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Sample records for aerial reconnaissance ii

  1. Reconnaissance mapping from aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeden, H. A.; Bolling, N. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Engineering soil and geology maps were successfully made from Pennsylvania aerial photographs taken at scales from 1:4,800 to 1:60,000. The procedure involved a detailed study of a stereoscopic model while evaluating landform, drainage, erosion, color or gray tones, tone and texture patterns, vegetation, and cultural or land use patterns.

  2. Data annotation of aerial reconnaissance imagery and exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wareberg, P. Gunnar; Prunes, V.; Scholes, Richard W.

    1995-09-01

    This paper reviews the use of LED recording head assemblies (RHAs) for film annotation in aerial reconnaissance cameras and discusses code matrix block readers (CMBRs). Annotation of video imagery is also covered.

  3. Environmental application of aerial reconnaissance to search for open dumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getz, Thomas J.; Randolph, J. C.; Echelberger, Wayne F.

    1983-11-01

    Three approaches to using aerial photography are evaluated for searching for open dumps in the state of Indiana. Photography with hand-held cameras from a small airplane proved more effective and flexible than either photo-interpretation of existing air photos or subcontracting to a federal agency for new aerial photography. The rationale for our choice of aerial reconnaissance, other uses of low-level aerial surveillance, the utility of small-format camera aerial photography for environmental analysis, and methods used for locating open dumps are discussed.

  4. Effects of reflection properties of natural surfaces in aerial reconnaissance.

    PubMed

    Coulson, K L

    1966-06-01

    Measurements of the reflecting and polarizing properties of various soils, sands, and vegetation in the visible-and near-ir spectral regions show that dark surfaces polarize the reflected radiation strongly while highly reflecting surfaces have relatively weak polarizing properties. In general, the reflectance of mineral surfaces increases, and the degree of polarization of the reflected radiation decreases, with increasing wavelength and increasing angle of incidence. There is little or no indication of specular reflection from the surfaces for which measurements were made. Introduction of the reflection data into the equation of radiative transfer for clear and slightly turbid models of the earth's atmosphere shows that the upward radiation that would be incident on a high-altitude aircraft or satellite would be dominated by surface-reflected radiation for the red and near-ir regions over highly reflecting surfaces such as deserts, whereas atmospheric scattering is most important for short wavelengths and dark surfaces. Because of polarization effects, atmospheric transmission of optical contrasts is better in one orthogonal intensity component than the other, the difference being sufficient to merit polarizing optics in reconnaissance instrumentation under certain conditions.

  5. Condor TAC: EO/IR tactical aerial reconnaissance photography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrushevsky, Vladimir; Tsur, David

    2012-06-01

    Based on the experience gained with the Condor2 long-range oblique photography (LOROP) camera, ELOP is expanding its airborne reconnaissance product line with the Condor TAC tactical photography system. The latter was designed for overflight imaging of extended areas from a fighter or special mission aircraft, at day and night. The Condor TAC is mounted in an aerodynamically shaped pod and can operate in wide envelope of flight altitude and speed. Besides the camera, the pod contains mission management and video processing unit (MVU), solid state recorder (SSR), wide-band data link (DL) for real-time imagery transmission, and two environmental control units (ECU). Complex multi-segment optical windows were successfully developed for the system. The camera system design is modular and highly flexible. Two independent imaging payload modules are mounted inside a gimbal system. Each of the modules is equipped with a strap-down IMU, and may carry a cluster of cameras or a single large camera with gross weight up to 35 kg. The payload modules are interchangeable, with an identical interface to the gimbal. The modularity and open architecture of the system facilitate its adaptation to various operational requirements, as well as allow easy and relatively non-expensive upgrades and configuration changes. In the current configuration, both EO and IR payload modules are equipped with a combination of longer focal length cameras for bi-directional panoramic scan at medium and high flight altitudes, and shorter focal length cameras for fixed wide angle coverage at low altitudes. All the camera types are equipped with standard format, off-the-shelf area detector arrays. Precise motion compensation is achieved by calibrated back-scan mirrors.

  6. A framework for autonomous and continuous aerial intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korpela, Christopher; Root, Philip; Kim, Jinho; Wilkerson, Stephen; Gadsden, S. Andrew

    2016-05-01

    We propose a framework for intelligence, reconnaissance, and surveillance using an aerial vehicle with multiple sensor payloads to provide autonomous and continuous security operations at a fixed location. A control scheme and a graphical user interface between the vehicle and operator is strictly mandated for tasks requiring remote and unattended inspection. By leveraging existing navigation and path planning algorithms, the system can autonomously patrol large areas, automatically recharge when required, and relay on-demand data back to the user. This paper presents recent validation results of the system and its sensors using the proposed framework.

  7. NURE aerial gamma-ray and magnetic reconnaissance survey of portions of New Mexico, Arizona and Texas. Volume II. New Mexico-Las Cruces NI 13-10 Quadrangle. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    The results of a high-sensitivity, aerial gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey of the Las Cruces two degree quadrangle, New Mexico, are presented. Instrumentation and methods are described in Volume 1 of this final report. The work was done by Carson Helicopters, Inc., and International Exploration, Inc. The work was performed for the US Department of Energy - National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. Analysis of this radiometric data yielded 192 statistically significant eU anomalies. Of this number, thirty-nine were considered to be of sufficient strength to warrant further investigation.

  8. NURE aerial gamma-ray and magnetic reconnaissance survey of portions of New Mexico, Arizona and Texas. Volume II. Texas-New Mexico-El Paso NH 13-1 Quadrangle. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    The results of a high-sensitivity, aerial gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey of the El Paso, two degree quadrangle, New Mexico, are presented. Instrumentation and methods are described in Volume I of this final report. The work was done by Carson Helicopters Inc., and Carson Helicopters was assisted in the interpretation by International Exploration, Inc. The work was performed for the US Department of Energy - National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. A total of 72 statistically significant eU anomalies were identified in this quadrangle. Of this number 20 were considered to be of sufficient intensity to warrant field investigations, however, many of these anomalies appear to be wholly, or in part, associated with various unconsolidated Quaternary deposits. Only three of the 20 can, with certainty be identified with bedrock; one with a Quaternary flow, one with Cambrian sandstone and one with a Precambrian granite.

  9. AVIATR - Aerial Vehicle for In-situ and Airborne Titan Reconnaissance A Titan Airplane Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Jason W.; Lemke, Lawrence; Foch, Rick; McKay, Christopher P.; Beyer, Ross A.; Radebaugh, Jani; Atkinson, David H.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; LeMouelic, Stephane; Rodriguez, Sebastien; Gundlach, Jay; Giannini, Francesco; Bain, Sean; Flasar, F. Michael; Hurford, Terry; Anderson, Carrie M.; Merrison, Jon; Adamkovics, Mate; Kattenhorn, Simon A.; Mitchell, Jonathan; Burr, Devon M.; Colaprete, Anthony; Schaller, Emily; Friedson, A. James; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Coradini, Angioletta; Adriani, Alberto; Sayanagi, Kunio M.; Malaska, Michael J.; Morabito, David; Reh, Kim

    2011-01-01

    We describe a mission concept for a stand-alone Titan airplane mission: Aerial Vehicle for In-situ and Airborne Titan Reconnaissance (AVIATR). With independent delivery and direct-to-Earth communications, AVIATR could contribute to Titan science either alone or as part of a sustained Titan Exploration Program. As a focused mission, AVIATR as we have envisioned it would concentrate on the science that an airplane can do best: exploration of Titan's global diversity. We focus on surface geology/hydrology and lower-atmospheric structure and dynamics. With a carefully chosen set of seven instruments-2 near-IR cameras, 1 near-IR spectrometer, a RADAR altimeter, an atmospheric structure suite, a haze sensor, and a raindrop detector-AVIATR could accomplish a significant subset of the scientific objectives of the aerial element of flagship studies. The AVIATR spacecraft stack is composed of a Space Vehicle (SV) for cruise, an Entry Vehicle (EV) for entry and descent, and the Air Vehicle (AV) to fly in Titan's atmosphere. Using an Earth-Jupiter gravity assist trajectory delivers the spacecraft to Titan in 7.5 years, after which the AVIATR AV would operate for a 1-Earth-year nominal mission. We propose a novel 'gravity battery' climb-then-glide strategy to store energy for optimal use during telecommunications sessions. We would optimize our science by using the flexibility of the airplane platform, generating context data and stereo pairs by flying and banking the AV instead of using gimbaled cameras. AVIATR would climb up to 14 km altitude and descend down to 3.5 km altitude once per Earth day, allowing for repeated atmospheric structure and wind measurements all over the globe. An initial Team-X run at JPL priced the AVIATR mission at FY10 $715M based on the rules stipulated in the recent Discovery announcement of opportunity. Hence we find that a standalone Titan airplane mission can achieve important science building on Cassini's discoveries and can likely do so within

  10. A User Approach To Image Interpretation (II) Keys With Low Altitude, Large-Scale Reconnaissance (LALSR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, James W.

    1990-02-01

    As new high-detailed imaging systems develop, new keys to interpretation must also be developed, especially when distance and perspective are changed dramatically. Low altitude, large-scale reconnaissance (LALSR) imagery is close enough to the ground to eliminate many of the traditional visual cues that exist in most aerial images. The perspective involved can be compared to looking at rust on wire bristles without seeing the whole brush. Now, individual species of plants are recorded, rather than general types of vegetation. Because of increased surface detail with LALSR, a publication covering image interpretation (II) keys would be too voluminous. For this reason, a user approach to the development of II keys for LALSR appears to be more useful and economical. The user, knowing his needs and environment, can best select and create those keys which apply. The selected keys will be based on the visual cues, perspective, and scales, peculiar to LALSR. Keys of this type can be enhanced by the system operator during flights because of his proximity in the target area. The potential of this system for on-site processing also assists the user in key definition. Example projects are outlined.

  11. Atmospheric Mining in the Outer Solar System:. [Aerial Vehicle Reconnaissance and Exploration Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric mining in the outer solar system has been investigated as a means of fuel production for high energy propulsion and power. Fusion fuels such as Helium 3 (3He) and hydrogen can be wrested from the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune and either returned to Earth or used in-situ for energy production. Helium 3 and hydrogen (deuterium, etc.) were the primary gases of interest with hydrogen being the primary propellant for nuclear thermal solid core and gas core rocket-based atmospheric flight. A series of analyses were undertaken to investigate resource capturing aspects of atmospheric mining in the outer solar system. This included the gas capturing rate, storage options, and different methods of direct use of the captured gases. Additional supporting analyses were conducted to illuminate vehicle sizing and orbital transportation issues. While capturing 3He, large amounts of hydrogen and 4He are produced. With these two additional gases, the potential for fueling small and large fleets of additional exploration and exploitation vehicles exists. Additional aerospacecraft or other aerial vehicles (UAVs, balloons, rockets, etc.) could fly through the outer planet atmospheres, for global weather observations, localized storm or other disturbance investigations, wind speed measurements, polar observations, etc. Deep-diving aircraft (built with the strength to withstand many atmospheres of pressure) powered by the excess hydrogen or helium 4 may be designed to probe the higher density regions of the gas giants. Outer planet atmospheric properties, atmospheric storm data, and mission planning for future outer planet UAVs are presented.

  12. Tests of Australian aerial radiometric data for use in petroleum reconnaissance

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, D.F.; Branch, J.F.; Thompson, C.K. )

    1994-03-01

    Recon Exploration Pty. Ltd. has successfully completed initial testing of a new method for processing and interpretation of AGSO's (Australian Geological Survey Organization, formerly Bureau of Mineral Resources) aerial gamma-ray spectrometer data for petroleum exploration in the Canning Basin, Western Australia and the Otway Basin, Victoria. Count-rate data for potassium and uranium were normalized to the thorium count rate for each sample to suppress unwanted effects of variations in surface lithology or soil type, soil moisture, vegetation cover, and counting geometry. The Canning Basin test area included five producing oil fields. All except one clearly exhibit significant and characteristic radiometric anomalies which include negative normalized potassium and more positive normalized uranium values. The Otway Basin test areas included PPL-1 commercial gas production which is associated with a group of significant radiometric anomalies similar to those in the Canning Basin. These results are similar to extensive ongoing tests in the US and are explained in terms of well-understood geological, geochemical, and geophysical models. Based on 69 wells in the three test areas, it is estimated that the chance of encountering hydrocarbons (economic production or shows) in wells within the radiometrically favorable zones is about 2.6 times greater than outside the favorable areas.

  13. AVIATR—Aerial Vehicle for In-situ and Airborne Titan Reconnaissance. A Titan airplane mission concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Jason W.; Lemke, Lawrence; Foch, Rick; McKay, Christopher P.; Beyer, Ross A.; Radebaugh, Jani; Atkinson, David H.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Rodriguez, Sebastien; Gundlach, Jay; Giannini, Francesco; Bain, Sean; Flasar, F. Michael; Hurford, Terry; Anderson, Carrie M.; Merrison, Jon; Ádámkovics, Máté; Kattenhorn, Simon A.; Mitchell, Jonathan; Burr, Devon M.; Colaprete, Anthony; Schaller, Emily; Friedson, A. James; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Coradini, Angioletta; Adriani, Alberto; Sayanagi, Kunio M.; Malaska, Michael J.; Morabito, David; Reh, Kim

    2012-03-01

    We describe a mission concept for a stand-alone Titan airplane mission: Aerial Vehicle for In-situ and Airborne Titan Reconnaissance (AVIATR). With independent delivery and direct-to-Earth communications, AVIATR could contribute to Titan science either alone or as part of a sustained Titan Exploration Program. As a focused mission, AVIATR as we have envisioned it would concentrate on the science that an airplane can do best: exploration of Titan's global diversity. We focus on surface geology/hydrology and lower-atmospheric structure and dynamics. With a carefully chosen set of seven instruments—2 near-IR cameras, 1 near-IR spectrometer, a RADAR altimeter, an atmospheric structure suite, a haze sensor, and a raindrop detector—AVIATR could accomplish a significant subset of the scientific objectives of the aerial element of flagship studies. The AVIATR spacecraft stack is composed of a Space Vehicle (SV) for cruise, an Entry Vehicle (EV) for entry and descent, and the Air Vehicle (AV) to fly in Titan's atmosphere. Using an Earth-Jupiter gravity assist trajectory delivers the spacecraft to Titan in 7.5 years, after which the AVIATR AV would operate for a 1-Earth-year nominal mission. We propose a novel `gravity battery' climb-then-glide strategy to store energy for optimal use during telecommunications sessions. We would optimize our science by using the flexibility of the airplane platform, generating context data and stereo pairs by flying and banking the AV instead of using gimbaled cameras. AVIATR would climb up to 14 km altitude and descend down to 3.5 km altitude once per Earth day, allowing for repeated atmospheric structure and wind measurements all over the globe. An initial Team-X run at JPL priced the AVIATR mission at FY10 715M based on the rules stipulated in the recent Discovery announcement of opportunity. Hence we find that a standalone Titan airplane mission can achieve important science building on Cassini's discoveries and can likely do so

  14. Aerial radiometric and magnetic reconnaissance survey of portions of Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia: Cumberland quadrangle. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    The results of a high-sensitivity, aerial, gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey of the Cumberland Quadrangle, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia, are presented. Instrumentation and methods are described in Volume 1 of this final report. This work was done as part of the US Department of Energy National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program. Statisical and geological analysis of the radiometric data revealed 38 anomalies worthy of field checking as possible prospects. Seventeen anomalies coincide with cultural features that may be major contributors to their anomalous values. The Elwood Formation of Cambrian age has the greatest concentration of anomalies, followed by the Monongahela Formation of Pennsylvanian age and Hampshire/Catskill formations of Devonian age.

  15. Airborne system for testing multispectral reconnaissance technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Dirk-Roger; Doergeloh, Heinrich; Keil, Heiko; Wetjen, Wilfried

    1999-07-01

    There is an increasing demand for future airborne reconnaissance systems to obtain aerial images for tactical or peacekeeping operations. Especially Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) equipped with multispectral sensor system and with real time jam resistant data transmission capabilities are of high interest. An airborne experimental platform has been developed as testbed to investigate different concepts of reconnaissance systems before their application in UAVs. It is based on a Dornier DO 228 aircraft, which is used as flying platform. Great care has been taken to achieve the possibility to test different kinds of multispectral sensors. Hence basically it is capable to be equipped with an IR sensor head, high resolution aerial cameras of the whole optical spectrum and radar systems. The onboard equipment further includes system for digital image processing, compression, coding, and storage. The data are RF transmitted to the ground station using technologies with high jam resistance. The images, after merging with enhanced vision components, are delivered to the observer who has an uplink data channel available to control flight and imaging parameters.

  16. Diversity of an aerial phototrophic coating of historic buildings in the former Auschwitz II-Birkenau concentration camp.

    PubMed

    Nowicka-Krawczyk, Paulina; Żelazna-Wieczorek, Joanna; Otlewska, Anna; Koziróg, Anna; Rajkowska, Katarzyna; Piotrowska, Małgorzata; Gutarowska, Beata; Żydzik-Białek, Agnieszka

    2014-09-15

    Aerial phototrophs colonize materials of anthropogenic origin, thus contributing to their biodeterioration. Structures preserved at the former Auschwitz II-Birkenau concentration and extermination camp show signs of degradation by cyanobacteria and algae. In order to protect the Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial Site, diversity of aerial phototrophs growing on the historic buildings has been studied. Analyses of cyanobacterial and algal biofilms growing on various construction substrates were carried out in summer and winter. Multivariate data analyses were used to: characterize the diversity of cyanobacteria and algae growing in brick and wooden camp buildings depending on the research season, indicate preferences of cyanobacteria and algae in colonizing substrates, and to predict the environmental factor that most determines the growth of phototrophs. The biofilms were formed mainly by cyanobacteria, green algae and diatoms. The amount of cyanobacteria and algae in the biofilms was varied, which resulted from changes in climatic conditions, the type of substrate and the height at which the biofilms developed. In the summer, the ratio of cyanobacteria and algae groups was balanced, while in the winter, green algae and diatoms were dominant. Green algae showed a preference for colonizing plaster, wood and concrete, of which the walls and doors of the buildings were made. Their participation was correlated with a height gradient. Cyanobacteria and diatoms grew on bricks and soil on the floor of the buildings and temperature and relative humidity were the factors that modified their amount. Green algae were more cosmopolitan-occurred in dry places, potentially inaccessible to other organisms; therefore, they have been identified as the pioneer group in the prevailing climatic conditions. PMID:24937497

  17. Acquiring new technology for reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poore, Michael F.

    1993-02-01

    This paper presents an academic approach to defining a responsive system concept for reconnaissance. The author outlines a systems approach used to measure the timeliness of the tactical reconnaissance system structure common in 1986. A new systems approach exercises the structure necessary to suggest better ways for successful acquisition of new reconnaissance systems. The method blends the utility of the earlier operational system approach with the new acquisition strategy for future reconnaissance concepts.

  18. Night reconnaissance for F-16 multirole reconnaissance pod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brownie, Ralph S.; Larroque, Clement

    2004-08-01

    The Belgian Air Force successfully carried out flight trials of the latest Low Light CCD focal plane technology during December of 2003. Simultaneous imaging of the ground was performed by conventional CCD, Infra Red Linescan and Low Light CCD reconnaissance sensors; provided and integrated by Thales within the Modular Reconnaissance Pod (MRP). This paper reports on the results and compares capability of the technologies.

  19. Aerial Explorers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg; Ippolito, Corey

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents recent results from a mission architecture study of planetary aerial explorers. In this study, several mission scenarios were developed in simulation and evaluated on success in meeting mission goals. This aerial explorer mission architecture study is unique in comparison with previous Mars airplane research activities. The study examines how aerial vehicles can find and gain access to otherwise inaccessible terrain features of interest. The aerial explorer also engages in a high-level of (indirect) surface interaction, despite not typically being able to takeoff and land or to engage in multiple flights/sorties. To achieve this goal, a new mission paradigm is proposed: aerial explorers should be considered as an additional element in the overall Entry, Descent, Landing System (EDLS) process. Further, aerial vehicles should be considered primarily as carrier/utility platforms whose purpose is to deliver air-deployed sensors and robotic devices, or symbiotes, to those high-value terrain features of interest.

  20. Multi-Temporal Analysis of WWII Reconnaissance Photos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meixner, P.; Eckstein, M.

    2016-06-01

    There are millions of aerial photographs from the period of the Second Wold War available in the Allied archives, obtained by aerial photo reconnaissance, covering most of today's European countries. They are spanning the time from 1938 until the end of the war and even beyond. Photo reconnaissance provided intelligence information for the Allied headquarters and accompanied the bombing offensive against the German homeland and the occupied territories. One of the initial principal targets in Bohemia were the synthetized fuel works STW AG (Sudetenländische Treibstoffwerke AG) in Zaluzi (formerly Maltheuren) near Most (formerly Brück), Czech Republic. The STW AG synthetized fuel plant was not only subject to bombing raids, but a subject to quite intensive photo reconnaissance, too - long before the start of the bombing campaign. With a multi-temporal analysis of the available imagery from international archives we will demonstrate the factory build-up during 1942 and 1943, the effects of the bombing raids in 1944 and the struggle to keep the plant working in the last year of the war. Furthermore we would like to show the impact the bombings have today, in form of potential unexploded ordnance in the adjacent area of the open cast mines.

  1. RISTA II trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, John R.

    1998-11-01

    Northrop Grumman Corporation has developed an advanced 2nd generation IR sensor system under the guidance of the US Army's Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) as part of an Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration (ACTD) called Counter Mobile Rocket Launcher (CMRL). Designed to support rapid counter fire against mobile targets from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), the sensor system, called reconnaissance IR surveillance target acquisition (RISTA II), consists of a 2nd generation FLIR/line scanner, a digital data link, a ground processing facility, and an aided target recognizer (AiTF). The concept of operation together with component details was reported at the passive sensors IRIS in March, 1996. The performance testing of the RISTA II System was reported at the National IRIS in November, 1997. The RISTA II sensor has subsequently undergone performance testing on a Royal Netherlands Air Force F-16 for a manned reconnaissance application in August and October, 1997, at Volkel Airbase, Netherlands. That testing showed performance compatible with the medium altitude IR sensor performance. The results of that testing, together with flight test imagery, will be presented.

  2. Hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulk, Tim; Chiarini, David; Hill, Kevin; Kunszt, Bob; Odgen, Chris; Truong, Bon

    1992-01-01

    A conceptual design of a hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft for the U.S. Navy is discussed. After eighteen weeks of work, a waverider design powered by two augmented turbofans was chosen. The aircraft was designed to be based on an aircraft carrier and to cruise 6,000 nautical miles at Mach 4;80,000 feet and above. As a result the size of the aircraft was only allowed to have a length of eighty feet, fifty-two feet in wingspan, and roughly 2,300 square feet in planform area. Since this is a mainly cruise aircraft, sixty percent of its 100,000 pound take-off weight is JP fuel. At cruise, the highest temperature that it will encounter is roughly 1,100 F, which can be handled through the use of a passive cooling system.

  3. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission Highlights

    NASA Video Gallery

    Since launch on June 18, 2009 as a precursor mission, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has remained in orbit around the moon, collecting vast amounts of science data in support of NASA's expl...

  4. High altitude reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yazdo, Renee Anna; Moller, David

    1990-01-01

    At the equator the ozone layer ranges from 65,000 to 130,000 plus feet, which is beyond the capabilities of the ER-2, NASA's current high altitude reconnaissance aircraft. The Universities Space Research Association, in cooperation with NASA, is sponsoring an undergraduate program which is geared to designing an aircraft that can study the ozone layer at the equator. This aircraft must be able to cruise at 130,000 feet for six hours at Mach 0.7, while carrying 3,000 lbs. of payload. In addition, the aircraft must have a minimum range of 6,000 miles. In consideration of the novel nature of this project, the pilot must be able to take control in the event of unforeseen difficulties. Three aircraft configurations were determined to be the most suitable - a joined-wing, a biplane, and a twin-boom conventional airplane. The performance of each configuration was analyzed to investigate the feasibility of the project.

  5. Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    John Hill, a pilot and commercial aerial photographer, needed an information base. He consulted NERAC and requested a search of the latest developments in camera optics. NERAC provided information; Hill contacted the manufacturers of camera equipment and reduced his photographic costs significantly.

  6. Applications of ecological concepts and remote sensing technologies in archaeological site reconnaissance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W. Frank; Sever, Thomas L.; Lee, C. Daniel

    1991-01-01

    The concept of integrating ecological perspectives on early man's settlement patterns with advanced remote sensing technologies shows promise for predictive site modeling. Early work with aerial imagery and ecosystem analysis is discussed with respect to the development of a major project in Maya archaeology supported by NASA and the National Geographic Society with technical support from the Mississippi State Remote Sensing Center. A preliminary site reconnaissance model will be developed for testing during the 1991 field season.

  7. COCOA: tracking in aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Saad; Shah, Mubarak

    2006-05-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are becoming a core intelligence asset for reconnaissance, surveillance and target tracking in urban and battlefield settings. In order to achieve the goal of automated tracking of objects in UAV videos we have developed a system called COCOA. It processes the video stream through number of stages. At first stage platform motion compensation is performed. Moving object detection is performed to detect the regions of interest from which object contours are extracted by performing a level set based segmentation. Finally blob based tracking is performed for each detected object. Global tracks are generated which are used for higher level processing. COCOA is customizable to different sensor resolutions and is capable of tracking targets as small as 100 pixels. It works seamlessly for both visible and thermal imaging modes. The system is implemented in Matlab and works in a batch mode.

  8. The future of space reconnaissance

    SciTech Connect

    Richelson, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    Despite the warming of US - Soviet relations, the US will still need to conduct extensive satellite reconnaissance, as will the Soviets. Besides monitoring advances in military technology and compliance with arms-control treaties, satellites have additional targets to examine. As demonstrated by recent events in the Persian Gulf, regional hot spots present constant threats. Targeting weaponry or listening in on an enemy's military communications from space is feasible form any nation operating a spy satellite. But, at the same time, satellites will also enable nations to gauge threats accurately and thus possibly circumvent potential hostilities. In any event, a multitude of orbiting eyes and ears from various countries - hostile, friendly and neutral - will affect international affairs for some time to come. Much of the surveillance technology other countries will use, however, will not match that of the US. Unclassified documents, military experts and former intelligence officials reveal that US satellite reconnaissance, having been an established and accepted component of intelligence operations for more than 30 years, has now reached a pinnacle of high technology. Indeed, analysts think the US may budget as much as $5 billion on space reconnaissance each year; the Department of Defense has already spent an estimated $100 billion since 1960, when the US began launching its photoreconnaissance satellites.

  9. 15 CFR 270.101 - Preliminary reconnaissance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION SAFETY TEAMS NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION SAFETY TEAMS Establishment and Deployment of Teams § 270.101 Preliminary reconnaissance. (a)...

  10. Information Management For Tactical Reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, James P.

    1984-12-01

    The expected battlefield tactics of the 1980's and 1990's will be fluid and dynamic. If tactical reconnaissance is to meet this challenge, it must explore all ways of accelerating the flow of information through the reconnaissance cycle, from the moment a tasking request is received to the time the mission results are delivered to the requestor. In addition to near real-time dissemination of reconnaissance information, the mission planning phase needs to be more responsive to the rapidly changing battlefield scenario. By introducing Artificial Intelligence (AI) via an expert system to the mission planning phase, repetitive and computational tasks can be more readily performed by the ground-based mission planning system, thereby permitting the aircrew to devote more of their time to target study. Transporting the flight plan, plus other mission data, to the aircraft is simple with the Fairchild Data Transfer Equipment (DTE). Aircrews are relieved of the tedious, error-prone, and time-consuming task of manually keying-in avionics initialization data. Post-flight retrieval of mission data via the DTE will permit follow-on aircrews, just starting their mission planning phase, to capitalize on current threat data collected by the returning aircrew. Maintenance data retrieved from the recently flown mission will speed-up the aircraft turn-around by providing near-real time fault detection/isolation. As future avionics systems demand more information, a need for a computer-controlled, smart data base or expert system on-board the aircraft will emerge.

  11. RF sensor solutions for small lightweight unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Innocenti, Roberto

    2005-05-01

    A need exists for greater situational awareness at the lower echelons of the Army. Radar Frequency (RF) sensors on small, lightweight Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) could provide lower echelon commanders with all-weather reconnaissance, early warning, and target acquisition; however, the designs of these RF sensors are limited by the projected size and weight restrictions on the payload for a class II UAV. Consequently, these designs may favor combining simple RF sensor hardware with digital-signal processing (DSP) solutions over more sophisticated radar hardware. In this paper, we show the potential of simple, low cost RF sensors with hemispherical antenna coverage to overcome these limitations. The proposed RF sensor system used DSP and pre-defined UAV flight pattern to detect and track moving targets from range and Doppler information. Our objective is to conceive and model a suite of software options that, by combining UAV flight patterns and processing algorithms, will be able to detect and track moving targets. In order to accomplish this, we are building a simulation that uses sensor models, target models, and battlefield dynamics to predict the targeting capabilities of the RF sensor system. We will use this simulation (1) to determine the tradeoffs between sensor complexity (and cost) and the military significance of the information gathered, and (2) to describe sensor error budgets for endgame lethality models

  12. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Wrapper Script

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladden, Roy; Fisher, Forest; Khanampornpan, Teerapat

    2008-01-01

    The MRO OLVM wrapper script software allows Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) sequence and spacecraft engineers to rapidly simulate a spacecraft command product through a tool that simulates the onboard sequence management software (OLVM). This script parses sequence files to determine the appropriate time boundaries for the sequence, and constructs the script file to be executed by OLVM to span the entirety of the designated sequence. It then constructs script files to be executed by OLVM, constructs the appropriate file directories, populates these directories with needed input files, initiates OLVM to simulate the actual command product that will be sent to the spacecraft, and captures the results of the simulation run to an external file for later review. Additionally, the tool allows a user to manually construct the script, if desired, and then execute the script with a simple command line.

  13. Light armored vehicle reconnaissance and surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbeau, Nicolas R.

    1994-10-01

    The Canadian Department of National Defence (DND) has established a requirement for a fleet of reconnaissance vehicles equipped with a modern surveillance system to be used in a wide variety of scenarios. This includes conventional operations within NATO, contingency operations in troubled areas as well as UN peacekeeping missions. As such, the Light Armored Vehicles Reconnaissance and Surveillance System will be the first 24 hour all- weather reconnaissance system integrated into a combat vehicle. This paper intends to describe how the operational requirements defined by DND were translated into sensor and system requirements. After a summary of the current configuration, it focuses on product pre-planned improvements and future needs.

  14. Object and activity detection from aerial video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Se, Stephen; Shi, Feng; Liu, Xin; Ghazel, Mohsen

    2015-05-01

    Aerial video surveillance has advanced significantly in recent years, as inexpensive high-quality video cameras and airborne platforms are becoming more readily available. Video has become an indispensable part of military operations and is now becoming increasingly valuable in the civil and paramilitary sectors. Such surveillance capabilities are useful for battlefield intelligence and reconnaissance as well as monitoring major events, border control and critical infrastructure. However, monitoring this growing flood of video data requires significant effort from increasingly large numbers of video analysts. We have developed a suite of aerial video exploitation tools that can alleviate mundane monitoring from the analysts, by detecting and alerting objects and activities that require analysts' attention. These tools can be used for both tactical applications and post-mission analytics so that the video data can be exploited more efficiently and timely. A feature-based approach and a pixel-based approach have been developed for Video Moving Target Indicator (VMTI) to detect moving objects at real-time in aerial video. Such moving objects can then be classified by a person detector algorithm which was trained with representative aerial data. We have also developed an activity detection tool that can detect activities of interests in aerial video, such as person-vehicle interaction. We have implemented a flexible framework so that new processing modules can be added easily. The Graphical User Interface (GUI) allows the user to configure the processing pipeline at run-time to evaluate different algorithms and parameters. Promising experimental results have been obtained using these tools and an evaluation has been carried out to characterize their performance.

  15. High-altitude reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yazdi, Renee Anna

    1991-01-01

    At the equator the ozone layer ranges from 65,000 to 130,000+ ft, which is beyond the capabilities of the ER-2, NASA's current high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft. This project is geared to designing an aircraft that can study the ozone layer. The aircraft must be able to satisfy four mission profiles. The first is a polar mission that ranges from Chile to the South Pole and back to Chile, a total range of 6000 n.m. at 100,000 ft with a 2500-lb payload. The second mission is also a polar mission with a decreased altitude and an increased payload. For the third mission, the aircraft will take off at NASA Ames, cruise at 100,000 ft, and land in Chile. The final mission requires the aircraft to make an excursion to 120,000 ft. All four missions require that a subsonic Mach number be maintained because of constraints imposed by the air sampling equipment. Three aircraft configurations were determined to be the most suitable for meeting the requirements. The performance of each is analyzed to investigate the feasibility of the mission requirements.

  16. Reconnaissance surficial geologic map of the Taylor Mountains quadrangle, southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.

    2015-09-28

    I used the Platt and Muller 1950s-era aerial photographic interpretation map as the starting point for the surficial geology; their unpublished data were produced using a reconnaissance quality topographic base map. In addition to transferring their data to a modern base to use as a guide, all of the photographs were re-examined. As result, in a number of areas, the features have been reinterpreted and the linework revised. A major difference between the maps is the recognition of much more extensive glacially dammed lake deposits and reassignment of some glacial deposits to different glacial events.

  17. Aerial radiation surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Jobst, J.

    1980-01-01

    A recent aerial radiation survey of the surroundings of the Vitro mill in Salt Lake City shows that uranium mill tailings have been removed to many locations outside their original boundary. To date, 52 remote sites have been discovered within a 100 square kilometer aerial survey perimeter surrounding the mill; 9 of these were discovered with the recent aerial survey map. Five additional sites, also discovered by aerial survey, contained uranium ore, milling equipment, or radioactive slag. Because of the success of this survey, plans are being made to extend the aerial survey program to other parts of the Salt Lake valley where diversions of Vitro tailings are also known to exist.

  18. LROC - Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, M. S.; Eliason, E.; Hiesinger, H.; Jolliff, B. L.; McEwen, A.; Malin, M. C.; Ravine, M. A.; Thomas, P. C.; Turtle, E. P.

    2009-12-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) went into lunar orbit on 23 June 2009. The LRO Camera (LROC) acquired its first lunar images on June 30 and commenced full scale testing and commissioning on July 10. The LROC consists of two narrow-angle cameras (NACs) that provide 0.5 m scale panchromatic images over a combined 5 km swath, and a wide-angle camera (WAC) to provide images at a scale of 100 m per pixel in five visible wavelength bands (415, 566, 604, 643, and 689 nm) and 400 m per pixel in two ultraviolet bands (321 nm and 360 nm) from the nominal 50 km orbit. Early operations were designed to test the performance of the cameras under all nominal operating conditions and provided a baseline for future calibrations. Test sequences included off-nadir slews to image stars and the Earth, 90° yaw sequences to collect flat field calibration data, night imaging for background characterization, and systematic mapping to test performance. LRO initially was placed into a terminator orbit resulting in images acquired under low signal conditions. Over the next three months the incidence angle at the spacecraft’s equator crossing gradually decreased towards high noon, providing a range of illumination conditions. Several hundred south polar images were collected in support of impact site selection for the LCROSS mission; details can be seen in many of the shadows. Commissioning phase images not only proved the instruments’ overall performance was nominal, but also that many geologic features of the lunar surface are well preserved at the meter-scale. Of particular note is the variety of impact-induced morphologies preserved in a near pristine state in and around kilometer-scale and larger young Copernican age impact craters that include: abundant evidence of impact melt of a variety of rheological properties, including coherent flows with surface textures and planimetric properties reflecting supersolidus (e.g., liquid melt) emplacement, blocks delicately perched on

  19. RecceLite tactical reconnaissance pod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhl, Bernd

    2001-12-01

    New generation of tactical reconnaissance pod for high performance aircraft. The pod will contain a high resolution multispectral sensor suite for day/night missions, digital solid state recorder and optional data link. The modular structure of the pod is based on the Litening targeting pod and uses the same interface to the aircraft, saving cost for new system integration and certification. The system is designed for medium to low altitude reconnaissance missions. The overall system includes modules for mission planning and image evaluation on ground. RecceLite is an affordable high performance reconnaissance system with state of the art technology. Due to the modular design it provides growth potential and easy integration of future developments.

  20. Aerial Image Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, Robert E.

    1987-09-01

    Aerial images produce the best stereoscopic images of the viewed world. Despite the fact that every optic in existence produces an aerial image, few persons are aware of their existence and possible uses. Constant reference to the eye and other optical systems have produced a psychosis of design that only considers "focal planes" in the design and analysis of optical systems. All objects in the field of view of the optical device are imaged by the device as an aerial image. Use of aerial images in vision and visual display systems can provide a true stereoscopic representation of the viewed world. This paper discusses aerial image systems - their applications and designs and presents designs and design concepts that utilize aerial images to obtain superior visual displays, particularly with application to visual simulation.

  1. Automated multi-INT fusion for tactical reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walls, Thomas J.; Boudreau, Andrew J.; Wilson, Michael L.; Haws, Jonathan R.; Johnson, Troy; Petersen, Brad

    2014-06-01

    The capabilities of tactical intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) payloads continue to expand from single sensor imagers to integrated systems of systems architectures. We describe here flight test results of the Sensor Management System (SMS) designed to provide a flexible central coordination component capable of managing multiple collaborative sensor systems onboard an aircraft or unmanned aerial system (UAS). The SMS architecture is designed to be sensor and data agnostic and provide flexible networked access for both data providers and data consumers. It supports pre-planned and ad-hoc missions, with provisions for on-demand tasking and updates from users connected via data links. The SMS system is STANAG 4575 compliant as a removable memory module (RMM) and can act as a vehicle specific module (VSM) to provide STANAG 4586 compliance (level-3 interoperability) to a noncompliant sensor system. The SMS architecture will be described and results from several flight tests that included multiple sensor combinations and live data link updates will be shown.

  2. 11. Photocopy of aerial photograph (original aerial located in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photocopy of aerial photograph (original aerial located in the U.S. Forest Service, Toiyabe National Forest, Carson District Office). AERIAL VIEW OF THE GENOA PEAK ROAD, SPUR. - Genoa Peak Road, Spur, Glenbrook, Douglas County, NV

  3. 15 CFR 270.101 - Preliminary reconnaissance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION SAFETY TEAMS NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION SAFETY TEAMS Establishment and Deployment of Teams § 270.101 Preliminary reconnaissance. (a) To... the site of a building failure. The Director may establish and deploy a Team to conduct...

  4. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Contamination Sensitivity Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivera, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    The following packet is a contamination control training intended for personnel handling or coming to contact with Lunar Reconnaissance Or biter (LRO) flight hardware. This training is being implemented to f amiliarize personnel, coming into contact with LRO hardware, what its contamination sensitivities are and what can be done by all to maint ain its cleanliness levels.

  5. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter FlatSat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of FlatSat as a platform for use during flight integration and testing (I&T) of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). Included in the presentations are requirements for the facility, a diagram of the LRO FlatSat lab, and discussion of the operational documentation, facility scheduling, and issues and lessons learned.

  6. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ground: (i) Extensible boom platforms; (ii) Aerial ladders; (iii) Articulating boom platforms; (iv... articulating boom platforms. (i) Lift controls shall be tested each day prior to use to determine that such... when outriggers are used, they shall be positioned on pads or a solid surface. Wheel chocks shall...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ground: (i) Extensible boom platforms; (ii) Aerial ladders; (iii) Articulating boom platforms; (iv... articulating boom platforms. (i) Lift controls shall be tested each day prior to use to determine that such... when outriggers are used, they shall be positioned on pads or a solid surface. Wheel chocks shall...

