance visual quality. However, the traditional implementation of Tone Mapping procedure is limited by pixel's value to value mapping, and the performance is restricted in terms of local sharpness and colorfulness. To overcome the drawbacks of traditional TM, we propose a spatial-frequency based framework in this paper. In the proposed solution, intensity component of an input video/image signal is split on low pass filtered (LPF) and high pass filtered (HPF) bands. Tone Mapping (TM) function is applied to LPF band to improve the global contrast/brightness, and HPF band is added back afterwards to keep the local contrast. The HPF band may be adjusted by a coring function to avoid noise boosting and signal overshooting. Colorfulness of an original image may be preserved or enhanced by chroma components correction by means of saturation function. Localized content adaptation is further improved by dividing an image to a set of non-overlapped regions and modifying each region individually. The suggested framework allows users to implement a wide range of tone mapping applications with perceptional local sharpness and colorfulness preserved or enhanced. Corresponding hardware circuit may be integrated in camera, video or display pipeline with minimal hardware budget

  20. The Segments and Tones of Soyaltepec Mazatec

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal, Heather D.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation describes the segments and tones of Soyaltepec Mazatec, an Oto-Manguean language of southern Mexico virtually undescribed in the literature with the exception of Pike (1956). The preliminary work done by Pike and subsequent analyses by Goldsmith (1990) and Pizer (1994) are reviewed giving evidence that the system is complex and…

  1. Collaborative Documentation and Revitalization of Cherokee Tone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrick, Dylan; Berardo, Marcellino; Feeling, Durbin; Hirata-Edds, Tracy; Peter, Lizette

    2015-01-01

    Cherokee, the sole member of the southern branch of Iroquoian languages, is a severely endangered language. Unlike other members of the Iroquoian family, Cherokee has lexical tone. Community members are concerned about the potential loss of their language, and both speakers and teachers comment on the difficulty that language learners have with…

  2. Tone-excited jet: Theory and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahuja, K. K.; Lepicovsky, J.; Tam, C. K. W.; Morris, P. J.; Burrin, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed study to understand the phenomenon of broadband jet-noise amplification produced by upstream discrete-tone sound excitation has been carried out. This has been achieved by simultaneous acquisition of the acoustic, mean velocity, turbulence intensities, and instability-wave pressure data. A 5.08 cm diameter jet has been tested for this purpose under static and also flight-simulation conditions. An open-jet wind tunnel has been used to simulate the flight effects. Limited data on heated jets have also been obtained. To improve the physical understanding of the flow modifications brought about by the upstream discrete-tone excitation, ensemble-averaged schlieren photographs of the jets have also been taken. Parallel to the experimental study, a mathematical model of the processes that lead to broadband-noise amplification by upstream tones has been developed. Excitation of large-scale turbulence by upstream tones is first calculated. A model to predict the changes in small-scale turbulence is then developed. By numerically integrating the resultant set of equations, the enhanced small-scale turbulence distribution in a jet under various excitation conditions is obtained. The resulting changes in small-scale turbulence have been attributed to broadband amplification of jet noise. Excellent agreement has been found between the theory and the experiments. It has also shown that the relative velocity effects are the same for the excited and the unexcited jets.

  3. The value of visualizing tone of voice.

    PubMed

    Pullin, Graham; Cook, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    Whilst most of us have an innate feeling for tone of voice, it is an elusive quality that even phoneticians struggle to describe with sufficient subtlety. For people who cannot speak themselves this can have particularly profound repercussions. Augmentative communication often involves text-to-speech, a technology that only supports a basic choice of prosody based on punctuation. Given how inherently difficult it is to talk about more nuanced tone of voice, there is a risk that its absence from current devices goes unremarked and unchallenged. Looking ahead optimistically to more expressive communication aids, their design will need to involve more subtle interactions with tone of voice-interactions that the people using them can understand and engage with. Interaction design can play a role in making tone of voice visible, tangible, and accessible. Two projects that have already catalysed interdisciplinary debate in this area, Six Speaking Chairs and Speech Hedge, are introduced together with responses. A broader role for design is advocated, as a means to opening up speech technology research to a wider range of disciplinary perspectives, and also to the contributions and influence of people who use it in their everyday lives. PMID:23855927

  4. Tone Holes and Frequency of Open Pipes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shult, Donald E.

    1991-01-01

    Presented is an experiment which provides a study both of the end correction involved with open pipes and also of the effect that varying the size of the tone hole in the pipe has on its fundamental frequency. Discussed are equipment, formulas, background, and methods. (CW)

  5. Two-tone distortion in intracochlear pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Wei; Olson, Elizabeth S.

    2005-05-01

    Two-tone distortion was measured in the intracochlear pressure in the base of the gerbil cochlea, close to the sensory tissue, where the local motions and forces of the organ of Corti can be detected. The measurements probe both the underlying nonlinear process that generates two-tone distortion, and the filtering and spreading of the distortion products. Some of our findings are as follows: (1) The observations were consistent with previous observations of two-tone distortion in BM motion [J. Neurophysiol. 77, 2385-2399 (1997); J. Neurophysiol. 78, 261-270 (1997)]. (2) Frequency sweeps show distortion product tuning and phase-versus-frequency behavior that is similar, but not identical, to single tone tuning. (3) The decay of distortion products with distance from the basilar membrane confirms the feasibility that they could drive the stapes by a direct fluid route, as proposed by Ren [Nat. Neurosci. 7, 333-334 (2004)]. (4) The phases of the distortion products within a single family (the group of distortion products generated by a single primary pair) in some cases alternated between 0° and 180° when referenced to the phases of the primaries. This behavior is predicted by a simple compressive nonlinearity. .

  6. Study of the brightness of trumpet tones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirson, Emilie; Petiot, Jean-François; Gilbert, Joël

    2005-10-01

    This study focuses on a particular attribute of trumpet tones, the brightness, and on the physical characteristics of the instrument thought to govern its magnitude. On the one hand, an objective study was carried out with input impedance measurements, and, on the other hand, a subjective study with hearing tests and a panel of subjects. To create a set of different trumpets a variable depth mouthpiece was developed whose depth can be easily and continuously adjusted from ``deep'' to ``shallow.'' Using this mouthpiece and the same trumpet, several instruments were generated which may be played in three ways: (i) by a musician, (ii) by an artificial mouth, and (iii) using physical modeling simulations. The influence of the depth of the mouthpiece on the perception of the trumpet's tones was investigated, and the ability of a musician, the artificial mouth, or physical modeling simulations to demonstrate perceptively noticeable differences was assessed. Physical characteristics extracted from the impedance curves are finally proposed to explain the brightness of trumpet tones. As a result, the physical modeling simulations now seem to be mature enough to exhibit coherent and subtle perceptual differences between tones. This opens the door to virtual acoustics for instrument makers.

  7. The Siren's Song: Exploitation of Female Flight Tones to Passively Capture Male Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Brian J; Ritchie, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    The need to capture male mosquitoes has intensified recently as a result of a number of male-based sterile insect technique (SIT) and population-modification programs focused on Aedes aegypti (L.) having initiated field releases. Here, we report the results of the successful exploitation of the attraction of male Ae. aegypti to female flight tones to enhance male collections in nonmechanical passive (nonbattery powered) Gravid Aedes Traps (GAT). Prior to field studies, male attraction to female flight tones of 484 and 560 Hz, as well as to a male flight tone of 715 Hz, were assessed in a series of controlled release-recapture and semifield trials. These trials determined that a pure tone of 484 Hz was significantly more attractive to free-flying males than the other flight tones and enabled their collection in sound-baited GATs (ca. 95% capture rate after 2 h; 484 Hz at 65 dB). In contrast, gravid females were unresponsive to male or female flight tones and were evenly distributed among sound-baited and control GATs. Importantly, under normal field conditions sound-baited GATs (484 Hz at 70 dB) captured significantly more male Ae. aegypti per 24-h trap interval (1.3 ± 0.37) than controls (0.2 ± 0.13). Overall, sound-bated GATs captured approximately twice as many Ae. aegypti (male and female; 3.0 ± 0.68 per interval, 30 total) than controls (1.5 ± 0.56 per interval, 15 total). These results reveal that sound-baited GATs are a simple and effective surveillance tool for Ae. aegypti that would allow current male-based SIT and population-modification programs to effectively monitor males in their target populations. PMID:26502754

  8. The role of excitation-pattern cues in the detection of frequency shifts in bandpass-filtered complex tones.

    PubMed

    Marmel, Frederic; Plack, Christopher J; Hopkins, Kathryn; Carlyon, Robert P; Gockel, Hedwig E; Moore, Brian C J

    2015-05-01

    One task intended to measure sensitivity to temporal fine structure (TFS) involves the discrimination of a harmonic complex tone from a tone in which all harmonics are shifted upwards by the same amount in hertz. Both tones are passed through a fixed bandpass filter centered on the high harmonics to reduce the availability of excitation-pattern cues and a background noise is used to mask combination tones. The role of frequency selectivity in this "TFS1" task was investigated by varying level. Experiment 1 showed that listeners performed more poorly at a high level than at a low level. Experiment 2 included intermediate levels and showed that performance deteriorated for levels above about 57 dB sound pressure level. Experiment 3 estimated the magnitude of excitation-pattern cues from the variation in forward masking of a pure tone as a function of frequency shift in the complex tones. There was negligible variation, except for the lowest level used. The results indicate that the changes in excitation level at threshold for the TFS1 task would be too small to be usable. The results are consistent with the TFS1 task being performed using TFS cues, and with frequency selectivity having an indirect effect on performance via its influence on TFS cues. PMID:25994700

  9. The effect of inharmonic partials on pitch of piano tones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Brian E.; Strong, William J.

    2005-05-01

    Piano tones have partials whose frequencies are sharp relative to harmonic values. A listening test was conducted to determine the effect of inharmonicity on pitch for piano tones in the lowest three octaves of a piano. Nine real tones from the lowest three octaves of a piano were analyzed to obtain frequencies, relative amplitudes, and decay rates of their partials. Synthetic inharmonic tones were produced from these results. Synthetic harmonic tones, each with a twelfth of a semitone increase in the fundamental, were also produced. A jury of 21 listeners matched the pitch of each synthetic inharmonic tone to one of the synthetic harmonic tones. The effect of the inharmonicity on pitch was determined from an average of the listeners' results. For the nine synthetic piano tones studied, pitch increase ranged from approximately two and a half semitones at low fundamental frequencies to an eighth of a semitone at higher fundamental frequencies. .

  10. Constrained tone transformation technique for separation and combination of Mandarin tone and intonation.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jinfu; Kawai, Hisashi; Hirose, Keikichi

    2006-03-01

    This paper addresses a classical but important problem: The coupling of lexical tones and sentence intonation in tonal languages, such as Chinese, focusing particularly on voice fundamental frequency (F1) contours of speech. It is important because it forms the basis of speech synthesis technology and prosody analysis. We provide a solution to the problem with a constrained tone transformation technique based on structural modeling of the F1 contours. This consists of transforming target values in pairs from norms to variants. These targets are intended to sparsely specify the prosodic contributions to the F1 contours, while the alignment of target pairs between norms and variants is based on underlying lexical tone structures. When the norms take the citation forms of lexical tones, the technique makes it possible to separate sentence intonation from observed F0 contours. When the norms take normative F0 contours, it is possible to measure intonation variations from the norms to the variants, both having identical lexical tone structures. This paper explains the underlying scientific and linguistic principles and presents an algorithm that was implemented on computers. The method's capability of separating and combining tone and intonation is evaluated through analysis and re-synthesis of several hundred observed F0 contours. PMID:16583918

  11. The use of color infrared aerial photography in determining salt marsh vegetation and delimiting man-made structures of Lynnhaven Bay, Virginia. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, R. E., III

    1974-01-01

    Color infrared aerial photography was found to be superior to color aerial photography in an ecological study of Lynnhaven Bay, Virginia. The research was divided into three phases: (1) Determination of the feasibility of correlating color infrared aerial photography with saline wetland species composition and zonation patterns, (2) determination of the accuracy of the aerial interpretation and problems related to the aerial method used; and (3) comparison of developed with undeveloped areas along Lynnhaven Bay's shoreline. Wetland species composition and plant community zonation bands were compared with aerial infrared photography and resulted in a high degree of correlation. Problems existed with changing physical conditions; time of day, aircraft angle and sun angle, making it necessary to use several different characteristics in wetland species identification. The main characteristics used were known zonation patterns, textural signatures and color tones. Lynnhaven Bay's shoreline was 61.5 percent developed.

  12. Tone Perception Ability of Cantonese-Speaking Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kathy Yuet Sheung; Chiu, Sung Nok; van Hasselt, Charles Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Investigated a new research design for the collection of reliable tone perception data from found children, compared lexical and nonlexical items for testing tone perception ability, and identified the relative ease of perceiving the three basic tone contrasts in Cantonese--high level/high rising, high level/low falling, and high rising/low…

  13. Effect of tones on vocal attack time in Cantonese speakers.

    PubMed

    Ma, Estella P-M; Baken, R J; Roark, Rick M; Li, P-M

    2012-09-01

    Vocal attack time (VAT) is the time lag between the growth of the sound pressure signal and the development of physical contact of vocal folds at vocal initiation. It can be derived by a cross-correlation of short-time amplitude changes occurring in the sound pressure and electroglottographic (EGG) signals. Cantonese is a tone language in which tone determines the lexical meaning of the syllable. Such linguistic function of tone has implications for the physiology of tone production. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible effects of Cantonese tones on VAT. Sound pressure and EGG signals were simultaneously recorded from 59 native Cantonese speakers (31 females and 28 males). The subjects were asked to read aloud 12 disyllabic words comprising homophone pairs of the six Cantonese lexical tones. Results revealed a gender difference in VAT values, with the mean VAT significantly smaller in females than in males. There was also a significant difference in VAT values between the two tone categories, with the mean VAT values of the three level tones (tone 1, 3, and 6) significantly smaller than those of the three contour tones (tone 2, 4, and 5). The findings support the notion that norms and interpretations based on nontone European languages may not be directly applied to tone languages. PMID:21978793

  14. English and Thai Speakers' Perception of Mandarin Tones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Language learners' language experience is predicted to display a significant effect on their accurate perception of foreign language sounds (Flege, 1995). At the superasegmental level, there is still a debate regarding whether tone language speakers are better able to perceive foreign lexical tones than non-tone language speakers (i.e Lee et al.,…

  15. Stress and Tone in Indo-Aryan Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhillon, Rajdip Kaur

    2010-01-01

    The current work offers a comprehensive examination of stress and tone in ten Indo-Aryan languages, providing novel analyses within Optimality Theory. The languages are divided into three categories: those in which tone is attracted to stress; those in which stress is attracted to tone; and those in which no interaction between stress and tone…

  16. Perception and Acoustic Correlates of the Taiwanese Tone Sandhi Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Chen-Hsiu

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation investigates how the Taiwanese Tone Sandhi Groups are perceived, and the acoustic/phonetics correlates of listeners' judgments. A series of perception experiments have been conducted to scrutinize the following topics--Taiwanese tone neutralization, Tone Sandhi Group (TSG) as a prosodic domain, perceived boundary strength in…

  17. Organising Western Spelling into Chinese Tone-Class Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jou, Bienming

    The author discusses his concept of "tonal spelling" for Chinese. This system spells out the patterns for the tone classes without marking their tone values; the same spelling formation spells out the same tone class and makes tonal orthography a "regular, striking, neat and clean-shaven script." Following a discussion of the principles underlying…

  18. AERIAL RADIOLOGICAL SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, A.E.

    1997-06-09

    Measuring terrestrial gamma radiation from airborne platforms has proved to be a useful method for characterizing radiation levels over large areas. Over 300 aerial radiological surveys have been carried out over the past 25 years including U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, commercial nuclear power plants, Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program/Uranium Mine Tailing Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP/UMTRAP) sites, nuclear weapons test sites, contaminated industrial areas, and nuclear accident sites. This paper describes the aerial measurement technology currently in use by the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) for routine environmental surveys and emergency response activities. Equipment, data-collection and -analysis methods, and examples of survey results are described.

  19. Active control of turbomachine discrete tones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleeter, Sanford

    This paper was directed at active control of discrete frequency noise generated by subsonic blade rows through cancellation of the blade row interaction generated propagating acoustic waves. First discrete frequency noise generated by a rotor and stator in a duct was analyzed to determine the propagating acoustic pressure waves. Then a mathematical model was developed to analyze and predict the active control of discrete frequency noise generated by subsonic blade rows through cancellation of the propagating acoustic waves, accomplished by utilizing oscillating airfoil surfaces to generate additional control propagating pressure waves. These control waves interact with the propagating acoustic waves, thereby, in principle, canceling the acoustic waves and thus, the far field discrete frequency tones. This model was then applied to a fan exit guide vane to investigate active airfoil surface techniques for control of the propagating acoustic waves, and thus the far field discrete frequency tones, generated by blade row interactions.

  20. Modeling OAE responses to short tones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duifhuis, Hendrikus; Siegel, Jonathan

    2015-12-01

    In 1999 Shera and Guinan postulated that otoacoustic emissions evoked by low-level transient stimuli are generated by coherent linear reflection (CRF or CLR). This hypothesis was tested experimentally, e.g., by Siegel and Charaziak[10] by measuring emissions evoked by short (1 ms) tone pips in chinchilla. Using techniques in which supplied level and recorded spectral information were used Siegel and Charaziak concluded that much of the emission was generated by a mechanism in a region extending basally from the peak of the traveling wave and that the action of the suppressor is to remove emission generators evoked by the tone-pip and not to generate nonlinear artifacts in regions basal to the peak region. The original formulation of the CRF theory does not account for these results This study addresses relevant cochlear model predictions.

  1. Enhanced Pure-Tone Pitch Discrimination among Persons with Autism but not Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnel, Anna; McAdams, Stephen; Smith, Bennett; Berthiaume, Claude; Bertone, Armando; Ciocca, Valter; Burack, Jacob A.; Mottron, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Persons with Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) display atypical perceptual processing in visual and auditory tasks. In vision, Bertone, Mottron, Jelenic, and Faubert (2005) found that enhanced and diminished visual processing is linked to the level of neural complexity required to process stimuli, as proposed in the neural complexity hypothesis.…

  2. Pure-tone audiometric threshold assessment with in-ear monitoring of noise levels

    PubMed Central

    Buckey, Jay C.; Fellows, Abigail M.; Jastrzembski, Benjamin G.; Maro, Isaac I.; Moshi, Ndeserua; Turk, Marvee; Clavier, Odile H.; Kline-Schoder, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to obtain reliable threshold measurements without a sound booth by using a passive noise-attenuating hearing protector combined with in-ear 1/3-octave band noise measurements to verify the ear canal was suitably quiet. Design We deployed laptop-based hearing testing systems to Tanzania as part of a study of HIV infection and hearing. An in-ear probe containing a microphone was used under the hearing protector for both the in-ear noise measurements and threshold audiometry. The 1/3-octave band noise spectrum from the microphone was displayed on the operator’s screen with acceptable levels in grey and unacceptable levels in red. Operators attempted to make all bars grey, but focused on achieving grey bars at 2000 Hz and above. Study Sample 624 adults and 260 children provided 3381 in-ear octave band measurements. Repeated measurements from 144 individuals who returned for testing on 3 separate occasions were also analyzed. Results In-ear noise levels exceeded the minimal permissible ambient noise levels (MPANL) for ears not covered, but not the dB SPL levels corresponding to 0 dB HL between 2–4 kHz. In-ear noise measurements were repeatable over time. Conclusions Reliable audiometry can be performed using a passive noise-attenuating hearing protector and in-ear noise measurements. PMID:23992487

  3. Congenital amusia in speakers of a tone language: association with lexical tone agnosia.

    PubMed

    Nan, Yun; Sun, Yanan; Peretz, Isabelle

    2010-09-01

    Congenital amusia is a neurogenetic disorder that affects the processing of musical pitch in speakers of non-tonal languages like English and French. We assessed whether this musical disorder exists among speakers of Mandarin Chinese who use pitch to alter the meaning of words. Using the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia, we tested 117 healthy young Mandarin speakers with no self-declared musical problems and 22 individuals who reported musical difficulties and scored two standard deviations below the mean obtained by the Mandarin speakers without amusia. These 22 amusic individuals showed a similar pattern of musical impairment as did amusic speakers of non-tonal languages, by exhibiting a more pronounced deficit in melody than in rhythm processing. Furthermore, nearly half the tested amusics had impairments in the discrimination and identification of Mandarin lexical tones. Six showed marked impairments, displaying what could be called lexical tone agnosia, but had normal tone production. Our results show that speakers of tone languages such as Mandarin may experience musical pitch disorder despite early exposure to speech-relevant pitch contrasts. The observed association between the musical disorder and lexical tone difficulty indicates that the pitch disorder as defining congenital amusia is not specific to music or culture but is rather general in nature. PMID:20685803

  4. 7 CFR 916.16 - Pure grower or pure producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pure grower or pure producer. 916.16 Section 916.16... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 916.16 Pure grower or pure producer. (a) Pure grower means any...); or (2) Who produces and handles his or her own product; Provided, That a pure grower can pack...

  5. 7 CFR 916.16 - Pure grower or pure producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pure grower or pure producer. 916.16 Section 916.16... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 916.16 Pure grower or pure producer. (a) Pure grower means any...); or (2) Who produces and handles his or her own product; Provided, That a pure grower can pack...

  6. Aging effect on Mandarin Chinese vowel and tone identification.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaohu; Wang, Yuxia; Xu, Lilong; Zhang, Hui; Xu, Can; Liu, Chang

    2015-10-01

    Mandarin Chinese speech sounds (vowels × tones) were presented to younger and older Chinese-native speakers with normal hearing. For the identification of vowel-plus-tone, vowel-only, and tone-only, younger listeners significantly outperformed older listeners. The tone 3 identification scores correlated significantly with the age of older listeners. Moreover, for older listeners, the identification rate of vowel-plus-tone was significantly lower than that of vowel-only and tone-only, whereas for younger listeners, there was no difference among the three identification scores. Therefore, aging negatively affected Mandarin vowel and tone perception, especially when listeners needed to process both phonemic and tonal information. PMID:26520353

  7. A Dynamic Treatment of Tone with Special Attention to the Tonal System of Igbo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Mary Morris

    An analysis of tone in language begins with the observation that the structural approach taken in segmental phonology, analyzing complex tones in terms of sequences of level tones, is not necessarily appropriate with tone languages. A different approach is proposed, a "dynamic-tone" theory that represents tone contours entirely in terms of two…

  8. Aerial Video Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    When Michael Henry wanted to start an aerial video service, he turned to Johnson Space Center for assistance. Two NASA engineers - one had designed and developed TV systems in Apollo, Skylab, Apollo- Soyuz and Space Shuttle programs - designed a wing-mounted fiberglass camera pod. Camera head and angles are adjustable, and the pod is shaped to reduce vibration. The controls are located so a solo pilot can operate the system. A microprocessor displays latitude, longitude, and bearing, and a GPS receiver provides position data for possible legal references. The service has been successfully utilized by railroads, oil companies, real estate companies, etc.

  9. Human Neuromagnetic Steady-State Responses to Amplitude-Modulated Tones, Speech, and Music

    PubMed Central

    Parkkonen, Lauri; Hari, Riitta

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Auditory steady-state responses that can be elicited by various periodic sounds inform about subcortical and early cortical auditory processing. Steady-state responses to amplitude-modulated pure tones have been used to scrutinize binaural interaction by frequency-tagging the two ears’ inputs at different frequencies. Unlike pure tones, speech and music are physically very complex, as they include many frequency components, pauses, and large temporal variations. To examine the utility of magnetoencephalographic (MEG) steady-state fields (SSFs) in the study of early cortical processing of complex natural sounds, the authors tested the extent to which amplitude-modulated speech and music can elicit reliable SSFs. Design: MEG responses were recorded to 90-s-long binaural tones, speech, and music, amplitude-modulated at 41.1 Hz at four different depths (25, 50, 75, and 100%). The subjects were 11 healthy, normal-hearing adults. MEG signals were averaged in phase with the modulation frequency, and the sources of the resulting SSFs were modeled by current dipoles. After the MEG recording, intelligibility of the speech, musical quality of the music stimuli, naturalness of music and speech stimuli, and the perceived deterioration caused by the modulation were evaluated on visual analog scales. Results: The perceived quality of the stimuli decreased as a function of increasing modulation depth, more strongly for music than speech; yet, all subjects considered the speech intelligible even at the 100% modulation. SSFs were the strongest to tones and the weakest to speech stimuli; the amplitudes increased with increasing modulation depth for all stimuli. SSFs to tones were reliably detectable at all modulation depths (in all subjects in the right hemisphere, in 9 subjects in the left hemisphere) and to music stimuli at 50 to 100% depths, whereas speech usually elicited clear SSFs only at 100% depth. The hemispheric balance of SSFs was toward the right hemisphere

  10. Purely lytic osteosarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    De Santos, L.A.; Eideken, B.

    1982-11-01

    The radiographic features of 42 purely lytic osteosarcomas are presented. Purely lytic osteosarcoma is identified as a lytic lesion of bone with no demonstrable osteoid matrix by conventional radiographic modalities. Purely lytic osteosarcoma represented 13.7% of a group of 305 osteosarcomas. The most common presentation was that of a lytic illdefined lesion with a moderate to large extraosseous mass component. Nine lesions presented with benign radiographic features. The differential diagnosis is outlined. The need for awareness of this type of presentation of osteosarcoma is stressed.

  11. A fundamental residue pitch perception bias for tone language speakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petitti, Elizabeth

    A complex tone composed of only higher-order harmonics typically elicits a pitch percept equivalent to the tone's missing fundamental frequency (f0). When judging the direction of residue pitch change between two such tones, however, listeners may have completely opposite perceptual experiences depending on whether they are biased to perceive changes based on the overall spectrum or the missing f0 (harmonic spacing). Individual differences in residue pitch change judgments are reliable and have been associated with musical experience and functional neuroanatomy. Tone languages put greater pitch processing demands on their speakers than non-tone languages, and we investigated whether these lifelong differences in linguistic pitch processing affect listeners' bias for residue pitch. We asked native tone language speakers and native English speakers to perform a pitch judgment task for two tones with missing fundamental frequencies. Given tone pairs with ambiguous pitch changes, listeners were asked to judge the direction of pitch change, where the direction of their response indicated whether they attended to the overall spectrum (exhibiting a spectral bias) or the missing f0 (exhibiting a fundamental bias). We found that tone language speakers are significantly more likely to perceive pitch changes based on the missing f0 than English speakers. These results suggest that tone-language speakers' privileged experience with linguistic pitch fundamentally tunes their basic auditory processing.

  12. Affective evaluation of simultaneous tone combinations in congenital amusia.

    PubMed

    Marin, Manuela M; Thompson, William Forde; Gingras, Bruno; Stewart, Lauren

    2015-11-01

    Congenital amusia is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired pitch processing. Although pitch simultaneities are among the fundamental building blocks of Western tonal music, affective responses to simultaneities such as isolated dyads varying in consonance/dissonance or chords varying in major/minor quality have rarely been studied in amusic individuals. Thirteen amusics and thirteen matched controls enculturated to Western tonal music provided pleasantness ratings of sine-tone dyads and complex-tone dyads in piano timbre as well as perceived happiness/sadness ratings of sine-tone triads and complex-tone triads in piano timbre. Acoustical analyses of roughness and harmonicity were conducted to determine whether similar acoustic information contributed to these evaluations in amusics and controls. Amusic individuals' pleasantness ratings indicated sensitivity to consonance and dissonance for complex-tone (piano timbre) dyads and, to a lesser degree, sine-tone dyads, whereas controls showed sensitivity when listening to both tone types. Furthermore, amusic individuals showed some sensitivity to the happiness-major association in the complex-tone condition, but not in the sine-tone condition. Controls rated major chords as happier than minor chords in both tone types. Linear regression analyses revealed that affective ratings of dyads and triads by amusic individuals were predicted by roughness but not harmonicity, whereas affective ratings by controls were predicted by both roughness and harmonicity. We discuss affective sensitivity in congenital amusia in view of theories of affective responses to isolated chords in Western listeners. PMID:26455803

  13. Infrared film for aerial photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, William H.

    1979-01-01

    Considerable interest has developed recently in the use of aerial photographs for agricultural management. Even the simplest hand-held aerial photographs, especially those taken with color infrared film, often provide information not ordinarily available through routine ground observation. When fields are viewed from above, patterns and variations become more apparent, often allowing problems to be spotted which otherwise may go undetected.

  14. AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY AND LEGAL APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aerial photographic interpretation is the process of examining objects on aerial photographs and determining their significance. t is often defined as both art and science because the process, and the quality of the derived information, is often a qualitative nature and much depe...

  15. Effect of signal-temporal uncertainty in children and adults: Tone detection in noise or a random-frequency masker

    PubMed Central

    Bonino, Angela Yarnell; Leibold, Lori J.; Buss, Emily

    2013-01-01

    A cue indicating when in time to listen can improve adults' tone detection thresholds, particularly for conditions that produce substantial informational masking. The purpose of this study was to determine if 5- to 13-yr-old children likewise benefit from a light cue indicating when in time to listen for a masked pure-tone signal. Each listener was tested in one of two continuous maskers: Broadband noise (low informational masking) or a random-frequency, two-tone masker (high informational masking). Using a single-interval method of constant stimuli, detection thresholds were measured for two temporal conditions: (1) Temporally-defined, with the listening interval defined by a light cue, and (2) temporally-uncertain, with no light cue. Thresholds estimated from psychometric functions fitted to the data indicated that children and adults benefited to the same degree from the visual cue. Across listeners, the average benefit of a defined listening interval was 1.8 dB in the broadband noise and 8.6 dB in the random-frequency, two-tone masker. Thus, the benefit of knowing when in time to listen was more robust for conditions believed to be dominated by informational masking. An unexpected finding of this study was that children's thresholds were comparable to adults' in the random-frequency, two-tone masker. PMID:25669256

  16. Science: Pure or Applied?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Peter

    1980-01-01

    Through a description of some of the activities which take place in his science classroom, the author makes a strong case for the inclusion of technology, or applied science, rather than pure science in the primary curriculum. (KC)

  17. Pure-quartic solitons.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Redondo, Andrea; de Sterke, C Martijn; Martijn, de Sterke C; Sipe, J E; Krauss, Thomas F; Eggleton, Benjamin J; Husko, Chad

    2016-01-01

    Temporal optical solitons have been the subject of intense research due to their intriguing physics and applications in ultrafast optics and supercontinuum generation. Conventional bright optical solitons result from the interaction of anomalous group-velocity dispersion and self-phase modulation. Here we experimentally demonstrate a class of bright soliton arising purely from the interaction of negative fourth-order dispersion and self-phase modulation, which can occur even for normal group-velocity dispersion. We provide experimental and numerical evidence of shape-preserving propagation and flat temporal phase for the fundamental pure-quartic soliton and periodically modulated propagation for the higher-order pure-quartic solitons. We derive the approximate shape of the fundamental pure-quartic soliton and discover that is surprisingly Gaussian, exhibiting excellent agreement with our experimental observations. Our discovery, enabled by precise dispersion engineering, could find applications in communications, frequency combs and ultrafast lasers. PMID:26822758

  18. Pure-quartic solitons

    PubMed Central

    Blanco-Redondo, Andrea; Martijn, de Sterke C.; Sipe, J.E.; Krauss, Thomas F.; Eggleton, Benjamin J.; Husko, Chad

    2016-01-01

    Temporal optical solitons have been the subject of intense research due to their intriguing physics and applications in ultrafast optics and supercontinuum generation. Conventional bright optical solitons result from the interaction of anomalous group-velocity dispersion and self-phase modulation. Here we experimentally demonstrate a class of bright soliton arising purely from the interaction of negative fourth-order dispersion and self-phase modulation, which can occur even for normal group-velocity dispersion. We provide experimental and numerical evidence of shape-preserving propagation and flat temporal phase for the fundamental pure-quartic soliton and periodically modulated propagation for the higher-order pure-quartic solitons. We derive the approximate shape of the fundamental pure-quartic soliton and discover that is surprisingly Gaussian, exhibiting excellent agreement with our experimental observations. Our discovery, enabled by precise dispersion engineering, could find applications in communications, frequency combs and ultrafast lasers. PMID:26822758

  19. Pure-quartic solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Redondo, Andrea; Martijn, De Sterke C.; Sipe, J. E.; Krauss, Thomas F.; Eggleton, Benjamin J.; Husko, Chad

    2016-01-01

    Temporal optical solitons have been the subject of intense research due to their intriguing physics and applications in ultrafast optics and supercontinuum generation. Conventional bright optical solitons result from the interaction of anomalous group-velocity dispersion and self-phase modulation. Here we experimentally demonstrate a class of bright soliton arising purely from the interaction of negative fourth-order dispersion and self-phase modulation, which can occur even for normal group-velocity dispersion. We provide experimental and numerical evidence of shape-preserving propagation and flat temporal phase for the fundamental pure-quartic soliton and periodically modulated propagation for the higher-order pure-quartic solitons. We derive the approximate shape of the fundamental pure-quartic soliton and discover that is surprisingly Gaussian, exhibiting excellent agreement with our experimental observations. Our discovery, enabled by precise dispersion engineering, could find applications in communications, frequency combs and ultrafast lasers.

  20. Native Experience with a Tone Language Enhances Pitch Discrimination and the Timing of Neural Responses to Pitch Change

    PubMed Central

    Giuliano, Ryan J.; Pfordresher, Peter Q.; Stanley, Emily M.; Narayana, Shalini; Wicha, Nicole Y. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Native tone language experience has been linked with alterations in the production and perception of pitch in language, as well as with the brain response to linguistic and non-linguistic tones. Here we use two experiments to address whether these changes apply to the discrimination of simple pitch changes and pitch intervals. Event related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from native Mandarin speakers and a control group during a same/different task with pairs of pure tones differing only in pitch height, and with pure tone pairs differing only in interval distance. Behaviorally, Mandarin speakers were more accurate than controls at detecting both pitch and interval changes, showing a sensitivity to small pitch changes and interval distances that was absent in the control group. Converging evidence from ERPs obtained during the same tasks revealed an earlier response to change relative to no-change trials in Mandarin speakers, as well as earlier differentiation of trials by change direction relative to controls. These findings illustrate the cross-domain influence of language experience on the perception of pitch, suggesting that the native use of tonal pitch contours in language leads to a general enhancement in the acuity of pitch representations. PMID:21886629

  1. Geomorphology: Pure and applied

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    The book summarizes the history of intellectual debate in geomorphology and describes modern developments both ''pure'' and ''applied.'' The history begins well before W.M. Davis and follows through to such debates as those concerned with the Pleistocene. Modern developments in pure geomorphology are cast in terms of chapters on form, process, materials, and methods analysis. The applied chapters concentrate on environmental hazards and resources, and their management.

  2. First Language Attrition: An Investigation of Taiwanese Tones and Tone Sandhi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yufen

    2012-01-01

    First language (L1) attrition research focuses on syntactic and morphological deterioration in environments where L1 "attriters" rarely have contact with their L1, such as immigrants. There is no study that investigates L1 attrition in tones and in contexts where L1 can still be often heard. This study examines this attrition type in…

  3. Recognition memory for single tones with and without context.

    PubMed

    Dewar, K M; Cuddy, L L; Mewhort, D J

    1977-01-01

    Sequences of seven tones were presented, and recognition memory for individual tones of each sequence was tested under varying degrees of context. With no context, the test required recognition of a tone isolated from the sequence; with full context, the tone to be recognized was embedded in the original sequence. A series of three experiments demonstrated that recognition memory was far more accurate under full-context conditions than under no-context conditions and that the superiority was not wholly attributable to the serial position information or the order information provided by the full context. It is suggested that in addition to the processing of limited information for the pitch of isolated tones, pattern (or relational) information is abstracted from a tone sequence and is retrieved in the presence of full context. PMID:845552

  4. Resolution of lexical ambiguity by emotional tone of voice.

    PubMed

    Nygaard, Lynne C; Lunders, Erin R

    2002-06-01

    In the present study, the effects of emotional tone of voice on the perception of word meaning were investigated. In two experiments, listeners were presented with emotional homophones that had one affective meaning (happy or sad) and one neutral meaning. In both experiments, the listeners were asked to transcribe the emotional homophones presented in three different affective tones--happy, neutral, and sad. In the first experiment, trials were blocked by tone of voice, and in the second experiment, tone of voice varied from trial to trial. The results showed that the listeners provided more affective than neutral transcriptions when the tone of voice was congruent with the emotional meaning of the homophone. These findings suggest that emotional tone of voice affects the processing of lexically ambiguous words by biasing the selection of word meaning. PMID:12184559

  5. Effect of musical experience on learning lexical tone categories.

    PubMed

    Zhao, T Christina; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies suggest that musicians show an advantage in processing and encoding foreign-language lexical tones. The current experiments examined whether musical experience influences the perceptual learning of lexical tone categories. Experiment I examined whether musicians with no prior experience of tonal languages differed from nonmusicians in the perception of a lexical tone continuum. Experiment II examined whether short-term perceptual training on lexical tones altered the perception of the lexical tone continuum differentially in English-speaking musicians and nonmusicians. Results suggested that (a) musicians exhibited higher sensitivity overall to tonal changes, but perceived the lexical tone continuum in a manner similar to nonmusicians (continuously), in contrast to native Mandarin speakers (categorically); and (b) short-term perceptual training altered perception; however, there were no significant differences between the effects of training on musicians and nonmusicians. PMID:25786956

  6. Perception of touch quality in piano tones.

    PubMed

    Goebl, Werner; Bresin, Roberto; Fujinaga, Ichiro

    2014-11-01

    Both timbre and dynamics of isolated piano tones are determined exclusively by the speed with which the hammer hits the strings. This physical view has been challenged by pianists who emphasize the importance of the way the keyboard is touched. This article presents empirical evidence from two perception experiments showing that touch-dependent sound components make sounds with identical hammer velocities but produced with different touch forms clearly distinguishable. The first experiment focused on finger-key sounds: musicians could identify pressed and struck touches. When the finger-key sounds were removed from the sounds, the effect vanished, suggesting that these sounds were the primary identification cue. The second experiment looked at key-keyframe sounds that occur when the key reaches key-bottom. Key-bottom impact was identified from key motion measured by a computer-controlled piano. Musicians were able to discriminate between piano tones that contain a key-bottom sound from those that do not. However, this effect might be attributable to sounds associated with the mechanical components of the piano action. In addition to the demonstrated acoustical effects of different touch forms, visual and tactile modalities may play important roles during piano performance that influence the production and perception of musical expression on the piano. PMID:25373983

  7. Correlation dimension of woodwind multiphonic tones.

    PubMed

    Keefe, D H; Laden, B

    1991-10-01

    A multiphonic is a regime of oscillation of woodwind musical instruments that is perceived as two or more simultaneously sounding pitches. The frequencies fl,m of the line spectral components of a measured woodwind multiphonic tone fit a biperiodic spectrum at low- to mid-playing levels. For the saxophone and clarinet multiphonics investigated, the two basis frequencies of the biperiodic spectrum are phase locked, that is, their ratio is equal to a ratio of small integers. A broadband spectrum is present in multiphonic spectra that exceeds instrumentation noise and window leakage associated with signal processing. The correlation dimension D of P. Grassberger and I. Procaccia [Physica D 9, 189-208 (1983)] is measured by embedding a single measured time series in higher-dimensional space, so as to reconstruct the phase space of the dynamical system. The time delay used in the dimensional reconstruction is chosen using information theory. For the particular multiphonics analyzed, the correlation dimension ranges from 2.5 to 2.9 for the saxophone and from 1.3 to 2.2 for the clarinet. One clarinet multiphonic shows possible additional dynamical complexity at small length scales in the embedding space, with a correlation dimension of 3.3. These results give quantitative evidence that some, but not all, multiphonic tones possess a strange attractor. PMID:1960272

  8. Tone based command system for reception of very weak signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bokulic, Robert Steven (Inventor); Jensen, James Robert (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    This disclosure presents a communication receiver system for spacecraft that includes an open loop receiver adapted to receive a communication signal. An ultrastable oscillator (USO) and a tone detector are connected to the open loop receiver. The open loop receiver translates the communication signal to an intermediate frequency signal using a highly stable reference frequency from the USO. The tone detector extracts commands from the communication signal by evaluating the difference between tones of the communication signal.

  9. Antimultipath communication by injecting tone into null in signal spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davarian, Faramaz (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A transmitter for digital radio communication creates a null by balanced encoding of data modulated on an RF carrier, and inserts a calibration tone within the null. This is accomplished by having the calibration tone coincide in phase and frequency with the transmitted radio frequency output, for coherent demodulation of data at the receiver where the tone calibration signal is extracted and used for multipath fading compensation.

  10. Simultaneous suppression of tone burst-evoked otoacoustic emissions: Two and three-tone burst combinations.

    PubMed

    Killan, Edward C; Lutman, Mark E; Thyer, Nicholas J

    2015-09-01

    Previous investigations have shown that components of a tone burst-evoked otoacoustic emission (TBOAE) evoked by a 1 kHz tone burst (TB1) can be suppressed by the simultaneous presence of a 2 kHz tone burst (TB2) or a pair of tone bursts at 2 and 3 kHz (TB2 and TB3 respectively). No previous study has measured this "simultaneous suppression of TBOAEs" for both TB2 alone and TB2 and TB3 from the same ears, so that the effect of the additional presence of TB3 on suppression caused by TB2 is not known. In simple terms, three outcomes are possible; suppression increases, suppression is reduced or suppression is not affected. Comparison of previously reported simultaneous suppression data suggests TB3 causes a reduction in suppression, though it is not clear if this is a genuine effect or simply reflects methodological and ear differences between studies. This issue has implications for previously proposed mechanisms of simultaneous suppression of TBOAEs and the interpretation of clinical data, and is clarified by the present study. Simultaneous suppression of TBOAEs was measured for TB1 and TB2 as well as TB1, TB2 and TB3 at 50, 60 and 70 dB p.e. SPL from nine normal human ears. Results showed no significant difference between mean suppression obtained for the two and three-tone burst combinations, indicating the reduction of suppression inferred from comparison of previous data is likely a result of methodological and ear differences rather than a genuine effect. PMID:25959270

  11. Separation of piano tones into tonal and broadband components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keane, Martin

    2005-09-01

    Few studies have proposed simple objective methods to evaluate the quality of piano tones. Recordings of both sound and vibration of six pianos (two grands and four uprights) were analyzed. The results suggest an objective measure for piano tone quality. A method is given for splitting recorded tones into tonal and broadband components. The broadband vibration was found to be more intense in the upright pianos than in the grand pianos, this is due to differences in the construction of the keybed. There was no such difference found in the tonal component. These results suggest the hypothesis that a smaller broadband component correlates with higher quality in piano tones.