  8. Aerial photographic reproductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1975-01-01

    The National Cartographic Information Center of the U.S. Geological Survey maintains records of aerial photographic coverage of the United States and its Territories, based on reports from other Federal agencies as well as State governmental agencies and commercial companies. From these records, the Center furnishes data to prospective purchasers on available photography and the agency holding the aerial film.

  9. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles unique cost estimating requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, P.; Apgar, H.; Stukes, S.; Sterk, S.

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also referred to as drones, are aerial platforms that fly without a human pilot onboard. UAVs are controlled autonomously by a computer in the vehicle or under the remote control of a pilot stationed at a fixed ground location. There are a wide variety of drone shapes, sizes, configurations, complexities, and characteristics. Use of these devices by the Department of Defense (DoD), NASA, civil and commercial organizations continues to grow. UAVs are commonly used for intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR). They are also use for combat operations, and civil applications, such as firefighting, non-military security work, surveillance of infrastructure (e.g. pipelines, power lines and country borders). UAVs are often preferred for missions that require sustained persistence (over 4 hours in duration), or are “ too dangerous, dull or dirty” for manned aircraft. Moreover, they can offer significant acquisition and operations cost savings over traditional manned aircraft. Because of these unique characteristics and missions, UAV estimates require some unique estimating methods. This paper describes a framework for estimating UAV systems total ownership cost including hardware components, software design, and operations. The challenge of collecting data, testing the sensitivities of cost drivers, and creating cost estimating relationships (CERs) for each key work breakdown structure (WBS) element is discussed. The autonomous operation of UAVs is especially challenging from a software perspective.

  10. ERTS-1 imagery use in reconnaissance prospecting: Evaluation of commercial utility of ERTS-1 imagery in structural reconnaissance for minerals and petroleum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, D. F.; Thomas, G. E. (Principal Investigator); Kinsman, F. E.; Beatty, D. F.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This study was performed to investigate applications of ERTS-1 imagery in commercial reconnaissance for mineral and hydrocarbon resources. ERTS-1 imagery collected over five areas in North America (Montana; Colorado; New Mexico-West Texas; Superior Province, Canada; and North Slope, Alaska) has been analyzed for data content including linears, lineaments, and curvilinear anomalies. Locations of these features were mapped and compared with known locations of mineral and hydrocarbon accumulations. Results were analyzed in the context of a simple-shear, block-coupling model. Data analyses have resulted in detection of new lineaments, some of which may be continental in extent, detection of many curvilinear patterns not generally seen on aerial photos, strong evidence of continental regmatic fracture patterns, and realization that geological features can be explained in terms of a simple-shear, block-coupling model. The conculsions are that ERTS-1 imagery is of great value in photogeologic/geomorphic interpretations of regional features, and the simple-shear, block-coupling model provides a means of relating data from ERTS imagery to structures that have controlled emplacement of ore deposits and hydrocarbon accumulations, thus providing a basis for a new approach for reconnaissance for mineral, uranium, gas, and oil deposits and structures.

  11. Precise Orbit Determination of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and inferred gravity field information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, A.; Baur, O.; Krauss, S.

    2014-04-01

    This contribution deals with Precise Orbit Determination of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, which is tracked with optical laser ranges in addition to radiometric Doppler range-rates and range observations. The optimum parameterization is assessed by overlap analysis tests that indicate the inner precision of the computed orbits. Information about the very long wavelengths of the lunar gravity field is inferred from the spacecraft positions. The NASA software packages GEODYN II and SOLVE were used for orbit determination and gravity field recovery [1].

  12. Vision-Aided Autonomous Landing and Ingress of Micro Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockers, Roland; Ma, Jeremy C.; Matthies, Larry H.; Bouffard, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Micro aerial vehicles have limited sensor suites and computational power. For reconnaissance tasks and to conserve energy, these systems need the ability to autonomously land at vantage points or enter buildings (ingress). But for autonomous navigation, information is needed to identify and guide the vehicle to the target. Vision algorithms can provide egomotion estimation and target detection using input from cameras that are easy to include in miniature systems.

  13. Invertebrate responses to the management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant and conventional spring crops. II. Within-field epigeal and aerial arthropods.

    PubMed Central

    Haughton, A J; Champion, G T; Hawes, C; Heard, M S; Brooks, D R; Bohan, D A; Clark, S J; Dewar, A M; Firbank, L G; Osborne, J L; Perry, J N; Rothery, P; Roy, D B; Scott, R J; Woiwod, I P; Birchall, C; Skellern, M P; Walker, J H; Baker, P; Browne, E L; Dewar, A J G; Garner, B H; Haylock, L A; Horne, S L; Mason, N S; Sands, R J N; Walker, M J

    2003-01-01

    The effects of the management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops on the abundances of aerial and epigeal arthropods were assessed in 66 beet, 68 maize and 67 spring oilseed rape sites as part of the Farm Scale Evaluations of GMHT crops. Most higher taxa were insensitive to differences between GMHT and conventional weed management, but significant effects were found on the abundance of at least one group within each taxon studied. Numbers of butterflies in beet and spring oilseed rape and of Heteroptera and bees in beet were smaller under the relevant GMHT crop management, whereas the abundance of Collembola was consistently greater in all GMHT crops. Generally, these effects were specific to each crop type, reflected the phenology and ecology of the arthropod taxa, were indirect and related to herbicide management. These results apply generally to agriculture across Britain, and could be used in mathematical models to predict the possible long-term effects of the widespread adoption of GMHT technology. The results for bees and butterflies relate to foraging preferences and might or might not translate into effects on population densities, depending on whether adoption leads to forage reductions over large areas. These species, and the detritivore Collembola, may be useful indicator species for future studies of GMHT management. PMID:14561319

  14. Invertebrate responses to the management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant and conventional spring crops. II. Within-field epigeal and aerial arthropods.

    PubMed

    Haughton, A J; Champion, G T; Hawes, C; Heard, M S; Brooks, D R; Bohan, D A; Clark, S J; Dewar, A M; Firbank, L G; Osborne, J L; Perry, J N; Rothery, P; Roy, D B; Scott, R J; Woiwod, I P; Birchall, C; Skellern, M P; Walker, J H; Baker, P; Browne, E L; Dewar, A J G; Garner, B H; Haylock, L A; Horne, S L; Mason, N S; Sands, R J N; Walker, M J

    2003-11-29

    The effects of the management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops on the abundances of aerial and epigeal arthropods were assessed in 66 beet, 68 maize and 67 spring oilseed rape sites as part of the Farm Scale Evaluations of GMHT crops. Most higher taxa were insensitive to differences between GMHT and conventional weed management, but significant effects were found on the abundance of at least one group within each taxon studied. Numbers of butterflies in beet and spring oilseed rape and of Heteroptera and bees in beet were smaller under the relevant GMHT crop management, whereas the abundance of Collembola was consistently greater in all GMHT crops. Generally, these effects were specific to each crop type, reflected the phenology and ecology of the arthropod taxa, were indirect and related to herbicide management. These results apply generally to agriculture across Britain, and could be used in mathematical models to predict the possible long-term effects of the widespread adoption of GMHT technology. The results for bees and butterflies relate to foraging preferences and might or might not translate into effects on population densities, depending on whether adoption leads to forage reductions over large areas. These species, and the detritivore Collembola, may be useful indicator species for future studies of GMHT management. PMID:14561319

  15. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) instrument overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, M.S.; Brylow, S.M.; Tschimmel, M.; Humm, D.; Lawrence, S.J.; Thomas, P.C.; Denevi, B.W.; Bowman-Cisneros, E.; Zerr, J.; Ravine, M.A.; Caplinger, M.A.; Ghaemi, F.T.; Schaffner, J.A.; Malin, M.C.; Mahanti, P.; Bartels, A.; Anderson, J.; Tran, T.N.; Eliason, E.M.; McEwen, A.S.; Turtle, E.; Jolliff, B.L.; Hiesinger, H.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and Narrow Angle Cameras (NACs) are on the NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). The WAC is a 7-color push-frame camera (100 and 400 m/pixel visible and UV, respectively), while the two NACs are monochrome narrow-angle linescan imagers (0.5 m/pixel). The primary mission of LRO is to obtain measurements of the Moon that will enable future lunar human exploration. The overarching goals of the LROC investigation include landing site identification and certification, mapping of permanently polar shadowed and sunlit regions, meter-scale mapping of polar regions, global multispectral imaging, a global morphology base map, characterization of regolith properties, and determination of current impact hazards.

  16. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Navigation Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, Rivers

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation is an overview of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), with emphasis on the navigation and plans for the mission. The objective of the LRO mission is to conduct investigations that will be specifically target to prepare for and support future human exploration of the Moon. There is a review of the scientific instruments on board the LRO and an overview of the phases of the planned trajectory.

  17. Positioning a Camera for Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Workers at Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, position a telescopic camera for installation onto NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on Dec. 11, 2004. Ball Aerospace and Technology Corp., Boulder, Colo., built this camera, called the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment, or HiRISE, for the University of Arizona, Tucson, to supply for the mission. The orbiter is scheduled for launch in August 2005 carrying six science instruments.

  18. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in pest management: Progress in the development of a UAV-deployed mating disruption system for Wisconsin cranberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a powerful new tool for agriculture. Currently, UAVs are used almost exclusively as crop reconnaissance devices (“eyes in the sky”), not as pest control delivery systems. Research in Wisconsin cranberries is taking UAVs in a new direction. The Steffan and Lu...

  19. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in pest management: Progress in the development of a UAV-deployed mating disruption system for Wisconsin cranberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) hold significant promise for agriculture. Currently, UAVs are being employed for various reconnaissance purposes (“eyes in the sky”), but not as pest control delivery systems. Research in Wisconsin cranberries is taking UAVs in a new direction. The Steffan and Luck La...

  20. Camouflage target reconnaissance based on hyperspectral imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Wenshen; Guo, Tong; Liu, Xun

    2015-08-01

    Efficient camouflaged target reconnaissance technology makes great influence on modern warfare. Hyperspectral images can provide large spectral range and high spectral resolution, which are invaluable in discriminating between camouflaged targets and backgrounds. Hyperspectral target detection and classification technology are utilized to achieve single class and multi-class camouflaged targets reconnaissance respectively. Constrained energy minimization (CEM), a widely used algorithm in hyperspectral target detection, is employed to achieve one class camouflage target reconnaissance. Then, support vector machine (SVM), a classification method, is proposed to achieve multi-class camouflage target reconnaissance. Experiments have been conducted to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  1. Improving Forest Wildfire Suppression Using Penetrating Reconnaissance And Real Time Data Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, Jerry D.

    1990-02-01

    The suppression of a wildfire is analogous to a combat action. Fires, like battles, spread fast and suppression forces must be highly mobile. The enemy, (in this case) the wildfire, is lethal in that it kills or destroys forces, equipment, and natural resources left in its path. The suppression action must be carried on day and night until the "enemy" is contained. Both air operations and ground forces are used. Just as in a combat situation, wildfire suppression forces need penetrating reconnaissance with real time data transfer. This paper presents a review of the current system of intelligence gathering on a wildfire where aerial observers, infrared detectors, and ground intelligence officers gather data and either radio or carry the data to the command center. It then attempts to show how some current military reconnaissance systems might be applied to wildfire control processes. The payoffs would include improved safety for both air and ground forces and faster containment of the wildfire which would reduce forest resources lost and decrease the total monetary cost of the containment action.

  2. Comparison of relative effectiveness of video with serial visual presentation for target reconnaissance from UASs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skirlo, Frank E.; Matthews, Anthony J.; Friedman, Melvin; Mark, Brian L.

    2016-05-01

    Reconnaissance from an unmanned aerial systems (UAS) is often done using video presentation. An alternate method is Serial Visual Presentation (SVP). In SVP, a static image remains in view until replaced by a new image at a rate equivalent to the live video. Mardell et al. have shown, in a forested environment, that a higher fraction of targets (people lost in the forest), are found with SVP than with video presentation. Here Mardell's experiment is repeated for military targets in forested terrain at a fixed altitude. We too find a higher fraction of targets are found using SVP rather than video presentation. Typically it takes five seconds to cover a video field of view and at 30 frames per second. This implies that, for scenes where the target is not moving, 150 video images have nearly identical information (from a reconnaissance point of view) as a single SVP image. This is highly significant since transmission bandwidth is a limiting factor for most UASs. Finding targets in video or in SVP is an arduous task. For that reason we also compare aided target detection performance (Aided SVP) and unaided target detection performance on SVP images.

  3. Aerial Photography Summary Record System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1998-01-01

    The Aerial Photography Summary Record System (APSRS) describes aerial photography projects that meet specified criteria over a given geographic area of the United States and its territories. Aerial photographs are an important tool in cartography and a number of other professions. Land use planners, real estate developers, lawyers, environmental specialists, and many other professionals rely on detailed and timely aerial photographs. Until 1975, there was no systematic approach to locate an aerial photograph, or series of photographs, quickly and easily. In that year, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) inaugurated the APSRS, which has become a standard reference for users of aerial photographs.

  4. Agile manufacturing in Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiPadua, Mark; Dalton, George

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the Agile Manufacturing for Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (AMISR) effort is to research, develop, design and build a prototype multi-intelligence (multi-INT), reconfigurable pod demonstrating benefits of agile manufacturing and a modular open systems approach (MOSA) to make podded intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) capability more affordable and operationally flexible.

  5. Solid state recorders for airborne reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klang, Mark R.

    2003-08-01

    Solid state recorders have become the recorder of choice for meeting airborne ruggedized requirements for reconnaissance and flight test. The cost of solid state recorders have decreased over the past few years that they are now less expense than the traditional high speed tape recorders. CALCULEX, Inc manufactures solid state recorders called MONSSTR (Modular Non-volatile Solid State Recorder). MONSSTR is being used on many different platforms such as F/A-22, Global Hawk, F-14, F-15, F-16, U-2, RF-4, and Tornado. This paper will discuss the advantages of using solid state recorders to meet the airborne reconnaissance requirement and the ability to record instrumentation data. The CALCULEX recorder has the ability to record sensor data and flight test data in the same chassis. This is an important feature because it eliminates additional boxes on the aircraft. The major advantages to using a solid state recorder include; reliability, small size, light weight, and power. Solid state recorders also have a larger storage capacity and higher bandwidth capability than other recording devices.

  6. Impact of data compression on reconnaissance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, William F.

    1990-11-01

    Technology to implement very high speed digital signal processing has experienced rapid growth during the last decade. Techniques using this technology to reduce the data channel width required by an imaging reconnaissance system to achieve the timely transmission of data from sensor subsystems to remote exploitation subsystems are being developed at an increasing rate. The incorporation of these techniques into imaging reconnaissance systems promises payoffs in performance and co-operability with other collection systems within the restrictions imposed by existing and near-term projected data channels. This paper presents a summary overview of techniques available to designers using current technology. An analysis performed on a hypothetical system is used to illustrate the sensitivities of various algorithms to characteristics of and errors in individual system components; an analysis of the impact of the techniques considered on system performance. The techniques treated are restricted to lossy algorithms which preserve the essential imaging nature of the system to the end user i.e., the system output is in image form, not alphanumeric. Performance is defined as the ability of th system to collect and reconstruct scene image information. DPCM, ADPCM, and DCT compression techniques will be considered in the detailed treatment.

  7. Orbit Determination of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazarico, Erwan; Rowlands, D. D.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Torrence, M. H.; Lemoine, F. G.; Zuber, M. T.

    2011-01-01

    We present the results on precision orbit determination from the radio science investigation of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft. We describe the data, modeling and methods used to achieve position knowledge several times better than the required 50-100m (in total position), over the period from 13 July 2009 to 31 January 2011. In addition to the near-continuous radiometric tracking data, we include altimetric data from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) in the form of crossover measurements, and show that they strongly improve the accuracy of the orbit reconstruction (total position overlap differences decrease from approx.70m to approx.23 m). To refine the spacecraft trajectory further, we develop a lunar gravity field by combining the newly acquired LRO data with the historical data. The reprocessing of the spacecraft trajectory with that model shows significantly increased accuracy (approx.20m with only the radiometric data, and approx.14m with the addition of the altimetric crossovers). LOLA topographic maps and calibration data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera were used to supplement the results of the overlap analysis and demonstrate the trajectory accuracy.

  8. Cooperative surveillance and pursuit using unmanned aerial vehicles and unattended ground sensors.

    PubMed

    Las Fargeas, Jonathan; Kabamba, Pierre; Girard, Anouck

    2015-01-13

    This paper considers the problem of path planning for a team of unmanned aerial vehicles performing surveillance near a friendly base. The unmanned aerial vehicles do not possess sensors with automated target recognition capability and, thus, rely on communicating with unattended ground sensors placed on roads to detect and image potential intruders. The problem is motivated by persistent intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance and base defense missions. The problem is formulated and shown to be intractable. A heuristic algorithm to coordinate the unmanned aerial vehicles during surveillance and pursuit is presented. Revisit deadlines are used to schedule the vehicles' paths nominally. The algorithm uses detections from the sensors to predict intruders' locations and selects the vehicles' paths by minimizing a linear combination of missed deadlines and the probability of not intercepting intruders. An analysis of the algorithm's completeness and complexity is then provided. The effectiveness of the heuristic is illustrated through simulations in a variety of scenarios.

  9. Cooperative Surveillance and Pursuit Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Unattended Ground Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Las Fargeas, Jonathan; Kabamba, Pierre; Girard, Anouck

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of path planning for a team of unmanned aerial vehicles performing surveillance near a friendly base. The unmanned aerial vehicles do not possess sensors with automated target recognition capability and, thus, rely on communicating with unattended ground sensors placed on roads to detect and image potential intruders. The problem is motivated by persistent intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance and base defense missions. The problem is formulated and shown to be intractable. A heuristic algorithm to coordinate the unmanned aerial vehicles during surveillance and pursuit is presented. Revisit deadlines are used to schedule the vehicles' paths nominally. The algorithm uses detections from the sensors to predict intruders' locations and selects the vehicles' paths by minimizing a linear combination of missed deadlines and the probability of not intercepting intruders. An analysis of the algorithm's completeness and complexity is then provided. The effectiveness of the heuristic is illustrated through simulations in a variety of scenarios. PMID:25591168

  10. Aerial Explorers and Robotic Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg

    2004-01-01

    A unique bio-inspired approach to autonomous aerial vehicle, a.k.a. aerial explorer technology is discussed. The work is focused on defining and studying aerial explorer mission concepts, both as an individual robotic system and as a member of a small robotic "ecosystem." Members of this robotic ecosystem include the aerial explorer, air-deployed sensors and robotic symbiotes, and other assets such as rovers, landers, and orbiters.

  11. Aerial Perspective Artistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a lesson centering on aerial perspective artistry of students and offers suggestions on how art teachers should carry this project out. This project serves to develop students' visual perception by studying reproductions by famous artists. This lesson allows one to imagine being lured into a landscape capable of captivating…

  12. Aerial of the VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Even in this aerial view at KSC, the Vehicle Assembly Building is imposing. In front of it is the Launch Control Center. In the background is the Rotation/Processing Facility, next to the Banana Creek. In the foreground is the Saturn Causeway that leads to Launch Pads 39A and 39B.

  13. Aerial photographic reproductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1971-01-01

    Geological Survey vertical aerial photography is obtained primarily for topographic and geologic mapping. Reproductions from this photography are usually satisfactory for general use. Because reproductions are not stocked, but are custom processed for each order, they cannot be returned for credit or refund.

  14. Application Of Biocular Viewers To Airborne Reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldering, Herman G.

    1984-12-01

    Biocular viewers permit magnification of small areas without optical distortion and produce an image that can be viewed with both eyes. Current applications range from biocular viewing of driftsights, image intensifiers, or FLIR displays while in a moving vehicle, to quick scanning of reconnaissance imagery in ground based photointerpreter facilities. Other potential applications include allowing the use of space-saving devices available only in small formats, such as liquid crystal video displays. Advantages include absence of facial contact, no diopter adjustment necessary, operator may wear glasses incorporating astigmatic corrections, and wide angle viewing (45-degree field of view) to allow correct perspective presentation. The lack of distortion reduces eye fatigue and reduces the likelihood of nausea while viewing in an unstable environment. Distortion inherent in certain image intensifier tubes can be partially corrected with a biocular viewer.

  15. Aerothermal analysis for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

    SciTech Connect

    Gallis, Michail A.; Hermina, Wahid L.; Chapel, James D.; Johnson, Mark A.

    2004-06-01

    The force on and the heat flux to the NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) during drag passes are analyzed. Aerobraking takes place in the higher/rarefied levels of the Martian atmosphere, where traditional continuum flui d dynamics methods cannot be applied. Therefore, molecular gas dynamics simulations such as the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo Method are used to calculate these flow fields and provide heating and aerodynamic predictions for the vehicles. The heating and aerodynamic predictions calculated for the MRO include the heat transfer coefficient (C{sub h}), calculated for a number of angles of attack and the drag coefficient (C{sub D}) calculated for a number of altitudes and velocities. Bridging relations are sought that are applicable over the range of conditions of interest. A sensitivity analysis of the results to the chemical reaction rates, surface accommodation and temperature is also performed.

  16. Airborne reconnaissance XV; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, July 23, 24, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Augustyn, T.W.; Henkel, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    Recent advances in airborne reconnaissance are reported focusing on reconnaissance requiremnts; image processing and exploitation, image acquisition and recording; and advanced development. Particular attention is given to low-intensity conflict aircraft systems; low-cost, low-risk approach to tactical reconnaissance; mission verification systems for FMS applications; tactical reconnaissance mission survivability requirements; high-bandwidth recording in a hostile environment; direct-drive film magazines; a CCD performance model for airborne reconnaissance, and an Ericsson digital recce management system.

  17. AERIAL RADIOLOGICAL SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, A.E.

    1997-06-09

    Measuring terrestrial gamma radiation from airborne platforms has proved to be a useful method for characterizing radiation levels over large areas. Over 300 aerial radiological surveys have been carried out over the past 25 years including U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, commercial nuclear power plants, Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program/Uranium Mine Tailing Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP/UMTRAP) sites, nuclear weapons test sites, contaminated industrial areas, and nuclear accident sites. This paper describes the aerial measurement technology currently in use by the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) for routine environmental surveys and emergency response activities. Equipment, data-collection and -analysis methods, and examples of survey results are described.

  18. The Challenge To Tactical Reconnaissance: Timeliness Through Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stromfors, Richard D.

    1984-12-01

    As you have no doubt gathered from Mr. Henkel's introduction, I have spent over 20 years of my Air Force career involved in the reconnaissance mission either as a tactical reconnaissance pilot, as a tactical reconnaissance inspector, as a writer and speaker on that subject while attending the Air Force Professional Military Education Schools, and currently as the Air Force's operational manager for reconnaissance aircraft. In all of those positions, I've been challenged many times over with what appeared, at first, to be insurmountable problems that upon closer examination weren't irresolvable after all. All of these problems pale, however, when viewed side-by-side with the one challenge that has faced me since I began my military career and, in fact, faces all of us as I talk with you today. That one challenge is the problem of timeliness. Better put: "Getting information to our customers firstest with the mostest." Together we must develop better platforms and sensors to cure this age-old "Achilles heel" in the reconnaissance cycle. Despite all of our best intentions, despite all of the emerging technologies that will be available, and despite all of the dollars that we've thrown at research and development, we in the reconnaissance business still haven't done a good job in this area. We must do better.

  19. Collaborating miniature drones for surveillance and reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bürkle, Axel

    2009-09-01

    The use of miniature Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), e.g. quadrocopters, has gained great popularity over the last years. Some complex application scenarios for micro UAVs call for the formation of swarms of multiple drones. In this paper a platform for the creation of such swarms is presented. It consists of commercial quadrocopters enhanced with on-board processing and communication units enabling autonomy of individual drones. Furthermore, a generic ground control station has been realized. Different co-operation strategies for teams of UAVs are currently evaluated with an agent based simulation tool. Finally, complex application scenarios for multiple micro UAVs are presented.

  20. NASA/USRA high altitude reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Michael; Gudino, Juan; Chen, Kenny; Luong, Tai; Wilkerson, Dave; Keyvani, Anoosh

    1990-01-01

    At the equator, the ozone layer ranges from approximately 80,000 to 130,000+ feet which is beyond the capabilities of the ER-2, NASA's current high altitude reconnaissance aircraft. This project is geared to designing an aircraft that can study the ozone layer at the equator. This aircraft must be able to cruise at 130,000 lbs. of payload. In addition, the aircraft must have a minimum of a 6,000 mile range. The low Mach number, payload, and long cruising time are all constraints imposed by the air sampling equipment. A pilot must be able to take control in the event of unforseen difficulties. Three aircraft configurations were determined to be the most suitable for meeting the above requirements, a joined-wing, a bi-plane, and a twin-boom conventional airplane. The techniques used have been deemed reasonable within the limits of 1990 technology. The performance of each configuration is analyzed to investigate the feasibility of the project requirements. In the event that a requirement can not be obtained within the given constraints, recommendations for proposal modifications are given.

  1. Mission Design for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckman, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) will be the first mission under NASA's Vision for Space Exploration. LRO will fly in a low 50 km mean altitude lunar polar orbit. LRO will utilize a direct minimum energy lunar transfer and have a launch window of three days every two weeks. The launch window is defined by lunar orbit beta angle at times of extreme lighting conditions. This paper will define the LRO launch window and the science and engineering constraints that drive it. After lunar orbit insertion, LRO will be placed into a commissioning orbit for up to 60 days. This commissioning orbit will be a low altitude quasi-frozen orbit that minimizes stationkeeping costs during commissioning phase. LRO will use a repeating stationkeeping cycle with a pair of maneuvers every lunar sidereal period. The stationkeeping algorithm will bound LRO altitude, maintain ground station contact during maneuvers, and equally distribute periselene between northern and southern hemispheres. Orbit determination for LRO will be at the 50 m level with updated lunar gravity models. This paper will address the quasi-frozen orbit design, stationkeeping algorithms and low lunar orbit determination.

  2. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Lifts Off

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    At 7:43 a.m. EDT an Atlas V launch vehicle, 19 stories tall, with a two-ton Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) on top, lifts off the pad on Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. All systems performed nominally for NASA's first launch of an Atlas V on an interplanetary mission. MRO established radio contact with controllers 61 minutes after launch and within four minutes of separation from the upper stage. Initial contact came through an antenna at the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's Uchinoura Space Center in southern Japan. Mars is 72 million miles from Earth today, but the spacecraft will travel more than four times that distance on its outbound-arc trajectory to intercept the red planet on March 10, 2006. The orbiter carries six scientific instruments for examining the surface, atmosphere and subsurface of Mars in unprecedented detail from low orbit. NASA expects to get several times more data about Mars from MRO than from all previous Martian missions combined. Researchers will use the instruments to learn more about the history and distribution of Mars' water. That information will improve understanding of planetary climate change and will help guide the quest to answer whether Mars ever supported life. The orbiter will also evaluate potential landing sites for future missions.

  3. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Roars Away

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    With the Atlantic Ocean as a backdrop, an Atlas V launch vehicle, 19 stories tall, with a two-ton Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) on top, roars away from Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station at 7:43 a.m. EDT. All systems performed nominally for NASA's first launch of an Atlas V on an interplanetary mission. MRO established radio contact with controllers 61 minutes after launch and within four minutes of separation from the upper stage. Initial contact came through an antenna at the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's Uchinoura Space Center in southern Japan. Mars is 72 million miles from Earth today, but the spacecraft will travel more than four times that distance on its outbound-arc trajectory to intercept the red planet on March 10, 2006. The orbiter carries six scientific instruments for examining the surface, atmosphere and subsurface of Mars in unprecedented detail from low orbit. NASA expects to get several times more data about Mars from MRO than from all previous Martian missions combined. Researchers will use the instruments to learn more about the history and distribution of Mars' water. That information will improve understanding of planetary climate change and will help guide the quest to answer whether Mars ever supported life. The orbiter will also evaluate potential landing sites for future missions.

  4. Status of Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, James E.; Zurek, Richard W.; Erickson, James K.; Jai, Benhan; Johnston, M. D.; de Paula, Ramon

    2007-06-01

    The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) was launched on August 12, 2005 by an Atlas V 401 expendable launch vehicle from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida, USA. After the seven-month cruise phase from Earth to Mars, the spacecraft burned its main engines for approximately 27 min and was inserted into Mars orbit on March 10, 2006. During the post-MOI period, four instruments acquired early engineering-quality data. Subsequently, the aerobraking phase was conducted for approximately five months, followed by one month of engineering and instrument checkout. The spacecraft supports a payload to conduct remote sensing science observations, identify and characterize sites for future landers, and provide critical telecom/navigation relay capability for follow-on missions. During the one Martian year (687 Earth days) primary science phase, the orbiter will acquire visual and near-infrared high-resolution images of the planet's surface, monitor atmospheric weather and climate, and search the upper crust for evidence of water. While in this science phase, the orbiter will provide telecommunications support for Phoenix spacecraft launched to Mars in 2007. After the primary science phase is complete, the orbiter will enter into its formal relay mode and support the Mars Science Laboratory, which will be launched in the 2009 opportunity. The primary mission ends on December 31, 2010, approximately 5.5 years after launch.

  5. Stationkeeping for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckman, Mark; Lamb, Rivers

    2007-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is scheduled to launch in 2008 as the first mission under NASA's Vision for Space Exploration. Follo wing several weeks in a quasi-frozen commissioning orbit, LRO will fl y in a 50 km mean altitude lunar polar orbit. During the one year mis sion duration, the orbital dynamics of a low lunar orbit force LRO to perform periodic sets of stationkeeping maneuvers. This paper explor es the characteristics of low lunar orbits and explains how the LRO s tationkeeping plan is designed to accommodate the dynamics in such an orbit. The stationkeeping algorithm used for LRO must meet five miss ion constraints. These five constraints are to maintain ground statio n contact during maneuvers, to control the altitude variation of the orbit, to distribute periselene equally between northern and southern hemispheres, to match eccentricity at the beginning and the end of the sidereal period, and to minimize stationkeeping (Delta)V. This pape r addresses how the maneuver plan for LRO is designed to meet all of the above constraints.

  6. Stationkeeping for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckman, Mark; Lamb, Rivers

    2007-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is scheduled to launch in 2008 as the first mission under NASA's Vision for Space Exploration. Following several weeks in a quasi-frozen commissioning orbit, LRO will fly in a 50 km mean altitude lunar polar orbit. During the one year mission duration, the orbital dynamics of a low lunar orbit force LRO to perform periodic sets of stationkeeping maneuvers. This paper explores the characteristics of low lunar orbits and explains how the LRO stationkeeping plan is designed to accommodate the dynamics in such an orbit. The stationkeeping algorithm used for LRO must meet five mission constraints. These five constraints are to maintain ground station contact during maneuvers, to control the altitude variation of the orbit, to distribute periselene equally between northern and southern hemispheres, to match eccentricity at the beginning and the end of the sidereal period, and to minimize stationkeeping deltaV. This paper addresses how the maneuver plan for LRO is designed to meet all of the above constraints.

  7. Nuclear Threat Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuliasha, Michael

    2012-03-01

    The National Security Strategy states that the greatest threat to the American people is ``the pursuit of nuclear weapons by violent extremists and their proliferation to additional states.'' The Global Nuclear Detection Architecture (GNDA) addresses a key portion of that threat by focusing on detecting nuclear and radiological materials that are out of regulatory control within permissive operating environments. However, the force protection requirements of the Department of Defense (DoD) range across a wider mission space from permissive environments, where nuclear and radiological materials can be monitored while under regulatory control, to hostile environments where nuclear and radiological materials exist in defiance of international regulations and agreements. This wider range of operating environments and the inherent physics limitations on the range of radiation detection pose great challenges to radiation detection-focused approaches to nuclear threat detection. Consequently, DoD is in the process of defining an intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance approach to countering nuclear threats that considers the observable signatures of all elements that comprise a potential threat; information, funds, people, material, equipment, and infrastructure. This strategy represents a shift from radiation detection as the primary sensing modality to radiation detection as one of many sensing modalities, including the human dimension, with a heavy emphasis on data fusion. This presentation will describe the attributes of a layered sensing approach to nuclear threat detection, illustrate the approach with examples, define potential building blocks, and discuss technical challenges.

  8. Aerial Video Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    When Michael Henry wanted to start an aerial video service, he turned to Johnson Space Center for assistance. Two NASA engineers - one had designed and developed TV systems in Apollo, Skylab, Apollo- Soyuz and Space Shuttle programs - designed a wing-mounted fiberglass camera pod. Camera head and angles are adjustable, and the pod is shaped to reduce vibration. The controls are located so a solo pilot can operate the system. A microprocessor displays latitude, longitude, and bearing, and a GPS receiver provides position data for possible legal references. The service has been successfully utilized by railroads, oil companies, real estate companies, etc.

  9. Calibration of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschimmel, M.; Robinson, M. S.; Humm, D. C.; Denevi, B. W.; Lawrence, S. J.; Brylow, S.; Ravine, M.; Ghaemi, T.

    2008-12-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) onboard the NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft consists of three cameras: the Wide-Angle Camera (WAC) and two identical Narrow Angle Cameras (NAC-L, NAC-R). The WAC is push-frame imager with 5 visible wavelength filters (415 to 680 nm) at a spatial resolution of 100 m/pixel and 2 UV filters (315 and 360 nm) with a resolution of 400 m/pixel. In addition to the multicolor imaging the WAC can operate in monochrome mode to provide a global large- incidence angle basemap and a time-lapse movie of the illumination conditions at both poles. The WAC has a highly linear response, a read noise of 72 e- and a full well capacity of 47,200 e-. The signal-to-noise ratio in each band is 140 in the worst case. There are no out-of-band leaks and the spectral response of each filter is well characterized. Each NAC is a monochrome pushbroom scanner, providing images with a resolution of 50 cm/pixel from a 50-km orbit. A single NAC image has a swath width of 2.5 km and a length of up to 26 km. The NACs are mounted to acquire side-by-side imaging for a combined swath width of 5 km. The NAC is designed to fully characterize future human and robotic landing sites in terms of topography and hazard risks. The North and South poles will be mapped on a 1-meter-scale poleward of 85.5° latitude. Stereo coverage can be provided by pointing the NACs off-nadir. The NACs are also highly linear. Read noise is 71 e- for NAC-L and 74 e- for NAC-R and the full well capacity is 248,500 e- for NAC-L and 262,500 e- for NAC- R. The focal lengths are 699.6 mm for NAC-L and 701.6 mm for NAC-R; the system MTF is 28% for NAC-L and 26% for NAC-R. The signal-to-noise ratio is at least 46 (terminator scene) and can be higher than 200 (high sun scene). Both NACs exhibit a straylight feature, which is caused by out-of-field sources and is of a magnitude of 1-3%. However, as this feature is well understood it can be greatly reduced during ground

  10. DROP: Durable Reconnaissance and Observation Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parness, Aaron; McKenzie, Clifford F.

    2012-01-01

    Robots have been a valuable tool for providing a remote presence in areas that are either inaccessible or too dangerous for humans. Having a robot with a high degree of adaptability becomes crucial during such events. The adaptability that comes from high mobility and high durability greatly increases the potential uses of a robot in these situations, and therefore greatly increases its usefulness to humans. DROP is a lightweight robot that addresses these challenges with the capability to survive large impacts, carry a usable payload, and traverse a variety of surfaces, including climbing vertical surfaces like wood, stone, and concrete. The platform is crash-proof, allowing it to be deployed in ways including being dropped from an unmanned aerial vehicle or thrown from a large MSL-class (Mars Science Laboratory) rover.

  11. Infrared film for aerial photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, William H.

    1979-01-01

    Considerable interest has developed recently in the use of aerial photographs for agricultural management. Even the simplest hand-held aerial photographs, especially those taken with color infrared film, often provide information not ordinarily available through routine ground observation. When fields are viewed from above, patterns and variations become more apparent, often allowing problems to be spotted which otherwise may go undetected.

  12. Study on the shipboard radar reconnaissance equipment azimuth benchmark method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhenxing; Jiang, Ning; Ma, Qian; Liu, Songtao; Wang, Longtao

    2015-10-01

    The future naval battle will take place in a complex electromagnetic environment. Therefore, seizing the electromagnetic superiority has become the major actions of the navy. Radar reconnaissance equipment is an important part of the system to obtain and master battlefield electromagnetic radiation source information. Azimuth measurement function is one of the main function radar reconnaissance equipments. Whether the accuracy of direction finding meets the requirements, determines the vessels successful or not active jamming, passive jamming, guided missile attack and other combat missions, having a direct bearing on the vessels combat capabilities . How to test the performance of radar reconnaissance equipment, while affecting the task as little as possible is a problem. This paper, based on radar signal simulator and GPS positioning equipment, researches and experiments on one new method, which povides the azimuth benchmark required by the direction-finding precision test anytime anywhere, for the ships at jetty to test radar reconnaissance equipment performance in direction-finding. It provides a powerful means for the naval radar reconnaissance equipments daily maintenance and repair work[1].

  13. Sensor Configuration For A Short To Medium Range Reconnaissance Pod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Ingvar H.

    1987-02-01

    The GREEN BARON pod is designed and developed specifically for penetrating reconnaissance and for reconnaissance up to medium distance. An Infra Red Line Scanner (IRLS) in combination with a panoramic camera are the main short range sensors, the IRLS as an allweather sensor and the panoramic camera to get horizon to horizon coverage and stereo interpretation. For reconnaissance up to medium distance our choice was a camera with 12 inch focal length. This focal length gives moderate focusing problems when operating over a wide distance range. Influence on performance caused by environment is easier to deal with compared to operating a camera with longer focal length. This paper concentrates on the reasons for choosing a focal length of 12 inch for the pod.

  14. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Lunar Workshops for Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. P.; Hsu, B. C.; Hessen, K.; Bleacher, L.

    2012-12-01

    The Lunar Workshops for Educators (LWEs) are a series of weeklong professional development workshops, accompanied by quarterly follow-up sessions, designed to educate and inspire grade 6-12 science teachers, sponsored by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). Participants learn about lunar science and exploration, gain tools to help address common student misconceptions about the Moon, find out about the latest research results from LRO scientists, work with data from LRO and other lunar missions, and learn how to bring these data to their students using hands-on activities aligned with grade 6-12 National Science Education Standards and Benchmarks and through authentic research experiences. LWEs are held around the country, primarily in locations underserved with respect to NASA workshops. Where possible, workshops also include tours of science facilities or field trips intended to help participants better understand mission operations or geologic processes relevant to the Moon. Scientist and engineer involvement is a central tenant of the LWEs. LRO scientists and engineers, as well as scientists working on other lunar missions, present their research or activities to the workshop participants and answer questions about lunar science and exploration. This interaction with the scientists and engineers is consistently ranked by the LWE participants as one of the most interesting and inspiring components of the workshops. Evaluation results from the 2010 and 2011 workshops, as well as preliminary analysis of survey responses from 2012 participants, demonstrated an improved understanding of lunar science concepts among LWE participants in post-workshop assessments (as compared to identical pre-assessments) and a greater understanding of how to access and effectively share LRO data with students. Teachers reported increased confidence in helping students conduct research using lunar data, and learned about programs that would allow their students to make authentic

  15. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Accelerometer Experiment Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, G. M.; Bougher, S. W.; Theriot, M. E.; Zurek, R. W.; Blanchard, R. C.; Tolson, R. H.; Murphy, J. R.