  12. Compatibility between tones, head movements, and facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Horstmann, Gernot; Ansorge, Ulrich

    2011-08-01

    The study tests the hypothesis of an embodied associative triangle among relative tone pitch (i.e., high or low tones), vertical movement, and facial emotion. In particular, it is tested whether relative pitch automatically activates facial expressions of happiness and anger as well as vertical head movements. Results show robust congruency effects: happiness expressions and upward head tilts are imitated faster when paired with high rather than low tones, while anger expressions and downward head tilts are imitated faster when paired with low rather than high tones. The results add to the growing evidence favoring an embodiment account that emphasizes multimodal representations as the basis of cognition, emotion, and action. PMID:21604874

  13. Contra-Rotating Open Rotor Tone Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    2014-01-01

    Reliable prediction of contra-rotating open rotor (CROR) noise is an essential element of any strategy for the development of low-noise open rotor propulsion systems that can meet both the community noise regulations and cabin noise limits. Since CROR noise spectra exhibit a preponderance of tones, significant efforts have been directed towards predicting their tone content. To that end, there has been an ongoing effort at NASA to assess various in-house open rotor tone noise prediction tools using a benchmark CROR blade set for which significant aerodynamic and acoustic data have been acquired in wind tunnel tests. In the work presented here, the focus is on the nearfield noise of the benchmark open rotor blade set at the cruise condition. Using an analytical CROR tone noise model with input from high-fidelity aerodynamic simulations, tone noise spectra have been predicted and compared with the experimental data. Comparisons indicate that the theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the data, especially for the dominant tones and for the overall sound pressure level of tones. The results also indicate that, whereas the individual rotor tones are well predicted by the combination of the thickness and loading sources, for the interaction tones it is essential that the quadrupole source is also included in the analysis.

  14. AERIAL MEASURING SYSTEM IN JAPAN

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, Craig; Colton, David

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Agency’s Aerial Measuring System deployed personnel and equipment to partner with the U.S. Air Force in Japan to conduct multiple aerial radiological surveys. These were the first and most comprehensive sources of actionable information for U.S. interests in Japan and provided early confirmation to the government of Japan as to the extent of the release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Generation Station. Many challenges were overcome quickly during the first 48 hours; including installation and operation of Aerial Measuring System equipment on multiple U.S. Air Force Japan aircraft, flying over difficult terrain, and flying with talented pilots who were unfamiliar with the Aerial Measuring System flight patterns. These all combined to make for a dynamic and non-textbook situation. In addition, the data challenges of the multiple and on-going releases, and integration with the Japanese government to provide valid aerial radiological survey products that both military and civilian customers could use to make informed decisions, was extremely complicated. The Aerial Measuring System Fukushima response provided insight in addressing these challenges and gave way to an opportunity for the expansion of the Aerial Measuring System’s mission beyond the borders of the US.

  15. Pure uterine lipoma.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Gulnur; Celik, Onder; Karakas, Hakki Muammer; Alkan, Alpay; Hascalik, Seyma

    2007-10-01

    Lipomatous tumors of the uterus are unusual, benign neoplasms seen in postmenopausal women. Although many of the mixed-type cases such as lipoleiomyoma and fibrolipoma have been reported, pure uterine lipomas are extremely rare. In the literature, a few cases with pure uterine lipoma have been reported. We first present the advanced magnetic resonance findings of pure uterine lipoma, followed by those of ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT). We markedly detected lipid peaks on the magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and the apparent diffusion coefficient value to be 0.00 due to chemical-shift effects with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Although pelvic lipomatous tumors can be diagnosed with US and CT, in some cases, further workup may be required to localize the lesion. MRI may yield more valuable data for differential diagnosis. MRS and DWI findings provide additional clues on the nature of the lesion. PMID:17905250

  16. Temporary threshold shift in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) exposed to mid-frequency tones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finneran, James J.; Carder, Donald A.; Schlundt, Carolyn E.; Ridgway, Sam H.

    2005-10-01

    A behavioral response paradigm was used to measure hearing thresholds in bottlenose dolphins before and after exposure to 3 kHz tones with sound exposure levels (SELs) from 100 to 203 dB re 1 μPa2 s. Experiments were conducted in a relatively quiet pool with ambient noise levels below 55 dB re 1 μPa2/Hz at frequencies above 1 kHz. Experiments 1 and 2 featured 1-s exposures with hearing tested at 4.5 and 3 kHz, respectively. Experiment 3 featured 2-, 4-, and 8-s exposures with hearing tested at 4.5 kHz. For experiment 2, there were no significant differences between control and exposure sessions. For experiments 1 and 3, exposures with SEL=197 dB re 1 μPa2 s and SEL>=195 dB re 1 μPa2 s, respectively, resulted in significantly higher TTS4 than control sessions. For experiment 3 at SEL=195 dB re 1 μPa2 s, the mean TTS4 was 2.8 dB. These data are consistent with prior studies of TTS in dolphins exposed to pure tones and octave band noise and suggest that a SEL of 195 dB re 1 μPa2 s is a reasonable threshold for the onset of TTS in dolphins and white whales exposed to midfrequency tones.

  17. Aerial thermography for energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Thermal infrared scanning from an aircraft is a convenient and commercially available means for determining relative rates of energy loss from building roofs. The need to conserve energy as fuel costs makes the mass survey capability of aerial thermography an attractive adjunct to community energy awareness programs. Background information on principles of aerial thermography is presented. Thermal infrared scanning systems, flight and environmental requirements for data acquisition, preparation of thermographs for display, major users and suppliers of thermography, and suggested specifications for obtaining aerial scanning services were reviewed.

  18. Tune in to the Tone: Lexical Tone Identification is Associated with Vocabulary and Word Recognition Abilities in Young Chinese Children.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xiuli; Tong, Xiuhong; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    Lexical tone is one of the most prominent features in the phonological representation of words in Chinese. However, little, if any, research to date has directly evaluated how young Chinese children's lexical tone identification skills contribute to vocabulary acquisition and character recognition. The present study distinguished lexical tones from segmental phonological awareness and morphological awareness in order to estimate the unique contribution of lexical tone in early vocabulary acquisition and character recognition. A sample of 199 Cantonese children aged 5-6 years was assessed on measures of lexical tone identification, segmental phonological awareness, morphological awareness, nonverbal ability, vocabulary knowledge, and Chinese character recognition. It was found that lexical tone awareness and morphological awareness were both associated with vocabulary knowledge and character recognition. However, there was a significant relationship between lexical tone awareness and both vocabulary knowledge and character recognition, even after controlling for the effects of age, nonverbal ability, segmental phonological awareness and morphological awareness. These findings suggest that lexical tone is a key factor accounting for individual variance in young children's lexical acquisition in Chinese, and that lexical tone should be considered in understanding how children learn new Chinese vocabulary words, in either oral or written forms. PMID:27483739

  19. Disorders of Pitch Production in Tone Deafness

    PubMed Central

    Bella, Simone Dalla; Berkowska, Magdalena; Sowiński, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    Singing is as natural as speaking for the majority of people. Yet some individuals (i.e., 10–15%) are poor singers, typically performing or imitating pitches and melodies inaccurately. This condition, commonly referred to as “tone deafness,” has been observed both in the presence and absence of deficient pitch perception. In this article we review the existing literature concerning normal singing, poor-pitch singing, and, briefly, the sources of this condition. Considering that pitch plays a prominent role in the structure of both music and speech we also focus on the possibility that speech production (or imitation) is similarly impaired in poor-pitch singers. Preliminary evidence from our laboratory suggests that pitch imitation may be selectively inaccurate in the music domain without being affected in speech. This finding points to separability of mechanisms subserving pitch production in music and language. PMID:21811479

  20. When does a sung tone start?

    PubMed

    Sundberg, Johan; Bauer-Huppmann, Julia

    2007-05-01

    Although the consonant is mostly considered as the start of a syllable in phonetics and orthography, musicians generally agree that the vowel onset in singing should be synchronized with the beat. As a test of this assumption, the current investigation analyzes the time interval between vowel onsets and piano accompaniment onsets in a set of songs performed by international vocal artists and published on commercial CD recordings. The results show that, most commonly, the accompanists synchronized their tones with the singers' vowel onsets. Nevertheless, examples of lead and lag were found, probably made for expressive purposes. The lead and lag varied greatly between songs, being smallest in a song performed in a fast tempo and longest in a song performed in a slow tempo. PMID:16564674

  1. Production of pure metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipp, W. H.; Marsik, S. J.; May, C. E. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A process for depositing elements by irradiating liquids is reported. Ultra pure elements are precipitated from aqueous solutions or suspensions of compounds. A solution of a salt of a metal to be prepared is irradiated, and the insoluble reaction product settles out. Some chemical compounds may also be prepared in this manner.

  2. Dahlbeck and Pure Ontology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Jim

    2016-01-01

    This article responds to Johan Dahlbeck's "Towards a pure ontology: Children's bodies and morality" ["Educational Philosophy and Theory," vol. 46 (1), 2014, pp. 8-23 (EJ1026561)]. His arguments from Nietzsche and Spinoza do not carry the weight he supposes, and the conclusions he draws from them about pedagogy would be…

  3. Factors Influencing Sensitivity to Lexical Tone in an Artificial Language: Implications for Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell-Harris, Catherine L.; Lancaster, Alia; Ladd, D. Robert; Dediu, Dan; Christiansen, Morten H.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether musical training, ethnicity, and experience with a natural tone language influenced sensitivity to tone while listening to an artificial tone language. The language was designed with three tones, modeled after level-tone African languages. Participants listened to a 15-min random concatenation of six 3-syllable words.…

  4. Cortical activity associated with the detection of temporal gaps in tones: a magnetoencephalography study

    PubMed Central

    Mitsudo, Takako; Hironaga, Naruhito; Mori, Shuji

    2014-01-01

    We used magnetoencephalogram (MEG) in two experiments to investigate spatio-temporal profiles of brain responses to gaps in tones. Stimuli consisted of leading and trailing markers with gaps between the two markers of 0, 30, or 80 ms. Leading and trailing markers were 300 ms pure tones at 800 or 3200 Hz.Two conditions were examined: the within-frequency (WF) condition in which the leading and trailing markers had identical frequencies, and the between-frequency (BF) condition in which they had different frequencies. Using minimum norm estimates (MNE), we localized the source activations at the time of the peak response to the trailing markers. Results showed that MEG signals in response to 800 and 3200 Hz tones were localized in different regions within the auditory cortex, indicating that the frequency pathways activated by the two markers were spatially represented.The time course of regional activity (RA) was extracted from each localized region for each condition. In Experiment 1, which used a continuous tone for the WF 0-ms stimulus, the N1m amplitude for the trailing marker in the WF condition differed depending on gap duration but not tonal frequency. In contrast, N1m amplitude in BF conditions differed depending on the frequency of the trailing marker. In Experiment 2, in which the 0-ms gap stimulus in the WF condition was made from two markers and included an amplitude reduction in the middle, the amplitude in WF and BF conditions changed depending on frequency, but not gap duration.The difference in temporal characteristics betweenWF and BF conditions could be observed in the RA. PMID:25346672

  5. Modeling aerial refueling operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Allen B., III

    Aerial Refueling (AR) is the act of offloading fuel from one aircraft (the tanker) to another aircraft (the receiver) in mid flight. Meetings between tanker and receiver aircraft are referred to as AR events and are scheduled to: escort one or more receivers across a large body of water; refuel one or more receivers; or train receiver pilots, tanker pilots, and boom operators. In order to efficiently execute the Aerial Refueling Mission, the Air Mobility Command (AMC) of the United States Air Force (USAF) depends on computer models to help it make tanker basing decisions, plan tanker sorties, schedule aircraft, develop new organizational doctrines, and influence policy. We have worked on three projects that have helped AMC improve its modeling and decision making capabilities. Optimal Flight Planning. Currently Air Mobility simulation and optimization software packages depend on algorithms which iterate over three dimensional fuel flow tables to compute aircraft fuel consumption under changing flight conditions. When a high degree of fidelity is required, these algorithms use a large amount of memory and CPU time. We have modeled the rate of aircraft fuel consumption with respect to AC GrossWeight, Altitude and Airspeed. When implemented, this formula will decrease the amount of memory and CPU time needed to compute sortie fuel costs and cargo capacity values. We have also shown how this formula can be used in optimal control problems to find minimum costs flight plans. Tanker Basing Demand Mismatch Index. Since 1992, AMC has relied on a Tanker Basing/AR Demand Mismatch Index which aggregates tanker capacity and AR demand data into six regions. This index was criticized because there were large gradients along regional boundaries. Meanwhile tankers frequently cross regional boundaries to satisfy the demand for AR support. In response we developed continuous functions to score locations with respect to their proximity to demand for AR support as well as their

  6. A Study of Neutral-Tone Syllables in Taiwan Mandarin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation studies the realization of the rhythm of Taiwan Mandarin and focuses on the quality of its unstressed (neutral-tone) syllables. Taiwan Mandarin (TM) is often described as more syllable-timed than Standard Mandarin (SM). In TM, the unstressed syllables occur less frequently. The quality of the unstressed (neutral-tone) syllables…

  7. Improving Tone Recognition with Nucleus Modeling and Sequential Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Siwei

    2010-01-01

    Mandarin Chinese and many other tonal languages use tones that are defined as specific pitch patterns to distinguish syllables otherwise ambiguous. It had been shown that tones carry at least as much information as vowels in Mandarin Chinese [Surendran et al., 2005]. Surprisingly, though, many speech recognition systems for Mandarin Chinese have…

  8. Contra-Rotating Open Rotor Tone Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    2014-01-01

    Reliable prediction of contra-rotating open rotor (CROR) noise is an essential element of any strategy for the development of low-noise open rotor propulsion systems that can meet both the community noise regulations and the cabin noise limits. Since CROR noise spectra typically exhibits a preponderance of tones, significant efforts have been directed towards predicting their tone spectra. To that end, there has been an ongoing effort at NASA to assess various in-house open rotor tone noise prediction tools using a benchmark CROR blade set for which significant aerodynamic and acoustic data had been acquired in wind tunnel tests. In the work presented here, the focus is on the near-field noise of the benchmark open rotor blade set at the cruise condition. Using an analytical CROR tone noise model with input from high-fidelity aerodynamic simulations, detailed tone noise spectral predictions have been generated and compared with the experimental data. Comparisons indicate that the theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the data, especially for the dominant CROR tones and their overall sound pressure level. The results also indicate that, whereas individual rotor tones are well predicted by the linear sources (i.e., thickness and loading), for the interaction tones it is essential that the quadrupole sources be included in the analysis.

  9. Studies in the Phonology of Asian Languages, VIII, Vietnamese Tones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Mieko S.

    An acoustic-phonetic study of six Vietnamese tones was carried out on approximately 3000 sound spectrograms of four native speakers of the Hanoi dialect. Three temporal segments, four pitch levels, and glottalization were identified as important cues for tone recognition. (Author/FWB)

  10. The Study of Tone in Languages with a Quantity Contrast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remijsen, Bert

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the study of tone in languages that additionally have a phonological contrastive of quantity, such as vowel length or stress. In such complex word-prosodic systems, tone and the quantity contrast(s) can be fully independent of one another, or they may interact. Both of these configurations are illustrated in this paper, and…

  11. The Intragroup Stigmatization of Skin Tone Among Black Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Richard D.; LaBeach, Nicole; Pridgen, Ellie; Gocial, Tammy M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which racial contexts moderate the importance and function of intragroup skin-tone stigma among Black Americans. One hundred and thirty-two Black students were recruited from both a predominantly Black university and a predominantly White university and completed measures on skin tone,…

  12. Dissimilation in the Second Language Acquisition of Mandarin Chinese Tones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Hang

    2016-01-01

    This article extends Optimality Theoretic studies to the research on second language tone phonology. Specifically, this work analyses the acquisition of identical tone sequences in Mandarin Chinese by adult speakers of three non-tonal languages: English, Japanese and Korean. This study finds that the learners prefer not to use identical lexical…

  13. Tone Gestures and Constraint Interaction in Sierra Juarez Zapotec

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tejada, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines floating tones and tone gesture deactivation in Sierra Juarez Zapotec (SJZ), and provides an Optimality Theoretic account of tonal spreading and placement using insights from Articulatory Phonology. While the data portion of the dissertation is drawn from SJZ, the approach has broader implications for theories of tonal…

  14. Slide rule-type color chart predicts reproduced photo tones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, J. D.

    1966-01-01

    Slide rule-type color chart determines the final reproduced gray tones in the production of briefing charts that are photographed in black and white. The chart shows both the color by drafting paint manufacturers name and mixture number, and the gray tone resulting from black and white photographic reproduction.

  15. 47 CFR 64.1514 - Generation of signalling tones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Generation of signalling tones. 64.1514 Section 64.1514 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Services § 64.1514 Generation of signalling tones. No common carrier shall assign a telephone number...

  16. 47 CFR 64.1514 - Generation of signalling tones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Generation of signalling tones. 64.1514 Section 64.1514 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Services § 64.1514 Generation of signalling tones. No common carrier shall assign a telephone number...

  17. 47 CFR 64.1514 - Generation of signalling tones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Generation of signalling tones. 64.1514 Section 64.1514 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Services § 64.1514 Generation of signalling tones. No common carrier shall assign a telephone number...

  18. 47 CFR 64.1514 - Generation of signalling tones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Generation of signalling tones. 64.1514 Section 64.1514 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Services § 64.1514 Generation of signalling tones. No common carrier shall assign a telephone number...

  19. 47 CFR 64.1514 - Generation of signalling tones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Generation of signalling tones. 64.1514 Section 64.1514 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Services § 64.1514 Generation of signalling tones. No common carrier shall assign a telephone number...

  20. Musical experience and Mandarin tone discrimination and imitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottfried, Terry L.; Staby, Ann M.; Ziemer, Christine J.

    2001-05-01

    Previous work [T. L. Gottfried and D. Riester, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 108, 2604 (2000)] showed that native speakers of American English with musical training performed better than nonmusicians when identifying the four distinctive tones of Mandarin Chinese (high-level, mid-rising, low-dipping, high-falling). Accuracy for both groups was relatively low since listeners were not trained on the phonemic contrasts. Current research compares musicians and nonmusicians on discrimination and imitation of unfamiliar tones. Listeners were presented with two different Mandarin words that had either the same or different tones; listeners indicated whether the tones were same or different. Thus, they were required to determine a categorical match (same or different tone), rather than an auditory match. All listeners had significantly more difficulty discriminating between mid-rising and low-dipping tones than with other contrasts. Listeners with more musical training showed significantly greater accuracy in their discrimination. Likewise, musicians' spoken imitations of Mandarin tones (model tokens presented by a native speaker) were rated as significantly more native-like than those of nonmusicians. These findings suggest that musicians may have abilities or training that facilitate their perception and production of Mandarin tones. However, further research is needed to determine whether this advantage transfers to language learning situations.

  1. When Marking Tone Reduces Fluency: An Orthography Experiment in Cameroon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Steven

    1999-01-01

    Examines the success of phonemic tone-marking for Dschang, a Grassfields Bantu language that uses tone to distinguish lexical items and some grammatical constructions. Participants from a variety of different age groups and educational backgrounds, and having different levels of exposure to the orthography, were tested on location in the Western…

  2. Precision and accuracy in the reproduction of simple tone sequences.

    PubMed

    Vos, P G; Ellermann, H H

    1989-02-01

    In four experiments we investigated the precision and accuracy with which amateur musicians are able to reproduce sequences of tones varied only temporally, so as to have tone and rest durations constant over sequences, and the tempo varied over the musically meaningful range of 5-0.5 tones per second. Experiments 1 and 2 supported the hypothesis of attentional bias toward having the attack moments, rather than the departure moments, precisely times. Experiment 3 corroborated the hypothesis that inaccurate timing of short interattack intervals is manifested in a lengthening of rests, rather than tones, as a result of larger motor activity during the reproduction of rests. Experiment 4 gave some support to the hypothesis that the shortening of long interattack intervals is due to mnemonic constraints affecting the rests rather than the tones. Both theoretical and practical consequences of the various findings, particularly with respect to timing in musical performance, are discussed. PMID:2522528

  3. Hole tone generated from almost choked to highly choked jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeda, Y.; Maeda, H.; Ishii, R.

    1988-09-01

    The hole tone generated from the interaction of high-speed jets with a round hole was experimentally investigated in order to clarify its generation mechanism. Measurements of far-field pressure waves as well as schlieren flow visualization were carried out. The frequency characteristics of the present hole tone are similar to those of hole tones radiated from a low-speed jet. Flow visualization confirms that this hole tone is generated by essentially the same feedback mechanism as that of the impinging tone radiated from high-speed jets. When a ring vortex interacts with the plate with a hole, an acoustic pulse is emitted with a strong directional peak in the upstream direction. The acoustic pulse propagates outside the jet and forces the generation of a new eddy on reaching the nozzle lip. The new eddy grows as it propagates downstream to interact with the circumference of the hole.

  4. Experimental Feedback Control of Flow Induced Cavity Tones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabell, Randolph H.; Kegerise, Michael A.; Cox, David E.; Gibbs, Gary P.

    2002-01-01

    An experimental study of the application of discrete-time, linear quadratic control design methods to the cavity tone problem is described. State space models of the dynamics from a synthetic jet actuator at the leading edge of the cavity to two pressure sensors in the cavity were computed from experimental data. Variations in model order, control order, control bandwidth, and properties of a Kalman state estimator were studied. Feedback control reduced the levels of multiple cavity tones at Mach 0.275, 0.35, and 0.45. Closed loop performance was often limited by excitation of sidebands of cavity tones, and creation of new tones in the spectrum. State space models were useful for explaining some of these limitations, but were not able to account for non-linear dynamics, such as interactions between tones at different frequencies.

  5. Pure Lovelock Kasner metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camanho, Xián O.; Dadhich, Naresh; Molina, Alfred

    2015-09-01

    We study pure Lovelock vacuum and perfect fluid equations for Kasner-type metrics. These equations correspond to a single Nth order Lovelock term in the action in d=2N+1,2N+2 dimensions, and they capture the relevant gravitational dynamics when aproaching the big-bang singularity within the Lovelock family of theories. Pure Lovelock gravity also bears out the general feature that vacuum in the critical odd dimension, d=2N+1, is kinematic, i.e. we may define an analogue Lovelock-Riemann tensor that vanishes in vacuum for d=2N+1, yet the Riemann curvature is non-zero. We completely classify isotropic and vacuum Kasner metrics for this class of theories in several isotropy types. The different families can be characterized by means of certain higher order 4th rank tensors. We also analyze in detail the space of vacuum solutions for five- and six dimensional pure Gauss-Bonnet theory. It possesses an interesting and illuminating geometric structure and symmetries that carry over to the general case. We also comment on a closely related family of exponential solutions and on the possibility of solutions with complex Kasner exponents. We show that the latter imply the existence of closed timelike curves in the geometry.

  6. Quantifying tone deafness in the general population.

    PubMed

    Sloboda, John A; Wise, Karen J; Peretz, Isabelle

    2005-12-01

    Many people reach adulthood without acquiring significant music performance skills (singing or instrumental playing). A substantial proportion of these adults consider that this has come about because they are "not musical." Some of these people may be "true" congenital amusics, characterized by specific and substantial anomalies in the processing of musical pitch and rhythm sequences, while at the same time displaying normal processing of speech and language. It is likely, however, that many adults who believe that they are unmusical are neurologically normal. We could call these adults "false" amusics. Acquisition of musical competence has multiple personal, social, and environmental precursors. Deficiencies in these areas may lead to lack of musical achievement, despite the fact that an individual possesses the necessary underlying capacities. Adults may therefore self-define as "unmusical" or "tone-deaf" for reasons unconnected to any underlying anomaly. This paper reports on two linked research studies. The first is an interview study with adults defining themselves as tone-deaf or unmusical. The interview schedule was designed to discover what criteria are being used in their self-definitions. Preliminary results suggest that performance criteria (e.g., judging oneself as unable to sing) play a major role, even for people who claim and demonstrate no perceptual deficits. The second study reports progress on the development of new subtests for a revised version of the Montreal Battery for the Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA, Peretz et al., 2003). This currently contains six tests that allow for the assessment of melodic perception: contour, intervals, scale, rhythm, meter, and recognition memory. The MBEA does not assess two capacities that are generally accepted as central to normal music cognition: harmony and emotion. The development and norming of the emotion subtest will be described. When completed, the MBEA(R) will form a robust screening device for use with

  7. Impaired learning of event frequencies in tone deafness.

    PubMed

    Loui, Psyche; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2012-04-01

    Musical knowledge is ubiquitous, effortless, and implicitly acquired all over the world via exposure to musical materials in one's culture. In contrast, one group of individuals who show insensitivity to music, specifically the inability to discriminate pitches and melodies, is the tone-deaf. In this study, we asked whether difficulties in pitch and melody discrimination among the tone-deaf could be related to learning difficulties, and, if so, what processes of learning might be affected in the tone-deaf. We investigated the learning of frequency information in a new musical system in tone-deaf individuals and matched controls. Results showed significantly impaired learning abilities in frequency matching in the tone-deaf. This impairment was positively correlated with the severity of tone deafness as assessed by the Montreal Battery for Evaluation of Amusia. Taken together, the results suggest that tone deafness is characterized by an impaired ability to acquire frequency information from pitched materials in the sound environment. PMID:22524379

  8. The Neural Substrates Underlying the Implementation of Phonological Rule in Lexical Tone Production: An fMRI Study of the Tone 3 Sandhi Phenomenon in Mandarin Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Claire H. C.; Kuo, Wen-Jui

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the neural substrates underlying the implementation of phonological rule in lexical tone by the Tone 3 sandhi phenomenon in Mandarin Chinese. Tone 3 sandhi is traditionally described as the substitution of Tone 3 with Tone 2 when followed by another Tone 3 (33 →23) during speech production. Tone 3 sandhi enables the examination of tone processing in the phonological level with the least involvement of segments. Using the fMRI technique, we measured brain activations corresponding to the monosyllable and disyllable sequences of the four Chinese lexical tones, while manipulating the requirement on overt oral response. The application of Tone 3 sandhi to disyllable sequence of Tone 3 was confirmed by our behavioral results. Larger brain responses to overtly produced disyllable Tone 3 (33 > 11, 22, and 44) were found in right posterior IFG by both whole-brain and ROI analyses. We suggest that the right IFG was responsible for the processing of Tone 3 sandhi. Intense temporo-frontal interaction is needed in speech production for self-monitoring. The involvement of the right IFG in tone production might result from its interaction with the right auditory cortex, which is known to specialize in pitch. Future studies using tools with better temporal resolutions are needed to illuminate the dynamic interaction between the right inferior frontal regions and the left-lateralized language network in tone languages. PMID:27455078

  9. Tone Burst Eddy-Current Thermography (tbet)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ch. N. Kiran; Krishnamurthy, C. V.; Maxfield, Bruce W.; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan

    2008-02-01

    This paper reports on a Tone Burst Eddycurrent Thermography (TBET) technique that uses short-time bursts of eddy-currents induced in conducting media to generate local heating inside the material. The transient diffusion of the heat inside the material, induced by pulsed/short-time induction heating, is imaged by measuring the transient temperature profiles on the surface of the material. The presence and characteristics of the defects inside the materials changes the surface temperature transients and thus can be used for the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of conducting materials. Axisymmetric numerical models of the conventional transient thermography technique are used to benchmark the TBET technique. From the temperature profile data, temperature contrast information is obtained for the different defect depths. Temperature contrast data obtained for TBET, in this process, was compared with that obtained from conventional transient thermography data. It was found that the frequency of the eddy-current and, consequently, the skin-depth of the induced field play an important role in the effective utilization of this technique. Simulation details and the experimental results are presented in the paper. Possible advantages of TBET over conventional flash thermography are also discussed and supported by experimental data.

  10. Trumpet mouthpiece manufacturing and tone quality.

    PubMed

    Zicari, Massimo; MacRitchie, Jennifer; Ghirlanda, Lorenzo; Vanchieri, Alberto; Montorfano, Davide; Barbato, Maurizio C; Soldini, Emiliano

    2013-11-01

    This article investigates the relationship between the shape of the mouthpiece and its acoustical properties in brass instruments. The hypothesis is that not only different volumes but also particular cup shapes affect the embouchure and the tone quality in both a physical and perceivable way. Three professional trumpet players were involved, and two different internal cup contours characterized by a "U" and a "V" shape with two types of throat junction (round and sharp) were chosen, based on a Vincent Bach 1 [1/2] C medium mouthpiece. A third intermediate contour was designed as a combination of these. Over 600 sound samples were produced under controlled conditions, the study involving four different stages: (1) Simulation of air-flow, (2) analysis of the sound spectra, (3) study of the players' subjective responses, and (4) perceptual analysis of their timbral differences. Results confirm the U shape is characterized by a stronger air recirculation and produces stronger spectral components above 8 kHz, compared to the V shape. A round throat junction may also be preferable to a sharp one in terms of playability. There is moderate agreement on the aural perception of these differences although the verbal attributes used to qualify these are not shared. PMID:24180796

  11. Vagal tone as an index of mental state

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porges, Stephen W.

    1988-01-01

    The utility of monitoring oscillations in the heart rate pattern as a window to the brain is discussed as an index of general central nervous system status. Quantification of the amplitude of respiratory sinus arrhythmia provides an accurate index of cardiac vagal tone. A number of studies have demonstrated the validity of this measure; the relationship between flight performance and vagal tone has also been studied. In general, the vagal tone index appears to monitor global states of the central nervous system and may be useful in screening the general state of pilots.

  12. Aerial camera auto focusing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuan; Lan, Gongpu; Gao, Xiaodong; Liang, Wei

    2012-10-01

    Before the aerial photographic task, the cameras focusing work should be performed at first to compensate the defocus caused by the changes of the temperature, pressure etc. A new method of aerial camera auto focusing is proposed through traditional photoelectric self-collimation combined with image processing method. Firstly, the basic principles of optical self-collimation and image processing are introduced. Secondly, the limitations of the two are illustrated and the benefits of the new method are detailed. Then the basic principle, the system composition and the implementation of this new method are presented. Finally, the data collection platform is set up reasonably and the focus evaluation function curve is draw. The results showed that: the method can be used in the Aerial camera focusing field, adapt to the aviation equipment trends of miniaturization and lightweight .This paper is helpful to the further work of accurate and automatic focusing.

  13. 7 CFR 917.8 - Pure grower or pure producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.8 Pure grower or pure producer. (a) For peaches,...

  14. 7 CFR 917.8 - Pure grower or pure producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.8 Pure grower or pure producer. (a) For peaches,...

  15. Dynamics of aerial target pursuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, S.

    2015-12-01

    During pursuit and predation, aerial species engage in multitasking behavior that involve simultaneous target detection, tracking, decision-making, approach and capture. The mobility of the pursuer and the target in a three dimensional environment during predation makes the capture task highly complex. Many researchers have studied and analyzed prey capture dynamics in different aerial species such as insects and bats. This article focuses on reviewing the capture strategies adopted by these species while relying on different sensory variables (vision and acoustics) for navigation. In conclusion, the neural basis of these capture strategies and some applications of these strategies in bio-inspired navigation and control of engineered systems are discussed.

  16. Observing snow cover using unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spallek, Waldemar; Witek, Matylda; Niedzielski, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    Snow cover is a key environmental variable that influences high flow events driven by snow-melt episodes. Estimates of snow extent (SE), snow depth (SD) and snow water equivalent (SWE) allow to approximate runoff caused by snow-melt episodes. These variables are purely spatial characteristics, and hence their pointwise measurements using terrestrial monitoring systems do not offer the comprehensive and fully-spatial information on water storage in snow. Existing satellite observations of snow reveal moderate spatial resolution which, not uncommonly, is not fine enough to estimate the above-mentioned snow-related variables for small catchments. High-resolution aerial photographs and the resulting orthophotomaps and digital surface models (DSMs), obtained using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), may offer spatial resolution of 3 cm/px. The UAV-based observation of snow cover may be done using the near-infrared (NIR) cameras and visible-light cameras. Since the beginning of 2015, in frame of the research project no. LIDER/012/223/L-5/13/NCBR/2014 financed by the National Centre for Research and Development of Poland, we have performed a series of the UAV flights targeted at four sites in the Kwisa catchment in the Izerskie Mts. (part of the Sudetes, SW Poland). Observations are carried out with the ultralight UAV swinglet CAM (produced by senseFly, lightweight 0.5 kg, wingspan 80 cm) which enables on-demand sampling at low costs. The aim of the field work is to acquire aerial photographs taken using the visible-light and NIR cameras for a purpose of producing time series of DSMs and orthophotomaps with snow cover for all sites. The DSMs are used to calculate SD as difference between observational (with snow) and reference (without snow) models. In order to verify such an approach to compute SD we apply several procedures, one of which is the estimation of SE using the corresponding orthophotomaps generated on a basis of visual-light and NIR images. The objective of this

  17. AERIAL OF VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING & SURROUNDING AREA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    AERIAL OF VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING & SURROUNDING AREA KSC-377C-0082.41 116-KSC-377C-82.41, P-15877, ARCHIVE-04151 Aerial view - Shuttle construction progress - VAB and Orbiter Processing Facilities - direction northwest.

  18. Considerations in the placement of phase calibration tones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. E.

    1980-01-01

    In the use of tones to calibrate unwanted instrumental phases for very long baseline interferometry experiments, certain problems exist which are related to the placement of these phase calibrator tones. (1) A bias exists in an analytically generated stopping function used during correlation if its frequency satisfies the following condition; f = (f sub s)x(m)/n, where f sub s = sampling frequency, m = any integer, and n = any odd integer. (2) Due to the quantized representation of sine waves in the stopping function, odd harmonics of the fundamental frequencies are generated. Several mechanisms are available through which these harmonics can cause errors in the residual phase extracted from the recorded tones. (3) When multiple tones are injected into a pass band, intermodulation products can occur. The magnitude of these effects is discussed along with strategies designed to avoid them.

  19. Optimum detection of tones transmitted by a spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.; Shihabi, M. M.; Moon, T.

    1995-01-01

    The performance of a scheme proposed for automated routine monitoring of deep-space missions is presented. The scheme uses four different tones (sinusoids) transmitted from the spacecraft (S/C) to a ground station with the positive identification of each of them used to indicate different states of the S/C. Performance is measured in terms of detection probability versus false alarm probability with detection signal-to-noise ratio as a parameter. The cases where the phase of the received tone is unknown and where both the phase and frequency of the received tone are unknown are treated separately. The decision rules proposed for detecting the tones are formulated from average-likelihood ratio and maximum-likelihood ratio tests, the former resulting in optimum receiver structures.

  20. Grey Component Replacement Research, Modelling Tone And Color Reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisch, Richard S.

    1990-06-01

    Four different scanning Color Electronic Pagination System (CEPS) devices were tested to study their conventional and Grey Component Replacement/Undercolor Addition (GCR/UCA) tone and color response in the 4 color Positive Acting Offset Lithographic printing process. A common transparency input and ganged printing output was used. Inter and intra machine differences are disclosed. A new depiction of the full tone reproduction characteristics is presented for several different levels of GCR/UCA and conventional printing.

  1. Method to measure tone of axial and proximal muscle.

    PubMed

    Gurfinkel, Victor S; Cacciatore, Timothy W; Cordo, Paul J; Horak, Fay B

    2011-01-01

    The control of tonic muscular activity remains poorly understood. While abnormal tone is commonly assessed clinically by measuring the passive resistance of relaxed limbs, no systems are available to study tonic muscle control in a natural, active state of antigravity support. We have developed a device (Twister) to study tonic regulation of axial and proximal muscles during active postural maintenance (i.e. postural tone). Twister rotates axial body regions relative to each other about the vertical axis during stance, so as to twist the neck, trunk or hip regions. This twisting imposes length changes on axial muscles without changing the body's relationship to gravity. Because Twister does not provide postural support, tone must be regulated to counteract gravitational torques. We quantify this tonic regulation by the restive torque to twisting, which reflects the state of all muscles undergoing length changes, as well as by electromyography of relevant muscles. Because tone is characterized by long-lasting low-level muscle activity, tonic control is studied with slow movements that produce "tonic" changes in muscle length, without evoking fast "phasic" responses. Twister can be reconfigured to study various aspects of muscle tone, such as co-contraction, tonic modulation to postural changes, tonic interactions across body segments, as well as perceptual thresholds to slow axial rotation. Twister can also be used to provide a quantitative measurement of the effects of disease on axial and proximal postural tone and assess the efficacy of intervention. PMID:22214974

  2. Continuous tone printing in silicone from CNC milled matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskins, S.; McCallion, P.

    2014-02-01

    Current research at the Centre for Fine Print Research (CFPR) at the University of the West of England, Bristol, is exploring the potential of creating coloured pictorial imagery from a continuous tone relief surface. To create the printing matrices the research team have been using CNC milled images where the height of the relief image is dictated by creating a tone curve and then milling this curve into a series of relief blocks from which the image is cast in a silicone ink. A translucent image is cast from each of the colour matrices and each colour is assembled - one on top of another - resulting is a colour continuous tone print, where colour tone is created by physical depth of colour. This process is a contemporary method of continuous tone colour printing based upon the Nineteenth Century black and white printing process of Woodburytype as developed by Walter Bentley Woodbury in 1865. Woodburytype is the only true continuous tone printing process invented, and although its delicate and subtle surfaces surpassed all other printing methods at the time. The process died out in the late nineteenth century as more expedient and cost effective methods of printing prevailed. New research at CFPR builds upon previous research that combines 19th Century Photomechanical techniques with digital technology to reappraise the potential of these processes.

  3. Pulsating proton aurora caused by rising tone Pc1 waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, R.; Shiokawa, K.; Omura, Y.; Ebihara, Y.; Miyoshi, Y.; Sakaguchi, K.; Otsuka, Y.; Connors, M.

    2016-02-01

    We found rising tone emissions with a dispersion of ˜1 Hz per several tens of seconds in the dynamic spectrum of a Pc1 geomagnetic pulsation (Pc1) observed on the ground. These Pc1 rising tones were successively observed over ˜30 min from 0250 UT on 14 October 2006 by an induction magnetometer at Athabasca, Canada (54.7°N, 246.7°E, magnetic latitude 61.7°N). Simultaneously, a Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms panchromatic (THEMIS) all-sky camera detected pulsations of an isolated proton aurora with a period of several tens of seconds, ˜10% variations in intensity, and fine structures of 3° in magnetic longitudes. The pulsations of the proton aurora close to the zenith of ATH have one-to-one correspondences with the Pc1 rising tones. This suggests that these rising tones scatter magnetospheric protons intermittently at the equatorial region. The radial motion of the magnetospheric source, of which the isolated proton aurora is a projection, can explain the central frequency increase of Pc1, but not the shorter period (tens of seconds) frequency increase of ˜1 Hz in Pc1 rising tones. We suggest that EMIC-triggered emissions generate the frequency increase of Pc1 rising tones on the ground and that they also cause the Pc1 pearl structure, which has a similar characteristic time.

  4. Examination of voicing onset time during Mandarin tone productions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang; Ng, Manwa

    2005-04-01

    The voice onset time (VOT) of stop consonant is defined as the time interval between the release of a stop and the onset of the following vowel (Lisker and Abramson, 1964, 1970). Previous studies indicated that VOT could be used as a perceptual cue for identification of both voicing and place of articulation of stops (Kewley-Port, 1983; Ladefoged, 2001). Abramson (1977) suggested VOT could be interpreted as interrelated acoustic consequences of variation in the relative timing of glottal and oral gestures. This study will attempt to extend the probe on this suggestion by comparing the VOT values among different tones. Mandarin, which is a tone language, where a change in the tone of a syllable leads to a change in meaning, will be used in the study. There are four contrastive tones in Mandarin, each of which is realized by changing the vocal pitch during the course of the syllable production. The proposed study will determine if VOT values for each of the six stop sounds (/p,b,t,d,k,g/) will vary with the variation of different tones at which each of the following vowel sounds is produced. The interrelationship between VOT and tone production will be discussed.

  5. The coordination of boundary tones and its interaction with prominence.

    PubMed

    Katsika, Argyro; Krivokapić, Jelena; Mooshammer, Christine; Tiede, Mark; Goldstein, Louis

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates the coordination of boundary tones as a function of stress and pitch accent. Boundary tone coordination has not been experimentally investigated previously, and the effect of prominence on this coordination, and whether it is lexical (stress-driven) or phrasal (pitch accent-driven) in nature is unclear. We assess these issues using a variety of syntactic constructions to elicit different boundary tones in an Electromagnetic Articulography (EMA) study of Greek. The results indicate that the onset of boundary tones co-occurs with the articulatory target of the final vowel. This timing is further modified by stress, but not by pitch accent: boundary tones are initiated earlier in words with non-final stress than in words with final stress regardless of accentual status. Visual data inspection reveals that phrase-final words are followed by acoustic pauses during which specific articulatory postures occur. Additional analyses show that these postures reach their achievement point at a stable temporal distance from boundary tone onsets regardless of stress position. Based on these results and parallel findings on boundary lengthening reported elsewhere, a novel approach to prosody is proposed within the context of Articulatory Phonology: rather than seeing prosodic (lexical and phrasal) events as independent entities, a set of coordination relations between them is suggested. The implications of this account for prosodic architecture are discussed. PMID:25300341

  6. Experimental Feedback Control of Flow Induced Cavity Tones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabell, Randolph H.; Kegerise, Michael A.; Cox, David E.; Gibbs, Gary P.

    2005-01-01

    Discrete-time, linear quadratic methods were used to design feedback controllers for reducing tones generated by flow over a cavity. The dynamics of a synthetic jet actuator mounted at the leading edge of the cavity as observed by two microphones in the cavity were modeled over a broad frequency range using state space models computed from experimental data. Variations in closed loop performance as a function of model order, control order, control bandwidth, and state estimator design were studied using a cavity in the Probe Calibration Tunnel at NASA Langley. The controller successfully reduced the levels of multiple cavity tones at the tested flow speeds of Mach 0.275, 0.35, and 0.45. In some cases, the closed loop results were limited by excitation of sidebands of the cavity tones, or the creation of new tones at frequencies away from the cavity tones. Nonetheless, the results validate the combination of optimal control and experimentally-generated state space models, and suggest this approach may be useful for other flow control problems. The models were not able to account for non-linear dynamics, such as interactions between tones at different frequencies.