    2007-05-01

    The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) launched on August 12, 2005, designed for aerobraking, achieved Mars Orbital Insertion (MOI), March 10, 2006. Atmospheric density decreases exponentially with increasing height. By small propulsive adjustments of the apoapsis orbital velocity, periapsis altitude is fine tuned to the density surface that safely used the atmosphere of Mars to aerobrake over 400 orbits. MRO periapsis precessed from the South Pole at 6pm LST to near the equator at 3am LST. Meanwhile, apoapsis was brought dramatically from 40,000km at MOI to 460 km at aerobraking completion (ABX) August 30, 2006. After ABX, a few small propulsive maneuvers established the Primary Science Orbit (PSO), which without aerobraking would have required an additional 400 kg of fuel. Each of the 400 plus aerobraking orbits provided a vertical structure and distribution of density, scale heights, and temperatures, along the orbital path, providing key in situ insight into various upper atmosphere (greater than 100 km) processes. One of the major questions for scientists studying Mars is: "Where did the water go?" Honeywell's substantially improved electronics package for its IMU (QA-2000 accelerometer, gyro, electronics) maximized accelerometer sensitivities at the requests of The George Washington University, JPL, and Lockheed Martin. The improved accelerometer sensitivities allowed density measurements to exceed 200km, at least 40 km higher than with Mars Odyssey (MO). This extended vertical structures from MRO into the neutral lower exosphere, a region where various processes may allow atmospheric gasses to escape. Over the eons, water may have been lost in both near the surface and in the upper atmosphere. Thus the water balance throughout the entire atmosphere from subsurface to exosphere may both be critical. Comparisons of data from Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), MO and MRO help characterize key temporal and spatial cycles including: winter polar warming, planetary scale

  16. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Uplink Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khanampompan, Teerapat; Gladden, Roy; Fisher, Forest; Hwang, Pauline

    2008-01-01

    This software analyzes Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) orbital geometry with respect to Mars Exploration Rover (MER) contact windows, and is the first tool of its kind designed specifically to support MRO-MER interface coordination. Prior to this automated tool, this analysis was done manually with Excel and the UNIX command line. In total, the process would take approximately 30 minutes for each analysis. The current automated analysis takes less than 30 seconds. This tool resides on the flight machine and uses a PHP interface that does the entire analysis of the input files and takes into account one-way light time from another input file. Input flies are copied over to the proper directories and are dynamically read into the tool s interface. The user can then choose the corresponding input files based on the time frame desired for analysis. After submission of the Web form, the tool merges the two files into a single, time-ordered listing of events for both spacecraft. The times are converted to the same reference time (Earth Transmit Time) by reading in a light time file and performing the calculations necessary to shift the time formats. The program also has the ability to vary the size of the keep-out window on the main page of the analysis tool by inputting a custom time for padding each MRO event time. The parameters on the form are read in and passed to the second page for analysis. Everything is fully coded in PHP and can be accessed by anyone with access to the machine via Web page. This uplink tool will continue to be used for the duration of the MER mission's needs for X-band uplinks. Future missions also can use the tools to check overflight times as well as potential site observation times. Adaptation of the input files to the proper format, and the window keep-out times, would allow for other analyses. Any operations task that uses the idea of keep-out windows will have a use for this program.

  17. AERIAL MEASURING SYSTEM IN JAPAN

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, Craig; Colton, David

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Agency’s Aerial Measuring System deployed personnel and equipment to partner with the U.S. Air Force in Japan to conduct multiple aerial radiological surveys. These were the first and most comprehensive sources of actionable information for U.S. interests in Japan and provided early confirmation to the government of Japan as to the extent of the release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Generation Station. Many challenges were overcome quickly during the first 48 hours; including installation and operation of Aerial Measuring System equipment on multiple U.S. Air Force Japan aircraft, flying over difficult terrain, and flying with talented pilots who were unfamiliar with the Aerial Measuring System flight patterns. These all combined to make for a dynamic and non-textbook situation. In addition, the data challenges of the multiple and on-going releases, and integration with the Japanese government to provide valid aerial radiological survey products that both military and civilian customers could use to make informed decisions, was extremely complicated. The Aerial Measuring System Fukushima response provided insight in addressing these challenges and gave way to an opportunity for the expansion of the Aerial Measuring System’s mission beyond the borders of the US.

  18. Hydrologic reconnaissance of the Green River in Utah and Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, H.E.

    1952-01-01

    the reconnaissance information was also obtained as to the relation of stream flow to regional geology and ground-water hydrology. No detailed hydrologic studies have yet been made within the drainage basin of the Green River. On the basis of this recomiaissance, detailed studies in the Uinta Basin, Browns Park, and Echo Park areas are recommended as highly desirable, because of the possible relations of ground-water hydrology to river-basin development projects. Similar reconnaissance can be of value in delineating the areas where detailed hydrologic studies would be most fruitful throughout the upper Colorado River basin.

  19. Tier-Scalable Reconnaissance Missions for Autonomous Exploration and Spatio-Temporal Monitoring of Climate Change with Particular Application to Glaciers and their Environs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, W.; Tarbell, M. A.; Furfaro, R.; Kargel, J. S.

    2010-12-01

    Spatio-temporal monitoring of climate change and its impacts is needed globally and thus requires satellite-based observations and analysis. However, needed ground truth can only be obtained in situ. In situ exploration of extreme and often hazardous environments can pose a significant challenge to human access. We propose the use of a disruptive exploration paradigm that has earlier been introduced with autonomous robotic space exploration, termed Tier-Scalable Reconnaissance (PSS 2005; SCIENCE 2010). Tier-scalable reconnaissance utilizes orbital, aerial, and surface/subsurface robotic platforms working in concert, enabling event-driven and integrated global to regional to local reconnaissance capabilities. We report on the development of a robotic test bed for Tier-scalable Reconnaissance at the University of Arizona and Caltech (SCIENCE 2010) for distributed and science-driven autonomous exploration, mapping, and spatio-temporal monitoring of climate change in hazardous or inaccessible environments. We focus in particular on glaciers and their environs, especially glacier lakes. Such glacier lakes can pose a significant natural hazard to inhabited areas and economies downstream. The test bed currently comprises several robotic surface vehicles: rovers equipped with cameras, and boats equipped with cameras and side-scanning sonar technology for bathymetry and the characterization of subsurface structures in glacier lakes and other water bodies. To achieve a fully operational Tier-scalable Reconnaissance test bed, aerial platforms will be integrated in short order. Automated mapping and spatio-temporal monitoring of glaciers and their environs necessitate increasing degrees of operational autonomy: (1) Automatic mapping of an operational area from different vantages (i.e., airborne, surface, subsurface); (2) automatic sensor deployment and sensor data gathering; (3) automatic feature extraction and region-of-interest/anomaly identification within the mapped

  20. Aerial thermography for energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Thermal infrared scanning from an aircraft is a convenient and commercially available means for determining relative rates of energy loss from building roofs. The need to conserve energy as fuel costs makes the mass survey capability of aerial thermography an attractive adjunct to community energy awareness programs. Background information on principles of aerial thermography is presented. Thermal infrared scanning systems, flight and environmental requirements for data acquisition, preparation of thermographs for display, major users and suppliers of thermography, and suggested specifications for obtaining aerial scanning services were reviewed.

  1. The 22 March 2014 Oso Landslide, Snohomish County, Washington: Findings of the GEER Reconnaissance Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wartman, J.; Keaton, J. R.; Scott, A.; Benoit, J.; delaChapelle, J.; Gilbert, R.; Montgomery, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    We report the findings of the NSF-supported Geotechnical Extreme Events Reconnaissance (GEER) investigation of the Oso Landslide. Our findings are principally based on data collected during a four-day team reconnaissance across the entire landslide area, but also draw upon other data sources including lidar surveys, high-resolution imagery, geologic mapping, precipitation data, and seismic records. The Oso Landslide claimed 43 lives, making it the deadliest landslide disaster in U.S. history. The landslide occurred within a thick sequence of glacial sediments that were deposited into the North Fork Stillaguamish River valley during the last glacial advance. Geomorphic evidence suggests that the valley in the vicinity of Oso Landslide has experienced multiple large landslides over at least the past 6,000 years. Intense three-week rainfall that immediately preceded the event very probably played an important role in triggering the landslide; however, many other factors likely contributed to destabilization of the landslide mass. These include: (i) alteration of the local groundwater recharge and hydrogeological regime due to previous landsliding and, possibly, land use practices, (ii) weakening and alteration of the landslide mass due to previous landsliding and other natural geologic processes, and (iii) changes in stress distribution resulting from removal and deposition of material from earlier landsliding. During our field reconnaissance we identified six distinctive landslide zones and several subzones that are characterized by different geomorphic expression resulting from deformation styles, geologic materials, vegetation, and sequence of deposition. Based on the reconnaissance observations and other available data, we hypothesize that the landslide occurred in two major stages. The first stage of movement is interpreted to be a remobilization of the 2006 slide mass and headward extension that included part or all of the forested slope of an ancient landslide

  2. Reconnaissance of Colorado Front Range bogs for uranium and other elements

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, D.E.; Schumann, R.R.; Otton, J.K.

    1987-08-01

    Alpine bogs form along spring-fed valley floors and in steam drainages restricted by moraines, slides, and beaver dams. The bogs are generally young (Holocene) and contain a few tens of centimeters to several meters of peat and organic-rich muck. Organic matter has a great affinity for cations such as uranium; the geochemical enrichment factor between the peats and uraniferous ground water can approach 10,000 to 1. Because the bog sediments are geologically young, the uranium is in gross disequilibrium and has low radioactivity, thus it is undetectable by ground and aerial gamma surveys. Communities that derive a part of their water supplies from drainages containing uraniferous bogs face a potential health threat because the uranium is loosely bound and may easily be remobilized by ground water moving through the bogs. Reconnaissance sampling of bogs was conducted in the Colorado Front Range from the South Park area to the Colorado-Wyoming state line. Several bogs have uranium concentrations of 1000-3000 ppm, but most bogs have uranium concentrations in the 10-100 ppm range. Zinc concentrations of 100-1000 ppm are found in some bogs and many other metallic elements are present in concentrations between 10 and 100 ppm. Concentrations between 100 and 1000 ppm of some of the rare earth elements (e.g., Ce, La, Nd, Yb) were found in the Cripple Creek area.

  3. UAV-guided navigation for ground robot tele-operation in a military reconnaissance environment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jessie Y C

    2010-08-01

    A military reconnaissance environment was simulated to examine the performance of ground robotics operators who were instructed to utilise streaming video from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to navigate his/her ground robot to the locations of the targets. The effects of participants' spatial ability on their performance and workload were also investigated. Results showed that participants' overall performance (speed and accuracy) was better when she/he had access to images from larger UAVs with fixed orientations, compared with other UAV conditions (baseline- no UAV, micro air vehicle and UAV with orbiting views). Participants experienced the highest workload when the UAV was orbiting. Those individuals with higher spatial ability performed significantly better and reported less workload than those with lower spatial ability. The results of the current study will further understanding of ground robot operators' target search performance based on streaming video from UAVs. The results will also facilitate the implementation of ground/air robots in military environments and will be useful to the future military system design and training community. PMID:20658388

  4. UAV-guided navigation for ground robot tele-operation in a military reconnaissance environment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jessie Y C

    2010-08-01

    A military reconnaissance environment was simulated to examine the performance of ground robotics operators who were instructed to utilise streaming video from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to navigate his/her ground robot to the locations of the targets. The effects of participants' spatial ability on their performance and workload were also investigated. Results showed that participants' overall performance (speed and accuracy) was better when she/he had access to images from larger UAVs with fixed orientations, compared with other UAV conditions (baseline- no UAV, micro air vehicle and UAV with orbiting views). Participants experienced the highest workload when the UAV was orbiting. Those individuals with higher spatial ability performed significantly better and reported less workload than those with lower spatial ability. The results of the current study will further understanding of ground robot operators' target search performance based on streaming video from UAVs. The results will also facilitate the implementation of ground/air robots in military environments and will be useful to the future military system design and training community.

  5. Reconnaissance mapping of likely alluvial valley floors in five western states

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J.C.; Nimick, D.A.

    1984-12-01

    Regional mapping of areas which potentially qualify as alluvial valley floors has been conducted under contract to the Office of Surface Mining in important coal fields of west-central North Dakota, central Utah, western Colorado, and the entire Powder River basin. Reconnaissance-level data were collected on the hydrology, geomorphology, and agricultural practices in each study area. Identification of unconsolidated deposits found in valleys was based on interpretation of aerial photography, topographic and geologic maps, and field data. Surface-irrigated sites were mapped based on irrigation surveys and an extensive regional inventory conducted during this project. An analysis of patterns of agricultural practices, physiography, geomorphology, and climate resulted in the designation of broad regions with similar styles of irrigation development. Criteria for assigning irrigation capability were developed for each region based on the irrigation practices and key physical components of the developed drainages. Subirrigated areas were interpreted from Landsat imagery taken during the moisture-stress period of mid- to late summer in five different years. Site-specific data available for small areas were used to calibrate the Landsat interpretation. These maps can be useful for planning and decision-making to regulatory and land management agencies as well as industry and public interest groups; they provide a regional perspective of the different components of alluvial valley floors and guidance regarding environmental concerns specific to each valley.

  6. Modeling aerial refueling operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Allen B., III

    Aerial Refueling (AR) is the act of offloading fuel from one aircraft (the tanker) to another aircraft (the receiver) in mid flight. Meetings between tanker and receiver aircraft are referred to as AR events and are scheduled to: escort one or more receivers across a large body of water; refuel one or more receivers; or train receiver pilots, tanker pilots, and boom operators. In order to efficiently execute the Aerial Refueling Mission, the Air Mobility Command (AMC) of the United States Air Force (USAF) depends on computer models to help it make tanker basing decisions, plan tanker sorties, schedule aircraft, develop new organizational doctrines, and influence policy. We have worked on three projects that have helped AMC improve its modeling and decision making capabilities. Optimal Flight Planning. Currently Air Mobility simulation and optimization software packages depend on algorithms which iterate over three dimensional fuel flow tables to compute aircraft fuel consumption under changing flight conditions. When a high degree of fidelity is required, these algorithms use a large amount of memory and CPU time. We have modeled the rate of aircraft fuel consumption with respect to AC GrossWeight, Altitude and Airspeed. When implemented, this formula will decrease the amount of memory and CPU time needed to compute sortie fuel costs and cargo capacity values. We have also shown how this formula can be used in optimal control problems to find minimum costs flight plans. Tanker Basing Demand Mismatch Index. Since 1992, AMC has relied on a Tanker Basing/AR Demand Mismatch Index which aggregates tanker capacity and AR demand data into six regions. This index was criticized because there were large gradients along regional boundaries. Meanwhile tankers frequently cross regional boundaries to satisfy the demand for AR support. In response we developed continuous functions to score locations with respect to their proximity to demand for AR support as well as their

  7. Preparations for Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter gravity and altimetry missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazarico, E.; Lemoine, F. G.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Rowlands, D. D.; Zuber, M. T.

    2008-12-01

    The launch of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter is expected in early 2009. We present results of the preparations undertaken at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument and the Radio Science experiment. A new lunar reference frame, vital to current exploration efforts for a return to the Moon, will be developed from the combined data sets collected by both experiments. In addition to collecting topographic data, LOLA will assist the Precision Orbit Determination of the LRO spacecraft. The 50-m total positioning requirement is very challenging due to the low altitude (50km on average) and the lack of radio tracking over most of the lunar far side. While commercial S-band tracking data will be the principal measurements used for orbit reconstruction, the unique five-beam altimeter enables the use of the altimetric cross-over technique with unprecedented accuracy. Previous simulations showed that the more numerous (by a factor of 25) crossings could greatly help in reducing the uncertainties in the recovered orbit. We show here that cross-track information contained in the acquired topographic swaths (compared to multiple two-dimensional profiles) can constrain orbits to a few meters horizontally and better than 50cm vertically. Swath cross-overs will be most valuable in mid-latitudes, where cross-overs are sparse and tracks intersect at shallow angles. A spacecraft physical model, for use in the GEODYN II orbit determination program, includes inter-plate self- shadowing in the calculation of the spacecraft cross-sectional area for solar radiation pressure. Simulations indicate that solar radiation effects on the orbit can be on the order of 10-20m. Because the thermal radiation forces are larger and more variable than on Mars, the current model of the thermal flux map was updated, with effects on the order of 1-5m. The benefit of using the self-shadowing model for the albedo and thermal forces is currently being

  8. CMOS Imaging Sensor Technology for Aerial Mapping Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Klaus; Welzenbach, Martin; Timm, Martin

    2016-06-01

    In June 2015 Leica Geosystems launched the first large format aerial mapping camera using CMOS sensor technology, the Leica DMC III. This paper describes the motivation to change from CCD sensor technology to CMOS for the development of this new aerial mapping camera. In 2002 the DMC first generation was developed by Z/I Imaging. It was the first large format digital frame sensor designed for mapping applications. In 2009 Z/I Imaging designed the DMC II which was the first digital aerial mapping camera using a single ultra large CCD sensor to avoid stitching of smaller CCDs. The DMC III is now the third generation of large format frame sensor developed by Z/I Imaging and Leica Geosystems for the DMC camera family. It is an evolution of the DMC II using the same system design with one large monolithic PAN sensor and four multi spectral camera heads for R,G, B and NIR. For the first time a 391 Megapixel large CMOS sensor had been used as PAN chromatic sensor, which is an industry record. Along with CMOS technology goes a range of technical benefits. The dynamic range of the CMOS sensor is approx. twice the range of a comparable CCD sensor and the signal to noise ratio is significantly better than with CCDs. Finally results from the first DMC III customer installations and test flights will be presented and compared with other CCD based aerial sensors.

  9. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Sun Safe Mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrick, Joseph; Roger, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), a spacecraft designed and built at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, MD, was launched on June 18, 2009 from Cape Canaveral. It is currently in orbit about the Moon taking detailed science measurements and providing a highly accurate mapping of the suface in preparation for the future return of astronauts to a permanent moon base. Onboard the spacecraft is a complex set of algorithms designed by the attitude control engineers at GSFC to control the pointig for all operational events, including anomalies that require the spacecraft to be put into a well known attitude configuration for a sufficiently long duration to allow for the investigation and correction of the anomaly. GSFC level requirements state that each spacecraft s control system design must include a configuration for this pointing and lso be able to maintain a thermally safe and power positive attitude. This stable control algorithm for anomalous events is commonly referred to as the safe mode and consists of control logic thatwill put the spacecraft in this safe configuration defined by the spacecraft s hardware, power and environment capabilities and limitations. The LRO Sun Safe mode consists of a coarse sun-pointing set of algorithms that puts the spacecraft into this thermally safe and power positive attitude and can be achieved wihin a required amount of time from any initial attitude, provided that the system momentum is within the momentum capability of the reaction wheels. On LRO the Sun Safe mode makes use of coarse sun sensors (CSS), an inertial reference unit (IRU) and reaction wheels (RW) to slew the spacecraft to a solar inertial pointing. The CSS and reaction wheels have some level of redundancy because of their numbers. However, the IRU is a single-point-failure piece of hardware. Without the rate information provided by the IRU, the Sun Safe control algorithms could not

  10. Hydropower computerized reconnaissance package version 2. 0. [HYDRO-CAL, PAPER-ECON, and HYDRO-ECON

    SciTech Connect

    Broadus, C.R.

    1981-04-01

    The Hydropower Computerized Reconnaissance (HCR) Package is a computerized preliminary engineering and economic study package for small hydroelectric projects which consists of three programs developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. One engineering program evaluates the flow characteristics of a site and determines the energy generated for various turbine configurations and two economic programs provide two levels of economic studies depending upon the amount of site-specific information available. An Apple II computer is utilized to provide a quick-turnaround capability. The models and methods used in the HCR package are described, and information is provided on program application, sample run sessions, program outputs, and listings of the main programs.

  11. Reconnaissance invariante d'objets 3-D et correlation SONG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Sebastien

    Cette these propose des solutions a deux problemes de la reconnaissance automatique de formes: la reconnaissance invariante d'objets tridimensionnels a partir d'images d'intensite et la reconnaissance robuste a la presence de bruit disjoint. Un systeme utilisant le balayage angulaire des images et un classificateur par trajectoires d'espace des caracteristiques permet d'obtenir la reconnaissance invariante d'objets tridimensionnels. La reconnaissance robuste a la presence de bruit disjoint est realisee au moyen de la correlation SONG. Nous avons realise la reconnaissance invariante aux translations, rotations et changements d'echelle d'objets tridimensionnels a partir d'images d'intensite segmentees. Nous utilisons le balayage angulaire et un classificateur a trajectoires d'espace des caracteris tiques. Afin d'obtenir l'invariance aux translations, le centre de balayage angulaire coincide avec le centre geometrique de l'image. Le balayage angulaire produit un vecteur de caracteristiques invariant aux changements d'echelle de l'image et il transforme en translations du signal les rotations autour d'un axe parallele a la ligne de visee. Le classificateur par trajectoires d'espace des caracteristiques represente une rotation autour d'un axe perpendiculaire a la ligne de visee par une courbe dans l'espace. La classification se fait par la mesure de la distance du vecteur de caracteristiques de l'image a reconnaitre aux trajectoires stockees dans l'espace. Nos resultats numeriques montrent un taux de classement atteignant 98% sur une banque d'images composee de 5 vehicules militaires. La correlation non-lineaire generalisee en tranches orthogonales (SONG) traite independamment les niveaux de gris presents dans une image. Elle somme les correlations lineaires des images binaires ayant le meme niveau de gris. Cette correlation est equivalente a compter le nombre de pixels situes aux memes positions relatives et ayant les memes intensites sur deux images. Nous presentons

  12. Airborne reconnaissance and Mount Everest: an historical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, Jerry D.

    1994-10-01

    In 1933, aerial cameras had been developed that worked essentially as they do today. Aerial surveys were made, stereo plotters produced maps, and the science of photogrammetry was advancing. However, aircraft development had a long way to go before the SR-71 came along. Over the years, the general complexity of taking photographs from above increased by orders of magnitude. A 1933 British flight in two bi-wing aircraft over Mount Everest on an aerial survey mission is compared to a 1984 Space Shuttle flight dedicated to aerial, or more accurately, space photography. The comparison leads to the conclusion that in exploration, it is important that people involved must be given latitude to exercise self-initiative if we are to be successful in the exploration of the solar system and galaxy.

  13. Dynamics of aerial target pursuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, S.

    2015-12-01

    During pursuit and predation, aerial species engage in multitasking behavior that involve simultaneous target detection, tracking, decision-making, approach and capture. The mobility of the pursuer and the target in a three dimensional environment during predation makes the capture task highly complex. Many researchers have studied and analyzed prey capture dynamics in different aerial species such as insects and bats. This article focuses on reviewing the capture strategies adopted by these species while relying on different sensory variables (vision and acoustics) for navigation. In conclusion, the neural basis of these capture strategies and some applications of these strategies in bio-inspired navigation and control of engineered systems are discussed.

  14. AERIAL OF VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING & SURROUNDING AREA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    AERIAL OF VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING & SURROUNDING AREA KSC-377C-0082.41 116-KSC-377C-82.41, P-15877, ARCHIVE-04151 Aerial view - Shuttle construction progress - VAB and Orbiter Processing Facilities - direction northwest.

  15. Hydrologic reconnaissance of western Arctic Alaska, 1976 and 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childers, Joseph M.; Kernodle, Donald R.; Loeffler, Robert M.

    1979-01-01

    Reconnaissance water-resource investigations were conducted on the western Alaskan Arctic Slope during April 1976 and August 1977; these months are times of winter and summer low flow. The information gathered is important for coordinated development in the area. Such development has been spurred by oil and gas discoveries on the North Slope, most notably at Prudhoe Bay. Little water resources information is currently available. The study area extended from the Colville River to the vicinity of Kotzebue. It included the western Arctic Slope and the western foothills of the Brooks Range. Nine springs, nine lakes and eleven rivers were sampled during the April 1976 reconnaissance trip. Its purpose was to locate winter flow and describe its quantity and quality. Field water-quality measurements made at these sites were: ice thickness, water depth, discharge (spring and streams), specific conductance, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity (bicarbonate, HOC3), and pH. A followup summer trip was made in August 1977 to determine flood characteristics of twenty selected streams. Bankfull and maximum evident flood-peak discharges were determined by measuring channel geometry and estimating channel roughness. Aquatic invertebrate samples were collected at springs and flood survey sites visited during both reconnaissance trips. (Woodard-USGS)

  16. Head-mounted workstation displays for airborne reconnaissance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browne, Michael P.

    1998-09-01

    Aircraft reconnaissance operators need to access increasing amounts of information to perform their job effectively. Unfortunately, there is no excess weight, space or power capacity in most airborne platforms for the installation of additional display surfaces. Head mounted workstation displays solve these weight, space and power problems and mitigate information overload by providing a user-friendly interface to displayed information. Savings can be tremendous for large platforms. Over 18 kW of power and over 5,000 pounds could be saved on each Rivet Joint or AWACS platform. Even small platforms such as the E-2C or UAV ground control stations benefit from removal of large, heavy CRT or LCD displays. In addition, head mounted workstation displays provide an increased capability for collaborative mission planning and reduce motion-induced nausea. Kaiser Electronics has already designed and demonstrated a prototype system, VIEWTM, that addresses the needs of the airborne workstation operator. This system is easily reconfigured for multiple tasks and can be designed as a portable workstation for use anywhere within the aircraft (especially for maintenance or supervisory roles). We have validated the VIEWTM design with hundreds of user trials within the airborne reconnaissance community. Adopting such a display system in reconnaissance aircraft will gain significant benefits such as longer on-station time, increased operational altitude and improved operator performance.

  17. Audio-magnetotelluric methods in reconnaissance geothermal exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoover, D.B.; Long, C.L.

    1976-01-01

    and 18 600 Hz where artificial VLF sources are available. As a reconnaissance technique we use AMT surveys in conjunction with regional gravity, magnetic, and telluric surveys. The exploration depth is a function of the resistivities of the lithologic section, but typically ranges from the surface to 0.2 km in low-resistivity areas and to greater than 2 km in high-resistivity regions. Results of the initial reconnaissance AMT surveys provide a rational basis for deciding on the extent of costlier follow-up surveys. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey geothermal program, surveys were conducted in Long Valley and Surprise Valley, California; the Vale, Ore-Weiser, Idaho region; and Bruneau-Grand View, Raft River, and Island Park regions of Idaho. AMT surveys in five additional known geothermal resource areas (KGRA's) have been scheduled for completion by May 1975. In the Raft River and Bruneau-Grand View regions and Long Valley, follow-up electrical surveys substantiated the effectiveness of the AMT technique for reconnaissance surveying.

  18. Floating aerial LED signage based on aerial imaging by retro-reflection (AIRR).

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hirotsugu; Tomiyama, Yuka; Suyama, Shiro

    2014-11-01

    We propose a floating aerial LED signage technique by utilizing retro-reflection. The proposed display is composed of LEDs, a half mirror, and retro-reflective sheeting. Directivity of the aerial image formation and size of the aerial image have been investigated. Furthermore, a floating aerial LED sign has been successfully formed in free space.

  19. Aerial-Photointerpretation of landslides along the Ohio and Mississippi rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Su, W.-J.; Stohr, C.

    2000-01-01

    A landslide inventory was conducted along the Ohio and Mississippi rivers in the New Madrid Seismic Zone of southern Illinois, between the towns of Olmsted and Chester, Illinois. Aerial photography and field reconnaissance identified 221 landslides of three types: rock/debris falls, block slides, and undifferentiated rotational/translational slides. Most of the landslides are small- to medium-size, ancient rotational/translational features partially ob-scured by vegetation and modified by weathering. Five imagery sources were interpreted for landslides: 1:250,000-scale side-looking airborne radar (SLAR); 1:40,000-scale, 1:20,000-scale, 1:6,000-scale, black and white aerial photography; and low altitude, oblique 35-mm color photography. Landslides were identified with three levels of confidence on the basis of distinguishing characteristics and ambiguous indicators. SLAR imagery permitted identification of a 520 hectare mega-landslide which would not have been identified on medium-scale aerial photography. The leaf-off, 35-mm color, oblique photography provided the best imagery for confident interpretation of detailed features needed for smaller landslides.

  20. Multi-Objective Trajectory Optimization of a Hypersonic Reconnaissance Vehicle with Temperature Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masternak, Tadeusz J.

    This research determines temperature-constrained optimal trajectories for a scramjet-based hypersonic reconnaissance vehicle by developing an optimal control formulation and solving it using a variable order Gauss-Radau quadrature collocation method with a Non-Linear Programming (NLP) solver. The vehicle is assumed to be an air-breathing reconnaissance aircraft that has specified takeoff/landing locations, airborne refueling constraints, specified no-fly zones, and specified targets for sensor data collections. A three degree of freedom scramjet aircraft model is adapted from previous work and includes flight dynamics, aerodynamics, and thermal constraints. Vehicle control is accomplished by controlling angle of attack, roll angle, and propellant mass flow rate. This model is incorporated into an optimal control formulation that includes constraints on both the vehicle and mission parameters, such as avoidance of no-fly zones and coverage of high-value targets. To solve the optimal control formulation, a MATLAB-based package called General Pseudospectral Optimal Control Software (GPOPS-II) is used, which transcribes continuous time optimal control problems into an NLP problem. In addition, since a mission profile can have varying vehicle dynamics and en-route imposed constraints, the optimal control problem formulation can be broken up into several "phases" with differing dynamics and/or varying initial/final constraints. Optimal trajectories are developed using several different performance costs in the optimal control formulation: minimum time, minimum time with control penalties, and maximum range. The resulting analysis demonstrates that optimal trajectories that meet specified mission parameters and constraints can be quickly determined and used for larger-scale operational and campaign planning and execution.

  1. Detecting changes in terrain using unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Zia-ur; Hines, Glenn D.; Logan, Michael J.

    2005-05-01

    In recent years, small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have been used for more than the thrill they bring to model airplane enthusiasts. Their flexibility and low cost have made them a viable option for low-altitude reconnaissance. In a recent effort, we acquired video data from a small UAV during several passes over the same flight path. The objective of the exercise was to determine if objects had been added to the terrain along the flight path between flight passes. Several issues accrue to this simple-sounding problem: (1) lighting variations may cause false detection of objects because of changes in shadow orientation and strength between passes; (2) variations in the flight path due to wind-speed, and heading change may cause misalignment of gross features making the task of detecting changes between the frames very difficult; and (3) changes in the aircraft orientation and altitude lead to a change in size of the features from frame-to-frame making a comparison difficult. In this paper, we discuss our efforts to perform this change detection, and the lessons that we learned from this exercise.

  2. Robotic Reconnaissance Missions to Small Bodies and Their Potential Contributions to Human Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, P. A.; Rivkin, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Robotic reconnaissance missions to asteroids and comets will directly address crucial strategic knowledge gaps (SKGs) concerning small body physical characteristics that are relevant for human exploration considerations .

  3. Cooperative Lander-Surface/Aerial Microflyer Missions for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sarita; Lay, Norman; Hine, Butler; Zornetzer, Steven

    2004-01-01

    mitigation in the traverse of the long-distance surface explorer/rover. The basic requirements of design and operation of BEES to implement the scenarios are discussed. Terrestrial applications of such concepts include distributed aerial/surface measurements of meteorological events, i.e., storm watch, seismic monitoring, reconnaissance, biological chemical sensing, search and rescue, surveillance, autonomous security/ protection agents, and/or delivery and lateral distribution of agents (sensors, surface/subsurface crawlers, clean-up agents). Figure 2 illustrates an Earth demonstration that is in development, and its implementation will illustrate the value of these biomorphic mission concepts.

  4. Automated motion imagery exploitation for surveillance and reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Se, Stephen; Laliberte, France; Kotamraju, Vinay; Dutkiewicz, Melanie

    2012-06-01

    Airborne surveillance and reconnaissance are essential for many military missions. Such capabilities are critical for troop protection, situational awareness, mission planning and others, such as post-operation analysis / damage assessment. Motion imagery gathered from both manned and unmanned platforms provides surveillance and reconnaissance information that can be used for pre- and post-operation analysis, but these sensors can gather large amounts of video data. It is extremely labour-intensive for operators to analyse hours of collected data without the aid of automated tools. At MDA Systems Ltd. (MDA), we have previously developed a suite of automated video exploitation tools that can process airborne video, including mosaicking, change detection and 3D reconstruction, within a GIS framework. The mosaicking tool produces a geo-referenced 2D map from the sequence of video frames. The change detection tool identifies differences between two repeat-pass videos taken of the same terrain. The 3D reconstruction tool creates calibrated geo-referenced photo-realistic 3D models. The key objectives of the on-going project are to improve the robustness, accuracy and speed of these tools, and make them more user-friendly to operational users. Robustness and accuracy are essential to provide actionable intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance information. Speed is important to reduce operator time on data analysis. We are porting some processor-intensive algorithms to run on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) in order to improve throughput. Many aspects of video processing are highly parallel and well-suited for optimization on GPUs, which are now commonly available on computers. Moreover, we are extending the tools to handle video data from various airborne platforms and developing the interface to the Coalition Shared Database (CSD). The CSD server enables the dissemination and storage of data from different sensors among NATO countries. The CSD interface allows

  5. Aerial Photographs and Satellite Images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    Photographs and other images of the Earth taken from the air and from space show a great deal about the planet's landforms, vegetation, and resources. Aerial and satellite images, known as remotely sensed images, permit accurate mapping of land cover and make landscape features understandable on regional, continental, and even global scales. Transient phenomena, such as seasonal vegetation vigor and contaminant discharges, can be studied by comparing images acquired at different times. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), which began using aerial photographs for mapping in the 1930's, archives photographs from its mapping projects and from those of some other Federal agencies. In addition, many images from such space programs as Landsat, begun in 1972, are held by the USGS. Most satellite scenes can be obtained only in digital form for use in computer-based image processing and geographic information systems, but in some cases are also available as photographic products.

  6. Aerial and Geophysical Archaeological Reconnaissance At Yangling, The Mausoleum of Emperor Jingdi In The Han Dynasty, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xizhe; Ye, Xinshi; Fassbinder, J. W. E.; Becker, H.

    In 1998-2000, Shaanxi Province Conservation Bureau for Historical Monuments con- ducted an archaeology prospection research project at Yangling, Shaanxi province, China. Yangling, the mausoleum of Emperor Jingdi, is located about 20 kilometres northwest of the city of Xi'an. His mausoleum was constructed in the shape of a four- sided dipper or pyramid 31m high and 170m long each side, surrounded by a square wall of 401m along each side. Today the vestiges of the eastern, western and south- ern remains of the watchtowers previously on either side of gate can be clearly seen. Yangling took a long time to build and had the richest funeral objects. The Empress Wang died in 126 B.C. and also buried at Yangling to the northeastern side of Jingdi's tomb. The city of Yangling County was purposely built to the east of mausoleum. The officials, the rich and noble lived in the town, numbering over 100,000. Two groups of satellite tombs of imperial concubines, high officials and noble relations were dis- tributed over north and east part of the mausoleum, as well as tombs of convicts in the west. Inside the cemetery there were many palaces and houses inhabited by the tomb keepers and palace maids. Air photography, geophysical methods, remote sensing have been proved to be the most successful application in archaeological prospecting and surveying in recent years. In May 1998, we got several vertical images at a scale of 1:8000. Each im- age contains 30 photographs covering an area of 180km2 with an overlap of 65 In the autumn of 2000 about 2 hectares were surveyed with a Caesium magnetometer with a sensitivity of 0.01 Nanotesla (10 pT). This instrument was applied with duo- sensor configuration at 0.5 m traverse interval and 0.1 sec cycle, which corresponds to about 25 cm sample distance.

  7. flexplan: Mission Planning System for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnoy, Assaf; Beech, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    flexplan is a mission planning and scheduling (MPS) tool that uses soft algorithms to define mission scheduling rules and constraints. This allows the operator to configure the tool for any mission without the need to modify or recompile code. In addition, flexplan uses an ID system to track every output on the schedule to the input from which it was generated. This allows flexplan to receive feedback as the schedules are executed, and update the status of all activities in a Web-based client. flexplan outputs include various planning reports, stored command loads for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), ephemeris loads, and pass scripts for automation.

  8. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter: Plans for the Extended Science Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vondrak, R. R.; Keller, J. W.; Chin, G.; Garvin, J. B.; Rice, J. W., Jr.; Petro, N. E.

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft (LRO), launched on June 18, 2009, began with the goal of seeking safe landing sites for future robotic missions or the return of humans to the Moon as part of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). In addition, LRO's objectives included the search for surface resources and to investigate the Lunar radiation environment. Having marked the two-year anniversary, we will review here the major results from the LRO mission for both exploration and science and discuss plans and objectives going forward including plans for an extended science phase out to 2014.

  9. Satellite spectral data and archaeological reconnaissance in western Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Frederick A.; Bauer, M. E.; Cullen, Brenda C.

    1991-01-01

    A Macro-geographical reconnaissance of the Western Peloponnesos adopts spectral signatures taken by Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper as a new instrument of archaeological survey in Greece. Ancient records indicate that indigenous resources contributed to the prosperity of the region. Natural resources and Ancient, Medieval, and Pre-modern Folklife in the Western Peloponnesos describes the principal lines of research. For a supervised classification of attested ancient resources, a variety of biophysical surface features were pinpointed: stone quarries, coal mines, forests of oak and silver fir, terracotta-producing clay beds, crops, and various wild but exploited shrubs such as flax.

  10. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Navigation During the Primary Science Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Highsmith, Dolan; You, Tung-Han; Demcak, Stuart; Graat, Eric; Higa, Earl; Long, Stacia; Bhat, Ram; Mottinger, Neil; Halsell, Allen; Peralta, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter began science operations in November 2006, with a suite of seven instruments and investigations, some of which required navigation accuracies much better than previous Mars missions. This paper describes the driving performance requirements levied on Navigation and how well those requirements have been met thus far. Trending analyses that have a direct impact on the Navigation performance, such as atmospheric bias determination, are covered in detail, as well as dynamic models, estimation strategy, tracking data reduction techniques, and residual noise.

  11. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Aerobraking Daily Operations and Collision Avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Stacia M.; You, Tung-Han; Halsell, C. Allen; Bhat, Ramachand S.; Demcak, Stuart W.; Graat, Eric J.; Higa, Earl S.; Highsmith, Dolan E.; Mottinger, Neil A.; Jah, Moriba K.

    2007-01-01

    The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter reached Mars on March 10, 2006 and performed a Mars orbit insertion maneuver of 1 km/s to enter into a large elliptical orbit. Three weeks later, aerobraking operations began and lasted about five months. Aerobraking utilized the atmospheric drag to reduce the large elliptical orbit into a smaller, near circular orbit. At the time of MRO aerobraking, there were three other operational spacecraft orbiting Mars and the navigation team had to minimize the possibility of a collision. This paper describes the daily operations of the MRO navigation team during this time as well as the collision avoidance strategy development and implementation.

  12. A reconnaissance for uranium in New Mexico, 1953

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griggs, Roy Lee

    1954-01-01

    In the fall of 1953 a reconnaissance for uranium was made in the Datil area of west-central New Mexico, and in the Cerrillos mining district, the Glorieta and Tecolote districts, and the Las Vegas and Colfax sill areas of north-central to northeastern New Mexico. Traces of radioactive materials were detected at many places, and deposits of uranium minerals, which may be of possible economic significance, were found near the village of Datil. Small amounts of uranium are widespread in sandstone beds in the Mesaverde formation. The sample of highest grade contained 0. 056 percent

  13. Aerial robotic data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Hayes, D.W.; Pendergast, M.M.; Corban, J.E.

    1993-12-31

    A small, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), equipped with sensors for physical and chemical measurements of remote environments, is described. A miniature helicopter airframe is used as a platform for sensor testing and development. The sensor output is integrated with the flight control system for real-time, interactive, data acquisition and analysis. Pre-programmed flight missions will be flown with several sensors to demonstrate the cost-effective surveillance capabilities of this new technology.