  7. Vagal tone during infant contingency learning and its disruption.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Margaret Wolan

    2016-04-01

    This study used contingency learning to examine changes in infants' vagal tone during learning and its disruption. The heart rate of 160 five-month-old infants was recorded continuously during the first of two training sessions as they experienced an audiovisual event contingent on their pulling. Maternal reports of infant temperament were also collected. Baseline vagal tone, a measure of parasympathetic regulation of the heart, was related to vagal levels during the infants' contingency learning session, but not to their learner status. Vagal tone levels did not vary significantly over session minutes. Instead, vagal tone levels were a function of both individual differences in learner status and infant soothability. Vagal levels of infants who learned in the initial session were similar regardless of their soothability; however, vagal levels of infants who learned in a subsequent session differed as a function of soothability. Additionally, vagal levels during contingency disruption were significantly higher among infants in this group who were more soothable as opposed to those who were less soothable. The results suggest that contingency learning and disruption is associated with stable vagal tone in the majority of infants, but that individual differences in attention processes and state associated with vagal tone may be most readily observed during the disruption phase. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 366-381, 2016. PMID:26517573

  8. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... lift, except in case of emergency. (x) Climbers shall not be worn while performing work from an aerial... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aerial lifts. 1926.453 Section 1926.453 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Scaffolds § 1926.453 Aerial lifts. (a)...

  9. Pure Autonomic Failure.

    PubMed

    Thaisetthawatkul, Pariwat

    2016-08-01

    Pure autonomic failure (PAF) is a rare sporadic neurodegenerative autonomic disorder characterized by slowly progressive pan autonomic failure without other features of neurologic dysfunctions. The main clinical symptoms result from neurogenic orthostatic hypotension and urinary and gastrointestinal autonomic dysfunctions. Autonomic failure in PAF is caused by neuronal degeneration of pre- and postganglionic sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons in the thoracic spinal cord and paravertebral autonomic ganglia. The presence of Lewy bodies and α-synuclein deposits in these neural structures suggests that PAF is one of Lewy body synucleinopathies, examples of which include multiple system atrophy, Parkinson disease, and Lewy body disease. There is currently no specific treatment to stop progression in PAF. Management of autonomic symptoms is the mainstay of treatment and includes management of orthostatic hypotension and supine hypertension. The prognosis for survival of PAF is better than for the other synucleinopathies. PMID:27338613

  10. Auditory processing abnormalities in schizotypal personality disorder: An fMRI experiment using tones of deviant pitch and duration

    PubMed Central

    Dickey, Chandlee C.; Morocz, Istvan A.; Niznikiewicz, Margaret A.; Voglmaier, Martina; Toner, Sarah; Khan, Usman; Dreusicke, Mark; Yoo, Seung-Schik; Shenton, Martha E.; McCarley, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Background One of the cardinal features of schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is language abnormalities. The focus of this study was to determine whether or not there are also processing abnormalities of pure tones differing in pitch and duration in SPD. Methods Thirteen neuroleptic-naïve male subjects met full criteria for SPD and were group-matched on age and parental socioeconomic status to 13 comparison subjects. Verbal learning was measured with the California Verbal Learning Test. Heschl’s gyrus volumes were measured using structural MRI. Whole-brain fMRI activation patterns in an auditory task of listening to tones including pitch and duration deviants were compared between SPD and control subjects. In a second and separate ROI analysis we found that peak activation in superior temporal gyrus (STG), Brodmann Areas 41 and 42, was correlated with verbal learning and clinical measures derived from the SCID-II interview. Results In the region of the STG, SPD subjects demonstrated more activation to pitch deviants bilaterally (p<0.001); and to duration deviants in the left hemisphere (p=0.005) (two-sample t). SPD subjects also showed more bilateral parietal cortex activation to duration deviants. In no region did comparison subjects activate more than SPD subjects in either experiment. Exploratory correlations for SPD subjects suggest a relationship between peak activation on the right for deviant tones in the pitch experiment with odd speech and impaired verbal learning. There was no difference between groups on Heschl’s gyrus volume. Conclusions These data suggest that SPD subjects have inefficient or hyper-responsive processing of pure tones both in terms of pitch and duration deviance that is not attributable to smaller Heschl’s gyrus volumes. Finally, these auditory processing abnormalities may have significance for the odd speech heard in some SPD subjects and downstream language and verbal learning deficits. PMID:18555666

  11. Single-tone and two-tone AM-FM spectral calculations for tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Nee-Yin; Sachse, Glen W.

    1987-01-01

    A generalized theory for optical heterodyne spectroscopy with phase modulated laser radiation is used which allows the calculation of signal line shapes for frequency modulation spectroscopy of Lorentzian gas absorption lines. In particular, synthetic spectral line shapes for both single-tone and two-tone modulation of lead-salt diode lasers are presented in which the contributions from both amplitude and frequency modulations are included.

  12. The Case-Tone Factor in Igbo Nouns, with Special Reference to the Igbo Associative Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echeruo, Michael J. C.

    Tone-based classification rules for Igbo nouns need modification because: (1) class 1 nouns (monosyllables with high tones) do not, as claimed, operate differently from other terminal high-tone nouns; and (2) class 6 nouns (di-syllabic with downstep tones) can be accounted for within class 2 and class 3 nouns known as HH and LH nouns). The proper…

  13. Context, Contrast, and Tone of Voice in Auditory Sarcasm Perception.

    PubMed

    Voyer, Daniel; Thibodeau, Sophie-Hélène; Delong, Breanna J

    2016-02-01

    Four experiments were conducted to investigate the interplay between context and tone of voice in the perception of sarcasm. These experiments emphasized the role of contrast effects in sarcasm perception exclusively by means of auditory stimuli whereas most past research has relied on written material. In all experiments, a positive or negative computer-generated context spoken in a flat emotional tone was followed by a literally positive statement spoken in a sincere or sarcastic tone of voice. Participants indicated for each statement whether the intonation was sincere or sarcastic. In Experiment 1, a congruent context/tone of voice pairing (negative/sarcastic, positive/sincere) produced fast response times and proportions of sarcastic responses in the direction predicted by the tone of voice. Incongruent pairings produced mid-range proportions and slower response times. Experiment 2 introduced ambiguous contexts to determine whether a lower context/statements contrast would affect the proportion of sarcastic responses and response time. Results showed the expected findings for proportions (values between those obtained for congruent and incongruent pairings in the direction predicted by the tone of voice). However, response time failed to produce the predicted pattern, suggesting potential issues with the choice of stimuli. Experiments 3 and 4 extended the results of Experiments 1 and 2, respectively, to auditory stimuli based on written vignettes used in neuropsychological assessment. Results were exactly as predicted by contrast effects in both experiments. Taken together, the findings suggest that both context and tone influence how sarcasm is perceived while supporting the importance of contrast effects in sarcasm perception. PMID:25286867

  14. Acoustic structure of the five perceptual dimensions of timbre in orchestral instrument tones

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Taffeta M.; Hamilton, Liberty S.; Theunissen, Frédéric E.

    2013-01-01

    Attempts to relate the perceptual dimensions of timbre to quantitative acoustical dimensions have been tenuous, leading to claims that timbre is an emergent property, if measurable at all. Here, a three-pronged analysis shows that the timbre space of sustained instrument tones occupies 5 dimensions and that a specific combination of acoustic properties uniquely determines gestalt perception of timbre. Firstly, multidimensional scaling (MDS) of dissimilarity judgments generated a perceptual timbre space in which 5 dimensions were cross-validated and selected by traditional model comparisons. Secondly, subjects rated tones on semantic scales. A discriminant function analysis (DFA) accounting for variance of these semantic ratings across instruments and between subjects also yielded 5 significant dimensions with similar stimulus ordination. The dimensions of timbre space were then interpreted semantically by rotational and reflectional projection of the MDS solution into two DFA dimensions. Thirdly, to relate this final space to acoustical structure, the perceptual MDS coordinates of each sound were regressed with its joint spectrotemporal modulation power spectrum. Sound structures correlated significantly with distances in perceptual timbre space. Contrary to previous studies, most perceptual timbre dimensions are not the result of purely temporal or spectral features but instead depend on signature spectrotemporal patterns. PMID:23297911

  15. Acoustic structure of the five perceptual dimensions of timbre in orchestral instrument tones.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Taffeta M; Hamilton, Liberty S; Theunissen, Frédéric E

    2013-01-01

    Attempts to relate the perceptual dimensions of timbre to quantitative acoustical dimensions have been tenuous, leading to claims that timbre is an emergent property, if measurable at all. Here, a three-pronged analysis shows that the timbre space of sustained instrument tones occupies 5 dimensions and that a specific combination of acoustic properties uniquely determines gestalt perception of timbre. Firstly, multidimensional scaling (MDS) of dissimilarity judgments generated a perceptual timbre space in which 5 dimensions were cross-validated and selected by traditional model comparisons. Secondly, subjects rated tones on semantic scales. A discriminant function analysis (DFA) accounting for variance of these semantic ratings across instruments and between subjects also yielded 5 significant dimensions with similar stimulus ordination. The dimensions of timbre space were then interpreted semantically by rotational and reflectional projection of the MDS solution into two DFA dimensions. Thirdly, to relate this final space to acoustical structure, the perceptual MDS coordinates of each sound were regressed with its joint spectrotemporal modulation power spectrum. Sound structures correlated significantly with distances in perceptual timbre space. Contrary to previous studies, most perceptual timbre dimensions are not the result of purely temporal or spectral features but instead depend on signature spectrotemporal patterns. PMID:23297911

  16. Pure autonomic failure.

    PubMed

    Garland, Emily M; Hooper, William B; Robertson, David

    2013-01-01

    A 1925 report by Bradbury and Eggleston first described patients with extreme orthostatic hypotension and a low, steady heart rate. Evidence accumulated over the next two decades that patients with orthostatic hypotension include those with pure autonomic failure (PAF), characterized by isolated peripheral autonomic dysfunction and decreased norepinephrine synthesis; multiple system atrophy (MSA) with symptoms of a central Parkinson-like syndrome and normal resting plasma norepinephrine; and Parkinson's disease (PD), with lesions in postganglionic noradrenergic neurons and signs of autonomic dysfunction. All three disorders are classified as α-synucleinopathies. Insoluble deposits of α-synuclein are found in glia in MSA, whereas they take the form of neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions called Lewy bodies in PAF and PD. The exact relationship between α-synuclein deposits and the pathology remains undetermined. PAF occurs sporadically, and progresses slowly with a relatively good prognosis. However, it has been proposed that some cases of PAF may develop a central neurodegenerative disorder. Differentiation between PAF, MSA, and PD with autonomic failure can be facilitated by a number of biochemical and functional tests and by imaging studies. Cardiac sympathetic innervation is generally intact in MSA but decreased or absent in Parkinson's disease with autonomic failure and PAF. Treatment of PAF is directed at relieving symptoms with nonpharmacological interventions and with medications producing volume expansion and vasoconstriction. Future studies should focus on determining the factors that lead to central rather than solely peripheral neurodegeneration. PMID:24095130

  17. Measurement of intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity and its importance in asthma.

    PubMed

    Brown, Robert H; Togias, Alkis

    2016-07-01

    While airways have some degree of baseline tone, the level and variability of this tone is not known. It is also unclear whether there is a difference in airway tone or in the variability of airway tone between asthmatic and healthy individuals. This study examined airway tone and intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity (variance of airway tone) in vivo in 19 individuals with asthma compared with 9 healthy adults. All participants underwent spirometry, body plethysmography, and high-resolution computed tomography at baseline and after maximum bronchodilation with albuterol. Airway tone was defined as the percent difference in airway diameter after albuterol at total lung capacity compared with baseline. The amount of airway tone in each airway varied both within and between subjects. The average airway tone did not differ significantly between the two groups (P = 0.09), but the intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity did (P = 0.016). Intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity was strongly correlated with airway tone (r = 0.78, P < 0.0001). Also, it was negatively correlated with the magnitude of the distension of the airways from functional residual capacity to total lung capacity at both baseline (r = -0.49, P = 0.03) and after maximum bronchodilation (r = -0.51, P = 0.02) in the asthma, but not the healthy group. However, we did not find any relationship between intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity and conventional lung function outcomes. Intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity appears to be an important characteristic of airway pathophysiology in asthma. PMID:27103654

  18. A weak-scattering model for turbine-tone haystacking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAlpine, A.; Powles, C. J.; Tester, B. J.

    2013-08-01

    Noise and emissions are critical technical issues in the development of aircraft engines. This necessitates the development of accurate models to predict the noise radiated from aero-engines. Turbine tones radiated from the exhaust nozzle of a turbofan engine propagate through turbulent jet shear layers which causes scattering of sound. In the far-field, measurements of the tones may exhibit spectral broadening, where owing to scattering, the tones are no longer narrow band peaks in the spectrum. This effect is known colloquially as 'haystacking'. In this article a comprehensive analytical model to predict spectral broadening for a tone radiated through a circular jet, for an observer in the far field, is presented. This model extends previous work by the authors which considered the prediction of spectral broadening at far-field observer locations outside the cone of silence. The modelling uses high-frequency asymptotic methods and a weak-scattering assumption. A realistic shear layer velocity profile and turbulence characteristics are included in the model. The mathematical formulation which details the spectral broadening, or haystacking, of a single-frequency, single azimuthal order turbine tone is outlined. In order to validate the model, predictions are compared with experimental results, albeit only at polar angle equal to 90°. A range of source frequencies from 4 to 20kHz, and jet velocities from 20 to 60ms-1, are examined for validation purposes. The model correctly predicts how the spectral broadening is affected when the source frequency and jet velocity are varied.

  19. Mechanisms of intrinsic tone in ferret vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Pawlowski, J; Morgan, K G

    1992-01-01

    1. Circular strips from ferret aorta were used to investigate the mechanism of the intrinsic basal tone. 2. Determinations of stiffness using small sinusoidal length changes showed an abolition of both stiffness and force with cooling, but the temperature dependence of the change in active stiffness did not parallel that of force. At temperatures below 22 degrees C there appeared to be a relatively large population of attached, non-force-generating cross-bridges, indicating that separate mechanisms are involved in regulating cross-bridge attachment and the force per cross-bridge. 3. Active intrinsic tone was not affected by removal of extracellular Ca2+ or removal of endothelium. 4. Intracellular ionized Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i) as measured with the photoprotein aequorin, did not significantly change when intrinsic tone was abolished by cooling. 5. Myosin light chain phosphorylation, as measured by 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, significantly decreased on cooling, but the temperature dependence of phosphorylation did not parallel that of force. The change in phosphorylation in the absence of a change in [Ca2+]i suggests the presence of a constitutively active Ca(2+)-independent form of myosin light chain kinase. 6. Maximal concentrations of staurosporine inhibited but did not eliminate intrinsic tone. 7. Changes in myosin light chain kinase and protein kinase C activities may explain part but not all of the intrinsic tone. PMID:1593466

  20. Evaluation of HEXORR Tone Assistance Mode Against Spring Assistance.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, Sasha Blue; Holley, Rahsaan J; Lum, Peter S

    2015-07-01

    Robots are a promising tool for rehabilitation, and research suggests combining assistance with subject participation to maintain motivation and engagement. In this study, we compare two different types of robotic assistance for hand rehabilitation: Tone, a novel method designed to directly compensate for the user's hypertonia, and Spring, a commonly used method simulating a spring-like force attracting the subject to the target position. Eight chronic stroke subjects played a Gate Game, where they guide a ball through a sweeping, on-screen gate. Each subject was exposed to 5 modes: unassisted, assisted by the Spring and Tone modes, and "delay" modes where the assistance was provided after a period without assistance. Compared to unassisted trials, subjects produced less positive work and more negative work with all types of assistance but also reached a larger ROM and scored higher on the game. Notably, subjects produced more positive work overall with Tone compared to Spring. Further, subjects produced positive work over a significantly shorter range with Spring compared to Unassisted, while there was no difference between Tone and Unassisted. While both modes were effective at enabling the training of a larger workspace, these results suggest Tone assistance maintains a greater level of subject engagement and participation, likely making it a useful tool for hand rehabilitation. PMID:25667355

  1. Dynamic resistance training decreases sympathetic tone in hypertensive ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Shimojo, G L; Palma, R K; Brito, J O; Sanches, I C; Irigoyen, M C; De Angelis, K

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance exercise training on hemodynamics and cardiac autonomic control in ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats. Female rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary control (SC), sedentary hypertensive (SH), sedentary hypertensive ovariectomized (SHO), and resistance-trained hypertensive ovariectomized (RTHO). Resistance exercise training was performed on a vertical ladder (5 days/week, 8 weeks) at 40-60% maximal load. Direct arterial pressure was recorded. Vagal and sympathetic tones were measured by heart rate (HR) responses to methylatropine (3 mg/kg, iv) and propranolol (4 mg/kg, iv). Ovariectomy resulted in additional increases in blood pressure in hypertensive rats and was associated with decreased vagal tone. Resistance exercise trained rats had lower mean arterial pressure than untrained rats (RTHO: 159±2.2 vs SHO: 177±3.4 mmHg), as well as resting bradycardia (RTHO: 332±9.0 vs SHO: 356±5 bpm). Sympathetic tone was also lower in the trained group. Moreover, sympathetic tone was positively correlated with resting HR (r=0.7, P<0.05). The additional arterial pressure increase in hypertensive rats caused by ovarian hormone deprivation was attenuated by moderate-intensity dynamic resistance training. This benefit may be associated with resting bradycardia and reduced cardiac sympathetic tone after training, which suggests potential benefits of resistance exercise for the management of hypertension after ovarian hormone deprivation. PMID:25831206

  2. SBS mitigation with 'two-tone' amplification: a theoretical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronder, T. J.; Shay, T. M.; Dajani, I.; Gavrielides, A.; Robin, C. A.; Lu, C. A.

    2008-02-01

    A new technique for mitigating stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) effects in narrow-linewidth Yb-doped fiber amplifiers is demonstrated with a model that reduces to solving an 8×8 system of coupled nonlinear equations with the gain, SBS, and four-wave mixing (FMW) incorporated into the model. This technique uses two seed signals, or 'two-tones', with each tone reaching its SBS threshold almost independently and thus increasing the overall threshold for SBS in the fiber amplifier. The wavelength separation of these signals is also selected to avoid FWM, which in this case possesses the next lowest nonlinear effects threshold. This model predicts an output power increase of 86% (at SBS threshold with no signs of FWM) for a 'two-tone' amplifier with seed signals at 1064nm and 1068nm, compared to a conventional fiber amplifier with a single 1064nm seed. The model is also used to simulate an SBS-suppressing fiber amplifier to test the regime where FWM is the limiting factor. In this case, an optimum wavelength separation of 3nm to 10nm prevents FWM from reaching threshold. The optimum ratio of the input power for the two seed signals in 'two-tone' amplification is also tested. Future experimental verification of this 'two-tone' technique is discussed.

  3. Inhibitory effects and mechanisms of intestinal electrical stimulation on gastric tone, antral contractions, pyloric tone, and gastric emptying in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaotuan; Yin, Jieyun; Chen, Jihong; Song, Gengqing; Wang, Lijie; Zhu, Hongbing; Brining, Doug; Chen, Jiande D. Z.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of intestinal electrical stimulation (IES) on gastric tone, antral and pyloric contractions, and gastric emptying in dogs. Female hound dogs were equipped with a duodenal or gastric cannula, and one pair of serosal electrodes was implanted in the small intestine. The study consisted of five different experiments. Liquid gastric emptying was assessed by collection of chyme from the duodenal cannula in a number of sessions with and without IES and with and without N-nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA). Postprandial antral and pyloric contractions were measured with and without IES and in the absence and presence of l-NNA or phentolamine by placement of a manometric catheter into the antrum and pylorus via the duodenal cannula. Gastric tone was assessed by measurement of gastric volume at a constant pressure. Gastric emptying was substantially and significantly delayed by IES or l-NNA compared with the control session. IES-induced delay of gastric emptying became normal with addition of l-NNA. IES reduced gastric tone, which was blocked by l-NNA. IES also inhibited antral contractions (frequency and amplitude), and this inhibitory effect was not blocked by l-NNA but was blocked by phentolamine. IES alone did not affect pyloric tone or resistance, but IES + l-NNA decreased pyloric tone. In conclusion, IES reduces gastric tone via the nitrergic pathway, inhibits antral contractions via the adrenergic pathway, does not affect pyloric tone, and delays liquid gastric emptying. IES-induced delay of gastric emptying is attributed to its inhibitory effects on gastric motility. PMID:18945955

  4. Pure optical photoacoustic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhixing; Chen, Sung-Liang; Ling, Tao; Guo, L. Jay; Carson, Paul L.; Wang, Xueding

    2011-01-01

    The concept of pure optical photoacoustic microscopy(POPAM) was proposed based on optical rastering of a focused excitation beam and optically sensing the photoacoustic signal using a microring resonator fabricated by a nanoimprinting technique. After the refinements of the microring’s working wavelength and in the resonator structure and mold fabrication, an ultrahigh Q factor of 3.0×105 was achieved which provided high sensitivity with a noise equivalent detectable pressure(NEDP) value of 29Pa. This NEDP is much lower than the hundreds of Pascals achieved with existing optical resonant structures such as etalons, fiber gratings and dielectric multilayer interference filters available for acoustic measurement. The featured high sensitivity allowed the microring resonator to detect the weak photoacoustic signals from micro- or submicroscale objects. The inherent superbroad bandwidth of the optical microring resonator combined with an optically focused scanning beam provided POPAM with high resolution in the axial as well as both lateral directions while the axial resolution of conventional photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) suffers from the limited bandwidth of PZT detectors. Furthermore, the broadband microring resonator showed similar sensitivity to that of our most sensitive PZT detector. The current POPAM system provides a lateral resolution of 5 μm and an axial resolution of 8 μm, comparable to that achieved by optical microscopy while presenting the unique contrast of optical absorption and functional information complementing other optical modalities. The 3D structure of microvasculature, including capillary networks, and even individual red blood cells have been discerned successfully in the proof-of-concept experiments on mouse bladders ex vivo and mouse ears in vivo. The potential of approximately GHz bandwidth of the microring resonator also might allow much higher resolution than shown here in microscopy of optical absorption and acoustic propagation

  5. Trends in quantitative aerial thermography

    SciTech Connect

    Schott, J.R.; Wilkinson, E.P.

    1983-06-01

    Recent improvements in aerial thermographic techniques, particularly in achievable spatial resolution and noise equivalent temperature variation, have enabled the use of thermography in a more objective fashion. Interpretation of the information contained in thermograms has also been improved through the use of certain techniques accounting for roof material type (emissivity), background effects, and atmospheric variables. With current methods, roof surface temperature from aerial imagery can be measured to within 1.8/sup 0/F (1.0/sup 0/C) of the actual temperature. These advances in thermogram analysis have opened the door for potential direct measurement of rooftop heat-loss levels from thermogram data. Ultimately, it is felt that this type of information would make it feasible to direct intensive energy-conservation efforts toward a smaller population, where the need and cost benefits will be the greatest.

  6. Aerial Photographs and Satellite Images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1997-01-01

    Photographs and other images of the Earth taken from the air and from space show a great deal about the planet's landforms, vegetation, and resources. Aerial and satellite images, known as remotely sensed images, permit accurate mapping of land cover and make landscape features understandable on regional, continental, and even global scales. Transient phenomena, such as seasonal vegetation vigor and contaminant discharges, can be studied by comparing images acquired at different times. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), which began using aerial photographs for mapping in the 1930's, archives photographs from its mapping projects and from those of some other Federal agencies. In addition, many images from such space programs as Landsat, begun in 1972, are held by the USGS. Most satellite scenes can be obtained only in digital form for use in computer-based image processing and geographic information systems, but in some cases are also available as photographic products.

  7. Aerial robotic data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Hayes, D.W.; Pendergast, M.M.; Corban, J.E.

    1993-12-31

    A small, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), equipped with sensors for physical and chemical measurements of remote environments, is described. A miniature helicopter airframe is used as a platform for sensor testing and development. The sensor output is integrated with the flight control system for real-time, interactive, data acquisition and analysis. Pre-programmed flight missions will be flown with several sensors to demonstrate the cost-effective surveillance capabilities of this new technology.

  8. The Theory of Adaptive Dispersion and Acoustic-phonetic Properties of Cross-language Lexical-tone Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Jennifer Alexandra

    Lexical-tone languages use fundamental frequency (F0/pitch) to convey word meaning. About 41.8% of the world's languages use lexical tone (Maddieson, 2008), yet those systems are under-studied. I aim to increase our understanding of speech-sound inventory organization by extending to tone-systems a model of vowel-system organization, the Theory of Adaptive Dispersion (TAD) (Liljencrants and Lindblom, 1972). This is a cross-language investigation of whether and how the size of a tonal inventory affects (A) acoustic tone-space size and (B) dispersion of tone categories within the tone-space. I compared five languages with very different tone inventories: Cantonese (3 contour, 3 level tones); Mandarin (3 contour, 1 level tone); Thai (2 contour, 3 level tones); Yoruba (3 level tones only); and Igbo (2 level tones only). Six native speakers (3 female) of each language produced 18 CV syllables in isolation, with each of his/her language's tones, six times. I measured tonal F0 across the vowel at onset, midpoint, and offglide. Tone-space size was the F0 difference in semitones (ST) between each language's highest and lowest tones. Tone dispersion was the F0 distance (ST) between two tones shared by multiple languages. Following the TAD, I predicted that languages with larger tone inventories would have larger tone-spaces. Against expectations, tone-space size was fixed across level-tone languages at midpoint and offglide, and across contour-tone languages (except Thai) at offglide. However, within each language type (level-tone vs. contour-tone), languages with smaller tone inventories had larger tone spaces at onset. Tone-dispersion results were also unexpected. The Cantonese mid-level tone was further dispersed from a tonal baseline than the Yoruba mid-level tone; Cantonese mid-level tone dispersion was therefore greater than theoretically necessary. The Cantonese high-level tone was also further dispersed from baseline than the Mandarin high-level tone -- at midpoint

  9. Telemetry of Aerial Radiological Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    H. W. Clark, Jr.

    2002-10-01

    Telemetry has been added to National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA's) Aerial Measuring System (AMS) Incident Response aircraft to accelerate availability of aerial radiological mapping data. Rapid aerial radiological mapping is promptly performed by AMS Incident Response aircraft in the event of a major radiological dispersal. The AMS airplane flies the entire potentially affected area, plus a generous margin, to provide a quick look at the extent and severity of the event. The primary result of the AMS Incident Response over flight is a map of estimated exposure rate on the ground along the flight path. Formerly, it was necessary to wait for the airplane to land before the map could be seen. Now, while the flight is still in progress, data are relayed via satellite directly from the aircraft to an operations center, where they are displayed and disseminated. This permits more timely utilization of results by decision makers and redirection of the mission to optimize its value. The current telemetry capability can cover all of North America. Extension to a global capability is under consideration.

  10. Screech Tones of Supersonic Jets from Bevelled Rectangular Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Shen, Hao; Raman, Ganesh

    1997-01-01

    It is known experimentally that an imperfectly expanded rectangular jet from a thin-lip convergent nozzle emits only a single dominant screech tone. The frequency of the screech tone decreases continuously with increase in jet Mach number. However, for a supersonic jet issued from a bevelled nozzle or a convergent-divergent nozzle with straight side walls, the shock cell structure and the screech frequency pattern are fairly complicated and have not been predicted before. In this paper, it is shown that the shock cell structures of these jets can be decomposed into waveguide modes of the jet flow. The screech frequencies are related to the higher-order waveguide modes following the weakest-link screech tone theory. The measured screech frequencies are found to compare well with the predicted screech frequency curves.

  11. Achieving Electric-Acoustic Benefit with a Modulated Tone

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Christopher A.; Bacon, Sid P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective When either real or simulated electric stimulation from a cochlear implant (CI) is combined with low-frequency acoustic stimulation (electric-acoustic stimulation [EAS]), speech intelligibility in noise can improve dramatically. We recently showed that a similar benefit to intelligibility can be observed in simulation when the low-frequency acoustic stimulation (low-pass target speech) is replaced with a tone that is modulated both in frequency with the fundamental frequency (F0) of the target talker and in amplitude with the amplitude envelope of the low-pass target speech (Brown & Bacon 2009). The goal of the current experiment was to examine the benefit of the modulated tone to intelligibility in CI patients. Design Eight CI users who had some residual acoustic hearing either in the implanted ear, the unimplanted ear, or both ears participated in this study. Target speech was combined with either multitalker babble or a single competing talker and presented to the implant. Stimulation to the acoustic region consisted of no signal, target speech, or a tone that was modulated in frequency to track the changes in the target talker’s F0 and in amplitude to track the amplitude envelope of target speech low-pass filtered at 500 Hz. Results All patients showed improvements in intelligibility over electric-only stimulation when either the tone or target speech was presented acoustically. The average improvement in intelligibility was 46 percentage points due to the tone and 55 percentage points due to target speech. Conclusions The results demonstrate that a tone carrying F0 and amplitude envelope cues of target speech can provide significant benefit to CI users and may lead to new technologies that could offer EAS benefit to many patients who would not benefit from current EAS approaches. PMID:19546806

  12. The influence of pipe organ reed curvature on tone quality.

    PubMed

    Plitnik, George R; Angster, Judit

    2012-11-01

    Although organ flue pipes have been widely studied, the same claim cannot be made for pipe organ reed stops. Given certain design constraints, such as the type of reed stop being voiced and the desired tone quality, the reed voicer must use consummate skill to curve the reed tongue so as to produce the best and most stable tone as well as to guarantee that each pipe blends with its neighbors. The amount and type of curve given to a reed tongue influences not only the harmonic structure of the steady-state sound but also the attack. There are two fundamentally different types of curvature that can be given to a reed tongue, the trompette (chorus reed) curve (which gives a bright sound) and the smooth-toned curve employed for clarinet pipes. This study investigated the effect of reed curvature on the vibration and tone (as assessed by professionals) on reed tongues of both types. Two F2 (8'F, 87.3 Hz) pipes (a trompette and a clarinet) were constructed and voiced with differently curved tongues to produce a variety of tones. The vibration of the reed tongue was measured under typical conditions by laser vibrometer; the pressure waves in the boot and in the shallot were measured by means of one-quarter inch microphones, and the pipe's sound was recorded at the egress. By performing various measurements simultaneously, phase differences were also determined, the extreme sensitivity of tone to reed curvature was demonstrated, and a recently proposed theory of reed vibration was shown to be more accurate than the standard model. PMID:23145630

  13. Screech tones from free and ducted supersonic jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tam, C. K. W.; Ahuja, K. K.; Jones, R. R., III

    1994-01-01

    It is well known that screech tones from supersonic jets are generated by a feedback loop. The loop consists of three main components. They are the downstream propagating instability wave, the shock cell structure in the jet plume, and the feedback acoustic waves immediately outside the jet. Evidence will be presented to show that the screech frequency is largely controlled by the characteristics of the feedback acoustic waves. The feedback loop is driven by the instability wave of the jet. Thus the tone intensity and its occurrence are dictated by the characteristics of the instability wave. In this paper the dependence of the instability wave spectrum on the azimuthal mode number (axisymmetric or helical/flapping mode, etc.), the jet-to-ambient gas temperature ratio, and the jet Mach number are studied. The results of this study provide an explanation for the observed screech tone mode switch phenomenon (changing from axisymmetric to helical mode as Mach number increases) and the often-cited experimental observation that tone intensity reduces with increase in jet temperature. For ducted supersonic jets screech tones can also be generated by feedback loops formed by the coupling of normal duct modes to instability waves of the jet. The screech frequencies are dictated by the frequencies of the duct modes. Super resonance, resonance involving very large pressure oscillations, can occur when the feedback loop is powered by the most amplified instability wave. It is proposed that the observed large amplitude pressure fluctuations and tone in the test cells of Arnold Engineering Development Center were generated by super resonance. Estimated super-resonance frequency for a Mach 1.3 axisymmetric jet tested in the facility agrees well with measurement.

  14. Effects of ambient noise on detectability and localization of avian songs and tones by observers in grasslands.

    PubMed

    Koper, Nicola; Leston, Lionel; Baker, Tyne M; Curry, Claire; Rosa, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Probability of detection and accuracy of distance estimates in aural avian surveys may be affected by the presence of anthropogenic noise, and this may lead to inaccurate evaluations of the effects of noisy infrastructure on wildlife. We used arrays of speakers broadcasting recordings of grassland bird songs and pure tones to assess the probability of detection, and localization accuracy, by observers at sites with and without noisy oil and gas infrastructure in south-central Alberta from 2012 to 2014. Probability of detection varied with species and with speaker distance from transect line, but there were few effects of noisy infrastructure. Accuracy of distance estimates for songs and tones decreased as distance to observer increased, and distance estimation error was higher for tones at sites with infrastructure noise. Our results suggest that quiet to moderately loud anthropogenic noise may not mask detection of bird songs; however, errors in distance estimates during aural surveys may lead to inaccurate estimates of avian densities calculated using distance sampling. We recommend caution when applying distance sampling if most birds are unseen, and where ambient noise varies among treatments. PMID:26811789

  15. Two-tone intermodulation analysis of communication satellite transponders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riddle, L. P.

    1985-01-01

    Amplitudes of the in-band intermodulation products that arise when two equal-amplitude sinusoids are transmitted through a satellite transponder can be found from a linear transformation when the transponder characteristic is represented by a polynomial. Conversely, the nonlinearity that produces the intermodulation levels measured in a two-tone test can be found from the inverse transformation. As an application, the bandpass nonlinearity is deduced that gives rise to two-tone IM amplitudes that were measured during orbital tests of a satellite transponder, and compared with the measured bandpass characteristic.

  16. Numerical investigation of the tone noise mechanism over laminar airfoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desquesnes, G.; Terracol, M.; Sagaut, P.

    This paper presents the first numerical investigation via direct numerical simulation of the tone noise phenomenon occurring in the flow past laminar airfoils. This phenomenon corresponds to the radiation of discrete acoustic tones in some specific flow conditions, and has received much attention since the 1970s, and several experimental studies have been carried out to identify and understand the underlying physical mechanisms. However, several points remain to be clarified in order to provide a complete explanation of its origin. The flow around a two-dimensional NACA0012 airfoil is considered in order to have a deeper understanding of the tone noise phenomenon. Consistently with previous experimental studies, it is shown that depending on the Reynolds number and angle of attack, two different types of acoustic spectrum are observed: one which exhibits a broadband contribution with a dominant frequency together with a sequence of regularly spaced discrete frequencies, while the other one is only characterized by a simple broadband contribution. The first configuration is typical of the tone noise phenomenon. The present work shows that in this case, the mean flow on the pressure side of the airfoil exhibits a separation bubble near the trailing edge and the main tone frequency is close to the most amplified frequency of the boundary layer. The mechanism proposed in previous works for the main tone generation is therefore validated by numerical simulation. On the other hand, the analysis of the suction side boundary layer reveals that there is no separation and that the most amplified frequency is different from the main tonal one. However, the suction side boundary layer is highly receptive to the tone frequency. Finally, an original explanation for the existence of the secondary discrete frequencies observed in the radiated pressure spectrum is given. They are associated to a bifurcation of the airfoil wake from a symmetric to a non-symmetric vortex pattern. A

  17. Evaluating auditory stream segregation of SAM tone sequences by subjective and objective psychoacoustical tasks, and brain activity

    PubMed Central

    Dolležal, Lena-Vanessa; Brechmann, André; Klump, Georg M.; Deike, Susann

    2014-01-01

    Auditory stream segregation refers to a segregated percept of signal streams with different acoustic features. Different approaches have been pursued in studies of stream segregation. In psychoacoustics, stream segregation has mostly been investigated with a subjective task asking the subjects to report their percept. Few studies have applied an objective task in which stream segregation is evaluated indirectly by determining thresholds for a percept that depends on whether auditory streams are segregated or not. Furthermore, both perceptual measures and physiological measures of brain activity have been employed but only little is known about their relation. How the results from different tasks and measures are related is evaluated in the present study using examples relying on the ABA- stimulation paradigm that apply the same stimuli. We presented A and B signals that were sinusoidally amplitude modulated (SAM) tones providing purely temporal, spectral or both types of cues to evaluate perceptual stream segregation and its physiological correlate. Which types of cues are most prominent was determined by the choice of carrier and modulation frequencies (fmod) of the signals. In the subjective task subjects reported their percept and in the objective task we measured their sensitivity for detecting time-shifts of B signals in an ABA- sequence. As a further measure of processes underlying stream segregation we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). SAM tone parameters were chosen to evoke an integrated (1-stream), a segregated (2-stream), or an ambiguous percept by adjusting the fmod difference between A and B tones (Δfmod). The results of both psychoacoustical tasks are significantly correlated. BOLD responses in fMRI depend on Δfmod between A and B SAM tones. The effect of Δfmod, however, differs between auditory cortex and frontal regions suggesting differences in representation related to the degree of perceptual ambiguity of the sequences

  18. Autonomic control of colonic tone and the cold pressore test.

    PubMed Central

    Ford, M J; Camilleri, M; Joyner, M J; Hanson, R B

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular responses to cold stimulation are well characterised. It is unclear, however, whether cold pain stimulates responses in colonic tone in the transverse and sigmoid regions. AIMS: To assess the effects of cold stimulation on tone nd motility in the transverse and sigmoid colon and on cardiovascular autonomic activity. METHODS: Phasic and tonic motility of the transverse and sigmoid colon, pulse rate, and beat to beat pulse variability (which are measures of centrally mediated changes in autonomic function) were measured before, during, and after a standard cold pressor test in 22 healthy volunteers. RESULTS: Cold pain induced a significant increase in colonic tone but not phasic contractility in the transverse and sigmoid regions. Simultaneously, cold pain increased pulse interval variability. CONCLUSION: The findings are consistent with the hypotheses that cold pain produces coactivation of both the sympathetic and parasympathetic limbs of the autonomic nervous system and that cold induced changes in colonic tone are temporally associated with alterations in central autonomic nervous activity. PMID:8881823

  19. Gold Toning the Domesday Book Gives Better than Archival Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ker, Niel

    1987-01-01

    A restoration project in Great Britain's Public Record Office marked the 900th anniversary of the Domesday Book, the oldest public record in the United Kingdom. The two volumes of the Domesday Book were rebound and microfilmed, and the microfilm was gold-toned for further protection. Contacts for further information are listed. (MES)

  20. An Isoperimetric Inequality for Fundamental Tones of Free Plates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chasman, Laura

    2009-01-01

    We establish an isoperimetric inequality for the fundamental tone (first nonzero eigenvalue) of the free plate of a given area, proving the ball is maximal. Given tau greater than 0, the free plate eigenvalues omega and eigenfunctions upsilon are determined by the equation Delta Delta upsilon - tau Delta upsilon = omega upsilon together with…

  1. Short and long term representation of an unfamiliar tone distribution

    PubMed Central

    Diercks, Charlette; Troje, Nikolaus F.; Cuddy, Lola L.

    2016-01-01

    We report on a study conducted to extend our knowledge about the process of gaining a mental representation of music. Several studies, inspired by research on the statistical learning of language, have investigated statistical learning of sequential rules underlying tone sequences. Given that the mental representation of music correlates with distributional properties of music, we tested whether participants are able to abstract distributional information contained in tone sequences to form a mental representation. For this purpose, we created an unfamiliar music genre defined by an underlying tone distribution, to which 40 participants were exposed. Our stimuli allowed us to differentiate between sensitivity to the distributional properties contained in test stimuli and long term representation of the distributional properties of the music genre overall. Using a probe tone paradigm and a two-alternative forced choice discrimination task, we show that listeners are able to abstract distributional properties of music through mere exposure into a long term representation of music. This lends support to the idea that statistical learning is involved in the process of gaining musical knowledge.

  2. Positioning and Care of the Low-Tone Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Barbara

    The brochure offers guidelines on the everyday care and handling of infants with low muscle tone, in order that positioning, carrying, and other daily activities can be done in ways that will enhance the development of the child and prevent abnormal postures and patterns of movement. Proper positioning in the prone, supine, side lying, and sitting…

  3. Tone at the Top: Are You Doing the Right Thing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belachew, Abinet Y.

    2009-01-01

    Never is the "tone at the top" more important than during times of economic distress. With an unprecedented number of state and local governments struggling to balance the budget, facing staggering operational cost increases, and even laying off employees, executive management and boards throughout the country are challenged to foster a positive,…

  4. Fan Noise Source Diagnostic Test: Tone Modal Structure Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidelberg, Laurence J.

    2002-01-01

    This investigation is part of a test series that was extremely comprehensive and included aerodynamic and acoustic testing of a fan stage using two different fan rotors and three different stator designs. The test series is known as the Source Diagnostic Test (SDT) and was conducted by NASA Glenn as part of the Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program. Tone mode measurements of one of the rotors with three different stators were made. The stator designs involve changes in vane count and sweep at constant solidity. The results of both inlet and exhaust tone mode measurements are presented in terms of mode power for both circumferential and radial mode orders. The results show benefits of vane sweep to be large, up to 13 dB in total tone power. At many conditions, the increase in power due to cutting on the rotor/stator interaction is more than offset by vane sweep. The rotor locked mode is shown as an important contributor to tone power when the blade tip speed is near and above Mach one. This is most evident in the inlet when the direct rotor field starts to cut on.

  5. Context, Contrast, and Tone of Voice in Auditory Sarcasm Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voyer, Daniel; Thibodeau, Sophie-Hélène; Delong, Breanna J.