  14. Telemetry of Aerial Radiological Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    H. W. Clark, Jr.

    2002-10-01

    Telemetry has been added to National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA's) Aerial Measuring System (AMS) Incident Response aircraft to accelerate availability of aerial radiological mapping data. Rapid aerial radiological mapping is promptly performed by AMS Incident Response aircraft in the event of a major radiological dispersal. The AMS airplane flies the entire potentially affected area, plus a generous margin, to provide a quick look at the extent and severity of the event. The primary result of the AMS Incident Response over flight is a map of estimated exposure rate on the ground along the flight path. Formerly, it was necessary to wait for the airplane to land before the map could be seen. Now, while the flight is still in progress, data are relayed via satellite directly from the aircraft to an operations center, where they are displayed and disseminated. This permits more timely utilization of results by decision makers and redirection of the mission to optimize its value. The current telemetry capability can cover all of North America. Extension to a global capability is under consideration.

  15. Identification of wild areas in southern lower Michigan. [terrain analysis from aerial photography, and satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habowski, S.; Cialek, C.

    1978-01-01

    An inventory methodology was developed to identify potential wild area sites. A list of site criteria were formulated and tested in six selected counties. Potential sites were initially identified from LANDSAT satellite imagery. A detailed study of the soil, vegetation and relief characteristics of each site based on both high-altitude aerial photographs and existing map data was conducted to eliminate unsuitable sites. Ground reconnaissance of the remaining wild areas was made to verify suitability and acquire information on wildlife and general aesthetics. Physical characteristics of the wild areas in each county are presented in tables. Maps show the potential sites to be set aside for natural preservation and regulation by the state under the Wilderness and Natural Areas Act of 1972.

  16. Meteorological and Remote Sensing Applications of High Altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenung, S. M.; Wegener, S. S.

    1999-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are maturing in performance and becoming available for routine use in environmental applications including weather reconnaissance and remote sensing. This paper presents a discussion of UAV characteristics and unique features compared with other measurement platforms. A summary of potential remote sensing applications is provided, along with details for four types of tropical cyclone missions. Capabilities of platforms developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program are reviewed, including the Altus, Perseus, and solar- powered Pathfinder, all of which have flown to over 57,000 ft (17 km). In many scientific missions, the science objectives drive the experimental design, thus defining the sensor payload, aircraft performance, and operational requirements. Some examples of science missions and the requisite UAV / payload system are given. A discussion of technology developments needed to fully mature UAV systems for routine operational use is included, along with remarks on future science and commercial UAV business opportunities.

  17. Team Reconnaissance: A Process for Involving Teachers in the Preplanning of Experiential Education Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kielsmeier, Jim

    Too often inadequate preparation in facilitating an outdoor experience is the rule and the subsequent group experience suffers. In an organization like Outward Bound where areas are used repeatedly, an evolutionary form of reconnaissance is often adequate. However, for school groups, this form of reconnaissance is not practical since too few of…

  18. Reconnaissance for uranium and thorium in Alaska, 1954

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matzko, John J.; Bates, Robert G.

    1957-01-01

    During 1954 reconnaissance investigations to locate minable deposits of uranium and thorium in Alaska were unsuccessful. Areas examined, from which prospectors had submitted radioactive samples, include Cap Yakataga, Kodiak Island, and Shirley Lake. Unconcentrated gravels from the beach at Cape Yakataga average about 0.001 percent equivalent uranium. Uranothorianite has been identified by X-ray diffraction data and is the principal source of radioactivity in the Cape Yakataga beach sands studied; but the zircon, monazite, and uranothorite are also radioactive. The black, opaque uranothorianite generally occurs as minute euhedral cubs, the majority of which will pass through a 100-mesh screen. The bedrock source of the radioactive samples from Kodiak Island was not found; the maximum radioactivity of samples from the Shirley Lake area was equivalent to about 0.02 percent uranium. Radiometric traverses of the 460-foot level of the Garnet shaft of the Nixon Fork mine in the Nixon Fork mining district indicated a maximum of 0.15 mr/hr. In the Hot Springs district, drill hole concentrates of gravels examined contained a maximum of 0.03 percent equivalent uranium. A radioactivity anomaly noted during the Survey's airborne reconnaissance of portions of the Territory during 1954 is located in the Fairhaven district. A ground check disclosed that the radioactivity was due to accessory minerals in the granitic rock.

  19. Hydrologic reconnaissance of the eastern North Slope, Alaska, 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childers, Joseph M.; Sloan, C.E.; Meckel, J.P.; Nauman, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    The part of the Arctic coast of Alaska between the Colville River and the Canadian boundary was visited in April, August, and November 1975. The study area is characterized by its cold climate and is largely uninhabited, but oil and gas discoveries have spurred development of parts of the area. Sensible, coordinated development requires information about water resources. The purpose of the April reconnaissance was to locate winter streamflow and describe its quantity and quality. A followup summer trip was made in August to determine the flood characteristics of selected streams by measuring channel geometry in relation to bankfull discharge and the maximum evident flood and by estimating channel roughness. In addition, one lake was sampled, the discharge of a few springs was measured, and samples of spring water were taken. Because streamflow in August was assumed to be representative of normal summer flow, water quality was examined in streams for which flood surveys had been made. Samples of aquatic invertebrate populations were taken from most sites on the April and August trips. Another reconnaissance trip from Prudhoe Bay east to Canada was made in November to measure discharge in selected streams and springs, to measure ice thickness and water depth in selected lakes, and to collect water samples for water-quality analyses. Tables of data, photographs, and maps are included. (Woodard-USGS)

  20. The advanced linked extended reconnaissance and targeting technology demonstration project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruickshank, James; de Villers, Yves; Maheux, Jean; Edwards, Mark; Gains, David; Rea, Terry; Banbury, Simon; Gauthier, Michelle

    2007-06-01

    The Advanced Linked Extended Reconnaissance & Targeting (ALERT) Technology Demonstration (TD) project is addressing key operational needs of the future Canadian Army's Surveillance and Reconnaissance forces by fusing multi-sensor and tactical data, developing automated processes, and integrating beyond line-of-sight sensing. We discuss concepts for displaying and fusing multi-sensor and tactical data within an Enhanced Operator Control Station (EOCS). The sensor data can originate from the Coyote's own visible-band and IR cameras, laser rangefinder, and ground-surveillance radar, as well as beyond line-of-sight systems such as a mini-UAV and unattended ground sensors. The authors address technical issues associated with the use of fully digital IR and day video cameras and discuss video-rate image processing developed to assist the operator to recognize poorly visible targets. Automatic target detection and recognition algorithms processing both IR and visible-band images have been investigated to draw the operator's attention to possible targets. The machine generated information display requirements are presented with the human factors engineering aspects of the user interface in this complex environment, with a view to establishing user trust in the automation. The paper concludes with a summary of achievements to date and steps to project completion.

  1. Probabilistic Thermal Analysis During Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Aerobraking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dec, John A.

    2007-01-01

    A method for performing a probabilistic thermal analysis during aerobraking has been developed. The analysis is performed on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter solar array during aerobraking. The methodology makes use of a response surface model derived from a more complex finite element thermal model of the solar array. The response surface is a quadratic equation which calculates the peak temperature for a given orbit drag pass at a specific location on the solar panel. Five different response surface equations are used, one of which predicts the overall maximum solar panel temperature, and the remaining four predict the temperatures of the solar panel thermal sensors. The variables used to define the response surface can be characterized as either environmental, material property, or modeling variables. Response surface variables are statistically varied in a Monte Carlo simulation. The Monte Carlo simulation produces mean temperatures and 3 sigma bounds as well as the probability of exceeding the designated flight allowable temperature for a given orbit. Response surface temperature predictions are compared with the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter flight temperature data.

  2. Scatterscore : A reconnaissance method to evaluate changes in water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, A.G.; Cardone, C.R.

    2005-12-01

    Water quality data collected in periodic monitoring programs are often difficult to evaluate, especially if the number of parameters is large, the sampling schedule varies, and values are of different orders of magnitude. The Scatterscore Water Quality Evaluation was developed to yield a quantitative score, based on all measured variables in periodic water quality reports, indicating positive, negative or random change. This new methodology calculates a reconnaissance score based on the differences between up-gradient (control) versus down-gradient (treatment) water quality data sets. All parameters measured over a period of time at two or more sampling points are compared. The relationship between the ranges of measured values and the ratio of the medians for each parameter produces a data point that falls into one of four sections on a scattergram. The number and average values of positive, negative and random change points is used to calculate a Scatterscore that indicates the magnitude and direction of overall change in water quality. The Scatterscore Water Quality Evaluation, a reconnaissance method to track general changes, has been applied to 20 sites at which coal utilization by-products (CUB) were used to control acid mine drainage (AMD).

  3. RecceMan: an interactive recognition assistance for image-based reconnaissance: synergistic effects of human perception and computational methods for object recognition, identification, and infrastructure analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Bekri, Nadia; Angele, Susanne; Ruckhäberle, Martin; Peinsipp-Byma, Elisabeth; Haelke, Bruno

    2015-10-01

    This paper introduces an interactive recognition assistance system for imaging reconnaissance. This system supports aerial image analysts on missions during two main tasks: Object recognition and infrastructure analysis. Object recognition concentrates on the classification of one single object. Infrastructure analysis deals with the description of the components of an infrastructure and the recognition of the infrastructure type (e.g. military airfield). Based on satellite or aerial images, aerial image analysts are able to extract single object features and thereby recognize different object types. It is one of the most challenging tasks in the imaging reconnaissance. Currently, there are no high potential ATR (automatic target recognition) applications available, as consequence the human observer cannot be replaced entirely. State-of-the-art ATR applications cannot assume in equal measure human perception and interpretation. Why is this still such a critical issue? First, cluttered and noisy images make it difficult to automatically extract, classify and identify object types. Second, due to the changed warfare and the rise of asymmetric threats it is nearly impossible to create an underlying data set containing all features, objects or infrastructure types. Many other reasons like environmental parameters or aspect angles compound the application of ATR supplementary. Due to the lack of suitable ATR procedures, the human factor is still important and so far irreplaceable. In order to use the potential benefits of the human perception and computational methods in a synergistic way, both are unified in an interactive assistance system. RecceMan® (Reconnaissance Manual) offers two different modes for aerial image analysts on missions: the object recognition mode and the infrastructure analysis mode. The aim of the object recognition mode is to recognize a certain object type based on the object features that originated from the image signatures. The

  4. Aerial robot navigation in cluttered urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Dongqing

    Autonomous navigation systems for mobile robots have been successfully deployed for a wide range of planar ground-based tasks. However, very few counterparts of the previous planar navigation systems were developed for three-dimensional (3-D) motion, which is needed for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Safe maneuvering in complex environments is a major challenge for UAVs. Future urban reconnaissance and search missions will require UAVs to autonomously navigate through cluttered urban spaces. This research proposes two approaches for unmanned helicopter navigation in cluttered urban environments: a 3-D fuzzy behavioral approach and a 3-D vector field histogram (VFH) approach. Behavior-based control has been very successful for planar mobile robots navigation in unknown environments. A novel fuzzy behavioral scheme for navigating an unmanned helicopter in cluttered 3-D spaces is developed. The 3-D navigation problem is decomposed into several identical two-dimensional (2-D) navigation sub-problems, each of which is solved by using preference-based fuzzy behaviors. Due to the shortcomings of vector summation during the fusion of the 2-D sub-problems, instead of directly outputting steering subdirections by their own defuzzification processes, the undefuzzified intermediate results of the sub-problems are fused to a 3-D solution region, representing degrees of preference for the robot movement. A new defuzzification algorithm that steers the robot by finding the centroid of a 3-D convex region of maximum volume in the 3-D solution region is developed. A fuzzy speed control system is also developed to ensure the efficiency and safety of the navigation. The VFH approach is very popular for planar mobile robots. A 3-D VFH approach to UAV navigation in cluttered urban environments is developed. A 3-D laser measurement system is used to obtain the obstacle distribution in this method. Instead of a 2-D Cartesian histogram grid as a world model, a 3-D spherical histogram

  5. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars investigation and data set from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's primary science phase

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murchie, S.L.; Seelos, F.P.; Hash, C.D.; Humm, D.C.; Malaret, E.; McGovern, J.A.; Choo, T.H.; Seelos, K.D.; Buczkowski, D.L.; Morgan, M.F.; Barnouin-Jha, O. S.; Nair, H.; Taylor, H.W.; Patterson, G.W.; Harvel, C.A.; Mustard, J.F.; Arvidson, R. E.; McGuire, P.; Smith, M.D.; Wolff, M.J.; Titus, T.N.; Bibring, J.-P.; Poulet, F.

    2009-01-01

    The part of the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer (CRISM) for Mars investigation conducted during the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's (MRO's) primary science phase was a comprehensive investigation of past aqueous environments, structure of the planet's crust, past climate, and current meteorology. The measurements to implement this investigation include over 9500 targeted observations of surface features taken at spatial resolutions of better than 40 m/pixel, monitoring of seasonal variations in atmospheric aerosols and trace gases, and acquisition of a 200 m/pixel map covering over 55% of Mars in 72 selected wavelengths under conditions of relatively low atmospheric opacity. Key results from these data include recognition of a diversity of aqueous mineral-containing deposits, discovery of a widespread distribution of phyllosilicates in early to middle Noachian units, the first definitive detection of carbonates in bedrock, new constraints on the sequence of events that formed Hesperian-aged, sulfate-rich layered deposits, characterization of seasonal polar processes, and monitoring of the 2007 global dust event. Here we describe CRISM's science investigations during the Primary Science Phase, the data sets that were collected and their calibration and uncertainties, and how they have been processed and made available to the scientific community. We also describe the ongoing investigation during MRO's extended science phase. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. A Spherical Aerial Terrestrial Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, Christopher J.

    This thesis focuses on the design of a novel, ultra-lightweight spherical aerial terrestrial robot (ATR). The ATR has the ability to fly through the air or roll on the ground, for applications that include search and rescue, mapping, surveillance, environmental sensing, and entertainment. The design centers around a micro-quadcopter encased in a lightweight spherical exoskeleton that can rotate about the quadcopter. The spherical exoskeleton offers agile ground locomotion while maintaining characteristics of a basic aerial robot in flying mode. A model of the system dynamics for both modes of locomotion is presented and utilized in simulations to generate potential trajectories for aerial and terrestrial locomotion. Details of the quadcopter and exoskeleton design and fabrication are discussed, including the robot's turning characteristic over ground and the spring-steel exoskeleton with carbon fiber axle. The capabilities of the ATR are experimentally tested and are in good agreement with model-simulated performance. An energy analysis is presented to validate the overall efficiency of the robot in both modes of locomotion. Experimentally-supported estimates show that the ATR can roll along the ground for over 12 minutes and cover the distance of 1.7 km, or it can fly for 4.82 minutes and travel 469 m, on a single 350 mAh battery. Compared to a traditional flying-only robot, the ATR traveling over the same distance in rolling mode is 2.63-times more efficient, and in flying mode the system is only 39 percent less efficient. Experimental results also demonstrate the ATR's transition from rolling to flying mode.

  7. Mars-Moons Exploration, Reconnaissance and Landed Investigation (MERLIN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murchie, S. L.; Chabot, N. L.; Buczkowski, D.; Arvidson, R. E.; Castillo, J. C.; Peplowski, P. N.; Ernst, C. M.; Rivkin, A.; Eng, D.; Chmielewski, A. B.; Maki, J.; trebi-Ollenu, A.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Spence, H. E.; Horanyi, M.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Christian, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Mars-Moons Exploration, Reconnaissance and Landed Investigation (MERLIN) is a NASA Discovery mission proposal to explore the moons of Mars. Previous Mars-focused spacecraft have raised fundamental questions about Mars' moons: What are their origins and compositions? Why do the moons resemble primitive outer solar system D-type objects? How do geologic processes modify their surfaces? MERLIN answers these questions through a combination of orbital and landed measurements, beginning with reconnaissance of Deimos and investigation of the hypothesized Martian dust belts. Orbital reconnaissance of Phobos occurs, followed by low flyovers to characterize a landing site. MERLIN lands on Phobos, conducting a 90-day investigation. Radiation measurements are acquired throughout all mission phases. Phobos' size and mass provide a low-risk landing environment: controlled descent is so slow that the landing is rehearsed, but gravity is high enough that surface operations do not require anchoring. Existing imaging of Phobos reveals low regional slope regions suitable for landing, and provides knowledge for planning orbital and landed investigations. The payload leverages past NASA investments. Orbital imaging is accomplished by a dual multispectral/high-resolution imager rebuilt from MESSENGER/MDIS. Mars' dust environment is measured by the refurbished engineering model of LADEE/LDEX, and the radiation environment by the flight spare of LRO/CRaTER. The landed workspace is characterized by a color stereo imager updated from MER/HazCam. MERLIN's arm deploys landed instrumentation using proven designs from MER, Phoenix, and MSL. Elemental measurements are acquired by a modified version of Rosetta/APXS, and an uncooled gamma-ray spectrometer. Mineralogical measurements are acquired by a microscopic imaging spectrometer developed under MatISSE. MERLIN delivers seminal science traceable to NASA's Strategic Goals and Objectives, Science Plan, and the Decadal Survey. MERLIN's science

  8. The Advanced Linked Extended Reconnaissance & Targeting Technology Demonstration project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Mark

    2008-04-01

    The Advanced Linked Extended Reconnaissance & Targeting (ALERT) Technology Demonstration (TD) project is addressing many operational needs of the future Canadian Army's Surveillance and Reconnaissance forces. Using the surveillance system of the Coyote reconnaissance vehicle as an experimental platform, the ALERT TD project aims to significantly enhance situational awareness by fusing multi-sensor and tactical data, developing automated processes, and integrating beyond line-of-sight sensing. The project is exploiting important advances made in computer processing capability, displays technology, digital communications, and sensor technology since the design of the original surveillance system. As the major research area within the project, concepts are discussed for displaying and fusing multi-sensor and tactical data within an Enhanced Operator Control Station (EOCS). The sensor data can originate from the Coyote's own visible-band and IR cameras, laser rangefinder, and ground-surveillance radar, as well as from beyond line-of-sight systems such as mini-UAVs and unattended ground sensors. Video-rate image processing has been developed to assist the operator to detect poorly visible targets. As a second major area of research, automatic target cueing capabilities have been added to the system. These include scene change detection, automatic target detection and aided target recognition algorithms processing both IR and visible-band images to draw the operator's attention to possible targets. The merits of incorporating scene change detection algorithms are also discussed. In the area of multi-sensor data fusion, up to Joint Defence Labs level 2 has been demonstrated. The human factors engineering aspects of the user interface in this complex environment are presented, drawing upon multiple user group sessions with military surveillance system operators. The paper concludes with Lessons Learned from the project. The ALERT system has been used in a number of C4ISR

  9. The US Air Force Aerial Spray Unit: a history of large area disease vector control operations, WWII through Katrina.

    PubMed

    Breidenbaugh, Mark; Haagsma, Karl

    2008-01-01

    The US Air Force has had a long history of aerial applications of pesticides to fulfill a variety of missions, the most important being the protection of troops through the minimization of arthropod vectors capable of disease transmission. Beginning in World War II, aerial application of pesticides by the military has effectively controlled vector and nuisance pest populations in a variety of environments. Currently, the military aerial spray capability resides in the US Air Force Reserve (USAFR), which operates and maintains C-130 airplanes capable of a variety of missions, including ultra low volume applications for vector and nuisance pests, as well as higher volume aerial applications of herbicides and oil-spill dispersants. The USAFR aerial spray assets are the only such fixed-wing aerial spray assets within the Department of Defense. In addition to troop protection, the USAFR Aerial Spray Unit has participated in a number of humanitarian/relief missions, most recently in the response to the 2005 Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, which heavily damaged the Gulf Coasts of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas. This article provides historical background on the Air Force Aerial Spray Unit and describes the operations in Louisiana in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. PMID:20088030

  10. The US Air Force Aerial Spray Unit: a history of large area disease vector control operations, WWII through Katrina.

    PubMed

    Breidenbaugh, Mark; Haagsma, Karl

    2008-01-01

    The US Air Force has had a long history of aerial applications of pesticides to fulfill a variety of missions, the most important being the protection of troops through the minimization of arthropod vectors capable of disease transmission. Beginning in World War II, aerial application of pesticides by the military has effectively controlled vector and nuisance pest populations in a variety of environments. Currently, the military aerial spray capability resides in the US Air Force Reserve (USAFR), which operates and maintains C-130 airplanes capable of a variety of missions, including ultra low volume applications for vector and nuisance pests, as well as higher volume aerial applications of herbicides and oil-spill dispersants. The USAFR aerial spray assets are the only such fixed-wing aerial spray assets within the Department of Defense. In addition to troop protection, the USAFR Aerial Spray Unit has participated in a number of humanitarian/relief missions, most recently in the response to the 2005 Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, which heavily damaged the Gulf Coasts of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas. This article provides historical background on the Air Force Aerial Spray Unit and describes the operations in Louisiana in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina.

  11. Astronomical Methods in Aerial Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beij, K Hilding

    1925-01-01

    The astronomical method of determining position is universally used in marine navigation and may also be of service in aerial navigation. The practical application of the method, however, must be modified and adapted to conform to the requirements of aviation. Much of this work of adaptation has already been accomplished, but being scattered through various technical journals in a number of languages, is not readily available. This report is for the purpose of collecting under one cover such previous work as appears to be of value to the aerial navigator, comparing instruments and methods, indicating the best practice, and suggesting future developments. The various methods of determining position and their application and value are outlined, and a brief resume of the theory of the astronomical method is given. Observation instruments are described in detail. A complete discussion of the reduction of observations follows, including a rapid method of finding position from the altitudes of two stars. Maps and map cases are briefly considered. A bibliography of the subject is appended.

  12. Science Planning for the NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenkert, Daniel D.; Bridges, Nathan T.; Eggemeyer, William Curtis; Hale, Amy Snyder; Kass, David; Martin, Terry Z.; Noland, Stephen J.; Safaeinili, Ali; Smrekar, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), launched on August 12, 2005, carries six science instruments, each with unique requirements for repetitive global monitoring, regional or global survey mapping, and/or targeted observations of Mars. Some prefer nadir-only observations, while other instruments require many off-nadir observations (especially for stereo viewing). Because the operations requirements are often incompatible, an interactive science planning process has been developed. This process is more complex than in some recent NASA Mars missions, but less complex (and more repetitive) than processes used by many large planetary missions. It takes full advantage of MRO's novel onboard processing capabilities, and uses simple electronic interactions between geographically distributed teams. This paper describes the process used during MRO's Primary Science Phase (PSP) to plan both interactive and non-interactive observations of Mars, and what has already been learned in the tests and rehearsals preparing for PSP.

  13. Reconnaissance geothermal resource assessment of 40 sites in California

    SciTech Connect

    Leivas, E.; Martin, R.C.; Higgins, C.T.; Bezore, S.P.

    1981-01-01

    Results are set forth for a continuing reconnaissance-level assessment of promising geothermal sites scattered through California. The studies involve acquisition of new data based upon field observations, compilation of data from published and unpublished sources, and evaluation of the data to identify areas suitable for more intensive area-specific studies. Forty sites were chosen for reporting on the basis of their relative potential for development as a significant resource. The name and location of each site is given, and after a brief synopsis, the geothermal features, chemistry, geology, and history of the site are reported. Three sites are recommended for more detailed study on the basis of potential for use by a large number of consumers, large volume of water, and the likelihood that the resource underlies a large area. (LEW)

  14. Engineering a Successful Mission: Lessons from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everett, David F.

    2011-01-01

    Schedule pressure is common in the commercial world, where late delivery of a product means delayed income and loss of profit. 12 Research spacecraft developed by NASA, on the other hand, tend to be driven by the high cost of launch vehicles and the public scrutiny of failure-- the primary driver is ensuring proper operation in space for a system that cannot be retrieved for repair. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) development faced both schedule pressure and high visibility. The team had to balance the strong push to meet a launch date against the need to ensure that this first mission for Exploration succeeded. This paper will provide an overview of the mission from concept through its first year of operation and explore some of the challenges the systems engineering team faced taking a mission from preliminary design review to pre-ship review in 3 years.

  15. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter: Plans for the Science Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vondrak, Richard R.; Keller, John W.; Chin, Gordon; Petro, Noah; Rice, James; Garvin, James

    2011-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft (LRO), which was launched on June 18, 2009, began with the goal of seeking safe landing sites for future robotic missions or the return of humans to the Moon as part of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). In addition, LRO's primary objectives included the search for resources and to investigate the Lunar radiation environment. This phase of the mission was completed on September 15,2010 when the operational responsibility for LRO was transferred from ESMD to NASA's Science Mission directorate (SMD). Under SMD, the mission focuses on a new set of goals related to the history of the Moon, its current state and what its history can tell us about the evolution of the Solar System.

  16. Survey of Fena Reservoir, Island of Guam; limnological reconnaissance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaBaugh, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    During the limnological reconnaissance of Fena Reservoir, samples of the water columns and bottom sediment were obtained and analyzed at five locations within the reservoir. Major ion analyses of filtered surface water indicated that calcium and bicarbonate are the dominant cation and anion in the reservoir. Thermal stratification was recorded at all five locations. Temperature data indicated a distinct hypolimnion at three of the sampling locations below a depth of 8 meters. Vertical profiles of pH exhibited changes with depth as did conductivity. Marked clinograde distributions of dissolved osygen were evident at all but the shallowest locations. Inverse clinograde distributions of total phosphorus, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite and dissolved ammonia were observed at the two deepest stations. Total organic carbon had no distinct profile and had an average concentration of 13.8 milligrams per liter. Data are also provided for nutrient analysis of the sediment. (USGS)

  17. THe high altitude reconnaissance platform (HARP) and its capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Rusk, D.; Rose, R.L.; Gibeau, E.

    1996-10-01

    The High Altitude Reconnaissance Platform (HARP), a Learjet 36A, is a multi-purpose, long-range, high-altitude aircraft specially modified to serve as a meteorological observation platform. Its instrument suite includes: particle probes, Ka-band radar, two-color lidar, infrared spectroradiometer, thermometer, hygrometer, liquid water probe, and a gust probe. Aeromet scientists have developed software and hardware systems that combine data using sensor fusion concepts, providing detailed environmental information. The HARP answers the need for defining and predicting meteorological conditions throughout large atmospheric volumes particularly in areas where conventional surface and upper-air observations are not available. It also fills the need for gathering and predicting meteorological conditions along an optical sensor`s line of sight or a missile`s reentry path. 6 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Geologic reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains, Churchill County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voegtly, Nickolas E.

    1981-01-01

    A geologic reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, which include parts of the Brady-Hazen and the Stillwater-Soda Lake Known Geothermal Resource Areas, during June-December 1975, resulted in a reinterpretation of the nature and location of some Basin and Range faults. In addition, the late Cenozoic stratigraphy has been modified, chiefly on the basis of radiometric dates of volcanic rocks by U.S. Geological Survey personnel and others. The Hot Springs Mountains are in the western part of the Basin and Range province, which is characterized by east-west crustal extension and associated normal faulting. In the surrounding Trinity, West Humboldt, Stillwater, and Desert Mountains, Cenozoic rocks overlie ' basement ' rocks of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. A similar relation is inferred in the Hot Springs Mountains. Folding and faulting have taken place from the late Tertiary to the present. (USGS)

  19. Reconnaissance for uranium in the southeastern states, 1953

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Henry S.

    1953-01-01

    During the last quarter of 1952 and most of 1953 the U.S. Geological Survey carried on a program of reconnaissance for radioactive material in the southeastern states on behalf to the Atomic Energy Commission. In the course of the study 111 localities were examined and 43 samples were taken for radioactivity measurements at the Survey's Trace Elements laboratory in Denver, Colo. No economic deposits of uranium were found as a result of this work, but weak radioactivity was noted at the Tungsten Mining Coperation property near Townsville, N. C.; the Comolli granite quarry near Elberton, Ga.; in the Beech and Cranberry granite near Roan Mountain, Tenn.; and in several shales in the Valley and Ridge and Appalachian Plateau provinces. Devonian through Pennsylvanian rocks in these two provinces probably constitute the most favorable ground for new discoveries of uranium in the Southeast.

  20. Location of Buried Mineshafts and Adits Using Reconnaissance Geophysical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culshaw, Martin; Donnelly, Laurance; McCann, David

    Britain has a long history of mining activity, which stretches back some 3000 years to the excavation of flint in East Anglia. The legacy of this long period of activity is the presence of many buried mineshafts and adits, whose location is often unknown precisely and in many cases not even recorded in historical mining records. As has been shown by Donnelly et al (2003) the discovery of a mineshaft in an area of housing development can have a profound effect on property values in its vicinity. Hence, urgent action must be taken to establish at the site investigation stage of a development to determine whether any mineshafts are present at the site so that remedial action can be taken before construction commences. A study of historical information and the drilling may well enable the developer to locate any suspected mineshafts and adits on his site. However, the use of geophysical reconnaissance methods across the whole site may well provide sufficient information to simplify the drilling programme and reduce its cost to a minimum. In this paper a number of rapid reconnaissance geophysical methods are described and evaluated in terms of their success in the location of buried mineshafts and adits. It has shown that a combination of ground conductivity and magnetic surveys provides a most effective approach on open sites in greenfield and brownfield areas. Ground penetrating radar and micro-gravity surveys have proved to be a valuable approach in urban areas where the use of many geophysical methods is prevented by the presence of various types of cultural noise. On a regional scale the infrared thermography method is being increasingly used but care must be taken to overcome certain environmental difficulties. The practical use of all these geophysical methods in the field is illustrated by a number of appropriate case histories.

  1. A reconnaissance study of radon concentration in Hamadan city, Iran.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillmore, G. K.; Jabari Vasal, Naghi

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents results of a reconnaissance study that used CR-39 alpha track-etch detectors to measure radon concentrations in dwellings in Hamadan, western Iran, significantly, built on permeable alluvial fan deposits. The indoor radon levels recorded varied from 4 to 364 Bq/m3 with a mean value of 107.87 Bq/m3 which is 2.5 times the average global population-weighted indoor radon concentration - these data augment the very few published studies on indoor radon levels in Iran. The maximum radon concentration in Hamadan occurs during the winter period (January to March) with lower concentrations during the autumn. The effective dose equivalent to the population in Hamadan is estimated from this reconnaissance study to be in the region of 2.7 mSv/y, which is above the guidelines for dose to a member of the public of 1 mSv/y suggested by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 1993, although further work is required to confirm these results. This study supports other work in a number of countries that indicates such permeable 'surficial' deposits as being of intermediate to high radon potential. In western Iran, the presence of hammered clay floors, the widespread presence of excavated qanats to distribute water underground, the textural properties of surficial deposits and human behaviour intended to cope with winds are likely to be important factors influencing radon concentrations in older buildings. Keywords: Radon; health; dwellings; clay floors; alluvial fan; surficial geology; Hamadan; Iran

  2. HuntIR thermal imagers for reconnaissance and targeting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breiter, Rainer; Cabanski, Wolfgang A.; Ihle, Tobias; Mauk, Karl-Heinz; Rode, Werner

    2004-08-01

    A new family of light handheld military thermal imagers for reconnaissance and targeting applications was developed based on AIM's IR components like IR detection modules, command and control electronics and image processing units. Three different types of imagers provide solutions for different requirements in identification ranges of targets. The highest performance device makes use of a FPA MCT 384x288 MWIR detector with a motorized double field of view optics. An identification range up to 2400m for the NATO standard target was proven according to the FGAN-FOM TRM3 range model. The device provides a mechanical adaptation to weapon systems and provides target markers for common hand weapons of the German army. A single field of view MCT device for 1000m ranges and an uncooled device on the lower performance end complete the imager family. Electronics for intelligent power management from batteries and display electronics were developed to provide stand alone operation. The modular concept allows the use of the same image processing unit for all devices providing special features for best performance like scene-based non-uniformity correction together with an optical calibration element and dynamic reduction including automatic histogram equalization for optimized scene display and text or graphics overlay. Due to the modular concept the components like the image processing unit are already used and validated in programs like the thermal sight for the self defense gun of the reconnaissance vehicle FENNEK together with a 320x240 LWIR uncooled microbolometer detector or with the MCT 384x288 MWIR detection module in a thermal imager for the German army UAV Luna.

  3. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO): Observations for Lunar Exploration and Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vondrak, Richard; Keller, John; Chin, Gordon; Garvin, James

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) was implemented to facilitate scientific and engineering-driven mapping of the lunar surface at new spatial scales and with new remote sensing methods, identify safe landing sites, search for in situ resources, and measure the space radiation environment. After its successful launch on June 18,2009, the LRO spacecraft and instruments were activated and calibrated in an eccentric polar lunar orbit until September 15, when LRO was moved to a circular polar orbit with a mean altitude of 50 km. LRO will operate for at least one year to support the goals of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD), and for at least two years of extended operations for additional lunar science measurements supported by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD). LRO carries six instruments with associated science and exploration investigations, and a telecommunications/radar technology demonstration. The LRO instruments are: Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER), Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment (DLRE), Lyman-Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP), Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND), Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA), and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC). The technology demonstration is a compact, dual-frequency, hybrid polarity synthetic aperture radar instrument (Mini-RF). LRO observations also support the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), the lunar impact mission that was co-manifested with LRO on the Atlas V (401) launch vehicle. This paper describes the LRO objectives and measurements that support exploration of the Moon and that address the science objectives outlined by the National Academy of Science's report on the Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon (SCEM). We also describe data accessibility by the science and exploration community.

  4. BOREAS Level-0 ER-2 Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominquez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), the ER-2 and other aerial photography was collected to provide finely detailed and spatially extensive documentation of the condition of the primary study sites. The ER-2 aerial photography consists of color-IR transparencies collected during flights in 1994 and 1996 over the study areas.

  5. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the American National... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aerial lifts. 1926.453 Section 1926.453 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Scaffolds § 1926.453 Aerial lifts. (a)...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the American National... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aerial lifts. 1926.453 Section 1926.453 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Scaffolds § 1926.453 Aerial lifts. (a)...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the American National... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aerial lifts. 1926.453 Section 1926.453 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Scaffolds § 1926.453 Aerial lifts. (a)...

  8. Aerial shaking performance of wet Anna's hummingbirds.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Jimenez, Victor Manuel; Dudley, Robert

    2012-05-01

    External wetting poses problems of immediate heat loss and long-term pathogen growth for vertebrates. Beyond these risks, the locomotor ability of smaller animals, and particularly of fliers, may be impaired by water adhering to the body. Here, we report on the remarkable ability of hummingbirds to perform rapid shakes in order to expel water from their plumage even while in flight. Kinematic performance of aerial versus non-aerial shakes (i.e. those performed while perching) was compared. Oscillation frequencies of the head, body and tail were lower in aerial shakes. Tangential speeds and accelerations of the trunk and tail were roughly similar in aerial and non-aerial shakes, but values for head motions while perching were twice as high when compared with aerial shakes [corrected] . Azimuthal angular amplitudes for both aerial and non-aerial shakes reached values greater than 180° for the head, greater than 45° for the body trunk and slightly greater than 90° for the tail and wings. Using a feather on an oscillating disc to mimic shaking motions, we found that bending increased average speeds by up to 36 per cent and accelerations of the feather tip up to fourfold relative to a hypothetical rigid feather. Feather flexibility may help to enhance shedding of water and reduce body oscillations during shaking.

  9. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire....

  10. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire....

  11. A Classroom Simulation of Aerial Photography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Simon

    1981-01-01

    Explains how a simulation of aerial photography can help students in a college level beginning course on interpretation of aerial photography understand the interrelationships of the airplane, the camera, and the earth's surface. Procedures, objectives, equipment, and scale are discussed. (DB)

  12. Adaptive planning of emergency aerial photogrammetric mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Fuqiang; Zhu, Qing; Zhang, Junxiao; Miao, Shuangxi; Zhou, Xingxia; Cao, Zhenyu

    2015-12-01

    Aiming at the diversity of emergency aerial photogrammetric mission requirements, complex ground and air environmental constraints make the planning mission time-consuming. This paper presents a fast adaptation for the UAV aerial photogrammetric mission planning. First, Building emergency aerial UAVs mission the unified expression of UAVs model and mechanical model of performance parameters in the semantic space make the integrated expression of mission requirements and low altitude environment. Proposed match assessment method which based on resource and mission efficiency. Made the Adaptive match of UAV aerial resources and mission. According to the emergency aerial resource properties, considering complex air-ground environment and mission requirements constraints. Made accurate design of UAV route. Experimental results show, the method scientific and efficient, greatly enhanced the emergency response rate.

  13. Automatic orthorectification and mosaicking of oblique images from a zoom lens aerial camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qianfei; Liu, Jinghong

    2015-01-01

    For the purpose of image distortion caused by the oblique photography of a zoom lens aerial camera, a fast and accurate image autorectification and mosaicking method in a ground control points (GCPs)-free environment was proposed. With the availability of integrated global positioning system (GPS) and inertial measurement units, the camera's exterior orientation parameters (EOPs) were solved through direct georeferencing. The one-parameter division model was adopted to estimate the distortion coefficient and the distortion center coordinates for the zoom lens to correct the lens distortion. Using the camera's EOPs and the lens distortion parameters, the oblique aerial images specified in the camera frame were geo-orthorectified into the mapping frame and then were mosaicked together based on the mapping coordinates to produce a larger field and high-resolution georeferenced image. Experimental results showed that the orthorectification error was less than 1.80 m at an 1100 m flight height above ground level, when compared with 14 presurveyed ground checkpoints which were measured by differential GPS. The mosaic error was about 1.57 m compared with 18 checkpoints. The accuracy was considered sufficient for urgent response such as military reconnaissance and disaster monitoring where GCPs were not available.

  14. Mineral reconnaissance of the southern part of the Wadi Qaraqir quadrangle, Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Robert Francis; Trent, Virgil A.

    1972-01-01

    Introduction At the end of a field trip to the Wadi as Surr quadrangle (Johnson and Trent, 1967) a few days were spent in the southern part of the adjoinning Wadi Qaraqir quadrangle in order to extend our mineral reconnaissance as far east as the Arabian Plateau. The area examine is shown by the distribution of sample localities on the accompanying map. No mineral deposits of economic interest were seen. The terrain is one of broad plains and low hills that extend westward from the base of a prominent erosional scarp which forms the western edge of the Arabian Plateau. Streams cutting headward into the low-dipping massive sandstone of the Plateau have carved deep canyongs with vertical walls, and outliers of the sandstone are preserved as buttes and erosional forms of varied shapes. There are no permanent settlements in the mapped areas. The one road leads up a tributary of Wadi Qaraqir to some date gardens at the base of the sandstone cliffs. A well-travelled caravan route crosses the passes at Al Khuraytah to reach the Plateau H. St. John Philby strongly recommended that a road be constructed through these passes to provide direct access from Tabuk to the Red Sea coast. Burton (1878) was probably the first European to visit the area. He was searching for mineral deposits and he also located some Nabatcan ruins. Philby in company with R. G. Bogue, U. S. Geological Survey, explored the scarp in the Wadi Qaraqir valley and drove northwestward to Al Khuraytah pass. The geology of the Wadi Qaraqir quadrangle shown on the geologic map of the Northwestern Hijaz (Brown and others, 1963) was compiled from Bogue's work. Our work consisted of making traverses around the hilly area and up accessible wadis. We examined the rocks along the traverse routes and visited target areas that had been selected by examination of aerial photographs. Samples of wadi sediment were collected from fault zones, granite contacts, and areas that showed some evidence of hydrothermal alteration

  15. Whitecap coverage from aerial photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, R. W.

    1970-01-01

    A program for determining the feasibility of deriving sea surface wind speeds by remotely sensing ocean surface radiances in the nonglitter regions is discussed. With a knowledge of the duration and geographical extent of the wind field, information about the conventional sea state may be derived. The use of optical techniques for determining sea state has obvious limitations. For example, such means can be used only in daylight and only when a clear path of sight is available between the sensor and the surface. However, sensors and vehicles capable of providing the data needed for such techniques are planned for the near future; therefore, a secondary or backup capability can be provided with little added effort. The information currently being sought regarding white water coverage is also of direct interest to those working with passive microwave systems, the study of energy transfer between winds and ocean currents, the aerial estimation of wind speeds, and many others.

  16. An evolutionary algorithm technique for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance plan optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langton, John T.; Caroli, Joseph A.; Rosenberg, Brad

    2008-04-01

    To support an Effects Based Approach to Operations (EBAO), Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) planners must optimize collection plans within an evolving battlespace. A need exists for a decision support tool that allows ISR planners to rapidly generate and rehearse high-performing ISR plans that balance multiple objectives and constraints to address dynamic collection requirements for assessment. To meet this need we have designed an evolutionary algorithm (EA)-based "Integrated ISR Plan Analysis and Rehearsal System" (I2PARS) to support Effects-based Assessment (EBA). I2PARS supports ISR mission planning and dynamic replanning to coordinate assets and optimize their routes, allocation and tasking. It uses an evolutionary algorithm to address the large parametric space of route-finding problems which is sometimes discontinuous in the ISR domain because of conflicting objectives such as minimizing asset utilization yet maximizing ISR coverage. EAs are uniquely suited for generating solutions in dynamic environments and also allow user feedback. They are therefore ideal for "streaming optimization" and dynamic replanning of ISR mission plans. I2PARS uses the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) to automatically generate a diverse set of high performing collection plans given multiple objectives, constraints, and assets. Intended end users of I2PARS include ISR planners in the Combined Air Operations Centers and Joint Intelligence Centers. Here we show the feasibility of applying the NSGA-II algorithm and EAs in general to the ISR planning domain. Unique genetic representations and operators for optimization within the ISR domain are presented along with multi-objective optimization criteria for ISR planning. Promising results of the I2PARS architecture design, early software prototype, and limited domain testing of the new algorithm are discussed. We also present plans for future research and development, as well as technology

  17. Unmanned aerial survey of elephants.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Cédric; Lejeune, Philippe; Lisein, Jonathan; Sawadogo, Prosper; Bouché, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The use of a UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System) was tested to survey large mammals in the Nazinga Game Ranch in the south of Burkina Faso. The Gatewing ×100™ equipped with a Ricoh GR III camera was used to test animal reaction as the UAS passed, and visibility on the images. No reaction was recorded as the UAS passed at a height of 100 m. Observations, made on a set of more than 7000 images, revealed that only elephants (Loxodonta africana) were easily visible while medium and small sized mammals were not. The easy observation of elephants allows experts to enumerate them on images acquired at a height of 100 m. We, therefore, implemented an aerial strip sample count along transects used for the annual wildlife foot count. A total of 34 elephants were recorded on 4 transects, each overflown twice. The elephant density was estimated at 2.47 elephants/km(2) with a coefficient of variation (CV%) of 36.10%. The main drawback of our UAS was its low autonomy (45 min). Increased endurance of small UAS is required to replace manned aircraft survey of large areas (about 1000 km of transect per day vs 40 km for our UAS). The monitoring strategy should be adapted according to the sampling plan. Also, the UAS is as expensive as a second-hand light aircraft. However the logistic and flight implementation are easier, the running costs are lower and its use is safer. Technological evolution will make civil UAS more efficient, allowing them to compete with light aircraft for aerial wildlife surveys.

  18. Unmanned Aerial Survey of Elephants

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Cédric; Lejeune, Philippe; Lisein, Jonathan; Sawadogo, Prosper; Bouché, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The use of a UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System) was tested to survey large mammals in the Nazinga Game Ranch in the south of Burkina Faso. The Gatewing ×100™ equipped with a Ricoh GR III camera was used to test animal reaction as the UAS passed, and visibility on the images. No reaction was recorded as the UAS passed at a height of 100 m. Observations, made on a set of more than 7000 images, revealed that only elephants (Loxodonta africana) were easily visible while medium and small sized mammals were not. The easy observation of elephants allows experts to enumerate them on images acquired at a height of 100 m. We, therefore, implemented an aerial strip sample count along transects used for the annual wildlife foot count. A total of 34 elephants were recorded on 4 transects, each overflown twice. The elephant density was estimated at 2.47 elephants/km2 with a coefficient of variation (CV%) of 36.10%. The main drawback of our UAS was its low autonomy (45 min). Increased endurance of small UAS is required to replace manned aircraft survey of large areas (about 1000 km of transect per day vs 40 km for our UAS). The monitoring strategy should be adapted according to the sampling plan. Also, the UAS is as expensive as a second-hand light aircraft. However the logistic and flight implementation are easier, the running costs are lower and its use is safer. Technological evolution will make civil UAS more efficient, allowing them to compete with light aircraft for aerial wildlife surveys. PMID:23405088

  19. The DOE ARM Aerial Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Hubbe, John M.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Mei, Fan; Chand, Duli; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Andrews, Elisabeth; Biraud, S.; McFarquhar, Greg

    2014-05-01

    The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a climate research user facility operating stationary ground sites that provide long-term measurements of climate relevant properties, mobile ground- and ship-based facilities to conduct shorter field campaigns (6-12 months), and the ARM Aerial Facility (AAF). The airborne observations acquired by the AAF enhance the surface-based ARM measurements by providing high-resolution in-situ measurements for process understanding, retrieval-algorithm development, and model evaluation that are not possible using ground- or satellite-based techniques. Several ARM aerial efforts were consolidated into the AAF in 2006. With the exception of a small aircraft used for routine measurements of aerosols and carbon cycle gases, AAF at the time had no dedicated aircraft and only a small number of instruments at its disposal. In this "virtual hangar" mode, AAF successfully carried out several missions contracting with organizations and investigators who provided their research aircraft and instrumentation. In 2009, AAF started managing operations of the Battelle-owned Gulfstream I (G-1) large twin-turboprop research aircraft. Furthermore, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided funding for the procurement of over twenty new instruments to be used aboard the G-1 and other AAF virtual-hangar aircraft. AAF now executes missions in the virtual- and real-hangar mode producing freely available datasets for studying aerosol, cloud, and radiative processes in the atmosphere. AAF is also engaged in the maturation and testing of newly developed airborne sensors to help foster the next generation of airborne instruments.

  20. Aerial videotape mapping of coastal geomorphic changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Debusschere, Karolien; Penland, Shea; Westphal, Karen A.; Reimer, P. Douglas; McBride, Randolph A.

    1991-01-01

    An aerial geomorphic mapping system was developed to examine the spatial and temporal variability in the coastal geomorphology of Louisiana. Between 1984 and 1990 eleven sequential annual and post-hurricane aerial videotape surveys were flown covering periods of prolonged fair weather, hurricane impacts and subsequent post-storm recoveries. A coastal geomorphic classification system was developed to map the spatial and temporal geomorphic changes between these surveys. The classification system is based on 10 years of shoreline monitoring, analysis of aerial photography for 1940-1989, and numerous field surveys. The classification system divides shorelines into two broad classes: natural and altered. Each class consists of several genetically linked categories of shorelines. Each category is further subdivided into morphologic types on the basis of landform relief, elevation, habitat type, vegetation density and type, and sediment characteristics. The classification is used with imagery from the low-altitude, high-resolution aerial videotape surveys to describe and quantify the longshore and cross-shore geomorphic, sedimentologic, and vegetative character of Louisiana's shoreline systems. The mapping system makes it possible to delineate and map detailed geomorphic habitat changes at a resolution higher than that of conventional vertical aerial photography. Morphologic units are mapped parallel to the regional shoreline from the aerial videotape imagery onto the base maps at a scale of 1:24,000. The base maps were constructed from vertical aerial photography concurrent with the data of the video imagery.

  1. Locating chimpanzee nests and identifying fruiting trees with an unmanned aerial vehicle.

    PubMed

    van Andel, Alexander C; Wich, Serge A; Boesch, Christophe; Koh, Lian Pin; Robbins, Martha M; Kelly, Joseph; Kuehl, Hjalmar S

    2015-10-01

    Monitoring of animal populations is essential for conservation management. Various techniques are available to assess spatiotemporal patterns of species distribution and abundance. Nest surveys are often used for monitoring great apes. Quickly developing technologies, including unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can be used to complement these ground-based surveys, especially for covering large areas rapidly. Aerial surveys have been used successfully to detect the nests of orang-utans. It is unknown if such an approach is practical for African apes, which usually build their nests at lower heights, where they might be obscured by forest canopy. In this 2-month study, UAV-derived aerial imagery was used for two distinct purposes: testing the detectability of chimpanzee nests and identifying fruiting trees used by chimpanzees in Loango National Park (Gabon). Chimpanzee nest data were collected through two approaches: we located nests on the ground and then tried to detect them in UAV photos and vice versa. Ground surveys were conducted using line transects, reconnaissance trails, and opportunistic sampling during which we detected 116 individual nests in 28 nest groups. In complementary UAV images we detected 48% of the individual nests (68% of nest groups) in open coastal forests and 8% of individual nests (33% of nest groups) in closed canopy inland forests. The key factor for nest detectability in UAV imagery was canopy openness. Data on fruiting trees were collected from five line transects. In 122 UAV images 14 species of trees (N = 433) were identified, alongside 37 tree species (N = 205) in complementary ground surveys. Relative abundance of common tree species correlated between ground and UAV surveys. We conclude that UAVs have great potential as a rapid assessment tool for detecting chimpanzee presence in forest with open canopy and assessing fruit tree availability. UAVs may have limited applicability for nest detection in closed canopy forest.

  2. 7 CFR 611.21 - Availability of aerial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611... § 611.21 Availability of aerial photography. The National Cartography and Geospatial Center obtains necessary clearance for all aerial photography for NRCS. New aerial photography of designated areas in...

  3. 7 CFR 611.21 - Availability of aerial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611... § 611.21 Availability of aerial photography. The National Cartography and Geospatial Center obtains necessary clearance for all aerial photography for NRCS. New aerial photography of designated areas in...

  4. 7 CFR 611.21 - Availability of aerial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611... § 611.21 Availability of aerial photography. The National Cartography and Geospatial Center obtains necessary clearance for all aerial photography for NRCS. New aerial photography of designated areas in...

  5. 7 CFR 611.21 - Availability of aerial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611... § 611.21 Availability of aerial photography. The National Cartography and Geospatial Center obtains necessary clearance for all aerial photography for NRCS. New aerial photography of designated areas in...

  6. 7 CFR 611.21 - Availability of aerial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611... § 611.21 Availability of aerial photography. The National Cartography and Geospatial Center obtains necessary clearance for all aerial photography for NRCS. New aerial photography of designated areas in...

  7. Verification of Potency of Aerial Digital Oblique Cameras for Aerial Photogrammetry in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakada, Ryuji; Takigawa, Masanori; Ohga, Tomowo; Fujii, Noritsuna

    2016-06-01

    Digital oblique aerial camera (hereinafter called "oblique cameras") is an assembly of medium format digital cameras capable of shooting digital aerial photographs in five directions i.e. nadir view and oblique views (forward and backward, left and right views) simultaneously and it is used for shooting digital aerial photographs efficiently for generating 3D models in a wide area. For aerial photogrammetry of public survey in Japan, it is required to use large format cameras, like DMC and UltraCam series, to ensure aerial photogrammetric accuracy. Although oblique cameras are intended to generate 3D models, digital aerial photographs in 5 directions taken with them should not be limited to 3D model production but they may also be allowed for digital mapping and photomaps of required public survey accuracy in Japan. In order to verify the potency of using oblique cameras for aerial photogrammetry (simultaneous adjustment, digital mapping and photomaps), (1) a viewer was developed to interpret digital aerial photographs taken with oblique cameras, (2) digital aerial photographs were shot with an oblique camera owned by us, a Penta DigiCAM of IGI mbH, and (3) accuracy of 3D measurements was verified.

  8. Locating buildings in aerial photos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James S.

    1994-01-01

    Algorithms and techniques for use in the identification and location of large buildings in digitized copies of aerial photographs are developed and tested. The building data would be used in the simulation of objects located in the vicinity of an airport that may be detected by aircraft radar. Two distinct approaches are considered. Most building footprints are rectangular in form. The first approach studied is to search for right-angled corners that characterize rectangular objects and then to connect these corners to complete the building. This problem is difficult because many nonbuilding objects, such as street corners, parking lots, and ballparks often have well defined corners which are often difficult to distinguish from rooftops. Furthermore, rooftops come in a number of shapes, sizes, shadings, and textures which also limit the discrimination task. The strategy used linear sequences of different samples to detect straight edge segments at multiple angles and to determine when these segments meet at approximately right-angles with respect to each other. This technique is effective in locating corners. The test image used has a fairly rectangular block pattern oriented about thirty degrees clockwise from a vertical alignment, and the overall measurement data reflect this. However, this technique does not discriminate between buildings and other objects at an operationally suitable rate. In addition, since multiple paths are tested for each image pixel, this is a time consuming task. The process can be speeded up by preprocessing the image to locate the more optimal sampling paths. The second approach is to rely on a human operator to identify and select the building objects and then to have the computer determine the outline and location of the selected structures. When presented with a copy of a digitized aerial photograph, the operator uses a mouse and cursor to select a target building. After a button on the mouse is pressed, with the cursor fully within

  9. Draper Laboratory small autonomous aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBitetto, Paul A.; Johnson, Eric N.; Bosse, Michael C.; Trott, Christian A.

    1997-06-01

    The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc. and students from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Boston University have cooperated to develop an autonomous aerial vehicle that won the 1996 International Aerial Robotics Competition. This paper describes the approach, system architecture and subsystem designs for the entry. This entry represents a combination of many technology areas: navigation, guidance, control, vision processing, human factors, packaging, power, real-time software, and others. The aerial vehicle, an autonomous helicopter, performs navigation and control functions using multiple sensors: differential GPS, inertial measurement unit, sonar altimeter, and a flux compass. The aerial transmits video imagery to the ground. A ground based vision processor converts the image data into target position and classification estimates. The system was designed, built, and flown in less than one year and has provided many lessons about autonomous vehicle systems, several of which are discussed. In an appendix, our current research in augmenting the navigation system with vision- based estimates is presented.

  10. Hydrogeologic reconnaissance of Poro Point and vicinity, Luzon Island, Philippines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Worts, George Frank

    1964-01-01

    In 1961 a reconnaissance of the geology and ground-water hydrology of Poro Point, on the west coast of Luzon Island, Philippines, was made on behalf of the U.S. Department of the Navy. Poro Point, which marks the northern end of Lingayen Gulf, is about half a mile wide and projects northwestward about 2 miles into the China Sea. The point is underlain by coralline limestone of probable Pleistocene age. The aquifer system consists of a fresh-water lens floating on salt water within the coralline limestone. Several tube wells obtain fresh water from the lens, but in May, at the end of the 6-month dry season during which rainfall totals only 40 inches, the water becomes brackish. 'Skimming wells' are considered the best method of obtaining fresh water from the lens, whose annual range in average thickness is probably 25 to 40 feet. Recharge is about 2,000-3,000 acre-feet per year and is derived wholly from precipitation during the 6-month wet season in which rainfall totals about 92 inches. The approximate amount of ground water stored in the fresh-water lens ranges from about 3,000 acre-feet at the end of the dry season to about 5,000 acre-feet at the end of the wet season. Most of the ground water is discharged through seeps and submarine springs around Poro Point; pumpage in 1961 was only about 100 acre-feet.

  11. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Lunar Workshops for Educators, Year 1 Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. P.; Hsu, B. C.; Bleacher, L.; Shaner, A. J.; Dalton, H.

    2011-12-01

    This past summer, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) sponsored a series of weeklong professional development workshops designed to educate and inspire grade 6-12 science teachers: the Lunar Workshops for Educators. Participants learned about lunar science and exploration, gained tools to help address common student misconceptions about the Moon, heard some of the latest research results from LRO scientists, worked with LRO data, and learned how to bring these data to their students using hands-on activities aligned with grade 6-12 National Science Education Standards and Benchmarks. Where possible, the workshops also included tours of science facilities or field trips intended to help the teachers better understand mission operations or geologic processes relevant to the Moon. The workshops were very successful. Participants demonstrated an improved understanding of lunar science concepts in post-workshop assessments (as compared to identical pre-assessments) and a greater understanding of how to access and productively share data from LRO with their students and provide them with authentic research experiences. Participant feedback on workshop surveys was also enthusiastically positive. 5 additional Lunar Workshops for Educators will be held around the country in the summer of 2012. For more information and to register, visit http://lunar.gsfc.nasa.gov/lwe/index.html.

  12. Observing Mode Attitude Controller for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calhoun, Philip C.; Garrick, Joseph C.

    2007-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission is the first of a series of lunar robotic spacecraft scheduled for launch in Fall 2008. LRO will spend at least one year in a low altitude polar orbit around the Moon, collecting lunar environment science and mapping data to enable future human exploration. The LRO employs a 3-axis stabilized attitude control system (ACS) whose primary control mode, the "Observing mode", provides Lunar Nadir, off-Nadir, and Inertial fine pointing for the science data collection and instrument calibration. The controller combines the capability of fine pointing with that of on-demand large angle full-sky attitude reorientation into a single ACS mode, providing simplicity of spacecraft operation as well as maximum flexibility for science data collection. A conventional suite of ACS components is employed in this mode to meet the pointing and control objectives. This paper describes the design and analysis of the primary LRO fine pointing and attitude re-orientation controller function, known as the "Observing mode" of the ACS subsystem. The control design utilizes quaternion feedback, augmented with a unique algorithm that ensures accurate Nadir tracking during large angle yaw maneuvers in the presence of high system momentum and/or maneuver rates. Results of system stability analysis and Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that the observing mode controller can meet fine pointing and maneuver performance requirements.

  13. Mission Planning and Scheduling System for NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Gonzalo; Barnoy, Assaf; Beech, Theresa; Saylor, Rick; Cosgrove, Sager; Ritter, Sheila

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of NASA's return to the Moon efforts, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is the first step. It is an unmanned mission to create a comprehensive atlas of the Moon's features and resources necessary to design and build a lunar outpost. LRO is scheduled for launch in April, 2009. LRO carries a payload comprised of six instruments and one technology demonstration. In addition to its scientific mission LRO will use new technologies, systems and flight operations concepts to reduce risk and increase productivity of future missions. As part of the effort to achieve robust and efficient operations, the LRO Mission Operations Team (MOT) will use its Mission Planning System (MPS) to manage the operational activities of the mission during the Lunar Orbit Insertion (LOI) and operational phases of the mission. The MPS, based on GMV's flexplan tool and developed for NASA with Honeywell Technology Solutions (prime contractor), will receive activity and slew maneuver requests from multiple science operations centers (SOC), as well as from the spacecraft engineers. flexplan will apply scheduling rules to all the requests received and will generate conflict free command schedules in the form of daily stored command loads for the orbiter and a set of daily pass scripts that help automate nominal real-time operations.

  14. A reconnaissance study of radon concentrations in Hamadan city, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillmore, G. K.; Jabarivasal, N.

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents results of a reconnaissance study that used CR-39 alpha track-etch detectors to measure radon concentrations in dwellings in Hamadan, western Iran, significantly, built on permeable alluvial fan deposits. The indoor radon levels recorded varied from 4 (i.e. below the lower limit of detection for the method) to 364 Bq/m3 with a mean value of 108 Bq/m3 which is 2.5 times the average global population-weighted indoor radon concentration - these data augment the very few published studies on indoor radon levels in Iran. The maximum radon concentration in Hamadan occurs during the winter period (January to March) with lower concentrations during the autumn. The effective dose equivalent to the population in Hamadan is estimated from this study to be in the region of 2.7 mSv/y, which is above the guidelines for dose to a member of the public of 1 mSv/y suggested by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 1993. This study supports other work in a number of countries that indicates such permeable "surficial" deposits as being of intermediate to high radon potential. In western Iran, the presence of hammered clay floors, the widespread presence of excavated qanats, the textural properties of surficial deposits and human behaviour intended to cope with winds are likely to be important factors influencing radon concentrations in older buildings.

  15. Reconnaissance amplitude versus offset techniques in the Niger Delta

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, J.; Gullette, K.

    1996-08-01

    Reconnaissance AVO (amplitude vs. offset) techniques have been invaluable in allowing the analyses and mapping of AVO on large-volume data sets in the Nigerian Niger Delta. Forward modelling of rock properties derived from well data on the shelf and regional ties of common depth point gathers to well control show that a shale on hydrocarbon bearing sand typically generates increasing amplitude with offset [Class 2 and Class 3 type anomalies of the Rutherford and Williams (1989) classification]. Consequently, processing and display techniques have been developed that distinguish the increasing amplitude with offset response associated with hydrocarbon bearing sands from the flatter AVO response of background water wet sands and shales. Attributes are created from angle stacks rather than by analyses of individual common depth point gathers over an entire data set. We show examples of a new AVO attribute which we call the Enhanced Restricted Gradient that highlights Class 2 and Class 3 type AVO anomalies more clearly than some of the standard AVO attributes used in the industry. The techniques described here provide a cost-effective and practical way of evaluating AVO character on large volume 2D and 3D data sets and should also be useful in other areas worldwide where hydrocarbon bearing reservoirs generate increasing amplitude with offset.

  16. Using Mean Orbit Period in Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Maneuver Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Min-Kun J.; Menon, Premkumar R.; Wagner, Sean V.; Williams, Jessica L.

    2014-01-01

    Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) has provided communication relays for a number of Mars spacecraft. In 2016 MRO is expected to support a relay for NASA's Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport (InSight) spacecraft. In addition, support may be needed by another mission, ESA's ExoMars EDL Demonstrator Module's (EDM), only 21 days after the InSight coverage. The close proximity of these two events presents a unique challenge to a conventional orbit synchronization maneuver where one deterministic maneuver is executed prior to each relay. Since the two events are close together and the difference in required phasing between InSight and EDM may be up to half an orbit (yielding a large execution error), the downtrack timing error can increase rapidly at the EDM encounter. Thus, a new maneuver strategy that does not require a deterministic maneuver in-between the two events (with only a small statistical cleanup) is proposed in the paper. This proposed strategy rests heavily on the stability of the mean orbital period. The ability to search and set the specified mean period is fundamental in the proposed maneuver design as well as in understanding the scope of the problem. The proposed strategy is explained and its result is used to understand and solve the problem in the flight operations environment.

  17. Water-resources reconnaissance of Isle de la Gonave, Haiti

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Troester, J.W.; Turvey, M.D.

    2004-01-01

    Isle de la Gonave is a 750-km2 island off the coast of Haiti. The depth to the water table ranges from less than 30 m in the Eocene and Upper Miocene limestones to over 60 m in the 300-m-thick Quaternary limestone. Annual precipitation ranges from 800-1,400 mm. Most precipitation is lost through evapotranspiration and there is virtually no surface water. Roughly estimated from chloride mass balance, about 4% of the precipitation recharges the karst aquifer. Cave pools and springs are a common source for water. Hand-dug wells provide water in coastal areas. Few productive wells have been drilled deeper than 60 m. Reconnaissance field analyses indicate that groundwater in the interior is a calcium-bicarbonate type, whereas water at the coast is a sodium-chloride type that exceeds World Health Organization recommended values for sodium and chloride. Tests for the presence of hydrogen sulfide-producing bacteria were negative in most drilled wells, but positive in cave pools, hand-dug wells, and most springs, indicating bacterial contamination of most water sources. Because of the difficulties in obtaining freshwater, the 110,000 inhabitants use an average of only 7 L per person per day.

  18. A mineral reconnaissance of the Jabal Khida quadrangle, Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitlow, Jesse William

    1968-01-01

    Reconnaissance of the Jabal Khida quadrangle shows that granite and granodiorite (unit gg), biotite and hornblende granite (unit gr) and alkalic and paralkalic granit (unit gp) divisions for granites seems valid, but that two ages of metamorphic and extrusive rocks are mapped as the Halaben formation (unit ha/hc). Semiquantitative analyses of 113 samples collected in the quadrangle were made spectrographically on minus 30 plus 80 mesh wadi sand for 27 elements, and chemically on concentrates of heavy minerals and magnetite from wadi sand. Anomalous amounts of silver, beryllium, molybdenum, niobium, tin, cobalt, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, titanium, and vanadium are found in the sand samples, but the anomalies are low. Anomalous tungsten is present in some concentrates from wadi sand. A small alkalic and paralkalic granite (gp) at the west side of the quadrangle contains tin, niobium, and a low anomaly of lead. The area should be studied for commercial tin and niobium. Beryllium is in the granite and granodiorite (gg) adjacent to the alkalic granite. Concentrates from wadi sand derived from two alkalic granite (gp) bodies in the north-central part of the quadrangle contain 330 ppm tungsten.

  19. Fitting modular reconnaissance systems into modern high-performance aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroot, Jacquelyn R.; Pingel, Leslie L.

    1990-11-01

    The installation of the Advanced Tactical Air Reconnaissance System (ATARS) in the F/A-18D(RC) presented a complex set of design challenges. At the time of the F/A-18D(RC) ATARS option exercise, the design and development of the ATARS subsystems and the parameters of the F/A-18D(RC) were essentially fixed. ATARS is to be installed in the gun bay of the F/A-18D(RC), taking up no additional room, nor adding any more weight than what was removed. The F/A-18D(RC) installation solution required innovations in mounting, cooling, and fit techniques, which made constant trade study essential. The successful installation in the F/A-18D(RC) is the result of coupling fundamental design engineering with brainstorming and nonstandard approaches to every situation. ATARS is sponsored by the Aeronautical Systems Division, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio. The F/A-18D(RC) installation is being funded to the Air Force by the Naval Air Systems Command, Washington, D.C.

  20. Robotic reconnaissance platform. I. Spectroscopic instruments with rangefinders.

    PubMed

    Matharoo, Inderdeep; Peshko, Igor; Goldenberg, Andrew

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, basic principles of the design and implementation of a portable, multi-functional scientific instrument, operating from a robotic reconnaissance mobile platform are discussed. The current version of the instrument includes a multi-gas laser sensor, multi-functional spectrometer, isotopes identifier, cameras, and rangefinder. An additional set of sensors monitors temperature, pressure, humidity, and background radiation. All components are installed on a mini-robotic platform, which provides data acquisition, processing, and transmittance. The design focuses on the development of calibration-free, reliable, low power-consumption devices. To create a highly survivable, accurate, and reliable instrument, a concept of an inhomogeneous sensory network has been developed. Such a network combines non-identical sensors and provides cross-use of information received from different sensors to describe environmental conditions, to choose appropriate algorithms of data processing, and to achieve high accuracy gas-concentration measurements. The system uses the same lasers to operate different optical devices such as sensors, rangefinders, spectrometers, and isotopes identifiers. Among the innovative elements described in this paper, are a calibration-free, laser multi-gas sensor with range-finding option; a high signal/noise ratio transmittance spectrometer; a single-frequency laser with nano-selector; and low repetition-rate femtosecond fiber lasers operating in near- and middle- infrared spectral ranges. New detailed analyses of absorption spectroscopy theoretical approximations made it possible to achieve high-accuracy gas-concentration measurements with miniature optical sensors.

  1. Laser Ranging Experiment on Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter: Clocks and Ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, D.; Rowlands, D. D.; McGarry, J.; Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.; Torrence, M. H.; Neumann, G. A.; Mazarico, E.; Sun, X.; Zagwodzki, T. W.; Cavanaugh, J. F.; Ramos-Izquierdo, L.

    2010-12-01

    Accurate ranges from Earth to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft Laser Ranging (LR) system supplement the precision orbit determination (POD) of LRO. LRO is tracked by ten LR stations from the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS), using H-maser, GPS steered Rb, and Cs standard oscillators as reference clocks. The LR system routinely makes one-way range measurements via laser time-of-flight from Earth to LRO. Uplink photons are received by a telescope mounted on the high-gain antenna on LRO , transferred through a fiber optic cable to the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA), and timed-tagged by the spacecraft clock. The range from the LR Earth station to LRO is derived from paired outgoing and received times. Accurate ranges can only be obtained after solving for both the spacecraft and ground station clock errors. The drift rate and aging rate of the LRO clock are calculated from data provided by the primary LR station, NASA's Next Generation Satellite Laser Ranging System (NGSLR) in Greenbelt, Maryland. The results confirm the LRO clock oscillator mid to long term stability measured during ground testing. These rates also agree well with those determined through POD. Simultaneous and near-simultaneous ranging to LRO from multiple LR stations in America, Europe, and Australia has been successfully achieved within a 10 hour window. Data analysis of these ranging experiments allows for precision modeling of the clock behaviors of each LR ground station and characterization of the station ground fire times.

  2. Launch and Commissioning of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Neerav; Calhoun, Philip; Garrick, Joseph; Hsu, Oscar; Simpson, James

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) launched on June 18, 2009 from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. LRO, designed, built, and operated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD, is gathering crucial data on the lunar environment that will help astronauts prepare for long-duration lunar expeditions. To date, the Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) subsystem has operated nominally and met all requirements. However, during the early phase of the mission, the GN&C Team encountered some anomalies. For example, during the Solar Array and High Gain Antenna deployments, one of the safing action points tripped, which was not expected. Also, the spacecraft transitioned to its safe hold mode, SunSafe, due to encountering an end of file for an ephemeris table. During the five-day lunar acquisition, one of the star trackers triggered the spacecraft to transition into a safe hold configuration, the cause of which was determined. These events offered invaluable insight to better understand the performance of the system they designed. An overview of the GN&C subsystem will be followed by a mission timeline. Then, interesting flight performance as well as anomalies encountered by the GN&C Team will be discussed in chronological order.

  3. Airborne infrared hyperspectral imager for intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagueux, Philippe; Puckrin, Eldon; Turcotte, Caroline S.; Gagnon, Marc-André; Bastedo, John; Farley, Vincent; Chamberland, Martin

    2012-09-01

    Persistent surveillance and collection of airborne intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance information is critical in today's warfare against terrorism. High resolution imagery in visible and infrared bands provides valuable detection capabilities based on target shapes and temperatures. However, the spectral resolution provided by a hyperspectral imager adds a spectral dimension to the measurements, leading to additional tools for detection and identification of targets, based on their spectral signature. The Telops Hyper-Cam sensor is an interferometer-based imaging system that enables the spatial and spectral analysis of targets using a single sensor. It is based on the Fourier-transform technology yielding high spectral resolution and enabling high accuracy radiometric calibration. It provides datacubes of up to 320×256 pixels at spectral resolutions as fine as 0.25 cm-1. The LWIR version covers the 8.0 to 11.8 μm spectral range. The Hyper-Cam has been recently used for the first time in two compact airborne platforms: a bellymounted gyro-stabilized platform and a gyro-stabilized gimbal ball. Both platforms are described in this paper, and successful results of high-altitude detection and identification of targets, including industrial plumes, and chemical spills are presented.

  4. Airborne infrared hyperspectral imager for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puckrin, Eldon; Turcotte, Caroline S.; Gagnon, Marc-André; Bastedo, John; Farley, Vincent; Chamberland, Martin

    2012-06-01

    Persistent surveillance and collection of airborne intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance information is critical in today's warfare against terrorism. High resolution imagery in visible and infrared bands provides valuable detection capabilities based on target shapes and temperatures. However, the spectral resolution provided by a hyperspectral imager adds a spectral dimension to the measurements, leading to additional tools for detection and identification of targets, based on their spectral signature. The Telops Hyper-Cam sensor is an interferometer-based imaging system that enables the spatial and spectral analysis of targets using a single sensor. It is based on the Fourier-transform technology yielding high spectral resolution and enabling high accuracy radiometric calibration. It provides datacubes of up to 320×256 pixels at spectral resolutions as fine as 0.25 cm-1. The LWIR version covers the 8.0 to 11.8 μm spectral range. The Hyper-Cam has been recently used for the first time in two compact airborne platforms: a belly-mounted gyro-stabilized platform and a gyro-stabilized gimbal ball. Both platforms are described in this paper, and successful results of high-altitude detection and identification of targets, including industrial plumes, and chemical spills are presented.

  5. Reconnaissance for radioactive materials in the southern part of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierson, Charles T.; Haynes, Donald D.; Filho, Evaristo Ribeiro

    1957-01-01

    During 1954-1956 a reconnaissance for radioactive minerals was made with carborne, airborne and handborne scintillation equipment in the southern Brazilian states of Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Parana, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. During the traverse covering more than 5,000 kilometers the authors checked the radioactivity of Precambrian igneous and metamorphic rocks, Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks, and Mesozoic alkalic intrusive and basaltic extrusive rocks. The 22 samples collected contained from 0.003 to 0.029 percent equivalent uranium oxide and from 0.10 to 0.91 percent equivalent thorimn; two samples were taken from radioactive pegmati tes for mineralogic studies. None of the localities is at present a commercial source of uranium or thorium; however, additional work should be done near the alkalic stock at Lages in the State of Santa Catarina and at the Passo das Tropas fossil plant locality near Santa Maria in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Near Lages highly altered alkalic rock from a dike contained 0.026 percent uranium oxide. At Passo das Tropas highly altered, limonite-impregnated sandstone from the Rio do Rasto group of sedimentary rocks contained 0.029 percent uranium oxide.

  6. Robotic reconnaissance platform. I. Spectroscopic instruments with rangefinders

    SciTech Connect

    Matharoo, Inderdeep; Peshko, Igor; Goldenberg, Andrew

    2011-11-15

    In this paper, basic principles of the design and implementation of a portable, multi-functional scientific instrument, operating from a robotic reconnaissance mobile platform are discussed. The current version of the instrument includes a multi-gas laser sensor, multi-functional spectrometer, isotopes identifier, cameras, and rangefinder. An additional set of sensors monitors temperature, pressure, humidity, and background radiation. All components are installed on a mini-robotic platform, which provides data acquisition, processing, and transmittance. The design focuses on the development of calibration-free, reliable, low power-consumption devices. To create a highly survivable, accurate, and reliable instrument, a concept of an inhomogeneous sensory network has been developed. Such a network combines non-identical sensors and provides cross-use of information received from different sensors to describe environmental conditions, to choose appropriate algorithms of data processing, and to achieve high accuracy gas-concentration measurements. The system uses the same lasers to operate different optical devices such as sensors, rangefinders, spectrometers, and isotopes identifiers. Among the innovative elements described in this paper, are a calibration-free, laser multi-gas sensor with range-finding option; a high signal/noise ratio transmittance spectrometer; a single-frequency laser with nano-selector; and low repetition-rate femtosecond fiber lasers operating in near- and middle- infrared spectral ranges. New detailed analyses of absorption spectroscopy theoretical approximations made it possible to achieve high-accuracy gas-concentration measurements with miniature optical sensors.

  7. Reliable aerial thermography for energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, J. R.; Bowman, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    A method for energy conservation, the aerial thermography survey, is discussed. It locates sources of energy losses and wasteful energy management practices. An operational map is presented for clear sky conditions. The map outlines the key environmental conditions conductive to obtaining reliable aerial thermography. The map is developed from defined visual and heat loss discrimination criteria which are quantized based on flat roof heat transfer calculations.

  8. Aerial photo SBVC1962". Photo no. 360. Low oblique aerial view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial photo -SBVC-1962". Photo no. 360. Low oblique aerial view of the campus, looking southeast. Stamped on the rear: "Ron Wilhite, Sun-Telegram photo, file, 10/22/62/ - San Bernardino Valley College, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  9. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mini RF System (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozette, S.

    2009-12-01

    The Miniature Radio Frequency (Mini-RF) system is manifested on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) as a technology demonstration and an extended mission science instrument. Mini-RF represents a significant step forward in space-borne RF technology and architecture. It combines synthetic aperture radar (SAR) at two wavelengths (S and X band) and two resolutions (150 m and 30 m) with interferometric and communications functionality in one lightweight (16kg) package. Previous radar observations (Earth-based, and one bistatic data set from Clementine) of the permanently shadowed regions of the lunar poles seem to indicate areas of high circular polarization ratio (CPR) consistent with volume scattering from volatile deposits (e.g. water ice) buried at shallow (0.1-1 m) depth, but only at unfavorable viewing geometries, and with inconclusive results (ref. 1-5). The LRO Mini-RF utilizes new wide band hybrid polarization architecture to measure the Stokes parameters of the reflected signal. These data will help to differentiate “true” volumetric ice reflections from ”false” returns due to angular surface regolith (ref. 6) . Additional lunar science investigations (e.g. pyroclastic deposit characterization) will also be attempted during the LRO extended mission. LRO’s lunar operations will be contemporaneous with India’s Chandrayaan-1, which carries the Forerunner Mini-SAR (S band wavelength and 150-m resolution). On orbit calibration procedures for LRO Mini RF have been validated using Chandrayaan 1 and ground based facilities (Arecibo and Greenbank Radio Observatories). References: 1) Nozette S. et al. (1996) Science 274, 1495. 2) Simpson R. and Tyler L. (1999) JGR 104, 3845. 3) Nozette S. et al. (2001) JGR 106, 23253. 4) Campbell D. et al., (2006) Nature 443, 835. 5) Feldman W. et al., (2001) JGR 106, 23231. 6) Raney R.K. (2007) IEEE Trans Geosci. Remote Sens. 45, 3397

  10. Scalable sensor management for automated fusion and tactical reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walls, Thomas J.; Wilson, Michael L.; Partridge, Darin C.; Haws, Jonathan R.; Jensen, Mark D.; Johnson, Troy R.; Petersen, Brad D.; Sullivan, Stephanie W.

    2013-05-01

    The capabilities of tactical intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) payloads are expanding from single sensor imagers to integrated systems-of-systems architectures. Increasingly, these systems-of-systems include multiple sensing modalities that can act as force multipliers for the intelligence analyst. Currently, the separate sensing modalities operate largely independent of one another, providing a selection of operating modes but not an integrated intelligence product. We describe here a Sensor Management System (SMS) designed to provide a small, compact processing unit capable of managing multiple collaborative sensor systems on-board an aircraft. Its purpose is to increase sensor cooperation and collaboration to achieve intelligent data collection and exploitation. The SMS architecture is designed to be largely sensor and data agnostic and provide flexible networked access for both data providers and data consumers. It supports pre-planned and ad-hoc missions, with provisions for on-demand tasking and updates from users connected via data links. Management of sensors and user agents takes place over standard network protocols such that any number and combination of sensors and user agents, either on the local network or connected via data link, can register with the SMS at any time during the mission. The SMS provides control over sensor data collection to handle logging and routing of data products to subscribing user agents. It also supports the addition of algorithmic data processing agents for feature/target extraction and provides for subsequent cueing from one sensor to another. The SMS architecture was designed to scale from a small UAV carrying a limited number of payloads to an aircraft carrying a large number of payloads. The SMS system is STANAG 4575 compliant as a removable memory module (RMM) and can act as a vehicle specific module (VSM) to provide STANAG 4586 compliance (level-3 interoperability) to a non-compliant sensor system

  11. Tracking Data Certification for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morinelli, Patrick J.; Socoby, Joseph; Hendry, Steve; Campion, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This paper details the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) tracking data certification effort of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Space Communications Network (SCN) complement of tracking stations consisting of the NASA White Sands 1 antenna (WS1), and the commercial provider Universal Space Network (USN) antennas at South Point, Hawaii; Dongara Australia; Weilheim, Germany; and Kiruna, Sweden. Certification assessment required the cooperation and coordination of parties not under the control of either the LRO project or ground stations as uplinks on cooperating spacecraft were necessary. The LRO range-tracking requirement of 10m 1 sigma could be satisfactorily demonstrated using any typical spacecraft capable of range tracking. Though typical Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) or Geosynchronous Earth Orbiting (GEO) spacecraft may be adequate for range certification, their measurement dynamics and noise would be unacceptable for proper Doppler certification of 1-3mm/sec 1 sigma. As LRO will orbit the Moon, it was imperative that a suitable target spacecraft be utilized which can closely mimic the expected lunar orbital Doppler dynamics of +/-1.6km/sec and +/-1.5m/sq sec to +/-0.15m/sq sec, is in view of the ground stations, supports coherent S-Band Doppler tracking measurements, and can be modeled by the FDF. In order to meet the LRO metric tracking data specifications, the SCN ground stations employed previously uncertified numerically controlled tracking receivers. Initial certification testing revealed certain characteristics of the units that required resolution before being granted certification.