    2016-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to investigate the interplay between context and tone of voice in the perception of sarcasm. These experiments emphasized the role of contrast effects in sarcasm perception exclusively by means of auditory stimuli whereas most past research has relied on written material. In all experiments, a positive or negative…

  6. Studying Tones in North East India: Tai, Singpho and Tangsa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morey, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on nearly 20 years of study of a variety of languages in North East India, from the Tai and Tibeto-Burman families, this paper examines the issues involved in studying those languages, building on three well established principles: (a) tones are categories within a language, and the recognition of those categories is the key step in…

  7. The Politics of Implementing a Touch-Tone Telephone Registration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joss, Ruth

    1988-01-01

    Touch-tone telephone/voice response registration is an exciting and effective use of advanced technology in college management, but the transition to the system must be well planned, the needs of all users considered, good compromises sought, and faculty and students convinced it will work. Then it must be successful. (Author/MSE)

  8. Lexical Tone Awareness among Chinese Children with Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Wing-Sze; Ho, Connie Suk-Han

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent and nature of lexical tone deficit in Chinese developmental dyslexia. Twenty Cantonese-speaking Chinese dyslexic children (mean age 8 ; 11) were compared to twenty average readers of the same age (CA control group, mean age 8 ; 11), and another twenty younger average readers of the same word reading level (RL control…

  9. Distant Melodies: Statistical Learning of Nonadjacent Dependencies in Tone Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creel, Sarah C.; Newport, Elissa L.; Aslin, Richard N.

    2004-01-01

    Human listeners can keep track of statistical regularities among temporally adjacent elements in both speech and musical streams. However, for speech streams, when statistical regularities occur among nonadjacent elements, only certain types of patterns are acquired. Here, using musical tone sequences, the authors investigate nonadjacent learning.…

  10. Chinese and English Infants' Tone Perception: Evidence for Perceptual Reorganization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattock, Karen; Burnham, Denis

    2006-01-01

    Over half the world's population speaks a tone language, yet infant speech perception research has typically focused on consonants and vowels. Very young infants can discriminate a wide range of native and nonnative consonants and vowels, and then in a process of "perceptual reorganization" over the 1st year, discrimination of most nonnative…

  11. Tone-burst technique measures high-intensity sound absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. G.; Van Houten, J. J.

    1971-01-01

    Tone-burst technique, in which narrow-bandwidth, short-duration sonic pulse is propagated down a standing-wave tube, measures sound absorbing capacity of materials used in jet engine noise abatement. Technique eliminates effects of tube losses and yields normal-incidence absorption coefficient of specimen.

  12. Measurements of Neuromuscular Tone and Strength in Down's Syndrome Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, A. F.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Twenty-eight Down's syndrome and 33 normal children (4 to 17 years old) were evaluated for patellar tendon reflex, muscle tone, and grip strength. Results indicated that Down's syndrome children had a less brisk and more irregular patellar reflex response than normal controls. (Author/SB)

  13. A Spherical Aerial Terrestrial Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, Christopher J.

    This thesis focuses on the design of a novel, ultra-lightweight spherical aerial terrestrial robot (ATR). The ATR has the ability to fly through the air or roll on the ground, for applications that include search and rescue, mapping, surveillance, environmental sensing, and entertainment. The design centers around a micro-quadcopter encased in a lightweight spherical exoskeleton that can rotate about the quadcopter. The spherical exoskeleton offers agile ground locomotion while maintaining characteristics of a basic aerial robot in flying mode. A model of the system dynamics for both modes of locomotion is presented and utilized in simulations to generate potential trajectories for aerial and terrestrial locomotion. Details of the quadcopter and exoskeleton design and fabrication are discussed, including the robot's turning characteristic over ground and the spring-steel exoskeleton with carbon fiber axle. The capabilities of the ATR are experimentally tested and are in good agreement with model-simulated performance. An energy analysis is presented to validate the overall efficiency of the robot in both modes of locomotion. Experimentally-supported estimates show that the ATR can roll along the ground for over 12 minutes and cover the distance of 1.7 km, or it can fly for 4.82 minutes and travel 469 m, on a single 350 mAh battery. Compared to a traditional flying-only robot, the ATR traveling over the same distance in rolling mode is 2.63-times more efficient, and in flying mode the system is only 39 percent less efficient. Experimental results also demonstrate the ATR's transition from rolling to flying mode.

  14. Woodwind Tone Hole Acoustics and the Spectrum Transformation Function.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keefe, Douglas Howard

    This report describes an investigation of woodwind musical instrument tone holes and their effect on the radiated spectrum, the total dissipation, the stability of oscillation, the psychoacoustical cues important in perception, and the tuning and response of the instrument. Varying tone hole proportions significantly affect the radiative and frictional damping near a single hole, the mutual interactions between holes, the onset of streaming and turbulence near the holes, and the perceived woodwind timbre. The interconnections between related fields are explored through a brief review of sound production in woodwinds plus more extensive reviews of room and psychological acoustics. A theoretical and experimental discussion of the spectrum transformation function from the mouthpiece into the room relates all these fields. Also, considered are differences between cylindrical and conical bore woodwinds, the systematic shifts in saxophone spectra produced by the beating of the reed, the coupling of many closely spaced tone holes to the room excitation, the role of the player, and the results pertaining to computer music synthesis. The complicated acoustical flow inside the main air column near a single tone hole has been examined using a Green function, integral equation approach. A variational formulation allows explicit calculation of the open and closed hole impedance parameters needed in the transmission line description of a woodwind, and experiments have verified the theory in detail. Major acoustical topics considered are listed below. The effective length t(,e) of an open hole, relevant for instrument design and modification, is calculated and measured in terms of the main bore diameter 2a, hole diameter 2b, and the height t of the hole chimney; the effect of a hanging pad is a semi-empirical correction on t(,e). When the fundamental plane-wave mode of the main air column oscillation is at a pressure node, both the open and closed hole series impedances are

  15. Auditory stream segregation in monkey auditory cortex: effects of frequency separation, presentation rate, and tone duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishman, Yonatan I.; Arezzo, Joseph C.; Steinschneider, Mitchell

    2004-09-01

    Auditory stream segregation refers to the organization of sequential sounds into ``perceptual streams'' reflecting individual environmental sound sources. In the present study, sequences of alternating high and low tones, ``...ABAB...,'' similar to those used in psychoacoustic experiments on stream segregation, were presented to awake monkeys while neural activity was recorded in primary auditory cortex (A1). Tone frequency separation (ΔF), tone presentation rate (PR), and tone duration (TD) were systematically varied to examine whether neural responses correlate with effects of these variables on perceptual stream segregation. ``A'' tones were fixed at the best frequency of the recording site, while ``B'' tones were displaced in frequency from ``A'' tones by an amount=ΔF. As PR increased, ``B'' tone responses decreased in amplitude to a greater extent than ``A'' tone responses, yielding neural response patterns dominated by ``A'' tone responses occurring at half the alternation rate. Increasing TD facilitated the differential attenuation of ``B'' tone responses. These findings parallel psychoacoustic data and suggest a physiological model of stream segregation whereby increasing ΔF, PR, or TD enhances spatial differentiation of ``A'' tone and ``B'' tone responses along the tonotopic map in A1.

  16. Transonic Tones and Excess Broadband Noise in Overexpanded Supersonic Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, Khairul B. M. Q.

    2009-01-01

    Noise characteristics of convergent-divergent (C-D) nozzles in the overexpanded regime are the focus of this paper. The flow regime is encountered during takeoff and landing of certain airplanes and also with rocket nozzles in launch-pad environment. Experimental results from laboratory-scale single nozzles are discussed. The flow often undergoes a resonance accompanied by emission of tones (referred to as transonic tones). The phenomenon is different from the well-known screech tones. Unlike screech, the frequency increases with increasing supply pressure. There is a staging behavior odd harmonic stages occur at lower pressures while the fundamental occurs in a range of relatively higher pressures. A striking feature is that tripping of the nozzle s internal boundary layer tends to suppress the resonance. However, even in the absence of tones the broadband levels are found to be high. That is, relative to a convergent case and at same pressure ratio, the C-D nozzles are found to be noisier, often by more than 10dB. This excess broadband noise (referred to as EBBN) is further explored. Its characteristics are found to be different from the well-known broadband shockassociated noise ( BBSN ). For example, while the frequency of the BBSN peak varies with observation angle no such variation is noted with EBBN. The mechanisms of the transonic tone and the EBBN are not completely understood yet. They appear to be due to unsteady shock motion inside the nozzle. The shock drives the flow downstream like a vibrating diaphragm, and resonance takes place similarly as with acoustic resonance of a conical section having one end closed and the other end open. When the boundary layer is tripped, apparently a breakdown of azimuthal coherence suppresses the resonance. However, there is still unsteady shock motion albeit with superimposed randomness. Such random motion of the internal shock and its interaction with the separated boundary layer produces the EBBN.

  17. Effects of production training and perception training on lexical tone perception--A behavioral and ERP study.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shuang; Wayland, Ratree; Kaan, Edith

    2015-10-22

    The present study recorded both behavioral data and event-related brain potentials to examine the effectiveness of a perception-only training and a perception-plus-production training procedure on the intentional and unintentional perception of lexical tone by native English listeners. In the behavioral task, both the perception-only and the perception-plus-production groups improved on the tone discrimination abilities after the training session. Moreover, the participants in both groups generalized the improvements gained through the trained stimuli to the untrained stimuli. In the ERP task, the Mismatch Negativity was smaller in the post-training task than in the pre-training task. However, the two training groups did not differ in tone processing at the intentional or unintentional level after training. These results suggest that the employment of the motor system does not specifically benefit the tone perceptual skills. Furthermore, the present study investigated whether some tone pairs are more easily confused than others by native English listeners, and whether the order of tone presentation influences non-native tone discrimination. In the behavioral task, Tone2-Tone1 (rising-level) and Tone2-Tone4 (rising-falling) were the most difficult tone pairs, while Tone1-Tone2 and Tone4-Tone2 were the easiest tone pairs, even though they involved the same tone contrasts respectively. In the ERP task, the native English listeners had good discrimination when Tone2 and Tone4 were embedded in strings of Tone1, while poor discrimination when Tone1 was inserted in the context of Tone2 or Tone4. These asymmetries in tone perception might be attributed to the interference of native intonation system and can be altered by training. PMID:26206301

  18. Loudness perception of low tones undergoing partial masking by higher tones in orchestral music in concert halls.

    PubMed

    Nishihara, Noriko; Hidaka, Takayuki

    2012-08-01

    Objective acoustical parameters for halls are often measured in 1-octave bands with mid-frequencies from 125 to 4000 Hz. In reality, the frequency range of musical instruments is much wider than that, and the fundamentals of the lower notes of bass instruments are contained in 31.5 or 63 Hz bands. Overtones of fundamentals in these bands fall in 125 Hz band. This report presents subjective experiments designed to determine to what extent the overtones in 125 Hz band and higher bands influence the loudness sensation of the components in 63 Hz band. In the experiments, the 125 Hz and higher components of the musical tone are used to act as a masker against the lower component used as a maskee. The threshold of the difference between G(125 Hz) and G(lower band) that just enables one to hear the fundamental tones in the lower band is determined. Masked loudness of 63 Hz sinusoidal tone caused by partial masking noise with higher frequencies was determined based on a similar procedure to the masked loudness-matching function. The result indicates that the difference in loudness of low tone will not be noticeable even if G changed by ±2.5 to ±3 dB, at least when there are other accompanying instruments. PMID:22894202

  19. Astronomical Methods in Aerial Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beij, K Hilding

    1925-01-01

    The astronomical method of determining position is universally used in marine navigation and may also be of service in aerial navigation. The practical application of the method, however, must be modified and adapted to conform to the requirements of aviation. Much of this work of adaptation has already been accomplished, but being scattered through various technical journals in a number of languages, is not readily available. This report is for the purpose of collecting under one cover such previous work as appears to be of value to the aerial navigator, comparing instruments and methods, indicating the best practice, and suggesting future developments. The various methods of determining position and their application and value are outlined, and a brief resume of the theory of the astronomical method is given. Observation instruments are described in detail. A complete discussion of the reduction of observations follows, including a rapid method of finding position from the altitudes of two stars. Maps and map cases are briefly considered. A bibliography of the subject is appended.

  20. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aerial lifts. 1926.453 Section 1926.453 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Scaffolds § 1926.453 Aerial lifts. (a) General requirements. (1) Unless otherwise provided...

  1. A Classroom Simulation of Aerial Photography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Simon

    1981-01-01

    Explains how a simulation of aerial photography can help students in a college level beginning course on interpretation of aerial photography understand the interrelationships of the airplane, the camera, and the earth's surface. Procedures, objectives, equipment, and scale are discussed. (DB)

  2. BOREAS Level-0 ER-2 Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominquez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), the ER-2 and other aerial photography was collected to provide finely detailed and spatially extensive documentation of the condition of the primary study sites. The ER-2 aerial photography consists of color-IR transparencies collected during flights in 1994 and 1996 over the study areas.

  3. Implicit and explicit statistical learning of tone sequences across spectral shifts.

    PubMed

    Daikoku, Tatsuya; Yatomi, Yutaka; Yumoto, Masato

    2014-10-01

    We investigated how the statistical learning of auditory sequences is reflected in neuromagnetic responses in implicit and explicit learning conditions. Complex tones with fundamental frequencies (F0s) in a five-tone equal temperament were generated by a formant synthesizer. The tones were subsequently ordered with the constraint that the probability of the forthcoming tone was statistically defined (80% for one tone; 5% for the other four) by the latest two successive tones (second-order Markov chains). The tone sequence consisted of 500 tones and 250 successive tones with a relative shift of F0s based on the same Markov transitional matrix. In explicit and implicit learning conditions, neuromagnetic responses to the tone sequence were recorded from fourteen right-handed participants. The temporal profiles of the N1m responses to the tones with higher and lower transitional probabilities were compared. In the explicit learning condition, the N1m responses to tones with higher transitional probability were significantly decreased compared with responses to tones with lower transitional probability in the latter half of the 500-tone sequence. Furthermore, this difference was retained even after the F0s were relatively shifted. In the implicit learning condition, N1m responses to tones with higher transitional probability were significantly decreased only for the 250 tones following the relative shift of F0s. The delayed detection of learning effects across the sound-spectral shift in the implicit condition may imply that learning may progress earlier in explicit learning conditions than in implicit learning conditions. The finding that the learning effects were retained across spectral shifts regardless of the learning modality indicates that relative pitch processing may be an essential ability for humans. PMID:25192632

  4. Perceptual assimilation of lexical tone: the roles of language experience and visual information.

    PubMed

    Reid, Amanda; Burnham, Denis; Kasisopa, Benjawan; Reilly, Ronan; Attina, Virginie; Rattanasone, Nan Xu; Best, Catherine T

    2015-02-01

    Using Best's (1995) perceptual assimilation model (PAM), we investigated auditory-visual (AV), auditory-only (AO), and visual-only (VO) perception of Thai tones. Mandarin and Cantonese (tone-language) speakers were asked to categorize Thai tones according to their own native tone categories, and Australian English (non-tone-language) speakers to categorize Thai tones into their native intonation categories-for instance, question or statement. As comparisons, Thai participants completed a straightforward identification task, and another Australian English group identified the Thai tones using simple symbols. All of the groups also completed an AX discrimination task. Both the Mandarin and Cantonese groups categorized AO and AV Thai falling tones as their native level tones, and Thai rising tones as their native rising tones, although the Mandarin participants found it easier to categorize Thai level tones than did the Cantonese participants. VO information led to very poor categorization for all groups, and AO and AV information also led to very poor categorizations for the English intonation categorization group. PAM's predictions regarding tone discriminability based on these category assimilation patterns were borne out for the Mandarin group's AO and AV discriminations, providing support for the applicability of the PAM to lexical tones. For the Cantonese group, however, PAM was unable to account for one specific discrimination pattern-namely, their relatively good performance on the Thai high-rising contrast in the auditory conditions-and no predictions could be derived for the English groups. A full account of tone assimilation will likely need to incorporate considerations of phonetic, and even acoustic, similarity and overlap between nonnative and native tone categories. PMID:25465395

  5. Adaptive planning of emergency aerial photogrammetric mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Fuqiang; Zhu, Qing; Zhang, Junxiao; Miao, Shuangxi; Zhou, Xingxia; Cao, Zhenyu

    2015-12-01

    Aiming at the diversity of emergency aerial photogrammetric mission requirements, complex ground and air environmental constraints make the planning mission time-consuming. This paper presents a fast adaptation for the UAV aerial photogrammetric mission planning. First, Building emergency aerial UAVs mission the unified expression of UAVs model and mechanical model of performance parameters in the semantic space make the integrated expression of mission requirements and low altitude environment. Proposed match assessment method which based on resource and mission efficiency. Made the Adaptive match of UAV aerial resources and mission. According to the emergency aerial resource properties, considering complex air-ground environment and mission requirements constraints. Made accurate design of UAV route. Experimental results show, the method scientific and efficient, greatly enhanced the emergency response rate.

  6. Human resting muscle tone (HRMT): narrative introduction and modern concepts.

    PubMed

    Masi, Alfonse T; Hannon, John Charles

    2008-10-01

    Human resting muscle (myofascial) tone (HRMT) is the passive tonus or tension of skeletal muscle that derives from its intrinsic (EMG-silent) molecular viscoelastic properties. The word tone has been used to convey varying clinical and physiological features that have led to confusion and controversy. HRMT is the vital low-level, passive tension, and resistance to stretch that contributes importantly to maintain postural stability in balanced equilibrium positions. In contrast, co-contraction of muscle is an active neuromotor control that provides greater levels of tonus for increased stabilization. Functionally, HRMT is integrated with other passive fascial and ligamentous tensional networks of the body to form a biotensegrity system. This review aims to achieve better understandings of HRMT and its functional roles. Nature is frugal and man's adaptations to gravitational forces and erect postures seemingly evolved mechanisms in skeletal muscle tissues to economically enhance stability. Normal passive muscle tone helps to maintain relaxed standing body posture with minimally increased energy costs (circa 7% over supine), and often for prolonged durations without fatigue. Available data infer polymorphic variations in normal myofascial tone. However, few quantitative studies have been performed to establish normal frequency distributions of degrees of myofascial tone. Clinical experience indicates that persons with certain symptomatic musculoskeletal conditions may have palpably increased resting muscle firmness or hardness (EMG-silent), such as that of the upper trapezius in tension-type headache, and the lumbodorsal extensors (hartspann) in degenerative lumbar disc disease and ankylosing spondylitis. In summary, resting skeletal muscle tone is an intrinsic viscoelastic tension exhibited within the body's kinematic chains. It functions inseparably from fascial (i.e., myofascial) tissues and ligamentous structures. Thus, HRMT is a passive myofascial property which

  7. Neural Control of Fundamental Frequency Rise and Fall in Mandarin Tones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Peter; Jiang, Jing; Peng, Danling; Lu, Chunming

    2012-01-01

    The neural mechanisms used in tone rises and falls in Mandarin were investigated. Nine participants were scanned while they named one-character pictures that required rising or falling tone responses in Mandarin: the left insula and right putamen showed stronger activation between rising and falling tones; the left brainstem showed weaker…

  8. Learning a Tonal Language by Attending to the Tone: An in Vivo Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ying; Wang, Min; Perfetti, Charles A.; Brubaker, Brian; Wu, Sumei; MacWhinney, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Learning the Chinese tone system is a major challenge to students of Chinese as a second or foreign language. Part of the problem is that the spoken Chinese syllable presents a complex perceptual input that overlaps tone with segments. This complexity can be addressed through directing attention to the critical features of a component (tone in…

  9. Effects of Tone-Quality Conditions on Perception and Performance of Pitch among Selected Wind Instrumentalists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Michael D.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates the effects of changes in tone quality on the perception of pitch and determines the extent to which the same tone-quality conditions affect the performance of pitch of 64 high school and university wind instrumentalists. Indicates that tone-quality conditions affected the perception and performance of pitch. (CMK)

  10. Perception of Mandarin Lexical Tones when F0 Information Is Neutralized

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Siyun; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2004-01-01

    In tone languages, the identity of a word depends on its tone pattern as well as its phonetic structure. The primary cue to tone identity is the fundamental frequency (F0) contour. Two experiments explore how listeners perceive Mandarin monosyllables in which all or part of the F0 information has been neutralized. In Experiment 1, supposedly…

  11. Just noticeable difference of tone pitch contour change for English- and Chinese-native listeners.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang

    2013-10-01

    Just noticeable differences of tone pitch contour discrimination were examined for young English- and Mandarin Chinese-native listeners to examine categorical features of tone perception for the two groups of listeners. Three types of stimuli were used: A Mandarin Chinese vowel, an English vowel, and tonal glides. Level, rising, and falling tones within or across tone boundaries served as the standard stimuli to measure thresholds of tone pitch discrimination. Performance was equivalent between English- and Chinese-native listeners for level tones, but significantly differed for rising and falling tones, regardless of the type of stimuli. English listeners showed significantly lower thresholds at the offset of F0 shifts than Chinese listeners, while Chinese listeners discriminated tone pitch changes at the onset with significantly lower thresholds than their English peers. These psychophysical results, combined with tone perception reported in other studies, indicated that Mandarin-native listeners perceived lexical tones in a categorical manner, based on their lexical tone experience, whereas English-native listeners perceived tones on a psychophysical base. PMID:24116436

  12. 47 CFR 11.12 - Two-tone Attention Signal encoder and decoder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Two-tone Attention Signal encoder and decoder... SYSTEM (EAS) General § 11.12 Two-tone Attention Signal encoder and decoder. Existing two-tone Attention... equipment meets the requirements of § 11.32(a)(9) and 11.33(b). Effective January 1, 1998, the...

  13. Influences of Vowel and Tone Variation on Emergent Word Knowledge: A Cross-Linguistic Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Leher; Hui, Tam Jun; Chan, Calista; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick

    2014-01-01

    To learn words, infants must be sensitive to native phonological contrast. While lexical tone predominates as a source of phonemic contrast in human languages, there has been little investigation of the influences of lexical tone on word learning. The present study investigates infants' sensitivity to tone mispronunciations in two groups of…

  14. The Tonology of Itoman Okinawan: A Phonological Analysis of the Nominal Tone System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takara, Nobutaka

    2012-01-01

    Itoman, one of the varieties spoken in the southern part of Okinawa Island, exhibits several tone patterns. Although the tone patterns of Itoman were examined in previous studies (Nakasone ms., Hattori 1959, Oshiro 1963, and Hirayama et al. 1966), they ended at the descriptive level, and no phonological accounts for the surface tone patterns were…

  15. Perception of Mandarin Tones: The Effect of L1 Background and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xinchun

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates whether native Hmong speakers' first language (L1) lexical tone experience facilitates or interferes with their perception of Mandarin tones and whether training is effective for perceptual learning of second (L2) tones. In Experiment 1, 3 groups of beginning level learners of Mandarin with different L1 prosodic background…

  16. Colorism in the Classroom: How Skin Tone Stratifies African American and Latina/o Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Although racial inequality is frequently studied in education, skin tone stratification has received less attention from educational researchers. Inequality by skin tone, also known as "colorism", contributes to larger patterns of racial inequality for African Americans and Latina/os. Discrimination by skin tone affects many dimensions…

  17. Effects of Fundamental Frequency and Duration Variation on the Perception of South Kyungsang Korean Tones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Seung-Eun

    2013-01-01

    The perception of lexical tones is addressed through research on South Kyungsang Korean, spoken in the southeastern part of Korea. Based on an earlier production study (Chang, 2008a, 2008b), a categorization experiment was conducted to determine the perceptually salient aspects of the perceptual nature of a high tone and a rising tone. The…

  18. Perceived Pitch of Violin and Cello Vibrato Tones among Music Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geringer, John M.; MacLeod, Rebecca B.; Allen, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceived pitch of string vibrato tones. The authors used recordings of acoustic instruments (cello and violin) to provide both vibrato stimulus tones and the nonvibrato tones that listeners adjusted to match the perceived pitch of the vibrato stimuli. We were interested especially in whether there…

  19. [Evaluation of central dopaminergic tone in diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Mainini, E; Martinelli, I; Scarsi, G; Mazzi, C

    1991-01-01

    The role of dopaminergic ways in human copulatory activity and the high frequency of impotence in diabetes mellitus are well known. In order to study the involvement of the central dopaminergic tone in diabetic impotence we have evaluated the PRL and TSH response to metoclopramide (MCP 10 mg ev) in 28 diabetic male patients (15 ID including 6 impotent and 13 NID including 5 impotent ) compared with 9 healthy controls. All subjects were investigated for the presence of neuropathy, retinopathy, macroangiopathy, gonadal and thyroid diseases. The PRL response to MCP was greater (p less than 0.05) in impotent patients than in controls at 60' and 90' in ID, and at 30' and 120' in NID. There was no significant difference in TSH increase and in PRL and TSH response areas between the groups considered. In conclusion, the dopaminergic tone is substantially normal in diabetic patients, while some PRL hyperresponsiveness to MCP exists in impotent diabetics. PMID:1815118

  20. Azimuthal Directivity of Fan Tones Containing Multiple Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidelberg, Laurence J.; Sutliff, Daniel L.; Nallasamy, M.

    1997-01-01

    The directivity of fan tone noise is generally measured and plotted in the sideline or flyover plane and it is assumed that this curve is the same for all azimuthal angles. When two or more circumferential (m-order) modes of the same tone are present in the fan duct, an interference pattern develops in the azimuthal direction both in the duct and in the farfield. In this investigation two m-order modes of similar power were generated in a large low speed fan. Farfield measurements and a finite element propagation code both show substantial variations in the azimuthal direction. Induct mode measurement were made and used as input to the code. Although these tests may represent a worst case scenario, the validity of the current practice of assuming axisymmetry should be questioned.

  1. Recent progress of negative-tone imaging with EUV exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimori, Toru; Tsuchihashi, Toru; Itani, Toshiro

    2015-03-01

    This study describes the recent progress of negative-tone imaging with EUV exposure (EUV-NTI) compared with positive-tone development (PTD). NTI uses organic solvent-based developer to provide low swelling and smooth-dissolving behavior. Therefore, EUV-NTI is expected to offer several advantages in terms of performance, especially for improving line-width roughness (LWR), which is expected to resolve the resolution, LWR, and sensitivity (RLS) tradeoff. Herein, novel chemical amplified resist materials for EUV-NTI are investigated to improve LWR and sensitivity. Results indicate that the EUV-NTI has better performance than PTD, with `single digit mJ/cm2,while maintaining the LWR performance. Furthermore, EUV-NTI processing such as the pre-applied bake (PAB) temperature, post-exposure bake (PEB) temperature, development procedure, and rinse procedure are very effective for improving the lithographic performance. In addition, the lithographic performance with NXE3100 scanner is also reported.

  2. Reduction of blade passage tone by angle modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiagbedzi, Y. A.

    1982-05-01

    Blade staggering has been used in both centrifugal and axial flow fans to reduce discrete tones. Impeller hub resilience, causing fan torsional oscillations, appears to be equivalent to blade staggering in that both lead to angle modulation of the blade passage sound. By using Jacobi-Anger expansions, the sound reductions resulting from the angle modulation effects of these two equivalent techniques are predicted. Excellent agreement is found with published data.

  3. Affective tone of mothers' statements to restrict their children's eating.

    PubMed

    Pesch, Megan H; Miller, Alison L; Appugliese, Danielle P; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Lumeng, Julie C

    2016-08-01

    Maternal restrictive feeding behaviors have been associated with child weight status. The affective tone of mothers' statements intended to restrict their children's eating has not been examined. The objectives of this study were to describe the affective tone of mothers' restrictive feeding behaviors (positive or negative), and to test the association of child and mother characteristics with rates of Restriction with Positive Affect, Restriction with Negative Affect and Total Restriction. A total of 237 low-income child-mother dyads (mean child age 5.9 years) participated in a videotaped standardized laboratory eating protocol, during which mothers and children were both presented with large servings of cupcakes. A coding scheme was developed to count each restrictive statement with a positive affective tone and each restrictive statement with a negative affective tone. To establish reliability, 20% of videos were double-coded. Demographics and anthropometrics were obtained. Poisson regression models were used to test the association between characteristics of the child and mother with counts of Restriction with Positive Affect, Restriction with Negative Affect, and Total Restriction. Higher rates of Restriction with Positive Affect and Total Restriction were predicted by child obese weight status, and mother non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity. Higher rates of Restriction with Negative Affect were predicted by older child age, child obese weight status, mother non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity, and lower mother education level. In conclusion, in this study mothers of obese (vs. non-obese) children had higher rates of restriction in general, but particularly higher rates of Restriction with Negative Affect. Rather than being told not to restrict, mothers may need guidance on how to sensitively restrict their child's intake. Future studies should consider the contributions of maternal affect to children's responses to maternal restriction. PMID:27090342

  4. COCOA: tracking in aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Saad; Shah, Mubarak

    2006-05-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are becoming a core intelligence asset for reconnaissance, surveillance and target tracking in urban and battlefield settings. In order to achieve the goal of automated tracking of objects in UAV videos we have developed a system called COCOA. It processes the video stream through number of stages. At first stage platform motion compensation is performed. Moving object detection is performed to detect the regions of interest from which object contours are extracted by performing a level set based segmentation. Finally blob based tracking is performed for each detected object. Global tracks are generated which are used for higher level processing. COCOA is customizable to different sensor resolutions and is capable of tracking targets as small as 100 pixels. It works seamlessly for both visible and thermal imaging modes. The system is implemented in Matlab and works in a batch mode.

  5. Suppression and enhancement of distortion-product otoacoustic emissions by interference tones above f(2). I. Basic findings in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Martin, G K; Stagner, B B; Jassir, D; Telischi, F F; Lonsbury-Martin, B L

    1999-10-01

    The present study measured interference-response areas (IRAs) for distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) at 2f(1)-f(2), 3f(1)-2f(2), and 2f(2)-f(1). The IRAs were obtained in either awake or anesthetized rabbits, or in anesthetized guinea pigs and mice, by sweeping the frequencies and levels of an interference tone (IT) around a set of f(1) and f(2) primary tones, at several fixed frequencies and levels, while plotting the effects of the IT on DPOAE level. An unexpected outcome was the occurrence of regions of suppression and/or enhancement of DPOAE level when the IT was at a frequency slightly less than to more than an octave above f(2). The IRA of the 2f(1)-f(2) DPOAE typically displayed a high-frequency (HF) lobe of suppression, while the 2f(2)-f(1) emission often exhibited considerable amounts of enhancement. Moreover, for the 2f(2)-f(1) DPOAE, when enhancement was absent, its IRA usually tuned to a region above f(2). Whether or not suppression/enhancement was observed depended upon primary-tone level and frequency separation, as well as on the relative levels of the two primaries. Various physiological manipulations involving anesthesia, eighth-nerve section, diuretic administration, or pure-tone overstimulation showed that these phenomena were of cochlear origin, and were not dependent upon the acoustic reflex or cochlear-efferent activity. The aftereffects of applying diuretics or over-exposures revealed that suppression/enhancement required the presence of sensitive, low-level DPOAE-generator sources. Additionally, suppression/enhancement were general effects in that, in addition to rabbits, they were also observed in mice and guinea pigs. Further, corresponding plots of DPOAE phase often revealed areas of differing phase change in the vicinity of the primary tones as compared to regions above f(2). These findings, along with the effects of tonal exposures designed to fatigue regions above f(2), and instances in which DPOAE level was dependent

  6. Auditory evoked potentials to spectro-temporal modulation of complex tones in normal subjects and patients with severe brain injury.

    PubMed

    Jones, S J; Vaz Pato, M; Sprague, L; Stokes, M; Munday, R; Haque, N

    2000-05-01

    In order to assess higher auditory processing capabilities, long-latency auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) were recorded to synthesized musical instrument tones in 22 post-comatose patients with severe brain injury causing variably attenuated behavioural responsiveness. On the basis of normative studies, three different types of spectro-temporal modulation were employed. When a continuous 'clarinet' tone changes pitch once every few seconds, N1/P2 potentials are evoked at latencies of approximately 90 and 180 ms, respectively. Their distribution in the fronto-central region is consistent with generators in the supratemporal cortex of both hemispheres. When the pitch is modulated at a much faster rate ( approximately 16 changes/s), responses to each change are virtually abolished but potentials with similar distribution are still elicited by changing the timbre (e.g. 'clarinet' to 'oboe') every few seconds. These responses appear to represent the cortical processes concerned with spectral pattern analysis and the grouping of frequency components to form sound 'objects'. Following a period of 16/s oscillation between two pitches, a more anteriorly distributed negativity is evoked on resumption of a steady pitch. Various lines of evidence suggest that this is probably equivalent to the 'mismatch negativity' (MMN), reflecting a pre-perceptual, memory-based process for detection of change in spectro-temporal sound patterns. This method requires no off-line subtraction of AEPs evoked by the onset of a tone, and the MMN is produced rapidly and robustly with considerably larger amplitude (usually >5 microV) than that to discontinuous pure tones. In the brain-injured patients, the presence of AEPs to two or more complex tone stimuli (in the combined assessment of two authors who were 'blind' to the clinical and behavioural data) was significantly associated with the demonstrable possession of discriminative hearing (the ability to respond differentially to verbal commands

  7. The DOE ARM Aerial Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Hubbe, John M.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Mei, Fan; Chand, Duli; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Andrews, Elisabeth; Biraud, S.; McFarquhar, Greg

    2014-05-01

    The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a climate research user facility operating stationary ground sites that provide long-term measurements of climate relevant properties, mobile ground- and ship-based facilities to conduct shorter field campaigns (6-12 months), and the ARM Aerial Facility (AAF). The airborne observations acquired by the AAF enhance the surface-based ARM measurements by providing high-resolution in-situ measurements for process understanding, retrieval-algorithm development, and model evaluation that are not possible using ground- or satellite-based techniques. Several ARM aerial efforts were consolidated into the AAF in 2006. With the exception of a small aircraft used for routine measurements of aerosols and carbon cycle gases, AAF at the time had no dedicated aircraft and only a small number of instruments at its disposal. In this "virtual hangar" mode, AAF successfully carried out several missions contracting with organizations and investigators who provided their research aircraft and instrumentation. In 2009, AAF started managing operations of the Battelle-owned Gulfstream I (G-1) large twin-turboprop research aircraft. Furthermore, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided funding for the procurement of over twenty new instruments to be used aboard the G-1 and other AAF virtual-hangar aircraft. AAF now executes missions in the virtual- and real-hangar mode producing freely available datasets for studying aerosol, cloud, and radiative processes in the atmosphere. AAF is also engaged in the maturation and testing of newly developed airborne sensors to help foster the next generation of airborne instruments.

  8. Unmanned aerial survey of elephants.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Cédric; Lejeune, Philippe; Lisein, Jonathan; Sawadogo, Prosper; Bouché, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The use of a UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System) was tested to survey large mammals in the Nazinga Game Ranch in the south of Burkina Faso. The Gatewing ×100™ equipped with a Ricoh GR III camera was used to test animal reaction as the UAS passed, and visibility on the images. No reaction was recorded as the UAS passed at a height of 100 m. Observations, made on a set of more than 7000 images, revealed that only elephants (Loxodonta africana) were easily visible while medium and small sized mammals were not. The easy observation of elephants allows experts to enumerate them on images acquired at a height of 100 m. We, therefore, implemented an aerial strip sample count along transects used for the annual wildlife foot count. A total of 34 elephants were recorded on 4 transects, each overflown twice. The elephant density was estimated at 2.47 elephants/km(2) with a coefficient of variation (CV%) of 36.10%. The main drawback of our UAS was its low autonomy (45 min). Increased endurance of small UAS is required to replace manned aircraft survey of large areas (about 1000 km of transect per day vs 40 km for our UAS). The monitoring strategy should be adapted according to the sampling plan. Also, the UAS is as expensive as a second-hand light aircraft. However the logistic and flight implementation are easier, the running costs are lower and its use is safer. Technological evolution will make civil UAS more efficient, allowing them to compete with light aircraft for aerial wildlife surveys. PMID:23405088

  9. Unmanned Aerial Survey of Elephants

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Cédric; Lejeune, Philippe; Lisein, Jonathan; Sawadogo, Prosper; Bouché, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The use of a UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System) was tested to survey large mammals in the Nazinga Game Ranch in the south of Burkina Faso. The Gatewing ×100™ equipped with a Ricoh GR III camera was used to test animal reaction as the UAS passed, and visibility on the images. No reaction was recorded as the UAS passed at a height of 100 m. Observations, made on a set of more than 7000 images, revealed that only elephants (Loxodonta africana) were easily visible while medium and small sized mammals were not. The easy observation of elephants allows experts to enumerate them on images acquired at a height of 100 m. We, therefore, implemented an aerial strip sample count along transects used for the annual wildlife foot count. A total of 34 elephants were recorded on 4 transects, each overflown twice. The elephant density was estimated at 2.47 elephants/km2 with a coefficient of variation (CV%) of 36.10%. The main drawback of our UAS was its low autonomy (45 min). Increased endurance of small UAS is required to replace manned aircraft survey of large areas (about 1000 km of transect per day vs 40 km for our UAS). The monitoring strategy should be adapted according to the sampling plan. Also, the UAS is as expensive as a second-hand light aircraft. However the logistic and flight implementation are easier, the running costs are lower and its use is safer. Technological evolution will make civil UAS more efficient, allowing them to compete with light aircraft for aerial wildlife surveys. PMID:23405088

  10. Voice quality and tone identification in White Hmong

    PubMed Central

    Garellek, Marc; Keating, Patricia; Esposito, Christina M.; Kreiman, Jody

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the importance of source spectrum slopes in the perception of phonation by White Hmong listeners. In White Hmong, nonmodal phonation (breathy or creaky voice) accompanies certain lexical tones, but its importance in tonal contrasts is unclear. In this study, native listeners participated in two perceptual tasks, in which they were asked to identify the word they heard. In the first task, participants heard natural stimuli with manipulated F0 and duration (phonation unchanged). Results indicate that phonation is important in identifying the breathy tone, but not the creaky tone. Thus, breathiness can be viewed as contrastive in White Hmong. Next, to understand which parts of the source spectrum listeners use to perceive contrastive breathy phonation, source spectrum slopes were manipulated in the second task to create stimuli ranging from modal to breathy sounding, with F0 held constant. Results indicate that changes in H1-H2 (difference in amplitude between the first and second harmonics) and H2-H4 (difference in amplitude between the second and fourth harmonics) are independently important for distinguishing breathy from modal phonation, consistent with the view that the percept of breathiness is influenced by a steep drop in harmonic energy in the lower frequencies. PMID:23363123

  11. Processing Cantonese lexical tones: Evidence from oddball paradigms.

    PubMed

    Jia, S; Tsang, Y-K; Huang, J; Chen, H-C

    2015-10-01

    Two event-related potential (ERP) experiments were conducted to investigate whether Cantonese lexical tones are processed with general auditory perception mechanisms and/or a special speech module. Two tonal features (f0 direction and f0 height deviation) were manipulated to reflect acoustic processing, and the contrast between syllables and hums was used to reveal the involvement of a speech module. Experiment 1 adopted a passive oddball paradigm to study a relatively early stage of tonal processing. Mismatch negativity (MMN) and novelty P3 (P3a) were modulated by the interaction between tonal feature and stimulus type. Similar interactions were found for N2 and P3 in Experiment 2, where more in-depth tonal processing was examined with an active oddball paradigm. Moreover, detecting tonal deviants of syllables elicited N1 and P2 that were not found in hum detection. Together, these findings suggest that the processing of lexical tone relies on both acoustic and linguistic processes from the early stage. Another noteworthy finding is the absence of brain lateralization in both experiments, which challenges the use of a lateralization pattern as evidence for processing lexical tones through a special speech module. PMID:26265553

  12. Dual transmission model of the fetal heart tone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Donald A.; Zuckerwar, Allan J.

    2001-05-01

    Detection of the fetal heart tone by auscultation is sometimes easy, other times very difficult. In the model proposed here, the level of difficulty depends upon the position of the fetus within the maternal abdomen. If the fetus lies in the classical left/right occiput anterior position (head down, back against the maternal abdominal wall), detection by a sensor or stethoscope on the maternal abdominal surface is easy. In this mode, named here the ``direct contact'' mode, the heartbeat pushes the fetus against the detecting sensor. The motion generates pressure by impact and does not involve acoustic propagation at all. If the fetus lies in a persistent occiput posterior position (spine-to-spine, fetus facing forward), detection is difficult. In this, the ``fluid propagation'' mode, sound generated by the fetal heart and propagating across the amniotic fluid produces extremely weak signals at the maternal surface, typically 30 dB lower than those of the direct contact mode. This reduction in tone level can be compensated by judicious selection of detection frequency band and by exploiting the difference between the background noise levels of the two modes. Experimental clinical results, demonstrating the tones associated with the two respective modes, will be presented.

  13. An Experimental Study of Fan Inflow Distortion Tone Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, L. Danielle

    2010-01-01

    The tone noise generated when a fan ingests circumferentially distorted flow was studied by an experiment conducted with the Advanced Noise Control Fan at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The inflow was distorted by inserting cylindrical rods radially into the duct. The rods were arranged in circumferentially irregular patterns in three of the five configurations tested. Rods were held in place using a mounting ring with 30 equally spaced holes placed at an axial location one rotor chordlength upstream of the fan. Acoustic pressure was measured in the inlet and exhaust duct of the fan using the Rotating Rake fan tone measurement system. Sound power levels, calculated from the measured data, were plotted as a function of circumferential mode. An analytic description of the unsteady pressure distribution at the interaction plane between the stationary rods and the fan rotor is presented in a form suitable for representing the circumferentially irregularly placed rods. Terms in the analytical description for sound power were proven to be useful in determining the dominant circumferential modes measured in the experiment and the differences in mode power level between the configurations tested. Insight gained through this work will be useful in the development of tools to compute fan inflow distortion tone noise.