  12. Status of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Geodetic Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazarico, E.; Rowlands, D. D.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Torrence, M. H.; Lemoine, F. G.; Zuber, M. T.

    2011-12-01

    We present the status of the Precision Orbit Determination work performed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) Science Team. LOLA, the multi-beam laser altimeter instrument onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), has been operating continuously since July 13, 2009 and has provided more than 4.5 billion measurements as of July 2011. The high precision (10cm) and small footprint (5m) of the altimetric data, as well as the high resolution (25cm per pixel) of the LRO Camera (LROC), require high-accuracy orbits of the LRO spacecraft in order to maximize their scientific value and to enable proper coregistration of the various datasets obtained by LRO. Radiometric tracking data are complemented by altimetric crossover constraints derived from individual LOLA profiles. With a pre-LRO a priori gravity field (GLGM-3), the crossovers helped substantially improve the self-consistency of the reconstructed LRO orbits (assessed through orbit overlaps), from ~70m overlap RMS (radiometric-only) down to ~25m.We also used the LRO tracking and altimetric data to obtain a new solution of the lunar gravity field, specifically designed to provide enhanced orbit accuracy. With this preliminary LRO field (LLGM-1), the radiometric-only orbits achieve ~25m overlap precision. When complemented by the altimetric crossovers, the orbit consistency improves to better than 15m. Results from more than 2 years of radiometric tracking data and LOLA altimetry will be shown, including an updated gravity field solution. Current efforts to use very long integration arcs (4 months at a time) will also be presented, with the goal of combining all the available farside crossover constraints to help refine the short-wavelength farside gravity field.

  13. Pharmacognostical studies on Cissus quadrangularis L. variant I & II

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Anoop; Kannan, R.; Jegadeesan, M.

    2004-01-01

    The aerial parts of Cissus quadrangularis L.Variant I and II are being used therapeutically for various ailments in indigenous system of medicine. Detailed pharmacognostical studies on the aerial parts were made. Variant I and II were analysed for their physiochemical, microscopical, fluorescent, qualitative and quantitative phytochemical, TLC and HPTLC characteristics. Quantitative variations were noted among seasonal samples and between variants and the results are presented. PMID:22557140

  14. Aerial radiation survey at a military range.

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, G. P.; Martino, L. E.; Wrobel, J.; Environmental Assessment; U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground

    2001-04-01

    Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) is currently listed on the Superfund National Priorities List because of past waste handling practices at 13 'study areas.' Concern has been expressed that anthropogenic radioisotopes may have been released at some of the study areas, with the potential of posing health risks to human or ecological receptors. This concern was addressed by thoroughly searching archival records, sampling and analyzing environmental media, and performing an aerial radiation survey. The aerial radiation survey techniques employed have been used over all U.S. Department of Energy and commercial reactor sites. Use of the Aerial Measurement System (AMS) allowed investigators to safely survey areas where surveys using hand-held instruments would be difficult to perform. In addition, the AMS delivered a full spectrum of the measured gamma radiation, thereby providing a means of determining which radioisotopes were present at the surface. As a quality check on the aerial measurements, four ground truth measurements were made at selected locations and compared with the aerial data for the same locations. The results of the survey revealed no evidence of surface radioactive contamination. The measured background radiation, including the cosmic contribution, ranged from 4 to 11 {mu}R/h.

  15. Looking for an old aerial photograph

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    Attempts to photograph the surface of the Earth date from the 1800's, when photographers attached cameras to balloons, kites, and even pigeons. Today, aerial photographs and satellite images are commonplace. The rate of acquiring aerial photographs and satellite images has increased rapidly in recent years. Views of the Earth obtained from aircraft or satellites have become valuable tools to Government resource planners and managers, land-use experts, environmentalists, engineers, scientists, and a wide variety of other users. Many people want historical aerial photographs for business or personal reasons. They may want to locate the boundaries of an old farm or a piece of family property. Or they may want a photograph as a record of changes in their neighborhood, or as a gift. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) maintains the Earth Science Information Centers (ESIC?s) to sell aerial photographs, remotely sensed images from satellites, a wide array of digital geographic and cartographic data, as well as the Bureau?s wellknown maps. Declassified photographs from early spy satellites were recently added to the ESIC offerings of historical images. Using the Aerial Photography Summary Record System database, ESIC researchers can help customers find imagery in the collections of other Federal agencies and, in some cases, those of private companies that specialize in esoteric products.

  16. Aerial Measuring System Sensor Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    R. S. Detwiler

    2002-04-01

    This project deals with the modeling the Aerial Measuring System (AMS) fixed-wing and rotary-wing sensor systems, which are critical U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Consequence Management assets. The fixed-wing system is critical in detecting lost or stolen radiography or medical sources, or mixed fission products as from a commercial power plant release at high flying altitudes. The helicopter is typically used at lower altitudes to determine ground contamination, such as in measuring americium from a plutonium ground dispersal during a cleanup. Since the sensitivity of these instruments as a function of altitude is crucial in estimating detection limits of various ground contaminations and necessary count times, a characterization of their sensitivity as a function of altitude and energy is needed. Experimental data at altitude as well as laboratory benchmarks is important to insure that the strong effects of air attenuation are modeled correctly. The modeling presented here is the first attempt at such a characterization of the equipment for flying altitudes. The sodium iodide (NaI) sensors utilized with these systems were characterized using the Monte Carlo N-Particle code (MCNP) developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. For the fixed wing system, calculations modeled the spectral response for the 3-element NaI detector pod and High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector, in the relevant energy range of 50 keV to 3 MeV. NaI detector responses were simulated for both point and distributed surface sources as a function of gamma energy and flying altitude. For point sources, photopeak efficiencies were calculated for a zero radial distance and an offset equal to the altitude. For distributed sources approximating an infinite plane, gross count efficiencies were calculated and normalized to a uniform surface deposition of 1 {micro}Ci/m{sup 2}. The helicopter calculations modeled the transport of americium-241 ({sup 241}Am

  17. Shutter/aperture settings for aerial photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, H. E.; Perry, L.

    1976-01-01

    Determination of aerial camera shutter and aperture settings to produce consistently high-quality aerial photographs is a task complicated by numerous variables. Presented in this article are brief discussions of each variable and specific data which may be used for the systematic control of each. The variables discussed include sunlight, aircraft altitude, subject and season, film speed, and optical system. Data which may be used as a base reference are included, and encompass two sets of sensitometric specifications for two film-chemistry processes along with camera-aircraft parameters, which have been established and used to produce good exposures. Information contained here may be used to design and implement an exposure-determination system for aerial photography.

  18. USGS Releases New Digital Aerial Products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) has initiated distribution of digital aerial photographic products produced by scanning or digitizing film from its historical aerial photography film archive. This archive, located in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, contains thousands of rolls of film that contain more than 8 million frames of historic aerial photographs. The largest portion of this archive consists of original film acquired by Federal agencies from the 1930s through the 1970s to produce 1:24,000-scale USGS topographic quadrangle maps. Most of this photography is reasonably large scale (USGS photography ranges from 1:8,000 to 1:80,000) to support the production of the maps. Two digital products are currently available for ordering: high-resolution scanned products and medium-resolution digitized products.

  19. The Development and Flight Testing of an Aerially Deployed Unmanned Aerial System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Andrew

    An investigation into the feasibility of aerial deployed unmanned aerial vehicles was completed. The investigation included the development and flight testing of multiple unmanned aerial systems to investigate the different components of potential aerial deployment missions. The project consisted of two main objectives; the first objective dealt with the development of an airframe capable of surviving aerial deployment from a rocket and then self assembling from its stowed configuration into its flight configuration. The second objective focused on the development of an autopilot capable of performing basic guidance, navigation, and control following aerial deployment. To accomplish these two objectives multiple airframes were developed to verify their completion experimentally. The first portion of the project, investigating the feasibility of surviving an aerial deployment, was completed using a fixed wing glider that following a successful deployment had 52 seconds of controlled flight. Before developing the autopilot in the second phase of the project, the glider was significantly upgraded to fix faults discovered in the glider flight testing and to enhance the system capabilities. Unfortunately to conform to outdoor flight restrictions imposed by the university and the Federal Aviation Administration it was required to switch airframes before flight testing of the new fixed wing platform could begin. As a result, an autopilot was developed for a quadrotor and verified experimentally completely indoors to remain within the limits of governing policies.

  20. Sedimentary basins reconnaissance using the magnetic Tilt-Depth method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, Ahmed; Williams, Simon; Samson, Esuene; Fairhead, Derek; Ravat, Dhananjay; Blakely, Richard J.

    2010-09-01

    basement). The method is especially valuable as a reconnaissance tool in regions where drillhole or seismic information are either scarce, lacking, or ambiguous.

  1. Precision Orbit Determination for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoine, F. G.; Mazarico, E.; Rowlands, D. D.; Torrence, M. H.; McGarry, J. F.; Neumann, G. A.; Mao, D.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2010-05-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft was launched on June 18, 2009. In mid-September 2009, the spacecraft orbit was changed from its commissioning orbit (30 x 216 km polar) to a quasi-frozen polar orbit with an average altitude of 50km (+-15km). One of the goals of the LRO mission is to develop a new lunar reference frame to facilitate future exploration. Precision Orbit Determination is used to achieve the accuracy requirements, and to precisely geolocate the high-resolution datasets obtained by the LRO instruments. In addition to the tracking data most commonly used to determine spacecraft orbits in planetary missions (radiometric Range and Doppler), LRO benefits from two other types of orbital constraints, both enabled by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument. The altimetric data collected as the instrument's primary purpose can be used to derive constraints on the orbit geometry at the times of laser groundtrack intersections (crossovers). The multi-beam configuration and high firing-rate of LOLA further improves the strength of these crossovers, compared to what was possible with the MOLA instrument onboard Mars Global Surveyor (MGS). Furthermore, one-way laser ranges (LR) between Earth International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) stations and the spacecraft are made possible by the addition of a small telescope mounted on the spacecraft high-gain antenna. The photons received from Earth are transmitted to one LOLA detector by a fiber optics bundle. Thanks to the accuracy of the LOLA timing system, the precision of 5-s LR normal points is below 10cm. We present the first results of the Precision Orbit Determination (POD) of LRO through the commissioning and nominal phases of the mission. Orbit quality is discussed, and various gravity fields are evaluated with the new (independent) LRO radio tracking data. The altimetric crossovers are used as an independent data type to evaluate the quality of the orbits. The contribution of the LR

  2. Sedimentary basins reconnaissance using the magnetic Tilt-Depth method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Salem, A.; Williams, S.; Samson, E.; Fairhead, D.; Ravat, D.; Blakely, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    basement). The method is especially valuable as a reconnaissance tool in regions where drillhole or seismic information are either scarce, lacking, or ambiguous.

  3. An Overview of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Science Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zurek, Richard W.; Smrekar, Suzanne E.

    2007-01-01

    The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) is the latest addition to the suite of missions on or orbiting Mars as part of the NASA Mars Exploration Program. Launched on 12 August 2005, the orbiter successfully entered Mars orbit on 10 March 2006 and finished aerobraking on 30 August 2006. Now in its near-polar, near-circular, low-altitude (approximately 300 km), 3 p.m. orbit, the spacecraft is operating its payload of six scientific instruments throughout a one-Mars-year Primary Science Phase (PSP) of global mapping, regional survey, and targeted observations. Eight scientific investigations were chosen for MRO, two of which use either the spacecraft accelerometers or tracking of the spacecraft telecom signal to acquire data needed for analysis. Six instruments, including three imaging systems, a visible-near infrared spectrometer, a shallow-probing subsurface radar, and a thermal-infrared profiler, were selected to complement and extend the capabilities of current working spacecraft at Mars. Whether observing the atmosphere, surface, or subsurface, the MRO instruments are designed to achieve significantly higher resolution while maintaining coverage comparable to the current best observations. The requirements to return higher-resolution data, to target routinely from a low-altitude orbit, and to operate a complex suite of instruments were major challenges successfully met in the design and build of the spacecraft, as well as by the mission design. Calibration activities during the seven-month cruise to Mars and limited payload operations during a three-day checkout prior to the start of aerobraking demonstrated, where possible, that the spacecraft and payload still had the functions critical to the science mission. Two critical events, the deployment of the SHARAD radar antenna and the opening of the CRISM telescope cover, were successfully accomplished in September 2006. Normal data collection began 7 November 2006 after solar conjunction. As part of its science

  4. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Rapid Thermal Design Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Charles; Cottingham, Christine; Garrison, Matthew; Melak, Tony; Peabody, Sharon; Powers, Dan

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) project had a rapid development schedule starting with project conception in spring of 2004, instrument and launch vehicle selection late in 2005 and then launch in early 2009. The lunar thermal environment is one of the harshest in our solar system with the heavy infrared loading of the moon due to low albedo, lack of lunar atmosphere, and low effective regolith conduction. This set of constraints required a thermal design which maximized performance (minimized radiator area and cold control heater power) and minimized thermal hardware build at the orbiter level (blanketing, and heater service). The orbiter design located most of the avionics on an isothermalized heat pipe panel called the IsoThermal Panel (ITP). The ITP was coupled by dual bore heat pipes to an Optical Solar Reflector (OSR) covered heat pipe radiator. By coupling all of the avionics to one system, the hardware was simplified. The seven instruments were mainly heritage instruments which resulted in their desired radiators being located by their heritage design. This minimized instrument redesigns and therefore allowed them to be delivered earlier, though it resulted in a more complex orbiter level blanket and heater service design. Three of the instruments were mounted on a tight pointing M55J optical bench that needed to be covered in heaters to maintain pointing. Two were mounted to spacecraft controlled radiators. One was mounted to the ITP Dual Bores. The last was mounted directly to the bus structure on the moon facing panel. The propulsion system utilized four-20 pound insertion thrusters and eight-5 pound attitude control thrusters (ACS) in addition to 1000 kg of fuel in two large tanks. The propulsion system had a heater cylinder and a heated mounting deck for the insertion thrusters which coupled most of the propulsion design together simplifying the heater design. The High Gain Antenna System (HGAS) and Solar Array System (SAS) used dual axis

  5. Canopy Measurements with a Small Unmanned Aerial System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peschel, J.

    2015-12-01

    This work discusses the use of a small unmanned aerial system (UAS) for the remote placement of wireless environmental sensors in tree canopies. Remote presence applications occur when one or more humans use a robot to project themselves into an environment in order to complete an inaccessible or time-critical mission. The more difficult problem of physical object manipulation goes one step further by incorporating physical-based interaction, in additional to visualization. Forested environments present especially unique challenges for small UAS versus similar domains (e.g., disaster response, inspection of critical infrastructure) due to the navigation and interaction required with dense tree canopies. This work describes two field investigations that inform: i) the type of physical object manipulation and visualization necessary for sensor placement (ventral, frontal, dorsal), ii) the necessary display form (hybrid) for piloting and sensor placement, and iii) visual feedback mechanisms useful for handling human-robot team role conflicts.

  6. Further ecological and shoreline stability reconnaissance surveys of Back Island, Behm Canal, Southeast Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.S.; Strand, J.A.; Ecker, R.M.

    1987-09-01

    A diver reconnaissance of the intertidal and subtidal zones of Back Island was performed to catalog potentially vulnerable shellfish, other invertebrates, and marine plant resources occurring at three proposed alternate pier sites on the west side of Back Island. Additionally, a limited survey of terrestrial vegetation was conducted in the vicinity of one of the proposed alternate pier sites to describe the littoral community and to list the dominant plant species found there. Finally, a reconnaissance survey of the shoreline of Back Island was conducted to evaluate potential changes in shoreline stability resulting from construction of onshore portions of the Southeast Alaska Acoustic Measurement Facility (SEAFAC).

  7. Aerial data acquisition system for earth survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhl, Bernd

    1990-11-01

    Zeiss, in cooperation with Niletus, have developed an airborne Data Recording and Control System using high resolution reconnaissance cameras combined with video tape recording. Sensors are installed in a Dornier DO-228 aircraft for special earth survey missions which provide forest damage assessment in mountainous regions. Sensors include KS-153A wide angle- and telelens camera configurations. A laser distance meter provides autofocus capability for the telelens camera. Flight and mission data are recorded on film and video for cross-reference purposes during photo-interpretation. Special photogrammetric interpretation equipment then produces detailed maps used to direct corrective activities.

  8. MicroProbe Small Unmanned Aerial System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland, Geoffrey; Miles, Ted

    2012-01-01

    The MicroProbe unmanned aerial system (UAS) concept incorporates twin electric motors mounted on the vehicle wing, thus enabling an aerodynamically and environmentally clean nose area for atmospheric sensors. A payload bay is also incorporated in the fuselage to accommodate remote sensing instruments. A key feature of this concept is lightweight construction combined with low flying speeds to minimize kinetic energy and associated hazards, as well as maximizing spatial resolution. This type of aerial platform is needed for Earth science research and environmental monitoring. There were no vehicles of this type known to exist previously.

  9. Metrically preserving the USGS aerial film archive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moe, Donald; Longhenry, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Since 1972, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, has provided fi lm-based products to the public. EROS is home to an archive of 12 million frames of analog photography ranging from 1937 to the present. The archive contains collections from both aerial and satellite platforms including programs such as the National High Altitude Program (NHAP), National Aerial Photography Program (NAPP), U.S. Antarctic Resource Center (USARC), Declass 1(CORONA, ARGON, and LANYARD), Declass 2 (KH-7 and KH-9), and Landsat (1972 – 1992, Landsat 1–5).

  10. Advanced Image Processing of Aerial Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodell, Glenn; Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-ur; Hines, Glenn

    2006-01-01

    Aerial imagery of the Earth is an invaluable tool for the assessment of ground features, especially during times of disaster. Researchers at the NASA Langley Research Center have developed techniques which have proven to be useful for such imagery. Aerial imagery from various sources, including Langley's Boeing 757 Aries aircraft, has been studied extensively. This paper discusses these studies and demonstrates that better-than-observer imagery can be obtained even when visibility is severely compromised. A real-time, multi-spectral experimental system will be described and numerous examples will be shown.

  11. Ground cover estimated from aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerbermann, A. H.; Cuellar, J. A.; Wiegand, C. L.

    1976-01-01

    Estimates of per cent ground cover made by ground observers were compared with independent estimates made on the basis of low-altitude (640-1219 m) aerial photographs of the same fields. Standard statistical simple correlation and linear regression analyses revealed a high correlation between the two estimation methods. In crops such as grain, sorghum, corn, and forage sorghum, in which the broadest part of the leaf canopy is near the top of the plant, there was a tendency to overestimate the per cent ground cover from aerial photographs.

  12. Noise from aerial bursts of fireworks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maglieri, D. J.; Henderson, H. R.

    1973-01-01

    A study was made recording the pressure time histories of the aerial bursts of mortars of various sizes launched during an actual fireworks display. The peak overpressure and duration of blast noise as well as the energy spectral density are compared with the characteristics of a blasting cap and of an F-104 aircraft at a Mach number of 1.4 and an altitude of 42,000 ft. Noise levels of the fireworks aerial bursts peaked 15 decibels below levels deemed damaging to hearing.

  13. Laser Doppler velocimeter aerial spray measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalay, A. D.; Eberle, W. R.; Howle, R. E.; Shrider, K. R.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental research program for measuring the location, spatial extent, and relative concentration of airborne spray clouds generated by agricultural aircraft is described. The measurements were conducted with a ground-based laser Doppler velocimeter. The remote sensing instrumentation, experimental tests, and the results of the flight tests are discussed. The cross section of the aerial spray cloud and the observed location, extent, and relative concentration of the airborne particulates are presented. It is feasible to use a mobile laser Doppler velocimeter to track and monitor the transport and dispersion of aerial spray generated by an agricultural aircraft.

  14. Geochemical reconnaissance of heavy metals in kaolin after electrokinetic remediation.

    PubMed

    Al-Hamdan, Ashraf Z; Reddy, Krishna R

    2006-01-01

    The development or implementation of electrokinetic soil remediation technique requires a good knowledge of how the contaminants are retained within the soil-water system. This paper investigates the speciation and extent of migration of the heavy metals, Cr(VI), Cr(III), Ni(II), and Cd(II), during electrokinetic soil remediation. A geochemical assessment of how the contaminants are held within the kaolin soil under induced electric potential is made by using the equilibrium model MINEQL+. The study is performed for three different contaminant cases: the Cr(VI) existing alone in the soil, the Cr(VI) combined with Ni(II) and Cd(II) in the soil, and the Cr(VI) combined with Ni(II) and Cd(II) in the soil in the presence of a reducing agent (sulfide). The adsorption of the studied metals by kaolin was implemented as an electrostatic behavior. FITEQL 4.0 model was used to determine the equilibrium constants of the electrostatic adsorption model of kaolin for the studied metals by optimizing the experimental titration and adsorption data of kaolin. This study showed that the initial speciation of the contaminants in the soil prior to the electrokinetic treatment depends on the type and amounts of contaminants present as well as on the presence of the co-contaminants or any reducing agent. Moreover, the extent of migration of the contaminants is strongly dependent on their initial speciation prior electrokinetic treatment. This study also showed that adsorption and precipitation are the significant hindering mechanisms for the removal of heavy metals from kaolin soil during electrokinetic treatment. The adsorption and precipitation forms of Cr(III), Ni(II), and Cd(II) increased near the cathode and decreased near the anode, whereas the adsorption form of Cr(VI) increased near the anode as well as in the middle region. However, the precipitation form of Cr(III), Ni(II), and Cd(II) as Cr2O3 or Cr(OH)3, Ni(OH)2, and Cd(OH)2, respectively, dominates over their adsorption form

  15. AERIAL OF VISITORS INFORMATION CENTER [VIC] & ROCKET GARDEN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    AERIAL OF VISITORS INFORMATION CENTER [VIC] & ROCKET GARDEN KSC-373C-0556.20 116-KSC-373C-556.20, P-01622-B, ARCHIVE-04455 Aerial view of Easter crowds at Visitors Information Center, Kennedy Space Center, Florida.

  16. Hydrologic reconnaissance of Tsala Apopka Lake, Citrus County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rutledge, A.T.

    1977-01-01

    The swamps, marshes, and open waters of Tsala Apopka Lake, Florida, were mapped and the hydrologic connection between the lake and the Floridan limestone aquifer was studied from October 1975 to September 1976. Tsala Apopka Lake is a series of shallow , interconnected lakes, ponds, and marshes whose water surface slopes northward at 0.5 foot per mile. According to aerial photographs of December 1972, only 6 percent of the 103 square miles of study area is covered by open water. Open water is abundant along the western side of the lake, dense and sparse marshes occupy most of the lake area, and swamps occupy a thick zone around the Withlacoochee River which borders the lake to the east. Only a small fraction of the total surface flow occurs through the lake. The average lake outflow through S-351 canal is 23.6 cfs; while the average river flow at Holder is 714 cfs. Tsala Apopka Lake is hydraulically connected to the Floridan aquifer. At low flow, the major source of water in the river is ground water from the Floridan aquifer. The specific conductance of water in the Floridan aquifer averages 250-350 umho/cm (micromhos per centimeter) at 25C in this area. The specific conductance of water in the Withlacoochee River near Holder averages 268 umho/cm at 25C, while water in Tsala Apopka Lake at Hernando averages 139 umho/cm at 25C. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. 77 FR 36250 - Information Collection Request; Request for Aerial Photography

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency Information Collection Request; Request for Aerial Photography... FSA Aerial Photography Program. The FSA Aerial Photography Field Office (APFO) uses the information from this form to collect the customer and photography information needed to produce and ship...

  18. 47 CFR 32.6421 - Aerial cable expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aerial cable expense. 32.6421 Section 32.6421... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6421 Aerial cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with aerial cable. (b) Subsidiary record...

  19. Geography via Aerial Field Trips: Do It This Way, 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richason, Benjamin F., Jr.; Guell, Carl E.

    To provide guidance for geography teachers, this booklet presents information on how to plan and execute aerial field trips. The aerial field trip can be employed as an effective visual aid technique in the teaching of geography, especially for presenting earth generalizations and interrelationships. The benefits of an aerial field trip are…

  20. "A" Is for Aerial Maps and Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Reese H.; Delahunty, Tina

    2007-01-01

    The technology of satellite imagery and remote sensing adds a new dimension to teaching and learning about maps with elementary school children. Just a click of the mouse brings into view some images of the world that could only be imagined a generation ago. Close-up aerial pictures of the school and neighborhood quickly catch the interest of…

  1. 47 CFR 32.2421 - Aerial cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... cost of optical fiber cable and other associated material used in constructing a physical path for the... cable or aerial wire as well as the cost of other material used in construction of such plant... the original cost of single or paired conductor cable, wire and other associated material used...

  2. Sea Ice Mapping using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solbø, S.; Storvold, R.

    2011-12-01

    Mapping of sea ice extent and sea ice features is an important task in climate research. Since the arctic coastal and oceanic areas have a high probability of cloud coverage, aerial platforms are superior to satellite measurements for high-resolution optical measurements. However, routine observations of sea ice conditions present a variety of problems using conventional piloted aircrafts. Specially, the availability of suitable aircrafts for lease does not cover the demand in major parts of the arctic. With the recent advances in unmanned aerial systems (UAS), there is a high possibility of establishing routine, cost effective aerial observations of sea ice conditions in the near future. Unmanned aerial systems can carry a wide variety of sensors useful for characterizing sea-ice features. For instance, the CryoWing UAS, a system initially designed for measurements of the cryosphere, can be equipped with digital cameras, surface thermometers and laser altimeters for measuring freeboard of ice flows. In this work we will present results from recent CryoWing sea ice flights on Svalbard, Norway. The emphasis will be on data processing for stitching together images acquired with the non-stabilized camera payload, to form high-resolution mosaics covering large spatial areas. These data are being employed to map ice conditions; including ice and lead features and melt ponds. These high-resolution mosaics are also well suited for sea-ice mechanics, classification studies and for validation of satellite sea-ice products.

  3. Calculating aerial images from EUV masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pistor, Thomas V.; Neureuther, Andrew R.

    1999-06-01

    Aerial images for line/space patterns, arrays of posts and an arbitrary layout pattern are calculated for EUV masks in a 4X EUV imaging system. Both mask parameters and illumination parameters are varied to investigate their effects on the aerial image. To facilitate this study, a parallel version of TEMPEST with a Fourier transform boundary condition was developed and run on a network of 24 microprocessors. Line width variations are observed when absorber thickness or sidewall angle changes. As the line/space pattern scales to smaller dimensions, the aspect ratios of the absorber features increase, introducing geometric shadowing and reducing aerial image intensity and contrast. 100nm square posts have circular images of diameter close to 100nm, but decreasing in diameter significantly when the corner round radius at the mask becomes greater than 50 nm. Exterior mask posts image slightly smaller and with higher ellipticity than interior mask posts. The aerial image of the arbitrary test pattern gives insight into the effects of the off-axis incidence employed in EUV lithography systems.

  4. A TOOL FOR PLANNING AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    abstract The U.S. EPAs Pacific Coastal Ecology Branch has developed a tool in the form of an Excel. spreadsheet that facilitates planning aerial photography missions. The spreadsheet accepts various input parameters such as desired photo-scale and boundary coordinates of the stud...

  5. Aerial Scene Recognition using Efficient Sparse Representation

    SciTech Connect

    Cheriyadat, Anil M

    2012-01-01

    Advanced scene recognition systems for processing large volumes of high-resolution aerial image data are in great demand today. However, automated scene recognition remains a challenging problem. Efficient encoding and representation of spatial and structural patterns in the imagery are key in developing automated scene recognition algorithms. We describe an image representation approach that uses simple and computationally efficient sparse code computation to generate accurate features capable of producing excellent classification performance using linear SVM kernels. Our method exploits unlabeled low-level image feature measurements to learn a set of basis vectors. We project the low-level features onto the basis vectors and use simple soft threshold activation function to derive the sparse features. The proposed technique generates sparse features at a significantly lower computational cost than other methods~\\cite{Yang10, newsam11}, yet it produces comparable or better classification accuracy. We apply our technique to high-resolution aerial image datasets to quantify the aerial scene classification performance. We demonstrate that the dense feature extraction and representation methods are highly effective for automatic large-facility detection on wide area high-resolution aerial imagery.

  6. Aerial Infrared Photos for Citrus Growers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blazquez, C. H.; Horn, F. W. J.

    1982-01-01

    Handbook advises on benefits and methods of aerial photography with color infrared film. Interpretation of photographs is discussed in detail. Necessary equipment for interpretation is described--light table, magnifying lenses, and microfiche viewers, for example. Advice is given on rating tree condition; identifying effects of diseases, insects, and nematodes; and evaluating effects of soil, water, and weather.

  7. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS... construction of such plant. (b) The cost of permits and privileges for the construction of cable and...

  8. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS... construction of such plant. (b) The cost of permits and privileges for the construction of cable and...

  9. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS... construction of such plant. (b) The cost of permits and privileges for the construction of cable and...

  10. Special ISO Class 6 Cleanroom for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Richard A.; Matthews, Scott A.

    2008-01-01

    The parameters and restrictions for a horizontal flow ISO Class 6 Clean room to support the assembly of the new LRO (Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter) were unusual. The project time line was critical. A novel Clean room design was developed and built within the time restraints. This paper describes the design criteria, timing, successful performance, and future benefits of this unique Clean room project.

  11. Overview of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bolivar, S.L.

    1980-01-01

    A Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) for uranium is currently being conducted throughout the conterminous United States and Alaska. The HSSR is part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation sponsored by the US Department of Energy. This ambitious geochemical reconnaissance program is conducted by four Department of Energy laboratories: Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and Savannah River Laboratory. The program is based on an extensive review of world literature, reconnaissance work done in other countries, and pilot studies conducted by each laboratory. Sample-collection methods and sample density are determined to optimize the probability of detecting potential uranium mineralization. To achieve this aim, each laboratory has developed independent standardized field collection procedures that are designed for its section of the country. Field parameters such as pH, conductivity, climate, geography, and geology are recorded at each site. Most areas are sampled at densities of one sample site per 10 to 23 km/sup 2/. The HSSR program has helped to improve existing hydrogeochemical reconnaissance exploration techniques. In addition to providing industry with data that may help to identify potential uranium districts and to extend known uranium provinces, the HSSR also provides multielement analytical data that can be used in water quality, soil, sediment, environmental, and base-metal exploration studies.

  12. RECONNAISSANCE FOR ARSENIC, ESTRADIOL, ANTIBIOTICS, AND MICROBIAL RESISTANCE IN POULTRY-DOMINATED CHESAPEAKE BAY WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are concerns about the effects from the high density of poultry feeding operations and the extensive use of feed amendments on water quality in the Shenandoah Valley in Virginia and Delmarva Peninsula. Therefore, we conducted reconnaissance investigations in two Shenandoah ...

  13. Tier-scalable reconnaissance: the challenge of sensor optimization, sensor deployment, sensor fusion, and sensor interoperability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, Wolfgang; George, Thomas; Tarbell, Mark A.

    2007-04-01

    Robotic reconnaissance operations are called for in extreme environments, not only those such as space, including planetary atmospheres, surfaces, and subsurfaces, but also in potentially hazardous or inaccessible operational areas on Earth, such as mine fields, battlefield environments, enemy occupied territories, terrorist infiltrated environments, or areas that have been exposed to biochemical agents or radiation. Real time reconnaissance enables the identification and characterization of transient events. A fundamentally new mission concept for tier-scalable reconnaissance of operational areas, originated by Fink et al., is aimed at replacing the engineering and safety constrained mission designs of the past. The tier-scalable paradigm integrates multi-tier (orbit atmosphere surface/subsurface) and multi-agent (satellite UAV/blimp surface/subsurface sensing platforms) hierarchical mission architectures, introducing not only mission redundancy and safety, but also enabling and optimizing intelligent, less constrained, and distributed reconnaissance in real time. Given the mass, size, and power constraints faced by such a multi-platform approach, this is an ideal application scenario for a diverse set of MEMS sensors. To support such mission architectures, a high degree of operational autonomy is required. Essential elements of such operational autonomy are: (1) automatic mapping of an operational area from different vantage points (including vehicle health monitoring); (2) automatic feature extraction and target/region-of-interest identification within the mapped operational area; and (3) automatic target prioritization for close-up examination. These requirements imply the optimal deployment of MEMS sensors and sensor platforms, sensor fusion, and sensor interoperability.

  14. Traitement des Images pour la Reconnaissance de Formes EN Presence de Bruit Dependant du Signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrillon, Jean-Christophe

    En traitement d'images, tres peu de recherches ont jusqu'a present considere le probleme de la reconnaissance de formes en presence de bruit dependant du signal. L'originalite de ce travail reside d'une part dans l'etude de la reconnaissance de formes par correlation, invariante sous translation et invariante simultanement sous rotation et translation, en presence de bruit dependant du signal et, d'autre part, dans le developpement de nouvelles methodes de traitement d'images qui preservent la reconnaissance en presence du bruit lorsque les methodes existantes ont echoure. Nous considerons principalement le speckle, qui peut se manifester dans les correlateurs optiques operant en eclairement coherent. Les nouvelles methodes que nous proposons consistent en un pre-traitement des images bruitees base sur la theorie de l'estimation. Au moyen de simulations numeriques et d'une analyse statistique, nous montrons les avantages du pre-traitement, en particulier pour la reconnaissance avec les filtres de correlation invariants sous rotation et translation.

  15. Reconnaissance for uranium-bearing carbonaceous rocks in New Mexico, 1952

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bachman, G.O.; Baltz, E.H.; O'Sullivan, R.B.

    1953-01-01

    Reconnaissance for uranium in coal and black shale in New Mexico during 1952 was largely an extension of work initiated during the 1951 field season. No uranium deposits of economic interest were found, although minor amounts of uranium were noted at several localities.

  16. Reconnaissance geologic map of the Kuskokwim Bay region, southwest Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Hults, Chad P.; Mohadjer, Solmaz; Coonrad, Warren L.

    2013-01-01

    The rocks of the map area range from Proterozoic age metamorphic rocks of the Kanektok metamorphic complex (Kilbuck terrane) to Quaternary age mafic volcanic rocks of Nunivak Island. The map area encompasses much of the type area of the Togiak-Tikchik Complex. The geologic maps used to construct this compilation were, for the most part, reconnaissance studies done in the time period from the 1950s to 1990s. Pioneering work in the map area by J.M. Hoare and W.L. Coonrad forms the basis for much of this map, either directly or as the stepping off point for later studies compiled here. Physiographically, the map area ranges from glaciated mountains, as much as 1,500 m high, in the Ahklun Mountains to the coastal lowlands of northern Bristol Bay and the Kuskokwim River delta. The mountains and the finger lakes (drowned fiords) on the east have been strongly affected by Pleistocene and Holocene glaciation. Within the map area are a number of major faults. The Togiak-Tikchik Fault and its extension to the northeast, the Holitna Fault, are considered extensions of the Denali fault system of central Alaska. Other sub-parallel faults include the Golden Gate, Sawpit, Goodnews, and East Kulukak Faults. Northwest-trending strike-slip faults crosscut and offset northeast-trending fault systems. Rocks of the area are assigned to a number of distinctive lithologic packages. Most distinctive among these packages are the high-grade metamorphic rocks of the Kanektok metamorphic complex or Kilbuck terrane, composed of a high-grade metamorphic orthogneiss core surrounded by greenschist and amphibolite facies schist, gneiss, and rare marble and quartzite. These rocks have yielded radiometric ages strongly suggestive of a 2.05 Ga emplacement age. Poorly known Paleozoic rocks, including Ordovician to Devonian and Permian limestone, are found east of the Kanektok metamorphic complex. A Triassic(?) ophiolite complex is on the southeast side of Kuskokwim Bay; otherwise only minor Triassic

  17. Planetary protection implementation on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barengoltz, J.; Witte, J.

    2008-09-01

    In August 2005 NASA launched a large orbiting science observatory, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), for what is scheduled to be a 5.4-year mission. High resolution imaging of the surface is a principal goal of the mission. One consequence of this goal however is the need for a low science orbit. Unfortunately this orbit fails the required 20-year orbit life set in NASA Planetary Protection (PP) requirements [NASA. Planetary protection provisions for robotic extraterrestrial missions, NASA procedural requirements NPR 8020.12C, NASA HQ, Washington, DC, April 2005.]. So rather than sacrifice the science goals of the mission by raising the science orbit, the MRO Project chose to be the first orbiter to pursue the bio-burden reduction approach. Cleaning alone for a large orbiter like MRO is insufficient to achieve the bio-burden threshold requirement in NASA PP requirements. The burden requirement for an orbiter includes spores encapsulated in non-metallic materials and trapped in joints, as well as located on all internal and external surfaces (the total spore burden). Total burden estimates are dominated by the mated and encapsulated burden. The encapsulated burden cannot be cleaned. The total burden of a smaller orbiter (e.g., Mars Odyssey) likely could not have met the requirement by cleaning; for the large MRO it is clearly impossible. Of course, a system-level partial sterilization, with its attendant costs and system design issues, could have been employed. In the approach taken by the MRO Project, hardware which will burn up (completely vaporize or ablate) before reaching the surface or will at least attain high temperature (500 °C for 0.5 s or more) due to entry heating was exempt from burden accounting. Thus the bio-burden estimate was reduced. Lockheed Martin engineers developed a process to perform what is called breakup and burn-up (B&B) analysis.Lockheed Martin Corporation.2 The use of the B&B analysis to comply with the spore burden requirement is

  18. Experiences Supporting the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera: the Devops Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licht, A.; Estes, N. M.; Bowman-Cisnesros, E.; Hanger, C. D.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction: The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Science Operations Center (SOC) is responsible for instrument targeting, product processing, and archiving [1]. The LROC SOC maintains over 1,000,000 observations with over 300 TB of released data. Processing challenges compound with the acquisition of over 400 Gbits of observations daily creating the need for a robust, efficient, and reliable suite of specialized software. Development Environment: The LROC SOC's software development methodology has evolved over time. Today, the development team operates in close cooperation with the systems administration team in a model known in the IT industry as DevOps. The DevOps model enables a highly productive development environment that facilitates accomplishment of key goals within tight schedules[2]. The LROC SOC DevOps model incorporates industry best practices including prototyping, continuous integration, unit testing, code coverage analysis, version control, and utilizing existing open source software. Scientists and researchers at LROC often prototype algorithms and scripts in a high-level language such as MATLAB or IDL. After the prototype is functionally complete the solution is implemented as production ready software by the developers. Following this process ensures that all controls and requirements set by the LROC SOC DevOps team are met. The LROC SOC also strives to enhance the efficiency of the operations staff by way of weekly presentations and informal mentoring. Many small scripting tasks are assigned to the cognizant operations personnel (end users), allowing for the DevOps team to focus on more complex and mission critical tasks. In addition to leveraging open source software the LROC SOC has also contributed to the open source community by releasing Lunaserv [3]. Findings: The DevOps software model very efficiently provides smooth software releases and maintains team momentum. Scientists prototyping their work has proven to be very efficient

  19. Reconnaissance of the Hydrogeology of Ta'u, American Samoa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izuka, Scot K.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of existing data and information collected on a reconnaissance field visit supports a conceptual model of ground-water occurrence in Ta'u, American Samoa, in which a thin freshwater lens exists in a predominantly high-permeability aquifer that receives high rates of recharge. Because the freshwater lens is thin throughout most of the island, the productivity of wells, especially those near the coast where the lens is the thinnest, is likely to be limited by saltwater intrusion. The landfill in northwestern Ta'u is closer to the north coast of the island than to any of the existing or proposed well sites. Although this may indicate that ground water beneath the landfill would flow away from the existing and proposed well sites, this interpretation may change depending on the hydraulic properties of a fault and rift zone in the area. Of four plausible scenarios tested with a numerical ground-water flow model, only one scenario indicated that ground water from beneath the landfill would flow toward the existing and proposed well sites; the analysis does not, however, assess which of the four scenarios is most plausible. The analysis also does not consider the change in flow paths that will result from ground-water withdrawals, dispersion of contaminants during transport by ground water, other plausible hydrogeologic scenarios, transport of contaminants by surface-water flow, or that sources of contamination other than the landfill may exist. Accuracy of the hydrologic interpretations in this study is limited by the relatively sparse data available for Ta'u. Understanding water resources on Ta'u can be advanced by monitoring rainfall, stream-flow, evaporation, ground-water withdrawals, and water quality, and with accurate surveys of measuring point elevations for all wells and careful testing of well-performance. Assessing the potential for contaminants in the landfill to reach existing and proposed well sites can be improved with additional information on the

  20. Reconnaissance for radioactive materials in northeastern United States during 1952

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKeown, Francis A.; Klemic, Harry

    1953-01-01

    Reconnaissance for radioactive materials was made in parts of Maine, New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. The primary objective was to examine the iron ore deposits and associated rocks in the Adirondack Mountains of New York and the Highlands of New Jersey. In addition, several deposits known or reported to contain radioactive minerals were examined to delimit their extent. Most of the deposits examined are not significant as possible sources of radioactive elements and the data pertaining to them are summarized in table form. Deposits that do warrant more description than can be given in table form are: Benson Mines, St. Lawrence County, N. Y.; Rutgers mine, Clinton County, N. Y.; Mineville Mines, Essex County, N. Y.l Canfield phosphate mine, Morris County, N. J.; Mullgan quarry, Hunterdon County, N. J.; and the Chestnut Hill-Marble Mountain area, Pennsylvania and New Jersey. The Old Bed in the Mineville district is the only deposit that may be economically significant. Apatite from Old Bed ore contains as much as 4.9 percent total rare earth. 0.04 percent thorium, and 0.018 percent uranium. Magnetite ore at the Rutgers mine contains radioactive zircon and apatite. Radioactivity measurements of outcrops and dump material show that the ore contains from 0.005 to 0.010 percent equivalent uranium. One sample of lean magnetite ore contains 0.006 percent equivalent uranium. Garnet-rich zones in the Benson Mines magnetite deposit contain as much as 0.017 equivalent uranium. Most of the rock and ore, however, contains about 0.005 percent equivalent uranium. Available data indicate that the garnet-rich zones are enriched in radioactive allanite. A shear zone in the Kittatinny limestone of Cambrian age at the Mulligan quarry contains uraniferous material. Radioactivity anomalies elsewhere in the quarry and in adjacent fields indicate that there may be other uraniferous shear zones. Assays of samples and measurements of outcrop radioactivity indicate that the uranium

  1. Multiple NEO Rendezvous, Reconnaissance and In Situ Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, K.; Elsperman, M. S.; Cook, T.; Smith, D.