  14. Age effects in discrimination of intervals within rhythmic tone sequences.

    PubMed

    Fitzgibbons, Peter J; Gordon-Salant, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This study measured listener sensitivity to increments of a target inter-onset interval (IOI) embedded within tone sequences that featured different rhythmic patterns. The sequences consisted of six 50-ms 1000-Hz tone bursts separated by silent intervals that were adjusted to create different timing patterns. Control sequences were isochronous, with all tonal IOIs fixed at either 200 or 400 ms, while other patterns featured combinations of the two IOIs arranged to create different sequential tonal groupings. Duration difference limens in milliseconds for increments of a single sequence IOI were measured adaptively by adjusting the duration of an inter-tone silent interval. Specific target IOIs within sequences differed across discrimination conditions. Listeners included younger normal-hearing adults and groups of older adults with and without hearing loss. Discrimination performance measured for each of the older groups of listeners was observed to be equivalent, with each group exhibiting significantly poorer discrimination performance than the younger listeners in each sequence condition. Additionally, the specific influence of variable rhythmic grouping on temporal sensitivity was found to be greatest among older listeners. PMID:25618068

  15. Positive-tone processing of plasma-polymerized methylsilane (PPMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabbagh, Gary; Hutton, Richard S.; Cirelli, Raymond A.; Reichmanis, Elsa; Novembre, Anthony E.; Nalamasu, Omkaram

    1998-06-01

    Plasma polymerized methylsilane (PPMS) films exposed to UV light in the presence of air undergo photo-oxidation to produce a glass-like material, PPMSO, which can be selectively removed using aqueous HF based chemistries. We find that PPMS, used in such positive tone imaging processes, suffers from several drawbacks which make it an unattractive candidate for use as an imaging layer in positive tone resist schemes. We have used infrared and X- ray photoelectron spectroscopy to characterize the PPMS films. We have found evidence for the presence of bridging methylene groups in the Si-Si backbone of the PPMS polymer at the PPMS/Substrate interface. This thin underlayer of a polycarbosilane material is initially deposited in the PPMS CVD process and is insoluble in aqueous or vapor HF contributing to residue after the development. The limitation as to how rapidly PPMS films can be photo- oxidized in the presence of air using high-fluence laser steppers is determined by the rate of oxygen diffusion into the PPMS films during exposure. This reciprocity failure exhibited by PPMS films may limit positive tone PPMS processing from consideration in high-throughput UV based lithography.

  16. Spectral density affects the intelligibility of tone-vocoded speech: Implications for cochlear implant simulations.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Stuart; Zhang, Yue; Speers, Kathryn

    2015-09-01

    For small numbers of channels, tone vocoders using low envelope cutoff frequencies are less intelligible than noise vocoders, even though the noise carriers introduce random fluctuations into the crucial envelope information. Here it is shown that using tone carriers with a denser spectrum improves performance considerably over typical tone vocoders, at least equaling, and often surpassing, the performance possible with noise vocoders. In short, the spectral sparseness of tone vocoded sounds for low channel numbers, separate from the degradations introduced by using only a small number of channels, is an important limitation on the intelligibility of tone-vocoded speech. PMID:26428833

  17. Aerial videotape mapping of coastal geomorphic changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Debusschere, Karolien; Penland, Shea; Westphal, Karen A.; Reimer, P. Douglas; McBride, Randolph A.

    1991-01-01

    An aerial geomorphic mapping system was developed to examine the spatial and temporal variability in the coastal geomorphology of Louisiana. Between 1984 and 1990 eleven sequential annual and post-hurricane aerial videotape surveys were flown covering periods of prolonged fair weather, hurricane impacts and subsequent post-storm recoveries. A coastal geomorphic classification system was developed to map the spatial and temporal geomorphic changes between these surveys. The classification system is based on 10 years of shoreline monitoring, analysis of aerial photography for 1940-1989, and numerous field surveys. The classification system divides shorelines into two broad classes: natural and altered. Each class consists of several genetically linked categories of shorelines. Each category is further subdivided into morphologic types on the basis of landform relief, elevation, habitat type, vegetation density and type, and sediment characteristics. The classification is used with imagery from the low-altitude, high-resolution aerial videotape surveys to describe and quantify the longshore and cross-shore geomorphic, sedimentologic, and vegetative character of Louisiana's shoreline systems. The mapping system makes it possible to delineate and map detailed geomorphic habitat changes at a resolution higher than that of conventional vertical aerial photography. Morphologic units are mapped parallel to the regional shoreline from the aerial videotape imagery onto the base maps at a scale of 1:24,000. The base maps were constructed from vertical aerial photography concurrent with the data of the video imagery.

  18. Effects of attention to and awareness of preceding context tones on auditory streaming.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, David M; Metzger, Brian A; Snyder, Joel S

    2014-04-01

    This study determined whether facilitation of auditory stream segregation could occur when facilitating context tones are accompanied by other sounds. Facilitation was measured as the likelihood of a repeated context tone that could match the low (A) or high (B) frequency of a repeating ABA test to increase the likelihood of hearing the test as segregated. We observed this type of facilitation when matching tones were alone, or with simultaneous bandpass noises or continuous speech, neither of which masked the tones. However, participants showed no streaming facilitation when a harmonic complex masked the context tones. Mistuning or desynchronizing the context tone relative to the rest of the complex did not facilitate streaming, despite the fact that the context tone was accessible to awareness and attention. Even presenting the context tone in a separate ear from the rest of the harmonic complex did not facilitate streaming, ruling out peripheral interference. Presenting the test as mistuned or desynchronized tones relative to complex tones eliminated the possibility that timbre changes from context to test interfered with facilitation resulting from the context. These results demonstrate the fragility of streaming facilitation and show that awareness of and attention to the context tones are not sufficient to overcome interference. PMID:24188403

  19. The Time Course for Processing Vowels and Lexical Tones: Reading Aloud Thai Words.

    PubMed

    Davis, Chris; Schoknecht, Colin; Kim, Jeesun; Burnham, Denis

    2016-06-01

    Three naming aloud experiments and a lexical decision (LD) experiment used masked priming to index the processing of written Thai vowels and tones. Thai allows for manipulation of the mapping between orthography and phonology not possible in other orthographies, for example, the use of consonants, vowels and tone markers in both horizontal and vertical orthographic positions (HOPs and VOPs). Experiment I showed that changing a vowel between prime and target slowed down target naming but changing a tone mark did not. Experiment I used an across item-design and a different number of HOPs in the way vowels and tones were specified. Experiment 2 used a within-item design and tested vowel and tone changes for both 2-HOP and 3-HOP targets separately. The 3-HOP words showed the same tone and vowel change effect as Experiment 1, whereas 2-HOP items did not. It was speculated that the 2-HOP result was due to the variable position of the vowel affecting priming. Experiment 3 employed a more stringent control over the 2-HOP vowel and tone items and found priming for the tone changes but not for vowel changes. The final experiment retested the items from Experiment 3 with the LD task and found no priming for the tone change items, indicating that the tone effect in Experiment 3 was due to processes involved in naming aloud. In all, the results supported the view that for naming a word, the development of tone information is slower than vowel information. PMID:27363253

  20. Aerial Terrain Mapping Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahar, K. N.

    2012-08-01

    This paper looks into the latest achievement in the low-cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology in their capacity to map the semi-development areas. The objectives of this study are to establish a new methodology or a new algorithm in image registration during interior orientation process and to determine the accuracy of the photogrammetric products by using UAV images. Recently, UAV technology has been used in several applications such as mapping, agriculture and surveillance. The aim of this study is to scrutinize the usage of UAV to map the semi-development areas. The performance of the low cost UAV mapping study was established on a study area with two image processing methods so that the results could be comparable. A non-metric camera was attached at the bottom of UAV and it was used to capture images at both sites after it went through several calibration steps. Calibration processes were carried out to determine focal length, principal distance, radial lens distortion, tangential lens distortion and affinity. A new method in image registration for a non-metric camera is discussed in this paper as a part of new methodology of this study. This method used the UAV Global Positioning System (GPS) onboard to register the UAV image for interior orientation process. Check points were established randomly at both sites using rapid static Global Positioning System. Ground control points are used for exterior orientation process, and check point is used for accuracy assessment of photogrammetric product. All acquired images were processed in a photogrammetric software. Two methods of image registration were applied in this study, namely, GPS onboard registration and ground control point registration. Both registrations were processed by using photogrammetric software and the result is discussed. Two results were produced in this study, which are the digital orthophoto and the digital terrain model. These results were analyzed by using the root mean square

  1. Effects of Early Bilingual Experience with a Tone and a Non-Tone Language on Speech-Music Integration

    PubMed Central

    Asaridou, Salomi S.; Hagoort, Peter; McQueen, James M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated music and language processing in a group of early bilinguals who spoke a tone language and a non-tone language (Cantonese and Dutch). We assessed online speech-music processing interactions, that is, interactions that occur when speech and music are processed simultaneously in songs, with a speeded classification task. In this task, participants judged sung pseudowords either musically (based on the direction of the musical interval) or phonologically (based on the identity of the sung vowel). We also assessed longer-term effects of linguistic experience on musical ability, that is, the influence of extensive prior experience with language when processing music. These effects were assessed with a task in which participants had to learn to identify musical intervals and with four pitch-perception tasks. Our hypothesis was that due to their experience in two different languages using lexical versus intonational tone, the early Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals would outperform the Dutch control participants. In online processing, the Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals processed speech and music more holistically than controls. This effect seems to be driven by experience with a tone language, in which integration of segmental and pitch information is fundamental. Regarding longer-term effects of linguistic experience, we found no evidence for a bilingual advantage in either the music-interval learning task or the pitch-perception tasks. Together, these results suggest that being a Cantonese-Dutch bilingual does not have any measurable longer-term effects on pitch and music processing, but does have consequences for how speech and music are processed jointly. PMID:26659377

  2. Effects of Early Bilingual Experience with a Tone and a Non-Tone Language on Speech-Music Integration.

    PubMed

    Asaridou, Salomi S; Hagoort, Peter; McQueen, James M

    2015-01-01

    We investigated music and language processing in a group of early bilinguals who spoke a tone language and a non-tone language (Cantonese and Dutch). We assessed online speech-music processing interactions, that is, interactions that occur when speech and music are processed simultaneously in songs, with a speeded classification task. In this task, participants judged sung pseudowords either musically (based on the direction of the musical interval) or phonologically (based on the identity of the sung vowel). We also assessed longer-term effects of linguistic experience on musical ability, that is, the influence of extensive prior experience with language when processing music. These effects were assessed with a task in which participants had to learn to identify musical intervals and with four pitch-perception tasks. Our hypothesis was that due to their experience in two different languages using lexical versus intonational tone, the early Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals would outperform the Dutch control participants. In online processing, the Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals processed speech and music more holistically than controls. This effect seems to be driven by experience with a tone language, in which integration of segmental and pitch information is fundamental. Regarding longer-term effects of linguistic experience, we found no evidence for a bilingual advantage in either the music-interval learning task or the pitch-perception tasks. Together, these results suggest that being a Cantonese-Dutch bilingual does not have any measurable longer-term effects on pitch and music processing, but does have consequences for how speech and music are processed jointly. PMID:26659377

  3. The Enduring Significance of Skin Tone: Linking Skin Tone, Attitudes Toward Marriage and Cohabitation, and Sexual Behavior.

    PubMed

    Landor, Antoinette M; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2016-05-01

    Past evidence has documented that attitudes toward marriage and cohabitation are related to sexual behavior in adolescence and young adulthood. This study extends prior research by longitudinally testing these associations across racial/ethnic groups and investigating whether culturally relevant variations within racial/ethnic minority groups, such as skin tone (i.e., lightness/darkness of skin color), are linked to attitudes toward marriage and cohabitation and sex. Drawing on family and public health literatures and theories, as well as burgeoning skin tone literature, it was hypothesized that more positive attitudes toward marriage and negative attitudes toward cohabitation would be associated with less risky sex, and that links differed for lighter and darker skin individuals. The sample included 6872 respondents (49.6 % female; 70.0 % White; 15.8 % African American; 3.3 % Asian; 10.9 % Hispanic) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. The results revealed that marital attitudes had a significantly stronger dampening effect on risky sexual behavior of lighter skin African Americans and Asians compared with their darker skin counterparts. Skin tone also directly predicted number of partners and concurrent partners among African American males and Asian females. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these findings for adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:26979445

  4. Turbulence in pure superfluid flow

    SciTech Connect

    Ashton, R.A.; Opatowsky, L.B.; Tough, J.T.

    1981-03-09

    A series of experiments is described which provide an unambiguous description of the steady-state properties of turbulence in pure superfluid flow. The turbulence is qualitatively different from that observed in counterflow but comparable to the homogeneous turbulence described by theory.

  5. Production of substantially pure fructose

    DOEpatents

    Hatcher, Herbert J.; Gallian, John J.; Leeper, Stephen A.

    1990-01-01

    A process is disclosed for the production of substantially pure fructose from sucrose-containing substrates. The process comprises converting the sucrose to levan and glucose, purifying the levan by membrane technology, hydrolyzing the levan to form fructose monomers, and recovering the fructose.

  6. Verification of Potency of Aerial Digital Oblique Cameras for Aerial Photogrammetry in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakada, Ryuji; Takigawa, Masanori; Ohga, Tomowo; Fujii, Noritsuna

    2016-06-01

    Digital oblique aerial camera (hereinafter called "oblique cameras") is an assembly of medium format digital cameras capable of shooting digital aerial photographs in five directions i.e. nadir view and oblique views (forward and backward, left and right views) simultaneously and it is used for shooting digital aerial photographs efficiently for generating 3D models in a wide area. For aerial photogrammetry of public survey in Japan, it is required to use large format cameras, like DMC and UltraCam series, to ensure aerial photogrammetric accuracy. Although oblique cameras are intended to generate 3D models, digital aerial photographs in 5 directions taken with them should not be limited to 3D model production but they may also be allowed for digital mapping and photomaps of required public survey accuracy in Japan. In order to verify the potency of using oblique cameras for aerial photogrammetry (simultaneous adjustment, digital mapping and photomaps), (1) a viewer was developed to interpret digital aerial photographs taken with oblique cameras, (2) digital aerial photographs were shot with an oblique camera owned by us, a Penta DigiCAM of IGI mbH, and (3) accuracy of 3D measurements was verified.

  7. Draper Laboratory small autonomous aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBitetto, Paul A.; Johnson, Eric N.; Bosse, Michael C.; Trott, Christian A.

    1997-06-01

    The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc. and students from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Boston University have cooperated to develop an autonomous aerial vehicle that won the 1996 International Aerial Robotics Competition. This paper describes the approach, system architecture and subsystem designs for the entry. This entry represents a combination of many technology areas: navigation, guidance, control, vision processing, human factors, packaging, power, real-time software, and others. The aerial vehicle, an autonomous helicopter, performs navigation and control functions using multiple sensors: differential GPS, inertial measurement unit, sonar altimeter, and a flux compass. The aerial transmits video imagery to the ground. A ground based vision processor converts the image data into target position and classification estimates. The system was designed, built, and flown in less than one year and has provided many lessons about autonomous vehicle systems, several of which are discussed. In an appendix, our current research in augmenting the navigation system with vision- based estimates is presented.

  8. Officials: Aerial Spraying Working Against Miami Mosquitoes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Officials: Aerial Spraying Working Against Miami Mosquitoes The insects are to blame for first cases of Zika ... mosquitoes in a part of Miami where the insects have been linked to 16 cases of Zika ...

  9. Rangeland monitoring with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have great potential for rangeland management applications, such as monitoring vegetation change, developing grazing strategies, determining rangeland health, and assessing remediation treatment effectiveness. UAVs have several advantages: they can be deployed quickly...

  10. Locating buildings in aerial photos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James S.

    1994-01-01

    Algorithms and techniques for use in the identification and location of large buildings in digitized copies of aerial photographs are developed and tested. The building data would be used in the simulation of objects located in the vicinity of an airport that may be detected by aircraft radar. Two distinct approaches are considered. Most building footprints are rectangular in form. The first approach studied is to search for right-angled corners that characterize rectangular objects and then to connect these corners to complete the building. This problem is difficult because many nonbuilding objects, such as street corners, parking lots, and ballparks often have well defined corners which are often difficult to distinguish from rooftops. Furthermore, rooftops come in a number of shapes, sizes, shadings, and textures which also limit the discrimination task. The strategy used linear sequences of different samples to detect straight edge segments at multiple angles and to determine when these segments meet at approximately right-angles with respect to each other. This technique is effective in locating corners. The test image used has a fairly rectangular block pattern oriented about thirty degrees clockwise from a vertical alignment, and the overall measurement data reflect this. However, this technique does not discriminate between buildings and other objects at an operationally suitable rate. In addition, since multiple paths are tested for each image pixel, this is a time consuming task. The process can be speeded up by preprocessing the image to locate the more optimal sampling paths. The second approach is to rely on a human operator to identify and select the building objects and then to have the computer determine the outline and location of the selected structures. When presented with a copy of a digitized aerial photograph, the operator uses a mouse and cursor to select a target building. After a button on the mouse is pressed, with the cursor fully within

  11. Reliable aerial thermography for energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, J. R.; Bowman, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    A method for energy conservation, the aerial thermography survey, is discussed. It locates sources of energy losses and wasteful energy management practices. An operational map is presented for clear sky conditions. The map outlines the key environmental conditions conductive to obtaining reliable aerial thermography. The map is developed from defined visual and heat loss discrimination criteria which are quantized based on flat roof heat transfer calculations.

  12. Aerial righting reflexes in flightless animals.

    PubMed

    Jusufi, Ardian; Zeng, Yu; Full, Robert J; Dudley, Robert

    2011-12-01

    Animals that fall upside down typically engage in an aerial righting response so as to reorient dorsoventrally. This behavior can be preparatory to gliding or other controlled aerial behaviors and is ultimately necessary for a successful landing. Aerial righting reflexes have been described historically in various mammals such as cats, guinea pigs, rabbits, rats, and primates. The mechanisms whereby such righting can be accomplished depend on the size of the animal and on anatomical features associated with motion of the limbs and body. Here we apply a comparative approach to the study of aerial righting to explore the diverse strategies used for reorientation in midair. We discuss data for two species of lizards, the gecko Hemidactylus platyurus and the anole Anolis carolinensis, as well as for the first instar of the stick insect Extatosoma tiaratum, to illustrate size-dependence of this phenomenon and its relevance to subsequent aerial performance in parachuting and gliding animals. Geckos can use rotation of their large tails to reorient their bodies via conservation of angular momentum. Lizards with tails well exceeding snout-vent length, and correspondingly large tail inertia to body inertia ratios, are more effective at creating midair reorientation maneuvers. Moreover, experiments with stick insects, weighing an order of magnitude less than the lizards, suggest that aerodynamic torques acting on the limbs and body may play a dominant role in the righting process for small invertebrates. Both inertial and aerodynamic effects, therefore, can play a role in the control of aerial righting. We propose that aerial righting reflexes are widespread among arboreal vertebrates and arthropods and that they represent an important initial adaptation in the evolution of controlled aerial behavior. PMID:21930662

  13. Detection and localization of sounds: Virtual tones and virtual reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peter Xinya

    Modern physiologically based binaural models employ internal delay lines in the pathways from left and right peripheries to central processing nuclei. Various models apply the delay lines differently, and give different predictions for the detection of dichotic pitches, wherein listeners hear a virtual tone in the noise background. Two dichotic pitch stimuli (Huggins pitch and binaural coherence edge pitch) with low boundary frequencies were used to test the predictions by two different models. The results from five experiments show that the relative dichotic pitch strengths support the equalization-cancellation model and disfavor the central activity pattern (CAP) model. The CAP model makes predictions for the lateralization of Huggins pitch based on interaural time differences (ITD). By measuring human lateralization for Huggins pitches with two different types of phase boundaries (linear-phase and stepped phase), and by comparing with lateralization of sine-tones, it was shown that the lateralization of Huggins pitch stimuli is similar to that of the corresponding sine-tones, and the lateralizations of Huggins pitch stimuli with the two different boundaries were even more similar to one another. The results agreed roughly with the CAP model predictions. Agreement was significantly improved by incorporating individualized scale factors and offsets into the model, and was further unproved with a model including compression at large ITDs. Furthermore, ambiguous stimuli, with an interaural phase difference of 180 degrees, were consistently lateralized on the left or right based on individual asymmetries---which introduces the concept of "earedness". Interaural phase difference (IPD) and interaural time difference (ITD) are two different forms of temporal cues. With varying frequency, an auditory system based on IPD or ITD gives different quantitative predictions on lateralization. A lateralization experiment with sine tones tested whether human auditory system is an

  14. Endurance bounds of aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Aaron M.; Kroninger, Christopher M.

    2014-06-01

    Within the past few years micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) have received much more attention and are starting to proliferate into military as well as civilian roles. However, one of the major drawbacks for this technology currently, has been their poor endurance, usually below 10 minutes. This is a direct result of the inefficiencies inherent in their design. Often times, designers do not consider the various components in the vehicle design and match their performance to the desired mission for the vehicle. These vehicles lack a prescribed set of design guidelines or empirically derived design equations which often limits their design to selection of commercial off-the-shelf components without proper consideration of their affect on vehicle performance. In the current study, the design space for different vehicle configurations has been examined including insect flapping, avian flapping, rotary wing, and fixed wing, and their performance bounds are established. The propulsion system typical of a rotary wing vehicle is analyzed to establish current baselines for efficiency of vehicles at this scale. The power draw from communications is analyzed to determine its impact on vehicle performance. Finally, a representative fixed wing MAV is examined and the effects of adaptive structures as a means for increasing vehicle endurance and range are examined. This paper seeks to establish the performance bounds for micro air vehicles and establish a path forward for future designs so that efficiency may be maximized.

  15. Effect of the antitussive glaucine on bronchomotor tone in man.

    PubMed Central

    Constant, O; Slavin, B; Lehane, J R; Jordan, C; Jones, J G

    1983-01-01

    In view of the observation that the antitussive agent glaucine prevents histamine-induced bronchoconstriction in guinea pigs we investigated this agent for a possible peripheral action in man, using a new method for measuring changes in bronchomotor tone. The forced airflow oscillation method was used to determine respiratory resistance (Rrs) over a range of lung volumes (VL) in seven healthy supine subjects. Computer analysis of the hyperbolic relationship between Rrs and VL was used to determine the asymptotic resistance and yield estimates of lower airways conductance (Glaw). Specific lower airways conductance (sGlaw) was expressed as the slope of the linear plot of Glaw against VL and is a sensitive index of bronchomotor tone. After baseline measurements of sGlaw subjects received placebo or 60 mg glaucine orally according to a double-blind crossover protocol. Histamine, 500 micrograms, was inhaled 45 minutes later. Measurements of sGlaw were repeated every 10 minutes for two hours. Although there was a trend towards bronchodilatation after glaucine administration (sGlaw = 130% of baseline) there was no significant difference from the effect of placebo (sGlaw = 89% of baseline). After inhalation of histamine sGlaw fell to 26% of baseline after both glaucine and placebo (p less than 0.01). In a further study three subjects received glaucine and placebo according to an identical protocol except that the histamine was omitted. Again the increase in sGlaw failed to achieve significance. Glaucine does not affect the bronchoconstrictor response to histamine in man and there is no convincing evidence of an effect on resting bronchomotor tone. PMID:6612639

  16. Effect of the antitussive glaucine on bronchomotor tone in man.

    PubMed

    Constant, O; Slavin, B; Lehane, J R; Jordan, C; Jones, J G

    1983-07-01

    In view of the observation that the antitussive agent glaucine prevents histamine-induced bronchoconstriction in guinea pigs we investigated this agent for a possible peripheral action in man, using a new method for measuring changes in bronchomotor tone. The forced airflow oscillation method was used to determine respiratory resistance (Rrs) over a range of lung volumes (VL) in seven healthy supine subjects. Computer analysis of the hyperbolic relationship between Rrs and VL was used to determine the asymptotic resistance and yield estimates of lower airways conductance (Glaw). Specific lower airways conductance (sGlaw) was expressed as the slope of the linear plot of Glaw against VL and is a sensitive index of bronchomotor tone. After baseline measurements of sGlaw subjects received placebo or 60 mg glaucine orally according to a double-blind crossover protocol. Histamine, 500 micrograms, was inhaled 45 minutes later. Measurements of sGlaw were repeated every 10 minutes for two hours. Although there was a trend towards bronchodilatation after glaucine administration (sGlaw = 130% of baseline) there was no significant difference from the effect of placebo (sGlaw = 89% of baseline). After inhalation of histamine sGlaw fell to 26% of baseline after both glaucine and placebo (p less than 0.01). In a further study three subjects received glaucine and placebo according to an identical protocol except that the histamine was omitted. Again the increase in sGlaw failed to achieve significance. Glaucine does not affect the bronchoconstrictor response to histamine in man and there is no convincing evidence of an effect on resting bronchomotor tone. PMID:6612639

  17. L-band tone-code-data transponder calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brisken, A. F.

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of this program were to identify and quantify factors which affect the performance of the L-band tone-code-data ranging transponders. Specific objectives included the following: (1) assemble the L-band ranging transponder, previously deployed in Hawaii for the tracking of the ATS-5 satellite, at the GE Radio-Optical Observatory; (2) configure the observatory to conduct calibration exercises with the transponder; and (3) conduct sufficient calibration experiments to demonstrate factors which degrade transponder accuracy, precision, and reliability, to quantify these factors where possible, and to verify long term transponder stability under controlled conditions.

  18. Light-toned Rock Outcrop in Aureum Chaos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    30 October 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an outcrop of light-toned, layered, sedimentary rock in Aureum Chaos. The darker material, which includes ripples, is composed of windblown sand and granules. This scene is located near 3.8oS, 26.2oW, and covers an area roughly 7.7 km by 3 km (4.8 by 1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the terrain from the top/upper right. This southern autumn image was acquired on 14 July 2006.

  19. An Isoperimetric Inequality for Fundamental Tones of Free Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chasman, L. M.

    2010-03-01

    We establish an isoperimetric inequality for the fundamental tone (first nonzero eigenvalue) of the free plate of a given area, proving the ball is maximal. Given τ>0, the free plate eigenvalues omega and eigenfunctions u are determined by the equation DeltaDelta u-τDelta u = omega u together with certain natural boundary conditions. The boundary conditions are complicated but arise naturally from the plate Rayleigh quotient, which contains a Hessian squared term |D^2u|^2. We adapt Weinberger's method from the corresponding free membrane problem, taking the fundamental modes of the unit ball as trial functions. These solutions are a linear combination of Bessel and modified Bessel functions.

  20. Cost effective processes by using negative-tone development application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Kei; Kato, Keita; Ou, Keiyu; Shirakawa, Michihiro; Kamimura, Sou

    2015-03-01

    The high volume manufacturing with extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is delaying due to its light source issue. Therefore, ArF-immersion lithography has still been the most promising technology for down scaling of device pitch. As the limitation of ArF-immersion single patterning is considered to be nearly 40nm half pitch (hp), ArF-immersion lithography has necessity to be extended by combining processes to achieve sub- 20nm hp patterning. Recently, there are many reports about the extension of ArF-immersion lithography, e.g., self-aligned multiple patterning (SAMP) and litho-etch-litho-etch (LELE) process. These methods have been realized by the combination of lithography, deposition, and etching. On the other aspect, 1-D layout is adopted for leading devices, which contains additional cut or block litho and etch processes to form 2-D like layout. Thus, according to the progress of down scaling technologies, number of processes increases and the cost of ownership (CoO) can not be neglected. Especially, the number of lithography steps and etching steps has been expanded by the combination of processes, and it has come to occupy a large portion of total manufacturing cost. We have reported that negative tone development (NTD) system using organic solvent developer have enough resolution to achieve fine narrow trench or contact hole patterning, since negative tone imaging enables to apply bright mask for these pattern with significantly high optical image contrast compared to positive tone imaging, and it has contributed high throughput multiple patterning. On the other hand, NTD system is found to be useful not only for leading device node, but also for cost effective process. In this report, we propose the cost effective process using NTD application. In the viewpoint of cost down at exposure tool, we have developed KrF-NTD resist which is customized for organic solvent developer. Our KrF-NTD resist has resolution comparable with ArF positive tone development

  1. Computation of Tone Noises Generated in Viscous Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loh, Ching Y.; Jorgenson, Philip C. E.

    2004-01-01

    Three benchmark problems from the current and previous CAA workshops involving tone noise generated in viscous flows are investigated using the CE/SE finite volume method. The CE/SE method is first briefly reviewed. Then, the benchmark problems, namely, flow past a single cylinder (CAA Workshop II problem), flow past twin cylinders (from the current CAA Workshop IV, Category 5, Problem 1) and flow past a deep cavity with overhang (CAA Workshop III problem) are investigated. Generally good results are obtained in comparison with the experimental data.

  2. Single-tone parameter estimation from discrete-time observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rife, D. C.; Boorstyn, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    Estimation of the parameters of a single-frequency complex tone from a finite number of noisy discrete-time observations is discussed. The appropriate Cramer-Rao bounds and maximum-likelihood (ML) estimation algorithms are derived. Some properties of the ML estimators are proved. The relationship of ML estimation to the discrete Fourier transform is exploited to obtain practial algorithms. The threshold effect of one algorithm is analyzed and compared to simulation results. Other simulation results verify other aspects of the analysis.

  3. Canonical Thermal Pure Quantum State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Sho; Shimizu, Akira

    2013-07-01

    A thermal equilibrium state of a quantum many-body system can be represented by a typical pure state, which we call a thermal pure quantum (TPQ) state. We construct the canonical TPQ state, which corresponds to the canonical ensemble of the conventional statistical mechanics. It is related to the microcanonical TPQ state, which corresponds to the microcanonical ensemble, by simple analytic transformations. Both TPQ states give identical thermodynamic results, if both ensembles do, in the thermodynamic limit. The TPQ states corresponding to other ensembles can also be constructed. We have thus established the TPQ formulation of statistical mechanics, according to which all quantities of statistical-mechanical interest are obtained from a single realization of any TPQ state. We also show that it has great advantages in practical applications. As an illustration, we study the spin-1/2 kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet.

  4. Aerial photo SBVC1962". Photo no. 360. Low oblique aerial view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial photo -SBVC-1962". Photo no. 360. Low oblique aerial view of the campus, looking southeast. Stamped on the rear: "Ron Wilhite, Sun-Telegram photo, file, 10/22/62/ - San Bernardino Valley College, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  5. covert contrast: The acquisition of Mandarin tone 2 and tone 3 in L2 production and perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mar, Li-Ya

    This dissertation investigates the occurrence of an intermediate stage, termed a covert contrast, in the acquisition of Mandarin Tone 2 (T2) and Tone 3 (T3) by adult speakers of American English. A covert contrast is a statistically reliable distinction produced by language learners that is not perceived by native speakers of the target language (TL). In second language (L2) acquisition, whether a learner is judged as having acquired a TL phonemic contrast has largely depended on whether the contrast was perceived and transcribed by native speakers of the TL. However, categorical perception has shown that native listeners cannot perceive a distinction between two sounds that fall within the same perceptual boundaries on the continuum of the relevant acoustic cues. In other words, it is possible that native speakers of the TL do not perceive a phonemic distinction that is produced by L2 learners when that distinction occurs within a phonemic boundary of TL. The data for the study were gathered through two elicitations of tone production, a longitudinal analysis, and two perception tasks. There were three key findings. First, both elicitations showed that most of the L2 participants produced a covert contrast between T2 and T3 on at least one of the three acoustic measures used in the study. Second, the longitudinal analysis reveals that some L2 participants progressed from making a covert contrast to a later stage of implementing an overt one, thereby supporting the claim that making a covert contrast is an intermediate stage in the process of acquiring a L2 phonemic contrast. Third, results of the perceptual tasks showed no reliable difference in identifying and discriminating Mandarin T2 and T3 on the part of the L2 learners who produced a covert contrast and those who produced an overt contrast, indicating that there was no reliable difference in the two groups' ability to perceive the target tones. In all, the occurrence of a covert contrast in the process of

  6. Hyperventilation, central autonomic control, and colonic tone in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Ford, M J; Camilleri, M J; Hanson, R B; Wiste, J A; Joyner, M J

    1995-01-01

    Symptoms attributable to hyperventilation are common among patients with the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); indeed, some have suggested that hyperventilation may exacerbate the alimentary symptoms of IBS. Hyperventilation changes haemodynamic function through central and peripheral mechanisms; its effects on colonic motor function, however, are unknown. The aim of this study, therefore, was to assess the effects of hyperventilation on colonic tone and motility and on cardiovascular autonomic activity, and to discover if hypocapnia was critical to elicit the response. Phasic and tonic motility of the transverse and sigmoid colon, end tidal PCO2, pulse rate, and beat to beat pulse variability were assessed before, during, and after a five minute period of hypocapnic hyperventilation in 15 healthy volunteers; in seven other subjects, effects of both eucapnic and hypocapnic hyperventilation were evaluated. Hypocapnic but not eucapnic hyperventilation produced an increase in colonic tone and phasic contractility in the transverse and sigmoid regions and an increase in pulse rate and pulse interval variability. The findings are consistent with inhibition of sympathetic innervation to the colon or direct effects of hypocapnia on colonic smooth muscle, or both. These physiological gut responses suggest that some of the changes in colonic function are caused by altered brain or autonomic control mechanisms. PMID:7489935

  7. Heart rate variability and vagal tone in schizophrenia: A review.

    PubMed

    Montaquila, Julian M; Trachik, Benjamin J; Bedwell, Jeffrey S

    2015-10-01

    Recent heart rate variability (HRV) research has identified diminished levels of parasympathetic activity among schizophrenia patients. Over two dozen empirically-based studies have been published on this topic; primarily over the last decade. However, no theoretical review appears to have been published on this work. Further, only one empirical study has evaluated HRV research findings in the context of documented hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hyperactivity in schizophrenia. HRV research indicates that no abnormalities exist in the initial sympathetic stress response of schizophrenia patients. However, evidence has consistently demonstrated that patients exhibit a diminished capacity to recover from a stress response as a result of deficits in parasympathetic activity. Moreover, this diminished parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) response, also known as decreased vagal tone, has been found to relate to increased symptom severity. Although these findings may cause speculation that the observed vagal tone disruption merely results from anxiety produced by the presence of positive symptomology, additional studies have identified similar parasympathetic dysfunction among nonpsychotic relatives of individuals with schizophrenia. We posit that the resulting sympathovagal imbalance leads to an overall sympathetic dominance despite the fact that sympathetic nervous system activity is not abnormally elevated among patients. Implications are discussed within the context of the diathesis-stress/vulnerability-stress model, including the potential for identifying a mechanism of action by which environmental stressors may contribute to triggering first-episode psychosis. PMID:26343595

  8. Computing Axisymmetric Jet Screech Tones Using Unstructured Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Loh, Ching Y.

    2002-01-01

    The space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) method is used to solve the conservation law form of the compressible axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations. The equations are time marched to predict the unsteady flow and the near-field screech tone noise issuing from an underexpanded circular jet. The CE/SE method uses an unstructured grid based data structure. The unstructured grids for these calculations are generated based on the method of Delaunay triangulation. The purpose of this paper is to show that an acoustics solution with a feedback loop can be obtained using truly unstructured grid technology. Numerical results are presented for two different nozzle geometries. The first is considered to have a thin nozzle lip and the second has a thick nozzle lip. Comparisons with available experimental data are shown for flows corresponding to several different jet Mach numbers. Generally good agreement is obtained in terms of flow physics, screech tone frequency, and sound pressure level.

  9. Computing Axisymmetric Jet Screech Tones using Unstructured Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Loh, Ching Y.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that computations with an aeroacoustic feedback loop, the jet screech noise, can be obtained using truly unstructured grid technology. Numerical results are presented for a nozzle with two different lip thicknesses which will be referred to in this paper as a thin and a thick lip nozzle respectively. The space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) method is used to solve the conservation laws of the compressible axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations. The equations are time marched to predict the unsteady flow and the near-field screech tone noise issuing from an underexpanded circular jet. The CE/SE method uses an unstructured grid based data structure. The unstructured grids for these calculations are generated based on the method of Delaunay triangulation. Comparisons of numerical results with available experimental data are shown for flows corresponding to several different jet Mach numbers. Generally good agreement is obtained in terms of flow physics, screech tone frequency, and sound pressure level.

  10. Political partisanship influences perception of biracial candidates' skin tone.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Eugene M; Mead, Nicole L; Balcetis, Emily

    2009-12-01

    People tend to view members of their own political group more positively than members of a competing political group. In this article, we demonstrate that political partisanship influences people's visual representations of a biracial political candidate's skin tone. In three studies, participants rated the representativeness of photographs of a hypothetical (Study 1) or real (Barack Obama; Studies 2 and 3) biracial political candidate. Unbeknownst to participants, some of the photographs had been altered to make the candidate's skin tone either lighter or darker than it was in the original photograph. Participants whose partisanship matched that of the candidate they were evaluating consistently rated the lightened photographs as more representative of the candidate than the darkened photographs, whereas participants whose partisanship did not match that of the candidate showed the opposite pattern. For evaluations of Barack Obama, the extent to which people rated lightened photographs as representative of him was positively correlated with their stated voting intentions and reported voting behavior in the 2008 Presidential election. This effect persisted when controlling for political ideology and racial attitudes. These results suggest that people's visual representations of others are related to their own preexisting beliefs and to the decisions they make in a consequential context. PMID:19934033

  11. Predicting the decay time of solid body electric guitar tones.

    PubMed

    Paté, Arthur; Le Carrou, Jean-Loïc; Fabre, Benoît

    2014-05-01

    Although it can be transformed by various electronic devices, the sound of the solid body electric guitar originates from, and is strongly linked with, the string vibration. The coupling of the string with the guitar alters its vibration and can lead to decay time inhomogeneities. This paper implements and justifies a framework for the study of decay times of electric guitar tones. Two damping mechanisms are theoretically and experimentally identified: the string intrinsic damping and the damping due to mechanical coupling with the neck of the guitar. The electromagnetic pickup is shown to not provide any additional damping to the string. The pickup is also shown to be far more sensitive to the out-of-plane polarization of the string. Finally, an accurate prediction of the decay time of electric guitar tones is made possible, whose only requirements are the knowledge of the isolated string dampings and the out-of-plane conductance at the neck of the guitar. This prediction can be of great help for instrument makers and manufacturers. PMID:24815284

  12. Vagal tone: effects on sensitivity, motility, and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Bonaz, B; Sinniger, V; Pellissier, S

    2016-04-01

    The vagus nerve (VN) is a key element of the autonomic nervous system. As a mixed nerve, the VN contributes to the bidirectional interactions between the brain and the gut, i.e., the brain-gut axis. In particular, after integration in the central autonomic network of peripheral sensations such as inflammation and pain via vagal and spinal afferents, an efferent response through modulation of preganglionic parasympathetic neurons of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and/or preganglionic sympathetic neurons of the spinal cord is able to modulate gastrointestinal nociception, motility, and inflammation. A low vagal tone, as assessed by heart rate variability, a marker of the sympatho-vagal balance, is observed in functional digestive disorders and inflammatory bowel diseases. To restore a normal vagal tone appears as a goal in such diseases. Among the therapeutic tools, such as drugs targeting the cholinergic system and/or complementary medicine (hypnosis, meditation…), deep breathing, physical exercise, VN stimulation (VNS), either invasive or non-invasive, appears as innovative. There is new evidence in the current issue of this Journal supporting the role of VNS in the modulation of gastrointestinal functions. PMID:27010234

  13. TRPV4 and the regulation of vascular tone

    PubMed Central

    Filosa, Jessica .A.; Yao, Xiaoqiang; Rath, Geraldine

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have introduced the importance of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Subtype 4 (TRPV4) channels in the regulation of vascular tone. TRPV4 channels are expressed in both endothelium and vascular smooth muscle cells and can be activated by numerous stimuli including mechanical (e.g. shear stress, cell swelling, and heat) and chemical (e.g. epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), endocanabinoids, 4α-phorbol esters). In the brain, TRPV4 channels are primarily localized to astrocytic endfeet processes which wrap around blood vessels. Thus, TRPV4 channels are strategically localized to sense hemodynamic changes and contribute to the regulation of vascular tone. TRPV4 channel activation leads to smooth muscle cell hyperpolarization and vasodilation. Here we review recent findings on the cellular mechanisms underlying TRPV4-mediated vasodilation, TRPV4 channel interaction with other proteins including Transient Receptor Potential Channel 1 (TRPC1), small conductance (KCa2.3) and large conductance (KCa1.1) calcium-activated, potassium-selective channels and the importance of caveolin-rich domains for these interactions to take place. PMID:23107877

  14. Binaural hearing in children using Gaussian enveloped and transposed tones.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Erica; Kan, Alan; Winn, Matthew B; Stoelb, Corey; Litovsky, Ruth Y

    2016-04-01

    Children who use bilateral cochlear implants (BiCIs) show significantly poorer sound localization skills than their normal hearing (NH) peers. This difference has been attributed, in part, to the fact that cochlear implants (CIs) do not faithfully transmit interaural time differences (ITDs) and interaural level differences (ILDs), which are known to be important cues for sound localization. Interestingly, little is known about binaural sensitivity in NH children, in particular, with stimuli that constrain acoustic cues in a manner representative of CI processing. In order to better understand and evaluate binaural hearing in children with BiCIs, the authors first undertook a study on binaural sensitivity in NH children ages 8-10, and in adults. Experiments evaluated sound discrimination and lateralization using ITD and ILD cues, for stimuli with robust envelope cues, but poor representation of temporal fine structure. Stimuli were spondaic words, Gaussian-enveloped tone pulse trains (100 pulse-per-second), and transposed tones. Results showed that discrimination thresholds in children were adult-like (15-389 μs for ITDs and 0.5-6.0 dB for ILDs). However, lateralization based on the same binaural cues showed higher variability than seen in adults. Results are discussed in the context of factors that may be responsible for poor representation of binaural cues in bilaterally implanted children. PMID:27106319

  15. Influences of vowel and tone variation on emergent word knowledge: a cross-linguistic investigation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Leher; Hui, Tam Jun; Chan, Calista; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick

    2014-01-01

    To learn words, infants must be sensitive to native phonological contrast. While lexical tone predominates as a source of phonemic contrast in human languages, there has been little investigation of the influences of lexical tone on word learning. The present study investigates infants' sensitivity to tone mispronunciations in two groups of infants. For one group (Chinese learners), tone is phonemic in their native language, and for the second group (English learners), tone is non-phonemic and constituted suprasegmental variation. In Experiment 1, English learners were trained on novel word-object pairings and tested on their recognition of correct pronunciations, tone and vowel mispronunciations of these words at 18 and 24 months. In Experiment 2a, bilingual English-Chinese learners were tested on a similar task translated into Chinese at the same age intervals. Results demonstrate that non-tonal learners treated tonal and vowel substitutions alike as mispronunciations at 18 months but only treated vowel substitutions as mispronunciations at 24 months. Tonal learners treated both tonal and vowel substitutions as mispronunciations at both ages. In Experiment 2b, bilingual non-tone language learners were tested on the same set of tasks replicating a similar set of results as monolingual non-tone language learners (Experiment 1). Findings point to an early predisposition to treat tone as a defining characteristic of words regardless of its lexical relevance at 18 months. Between 18 and 24 months, learners appear to ascribe lexical relevance to tone in a language-specific manner. The current study identifies the influences of tone variation on memories for newly learned words and the time period during which lexical tone - a highly frequent constituent of human languages - actually becomes lexical for early learners. Findings are contextualized with prevailing models of the developing lexicon. PMID:24118787

  16. pureS2HAT: S 2HAT-based Pure E/B Harmonic Transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grain, J.; Stompor, R.; Tristram, M.

    2011-10-01

    The pS2HAT routines allow efficient, parallel calculation of the so-called 'pure' polarized multipoles. The computed multipole coefficients are equal to the standard pseudo-multipoles calculated for the apodized sky maps of the Stokes parameters Q and U subsequently corrected by so-called counterterms. If the applied apodizations fullfill certain boundary conditions, these multipoles correspond to the pure multipoles. Pure multipoles of one type, i.e., either E or B, are ensured not to contain contributions from the other one, at least to within numerical artifacts. They can be therefore further used in the estimation of the sky power spectra via the pseudo power spectrum technique, which has to however correctly account for the applied apodization on the one hand, and the presence of the counterterms, on the other. In addition, the package contains the routines permitting calculation of the spin-weighted apodizations, given an input scalar, i.e., spin-0 window. The former are needed to compute the counterterms. It also provides routines for maps and window manipulations. The routines are written in C and based on the S2HAT library, which is used to perform all required spherical harmonic transforms as well as all inter-processor communication. They are therefore parallelized using MPI and follow the distributed-memory computational model. The data distribution patterns, pixelization choices, conventions etc are all as those assumed/allowed by the S2HAT library.

  17. Effects of musical and linguistic experience on categorization of lexical and melodic tones.

    PubMed

    Chang, Daniel; Hedberg, Nancy; Wang, Yue

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the categorization of Mandarin lexical tones and music melodic tones by listeners differing in linguistic and musical experience (English musicians, English non-musicians, and Mandarin non-musicians). Linguistic tonal continua were created from the Mandarin rising to level, and falling to level tones. Melodic continua were created by varying the note D under the context of C and E. The tasks involved tone discrimination and identification. Results revealed that musical training facilitated Mandarin tone categorization, with English musicians' tone identification approximating native Mandarin patterns, being more categorical than English non-musicians'. However, English musicians showed higher discrimination accuracy than Mandarin listeners but not English non-musicians. This suggests that musical experience was not advantageous in discriminating linguistic tonal variations, which requires listeners to ignore subtle physical differences in order to make categorical judgments. Similarly, Mandarin tone experience affected melodic tone identification, with Mandarin non-musicians approximating English musicians, showing more categorical patterns than English non-musicians. In contrast, Mandarin non-musicians' melodic discrimination was the poorest among the three groups, indicating that their experience with linguistic tone categorization may have decreased their sensitivity to fine-grained pitch variations. These results demonstrate bi-directional transfer of pitch proficiency between speech and music as a function of experience. PMID:27250140

  18. Preattentive processing of emotional musical tones: a multidimensional scaling and ERP study.

    PubMed

    Spreckelmeyer, Katja N; Altenmüller, Eckart; Colonius, Hans; Münte, Thomas F

    2013-01-01

    Musical emotion can be conveyed by subtle variations in timbre. Here, we investigated whether the brain is capable to discriminate tones differing in emotional expression by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) in an oddball paradigm under preattentive listening conditions. First, using multidimensional Fechnerian scaling, pairs of violin tones played with a happy or sad intonation were rated same or different by a group of non-musicians. Three happy and three sad tones were selected for the ERP experiment. The Fechnerian distances between tones within an emotion were in the same range as the distances between tones of different emotions. In two conditions, either 3 happy and 1 sad or 3 sad and 1 happy tone were presented in pseudo-random order. A mismatch negativity for the emotional deviant was observed, indicating that in spite of considerable perceptual differences between the three equiprobable tones of the standard emotion, a template was formed based on timbral cues against which the emotional deviant was compared. Based on Juslin's assumption of redundant code usage, we propose that tones were grouped together, because they were identified as belonging to one emotional category based on different emotion-specific cues. These results indicate that the brain forms an emotional memory trace at a preattentive level and thus, extends previous investigations in which emotional deviance was confounded with physical dissimilarity. Differences between sad and happy tones were observed which might be due to the fact that the happy emotion is mostly communicated by suprasegmental features. PMID:24065950

  19. Preattentive processing of emotional musical tones: a multidimensional scaling and ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Spreckelmeyer, Katja N.; Altenmüller, Eckart; Colonius, Hans; Münte, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Musical emotion can be conveyed by subtle variations in timbre. Here, we investigated whether the brain is capable to discriminate tones differing in emotional expression by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) in an oddball paradigm under preattentive listening conditions. First, using multidimensional Fechnerian scaling, pairs of violin tones played with a happy or sad intonation were rated same or different by a group of non-musicians. Three happy and three sad tones were selected for the ERP experiment. The Fechnerian distances between tones within an emotion were in the same range as the distances between tones of different emotions. In two conditions, either 3 happy and 1 sad or 3 sad and 1 happy tone were presented in pseudo-random order. A mismatch negativity for the emotional deviant was observed, indicating that in spite of considerable perceptual differences between the three equiprobable tones of the standard emotion, a template was formed based on timbral cues against which the emotional deviant was compared. Based on Juslin's assumption of redundant code usage, we propose that tones were grouped together, because they were identified as belonging to one emotional category based on different emotion-specific cues. These results indicate that the brain forms an emotional memory trace at a preattentive level and thus, extends previous investigations in which emotional deviance was confounded with physical dissimilarity. Differences between sad and happy tones were observed which might be due to the fact that the happy emotion is mostly communicated by suprasegmental features. PMID:24065950

  20. Synchronous changes of psychophysiological responses and tone pressure: effect of musical training.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga, M

    1994-10-01

    This study was designed to examine the relationship between psychophysiological responses and tone pressure during music. The main findings were as follows: (1) Mean increments of heart rate (HR) and respiration rate (RR) did not correlate with mean increments of tone pressure. (2) Musical individuals showed consistent changes between HR and tone pressure. (3) Non-musical person showed a high correlation between changes of HR and tone pressure in only a rhythmic and dynamic musical piece. These results showed that trained musicians respond differently from individuals having no musical training. PMID:7876040

  1. Evoked magnetoencephalographic responses to omission of a tone in a musical scale.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Iku

    2012-06-01

    The musical scale is a basis for melodies and can be a simple melody by itself. The present study investigated magnetoencephalographic (MEG) responses to omissions of one tone out of the C major scale. The tone preceding the omitted "target" tone was either prolonged or repeated. In another series, the tone after the target tone was repeated. In "normal" oddball experiments, the complete C major scale was presented more frequently than an incomplete scale lacking one tone, and in "reverse" oddball experiments, the roles were exchanged. In the normal oddball experiments, omission of any tone produced a response significantly different in amplitude from the standard response in the group of non-musicians, although the responses differed depending on the types of omission. The leading tone (B in the C major scale) was shown to elicit a large response when omitted and also when its presence was emphasized. The Reverse oddball experiments showed that repeated presentation of an incomplete scale lacking one tone temporarily reduced the influence of the complete scale but could not even temporarily replace it working as "standard." In addition, an auxiliary study was done to see possible influence of rhythmic variations. PMID:22712949

  2. Aerial radiation survey at a military range.

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, G. P.; Martino, L. E.; Wrobel, J.; Environmental Assessment; U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground

    2001-04-01

    Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) is currently listed on the Superfund National Priorities List because of past waste handling practices at 13 'study areas.' Concern has been expressed that anthropogenic radioisotopes may have been released at some of the study areas, with the potential of posing health risks to human or ecological receptors. This concern was addressed by thoroughly searching archival records, sampling and analyzing environmental media, and performing an aerial radiation survey. The aerial radiation survey techniques employed have been used over all U.S. Department of Energy and commercial reactor sites. Use of the Aerial Measurement System (AMS) allowed investigators to safely survey areas where surveys using hand-held instruments would be difficult to perform. In addition, the AMS delivered a full spectrum of the measured gamma radiation, thereby providing a means of determining which radioisotopes were present at the surface. As a quality check on the aerial measurements, four ground truth measurements were made at selected locations and compared with the aerial data for the same locations. The results of the survey revealed no evidence of surface radioactive contamination. The measured background radiation, including the cosmic contribution, ranged from 4 to 11 {mu}R/h.

  3. How pure are your vesicles?

    PubMed

    Webber, Jason; Clayton, Aled

    2013-01-01

    We propose a straightforward method to estimate the purity of vesicle preparations by comparing the ratio of nano-vesicle counts to protein concentration, using tools such as the increasingly available NanoSight platform and a colorimetric protein assay such as the BCA-assay. Such an approach is simple enough to apply to every vesicle preparation within a given laboratory, assisting researchers as a routine quality control step. Also, the approach may aid in comparing/standardising vesicle purity across diverse studies, and may be of particular importance in evaluating vesicular biomarkers. We herein propose some criteria to aid in the definition of pure vesicles. PMID:24009896

  4. Production of substantially pure fructose

    SciTech Connect

    Hatcher, H.J.; Gallian, J.J.; Leeper, S.A.

    1990-05-22

    This patent describes a process for the production of a substantially pure product containing greater than 60% fructose. It comprises: combining a sucrose-containing substrate with effective amounts of a levansucrase enzyme preparation to form levan and glucose; purifying the levan by at least one of the following purification methods: ultrafiltration, diafiltration, hyperfiltration, reverse osmosis, liquid--liquid partition, solvent extraction, chromatography, and precipitation; hydrolyzing the levan to form fructose substantially free of glucose and sucrose; and recovering the fructose by at least one of the following recovery methods: hyperfiltration, reverse osmosis, evaporation, drying, crystallization, and chromatography.

  5. Synthesis of Enantiomerically Pure Anthracyclinones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achmatowicz, Osman; Szechner, Barbara

    The anthracycline antibiotics are among the most important clinical drugs used in the treatment of human cancer. The search for new agents with improved therapeutic efficacy and reduced cardiotoxicity stimulated considerable efforts in the synthesis of new analogues. Since the biological activity of anthracyclines depends on their natural absolute configuration, various strategies for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure anthracyclinones (aglycones) have been developed. They comprise: resolution of racemic intermediate, incorporation of a chiral fragment derived from natural and non-natural chiral pools, asymmetric synthesis with the use of a chiral auxiliary or a chiral reagent, and enantioselective catalysis. Synthetic advances towards enantiopure anthracyclinones reported over the last 17 years are reviewed.

  6. Voice low tone to high tone ratio: a potential quantitative index for vowel [a:] and its nasalization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Guo-She; Wang, Ching-Ping; Yang, Cheryl C H; Kuo, Terry B J

    2006-07-01

    Hypernasality is associated with various diseases and interferes with speech intelligibility. A recently developed quantitative index called voice low tone to high tone ratio (VLHR) was used to estimate nasalization. The voice spectrum is divided into low-frequency power (LFP) and high-frequency power (HFP) by a specific cutoff frequency (600 Hz). VLHR is defined as the division of LFP into HFP and is expressed in decibels. Voice signals of the sustained vowel [a :] and its nasalization in eight subjects with hypernasality were collected for analysis of nasalance and VLHR. The correlation of VLHR with nasalance scores was significant (r = 0.76, p < 0.01), and so was the correlation between VLHR and perceptual hypernasality scores (r = 0.80, p < 0.01). Simultaneous recordings of nasal airflow temperature with a thermistor and voice signals in another 8 healthy subjects showed a significant correlation between temperature rate of nasal airflow and VLHR (r = 0.76, p < 0.01), as well. We conclude that VLHR may become a potential quantitative index of hypernasal speech and can be applied in either basic or clinical studies. PMID:16830950

  7. Negative tone imaging (NTI) with KrF: extension of 248nm IIP lithography to under sub-20nm logic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Tae-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Sun; Kim, Yura; Kim, Jahee; Heo, Sujeong; Youn, Bumjoon; Seo, Jaekyung; Yoon, Kwang-Sub; Choi, Byoung-il

    2013-03-01

    One of the most prospective alternative lithography ways prior to EUV implementation is the reverse imaging by means of a negative tone development (NTD) process with solvent-based developer. Contact and trench patterns can be printed in CAR (Chemically amplified resist) using a bright field mask through NTD development, and can give much better image contrast (NILS) than PTD process. Not only for contact or trench masks, but also pattering of IIP (Ion Implantation) layers whose mask opening ratio is less than 20% may get the benefit of NTD process, not only in the point of aerial imaging, but also in achievement of vertical resist profile, especially for post gate layers which have complex sub_topologies and nitride substrate. In this paper, we present applications for the NTD technique to IIP (Ion Implantation) layer lithography patterning, via KrF exposure, comparing the performance to that of the PTD process. Especially, to extend 248nm IIP litho to sub-20nm logic device, optimization of negative tone imaging (NTI) with KrF exposure is the main focus in this paper. With the special resin system designed for KrF NTD process, even sub 100nm half-pitch trench pattern can be defined with enough process margin and vertical resist profiles can be also obtained on the nitride substrate with KrF exposure.

  8. The Development and Flight Testing of an Aerially Deployed Unmanned Aerial System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Andrew

    An investigation into the feasibility of aerial deployed unmanned aerial vehicles was completed. The investigation included the development and flight testing of multiple unmanned aerial systems to investigate the different components of potential aerial deployment missions. The project consisted of two main objectives; the first objective dealt with the development of an airframe capable of surviving aerial deployment from a rocket and then self assembling from its stowed configuration into its flight configuration. The second objective focused on the development of an autopilot capable of performing basic guidance, navigation, and control following aerial deployment. To accomplish these two objectives multiple airframes were developed to verify their completion experimentally. The first portion of the project, investigating the feasibility of surviving an aerial deployment, was completed using a fixed wing glider that following a successful deployment had 52 seconds of controlled flight. Before developing the autopilot in the second phase of the project, the glider was significantly upgraded to fix faults discovered in the glider flight testing and to enhance the system capabilities. Unfortunately to conform to outdoor flight restrictions imposed by the university and the Federal Aviation Administration it was required to switch airframes before flight testing of the new fixed wing platform could begin. As a result, an autopilot was developed for a quadrotor and verified experimentally completely indoors to remain within the limits of governing policies.

  9. Detection of modulated tones in modulated noise by non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Bohlen, Peter; Dylla, Margit; Timms, Courtney; Ramachandran, Ramnarayan

    2014-10-01

    In natural environments, many sounds are amplitude-modulated. Amplitude modulation is thought to be a signal that aids auditory object formation. A previous study of the detection of signals in noise found that when tones or noise were amplitude-modulated, the noise was a less effective masker, and detection thresholds for tones in noise were lowered. These results suggest that the detection of modulated signals in modulated noise would be enhanced. This paper describes the results of experiments investigating how detection is modified when both signal and noise were amplitude-modulated. Two monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained to detect amplitude-modulated tones in continuous, amplitude-modulated broadband noise. When the phase difference of otherwise similarly amplitude-modulated tones and noise were varied, detection thresholds were highest when the modulations were in phase and lowest when the modulations were anti-phase. When the depth of the modulation of tones or noise was varied, detection thresholds decreased if the modulations were anti-phase. When the modulations were in phase, increasing the depth of tone modulation caused an increase in tone detection thresholds, but increasing depth of noise modulations did not affect tone detection thresholds. Changing the modulation frequency of tone or noise caused changes in threshold that saturated at modulation frequencies higher than 20 Hz; thresholds decreased when the tone and noise modulations were in phase and decreased when they were anti-phase. The relationship between reaction times and tone level were not modified by manipulations to the nature of temporal variations in the signal or noise. The changes in behavioral threshold were consistent with a model where the brain subtracted noise from signal. These results suggest that the parameters of the modulation of signals and maskers heavily influence detection in very predictable ways. These results are consistent with some results in humans and avians

  10. Contribution of Bimodal Hearing to Lexical Tone Normalization in Mandarin-speaking Cochlear Implant Users

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xin; Chang, Yi-ping; Lin, Chun-yi; Chang, Ronald Y.

    2014-01-01

    Native Mandarin normal-hearing (NH) listeners can easily perceive lexical tones even under conditions of great voice pitch variations across speakers by using the pitch contrast between context and target stimuli. It is however unclear whether cochlear implant (CI) users with limited access to pitch cues can make similar use of context pitch cues for tone normalization. In this study, native Mandarin NH listeners and pre-lingually deafened unilaterally implanted CI users were asked to recognize a series of Mandarin tones varying from Tone 1 (high-flat) to Tone 2 (mid-rising) with or without a preceding sentence context. Most of the CI subjects used a hearing aid (HA) in the non-implanted ear (i.e., bimodal users) and were tested both with CI alone and CI+HA. In the test without context, typical S-shaped tone recognition functions were observed for most CI subjects and the function slopes and perceptual boundaries were similar with either CI alone or CI+HA. Compared to NH subjects, CI subjects were less sensitive to the pitch changes in target tones. In the test with context, NH subjects had more (resp. fewer) Tone-2 responses in a context with high (resp. low) fundamental frequencies, known as the contrastive context effect. For CI subjects, a similar contrastive context effect was found statistically significant for tone recognition with CI+HA but not with CI alone. The results suggest that the pitch cues from CIs may not be sufficient to consistently support the pitch contrast processing for tone normalization. The additional pitch cues from aided residual acoustic hearing can however provide CI users with a similar tone normalization capability as NH listeners. PMID:24576834

  11. Melodic Pitch Perception and Lexical Tone Perception in Mandarin-Speaking Cochlear Implant Users

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Duoduo; Deng, Rui; Jiang, Ye; Galvin, John J.; Fu, Qian-Jie; Chen, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relationship between lexical tone perception and melodic pitch perception in Mandarin-speaking cochlear implant (CI) users, and to investigate the influence of previous acoustic hearing on CI users’ speech and music perception. Design Lexical tone perception and melodic contour identification (MCI) were measured in 21 prelingual and 11 postlingual young (age: 6–26 years old) Mandarin-speaking CI users. Lexical tone recognition was measured for four tonal patterns: Tone 1 (flat F0), Tone 2 (rising F0), Tone 3 (falling-rising F0), and Tone 4 (falling F0). MCI was measured using 9 five-note melodic patterns that contained changes in pitch contour, as well as different semitone spacing between notes. Results Lexical tone recognition was generally good (overall mean = 81% correct), and there was no significant difference between subject groups. MCI performance was generally poor (mean = 23% correct). MCI performance was significantly better for postlingual (mean = 32% correct) than for prelingual CI participants (18% correct). After correcting for outliers, there was no significant correlation between lexical tone recognition and MCI performance for prelingual or post-lingual CI participants. Age at deafness was significantly correlated with MCI performance only for postlingual participants. CI experience was significantly correlated with MCI performance for both prelingual and postlingual participants. Duration of deafness was significantly correlated with tone recognition only for prelingual participants. Conclusions Despite the prevalence of pitch cues in Mandarin, the present CI participants had great difficulty perceiving melodic pitch. The availability of amplitude and duration cues in lexical tones most likely compensated for the poor pitch perception observed with these CI listeners. Previous acoustic hearing experience seemed to benefit postlingual CI users’ melodic pitch perception. Longer CI experience was associated with

  12. Tone signal generator for producing multioperator tone signals using an operator circuit including a waveform generator, a selector and an enveloper

    DOEpatents

    Dong, Q.; Jenkins, M.V.; Bernadas, S.R.

    1997-09-09

    A frequency modulation (FM) tone signal generator for generating a FM tone signal is disclosed. The tone signal generator includes a waveform generator having a plurality of wave tables, a selector and an enveloper. The waveform generator furnishes a waveform signal in response to a phase angle address signal. Each wave table stores a different waveform. The selector selects one of the wave tables in response to a plurality of selection signals such that the selected wave table largely provides the waveform signal upon being addressed largely by the phase angle address signal. Selection of the selected wave table varies with each selection signal. The enveloper impresses an envelope signal on the waveform signal. The envelope signal is used as a carrier or modulator for generating the FM tone signal. 17 figs.

  13. Tone signal generator for producing multioperator tone signals using an operator circuit including a waveform generator, a selector and an enveloper

    DOEpatents

    Dong, Qiujie; Jenkins, Michael V.; Bernadas, Salvador R.

    1997-01-01

    A frequency modulation (FM) tone signal generator for generating a FM tone signal is disclosed. The tone signal generator includes a waveform generator having a plurality of wave tables, a selector and an enveloper. The waveform generator furnishes a waveform signal in response to a phase angle address signal. Each wave table stores a different waveform. The selector selects one of the wave tables in response to a plurality of selection signals such that the selected wave table largely provides the waveform signal upon being addressed largely by the phase angle address signal. Selection of the selected wave table varies with each selection signal. The enveloper impresses an envelope signal on the waveform signal. The envelope signal is used as a carrier or modulator for generating the FM tone signal.

  14. Ground cover estimated from aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerbermann, A. H.; Cuellar, J. A.; Wiegand, C. L.

    1976-01-01

    Estimates of per cent ground cover made by ground observers were compared with independent estimates made on the basis of low-altitude (640-1219 m) aerial photographs of the same fields. Standard statistical simple correlation and linear regression analyses revealed a high correlation between the two estimation methods. In crops such as grain, sorghum, corn, and forage sorghum, in which the broadest part of the leaf canopy is near the top of the plant, there was a tendency to overestimate the per cent ground cover from aerial photographs.

  15. Noise from aerial bursts of fireworks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maglieri, D. J.; Henderson, H. R.

    1973-01-01

    A study was made recording the pressure time histories of the aerial bursts of mortars of various sizes launched during an actual fireworks display. The peak overpressure and duration of blast noise as well as the energy spectral density are compared with the characteristics of a blasting cap and of an F-104 aircraft at a Mach number of 1.4 and an altitude of 42,000 ft. Noise levels of the fireworks aerial bursts peaked 15 decibels below levels deemed damaging to hearing.

  16. Advanced Image Processing of Aerial Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodell, Glenn; Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-ur; Hines, Glenn

    2006-01-01

    Aerial imagery of the Earth is an invaluable tool for the assessment of ground features, especially during times of disaster. Researchers at the NASA Langley Research Center have developed techniques which have proven to be useful for such imagery. Aerial imagery from various sources, including Langley's Boeing 757 Aries aircraft, has been studied extensively. This paper discusses these studies and demonstrates that better-than-observer imagery can be obtained even when visibility is severely compromised. A real-time, multi-spectral experimental system will be described and numerous examples will be shown.

  17. MicroProbe Small Unmanned Aerial System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland, Geoffrey; Miles, Ted

    2012-01-01

    The MicroProbe unmanned aerial system (UAS) concept incorporates twin electric motors mounted on the vehicle wing, thus enabling an aerodynamically and environmentally clean nose area for atmospheric sensors. A payload bay is also incorporated in the fuselage to accommodate remote sensing instruments. A key feature of this concept is lightweight construction combined with low flying speeds to minimize kinetic energy and associated hazards, as well as maximizing spatial resolution. This type of aerial platform is needed for Earth science research and environmental monitoring. There were no vehicles of this type known to exist previously.

  18. Metrically preserving the USGS aerial film archive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moe, Donald; Longhenry, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Since 1972, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, has provided fi lm-based products to the public. EROS is home to an archive of 12 million frames of analog photography ranging from 1937 to the present. The archive contains collections from both aerial and satellite platforms including programs such as the National High Altitude Program (NHAP), National Aerial Photography Program (NAPP), U.S. Antarctic Resource Center (USARC), Declass 1(CORONA, ARGON, and LANYARD), Declass 2 (KH-7 and KH-9), and Landsat (1972 – 1992, Landsat 1–5).

  19. Laser Doppler velocimeter aerial spray measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalay, A. D.; Eberle, W. R.; Howle, R. E.; Shrider, K. R.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental research program for measuring the location, spatial extent, and relative concentration of airborne spray clouds generated by agricultural aircraft is described. The measurements were conducted with a ground-based laser Doppler velocimeter. The remote sensing instrumentation, experimental tests, and the results of the flight tests are discussed. The cross section of the aerial spray cloud and the observed location, extent, and relative concentration of the airborne particulates are presented. It is feasible to use a mobile laser Doppler velocimeter to track and monitor the transport and dispersion of aerial spray generated by an agricultural aircraft.

  20. Tone calibration technique: A digital signaling scheme for mobile applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davarian, F.

    1986-01-01

    Residual carrier modulation is conventionally used in a communication link to assist the receiver with signal demodulation and detection. Although suppressed carrier modulation has a slight power advantage over the residual carrier approach in systems enjoying a high level of stability, it lacks sufficient robustness to be used in channels severely contaminated by noise, interference and propagation effects. In mobile links, in particular, the vehicle motion and multipath waveform propagation affect the received carrier in an adverse fashion. A residual carrier scheme that uses a pilot carrier to calibrate a mobile channel against multipath fading anomalies is described. The benefits of this scheme, known as tone calibration technique, are described. A brief study of the system performance in the presence of implementation anomalies is also given.

  1. Tone generation by rotor-downstream strut interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, R. P.; Balombin, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    A JT15D fan stage was acoustically tested in the NASA Lewis anechoic chamber as part of the joint Lewis-Langley Research Center investigation of flight simulation techniques and flight effects using the JT15D engine as a common test vehicle. Suspected rotor-downstream support strut interaction was confirmed through the use of simulated support struts which were tested at three axial rotor-strut spacings. Tests were also performed with the struts removed. Inlet boundary layer suction in conjuction with an inflow control device was also explored. The removal of the boundary layer reduced the fan fundamental tone levels suggesting that the mounting and mating of such a device to the nacelle requires careful attention. With the same inflow control device installed good acoustic agreement was shown between the engine on an outdoor test stand and the fan in the anechoic chamber.

  2. Tone generation by rotor-downstream strut interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, R. P.; Balombin, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    A JT15D fan stage was acoustically tested in the NASA Lewis anechoic chamber as part of the joint Lewis-Langley Research Center investigation of flight simulation techniques and flight effects using the JT15D engine as a common test vehicle. Suspected rotor-downstream support strut interaction was confirmed through the use of simulated support struts which were tested at three axial rotor-strut spacings. Tests were also performed with the struts removed. Inlet boundary layer suction in conjunction with an inflow control device was also explored. The removal of the boundary layer reduced the fan fundamental tone levels suggesting that the mounting and mating of such a device to the nacelle requires careful attention. With the same inflow control device installed good acoustic agreement was shown between the engine on an outdoor test stand and the fan in the anechoic chamber.

  3. Multi-tone response of Nonlinear rf-SQUID metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Daimeng; Trepanier, Melissa; Mukhanov, Oleg; Antonsen, Thomas; Ott, Edward; Anlage, Steven

    We study the multi-tone response over a broad microwave frequency range of a nonlinear superconducting meta-atom and a metamaterial composed of Radio Frequency Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (rf-SQUIDs). Nonlinearity in the SQUID metamaterial gives rise to large-range tunable resonance via dc/rf magnetic field and temperature, it also results in signal mixing through intermodulation distortion (IMD). Our metamaterial responds to multi-frequency signals and generates strong higher order intermodulation signals in a certain range of applied rf power. However, our meta-atom and metamaterial show a reduced third-order IMD generation around the resonance, which is unusual for typical nonlinear systems. The numerical simulation predicts the same IMD gap feature as in experiment. A comprehensive analytical model is applied to explain the phenomena, and methods to enhance, or reduce, intermodulation levels are explored. This work is supported by the NSF-GOALI and OISE programs through Grant # ECCS-1158644, and CNAM.

  4. Adaptive optimization for pilot-tone aided phase noise compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Sheng; Xu, Mengran; Xia, Wenjuan; Ke, Chanjian; Xia, Zijie; Liu, Deming

    2015-11-01

    Pilot-tone (PT) aided phase noise compensation algorithm is very simple and effective, especially for flexible optical networks, because the phase noise coming from both Tx/Rx lasers and nonlinear cross phase modulation (XPM) during transmission can be adaptively compensated without high computational cost nonlinear operations, or the information of the neighboring channels and the optical link configuration. But to achieve the best performance the two key parameters, i.e. the pilot to signal power ratio and pilot bandpass filter bandwidth need to be optimized. In this paper it is demonstrated that constellation information can be used to adjust the two parameters adaptively to achieve the minimum BER in both homogenous and hybrid single carrier transmission systems with different LPN, XPM and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise distortions.

  5. Light-toned Layered Outcrops in Valles Marineris Walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Valles Marineris a system of troughs, chasms, and pit chains that stretches more than 4,000 km (2,500 miles) across the martian western hemisphere. Outcrops of layered material found in mounds and mesas within the chasms of the Valles Marineris were known from the pictures taken by Mariner 9 in 1972 and the Viking orbiters of 1976-1980. One example of the those known previously is the mesa labeled 'Candor Mensa' in the context image (above); another example is the mound in the center of Ganges Chasma. For several decades, it has been widely speculated among Mars scientists that the light- and dark-toned layered materials in the Valles Marineris might have formed in lakes that had once filled the chasms during the most recent epoch of martian history; others thought they might result from volcanic ash deposited in the chasms. Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images have confirmed the presence of light- and dark-toned layered sedimentary rock outcrops in the Valles Marineris, but they have also revealed many more than were previously known and they have shown several good examples that these materials are coming out of the walls of the Valles Marineris chasms. The fact that these materials come out of the chasm walls means that the layers do not represent lakes (or volcanic debris) that formed in the Valles Marineris. Instead, they represent materials deposited and buried long before there ever was a Valles Marineris. They are seen now because of the faulting and erosion that opened up and widened the Valles Marineris troughs. The context image is a mosaic of Viking 1 orbiter images taken in 1976 showing a portion of the wall that separates western Ophir Chasma from western Candor Chasma in the Valles Marineris. This area is located around 5oS, 74oW. The white box labeled 'M17-00467' shows the location of a subframe of MOC image M17-00467 that was acquired in July 2000 to allow scientists to

  6. Light-toned Rocks First, 'Columbia Hills' Later

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover's panoramic camera on sol 91 (April 5, 2004) shows the rover's ultimate destination - the eastern-lying 'Columbia Hills.' The rover will head toward the hills in coming sols, while stopping to investigate rocks and soils along the way. Of particular interest is the light-toned coating seen here on the low-lying rocks. Scientists intend to find out if this coating is the same as that observed on the well-studied rock dubbed 'Mazatzal.' They believe Mazatzal's coating may have formed by cementation of airborne dust, perhaps in a slightly wetter, past environment. The scientists also plan to determine if the soil here is the same as the somewhat cohesive soil seen near the rover's lander. Like the coatings, this soil may have formed in past moist environments. This image was taken with the panoramic camera's infrared (750 nanometer) filter.

  7. SBS mitigation with multi-tone amplification: a theoretical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeringue, Clint; Dajani, Iyad; Bronder, T. Justin; Shay, Thomas; Robin, Craig

    2008-10-01

    Two approaches to two- and three-tone seeding of high power ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers are investigated using a symbolic and numerical code that solves a two point boundary problem consisting of a 12×12 system of nonlinear differential equations. Optimization of amplifier action is considered in relation to the two most dominant nonlinear effects: stimulated Brillouin scattering and four-wave mixing. One approach uses a large wavelength separation among the input seed beams, while in the other approach the seeds are separated by precisely twice the Brillouin shift. It is found that for both techniques significant increase in amplifier output can be obtained, although for the latter case a substantial amount of power is generated in the four-wave mixing sidebands.

  8. An Isoperimetric Inequality for Fundamental Tones of Free Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chasman, L. M.

    2011-04-01

    We establish an isoperimetric inequality for the fundamental tone (first nonzero eigenvalue) of the free plate of a given area, proving the ball is maximal. Given τ > 0, the free plate eigenvalues ω and eigenfunctions u are determined by the equation ΔΔ u - τΔ u = ωu together with certain natural boundary conditions. The boundary conditions are complicated but arise naturally from the plate Rayleigh quotient, which contains a Hessian squared term | D 2 u|2. We adapt Weinberger's method from the corresponding free membrane problem, taking the fundamental modes of the unit ball as trial functions. These solutions are a linear combination of Bessel and modified Bessel functions.

  9. Thalamocortical mechanisms for integrating musical tone and rhythm.

    PubMed

    Musacchia, Gabriella; Large, Edward W; Schroeder, Charles E

    2014-02-01

    Studies over several decades have identified many of the neuronal substrates of music perception by pursuing pitch and rhythm perception separately. Here, we address the question of how these mechanisms interact, starting with the observation that the peripheral pathways of the so-called "Core" and "Matrix" thalamocortical system provide the anatomical bases for tone and rhythm channels. We then examine the hypothesis that these specialized inputs integrate acoustic content within rhythm context in auditory cortex using classical types of "driving" and "modulatory" mechanisms. This hypothesis provides a framework for deriving testable predictions about the early stages of music processing. Furthermore, because thalamocortical circuits are shared by speech and music processing, such a model provides concrete implications for how music experience contributes to the development of robust speech encoding mechanisms. PMID:24103509

  10. Tone-Mapped Mean-Shift Based Environment Map Sampling.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wei; Yang, Ying; Wan, Liang; Yu, Changguo

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we present a novel approach for environment map sampling, which is an effective and pragmatic technique to reduce the computational cost of realistic rendering and get plausible rendering images. The proposed approach exploits the advantage of adaptive mean-shift image clustering with aid of tone-mapping, yielding oversegmented strata that have uniform intensities and capture shapes of light regions. The resulted strata, however, have unbalanced importance metric values for rendering, and the strata number is not user-controlled. To handle these issues, we develop an adaptive split-and-merge scheme that refines the strata and obtains a better balanced strata distribution. Compared to the state-of-the-art methods, our approach achieves comparable and even better rendering quality in terms of SSIM, RMSE and HDRVDP2 image quality metrics. Experimental results further show that our approach is more robust to the variation of viewpoint, environment rotation, and sample number. PMID:26584494

  11. AERIAL OF VISITORS INFORMATION CENTER [VIC] & ROCKET GARDEN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    AERIAL OF VISITORS INFORMATION CENTER [VIC] & ROCKET GARDEN KSC-373C-0556.20 116-KSC-373C-556.20, P-01622-B, ARCHIVE-04455 Aerial view of Easter crowds at Visitors Information Center, Kennedy Space Center, Florida.

  12. The Study of Tone and Related Phenomena in an Amazonian Tone Language: Gavião of Rondônia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Denny; Meyer, Julien

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the methods used to study the tone and some related phenomena of the language of the Gavião of Rondônia, Brazil, which is part of the Mondé branch of the Tupi family. Whistling of words by indigenous informants was discovered to be a very effective method for obtaining phonetic accuracy in tone and length. Methods were devised…

  13. Pure optical dynamical color encryption.

    PubMed

    Mosso, Fabian; Tebaldi, Myrian; Barrera, John Fredy; Bolognini, Néstor; Torroba, Roberto

    2011-07-18

    We introduce a way to encrypt-decrypt a color dynamical phenomenon using a pure optical alternative. We split the three basic chromatic channels composing the input, and then each channel is processed through a 4f encoding method and a theta modulation applied to the each encrypted frame in every channel. All frames for a single channel are multiplexed. The same phase mask is used to encode all the information. Unlike the usual procedure we do not multiplex the three chromatic channels into a single encoding media, because we want to decrypt the information in real time. Then, we send to the decoding station the phase mask and the three packages each one containing the multiplexing of a single channel. The end user synchronizes and decodes the information contained in the separate channels. Finally, the decoding information is conveyed together to bring the decoded dynamical color phenomenon in real-time. We present material that supports our concepts. PMID:21934738

  14. Pure optical dynamical color encryption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosso, Fabian; Tebaldi, Myrian; Fredy Barrera, John; Bolognini, Néstor; Torroba, Roberto

    2011-07-01

    We introduce a way to encrypt-decrypt a color dynamical phenomenon using a pure optical alternative. We split the three basic chromatic channels composing the input, and then each channel is processed through a 4f encoding method and a theta modulation applied to the each encrypted frame in every channel. All frames for a single channel are multiplexed. The same phase mask is used to encode all the information. Unlike the usual procedure we do not multiplex the three chromatic channels into a single encoding media, because we want to decrypt the information in real time. Then, we send to the decoding station the phase mask and the three packages each one containing the multiplexing of a single channel. The end user synchronizes and decodes the information contained in the separate channels. Finally, the decoding information is conveyed together to bring the decoded dynamical color phenomenon in real-time. We present material that supports our concepts.

  15. A Model of Mandarin Tone Categories--A Study of Perception and Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Bei

    2010-01-01

    The current study lays the groundwork for a model of Mandarin tones based on both native speakers' and non-native speakers' perception and production. It demonstrates that there is variability in non-native speakers' tone productions and that there are differences in the perceptual boundaries in native speakers and non-native speakers. There…

  16. Perceived magnitude of two-tone-noise complexes - Loudness, annoyance, and noisiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hellman, R. P.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation of the perceived effects of tonal components was undertaken to establish a broader data base for quantification and prediction of annoyance of sounds containing added tones. The current study was concerned with two-tone-noise complexes. The stimuli were tone pairs added to a low-pass noise that was attenuated by 5 dB/oct above 600 Hz. Overall perceived magnitude is shown to be a function of the frequency separation (Delta F) between the tonal components, tone-to-noise ratio, and the overall SPL of the noise-tone complex. Results obtained with two tones are compared to those obtained in an earlier study by Hellman (1984) with single tones. The observed effects appear relevant to the rules governing loudness summation across frequency, to measurements of psychoacoustic consonance and roughness, and to the issue of mutual masking among the component stimuli. The implications of the findings in relation to proposed tone-correction procedures are also discussed.

  17. The Effect of Intertalker Variations on Acoustic-Perceptual Mapping in Cantonese and Mandarin Tone Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Gang; Zhang, Caicai; Zheng, Hong-Ying; Minett, James W.; Wang, William S.-Y.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates the impact of intertalker variations on the process of mapping acoustic variations on tone categories in two different tone languages. Method: Pitch stimuli manipulated from four voice ranges were presented in isolation through a blocked-talker design. Listeners were instructed to identify the stimuli that they…

  18. Newborn Pain Cries and Vagal Tone: Parallel Changes in Response to Circumcision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Fran Lang; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The relation between cry acoustics and vagal tone in normal, healthy newborns undergoing an acutely stressful event was examined. Vagal tone was significantly reduced during the stressful event and was paralleled by significant increases in the pitch of the infants' cries. (PCB)

  19. Production of Mandarin tone contrasts by musicians and non-musicians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottfried, Terry L.; Ouyang, Grace Yin-Hwei

    2005-09-01

    Previous research has shown that native speakers of American English who are musicians perform better than non-musicians when identifying and producing the four phonemic tones of Mandarin. The present study corroborates these findings and analyzes acoustic properties of non-natives' tonal imitations. Listeners imitated Mandarin two-syllable word phrases that varied the vowel (/li/, /la/, /lu/) and tone (high-level, mid-rising, low-dipping, high-falling) of the first syllable. Four native Mandarin speakers rated the musicians, on average, to be better in their imitation of Mandarin tone 4 (high-falling) than non-musicians. There were no significant differences between groups in how they were rated on the other three tones. Acoustical analyses revealed that non-natives failed to match native speakers both in differences in initial F0 and in F0 contour (change from initial to final F0) across tones. Imitations by musicians did not show significant acoustic differences from non-musicians, except for tone 4, where musicians' imitations showed a significant decrease in F0 from initial to final portions of the syllable; the decrease in F0 for non-musicians was smaller and not significant. Creaky voice (often present in natives' tone 3 and 4) was observed in many non-native imitations, but was not restricted to tones 3 and 4.

  20. On the origin of falling-tone chorus elements in Earth's inner magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuillard, H.; Agapitov, O.; Artemyev, A.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Le Contel, O.; Cully, C. M.; Angelopoulos, V.; Zaliznyak, Y.; Rolland, G.

    2014-12-01

    Generation of extremely/very low frequency (ELF/VLF) chorus waves in Earth's inner magnetosphere has received increased attention recently because of their significance for radiation belt dynamics. Though past theoretical and numerical models have demonstrated how rising-tone chorus elements are produced, falling-tone chorus element generation has yet to be explained. Our new model proposes that weak-amplitude falling-tone chorus elements can be generated by magnetospheric reflection of rising-tone elements. Using ray tracing in a realistic plasma model of the inner magnetosphere, we demonstrate that rising-tone elements originating at the magnetic equator propagate to higher latitudes. Upon reflection there, they propagate to lower L-shells and turn into oblique falling tones of reduced power, frequency, and bandwidth relative to their progenitor rising tones. Our results are in good agreement with comprehensive statistical studies of such waves, notably using magnetic field measurements from THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms) spacecraft. Thus, we conclude that the proposed mechanism can be responsible for the generation of weak-amplitude falling-tone chorus emissions.

  1. The Utility of Chinese Tone Processing Skill in Detecting Children with English Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Alida; Wang, Min

    2012-01-01

    The utility of Chinese tone processing skill in detecting children with English reading difficulties was examined through differences in a Chinese tone experimental task between a group of native English-speaking children with reading disabilities (RD) and a comparison group of children with normal reading development (NRD). General auditory…

  2. Thresholds for a tone masked by constant, remote-frequency maskers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Lynne A.; Leibold, Lori J.

    2005-09-01

    In an experiment examining informational masking in infants, Leibold (2004) reported that infants and adults exhibited masking of a tone by two tones of constant, remote frequencies. Neither informational nor energetic masking would be expected for adults under these conditions. In the present experiment, adults' detection of a tone masked by two constant frequency tones or two narrow bands of noise were compared. Fifteen young adults participated. The target tone was 1000-Hz, 300-ms duration with 16-ms rise/fall. Unmasked and two masked thresholds were estimated. The maskers were either tones of 581 and 2920 Hz or 50-Hz-wide noise bands centered at 556 and 2895 Hz. The duration of the maskers was 300 ms with 16-ms rise/fall. A one-interval adaptive procedure was used to estimate thresholds. The maskers repeated at 600-ms intervals. The target tone was presented simultaneously with the maskers on signal trials. Listeners received feedback whenever they correctly detected the target. About 75% of listeners demonstrated masking in both conditions, but the threshold in the two-noise condition was generally higher than in the two-tone condition. Thus, introducing a timbre difference between the target and masker did not reduce the amount of masking.

  3. Skin-Tone Preferences and Self-Representation in Hispanic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Erin A.; Wiese, Deborah L.