    2010-12-01

    We propose a two spacecraft mission (Mother Ship and Small Body Lander) rendezvous with multiple Near Earth Objects (NEO). This two spacecraft mission mimics the likely architecture approach that human explorers will use: a “mother ship”(MS) designed to get from Earth to the NEO and a “Small Body Lander”(SBL) that performs in situ investigation on or close to the NEO’s surface. The MS carries the SBL to the target NEO. Once at the target NEO, the MS conducts an initial reconnaissance in order to produce a high resolution map of the surface. This map is used to identify coordinates of interest which are sent to the SBL. The SBL un-docks from the MS to rendezvous with the NEO and collect data. Landings are possible, though the challenges of anchoring to the NEO surface are significant. The SBL design is flexible and adaptable, enabling science data collection on or near the surface. After surface investigations are completed on the first NEO, the SBL will return and autonomously rendezvous and dock with the MS. The MS then goes to the next NEO target. During transit to the next NEO, the SBL could be refueled by the MS, a TRL8 capability demonstrated on the DARPA/NASA Orbital Express mission in 2007, or alternately sized to operate without requiring refueling depending on the mission profile. The mission goals are to identify surface hazards; quantify engineering boundary conditions for future human visits, and identify resources for future exploitation. The mission goals will be accomplished through the execution of key mission objectives: (1) high-resolution surface topography; (2) surface composition and mineralogy; (3) radiation environment near NEO; and (4) mechanical properties of the surface. Essential SBL instruments include: a) LIDAR (Obj. 1); b) 3D, high- resolution hyperspectral imaging cameras (Obj. 2); c) radiation sensor package (Obj. 3); and d) strain gauges (Obj. 4). Additional or alternative instruments could include: e) x-ray fluorescence

  2. Concept and realization of unmanned aerial system with different modes of operation

    SciTech Connect

    Czyba, Roman; Szafrański, Grzegorz; Janusz, Wojciech; Niezabitowski, Michał; Czornik, Adam; Błachuta, Marian

    2014-12-10

    In this paper we describe the development process of unmanned aerial system, its mechanical components, electronics and software solutions. During the stage of design, we have formulated some necessary requirements for the multirotor vehicle and ground control station in order to build an optimal system which can be used for the reconnaissance missions. Platform is controlled by use of the ground control station (GCS) and has possibility of accomplishing video based observation tasks. In order to fulfill this requirement the on-board payload consists of mechanically stabilized camera augmented with machine vision algorithms to enable object tracking tasks. Novelty of the system are four modes of flight, which give full functionality of the developed UAV system. Designed ground control station is consisted not only of the application itself, but also a built-in dedicated components located inside the chassis, which together creates an advanced UAV system supporting the control and management of the flight. Mechanical part of quadrotor is designed to ensure its robustness while meeting objectives of minimizing weight of the platform. Finally the designed electronics allows for implementation of control and estimation algorithms without the needs for their excessive computational optimization.

  3. Concept and realization of unmanned aerial system with different modes of operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czyba, Roman; Szafrański, Grzegorz; Janusz, Wojciech; Niezabitowski, Michał; Czornik, Adam; Błachuta, Marian

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we describe the development process of unmanned aerial system, its mechanical components, electronics and software solutions. During the stage of design, we have formulated some necessary requirements for the multirotor vehicle and ground control station in order to build an optimal system which can be used for the reconnaissance missions. Platform is controlled by use of the ground control station (GCS) and has possibility of accomplishing video based observation tasks. In order to fulfill this requirement the on-board payload consists of mechanically stabilized camera augmented with machine vision algorithms to enable object tracking tasks. Novelty of the system are four modes of flight, which give full functionality of the developed UAV system. Designed ground control station is consisted not only of the application itself, but also a built-in dedicated components located inside the chassis, which together creates an advanced UAV system supporting the control and management of the flight. Mechanical part of quadrotor is designed to ensure its robustness while meeting objectives of minimizing weight of the platform. Finally the designed electronics allows for implementation of control and estimation algorithms without the needs for their excessive computational optimization.

  4. Fuel cell powered small unmanned aerial systems (UASs) for extended endurance flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Deryn; Jiang, R.; Dunbar, Z.; Grew, Kyle; McClure, J.

    2015-05-01

    Small unmanned aerial systems (UASs) have been used for military applications and have additional potential for commercial applications [1-4]. For the military, these systems provide valuable intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance and target acquisition (ISRTA) capabilities for units at the infantry, battalion, and company levels. The small UASs are light-weight, manportable, can be hand-launched, and are capable of carrying payloads. Currently, most small UASs are powered by lithium-ion or lithium polymer batteries; however, the flight endurance is usually limited less than two hours and requires frequent battery replacement. Long endurance small UAS flights have been demonstrated through the implementation of a fuel cell system. For instance, a propane fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack has been used to power a small UAS and shown to extend mission flight time. The research and development efforts presented here not only apply to small UASs, but also provide merit to the viability of extending mission operations for other unmanned systems applications.

  5. Controller Design of Quadrotor Aerial Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yali, Yu; SunFeng; Yuanxi, Wang

    This paper deduced the nonlinear dynamic model of a quadrotor aerial robot, which was a VTOL (vertical tale-off and landing) unmanned air vehicle. Since that is a complex model with the highly nonlinear multivariable strongly coupled and under-actuated property, the controller design of it was very difficult. Aimed at attaining the excellent controller, the whole system can be divided into three interconnected parts: attitude subsystem, vertical subsystem, position subsystem. Then nonlinear control strategy of them has been described, such as SDRE and Backstepping. The controller design was presented to stabilize the whole system. Through simulation result indicates, the various models have shown that the control law stabilize a quadrotor aerial robot with good tracking performance and robotness of the system.

  6. Aerial color infrared photography applications to citriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blazquez, C. H.; Horn, F. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Results of a one-year experimental study on the use of aerial color infrared photography in citrus grove management are presented. It is found that the spring season, when trees are in flush (have young leaves), is the best season to photograph visible differences between healthy and diseased trees. It is also shown that the best photography can be obtained with a 12-in. focal length lens. The photographic scale that allowed good photo interpretation with simple inexpensive equipment was 1 in. = 330 ft. The use of a window-overlay transparency method allowed rapid photo interpretation and data recording in computer-compatible forms. Aerial color infrared photography carried out during the spring season revealed a more accurate status of tree condition than visual inspection.

  7. Ultralight photovoltaic modules for unmanned aerial vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Nowlan, M.J.; Maglitta, J.C.; Darkazalli, G.; Lamp, T.

    1997-12-31

    New lightweight photovoltaic modules are being developed for powering high altitude unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Modified low-cost terrestrial solar cell and module technologies are being applied to minimize vehicle cost. New processes were developed for assembling thin solar cells, encapsulant films, and cover films. An innovative by-pass diode mounting approach that uses a solar cell as a heat spreader was devised and tested. Materials and processes will be evaluated through accelerated environmental testing.

  8. Toxicological effects of aerial application of monocrotophos.

    PubMed

    Rao, R R; Quadros, F; Mazmudar, R M; Marathe, M R; Gangoli, S D

    1980-01-01

    Aerial application of the insecticide Nuvacron 40% (monocrotophos) had no significant effect on the cholinesterase level of plasma and erythrocytes of cattle, chicken, buffaloes, and human volunteers exposed to the spray. Contamination of canal water with the pesticide was completely eliminated within 24 hr, whereas that in the soil was reduced by 80% in 72 hr. The degradation of insecticide residue in grass was about 90% in seven days and in cotton leaves about 85% for the same period.

  9. Comparative Analysis of the Tour Jete and Aerial with Detailed Analysis of Aerial Takeoff Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierson, Mimi; Coplin, Kim

    2006-10-01

    Whether internally as muscle tension or from external sources, forces are necessary for all motion. This research focused on athletic rotations where conditions of flight are established during takeoff. By studying reaction forces that produce torques, moments of inertia, and linear and angular differences between distinct rotations around different principle axes of the body (tour jete in ballet - longitudinal axis; aerial in gymnastics - anteroposterior axis), and by looking at the values of angular momentum in the specific mechanics of aerial takeoff, we can gain insight into possible causes of injury, flaws in technique and limitations of athletes. Results showed significant differences in the horizontal and vertical components of takeoff between the tour jete and the aerial, and a realization that torque was produced in different biomechanical planes. Both rotations showed braking forces before takeoff to counteract forward momentum and increase vertical lift, but the angle of applied force varied, and the horizontal components of velocity and force and vertical velocity as well as moment of inertia throughout flight were consistently greater for the aerial. Breakdown of aerial takeoff highlighted the relative importance of the takeoff phases, showing that completion depends fundamentally upon the rotation of the rear foot and torso twisting during takeoff rather than the last foot in contact with the ground.

  10. Inertial instrument system for aerial surveying

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, R.H.; Chapman, W.H.; Hanna, W.F.; Mongan, C.E.; Hursh, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    An inertial guidance system for aerial surveying has been developed under contract to the U.S. Geological Survey. This prototype system, known as the aerial profiling of terrain (APT) system, is designed to determine continuously the positions of points along an aircraft flight path, or the underlying terrain profile, to an accuracy of + or - 0.5 ft (15 cm) vertically and + or - 2 ft (61 cm) horizontally. The system 's objective thus is to accomplish, from a fixed-wing aircraft, what would traditionally be accomplished from ground-based topographic surveys combined with aerial photography and photogrammetry. The two-part strategy for measuring the terrain profile entails: (1) use of an inertial navigator for continuous determination of the three-coordinate position of the aircraft, and (2) use of an eye-safe pulsed laser profiler for continuous measurement of the vertical distance from aircraft to land surface, so that the desired terrain profile can then be directly computed. The APT system, installed in a DeHavilland Twin Otter aircraft, is typically flown at a speed of 115 mph (105 knots) at an altitude of 2,000 ft (610 m) above the terrain. Performance-evaluation flights have shown that the vertical and horizontal accuracy specifications are met. (USGS)

  11. Mask degradation monitoring with aerial mask inspector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Wen-Jui; Fu, Yung-Ying; Lu, Shih-Ping; Jiang, Ming-Sian; Lin, Jeffrey; Wu, Clare; Lifschitz, Sivan; Tam, Aviram

    2013-06-01

    As design rule continues to shrink, microlithography is becoming more challenging and the photomasks need to comply with high scanner laser energy, low CDU, and ever more aggressive RETs. This give rise to numerous challenges in the semiconductor wafer fabrication plants. Some of these challenges being contamination (mainly haze and particles), mask pattern degradation (MoSi oxidation, chrome migration, etc.) and pellicle degradation. Fabs are constantly working to establish an efficient methodology to manage these challenges mainly using mask inspection, wafer inspection, SEM review and CD SEMs. Aerial technology offers a unique opportunity to address the above mask related challenges using one tool. The Applied Materials Aera3TM system has the inherent ability to inspect for defects (haze, particles, etc.), and track mask degradation (e.g. CDU). This paper focuses on haze monitoring, which is still a significant challenge in semiconductor manufacturing, and mask degradation effects that are starting to emerge as the next challenge for high volume semiconductor manufacturers. The paper describes Aerial inspector (Aera3) early haze methodology and mask degradation tracking related to high volume manufacturing. These will be demonstrated on memory products. At the end of the paper we take a brief look on subsequent work currently conducted on the more general issue of photo mask degradation monitoring by means of an Aerial inspector.

  12. Localization of aerial broadband noise by pinnipeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Marla M.; Schusterman, Ronald J.; Southall, Brandon L.; Kastak, David

    2004-05-01

    Although many pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses) emit broadband calls on land as part of their communication system, few studies have addressed these animals' ability to localize aerial broadband sounds. In this study, the aerial sound localization acuities of a female northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), a male harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and a female California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) were measured in the horizontal plane. The stimulus was broadband white noise that was band pass filtered between 1.2 and 15 kHz. Testing was conducted in a hemi-anechoic chamber using a left/right forced choice procedure to measure the minimum audible angle (MAA) for each subject. MAAs were defined as half the angular separation of two sound sources bisected by a subject's midline that corresponded to 75% correct discrimination. MAAs were 4.7°, 3.6°, and 4.2° for the northern elephant seal, harbor seal, and California sea lion, respectively. These results demonstrate that individuals of these pinniped species have sound localization abilities comparable to the domestic cat and rhesus macaque. The acuity differences between our subjects were small and not predicted by head size. These results likely reflect the relatively acute general abilities of pinnipeds to localize aerial broadband signals.

  13. Remotely deployable aerial inspection using tactile sensors

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, C. N.; Cao, J.; Pierce, S. G.; Dobie, G.; Summan, R.; Sullivan, J. C.; Pipe, A. G.

    2014-02-18

    For structural monitoring applications, the use of remotely deployable Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) inspection platforms offer many advantages, including improved accessibility, greater safety and reduced cost, when compared to traditional manual inspection techniques. The use of such platforms, previously reported by researchers at the University Strathclyde facilitates the potential for rapid scanning of large areas and volumes in hazardous locations. A common problem for both manual and remote deployment approaches lies in the intrinsic stand-off and surface coupling issues of typical NDE probes. The associated complications of these requirements are obviously significantly exacerbated when considering aerial based remote inspection and deployment, resulting in simple visual techniques being the preferred sensor payload. Researchers at Bristol Robotics Laboratory have developed biomimetic tactile sensors modelled on the facial whiskers (vibrissae) of animals such as rats and mice, with the latest sensors actively sweeping their tips across the surface in a back and forth motion. The current work reports on the design and performance of an aerial inspection platform and the suitability of tactile whisking sensors to aerial based surface monitoring applications.

  14. The control of a parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system for a small unmanned aerial vehicle using a CMAC neural network.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Frederick G; Frank, Andrew A; Joshi, Sanjay S

    2005-01-01

    A Simulink model, a propulsion energy optimization algorithm, and a CMAC controller were developed for a small parallel hybrid-electric unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The hybrid-electric UAV is intended for military, homeland security, and disaster-monitoring missions involving intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR). The Simulink model is a forward-facing simulation program used to test different control strategies. The flexible energy optimization algorithm for the propulsion system allows relative importance to be assigned between the use of gasoline, electricity, and recharging. A cerebellar model arithmetic computer (CMAC) neural network approximates the energy optimization results and is used to control the parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system. The hybrid-electric UAV with the CMAC controller uses 67.3% less energy than a two-stroke gasoline-powered UAV during a 1-h ISR mission and 37.8% less energy during a longer 3-h ISR mission.

  15. D.R.O.P. The Durable Reconnaissance and Observation Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKenzie, Clifford; Parness, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    The Durable Reconnaissance and Observation Platform (DROP) is a prototype robotic platform with the ability to climb concrete surfaces up to 85deg at a rate of 25cm/s, make rapid horizontal to vertical transitions, carry an audio/visual reconnaissance payload, and survive impacts from 3 meters. DROP is manufactured using a combination of selective laser sintering (SLS) and shape deposition manufacturing (SDM) techniques. The platform uses a two-wheel, two-motor design that delivers high mobility with low complexity. DROP extends microspine climbing technology from linear to rotary applications, providing improved transition ability, increased speeds, and simpler body mechanics while maintaining microspines ability to opportunistically grip rough surfaces. Various aspects of prototype design and performance are discussed, including the climbing mechanism, body design, and impact survival.

  16. Military reconnaissance application of high-resolution optical satellite remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zheng-gang; Kang, Qing; Xun, Yi-jia; Shen, Zhi-qiang; Cui, Chang-bin

    2014-11-01

    As the remote sensing technology transformation from military use to civil use becomes deeper and faster, the resolution is better and better, and the relative techniques of the civil optical remote sensing satellite are richer and richer. So, modes such as civil use replacing military use, civil use covering military use, and civil use supporting military use are the real portraiture of high-resolution optical satellite remote sensing development currently. Taking the situations of the Taiwan authorities buying commercial remote sensing image to military reconnaissance, and the so-called military establishments exposed by media using satellite image as an example, the military reconnaissance application of civil high-resolution optical satellite remote sensing is discussed. Then, the actuality and reasons of huge measure engineering and ruled configuring, environment and signs of military area, equipment and exercitation establishments and three-dimension information of engineering and equipment which can be detected easily by remote sensing are analyzed.

  17. Reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, Churchill County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Voegtly, N.E.

    1981-01-01

    A geological reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, which include parts of the Brady-Hazen and the Stillwater-Soda Lake Known Geothermal Resource Areas (KGRA's), resulted in a reinterpretation of the nature and location of some Basin and Range faults. This reconnaissance took place during June-December 1975. In addition, the late Cenozoic stratigraphy has been modified, chiefly on the basis of radiometric dates of volcanic rocks by US Geological Survey personnel and others. The Hot Springs Mountains are in the western part of the Basin and Range province, which is characterized by east-west crustal extension and associated normal faulting. In the surrounding Trinity, West Humboldt, Stillwater, and Desert Mountains, Cenozoic rocks overlie basement rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. A similar relation is inferred in the Hot Springs Mountains. Folding and faulting have taken place from the late Tertiary to the present.

  18. Multi-rover testbed for teleconducted and autonomous surveillance, reconnaissance, and exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, Wolfgang; Tarbell, Mark A.

    2009-05-01

    At Caltech's Visual and Autonomous Exploration Systems Research Laboratory (http://autonomy.caltech.edu) an outdoor multi-rover testbed has been developed that allows for near real-time interactive or automatic control from anywhere in the world via the Internet. It enables the implementation, field-testing, and validation of algorithms/software and strategies for navigation, exploration, feature extraction, anomaly detection, and target prioritization with applications in planetary exploration, security surveillance, reconnaissance of disaster areas, military reconnaissance, and delivery of lethal force such as explosives for urban warfare. Several rover platforms have been developed, enabling testing of cooperative multi-rover scenarios (e.g., inter-rover communication/coordination) and distributed exploration of operational areas.

  19. Flight Control Development for the ARH-70 Armed Reconnaissance Helicopter Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, Kevin T.; Campbell, Kip G.; Griffith, Carl D.; Ivler, Christina M.; Tischler, Mark B.; Harding, Jeffrey W.

    2008-01-01

    In July 2005, Bell Helicopter won the U.S. Army's Armed Reconnaissance Helicopter competition to produce a replacement for the OH-58 Kiowa Warrior capable of performing the armed reconnaissance mission. To meet the U.S. Army requirement that the ARH-70A have Level 1 handling qualities for the scout rotorcraft mission task elements defined by ADS-33E-PRF, Bell equipped the aircraft with their generic automatic flight control system (AFCS). Under the constraints of the tight ARH-70A schedule, the development team used modem parameter identification and control law optimization techniques to optimize the AFCS gains to simultaneously meet multiple handling qualities design criteria. This paper will show how linear modeling, control law optimization, and simulation have been used to produce a Level 1 scout rotorcraft for the U.S. Army, while minimizing the amount of flight testing required for AFCS development and handling qualities evaluation of the ARH-70A.

  20. Reconnaissance techniques for determining soil-gas radon concentrations: an example from Prince Georges County, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reimer, G.M.

    1990-01-01

    Radon reconnaissance requires some special considerations because a large area must be covered in a short period of time and analyses must be made soon after collection because of Rn decay. A simple approach to collection and field analysis consists of a small-diameter probe pounded into the ground to a depth of at least 0.75 m. Analysis is by an alpha-scintillometer. Soil-gas samples collected along a traverse in Prince Georges County, Maryland, demonstrates the utility of the technique. The reconnaissance sampling revealed Rn soil-gas concentrations of up to 2500 pCi/L (picocuries per liter) indicating that the potential exists for indoor accumulations in excess of 4 pCi/L. -from Author

  1. Systeme Optique de Transformations de Coordonnees et Son Utilisation EN Reconnaissance de Formes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asselin, Daniel

    La foramtion optique des transformations de coordonnees (TC) polaire et log-polaire a un grand potentiel en reconnaissance invariante sous rotation et changement d'echelle en temps reel. Cependant, jusqu'ici, la faible qualite des transformations obtenues et le probleme d'enroulement ont empeche toute utilisation pratique. A l'aide d'hologrammes a facettes generes par ordinateur, nous etudierons donc la generation optique de TC de qualite en utilisant des facettes de tailles variables tandis que, en juxtaposant deux TC, nous reduirons de facon appreciable l'effet d'enroulement. Suite a ces ameliorations, nos experiences demontreront la possibilite d'une reconnaissance invariante en rotation et en echelle d'objets simples, seule l'etape de la classification etant supportee numeriquement. Nous etudierons egalement les effets, sur l'onde reconstruite, de la resolution limitee du modulateur supportant l'hologramme, les principales conclusions ayant ete experimentalement confirmees.

  2. A ground-water reconnaissance of the Jacmel-Meyer Bench, Haiti

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, George C.

    1949-01-01

    The Jacmel-Meyer bench lies on the south coast of the southern peninsula of Haiti in the Department de l'Ouest. Jacmel, at the west end of the bench, is about 40 kilometers airline southwest of Port-au-Prince. In the early part of January 1949, the writer in company with Mr. Rémy Lemoine made a reconnaissance study of the ground-water conditions of the bench. The object of the reconnaissance was to determine the availability of ground water for irrigation of the bench as well as for the public water supply of Jacmel. Irrigation is practiced on the bench, bu the existing water supplies are insufficient to cover all irrigable lands. Jacmel is at present supplied with water from a pipe line that delivers the flow of several developed springs to the city by gravity. However, this supply is inadequate and probably at times is contaminated.

  3. Systematic and Widespread Exploration with Aerocoasting and Reconnaissance of the Martian Sub-Atmosphere (SWARMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornblom, M. N.; Lukas, J. N.; Lugo, R. A.

    2012-06-01

    An innovative exploration technology is proposed that utilizes “aerocoasting,” or low-drag aerobraking, with a orbiting vehicle that periodically deploys robotic aerial explorers that “swarm” to measure and characterize the Martian atmosphere.

  4. Evaluation of commercial utility of ERTS-A imagery in structural reconnaissance for minerals and petroleum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, D. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Initial analytical results in Area 3 have been very encouraging. Not only have new major lineaments been detected but many of the intersections of those lineaments correlate with the general location of known mineral deposits while others appear to outline petroleum-bearing basins and uplifts. If later analyses confirm these results the economic impact of ERTS type imagery could be very significant in worldwide mineral and petroleum reconnaissance.

  5. Video and photographic reconnaissance of Phleger and Sweet Banks, northwest and Gulf of Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    A video and photographic reconnaissance of portions of Phleger and Sweet Banks was conducted for the purpose of documenting the associated biota prior to the potential leasing of oil and gas tracts that contain the banks within their boundaries. The hard bottom biota associated with the surveyed depths of 122 to 173 meters on Phleger Bank included sponges, comatulid crinoids, paramuricid sea fans, spiral sea whips Cirrhipathes sp., and the Roughtonguebass, Holanthias martinicensis.

  6. A geological reconnaissance across the Bitterroot Range and Clearwater Mountains in Montana and Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindgren, Waldemar

    1904-01-01

    This report describes, in a preliminary way, a belt of country extending westward from the Bitterroot Valley, across the dividing range and the rugged mountains of the Clearwater system, down to the fertile plateaus which border the canyon of Snake River. It thus presents a reconnaissance section from western Montana across northern Idaho, and deals chiefly with areas about which, thus far, little geological information has been available.

  7. Arctic Oil Spill Mapping and Response Using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, K. W.

    2011-12-01

    The University of Alaska Fairbanks works extensively with unmanned aerial systems and various sensor payloads used in mapping. Recent projects with Royal Dutch Shell and British Petroleum have demonstrated that unmanned aerial systems, including fixed and rotary winged platforms, can provide quick response to oil spill mapping in a variety of flight conditions, including those not well suited for manned aerial systems. We describe this collaborative research between the University and oil companies exploring and developing oil resources in Alaska and the Arctic.

  8. Modeling and performance assessment in QinetiQ of EO and IR airborne reconnaissance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, John W.; Potter, Gary E.

    2002-11-01

    QinetiQ are the technical authority responsible for specifying the performance requirements for the procurement of airborne reconnaissance systems, on behalf of the UK MoD. They are also responsible for acceptance of delivered systems, overseeing and verifying the installed system performance as predicted and then assessed by the contractor. Measures of functional capability are central to these activities. The conduct of these activities utilises the broad technical insight and wide range of analysis tools and models available within QinetiQ. This paper focuses on the tools, methods and models that are applicable to systems based on EO and IR sensors. The tools, methods and models are described, and representative output for systems that QinetiQ has been responsible for is presented. The principle capability applicable to EO and IR airborne reconnaissance systems is the STAR (Simulation Tools for Airborne Reconnaissance) suite of models. STAR generates predictions of performance measures such as GRD (Ground Resolved Distance) and GIQE (General Image Quality) NIIRS (National Imagery Interpretation Rating Scales). It also generates images representing sensor output, using the scene generation software CAMEO-SIM and the imaging sensor model EMERALD. The simulated image 'quality' is fully correlated with the predicted non-imaging performance measures. STAR also generates image and table data that is compliant with STANAG 7023, which may be used to test ground station functionality.

  9. Reconnaissance investigation of ground-water supply for Dora Belle Campground, Shaver Lake, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, G.H.

    1957-01-01

    At the request of the United States Forest Service, the Ground Water Branch of the United Stated Geological Survey made a reconnaissance of the geologic features and water resources of the Dora Belle Campground in Sierra National Forest on the shore of Shaver Lake, Fresno County, California. Basically, the water-supply problem at Dora Belle Campground is that the present supply obtained from a spring is not adequate to meet the present summer demand, and is of poor quality. Plans call for a considerable increase in camping facilities.. This, it is imperative that the present supply be augmented or, preferably, be replaced entirely. the Forest Service estimated the future peak demand to be about 25,00 gallons per day. On October 28, 1957, the writer examined the are in the company of C. H. Fankboner, Assistant Forest Engineer, Sierra National Forest, and Ben Dix, Construction and Maintenance Foreman, Pine Ridge District. Field work, done on October 28th and 29th, consisted of a brief geologic reconnaissance to determine the rock types and geologic structure, and a hydrologic reconnaissance consisting of a partial inventory of water walls and springs in the vicinity of the campground. A spring box near the western edge of Bell Diamond Meadow was pumped out with a Forest Service pump truck to determine its rate of recovery and potential production.

  10. Overview of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bolivar, S.L.

    1980-07-01

    A Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) for uranium is currently being conducted throughout the conterminous United States and Alaska. The HSSR is part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation sponsored by the US Department of Energy. This ambitious geochemical reconnasissance program is conducted by four Department of Energy Laboratories: Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and Savannah River Laboratory. Each laboratory was assigned a geographic region of the United States. The program is based on an extensive review of world literature, reconnaissance work done in other countries, and pilot studies conducted by each laboratory. Sample-collection methods and sample density are determined to optimize the probability of detecting potential uranium mineralization. To achieve this aim, each laboratory has developed independent standardized field collection procedures that are designed for its section of the country. Field parameters such as pH, conductivity, climate, geography, and geology are recorded at each site. Most areas are sampled at densities of one sample site per 10 to 23 km/sup 2/. The HSSR program has helped to improve existing hydrogeochemical reconnaissance exploration techniques. In addition to providing industry with data that may help to identify potential uranium districts and to extend known uranium provinces, the HSSR also provides multielement analytical data that can be used in water quality, soil, sediment, environmental, and base-metal exploration studies.

  11. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs): a new tool in counterterrorism operations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dörtbudak, Mehmet F.

    2015-05-01

    Terrorism is not a new phenomenon to the world, yet it remains difficult to define and counter. Countering terrorism requires several measures that must be taken simultaneously; however, counterterrorism strategies of many countries mostly depend on military measures. In the aftermath of the 2001 terrorist attack on the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center, the United States (U.S.) has started and led the campaign of Global War on Terrorism. They have invaded Afghanistan and Iraq and have encountered insurgencies run by terrorist organizations, such as al-Qaeda and its affiliates. The U.S. made the utilization of Air and Space Power very intensively during these operations. In order to implement operations; Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) assets were used to collect the necessary information. Before the successful insertion of a small number of U.S. Special Operation Force (SOF) teams into Afghanistan, the U.S. Air Force attacked al-Qaeda and Taliban's targets such as infrastructure, airfields, ground forces, command-control facilities etc. As soon as the U.S. troops got on the ground and started to marshal to Kabul, the Air Force supported them by attacking jointly determined targets. The Air Force continued to carry out the missions and played a significant role to achieve the objective of operation during all the time. This is not the only example of utilization of Air and Space Power in counterterrorism and counterinsurgency operations. All around the world, many countries have also made the utilization of Air Power in different missions ranging from ISR to attacking. Thinking that terrorism has a psychological dimension and losing a pilot during operations may result in decreasing the population support to operations, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) started to be used by practitioners and took priority over other assets. Although UAVs have been on the theatre for a long time used for ISR mission in conventional conflicts, with the advent

  12. AERIAL VIEW FACING NORTH. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF FABRIC BUILDING, STRUCTURAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW FACING NORTH. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF FABRIC BUILDING, STRUCTURAL WAREHOUSE, RAIL MILL, & OPEN HEARTH COMPLEX. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  13. 21. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST TOWARDS LINCOLN MEMORIAL AND WASHINGTON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST TOWARDS LINCOLN MEMORIAL AND WASHINGTON MONUMENT - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. 20. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTH FROM ARLINGTON TOWARDS LINCOLN MEMORIAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTH FROM ARLINGTON TOWARDS LINCOLN MEMORIAL - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. Discovering discriminative graphlets for aerial image categories recognition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luming; Han, Yahong; Yang, Yi; Song, Mingli; Yan, Shuicheng; Tian, Qi

    2013-12-01

    Recognizing aerial image categories is useful for scene annotation and surveillance. Local features have been demonstrated to be robust to image transformations, including occlusions and clutters. However, the geometric property of an aerial image (i.e., the topology and relative displacement of local features), which is key to discriminating aerial image categories, cannot be effectively represented by state-of-the-art generic visual descriptors. To solve this problem, we propose a recognition model that mines graphlets from aerial images, where graphlets are small connected subgraphs reflecting both the geometric property and color/texture distribution of an aerial image. More specifically, each aerial image is decomposed into a set of basic components (e.g., road and playground) and a region adjacency graph (RAG) is accordingly constructed to model their spatial interactions. Aerial image categories recognition can subsequently be casted as RAG-to-RAG matching. Based on graph theory, RAG-to-RAG matching is conducted by comparing all their respective graphlets. Because the number of graphlets is huge, we derive a manifold embedding algorithm to measure different-sized graphlets, after which we select graphlets that have highly discriminative and low redundancy topologies. Through quantizing the selected graphlets from each aerial image into a feature vector, we use support vector machine to discriminate aerial image categories. Experimental results indicate that our method outperforms several state-of-the-art object/scene recognition models, and the visualized graphlets indicate that the discriminative patterns are discovered by our proposed approach. PMID:23955764

  16. 1. Aerial view, looking northeast up Newark Bay, showing entire ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Aerial view, looking northeast up Newark Bay, showing entire island Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  17. D Surface Generation from Aerial Thermal Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodaei, B.; Samadzadegan, F.; Dadras Javan, F.; Hasani, H.

    2015-12-01

    Aerial thermal imagery has been recently applied to quantitative analysis of several scenes. For the mapping purpose based on aerial thermal imagery, high accuracy photogrammetric process is necessary. However, due to low geometric resolution and low contrast of thermal imaging sensors, there are some challenges in precise 3D measurement of objects. In this paper the potential of thermal video in 3D surface generation is evaluated. In the pre-processing step, thermal camera is geometrically calibrated using a calibration grid based on emissivity differences between the background and the targets. Then, Digital Surface Model (DSM) generation from thermal video imagery is performed in four steps. Initially, frames are extracted from video, then tie points are generated by Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) algorithm. Bundle adjustment is then applied and the camera position and orientation parameters are determined. Finally, multi-resolution dense image matching algorithm is used to create 3D point cloud of the scene. Potential of the proposed method is evaluated based on thermal imaging cover an industrial area. The thermal camera has 640×480 Uncooled Focal Plane Array (UFPA) sensor, equipped with a 25 mm lens which mounted in the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The obtained results show the comparable accuracy of 3D model generated based on thermal images with respect to DSM generated from visible images, however thermal based DSM is somehow smoother with lower level of texture. Comparing the generated DSM with the 9 measured GCPs in the area shows the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) value is smaller than 5 decimetres in both X and Y directions and 1.6 meters for the Z direction.

  18. BOREAS Level-0 C-130 Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominguez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), C-130 and other aerial photography was collected to provide finely detailed and spatially extensive documentation of the condition of the primary study sites. The NASA C-130 Earth Resources aircraft can accommodate two mapping cameras during flight, each of which can be fitted with 6- or 12-inch focal-length lenses and black-and-white, natural-color, or color-IR film, depending upon requirements. Both cameras were often in operation simultaneously, although sometimes only the lower resolution camera was deployed. When both cameras were in operation, the higher resolution camera was often used in a more limited fashion. The acquired photography covers the period of April to September 1994. The aerial photography was delivered as rolls of large format (9 x 9 inch) color transparency prints, with imagery from multiple missions (hundreds of prints) often contained within a single roll. A total of 1533 frames were collected from the C-130 platform for BOREAS in 1994. Note that the level-0 C-130 transparencies are not contained on the BOREAS CD-ROM set. An inventory file is supplied on the CD-ROM to inform users of all the data that were collected. Some photographic prints were made from the transparencies. In addition, BORIS staff digitized a subset of the tranparencies and stored the images in JPEG format. The CD-ROM set contains a small subset of the collected aerial photography that were the digitally scanned and stored as JPEG files for most tower and auxiliary sites in the NSA and SSA. See Section 15 for information about how to acquire additional imagery.

  19. Photogrammetric mapping using unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graça, N.; Mitishita, E.; Gonçalves, J.

    2014-11-01

    Nowadays Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology has attracted attention for aerial photogrammetric mapping. The low cost and the feasibility to automatic flight along commanded waypoints can be considered as the main advantages of this technology in photogrammetric applications. Using GNSS/INS technologies the images are taken at the planned position of the exposure station and the exterior orientation parameters (position Xo, Yo, Zo and attitude ω, φ, χ) of images can be direct determined. However, common UAVs (off-the-shelf) do not replace the traditional aircraft platform. Overall, the main shortcomings are related to: difficulties to obtain the authorization to perform the flight in urban and rural areas, platform stability, safety flight, stability of the image block configuration, high number of the images and inaccuracies of the direct determination of the exterior orientation parameters of the images. In this paper are shown the obtained results from the project photogrammetric mapping using aerial images from the SIMEPAR UAV system. The PIPER J3 UAV Hydro aircraft was used. It has a micro pilot MP2128g. The system is fully integrated with 3-axis gyros/accelerometers, GPS, pressure altimeter, pressure airspeed sensors. A Sony Cyber-shot DSC-W300 was calibrated and used to get the image block. The flight height was close to 400 m, resulting GSD near to 0.10 m. The state of the art of the used technology, methodologies and the obtained results are shown and discussed. Finally advantages/shortcomings found in the study and main conclusions are presented

  20. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  1. NURE aerial gamma-ray and magnetic-reconnaissance survey portions of New Mexico, Arizona, and Texas. Volume I. Instrumentation and data reduction. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program, a rotary-wing high sensitivity radiometric and magnetic survey was flown covering portions of the State of New Mexico, Arizona and Texas. The survey encompassed six 1:250,000 scale quadrangles, Holbrook, El Paso, Las Cruces, Carlsbad, Fort Sumner and Roswell. The survey was flown with a Sikorsky S58T helicopter equipped with a high sensitivity gamma ray spectrometer which was calibrated at the DOE calibration facilities at Walker Field in Grand Junction, Colorado, and the Dynamic Test Range at Lake Mead, Arizona. The radiometric data were processed to compensate for Compton scattering effects and altitude variations. The data were normalized to 400 feet terrain clearance. The reduced data is presented in the form of stacked profiles, standard deviation anomaly plots, histogram plots and microfiche listings. The results of the geologic interpretation of the radiometric data together with the profiles, anomaly maps and histograms are presented in the individual quadrangle reports. The survey was awarded to LKB Resources, Inc. which completed the data acquisition. In April, 1980 Carson Helicopters, Inc. and Carson Geoscience Company agreed to manage the project and complete delivery of this final report.

  2. Use of aerial photos and field reconnaissance to predict groundwater flow of a karst area in the Inner Bluegrass Region of Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Gremos, K.; Sendlein, L.V.A. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    Significant areas of the continental US (Kentucky included) are underlain by karstified limestone. In many of these areas agriculture is a leading business and a potential non-point source of pollution to the groundwater. A study is underway to assess the Best Management Practices (BMP) on a farm in north-central Woodford County in Kentucky. As part of the study, various computer-based decision models for integrated farm operation will be assessed. Because surface area and run off are integral parts of all of these models, diversion of surface run off through karst features such as sinkholes will modify predictions from these models. This study utilizes areal photographs to identify all sinkholes on the property and characterize their morphometric parameters such as length, width, depth, and area and distribution. Sink hole areas represent approximately 10 percent of the area and all but a few discharge within the basin monitored as part of the model. The bedrock geology and fractures of the area have been defined using fracture trace analysis and a rectified drainage linear analysis. Surface drainage patterns, spring distribution, and stream and spring discharge data have been collected. Dye tracing has identified groundwater basins whose catchment area is outside the boundaries of the study site.