    2012-01-01

    Skin-tone preferences and colourism within Hispanic children have been largely unexamined in the psychological literature. The objectives of the current study were to investigate Hispanic children's skin-tone preferences and the effect of assessor race and ethnicity on those preferences. To carry out the study, Clark and Clark's colouring task was…

  4. Production and Perception of Mandarin Tone in Adults with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeng, Jing-Yi; Weismer, Gary; Kent, Ray D.

    2006-01-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to document tone production and intelligibility deficits in Mandarin-speaking persons with cerebral palsy (CP). Spastic, athetoid, and mixed types of CP were studied, along with a control group, to investigate the possibility of tone production and intelligibility deficits that were differentially…

  5. When Does Native Language Input Affect Phonetic Perception? The Precocious Case of Lexical Tone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, H. Henny; Chen, Ke Heng; Werker, Janet F.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the perception of vowels and consonants changes from language-universal to language-specific between 6 and 12 months of age. This report suggests that language-specific perception emerges even earlier for lexical tones. Experiment 1 tested English-learners' perception of Cantonese tones, replicating declines in…

  6. Activating without Inhibiting: Left-Edge Boundary Tones and Syntactic Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roll, Mikael; Horne, Merle; Lindgren, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Right-edge boundary tones have earlier been found to restrict syntactic processing by closing a clause for further integration of incoming words. The role of left-edge intonation, however, has received little attention to date. We show that Swedish left-edge boundary tones selectively facilitate the on-line processing of main clauses, the…

  7. Musically Tone-Deaf Individuals Have Difficulty Discriminating Intonation Contours Extracted from Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Aniruddh D.; Foxton, Jessica M.; Griffiths, Timothy D.

    2005-01-01

    Musically tone-deaf individuals have psychophysical deficits in detecting pitch changes, yet their discrimination of intonation contours in speech appears to be normal. One hypothesis for this dissociation is that intonation contours use coarse pitch contrasts which exceed the pitch-change detection thresholds of tone-deaf individuals (Peretz &…

  8. Illusory Continuity without Sufficient Sound Energy to Fill a Temporal Gap: Examples of Crossing Glide Tones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuroda, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Yoshitaka; Eguchi, Shuntarou

    2012-01-01

    The gap transfer illusion is an auditory illusion where a temporal gap inserted in a longer glide tone is perceived as if it were in a crossing shorter glide tone. Psychophysical and phenomenological experiments were conducted to examine the effects of sound-pressure-level (SPL) differences between crossing glides on the occurrence of the gap…

  9. Dopamine receptors in the substantia nigra are involved in the regulation of muscle tone.

    PubMed Central

    Double, K L; Crocker, A D

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to localize the dopamine receptors involved in the regulation of muscle tone. A strategy was used whereby the effects on muscle tone of injecting the irreversible dopamine receptor antagonist N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline (EEDQ) in discrete brain regions were assessed. Increases in muscle tone were measured as changes in electromyographic activity of the gastrocnemius and tibialis muscles of conscious, unrestrained rats. No increases in muscle tone were found after injections of EEDQ into the anterior and posterior striatum, which produced marked reductions in dopamine receptor concentration. The effects of muscle tone of injecting EEDQ into the substantia nigra pars reticulata were also assessed. Large increases in muscle tone were observed associated with inactivation of either D1 or D2 dopamine receptors in the substantia nigra. The increased muscle tone was not reduced by subcutaneous administration of apomorphine, despite the presence of a normal population of striatal dopamine receptors. These findings provide evidence that dopamine receptors in the substantia nigra play an important role in the regulation of muscle tone. Further, they challenge the hypothesis that the muscle rigidity of Parkinson disease results primarily from loss of striatal dopamine receptor stimulation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:7878037

  10. Identification of Acoustically Modified Mandarin Tones by Non-Native Listeners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chao-Yang; Tao, Liang; Bond, Z. S.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated identification of fragmented Mandarin tones by non-native listeners. Monosyllabic Mandarin words were digitally processed to generate intact, silent-center, center-only, and onset-only syllables. The syllables were recorded with two carrier phrases such that the offset of the carrier tone and the onset of the target tone…

  11. Neural Control of Rising and Falling Tones in Mandarin Speakers Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Peter; Jiang, Jing; Peng, Danling; Lu, Chunming

    2012-01-01

    Neural control of rising and falling tones in Mandarin people who stutter (PWS) was examined by comparing with that which occurs in fluent speakers [Howell, Jiang, Peng, and Lu (2012). Neural control of fundamental frequency rise and fall in Mandarin tones. "Brain and Language, 121"(1), 35-46]. Nine PWS and nine controls were scanned. Functional…

  12. Factors Affecting the Production of Vietnamese Tones: A Study of American Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Hanh thi; Macken, Marlys A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates factors that affect the accuracy of tone production by American students of Vietnamese as a second language (L2). Nine hypotheses are examined, each of which isolates a factor expected to affect production accuracy: (a) task type, (b) the position of a tone in a clause, (c) discourse distance between a model provided by a…

  13. Effects of Age, Sex, and Body Position on Orofacial Muscle Tone in Healthy Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietsch, Angela M.; Clark, Heather M.; Steiner, Jessica N.; Solomon, Nancy Pearl

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Quantification of tissue stiffness may facilitate identification of abnormalities in orofacial muscle tone and thus contribute to differential diagnosis of dysarthria. Tissue stiffness is affected by muscle tone as well as age-related changes in muscle and connective tissue. Method: The Myoton-3 measured tissue stiffness in 40 healthy…

  14. The Phonetics of Tone in Two Dialects of Dane-Zaa (Athabaskan)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Julia Colleen

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is an investigation of acoustic properties of lexical tone in two dialects of Dane-zaa (Athabaskan). The noteworthy mirror-image tone systems of the H-marked Doig and L-marked Halfway dialects provide a unique opportunity to explore intrinsic differences in how pitch manifests in specific environments. The dissertation has three…

  15. Tone and Syntax in Rutooro, a Toneless Bantu Language of Western Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaji, Shigeki

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the interaction of tone and syntax in Rutooro, a Bantu language of Western Uganda. Rutooro has lost its lexical tone but retains a phrasally defined high pitch that appears on the penultimate syllable--the default position in Bantu. This high pitch can work grammatically and in fact distinguishes between the noun phrase vs.…

  16. 76 FR 69284 - Pure Magnesium From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... COMMISSION Pure Magnesium From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... order on pure magnesium from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... USITC Publication 4274 (October 2011), entitled Pure Magnesium from China: Investigation No....

  17. 7 CFR 1755.507 - Aerial cable services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 1755.507 Aerial cable services. (a) Where more than six pairs are needed initially, and where an aerial service is necessary, the service shall consist of 22 AWG filled aerial cable of a pair size adequate for... from the building, the wall bracket shall be reinforced against pullout by an arrangement equivalent...

  18. 7 CFR 1755.507 - Aerial cable services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 1755.507 Aerial cable services. (a) Where more than six pairs are needed initially, and where an aerial service is necessary, the service shall consist of 22 AWG filled aerial cable of a pair size adequate for... from the building, the wall bracket shall be reinforced against pullout by an arrangement equivalent...

  19. 7 CFR 1755.507 - Aerial cable services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 1755.507 Aerial cable services. (a) Where more than six pairs are needed initially, and where an aerial service is necessary, the service shall consist of 22 AWG filled aerial cable of a pair size adequate for... from the building, the wall bracket shall be reinforced against pullout by an arrangement equivalent...

  20. 47 CFR 32.6421 - Aerial cable expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aerial cable expense. 32.6421 Section 32.6421... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6421 Aerial cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with aerial cable. (b) Subsidiary record...

  1. 47 CFR 32.6421 - Aerial cable expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aerial cable expense. 32.6421 Section 32.6421... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6421 Aerial cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with aerial cable. (b) Subsidiary record...

  2. 47 CFR 32.6421 - Aerial cable expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aerial cable expense. 32.6421 Section 32.6421... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6421 Aerial cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with aerial cable. (b) Subsidiary record...

  3. 47 CFR 32.6421 - Aerial cable expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aerial cable expense. 32.6421 Section 32.6421... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6421 Aerial cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with aerial cable. (b) Subsidiary record...

  4. Geography via Aerial Field Trips: Do It This Way, 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richason, Benjamin F., Jr.; Guell, Carl E.

    To provide guidance for geography teachers, this booklet presents information on how to plan and execute aerial field trips. The aerial field trip can be employed as an effective visual aid technique in the teaching of geography, especially for presenting earth generalizations and interrelationships. The benefits of an aerial field trip are…

  5. Longitudinal relations between child vagal tone and parenting behavior: 2 to 4 years.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Amy E; Rubin, Kenneth H; Hastings, Paul D; Maisel, Beth

    2004-07-01

    The longitudinal relations between physiological markers of child emotion regulation and maternal parenting practices were examined from 2 to 4 years of age. At Time 1, cardiac vagal tone was assessed for one hundred four 2-year-olds (54 females); their mothers completed an assessment of parenting styles. Two years later, at Time 2, 84 of the original participants were reassessed on measures of cardiac vagal tone and parenting style. Results indicated both baseline cardiac vagal tone and maternal parenting practices to be stable from 2 to 4 years of age. Children's cardiac vagal tone predicted specific parenting practices from the toddler to preschool years. Further, child cardiac vagal tone moderated maternal restrictive-parenting practices from 2 to 4 years of age; mothers of children who were highly or moderately physiologically dysregulated were more likely to report restrictive parenting practices at both 2 and 4 years of age. PMID:15229872

  6. Positive affective tone and team performance: The moderating role of collective emotional skills.

    PubMed

    Collins, Amy L; Jordan, Peter J; Lawrence, Sandra A; Troth, Ashlea C

    2016-01-01

    Research on affect as a group-level phenomenon has shown that over time, individual members within a group become highly similar in their affect (i.e., members experience and display similar emotions and moods), and often become similar enough that the aggregation of individuals' affect can meaningfully represent the "affective tone" of the group. It is generally assumed that a more positive affective tone will lead to better team performance. We challenge the conclusion that positive affective tone is always good for team performance, suggesting that the relationship between positive affective tone and team performance is subject to moderating influences. Across two studies, we demonstrate that the self-reported collective emotional skills of team members play a crucial role in determining whether positive affective tone is beneficial or detrimental to team performance. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:26208085

  7. Musical experience modulates categorical perception of lexical tones in native Chinese speakers

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Han; Ma, Xiaohui; Zhang, Linjun; Liu, Youyi; Zhang, Yang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Although musical training has been shown to facilitate both native and non-native phonetic perception, it remains unclear whether and how musical experience affects native speakers’ categorical perception (CP) of speech at the suprasegmental level. Using both identification and discrimination tasks, this study compared Chinese-speaking musicians and non-musicians in their CP of a lexical tone continuum (from the high level tone, Tone1 to the high falling tone, Tone4). While the identification functions showed similar steepness and boundary location between the two subject groups, the discrimination results revealed superior performance in the musicians for discriminating within-category stimuli pairs but not for between-category stimuli. These findings suggest that musical training can enhance sensitivity to subtle pitch differences between within-category sounds in the presence of robust mental representations in service of CP of lexical tonal contrasts. PMID:25918511

  8. Pitch processing of dynamic lexical tones in the auditory cortex is influenced by sensory and extrasensory processes.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Gandour, Jackson T; Suresh, Chandan H

    2015-05-01

    The aim is to evaluate how language experience (Chinese, English) shapes processing of pitch contours as reflected in the amplitude of cortical pitch response components. Responses were elicited from three dynamic curvilinear nonspeech stimuli varying in pitch direction and location of peak acceleration: Mandarin lexical Tone 2 (rising) and Tone 4 (falling), and a flipped variant of Tone 2, Tone 2' (nonnative). At temporal sites (T7/T8), Chinese listeners' Na-Pb response amplitudes to Tones 2 and 4 were greater than those of English listeners in the right hemisphere only; a rightward asymmetry for Tones 2 and 4 was restricted to the Chinese group. In common to both Fz-to-linked T7/T8 and T7/T8 electrode sites, the stimulus pattern (Tones 2 and 4 > Tone 2') was found in the Chinese group only. As reflected by Pb-Nb at Fz, Chinese subjects' amplitudes were larger than those of English subjects in response to Tones 2 and 4, and Tones 2 and 4 were larger than Tone 2', whereas for English subjects, Tone 2 was larger than Tone 2' and Tone 4. At frontal electrode sites (F3/F4), regardless of component or hemisphere, Chinese subjects' responses were larger in amplitude than those of English subjects across stimuli. For either group, responses to Tones 2 and 4 were larger than Tone 2'. No hemispheric asymmetry was observed at the frontal electrode sites. These findings demonstrate that cortical pitch response components are differentially modulated by experience-dependent, temporally distinct but functionally overlapping, weighting of sensory and extrasensory effects on pitch processing of lexical tones in the right temporal lobe and, more broadly, are consistent with a distributed hierarchical predictive coding process. PMID:25943576

  9. Pitch processing of dynamic lexical tones in the auditory cortex is influenced by sensory and extrasensory processes

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Gandour, Jackson T.; Suresh, Chandan H.

    2015-01-01

    The aim is to evaluate how language experience (Chinese, English) shapes processing of pitch contours as reflected in the amplitude of cortical pitch response components. Responses were elicited from three dynamic, curvilinear, nonspeech stimuli varying in pitch direction and location of peak acceleration: Mandarin lexical Tone2 (rising) and Tone4 (falling); and a flipped variant of Tone2, Tone2′ (nonnative). At temporal sites (T7/T8), Chinese Na-Pb response amplitude to Tones 2 & 4 was greater than English in the right hemisphere only; a rightward asymmetry for Tones 2 & 4 was restricted to the Chinese group. In common to both Fz-to-linked T7/T8 and T7/T8 electrode sites, the stimulus pattern (Tones 2 & 4 > Tone2′) was found in the Chinese group only. As reflected by Pb-Nb at Fz, Chinese amplitude was larger than English in response to Tones 2 & 4; and Tones 2 & 4 were larger than Tone2′; whereas for English, Tone2 was larger than Tone2′ and Tone4. At frontal electrode sites (F3/F4), regardless of component or hemisphere, Chinese responses were larger in amplitude than English across stimuli. For either group, responses to Tones 2 & 4 were larger than Tone2′. No hemispheric asymmetry was observed at the frontal electrode sites. These findings highlight that cortical pitch response components are differentially modulated by experience-dependent, temporally distinct but functionally overlapping weighting of sensory and extrasensory effects on pitch processing of lexical tones in the right temporal lobe and, more broadly, are consistent with a distributed hierarchical predictive coding process. PMID:25943576

  10. Aerial Infrared Photos for Citrus Growers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blazquez, C. H.; Horn, F. W. J.

    1982-01-01

    Handbook advises on benefits and methods of aerial photography with color infrared film. Interpretation of photographs is discussed in detail. Necessary equipment for interpretation is described--light table, magnifying lenses, and microfiche viewers, for example. Advice is given on rating tree condition; identifying effects of diseases, insects, and nematodes; and evaluating effects of soil, water, and weather.

  11. "A" Is for Aerial Maps and Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Reese H.; Delahunty, Tina

    2007-01-01

    The technology of satellite imagery and remote sensing adds a new dimension to teaching and learning about maps with elementary school children. Just a click of the mouse brings into view some images of the world that could only be imagined a generation ago. Close-up aerial pictures of the school and neighborhood quickly catch the interest of…

  12. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the American National...) Vertical towers; and (v) A combination of any such devices. Aerial equipment may be made of metal, wood... on the edge of the basket or use planks, ladders, or other devices for a work position. (v) A...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the American National...) Vertical towers; and (v) A combination of any such devices. Aerial equipment may be made of metal, wood... on the edge of the basket or use planks, ladders, or other devices for a work position. (v) A...

  14. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the American National...) Vertical towers; and (v) A combination of any such devices. Aerial equipment may be made of metal, wood... on the edge of the basket or use planks, ladders, or other devices for a work position. (v) A...

  15. Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and GPS Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, B.

    1995-01-01

    It is proposed that a small fleet of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) be used over a period of years to monitor the rise of pressure surfaces caused by the hypothesized rise in average temperature of the troposphere due to global warming. Global Positioning Satellite System (GPS) receivers would be used for the precise tracking required.

  16. Sea Ice Mapping using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solbø, S.; Storvold, R.

    2011-12-01

    Mapping of sea ice extent and sea ice features is an important task in climate research. Since the arctic coastal and oceanic areas have a high probability of cloud coverage, aerial platforms are superior to satellite measurements for high-resolution optical measurements. However, routine observations of sea ice conditions present a variety of problems using conventional piloted aircrafts. Specially, the availability of suitable aircrafts for lease does not cover the demand in major parts of the arctic. With the recent advances in unmanned aerial systems (UAS), there is a high possibility of establishing routine, cost effective aerial observations of sea ice conditions in the near future. Unmanned aerial systems can carry a wide variety of sensors useful for characterizing sea-ice features. For instance, the CryoWing UAS, a system initially designed for measurements of the cryosphere, can be equipped with digital cameras, surface thermometers and laser altimeters for measuring freeboard of ice flows. In this work we will present results from recent CryoWing sea ice flights on Svalbard, Norway. The emphasis will be on data processing for stitching together images acquired with the non-stabilized camera payload, to form high-resolution mosaics covering large spatial areas. These data are being employed to map ice conditions; including ice and lead features and melt ponds. These high-resolution mosaics are also well suited for sea-ice mechanics, classification studies and for validation of satellite sea-ice products.

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATION OF LOW ALTITUDE AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The most practical avenue for development of these goals is to continue to use the LAAPS system at field sites that require aerial imaging. For the sake of convenience, I believe that the local field sites can provide a convenient location to develop new applications and test enh...

  18. Aerial Scene Recognition using Efficient Sparse Representation

    SciTech Connect

    Cheriyadat, Anil M

    2012-01-01

    Advanced scene recognition systems for processing large volumes of high-resolution aerial image data are in great demand today. However, automated scene recognition remains a challenging problem. Efficient encoding and representation of spatial and structural patterns in the imagery are key in developing automated scene recognition algorithms. We describe an image representation approach that uses simple and computationally efficient sparse code computation to generate accurate features capable of producing excellent classification performance using linear SVM kernels. Our method exploits unlabeled low-level image feature measurements to learn a set of basis vectors. We project the low-level features onto the basis vectors and use simple soft threshold activation function to derive the sparse features. The proposed technique generates sparse features at a significantly lower computational cost than other methods~\\cite{Yang10, newsam11}, yet it produces comparable or better classification accuracy. We apply our technique to high-resolution aerial image datasets to quantify the aerial scene classification performance. We demonstrate that the dense feature extraction and representation methods are highly effective for automatic large-facility detection on wide area high-resolution aerial imagery.

  19. A TOOL FOR PLANNING AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    abstract The U.S. EPAs Pacific Coastal Ecology Branch has developed a tool in the form of an Excel. spreadsheet that facilitates planning aerial photography missions. The spreadsheet accepts various input parameters such as desired photo-scale and boundary coordinates of the stud...

  20. The Art and Science of Aerial Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kegel, Susan

    2006-01-01

    The author is always looking for ways to see connections and to adapt experiences across different subjects. Combining art with other disciplines helps keep students engaged, even the really analytical and verbal learners. Aerial perspective is an art technique, a scientific principle, and a vehicle for introducing Chinese painting and…

  1. Calculating aerial images from EUV masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pistor, Thomas V.; Neureuther, Andrew R.

    1999-06-01

    Aerial images for line/space patterns, arrays of posts and an arbitrary layout pattern are calculated for EUV masks in a 4X EUV imaging system. Both mask parameters and illumination parameters are varied to investigate their effects on the aerial image. To facilitate this study, a parallel version of TEMPEST with a Fourier transform boundary condition was developed and run on a network of 24 microprocessors. Line width variations are observed when absorber thickness or sidewall angle changes. As the line/space pattern scales to smaller dimensions, the aspect ratios of the absorber features increase, introducing geometric shadowing and reducing aerial image intensity and contrast. 100nm square posts have circular images of diameter close to 100nm, but decreasing in diameter significantly when the corner round radius at the mask becomes greater than 50 nm. Exterior mask posts image slightly smaller and with higher ellipticity than interior mask posts. The aerial image of the arbitrary test pattern gives insight into the effects of the off-axis incidence employed in EUV lithography systems.

  2. Decryption of pure-position permutation algorithms.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiao-Yu; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Dan; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Dong, Guang-Chang

    2004-07-01

    Pure position permutation image encryption algorithms, commonly used as image encryption investigated in this work are unfortunately frail under known-text attack. In view of the weakness of pure position permutation algorithm, we put forward an effective decryption algorithm for all pure-position permutation algorithms. First, a summary of the pure position permutation image encryption algorithms is given by introducing the concept of ergodic matrices. Then, by using probability theory and algebraic principles, the decryption probability of pure-position permutation algorithms is verified theoretically; and then, by defining the operation system of fuzzy ergodic matrices, we improve a specific decryption algorithm. Finally, some simulation results are shown. PMID:15495308

  3. Object and activity detection from aerial video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Se, Stephen; Shi, Feng; Liu, Xin; Ghazel, Mohsen

    2015-05-01

    Aerial video surveillance has advanced significantly in recent years, as inexpensive high-quality video cameras and airborne platforms are becoming more readily available. Video has become an indispensable part of military operations and is now becoming increasingly valuable in the civil and paramilitary sectors. Such surveillance capabilities are useful for battlefield intelligence and reconnaissance as well as monitoring major events, border control and critical infrastructure. However, monitoring this growing flood of video data requires significant effort from increasingly large numbers of video analysts. We have developed a suite of aerial video exploitation tools that can alleviate mundane monitoring from the analysts, by detecting and alerting objects and activities that require analysts' attention. These tools can be used for both tactical applications and post-mission analytics so that the video data can be exploited more efficiently and timely. A feature-based approach and a pixel-based approach have been developed for Video Moving Target Indicator (VMTI) to detect moving objects at real-time in aerial video. Such moving objects can then be classified by a person detector algorithm which was trained with representative aerial data. We have also developed an activity detection tool that can detect activities of interests in aerial video, such as person-vehicle interaction. We have implemented a flexible framework so that new processing modules can be added easily. The Graphical User Interface (GUI) allows the user to configure the processing pipeline at run-time to evaluate different algorithms and parameters. Promising experimental results have been obtained using these tools and an evaluation has been carried out to characterize their performance.

  4. Mixtures of maximally entangled pure states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, M. M.; Galapon, E. A.

    2016-09-01

    We study the conditions when mixtures of maximally entangled pure states remain entangled. We found that the resulting mixed state remains entangled when the number of entangled pure states to be mixed is less than or equal to the dimension of the pure states. For the latter case of mixing a number of pure states equal to their dimension, we found that the mixed state is entangled provided that the entangled pure states to be mixed are not equally weighted. We also found that one can restrict the set of pure states that one can mix from in order to ensure that the resulting mixed state is genuinely entangled. Also, we demonstrate how these results could be applied as a way to detect entanglement in mixtures of the entangled pure states with noise.

  5. Spirit Examines Light-Toned 'Halley' (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Stretching along 'Low Ridge' in front of the winter haven for NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit are several continuous rock layers that make up the ridge. Some of these layers form fins that stick out from the other rocks in a way that suggests that they are resistant to erosion. Spirit is currently straddling one of these fin-like layers and can reach a small bit of light-toned material that might be a broken bit of it. Informally named 'Halley,' this rock was broken by Spirit's wheels when the rover drove over it.

    The first analyses of Halley showed it to be unusual in composition, containing a lot of the minor element zinc relative to the soil around it and having much of its iron tied up in the mineral hematite. When scientists again placed the scientific instruments on Spirit's robotic arm on a particularly bright-looking part of Halley, they found that the chemical composition of the bright spots was suggestive of a calcium sulfate mineral. Bright soils that Spirit has examined earlier in the mission contain iron sulfate.

    This discovery raises new questions for the science team: Why is the sulfate mineralogy here different? Did Halley and the fin material form by water percolating through the layered rocks of Low Ridge? When did the chemical alteration of this rock occur? Spirit will continue to work on Halley and other light-toned materials along Low Ridge in the coming months to try to answer these questions.

    Spirit took this red-green-blue composite image with the panoramic camera on the rover's 820th sol, or Martian day, of exploring Mars (April 24, 2006). The image is presented in false color to emphasize differences among materials in the rocks and soil. It combines frames taken through the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer, and 430-nanometer filters. The middle of the imaged area has dark basaltic sand. Spirit's wheel track is at the left edge of the frame. Just to the right of the wheel track in the lower left are two types

  6. Postiive tone resists based on network deploymerization of molecular resists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Richard A.; Cheng, Jing; Cheshmehkani, Ameneh; Tolbert, Laren M.; Henderson, Clifford L.

    2013-03-01

    Conventional chemically amplified resists have several issues that can potentially limit their capability for sub-40 nm imaging. One of the major issues at this size scale is that the mechanical strength of positive tone CARs limits the amount of stress they can withstand during development, rinse, and drying, thus leading to problems with pattern collapse due to the high capillary forces generated during drying. This problem is exasperated by the fact that linear polymers show dramatically reduced modulus at sub-50 nm features sizes. To improve on this problem, we have made a positive tone resist based on network depolymerization of molecular resists. The resist thermally cross-links after being spin cast into thin film form through reactions between vinyl ether groups and carboxylic acid groups. By cross-linking the resist to form a dense three dimensional polymer network, the mechanical strength of the resist is greatly improved compared to linear polymers. The network is depolymerized using an acid catalyzed reaction to create development contrast that allows for patterning of the resist via development in either aqueous base or organic solvent. One drawback of the current resist design is that the free carboxylic acids on the resist molecule appear to react in solution at room temperature with both the vinyl ether groups on adjacent molecules and with any added base quencher. These reactions cause reduced effectiveness of the base quencher and produce a noticeable resist shelf life problem. Despite these limitations, the material was used to compare the effect of development in aqueous base versus organic solvent. The resist formulated in this work showed a DUV sensitivity of 7 mJ/cm2 and a contrast of 5.2 for development in either solvent or aqueous base. Under 100 keV e-beam imaging, the material showed 40 nm resolution for both development types. In standard 0.26 N TMAH, the dose-to-size was 84 μC/cm2 with 3σ LER of 14.2 nm. Using methyl isobutyl ketone

  7. Bronchial hyperreactivity is correlated with increased baseline airway tone.

    PubMed

    Bergner, A; Kellner, J; Kemp da Silva, A; Fischer, R; Gamarra, F; Huber, R M

    2006-02-21

    Physiologically, airways are not completely relaxed but maintain a baseline airway tone (BAT). Although not fulfilling the criteria for obstructive airway disease, increased BAT may nevertheless be important because the same amount of airway narrowing can be well tolerated or can cause severe airway obstruction depending on the starting point of the narrowing. In this study, we aimed at studying if BAT is correlated with bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR). For in vitro studies, airways in murine lung slices were digitally recorded and the change in cross-sectional area with time was quantified. BAT was measured by the amount of relaxation induced by permeabilization of the cell membrane with beta-escin in zero external calcium. BHR was induced by incubation of lung slices with interleukin-13 (IL-13). T-bet knock-out mice served as an additional model for BHR. T-bet knock-out mice show a shift towards TH2-lymphocytes and display histological as well as functional characteristics of asthma. In vivo, the specific airway resistance of healthy non-smoking volunteers was assessed before and after inhalation of formoterol and bronchial challenge was performed using methacholin. In murine lung slices that had been cultivated without serum, only a minimal BAT could be observed. But, after cultivation with 10 % new born calve serum, airways showed a BAT of approximately 13 % that could be reduced by incubation with an IL-13 receptor antagonist. Atropine, isoproterenol and indomethacin failed to relax airways regardless of cultivation with serum. Incubation of lung slices without serum but with IL-13 increased BAT as well as airway responsiveness to acetylcholine and both effects were more pronounced in small compared to large airways. In lung slices from T-bet knock-out mice, airways were hyperreactive compared to airways in slices from wild type mice and BAT was found to be increased. Again, both effects were more pronounced in small compared to large airways. In human non

  8. Bringing Planctomycetes into pure culture

    PubMed Central

    Lage, Olga M.; Bondoso, Joana

    2012-01-01

    Planctomycetes have been known since the description of Planctomyces bekefii by Gimesi at the beginning of the twentieth century (1924), although the first axenic cultures were only obtained in the 1970s. Since then, 11 genera with 14 species have been validly named and five candidatus genera belonging to the anaerobic ammonium oxidation, anammox bacteria have also been discovered. However, Planctomycetes diversity is much broader than these numbers indicate, as shown by environmental molecular studies. In recent years, the authors have attempted to isolate and cultivate additional strains of Planctomycetes. This paper provides a summary of the isolation work that was carried out to obtain in pure culture Planctomycetes from several environmental sources. The following strains of planctomycetes have been successfully isolated: two freshwater strains from the sediments of an aquarium, which were described as a new genus and species, Aquisphaera giovannonii; several Rhodopirellula strains from the sediments of a water treatment recycling tank of a marine fish farm; and more than 140 planctomycetes from the biofilm community of macroalgae. This collection comprises several novel taxa that are being characterized and described. Improvements in the isolation methodology were made in order to optimize and enlarge the number of Planctomycetes isolated from the macroalgae. The existence of an intimate and an important relationship between planctomycetes and macroalgae reported before by molecular studies is therefore supported by culture-dependent methods. PMID:23335915

  9. Isomerically Pure Tetramethylrhodamine Voltage Reporters.

    PubMed

    Deal, Parker E; Kulkarni, Rishikesh U; Al-Abdullatif, Sarah H; Miller, Evan W

    2016-07-27

    We present the design, synthesis, and application of a new family of fluorescent voltage indicators based on isomerically pure tetramethylrhodamines. These new Rhodamine Voltage Reporters, or RhoVRs, use photoinduced electron transfer (PeT) as a trigger for voltage sensing, display excitation and emission profiles in the green to orange region of the visible spectrum, demonstrate high sensitivity to membrane potential changes (up to 47% ΔF/F per 100 mV), and employ a tertiary amide derived from sarcosine, which aids in membrane localization and simultaneously simplifies the synthetic route to the voltage sensors. The most sensitive of the RhoVR dyes, RhoVR 1, features a methoxy-substituted diethylaniline donor and phenylenevinylene molecular wire at the 5'-position of the rhodamine aryl ring, exhibits the highest voltage sensitivity to date for red-shifted PeT-based voltage sensors, and is compatible with simultaneous imaging alongside green fluorescent protein-based indicators. The discoveries that sarcosine-based tertiary amides in the context of molecular-wire voltage indicators prevent dye internalization and 5'-substituted voltage indicators exhibit improved voltage sensitivity should be broadly applicable to other types of PeT-based voltage-sensitive fluorophores. PMID:27428174

  10. Effects of Temporal Sequencing and Auditory Discrimination on Children's Memory Patterns for Tones, Numbers, and Nonsense Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gromko, Joyce Eastlund; Hansen, Dee; Tortora, Anne Halloran; Higgins, Daniel; Boccia, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether children's recall of tones, numbers, and words was supported by a common temporal sequencing mechanism; whether children's patterns of memory for tones, numbers, and nonsense words were the same despite differences in symbol systems; and whether children's recall of tones, numbers, and nonsense…

  11. The Theory of Adaptive Dispersion and Acoustic-Phonetic Properties of Cross-Language Lexical-Tone Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Jennifer Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Lexical-tone languages use fundamental frequency (F0/pitch) to convey word meaning. About 41.8% of the world's languages use lexical tone (Maddieson, 2008), yet those systems are under-studied. I aim to increase our understanding of speech-sound inventory organization by extending to tone-systems a model of vowel-system organization, the Theory of…

  12. Immature Cortical Responses to Auditory Stimuli in Specific Language Impairment: Evidence from ERPS to Rapid Tone Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, D. V. M.; McArthur, G. M.

    2004-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) to tone pairs and single tones were measured for 16 participants with specific language impairment (SLI) and 16 age-matched controls aged from 10 to 19 years. The tone pairs were separated by an inter-stimulus interval (ISI) of 20, 50 or 150 ms. The intraclass correlation (ICC) was computed for each participant…

  13. Effects of native language experience on perceptual learning of Cantonese lexical tones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, Alexander L.; Ciocca, Valter; Ma, Lian

    2001-05-01

    In a tonal language syllabic pitch patterns contribute to lexical meaning. Perceptual assimilation models of cross-language perception predict speakers of another tonal language should assimilate Cantonese lexical tones to native tonal categories, affecting identification, discrimination and acquisition. For nontonal language speakers, two possibilities exist. If pitch information is ignored, vowels with different tones should assimilate to the same native category, lowering performance. If tonal information is attended but unused in native categorization, Cantonese tones could be nonassimilable and therefore easily discriminated, and possibly easily identified or learned. Here, native speakers of Mandarin Chinese and American English were trained to identify Cantonese words differing in lexical tone. Discrimination and identification were tested before and after training. Both groups initially performed well on upper register tones (high level, high rising, mid level) and poorly on lower (low falling, low level, low rising). Mandarin listeners improved most at identifying low falling tones; English listeners improved most on low level and low rising tones. Training primarily appeared to improve listeners' ability to make categorical decisions based on direction of pitch change, a feature reportedly under-attended by English speakers, but preferred by Mandarin speakers. [Work supported by research funding from The University of Hong Kong.

  14. Development of low postural tone compensatory patterns in children - theoretical basis.

    PubMed

    Gogola, Anna; Saulicz, Edward; Kuszewski, Michał; Matyja, Małgorzata; Myśliwiec, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Neurological literature indicates the existence of children with low postural tone without association with central nervous system damage. This fact induces to think about mechanisms, which allow these children to maintain upright posture. There is a suspicion that compensatory mechanism included in this process, enables to achieve upright posture, but at expense of body posture quality. Observations of children's developmental stages caused determination of some postural tone area, which comprise both children with normotonia and with low postural tone without characteristics of central nervous system (CNS) damage. Set of specific qualities allows determination of two types of low postural tone: spastoidal and atetoidal type. Spastoidal type is characterized by deep trunk muscles (local) low postural tone compensated by excessive tension of superficial muscles (global). Atetoidal type includes children with low postural tone in both deep and superficial muscles. At inefficient active subsystem, verticalization proceeds at excessive use of passive subsystem qualities, that is meniscus, ligament, bone shape, and muscles passive features. From neurodevelopmental point of view compensatory mechanisms can be used in children with low postural tone in order to achieve upright posture, but at expense of body posture quality. PMID:25182403

  15. An analysis on muscle tone of lower limb muscles on flexible flat foot

    PubMed Central

    Um, Gi-Mai; Wang, Joong-San; Park, Si-Eun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine differences in the muscle tone and stiffness of leg muscles according to types of flexible flat foot. [Subjects and Methods] For 30 subjects 10 in a normal foot group (NFG), 10 in group with both flexible flat feet (BFFG), and 10 in a group with flexible flat feet on one side (OFFG), myotonometry was used to measure the muscle tone and stiffness of the tibialis anterior muscle (TA), the rectus femoris muscle (RF), the medial gastrocnemius (MG), and the long head of the biceps femoris muscle (BF) of both lower extremities. [Results] In the measurement results, only the stiffness of TA and MG of the NFG and the BFFG showed significant differences. The muscle tone and stiffness were highest in the BFFG, followed by the OFFG and NFG, although the difference was insignificant. In the case of the OFFG, there was no significant difference in muscle tone and stiffness compared to that in the NGF and the BFFG. Furthermore, in the NFG, the non-dominant leg showed greater muscle tone and stiffness than the dominant leg, although the difference was insignificant. [Conclusion] During the relax condition, the flexible flat foot generally showed a greater muscle tone and stiffness of both lower extremities compared to the normal foot. The stiffness was particularly higher in the TA and MG muscles. Therefore, the muscle tone and stiffness of the lower extremity muscles must be considered in the treatment of flat foot. PMID:26644650

  16. The molecular basis of the genesis of basal tone in internal anal sphincter

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Cheng-Hai; Wang, Pei; Liu, Dong-Hai; Chen, Cai-Ping; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Xin; Chen, Chen; He, Wei-Qi; Qiao, Yan-Ning; Tao, Tao; Sun, Jie; Peng, Ya-Jing; Lu, Ping; Zheng, Kaizhi; Craige, Siobhan M.; Lifshitz, Lawrence M.; Keaney Jr, John F.; Fogarty, Kevin E.; ZhuGe, Ronghua; Zhu, Min-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Smooth muscle sphincters exhibit basal tone and control passage of contents through organs such as the gastrointestinal tract; loss of this tone leads to disorders such as faecal incontinence. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this tone remain unknown. Here, we show that deletion of myosin light-chain kinases (MLCK) in the smooth muscle cells from internal anal sphincter (IAS-SMCs) abolishes basal tone, impairing defecation. Pharmacological regulation of ryanodine receptors (RyRs), L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCCs) or TMEM16A Ca2+-activated Cl− channels significantly changes global cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and the tone. TMEM16A deletion in IAS-SMCs abolishes the effects of modulators for TMEM16A or VDCCs on a RyR-mediated rise in global [Ca2+]i and impairs the tone and defecation. Hence, MLCK activation in IAS-SMCs caused by a global rise in [Ca2+]i via a RyR-TMEM16A-VDCC signalling module sets the basal tone. Targeting this module may lead to new treatments for diseases like faecal incontinence. PMID:27101932

  17. Numerical Simulation of the Generation of Axisymmetric Mode Jet Screech Tones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Hao; Tam, Christopher K. W.

    1998-01-01

    An imperfectly expanded supersonic jet, invariably, radiates both broadband noise and discrete frequency sound called screech tones. Screech tones are known to be generated by a feedback loop driven by the large scale instability waves of the jet flow. Inside the jet plume is a quasi-periodic shock cell structure. The interaction of the instability waves and the shock cell structure, as the former propagates through the latter, is responsible for the generation of the tones. Presently, there are formulas that can predict the tone frequency fairly accurately. However, there is no known way to predict the screech tone intensity. In this work, the screech phenomenon of an axisymmetric jet at low supersonic Mach number is reproduced by numerical simulation. The computed mean velocity profiles and the shock cell pressure distribution of the jet are found to be in good agreement with experimental measurements. The same is true with the simulated screech frequency. Calculated screech tone intensity and directivity at selected jet Mach number are reported in this paper. The present results demonstrate that numerical simulation using computational aeroacoustics methods offers not only a reliable way to determine the screech tone intensity and directivity but also an opportunity to study the physics and detailed mechanisms of the phenomenon by an entirely new approach.

  18. Tone classification of syllable-segmented Thai speech based on multilayer perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satravaha, Nuttavudh; Klinkhachorn, Powsiri; Lass, Norman

    2002-05-01

    Thai is a monosyllabic tonal language that uses tone to convey lexical information about the meaning of a syllable. Thus to completely recognize a spoken Thai syllable, a speech recognition system not only has to recognize a base syllable but also must correctly identify a tone. Hence, tone classification of Thai speech is an essential part of a Thai speech recognition system. Thai has five distinctive tones (``mid,'' ``low,'' ``falling,'' ``high,'' and ``rising'') and each tone is represented by a single fundamental frequency (F0) pattern. However, several factors, including tonal coarticulation, stress, intonation, and speaker variability, affect the F0 pattern of a syllable in continuous Thai speech. In this study, an efficient method for tone classification of syllable-segmented Thai speech, which incorporates the effects of tonal coarticulation, stress, and intonation, as well as a method to perform automatic syllable segmentation, were developed. Acoustic parameters were used as the main discriminating parameters. The F0 contour of a segmented syllable was normalized by using a z-score transformation before being presented to a tone classifier. The proposed system was evaluated on 920 test utterances spoken by 8 speakers. A recognition rate of 91.36% was achieved by the proposed system.

  19. Training for learning Mandarin tones: A comparison of production and perceptual training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinchun

    2005-04-01

    Mandarin Chinese lexical tones pose difficulties for non-native speakers whose first languages contrast or do not contrast lexical tones. In this study, both tone language and non-tone language speaking learners of Mandarin Chinese were trained for three weeks to identify the four Mandarin lexical tones. One group took the production training with both visual and audio feedback using Kay Sona Speech II software. The target tones produced by native Mandarin speakers were played back through a pair of headphones and the pitch contours of the target tones were displayed on the computer screen on the top window to be compared with the trainees productions which appear in real time in the bottom window. Another group of participants took the perceptual training only with four-way forced choice identification tasks with immediate feedback. The same training tokens were used in both training modes. Pretest and post test data in perception and production were collected from both groups and were compared for effectiveness of training procedures.

  20. Sympathetic Tone Induced by High Acoustic Tempo Requires Fast Respiration.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Ken; Ooishi, Yuuki; Kashino, Makio

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have revealed the influences of music, and particularly its tempo, on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and respiration patterns. Since there is the interaction between the ANS and the respiratory system, namely sympatho-respiratory coupling, it is possible that the effect of musical tempo on the ANS is modulated by the respiratory system. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the relationship between musical tempo and respiratory rate on the ANS. Fifty-two healthy people aged 18-35 years participated in this study. Their respiratory rates were controlled by using a silent electronic metronome and they listened to simple drum sounds with a constant tempo. We varied the respiratory rate-acoustic tempo combination. The respiratory rate was controlled at 15 or 20 cycles per minute (CPM) and the acoustic tempo was 60 or 80 beats per minute (BPM) or the environment was silent. Electrocardiograms and an elastic chest band were used to measure the heart rate and respiratory rate, respectively. The mean heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) were regarded as indices of ANS activity. We observed a significant increase in the mean heart rate and the low (0.04-0.15 Hz) to high (0.15-0.40 Hz) frequency ratio of HRV, only when the respiratory rate was controlled at 20 CPM and the acoustic tempo was 80 BPM. We suggest that the effect of acoustic tempo on the sympathetic tone is modulated by the respiratory system. PMID:26284521

  1. The tones of the kalimba (African thumb piano).

    PubMed

    Chapman, David M F

    2012-01-01

    The acoustic spectrum of the kalimba (African thumb piano) is measured and analyzed for tonal structure. The frequency f(1) of the fundamental tone of each tine (key) is investigated in relation to the frequencies of its two dominant overtones, f(2) and f(3). These frequencies are identified as the first three modes of transverse vibration of a beam of rectangular cross section. As is typical for vibrating-beam instruments, the overtone sequence is inharmonic, that is, the sequence f(1), f(2), f(3),[ellipsis (horizontal)] is unevenly spaced and the frequency ratios f(2)/f(1) and f(3)/f(1) are not integers. The kalimba tines are modeled by applying the Euler-Bernoulli beam equation with one end clamped, the other end free, and an intermediate point (the bridge) simply supported. Unlike the cases of free-free and clamped-free beams, it is found that the clamped-supported-free frequency ratios f(2)/f(1) and f(3)/f(1) are not fixed values, but depend uniquely upon where the bridge supports and subdivides the tine. The model solution is more thoroughly investigated analytically for the special case in which the beam segment ratio is unity, which has some analytic solutions. Numerically computed mode frequencies agree well with acoustic measurements, validating the model. Mode shapes are computed for the first three modes of a typical tine. PMID:22280717

  2. Evaluation of evoked potentials to dyadic tones after cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Sandmann, Pascale; Eichele, Tom; Buechler, Michael; Debener, Stefan; Jäncke, Lutz; Dillier, Norbert; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Meyer, Martin

    2009-07-01

    Auditory evoked potentials are tools widely used to assess auditory cortex functions in clinical context. However, in cochlear implant users, electrophysiological measures are challenging due to implant-created artefacts in the EEG. Here, we used independent component analysis to reduce cochlear implant-related artefacts in event-related EEGs of cochlear implant users (n = 12), which allowed detailed spatio-temporal evaluation of auditory evoked potentials by means of dipole source analysis. The present study examined hemispheric asymmetries of auditory evoked potentials to musical sounds in cochlear implant users to evaluate the effect of this type of implantation on neuronal activity. In particular, implant users were presented with two dyadic tonal intervals in an active oddball design and in a passive listening condition. Principally, the results show that independent component analysis is an efficient approach that enables the study of neurophysiological mechanisms of restored auditory function in cochlear implant users. Moreover, our data indicate altered hemispheric asymmetries for dyadic tone processing in implant users compared with listeners with normal hearing (n = 12). We conclude that the evaluation of auditory evoked potentials are of major relevance to understanding auditory cortex function after cochlear implantation and could be of substantial clinical value by indicating the maturation/reorganization of the auditory system after implantation. PMID:19293240

  3. Sympathetic Tone Induced by High Acoustic Tempo Requires Fast Respiration

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Ken; Ooishi, Yuuki; Kashino, Makio

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have revealed the influences of music, and particularly its tempo, on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and respiration patterns. Since there is the interaction between the ANS and the respiratory system, namely sympatho-respiratory coupling, it is possible that the effect of musical tempo on the ANS is modulated by the respiratory system. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the relationship between musical tempo and respiratory rate on the ANS. Fifty-two healthy people aged 18–35 years participated in this study. Their respiratory rates were controlled by using a silent electronic metronome and they listened to simple drum sounds with a constant tempo. We varied the respiratory rate—acoustic tempo combination. The respiratory rate was controlled at 15 or 20 cycles per minute (CPM) and the acoustic tempo was 60 or 80 beats per minute (BPM) or the environment was silent. Electrocardiograms and an elastic chest band were used to measure the heart rate and respiratory rate, respectively. The mean heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) were regarded as indices of ANS activity. We observed a significant increase in the mean heart rate and the low (0.04–0.15 Hz) to high (0.15–0.40 Hz) frequency ratio of HRV, only when the respiratory rate was controlled at 20 CPM and the acoustic tempo was 80 BPM. We suggest that the effect of acoustic tempo on the sympathetic tone is modulated by the respiratory system. PMID:26284521

  4. Tone of voice guides word learning in informative referential contexts.

    PubMed

    Reinisch, Eva; Jesse, Alexandra; Nygaard, Lynne C

    2013-06-01

    Listeners infer which object in a visual scene a speaker refers to from the systematic variation of the speaker's tone of voice (ToV). We examined whether ToV also guides word learning. During exposure, participants heard novel adjectives (e.g., "daxen") spoken with a ToV representing hot, cold, strong, weak, big, or small while viewing picture pairs representing the meaning of the adjective and its antonym (e.g., elephant-ant for big-small). Eye fixations were recorded to monitor referent detection and learning. During test, participants heard the adjectives spoken with a neutral ToV, while selecting referents from familiar and unfamiliar picture pairs. Participants were able to learn the adjectives' meanings, and, even in the absence of informative ToV, generalize them to new referents. A second experiment addressed whether ToV provides sufficient information to infer the adjectival meaning or needs to operate within a referential context providing information about the relevant semantic dimension. Participants who saw printed versions of the novel words during exposure performed at chance during test. ToV, in conjunction with the referential context, thus serves as a cue to word meaning. ToV establishes relations between labels and referents for listeners to exploit in word learning. PMID:23134484

  5. Active Control of Fan-Generated Tone Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhold, Carl H.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports on an experiment to control the noise radiated from the inlet of a ducted fan using a time domain active adaptive system. The control ,sound source consists of loudspeakers arranged in a ring around the fan duct. The error sensor location is in the fan duct. The purpose of this experiment is to demonstrate that the in-duct error sensor reduces the mode spillover in the far field, thereby increasing the efficiency of the control system. The control system is found to reduce the blade passage frequency tone significantly in the acoustic far field when the mode orders of the noise source and of the control source are the same, when the dominant wave in the duct is a plane wave. The presence of higher order modes in the duct reduces the noise reduction efficiency, particularly near the mode cut-on where the standing wave component is strong, but the control system converges stably. The control system is stable and converges when the first circumferential mode is generated in the duct. The control system is found to reduce the fan noise in the far field on an arc around the fan inlet by as much as 20 dB with none of the sound amplification associated with mode spillover.

  6. Tone Noise and Nearfield Pressure Produced by Jet-Cavity Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raman, Ganesh; Envia, Edmane; Bencic, Timothy J.

    1998-01-01

    Cavity flow resonance can cause numerous problems in aerospace applications. While our long-term goal is to understand cavity flows well enough to devise effective cavity resonance suppression techniques, this paper describes a fundamental study of resonant tones produced by jet-cavity interaction at subsonic and supersonic speeds. Our specific jet-cavity configuration can also be used as a test bed for evaluating active and passive flow resonance control concepts. Two significant findings emerge from this study. 1) Originally, we expected that tones produced by jet-cavity interaction would resemble cavity tones or jet tones or would involve some simple combinations of each. The experimental data do not support these expectations: instead, the jet cavity interaction produce a unique set of tones. We propose simple yet and physically insightful correlations for these tones. Although the pressure patterns on the cavity floor display very complex variations with the Mach number for a length/depth = 8 cavity, the tones correspond to the acoustic modes of the cavity-independent of flow. For a length/ depth = 3 cavity, however, a surprise emerges: the pressure patterns on the cavity floor are not so complex but the tones depend significantly on the flow. Additionally, we examine the role of external feedback unique to jet-cavity interaction. 2) Previous research led us to expect that traditional classifications (open, transitional, or closed) for cavities in an infinite flight stream would be insensitive to small changes in Mach number and would depend primarily on cavity length/depth ratios. Use of the novel high resolution photoluminescent pressure sensitive paint shows that the classifications are actually quite sensitive to jet Mach number for a length/depth = 8 cavity. However, these classifications provide no guidance whatsoever for tone amplitude or frequency. Detailed experimental data and insights presented here will assist researchers who are performing

  7. Desulfurization of pure coal macerals

    SciTech Connect

    Hippo, E.J. ); Crelling, J.C. )

    1988-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to modify the present density gradient centrifugation (DGC) techniques for coal macerals to obtain 10-20 grams of target maceral concentrates and to determine the reactivity or ease of removing the organic sulfur in the various macerals with supercritical methanol extraction. Although the chemistry needed for this objective is not difficult, the accumulation of 10 to 20 gram quantities of ''pure'' petrographically verified single maceral concentrates has not been possible until now. The results of recent work have demonstrated that the individual macerals can be separated and verified. The accumulation of much larger quantities than have previously been separated was a problem that has been overcome by pre-concentrating target macerals at their density cut points. Supercritical fluid extraction of coals has previously been reported as a method in the production of liquid fuel products from coal under mild conditions and as a medium for selective desulfurization of coal. Alcohols are expected to exhibit greater solubility for polar organic molecules due to hydrogen bonding and dipole attractive forces, also providing the opportunity for chemical reactions during the extraction due to the nucleophilicity of the alcohol oxygen and the tendency to act as a hydrogen donor. In addition, enol rearrangements may play a role in desulfurization. As previously reported different supercritical reaction conditions produced different extents of desulfurization of coals (33.9 - 65.7%). These variable desulfurizations are probably a result of differences in extents of conversion of the pyritic sulfur (to various alteration products, such as pyrrhotite), as well as organic sulfur functionalities (thiophenol, sulfide, and thiopenes) to light gases such as dimethylsulfide, hydrogen sulfide, and methylmercaptons.

  8. Desulfurization of pure coal macerals

    SciTech Connect

    Hippo, E.J.; Crelling, J.C. )

    1988-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to modify the present density gradient centrifugation (DGC) techniques for coal macerals to obtain 10-20 grams of target maceral concentrates and to determine the reactivity or ease of removing the organic sulfur in the various macerals with supercritical methanol extraction. Although the chemistry needed for this objective is not difficult, the accumulation of 10 to 20 gram quantities of pure petrographically verified single maceral concentrates has not been possible until now. The results of recent work have demonstrated that the individual macerals can be separated and verified. The accumulation of much larger quantities than have previously been separated was a problem that has been overcome by pre-concentrating target macerals at their density cut points. Supercritical fluid extraction of coals has previously been reported as a method in the production of liquid fuel products from coal under mild conditions and as a medium for selective desulfurization of coal. Alcohols are expected to exhibit greater solubility for polar organic molecules due to hydrogen bonding and dipole attractive forces, also providing the opportunity for chemical reactions during the extraction due to the nucleophilicity of the alcohol oxygen and the tendency to act as a hydrogen donor. In addition, enol rearrangements may play a role in desulfurization. As previously reported different supercritical reaction conditions produced different extents of desulfurization of coals (33.9 - 65.7%). These variable desulfurizations are probably a result of differences in extents of conversion of the pyritic sulfur (to various alteration products, such as pyrrhotite), as well as organic sulfur functionalities (thiophenol, sulfide, and thiophenes) to light gases such as dimethylsulfide, hydrogen sulfide, and methylmercaptons.

  9. Seeing pitch: Visual information for lexical tones of Mandarin-Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Trevor H.; Massaro, Dominic W.

    2008-01-01

    Mandarin perceivers were tested in visual lexical-tone identification before and after learning. Baseline performance was only slightly above chance, although there appeared to be some visual information in the speakers’ neck and head movements. When participants were taught to use this visible information in two experiments, visual tone identification improved significantly. There appears to be a relationship between the production of lexical tones and the visible movements of the neck, head, and mouth, and this information can be effectively used after a short training session. PMID:18397038

  10. A Tone-Aided/Dual Vestigial Sideband (TA/DVSB) system for mobile satellite channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saulnier, Gary J.; Millar, Gilbert M.; Depaolo, Anthony D.

    1990-01-01

    Tone-aided modulation is one way of combatting the effects of multipath fading and Doppler frequency shifts. A new tone-aided modulation format for M-ary phase-shift keyed signals (MPSK) is discussed. A spectral null for the placement of the tone is created in the center of the MPSK signal by translating the upper sideband upwards in frequency by the same amount. The key element of the system is the algorithm for recombining the data sidebands in the receiver, a function that is performed by a specialized phase-locked loop (PLL). The system structure is discussed and simulation results showing the PLL acquisition performance are presented.

  11. Visual sensitivity correlated tone reproduction for low dynamic range images in the compression field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Geun-Young; Lee, Sung-Hak; Kwon, Hyuk-Ju; Sohng, Kyu-Ik

    2014-11-01

    An image toning method for low dynamic range image compression is presented. The proposed method inserts tone mapping into JPEG baseline instead of postprocessing. First, an image is decomposed into detail, base, and surrounding components in terms of the discrete cosine transform coefficients. Subsequently, a luminance-adaptive tone mapping based on the human visual sensitivity properties is applied. In addition, compensation modules are added to enhance the visually sensitive factors, such as saturation, sharpness, and gamma. A comparative study confirms that the transmitted compression images have good image quality.

  12. Aerial measurement of heat loss: Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    The purpose of the program described was to develop techniques to reduce or eliminate some of the variables associated with thermogram analysis in order to provide more objective interpretation of the data collected with greater potential for accuracy. A procedure is given for measuring temperature which accounts for atmospheric, background, and differential emissivity effects. The residual error was found to be 1.0/sup 0/C. A technique was then identified and developed for determining heat loss lovels from roof top surface temperature data. A thermal integrity factor was defined as a function of insulation level and thermostat setting. Comparing these thermal integrity factors with aerial thermography data indicates that aerial thermography can be used to objectively and confidently define heat loss levels from building roofs. (LEW)

  13. Aerial color infrared photography applications to citriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blazquez, C. H.; Horn, F. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Results of a one-year experimental study on the use of aerial color infrared photography in citrus grove management are presented. It is found that the spring season, when trees are in flush (have young leaves), is the best season to photograph visible differences between healthy and diseased trees. It is also shown that the best photography can be obtained with a 12-in. focal length lens. The photographic scale that allowed good photo interpretation with simple inexpensive equipment was 1 in. = 330 ft. The use of a window-overlay transparency method allowed rapid photo interpretation and data recording in computer-compatible forms. Aerial color infrared photography carried out during the spring season revealed a more accurate status of tree condition than visual inspection.

  14. Controller Design of Quadrotor Aerial Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yali, Yu; SunFeng; Yuanxi, Wang

    This paper deduced the nonlinear dynamic model of a quadrotor aerial robot, which was a VTOL (vertical tale-off and landing) unmanned air vehicle. Since that is a complex model with the highly nonlinear multivariable strongly coupled and under-actuated property, the controller design of it was very difficult. Aimed at attaining the excellent controller, the whole system can be divided into three interconnected parts: attitude subsystem, vertical subsystem, position subsystem. Then nonlinear control strategy of them has been described, such as SDRE and Backstepping. The controller design was presented to stabilize the whole system. Through simulation result indicates, the various models have shown that the control law stabilize a quadrotor aerial robot with good tracking performance and robotness of the system.

  15. Ultralight photovoltaic modules for unmanned aerial vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Nowlan, M.J.; Maglitta, J.C.; Darkazalli, G.; Lamp, T.

    1997-12-31

    New lightweight photovoltaic modules are being developed for powering high altitude unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Modified low-cost terrestrial solar cell and module technologies are being applied to minimize vehicle cost. New processes were developed for assembling thin solar cells, encapsulant films, and cover films. An innovative by-pass diode mounting approach that uses a solar cell as a heat spreader was devised and tested. Materials and processes will be evaluated through accelerated environmental testing.

  16. Comparative Analysis of the Tour Jete and Aerial with Detailed Analysis of Aerial Takeoff Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierson, Mimi; Coplin, Kim

    2006-10-01

    Whether internally as muscle tension or from external sources, forces are necessary for all motion. This research focused on athletic rotations where conditions of flight are established during takeoff. By studying reaction forces that produce torques, moments of inertia, and linear and angular differences between distinct rotations around different principle axes of the body (tour jete in ballet - longitudinal axis; aerial in gymnastics - anteroposterior axis), and by looking at the values of angular momentum in the specific mechanics of aerial takeoff, we can gain insight into possible causes of injury, flaws in technique and limitations of athletes. Results showed significant differences in the horizontal and vertical components of takeoff between the tour jete and the aerial, and a realization that torque was produced in different biomechanical planes. Both rotations showed braking forces before takeoff to counteract forward momentum and increase vertical lift, but the angle of applied force varied, and the horizontal components of velocity and force and vertical velocity as well as moment of inertia throughout flight were consistently greater for the aerial. Breakdown of aerial takeoff highlighted the relative importance of the takeoff phases, showing that completion depends fundamentally upon the rotation of the rear foot and torso twisting during takeoff rather than the last foot in contact with the ground.

  17. Remotely deployable aerial inspection using tactile sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeod, C. N.; Cao, J.; Pierce, S. G.; Sullivan, J. C.; Pipe, A. G.; Dobie, G.; Summan, R.

    2014-02-01

    For structural monitoring applications, the use of remotely deployable Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) inspection platforms offer many advantages, including improved accessibility, greater safety and reduced cost, when compared to traditional manual inspection techniques. The use of such platforms, previously reported by researchers at the University Strathclyde facilitates the potential for rapid scanning of large areas and volumes in hazardous locations. A common problem for both manual and remote deployment approaches lies in the intrinsic stand-off and surface coupling issues of typical NDE probes. The associated complications of these requirements are obviously significantly exacerbated when considering aerial based remote inspection and deployment, resulting in simple visual techniques being the preferred sensor payload. Researchers at Bristol Robotics Laboratory have developed biomimetic tactile sensors modelled on the facial whiskers (vibrissae) of animals such as rats and mice, with the latest sensors actively sweeping their tips across the surface in a back and forth motion. The current work reports on the design and performance of an aerial inspection platform and the suitability of tactile whisking sensors to aerial based surface monitoring applications.

  18. Localization of aerial broadband noise by pinnipeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Marla M.; Schusterman, Ronald J.; Southall, Brandon L.; Kastak, David

    2004-05-01

    Although many pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses) emit broadband calls on land as part of their communication system, few studies have addressed these animals' ability to localize aerial broadband sounds. In this study, the aerial sound localization acuities of a female northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), a male harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and a female California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) were measured in the horizontal plane. The stimulus was broadband white noise that was band pass filtered between 1.2 and 15 kHz. Testing was conducted in a hemi-anechoic chamber using a left/right forced choice procedure to measure the minimum audible angle (MAA) for each subject. MAAs were defined as half the angular separation of two sound sources bisected by a subject's midline that corresponded to 75% correct discrimination. MAAs were 4.7°, 3.6°, and 4.2° for the northern elephant seal, harbor seal, and California sea lion, respectively. These results demonstrate that individuals of these pinniped species have sound localization abilities comparable to the domestic cat and rhesus macaque. The acuity differences between our subjects were small and not predicted by head size. These results likely reflect the relatively acute general abilities of pinnipeds to localize aerial broadband signals.

  19. Inertial instrument system for aerial surveying

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, R.H.; Chapman, W.H.; Hanna, W.F.; Mongan, C.E.; Hursh, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    An inertial guidance system for aerial surveying has been developed under contract to the U.S. Geological Survey. This prototype system, known as the aerial profiling of terrain (APT) system, is designed to determine continuously the positions of points along an aircraft flight path, or the underlying terrain profile, to an accuracy of + or - 0.5 ft (15 cm) vertically and + or - 2 ft (61 cm) horizontally. The system 's objective thus is to accomplish, from a fixed-wing aircraft, what would traditionally be accomplished from ground-based topographic surveys combined with aerial photography and photogrammetry. The two-part strategy for measuring the terrain profile entails: (1) use of an inertial navigator for continuous determination of the three-coordinate position of the aircraft, and (2) use of an eye-safe pulsed laser profiler for continuous measurement of the vertical distance from aircraft to land surface, so that the desired terrain profile can then be directly computed. The APT system, installed in a DeHavilland Twin Otter aircraft, is typically flown at a speed of 115 mph (105 knots) at an altitude of 2,000 ft (610 m) above the terrain. Performance-evaluation flights have shown that the vertical and horizontal accuracy specifications are met. (USGS)

  20. Mask degradation monitoring with aerial mask inspector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Wen-Jui; Fu, Yung-Ying; Lu, Shih-Ping; Jiang, Ming-Sian; Lin, Jeffrey; Wu, Clare; Lifschitz, Sivan; Tam, Aviram

    2013-06-01

    As design rule continues to shrink, microlithography is becoming more challenging and the photomasks need to comply with high scanner laser energy, low CDU, and ever more aggressive RETs. This give rise to numerous challenges in the semiconductor wafer fabrication plants. Some of these challenges being contamination (mainly haze and particles), mask pattern degradation (MoSi oxidation, chrome migration, etc.) and pellicle degradation. Fabs are constantly working to establish an efficient methodology to manage these challenges mainly using mask inspection, wafer inspection, SEM review and CD SEMs. Aerial technology offers a unique opportunity to address the above mask related challenges using one tool. The Applied Materials Aera3TM system has the inherent ability to inspect for defects (haze, particles, etc.), and track mask degradation (e.g. CDU). This paper focuses on haze monitoring, which is still a significant challenge in semiconductor manufacturing, and mask degradation effects that are starting to emerge as the next challenge for high volume semiconductor manufacturers. The paper describes Aerial inspector (Aera3) early haze methodology and mask degradation tracking related to high volume manufacturing. These will be demonstrated on memory products. At the end of the paper we take a brief look on subsequent work currently conducted on the more general issue of photo mask degradation monitoring by means of an Aerial inspector.

  1. Remotely deployable aerial inspection using tactile sensors

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, C. N.; Cao, J.; Pierce, S. G.; Dobie, G.; Summan, R.; Sullivan, J. C.; Pipe, A. G.

    2014-02-18

    For structural monitoring applications, the use of remotely deployable Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) inspection platforms offer many advantages, including improved accessibility, greater safety and reduced cost, when compared to traditional manual inspection techniques. The use of such platforms, previously reported by researchers at the University Strathclyde facilitates the potential for rapid scanning of large areas and volumes in hazardous locations. A common problem for both manual and remote deployment approaches lies in the intrinsic stand-off and surface coupling issues of typical NDE probes. The associated complications of these requirements are obviously significantly exacerbated when considering aerial based remote inspection and deployment, resulting in simple visual techniques being the preferred sensor payload. Researchers at Bristol Robotics Laboratory have developed biomimetic tactile sensors modelled on the facial whiskers (vibrissae) of animals such as rats and mice, with the latest sensors actively sweeping their tips across the surface in a back and forth motion. The current work reports on the design and performance of an aerial inspection platform and the suitability of tactile whisking sensors to aerial based surface monitoring applications.

  2. Endocannabinoid tone versus constitutive activity of cannabinoid receptors

    PubMed Central

    Howlett, Allyn C; Reggio, Patricia H; Childers, Steven R; Hampson, Robert E; Ulloa, Nadine M; Deutsch, Dale G

    2011-01-01

    This review evaluates the cellular mechanisms of constitutive activity of the cannabinoid (CB) receptors, its reversal by inverse agonists, and discusses the pitfalls and problems in the interpretation of the research data. The notion is presented that endogenously produced anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) serve as autocrine or paracrine stimulators of the CB receptors, giving the appearance of constitutive activity. It is proposed that one cannot interpret inverse agonist studies without inference to the receptors' environment vis-à-vis the endocannabinoid agonists which themselves are highly lipophilic compounds with a preference for membranes. The endocannabinoid tone is governed by a combination of synthetic pathways and inactivation involving transport and degradation. The synthesis and degradation of 2-AG is well characterized, and 2-AG has been strongly implicated in retrograde signalling in neurons. Data implicating endocannabinoids in paracrine regulation have been described. Endocannabinoid ligands can traverse the cell's interior and potentially be stored on fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs). Molecular modelling predicts that the endocannabinoids derived from membrane phospholipids can laterally diffuse to enter the CB receptor from the lipid bilayer. Considering that endocannabinoid signalling to CB receptors is a much more likely scenario than is receptor activation in the absence of agonist ligands, researchers are advised to refrain from assuming constitutive activity except for experimental models known to be devoid of endocannabinoid ligands. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed issue on Cannabinoids in Biology and Medicine. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011.163.issue-7 PMID:21545414

  3. Visceral periadventitial adipose tissue regulates arterial tone of mesenteric arteries.

    PubMed

    Verlohren, Stefan; Dubrovska, Galyna; Tsang, Suk-Ying; Essin, Kirill; Luft, Friedrich C; Huang, Yu; Gollasch, Maik

    2004-09-01

    Periadventitial adipose tissue produces vasoactive substances that influence vascular contraction. Earlier studies addressed this issue in aorta, a vessel that does not contribute to peripheral vascular resistance. We tested the hypothesis that periadventitial adipose tissue modulates contraction of smaller arteries more relevant to blood pressure regulation. We studied mesenteric artery rings surrounded by periadventitial adipose tissue from adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. The contractile response to serotonin, phenylephrine, and endothelin I was markedly reduced in intact vessels compared with vessels without periadventitial fat. The contractile response to U46619 or depolarizing high K+-containing solutions (60 mmol/L) was similar in vessels with and without periadventitial fat. The K+ channel opener cromakalim induced relaxation of vessels precontracted by serotonin but not by U46619 or high K+-containing solutions (60 mmol/L), suggesting that K+ channels are involved. The intracellular membrane potential of smooth muscle cells was more hyperpolarized in intact vessels than in vessels without periadventitial fat. Both the anticontractile effect and membrane hyperpolarization of periadventitial fat were abolished by inhibition of delayed-rectifier K+ (K(v)) channels with 4-aminopyridine (2 mmol/L) or 3,4-diaminopyridine (1 mmol/L). Blocking other K+ channels with glibenclamide (3 micromol/L), apamin (1 micromol/L), iberiotoxin (100 nmol/L), tetraethylammonium ions (1 mmol/L), tetrapentylammonium ions (10 micromol/L), or Ba2+ (3 micromol/L) had no effect. Longitudinal removal of half the perivascular tissue reduced the anticontractile effect of fat by almost 50%, whereas removal of the endothelium had no effect. We suggest that visceral periadventitial adipose tissue controls mesenteric arterial tone by inducing vasorelaxation via K(v) channel activation in vascular smooth muscle cells. PMID:15302842

  4. Role of smooth muscle cell mineralocorticoid receptor in vascular tone.

    PubMed

    Tarjus, Antoine; Belozertseva, Ekaterina; Louis, Huguette; El Moghrabi, Soumaya; Labat, Carlos; Lacolley, Patrick; Jaisser, Frédéric; Galmiche, Guillaume

    2015-08-01

    Identification of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in the vasculature (i.e., endothelial and smooth muscle cells) raised the question of its role in vascular function and blood pressure control. Using a mouse model with conditional inactivation of MR in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) (MR(SMKO)), we have recently shown that the VSMC MR is crucial for aldosterone-salt-induced carotid stiffening. In the present study, we have investigated the specific contribution of the VSMC MR in the regulation of vascular tone in large vessels. In MR(SMKO) mice, contractions induced by potassium chloride and calcium (Ca(2+)) are decreased in the aorta, whereas contraction is normal in response to phenylephrine and caffeine. The difference in response to Ca(2+) suggests that the VSMC-specific deficiency of the MR modifies VSM Ca(2+) signaling but without altering the intracellular Ca(2+) store handling. The relaxation induced by acetylcholine is not affected by the absence of MR. However, the relaxation induced by Ach in the presence of indomethacin and the relaxation induced by sodium nitroprussiate are significantly reduced in MR(SMKO) mice compared to controls. Since endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity is increased in mutant mice, their altered relaxation reflects impairment of the nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway. In addition to altered NO and Ca(2+) signaling, the activity of myosin light chain and its regulators, myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and myosin phosphatase (MLCP), is reduced. In conclusion, MR expressed in VSMC is required for NO and Ca(2+) signaling pathways and contractile protein activity leading to an altered contraction/relaxation coupling. PMID:25262754

  5. Discrimination between Tone Quality and Intonation in Unaccompanied Flute/Oboe Duets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Clifford K.; Geringer, John M.

    1981-01-01

    Reports the results of a study that investigated patterns of judgmental discriminations and preferences with regard to tone quality versus intonation of accompanied flute and oboe duet performances of simple melodies among music and nonmusic graduate and undergraduate students. (AM)

  6. 17 Ways to Say Yes: Toward Nuanced Tone of Voice in AAC and Speech Technology

    PubMed Central

    Pullin, Graham; Hennig, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    Abstract People with complex communication needs who use speech-generating devices have very little expressive control over their tone of voice. Despite its importance in human interaction, the issue of tone of voice remains all but absent from AAC research and development however. In this paper, we describe three interdisciplinary projects, past, present and future: The critical design collection Six Speaking Chairs has provoked deeper discussion and inspired a social model of tone of voice; the speculative concept Speech Hedge illustrates challenges and opportunities in designing more expressive user interfaces; the pilot project Tonetable could enable participatory research and seed a research network around tone of voice. We speculate that more radical interactions might expand frontiers of AAC and disrupt speech technology as a whole. PMID:25965913

  7. 47 CFR 11.12 - Two-tone Attention Signal encoder and decoder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Two-tone Attention Signal encoder and decoder. 11.12 Section 11.12 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT... provide an audio alert....

  8. 17 Ways to Say Yes: Toward Nuanced Tone of Voice in AAC and Speech Technology.

    PubMed

    Pullin, Graham; Hennig, Shannon

    2015-06-01

    People with complex communication needs who use speech-generating devices have very little expressive control over their tone of voice. Despite its importance in human interaction, the issue of tone of voice remains all but absent from AAC research and development however. In this paper, we describe three interdisciplinary projects, past, present and future: The critical design collection Six Speaking Chairs has provoked deeper discussion and inspired a social model of tone of voice; the speculative concept Speech Hedge illustrates challenges and opportunities in designing more expressive user interfaces; the pilot project Tonetable could enable participatory research and seed a research network around tone of voice. We speculate that more radical interactions might expand frontiers of AAC and disrupt speech technology as a whole. PMID:25965913

  9. Response time effects of alerting tone and semantic context for synthesized voice cockpit warnings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, C. A.; Williams, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    Some handbooks and human factors design guides have recommended that a voice warning should be preceded by a tone to attract attention to the warning. As far as can be determined from a search of the literature, no experimental evidence supporting this exists. A fixed-base simulator flown by airline pilots was used to test the hypothesis that the total 'system-time' to respond to a synthesized voice cockpit warning would be longer when the message was preceded by a tone because the voice itself was expected to perform both the alerting and the information transfer functions. The simulation included realistic ATC radio voice communications, synthesized engine noise, cockpit conversation, and realistic flight routes. The effect of a tone before a voice warning was to lengthen response time; that is, responses were slower with an alerting tone. Lengthening the voice warning with another work, however, did not increase response time.

  10. Higher-level linguistic categories dominate lower-level acoustics in lexical tone processing.

    PubMed

    Zhao, T Christina; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2015-08-01

    Native tonal-language speakers exhibit reduced sensitivity to lexical tone differences within, compared to across, categories (higher-level linguistic category influence). Yet, sensitivity is enhanced among musically trained, non-tonal-language-speaking individuals (lower-level acoustics processing influence). The current study investigated the relative contribution of higher- and lower-level influences when both are present. Seventeen Mandarin musicians completed music pitch and lexical tone discrimination tasks. Similar to English musicians [Zhao and Kuhl (2015). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 137(3), 1452-1463], Mandarin musicians' overall sensitivity to lexical tone differences was associated with music pitch score, suggesting lower-level contributions. However, the musician's sensitivities to lexical tone pairs along a continuum were similar to Mandarin non-musicians, reflecting dominant higher-level influences. PMID:26328738

  11. Growth rate of loudness, annoyance, and noisiness as a function of tone location within the noise spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hellman, R. P.

    1984-01-01

    Absolute magnitude estimation methods were used to investigate the relation between the overall perceived magnitude of noise tone complexes and the location of the tone within the spectrum. In contrast to 'noisiness', loudness and annoyance growth behavior depends on the relationship of the single tones added to low- and high-pass noises in these tests, and to the spectral shape of the noise. Tones centered in noise produce nonmonotonic loudness and annoyance growth functions, while those added to the noise skirt produce power functions. Although a tone correction for annoyance is warranted for certain noise-tone configurations, none of the calculation procedures proposed can take all of the variables relevant to the perceived annoyance of tonal components into account. Complex auditory interactions generated by the simultaneous presentation of noise and tone can substantially account for the effects observed.

  12. Stream segregation in the perception of sinusoidally amplitude-modulated tones.

    PubMed

    Dolležal, Lena-Vanessa; Beutelmann, Rainer; Klump, Georg M

    2012-01-01

    Amplitude modulation can serve as a cue for segregating streams of sounds from different sources. Here we evaluate stream segregation in humans using ABA- sequences of sinusoidally amplitude modulated (SAM) tones. A and B represent SAM tones with the same carrier frequency (1000, 4000 Hz) and modulation depth (30, 100%). The modulation frequency of the A signals (f(modA)) was 30, 100 or 300 Hz, respectively. The modulation frequency of the B signals was up to four octaves higher (Δf(mod)). Three different ABA- tone patterns varying in tone duration and stimulus onset asynchrony were presented to evaluate the effect of forward suppression. Subjects indicated their 1- or 2-stream percept on a touch screen at the end of each ABA- sequence (presentation time 5 or 15 s). Tone pattern, f(modA), Δf(mod), carrier frequency, modulation depth and presentation time significantly affected the percentage of a 2-stream percept. The human psychophysical results are compared to responses of avian forebrain neurons evoked by different ABA- SAM tone conditions [1] that were broadly overlapping those of the present study. The neurons also showed significant effects of tone pattern and Δf(mod) that were comparable to effects observed in the present psychophysical study. Depending on the carrier frequency, modulation frequency, modulation depth and the width of the auditory filters, SAM tones may provide mainly temporal cues (sidebands fall within the range of the filter), spectral cues (sidebands fall outside the range of the filter) or possibly both. A computational model based on excitation pattern differences was used to predict the 50% threshold of 2-stream responses. In conditions for which the model predicts a considerably larger 50% threshold of 2-stream responses (i.e., larger Δf(mod) at threshold) than was observed, it is unlikely that spectral cues can provide an explanation of stream segregation by SAM. PMID:22984436

  13. Open Rotor Tone Shielding Methods for System Noise Assessments Using Multiple Databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahr, Christopher J.; Thomas, Russell H.; Lopes, Leonard V.; Burley, Casey L.; Van Zante, Dale E.

    2014-01-01

    Advanced aircraft designs such as the hybrid wing body, in conjunction with open rotor engines, may allow for significant improvements in the environmental impact of aviation. System noise assessments allow for the prediction of the aircraft noise of such designs while they are still in the conceptual phase. Due to significant requirements of computational methods, these predictions still rely on experimental data to account for the interaction of the open rotor tones with the hybrid wing body airframe. Recently, multiple aircraft system noise assessments have been conducted for hybrid wing body designs with open rotor engines. These assessments utilized measured benchmark data from a Propulsion Airframe Aeroacoustic interaction effects test. The measured data demonstrated airframe shielding of open rotor tonal and broadband noise with legacy F7/A7 open rotor blades. Two methods are proposed for improving the use of these data on general open rotor designs in a system noise assessment. The first, direct difference, is a simple octave band subtraction which does not account for tone distribution within the rotor acoustic signal. The second, tone matching, is a higher-fidelity process incorporating additional physical aspects of the problem, where isolated rotor tones are matched by their directivity to determine tone-by-tone shielding. A case study is conducted with the two methods to assess how well each reproduces the measured data and identify the merits of each. Both methods perform similarly for system level results and successfully approach the experimental data for the case study. The tone matching method provides additional tools for assessing the quality of the match to the data set. Additionally, a potential path to improve the tone matching method is provided.

  14. Noise occlusion in discrete tone sequences as a tool towards auditory predictive processing?

    PubMed

    Bendixen, Alexandra; Duwe, Susann; Reiche, Martin

    2015-11-11

    The notion of predictive coding is a common feature of many theories of auditory information processing. Experimental demonstrations of predictive auditory processing often rest on omitting predictable input in order to uncover the prediction made by the brain. Findings show that auditory cortical activity elicited by the omission of a predictable tone resembles the activity elicited by the actual tone. Here we attempted to extend this approach towards using noises instead of omissions in order to capture a more prevalent case of degraded sensory input. By applying a subtraction approach to remove ERP effects of the noise itself, auditory cortical activity elicited "behind" the noise was uncovered. We hypothesized that ERPs elicited behind noise stimuli covering predictable tones should be more similar to ERPs elicited by the actual tones than when the same comparison is made for unpredictable tones. ERP results during passive listening partly confirm this hypothesis, but also point towards some methodological caveats in this particular approach towards studying neural correlates of predictive auditory processing due to contributions from predictability-unrelated factors. A follow-up active listening condition indicated that participants were not more likely to perceive the tone sequence as continuous when a predictable tone was covered with noise than when this pertained to an unpredictable tone. Overall, the noise-based paradigm in its present form was not shown to be successful in revealing predictive processing in perceptual judgments or early neural correlates of sound processing. We discuss these findings in the contexts of predictive processing and illusory auditory continuity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Prediction and Attention. PMID:26187755

  15. Method of preparing pure fluorine gas

    DOEpatents

    Asprey, Larned B.

    1976-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive system for purifying and storing pure fluorine is described. The method utilizes alkali metal-nickel fluorides to absorb tank fluorine by forming nickel complex salts and leaving the gaseous impurities which are pumped away. The complex nickel fluoride is then heated to evolve back pure gaseous fluorine.

  16. Influences of Lexical Tone and Pitch on Word Recognition in Bilingual Infants

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Leher; Foong, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    Infants’ abilities to discriminate native and non-native phonemes have been extensively investigated in monolingual learners, demonstrating a transition from language-general to language-specific sensitivities over the first year after birth. However, these studies have mostly been limited to the study of vowels and consonants in monolingual learners. There is relatively little research on other types of phonetic segments, such as lexical tone, even though tone languages are very well represented across languages of the world. The goal of the present study is to investigate how Mandarin Chinese-English bilingual learners contend with non-phonemic pitch variation in English spoken word recognition. This is contrasted with their treatment of phonemic changes in lexical tone in Mandarin spoken word recognition. The experimental design was cross-sectional and three age-groups were sampled (7.5 months, 9 months and 11 months). Results demonstrated limited generalization abilities at 7.5 months, where infants only recognized words in English when matched in pitch and words in Mandarin that were matched in tone. At 9 months, infants recognized words in Mandarin Chinese that matched in tone, but also falsely recognized words that contrasted in tone. At this age, infants also recognized English words whether they were matched or mismatched in pitch. By 11 months, infants correctly recognized pitch-matched and - mismatched words in English but only recognized tonal matches in Mandarin Chinese. PMID:22682766

  17. The immediate effect of PNF pattern on muscle tone and muscle stiffness in chronic stroke patient

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Joong-San; Lee, Sang-Bin; Moon, Sang-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the immediate effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation on muscle tone and muscle stiffness in stroke patients. [ Subjects and Methods] The subjects consisted of 15 patients with chronic stroke (stroke group) and 15 healthy persons (healthy group). We measured the effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation intervention on the lower extremity using a muscle tone measurement device; this detected changes in muscle tone and stiffness in the lower extremity muscles. [Results] Measurements taken before the intervention showed that, on average, the lower extremity muscles of the stroke group showed abnormally increased muscle tone and stiffness compared to the lower extremity muscles of the healthy group. After the intervention, the average muscle tone and stiffness in the lower extremity muscles of the stroke group decreased, but this change was insignificant, and the differences between the two groups were also insignificant. [Conclusion] Based on the findings of this study, we recommend proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation treatment of both affected and non-affected sides to decrease the abnormally increased muscle tone and stiffness in the lower extremity muscles of chronic stroke patients. PMID:27134394

  18. The effects of tone language experience on pitch processing in the brainstem

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Gandour, Jackson T.; Bidelman, Gavin M.

    2009-01-01

    Neural encoding of pitch in the auditory brainstem is shaped by long-term experience with language. The aim herein was to determine to what extent this experience-dependent effect is specific to a particular language. Analysis of variance of brainstem responses to Mandarin and Thai tones revealed that regardless of language identity, pitch-tracking accuracy of whole tones was higher in the two tone language groups (Chinese, Thai) compared to the non-tone language group (English), and that pitch strength of 40-ms tonal sections was generally more robust in tone relative to non-tone languages. Discriminant analysis of tonal sections, as defined by variation in direction and degree of slope, showed that moderate rising pitch was the most important variable for classifying English, Chinese, and Thai participants into their respective groups. We conclude that language-dependent enhancement of pitch representation transfers to other languages with similar phonological systems. From a neurobiological perspective, these findings suggest that neural mechanisms local to the brainstem are tuned for processing pitch dimensions that are perceptually salient depending upon the melodic patterns of a language. PMID:20161561

  19. Repetition Suppression in the Left Inferior Frontal Gyrus Predicts Tone Learning Performance.

    PubMed

    Asaridou, Salomi S; Takashima, Atsuko; Dediu, Dan; Hagoort, Peter; McQueen, James M

    2016-06-01

    Do individuals differ in how efficiently they process non-native sounds? To what extent do these differences relate to individual variability in sound-learning aptitude? We addressed these questions by assessing the sound-learning abilities of Dutch native speakers as they were trained on non-native tone contrasts. We used fMRI repetition suppression to the non-native tones to measure participants' neuronal processing efficiency before and after training. Although all participants improved in tone identification with training, there was large individual variability in learning performance. A repetition suppression effect to tone was found in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri (IFGs) before training. No whole-brain effect was found after training; a region-of-interest analysis, however, showed that, after training, repetition suppression to tone in the left IFG correlated positively with learning. That is, individuals who were better in learning the non-native tones showed larger repetition suppression in this area. Crucially, this was true even before training. These findings add to existing evidence that the left IFG plays an important role in sound learning and indicate that individual differences in learning aptitude stem from differences in the neuronal efficiency with which non-native sounds are processed. PMID:26113631

  20. Influences of lexical tone and pitch on word recognition in bilingual infants.

    PubMed

    Singh, Leher; Foong, Joanne

    2012-08-01

    Infants' abilities to discriminate native and non-native phonemes have been extensively investigated in monolingual learners, demonstrating a transition from language-general to language-specific sensitivities over the first year after birth. However, these studies have mostly been limited to the study of vowels and consonants in monolingual learners. There is relatively little research on other types of phonetic segments, such as lexical tone, even though tone languages are very well represented across languages of the world. The goal of the present study is to investigate how Mandarin Chinese-English bilingual learners contend with non-phonemic pitch variation in English spoken word recognition. This is contrasted with their treatment of phonemic changes in lexical tone in Mandarin spoken word recognition. The experimental design was cross-sectional and three age-groups were sampled (7.5months, 9months and 11months). Results demonstrated limited generalization abilities at 7.5months, where infants only recognized words in English when matched in pitch and words in Mandarin that were matched in tone. At 9months, infants recognized words in Mandarin Chinese that matched in tone, but also falsely recognized words that contrasted in tone. At this age, infants also recognized English words whether they were matched or mismatched in pitch. By 11months, infants correctly recognized pitch-matched and - mismatched words in English but only recognized tonal matches in Mandarin Chinese. PMID:22682766