  3. Aerial views of the San Andreas Fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, M.

    1988-01-01

    These aerial photographs of the San Andreas fault were taken in 1965 by Robert E. Wallace of the U.S Geological Survey. The pictures were taken with a Rolliflex camera on 20 format black and white flim; Wallace was aboard a light, fixed-wing aircraft, flying mostly at low altitudes. He photographed the fault from San Francisco near its north end where it enters by the Salton Sea. These images represent only a sampling of the more than 300 images prodcued during this project. All the photographs reside in the U.S Geological Survey Library in Menlo Park, California. 

  4. Aerial view of Runway 33 at SLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This aerial view shows the approach on Runway 33 at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility. The runway is 15,000 feet long, with 1,000-foot paved overruns at each end; 300 feet wide (about length of football field), with 50-foot asphalt shoulders each side; 16 inches thick in the center, and 15 inches thick on sides. It has a slope of 24 inches from the center line to the edge for drainage. The single landing strip is considered two runways, depending on approach -- Runway 15 from northwest, Runway 33 from southeast.

  5. Aerial view of the Press Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In this aerial view, The News Center sits beyond a large parking lot, on a hill at the northeastern end of the Launch Complex 39 Area , next to the turn basin (at left). From left, the grandstand faces the launch pads several miles away on the Atlantic seashore; behind it, the television studio is the site of media conferences; next, the large white-roofed building is the hub of information and activity for press representatives. Lined up on the right of the Press Site are various buildings and trailers, home to major news networks. The parking lot can accommodate the hundreds of media personnel who attend Space Shuttle launches.

  6. Delivery of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Sullivan, Donald V.

    2011-01-01

    To support much of NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Program science, NASA has acquired two Global Hawk Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Two major missions are currently planned using the Global Hawk: the Global Hawk Pacific (GloPac) and the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) missions. This paper briefly describes GloPac and GRIP, the concept of operations and the resulting requirements and communication architectures. Also discussed are requirements for future missions that may use satellite systems and networks owned and operated by third parties.

  7. Vision-Based SLAM System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Munguía, Rodrigo; Urzua, Sarquis; Bolea, Yolanda; Grau, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    The present paper describes a vision-based simultaneous localization and mapping system to be applied to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The main contribution of this work is to propose a novel estimator relying on an Extended Kalman Filter. The estimator is designed in order to fuse the measurements obtained from: (i) an orientation sensor (AHRS); (ii) a position sensor (GPS); and (iii) a monocular camera. The estimated state consists of the full state of the vehicle: position and orientation and their first derivatives, as well as the location of the landmarks observed by the camera. The position sensor will be used only during the initialization period in order to recover the metric scale of the world. Afterwards, the estimated map of landmarks will be used to perform a fully vision-based navigation when the position sensor is not available. Experimental results obtained with simulations and real data show the benefits of the inclusion of camera measurements into the system. In this sense the estimation of the trajectory of the vehicle is considerably improved, compared with the estimates obtained using only the measurements from the position sensor, which are commonly low-rated and highly noisy. PMID:26999131

  8. Meteorological and Aerosol Sensing with small Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Born, J.; Möhler, O.; Haunold, W.; Schrod, J.; Brooks, I.; Norris, S.; Brooks, B.; Hill, M.; Leisner, T.

    2012-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) facilitate the monitoring of several meteorological and aerosol parameters with high resolution in space and time. They are small, easy to operate, cost efficient and allow for flexible application during field campaigns. We present two experimental payloads for measurement of relative humidity, temperature, aerosol size distribution and the collection of aerosol samples on board the small UAS SIRIUS II. The payload modules are light weight (<1kg) and can be easily switched between two flights. All sensors can be controlled from the ground and the measured data is recorded by the autopilot together with the position data. The first module contains a sensor package for measurement of relative humidity and temperature and the Compact Lightweight Aerosol Spectrometer Prope (CLASP) for acquisition of aerosol size distributions. CLASP measures aerosol particles with diameters from 0.12μm to 9.25μm in up to 32 channels at a frequency of 10 Hz. The second module also contains a humidity and temperature sensor package and the aerosol sample collection device. The aerosol sampler collects air samples at 2 l/min onto a sample holder. After the flight the ice nuclei on the sample holder are activated in the lab and counted. In August 2012 the complete setup will be used during a measurement campaign at mount "Kleiner Feldberg" close to Frankfurt. Until then we will perform test flights and additional laboratory tests.

  9. Vision-Based SLAM System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Munguía, Rodrigo; Urzua, Sarquis; Bolea, Yolanda; Grau, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    The present paper describes a vision-based simultaneous localization and mapping system to be applied to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The main contribution of this work is to propose a novel estimator relying on an Extended Kalman Filter. The estimator is designed in order to fuse the measurements obtained from: (i) an orientation sensor (AHRS); (ii) a position sensor (GPS); and (iii) a monocular camera. The estimated state consists of the full state of the vehicle: position and orientation and their first derivatives, as well as the location of the landmarks observed by the camera. The position sensor will be used only during the initialization period in order to recover the metric scale of the world. Afterwards, the estimated map of landmarks will be used to perform a fully vision-based navigation when the position sensor is not available. Experimental results obtained with simulations and real data show the benefits of the inclusion of camera measurements into the system. In this sense the estimation of the trajectory of the vehicle is considerably improved, compared with the estimates obtained using only the measurements from the position sensor, which are commonly low-rated and highly noisy. PMID:26999131

  10. Design of an integrated aerial image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Jing; Spanos, Costas J.

    2005-05-01

    The subject of this paper is a novel integrated aerial image sensor (IAIS) system suitable for integration within the surface of an autonomous test wafer. The IAIS could be used as a lithography processing monitor, affording a "wafer's eye view" of the process, and therefore facilitating advanced process control and diagnostics without integrating (and dedicating) the sensor to the processing equipment. The IAIS is composed of an aperture mask and an array of photo-detectors. In order to retrieve nanometer scale resolution of the aerial image with a practical photo-detector pixel size, we propose a design of an aperture mask involving a series of spatial phase "moving" aperture groups. We demonstrate a design example aimed at the 65nm technology node through TEMPEST simulation. The optimized, key design parameters include an aperture width in the range of 30nm, aperture thickness in the range of 70nm, and offer a spatial resolution of about 5nm, all with comfortable fabrication tolerances. Our preliminary simulation work indicates the possibility of the IAIS being applied to the immersion lithography. A bench-top far-field experiment verifies that our approach of the spatial frequency down-shift through forming large Moire patterns is feasible.

  11. Community aerial mosquito control and naled exposure.

    PubMed

    Duprey, Zandra; Rivers, Samantha; Luber, George; Becker, Alan; Blackmore, Carina; Barr, Dana; Weerasekera, Gayanga; Kieszak, Stephanie; Flanders, W Dana; Rubin, Carol

    2008-03-01

    In October 2004, the Florida Department of Health (FLDOH) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) assessed human exposure to ultra-low volume (ULV) aerial application of naled. Teams administered activity questionnaires regarding pesticide exposure and obtained baseline urine samples to quantify prespray naled metabolite levels. Following the spray event, participants were asked to collect postspray urine specimens within 12 h of the spray event and at 8-h intervals for up to 40 h. Upon completion, a postspray activity questionnaire was administered to study participants. Two hundred five (87%) participants completed the study. The urine analysis showed that although 67% of prespray urine samples had detectable levels of a naled metabolite, the majority of postspray samples were below the limit of detection (< LOD). Only at the "postspray 6" time period, which corresponds to a time greater than 5 half-lives (> 40 h) following exposure, the number of samples with detectable levels exceeded 50%. There was a significant decrease in naled metabolites from prespray to postspray (= .02), perhaps associated with a significant reduction (< or = 0.05) in some participants that may have resulted in pesticide exposure by means other than the mosquito control operations. These data suggest that aerial spraying of naled does not result in increased levels of naled in humans, provided the naled is used according to label instructions. PMID:18437813

  12. Moving Obstacle Avoidance for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yucong

    There has been a vast increase in applications of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in civilian domains. To operate in the civilian airspace, a UAV must be able to sense and avoid both static and moving obstacles for flight safety. While indoor and low-altitude environments are mainly occupied by static obstacles, risks in space of higher altitude primarily come from moving obstacles such as other aircraft or flying vehicles in the airspace. Therefore, the ability to avoid moving obstacles becomes a necessity for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Towards enabling a UAV to autonomously sense and avoid moving obstacles, this thesis makes the following contributions. Initially, an image-based reactive motion planner is developed for a quadrotor to avoid a fast approaching obstacle. Furthermore, A Dubin's curve based geometry method is developed as a global path planner for a fixed-wing UAV to avoid collisions with aircraft. The image-based method is unable to produce an optimal path and the geometry method uses a simplified UAV model. To compensate these two disadvantages, a series of algorithms built upon the Closed-Loop Rapid Exploratory Random Tree are developed as global path planners to generate collision avoidance paths in real time. The algorithms are validated in Software-In-the-Loop (SITL) and Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) simulations using a fixed-wing UAV model and in real flight experiments using quadrotors. It is observed that the algorithm enables a UAV to avoid moving obstacles approaching to it with different directions and speeds.

  13. Aerial survey estimates of fallow deer abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gogan, Peter J.; Gates, Natalie B.; Lubow, Bruce C.; Pettit, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Reliable estimates of the distribution and abundance of an ungulate species is essential prior to establishing and implementing a management program. We used ground surveys to determine distribution and ground and aerial surveys and individually marked deer to estimate the abundance of fallow deer (Dama dama) in north-coastal California. Fallow deer had limited distribution and heterogeneous densities. Estimated post-rut densities across 4 annual surveys ranged from a low of 1.4 (SE=0.2) deer/km2 to a high of 3.3 (se=0.5) deer/km2 in a low density stratum and from 49.0 (SE=8.3) deer/km2 to 111.6 deer/km2 in a high density stratum. Sightability was positively influenced by the presence of white color-phase deer in a group and group size, and varied between airial and ground-based observers and by density strata. Our findings underscore the utility of double-observer surveys and aerial surveys with individually marked deer, both incorporating covariates to model sightability, to estimate deer abundance.

  14. Blending zone determination for aerial orthimage mosaicking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chao-Hung; Chen, Bo-Heng; Lin, Bo-Yi; Chou, Han-Szu

    2016-09-01

    Creating a composed image from a set of aerial images is a fundamental step in orthomosaic generation. One of the processes involved in this technique is determining an optimal seamline in an overlapping region to stitch image patches seamlessly. Most previous studies have solved this optimization problem by searching for a one-pixel-wide seamline with an objective function. This strategy significantly reduced pixel mismatches on the seamline caused by geometric distortions of images but did not fully consider color discontinuity and mismatch problems that occur around the seamline, which sometimes cause mosaicking artifacts. This study proposes a blending zone determination scheme with a novel path finding algorithm to reduce the occurrence of unwanted artifacts. Instead of searching for a one-pixel-wide seamline, a blending zone, which is a k-pixel-wide seamline that passes through high-similarity pixels in the overlapping region, is determined using a hierarchical structure. This strategy allows for not only seamless stitching but also smooth color blending of neighboring image patches. Moreover, the proposed method searches for a blending zone without the pre-process of highly mismatched pixel removal and additional geographic data of road vectors and digital surface/elevation models, which increases the usability of the approach. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of aerial images demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method to related methods in terms of avoidance of passing highly mismatched pixels.

  15. An algorithm for approximate rectification of digital aerial images

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-resolution aerial photography is one of the most valuable tools available for managing extensive landscapes. With recent advances in digital camera technology, computer hardware, and software, aerial photography is easier to collect, store, and transfer than ever before. Images can be automa...

  16. Monitoring and Assuring the Quality of Digital Aerial Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christopherson, Jon

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation explains the USGS plan for monitoring and assuring the quality of digital aerial data. The contents include: 1) History of USGS Aerial Imaging Involvement; 2) USGS Research and Results; 3) Outline of USGS Quality Assurance Plan; 4) Other areas of Interest; and 5) Summary

  17. Aerial radiological survey of Area 11, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    1983-06-01

    An aerial radiological survey of Area 11's Plutonium Valley was conducted at the Nevada Test Site from 18 to 30 January 1982. Contour maps representing terrestrial exposure rates and soil concentrations of transuranics, /sup 235/U and /sup 137/Cs are presented on an aerial photograph. Inventories of the locale's transuranic and uranium activities are also included.

  18. Kite Aerial Photography (KAP) as a Tool for Field Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    Kite aerial photography (KAP) is proposed as a creative tool for geography field teaching and as a medium to approach the complexity of readily available geodata. The method can be integrated as field experiment, surveying technique or group activity. The acquired aerial images can instantaneously be integrated in geographic information systems…

  19. AERIAL OF VISITORS INFORMATION CENTER [VIC] & ROCKET GARDEN EXHIBIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    AERIAL OF VISITORS INFORMATION CENTER [VIC] & ROCKET GARDEN EXHIBIT KSC-375C-0604.12 116-KSC-375C-604.12, P-20220, ARCHIVE-04465 Aerial view of Kennedy Space Center Visitors Information Center looking east-northeastward. New food services building under construction is visible at upper left.

  20. The remote characterization of vegetation using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle photography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can fly in place of piloted aircraft to gather remote sensing information on vegetation characteristics. The type of sensors flown depends on the instrument payload capacity available, so that, depending on the specific UAV, it is possible to obtain video, aerial phot...

  1. 12. Photocopy of photograph (original negative located at Aerial Mapping ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopy of photograph (original negative located at Aerial Mapping Company, Phoenix, Arizona, Negative No. 90046) Photographer unknown, March 28, 1990. DIMENSION-CONTROLLED AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHIC MAP. - Yuma Main Street Water Treatment Plant, Jones Street at foot of Main Street, Yuma, Yuma County, AZ

  2. 11. Photographic copy of aerial photograph dated ca. 1954; Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photographic copy of aerial photograph dated ca. 1954; Photographer unknown; Original owned by Waterloo Courier, Waterloo, Iowa; AERIAL VIEW OF RATH COMPLEX, LOOKING WEST; BEEF KILLING BUILDING (149 AND LIVESTOCK HOLDING AREAS ARE AT LEFT CENTER; FERTILIZER PLANT/STORAGE BUILDINGS ARE AT BOTTOM OF PHOTO - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  3. 12. Photographic copy of aerial photograph dated October 1988; Photographed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photographic copy of aerial photograph dated October 1988; Photographed by Aerial Services, Incorporated, Waterloo, Iowa; THE RATH COMPLEX FROM DIRECTLY OVERHEAD; THE PACKING PLANT BUILDINGS OCCUPY UPPER RIGHT QUADRANT OF PHOTO; 18TH STREET BRIDGE AT CENTER - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  4. DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM CABLE COUNTERWEIGHT SYSTEM, LOOKING DOWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM CABLE COUNTERWEIGHT SYSTEM, LOOKING DOWN THROUGH THE LOWER TERMINAL FLOOR. TWO SUSPENDED ROCK FILLED WOODEN BOXES CAN BE SEEN AT BOTTOM. THE METAL FRAMEWORK WAS INSTALLED BY THE PARK SERVICE DURING THE AERIAL TRAM'S STABILIZATION IN THE 1983. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  5. Defocus compensation system of long focal aerial camera based on auto-collimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu-ye; Zhao, Yu-liang; Xu, Zhao-lin

    2010-10-01

    Nowadays, novel aerial reconnaissance camera emphasizes on the shooting performance in high altitude or in long distance of oblique photography. In order to obtain the larger scale pictures which are easier for image interpretation, we need the camera has long focal length. But long focal length camera is easier to be influenced by environmental condition and lead to great change of lens' back focus which can result in the lens' resolution decreased greatly. So, we should do precise defocusing compensation to long focal aerial camera system. In order to realize defocusing compensation, a defocusing compensation system based on autocollimation is designed. Firstly, the reason which can lead to long focal camera's defocusing was discussed, then the factors such as changes of atmospheric pressure and temperature and oblique photographic distance were pointed out, and mathematical equation which could compute camera's defocusing amount was presented. Secondly, after camera's defocusing was analyzed, electro-optical autocollimation of higher automation and intelligent was adopted in the system. Before shooting , focal surface was located by electro-optical autocollimation focal detection mechanism, the data of airplane's height was imported through electronic control system. Defocusing amount was corrected by computing defocusing amount and the signal was send to focusing control motor. And an efficient improved mountain climb-searching algorithm was adopted for focal surface locating in the correction process. When confirming the direction of curve, the improved algorithm considered both twice focusing results and four points. If four points continue raised, the curve would be confirmed as rising direction. On the other hand, if four points continue decreased, the curve would be confirmed as decrease direction. In this way, we could avoid the local peak value appeared in two focusing steps. The defocusing compensation system consists of optical component and precise

  6. Calculation and uses of the lithographic aerial image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flagello, Donis G.; Smith, Daniel G.

    2012-09-01

    Beginning with the seminal Dill papers of 1975, the aerial image has been essential for understanding the process of microlithography. From the aerial image, we can predict the performance of a given lithographic process in terms of depth of focus, exposure latitude, etc. As lithographic technologies improved, reaching smaller and smaller printed features, the sophistication of aerial image calculations has had to increase from simple incoherent imaging theory, to partial coherence, polarization effects, thin film effects at the resist, thick mask effects, and so on. This tutorial provides an overview and semihistorical development of the aerial image calculation and then provides a review of some of the various ways in which the aerial image is typically used to estimate the performance of the lithographic process.

  7. LiPo battery energy studies for improved flight performance of unmanned aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, K.; Rammos, P.; Wilkerson, S. A.; Bundy, M.; Gadsden, S. Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Energy storage is one of the most important determinants of how long and far a small electric powered unmanned aerial system (UAS) can fly. For years, most hobby and experimentalists used heavy fuels to power small drone-like systems. Electric motors and battery storage prior to the turn of the century were either too heavy or too inefficient for flight times of any usable duration. However, with the availability of brushless electric motors and lithium-based batteries everything has changed. Systems like the Dragon Eye, Pointer, and Raven are in service performing reconnaissance, intelligence, surveillance, and target acquisition (RISTA) for more than an hour at a time. More recently, multi-rotor vehicles have expanded small UAS capabilities to include activities with hovering and persistent surveillance. Moreover, these systems coupled with the surge of small, low-cost electronics can perform autonomous and semi-autonomous missions not possible just ten years ago. This paper addresses flight time limitation issues by proposing an experimental method with procedures for system identification that may lead to modeling of energy storage in electric UAS'. Consequently, this will allow for energy storage to be used more effectively in planning autonomous missions. To achieve this, a set of baseline experiments were designed to measure the energy consumption of a mid-size UAS multi-rotor. Several different flight maneuvers were considered to include different lateral velocities, climbing, and hovering. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to create baseline flight data for each maneuver to be characterized with a certain rate of energy usage. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and robustness of the proposed approach. Future work will include the development of mission planning algorithms that provide realistic estimates of possible mission flight times and distances given specific mission parameters.

  8. Science and Reconnaissance from the Europa Clipper Mission Concept: Exploring Europa's Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, Robert; Senske, David; Prockter, Louise; Paczkowski, Brian; Vance, Steve; Goldstein, Barry; Magner, Thomas; Cooke, Brian

    2015-04-01

    capability to perform reconnais-sance for a future lander. In consultation with NASA Headquarters, the SDT developed a reconnaissance goal: Characterize Scientifically Compelling Sites, and Hazards, for a Potential Future Landed Mission to Europa. This leads to two reconnaissance objectives: Site Safety: Assess the distribution of surface hazards, the load-bearing capacity of the surface, the structure of the subsurface, and the regolith thickness; and Sci-ence Value: Assess the composition of surface materi-als, the geologic context of the surface, the potential for geological activity, the proximity of near surface water, and the potential for active upwelling of ocean material. The Europa Clipper mission concept provides an efficient means to explore Europa and investigate its habitability through understanding the satellite's ice shell and ocean, composition, and geology. It also provides for surface reconnaissance for potential future landed exploration of Europa. Development of the Eu-ropa Clipper mission concept is ongoing, with current studies focusing on spacecraft design trades and re-finements, launch vehicle options (EELV and SLS), and power source (MMRTG and solar), to name a few. We will provide an update on status of the science and reconnaissance effort, as well as the results of trade studies as relevant to the science and reconnaissance potential of the mission concept.

  9. Observing snow cover using unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spallek, Waldemar; Witek, Matylda; Niedzielski, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    Snow cover is a key environmental variable that influences high flow events driven by snow-melt episodes. Estimates of snow extent (SE), snow depth (SD) and snow water equivalent (SWE) allow to approximate runoff caused by snow-melt episodes. These variables are purely spatial characteristics, and hence their pointwise measurements using terrestrial monitoring systems do not offer the comprehensive and fully-spatial information on water storage in snow. Existing satellite observations of snow reveal moderate spatial resolution which, not uncommonly, is not fine enough to estimate the above-mentioned snow-related variables for small catchments. High-resolution aerial photographs and the resulting orthophotomaps and digital surface models (DSMs), obtained using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), may offer spatial resolution of 3 cm/px. The UAV-based observation of snow cover may be done using the near-infrared (NIR) cameras and visible-light cameras. Since the beginning of 2015, in frame of the research project no. LIDER/012/223/L-5/13/NCBR/2014 financed by the National Centre for Research and Development of Poland, we have performed a series of the UAV flights targeted at four sites in the Kwisa catchment in the Izerskie Mts. (part of the Sudetes, SW Poland). Observations are carried out with the ultralight UAV swinglet CAM (produced by senseFly, lightweight 0.5 kg, wingspan 80 cm) which enables on-demand sampling at low costs. The aim of the field work is to acquire aerial photographs taken using the visible-light and NIR cameras for a purpose of producing time series of DSMs and orthophotomaps with snow cover for all sites. The DSMs are used to calculate SD as difference between observational (with snow) and reference (without snow) models. In order to verify such an approach to compute SD we apply several procedures, one of which is the estimation of SE using the corresponding orthophotomaps generated on a basis of visual-light and NIR images. The objective of this

  10. Interpolation of Reconnaissance Multibeam Bathymetry From North-Central Long Island Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, L. J.; Ackerman, S. D.; Doran, E. F.; Beaver, A. J.; Crocker, J. M.; Schattgen, T.

    2006-12-01

    The USGS, in cooperation with NOAA and the CT-DEP, is producing detailed maps of the sea floor in Long Island Sound. As part of the current phase of this cooperative research program, which is directed toward studies of sea-floor topography and its effect on the distributions of sedimentary environments and benthic habitats, we interpolated and regridded the reconnaissance multibeam echosounder (MBES) data from three Basic Hydrographic Surveys into complete-coverage data sets and images of the Sound's sea floor. Within the context of sea-floor mapping, the word "reconnaissance" typically refers to geophysical surveys with ship- track spacing too great to acquire 100% coverage of the seabed. Although this approach resulted in original multibeam bathymetric data sets that had narrow stripes of no data between the ship's tracks, it met the hydrographic standards of accuracy and was acceptable for charting applications because 100% acoustic coverage was achieved with concurrently collected sidescan sonar. The original reconnaissance grids for surveys H11043, H11044, and H11045 had resolutions of 1 m, 1.5 m, and 5 m, respectively; areas of no data within these surveys comprised approximately 30%, 10%, and 45%, respectively. After interpolation, the data from survey H11043 was regridded to 2 m; surveys H11044 and H11045 were both regridded to 5 m. The interpolated bathymetric data sets, covering approximately 524 km2, provide a more-continuous perspective of the sea floor that helps define topographic variability, a primary control of benthic habitat diversity, and improve our understanding of oceanographic processes controlling the distribution of sediments and benthic habitats. Inasmuch as precise information on environmental setting is important for selecting sampling sites and accurately interpreting point measurements, these data sets can also serve as base maps for subsequent sedimentological, geochemical, and biological research.

  11. Site Reconnaissance for the EarthScope/USArray Transportable Seismic Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, B.; Anderson, P.; Bauer, J.; Bernard, M.; Meyers, M.; Moore, M.; Potter, S.; Rios, C.; Trehu, A.; Zennaro, B.; Busby, R.; Helbock, S.; Lippert, D.; Mecurio, M.; Ruckdeschel, M.

    2005-12-01

    Identification and permitting of sites for seismic stations of EarthScope's USArray Transportable Seismic Array is a very ambitious undertaking. Initial site reconnaissance requires skills to integrate information from a variety of geographic databases as well as an understanding of the regional geology and tectonics and of the objectives of the EarthScope and USArray programs. It thus provides rich opportunities for students in earth sciences and geography to apply and enhance their knowledge. During summer, 2005, Oregon State University participated in site reconnaissance for USArray in Oregon and southern Washington as part of a USArray-sponsored internship program. The program began with a 3-day workshop attended by authors of this presentation. The workshop included lectures about the scientific objectives of EarthScope, training on procedures to identify sites that meet the requirements of USArray, and a field trip to find a few local sites. Prior to going into the field, GIS tools using databases assembled by OSU, IAGT and IRIS were used to identify locations that met as many requirements as possible: 1) appropriate topography and geology, 2) adequate distance from cultural noise sources, 3) private ownership, and 4) digital cell phone coverage. Lab work was followed by field visits to make contact with landowners and identify specific sites. In rural areas, University extension agents provided a valuable introduction to the local community. The "products" of this project were formal "Reconnaissance Reports" that included contact information, special site considerations and detailed instructions for finding the sites. Site locations were finalized by professional USArray staff. This has proven to be an efficient and cost-effective way to locate a large number of sites while simultaneously providing an exciting practical training opportunity for students, involving a variety of units throughout the university system, and transmitting the excitement of USArray

  12. Initial results from a reconnaissance of cyanobacteria and associated toxins in Illinois, August--October 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Terrio, Paul J.; Ostrodka, Lenna M.; Loftin, Keith A.; Good, Gregg; Holland, Teri

    2013-01-01

    Ten lakes and two rivers in Illinois were sampled in August–October 2012 to determine the concentrations and spatial distribution of cyanobacteria and associated cyanotoxins throughout the State. The reconnaissance was a collaborative effort of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. Sample results indicated that concentrations of both total cyanobacterial cells and microcystin were commonly at levels likely to result in adverse human health effects, according to World Health Organization guidance values. Concentrations generally decreased from August to October following precipitation events and lower temperatures.

  13. Reconnaissance of the water resources of the Lonesome Valley area, Yavapai County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metzger, Donald G.

    1957-01-01

    In accordance with a request from its cooperating agency, the Arizona State Land Department, the U.S. Geological Survey has made a brief reconnaissance of the water resources of the Lonesome Valley area, Yavapai County, Ariz., to determine the probable hydrologic effects of a proposed dam on Lynx Creek. The construction of this dam has been proposed by the Arizona Game and Fish Department, for recreational and fish-cultural purposes. Data on the geology of the area were furnished by Mrs. Medora M. Krieger, geologist, Geologic Division, U.S. Geological Survey, and the map was prepared by Floyd R. Twenter, geologist, Ground Water Branch.

  14. Thermal Modeling of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Solar Panel and Instruments during Aerobraking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dec, John A.; Gasbarre, Joseph F.; Amundsen, Ruth M.

    2007-01-01

    The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) launched on August 12, 2005 and started aerobraking at Mars in March 2006. During the spacecraft s design phase, thermal models of the solar panels and instruments were developed to determine which components would be the most limiting thermally during aerobraking. Having determined the most limiting components, thermal limits in terms of heat rate were established. Advanced thermal modeling techniques were developed utilizing Thermal Desktop and Patran Thermal. Heat transfer coefficients were calculated using a Direct Simulation Monte Carlo technique. Analysis established that the solar panels were the most limiting components during the aerobraking phase of the mission.

  15. Reconnaissance for uranium-bearing carbonaceous rocks in California and adjacent parts of Oregon and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, George Winfred; Stephens, James G.

    1954-01-01

    During the summer of 1952 a reconnaissance was conducted in California and parts of Oregon and Nevada in search of new deposits of uranium-bearing carbonaceous rocks. The principal localities found in California where uranium occurs in coal are listed here with. the uranium content of the coal: Newhall prospect, Los Angeles County, 0.020 percent; Fireflex mine, San Benito County, 0.005 percent; American licyaite mine, Amador County, 0.004 percent; and Tesla prospect, Alameda County, 0.003 percent. An oil-saturated sandstone near Edna, San Luis Obispo County, contains 0.002 percent uranium.

  16. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Navigation Strategy for Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent and Landing Telecommunication Relay Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Jessica L.; Menon, Premkumar R.; Demcak, Stuart W.

    2012-01-01

    The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) is an orbiting asset that performs remote sensing observations in order to characterize the surface, subsurface and atmosphere of Mars. To support upcoming NASA Mars Exploration Program Office objectives, MRO will be used as a relay communication link for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission during the MSL Entry, Descent and Landing sequence. To do so, MRO Navigation must synchronize the MRO Primary Science Orbit (PSO) with a set of target conditions requested by the MSL Navigation Team; this may be accomplished via propulsive maneuvers. This paper describes the MRO Navigation strategy for and operational performance of MSL EDL relay telecommunication support.

  17. Development, Qualification and Integration of the Optical Fiber Array Assemblies for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Melanie N.; Switzer, Robert; Chuska, Richard; LaRocca, Frank; Thomas, William Joe; Macmurphy, Shawn

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Fiber Optics Team in the Electrical Engineering Division of the Applied Engineering and Technology Directorate, designed, developed and integrated the space flight optical fiber array hardware for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). The two new assemblies that were designed and manufacturing at GSFC for the LRO exist in configurations that are unique in the world for the application of ranging and LIDAR. Described here is an account of the journey and the lessons learned from design to integration for the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter and the Laser Ranging Application on the LRO.

  18. Context exploitation in intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance for detection and tracking algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Jonathan D.; Stanfill, S. Robert

    2015-05-01

    Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) missions involve complex analysis of sensor data that can benefit from the exploitation of geographically aligned context. In this paper we discuss our approach to utilizing geo-registered imagery and context for the purpose of aiding ISR detection and tracking applications. Specifically this includes rendering context masks on imagery, increasing the speed at which detection algorithms process data, providing a way to intelligently control detection density for given ground areas, identifying difficult traffic terrain, refining peak suppression for congested areas, reducing target center of mass location errors, and increasing track coverage and duration through track prediction error robustness.

  19. 236. Reconnaissance report photograph, used in the early 1930's of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    236. Reconnaissance report photograph, used in the early 1930's of North Carolina landscape before determination of the roadway alignment. Stanley Abbott realized that maps and plan drawings would mean little to his supervisors who were unfamiliar with the region and chose photographs to communicate route alternatives. On the photo would be a dashed white line to indicate the proposed route. Abbott's written reports included a written description of the region and a suggestion of the acreages necessary to create the parkway, serving as an initiation to field trips with BPR engineers and interior and NPS officials. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  20. Evaluation of commercial utility of ERTS-A imagery in structural reconnaissance for minerals and petroleum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, D. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. In areas 2 and 3 (Colorado and New Mexico - Texas) continuing correlations are observed between lineaments selected from the ERTS imagery and known fault and fracture zones. There continues to be a correlation between lineament intersectional areas and known mining areas. Initial contacts with mining and/or petroleum companies regarding the use of ERTS-1 imagery as an interpreted medium for guiding reconnaissance operations seems to indicate that the technology and economics will be commercially acceptable for initial investigatory investments.

  1. Free Space Laser Communication Experiments from Earth to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter in Lunar Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Skillman, David R.; Hoffman, Evan D.; Mao, Dandan; McGarry, Jan F.; Zellar, Ronald S.; Fong, Wai H; Krainak, Michael A.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Laser communication and ranging experiments were successfully conducted from the satellite laser ranging (SLR) station at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) in lunar orbit. The experiments used 4096-ary pulse position modulation (PPM) for the laser pulses during one-way LRO Laser Ranging (LR) operations. Reed-Solomon forward error correction codes were used to correct the PPM symbol errors due to atmosphere turbulence and pointing jitter. The signal fading was measured and the results were compared to the model.

  2. Aerial monitoring and environmental protection: aerial photography as an instrument for checking landscape damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartara, Patrizia

    2009-09-01

    C.N.R. and University of Salento have realized a Geographical Information System for heritage management of the national territory (landscape) and historical urban settlements. Informations come from bibliography, archives, direct and systematic field survey, different kind of aerial photographs analysis, with the primary aim of knowledge for the establishment of an in existence Cultural Heritage Cadastre, focused to legal protection and exploitation of the sites, not last the correct territory planning.

  3. Precision wildlife monitoring using unmanned aerial vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Jarrod C.; Baylis, Shane M.; Mott, Rowan; Herrod, Ashley; Clarke, Rohan H.

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a new frontier in environmental research. Their use has the potential to revolutionise the field if they prove capable of improving data quality or the ease with which data are collected beyond traditional methods. We apply UAV technology to wildlife monitoring in tropical and polar environments and demonstrate that UAV-derived counts of colony nesting birds are an order of magnitude more precise than traditional ground counts. The increased count precision afforded by UAVs, along with their ability to survey hard-to-reach populations and places, will likely drive many wildlife monitoring projects that rely on population counts to transition from traditional methods to UAV technology. Careful consideration will be required to ensure the coherence of historic data sets with new UAV-derived data and we propose a method for determining the number of duplicated (concurrent UAV and ground counts) sampling points needed to achieve data compatibility. PMID:26986721

  4. Precision wildlife monitoring using unmanned aerial vehicles.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Jarrod C; Baylis, Shane M; Mott, Rowan; Herrod, Ashley; Clarke, Rohan H

    2016-03-17

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a new frontier in environmental research. Their use has the potential to revolutionise the field if they prove capable of improving data quality or the ease with which data are collected beyond traditional methods. We apply UAV technology to wildlife monitoring in tropical and polar environments and demonstrate that UAV-derived counts of colony nesting birds are an order of magnitude more precise than traditional ground counts. The increased count precision afforded by UAVs, along with their ability to survey hard-to-reach populations and places, will likely drive many wildlife monitoring projects that rely on population counts to transition from traditional methods to UAV technology. Careful consideration will be required to ensure the coherence of historic data sets with new UAV-derived data and we propose a method for determining the number of duplicated (concurrent UAV and ground counts) sampling points needed to achieve data compatibility.

  5. Bioinspired optical sensors for unmanned aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chahl, Javaan; Rosser, Kent; Mizutani, Akiko

    2011-04-01

    Insects are dependant on the spatial, spectral and temporal distributions of light in the environment for flight control and navigation. This paper reports on flight trials of implementations of insect inspired behaviors on unmanned aerial vehicles. Optical flow methods for maintaining a constant height above ground and a constant course have been demonstrated to provide navigation capabilities that are impossible using conventional avionics sensors. Precision control of height above ground and ground course were achieved over long distances. Other vision based techniques demonstrated include a biomimetic stabilization sensor that uses the ultraviolet and green bands of the spectrum, and a sky polarization compass. Both of these sensors were tested over long trajectories in different directions, in each case showing performance similar to low cost inertial heading and attitude systems. The behaviors demonstrate some of the core functionality found in the lower levels of the sensorimotor system of flying insects and shows promise for more integrated solutions in the future.

  6. Global aerial flyways allow efficient travelling.

    PubMed

    Kranstauber, B; Weinzierl, R; Wikelski, M; Safi, K

    2015-12-01

    Birds migrate over vast distances at substantial costs. The highly dynamic nature of the air makes the selection of the best travel route difficult. We investigated to what extent migratory birds may optimise migratory route choice with respect to wind, and if route choice can be subject to natural selection. Following the optimal route, calculated using 21 years of empirical global wind data, reduced median travel time by 26.5% compared to the spatially shortest route. When we used a time-dependent survival model to quantify the adaptive benefit of choosing a fixed wind-optimised route, 84.8% of pairs of locations yielded a route with a higher survival than the shortest route. This suggests that birds, even if incapable of predicting wind individually, could adjust their migratory routes at a population level. As a consequence, this may result in the emergence of low-cost flyways representing a global network of aerial migratory pathways.

  7. Precision wildlife monitoring using unmanned aerial vehicles.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Jarrod C; Baylis, Shane M; Mott, Rowan; Herrod, Ashley; Clarke, Rohan H

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a new frontier in environmental research. Their use has the potential to revolutionise the field if they prove capable of improving data quality or the ease with which data are collected beyond traditional methods. We apply UAV technology to wildlife monitoring in tropical and polar environments and demonstrate that UAV-derived counts of colony nesting birds are an order of magnitude more precise than traditional ground counts. The increased count precision afforded by UAVs, along with their ability to survey hard-to-reach populations and places, will likely drive many wildlife monitoring projects that rely on population counts to transition from traditional methods to UAV technology. Careful consideration will be required to ensure the coherence of historic data sets with new UAV-derived data and we propose a method for determining the number of duplicated (concurrent UAV and ground counts) sampling points needed to achieve data compatibility. PMID:26986721

  8. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design.

    PubMed

    Coppejans, Hugo H G; Myburgh, Herman C

    2015-12-02

    There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV), such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers.

  9. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design

    PubMed Central

    Coppejans, Hugo H. G.; Myburgh, Herman C.

    2015-01-01

    There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV), such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers. PMID:26633410

  10. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design.

    PubMed

    Coppejans, Hugo H G; Myburgh, Herman C

    2015-01-01

    There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV), such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers. PMID:26633410

  11. Aerial photography for sensing plant anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.; Cardenas, R.; Hart, W. G.

    1970-01-01

    Changes in the red tonal response of Kodak Ektrachrome Infrared Aero 8443 film (EIR) are often incorrectly attributed solely to variations in infrared light reflectance of plant leaves, when the primary influence is a difference in visible light reflectance induced by varying chlorophyll contents. Comparisons are made among aerial photographic images of high- and low-chlorophyll foliage. New growth, foot rot, and boron and chloride nutrient toxicites produce low-chlorophyll foliage, and EIR transparency images of light red or white compared with dark-red images of high-chlorophyll foliage. Deposits of the sooty mold fungus that subsists on the honeydew produced by brown soft scale insects, obscure the citrus leaves' green color. Infected trees appear as black images on EIR film transparencies compared with red images of healthy trees.

  12. Aerial view of Launch Complex 39

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In this aerial view looking south can be seen Launch Complex (LC) 39 area, where assembly, checkout and launch of the Space Shuttle Orbiter and its External Tank and twin Solid Rocket Boosters take place. Central to the complex is the tallest building at the center, the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). To the immediate left, from top to bottom, are the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) High Bay 3 and new engine shop (north side), OPF Modular Office Building, Thermal Protection System Facility, and a crawler-transporter (to its left). In front of the VAB are OPF 1 and OPF 2. At right is the Processing Control Center. West of OPF 3 is the Mobile Launch Platform. In the upper left corner is Launch Pad B; at the far right is the turn basin, with the Press Site located just below it to the right.

  13. Optical design of high resolution and large format CCD airborne remote sensing camera on unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Yixian; Cheng, Xiaowei; Shao, Jie

    2010-11-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle remote sensing (UAVRS) is lower in cost, flexible on task arrangement and automatic and intelligent in application, it has been used widely for mapping, surveillance, reconnaissance and city planning. Airborne remote sensing missions require sensors with both high resolution and large fields of view, large format CCD digital airborne imaging systems are now a reality. A refractive system was designed to meet the requirements with the help of code V software, It has a focal length of 150mm, F number of 5.6, waveband of 0.45~0.7um, and field of view reaches 20°. It is shown that the value of modulation transfer function is higher than 0.5 at 55lp/mm, distortion is less than 0.1%, image quality reaches the diffraction limit. The system with large format CCD and wide field can satisfy the demand of the wide ground overlay area and high resolution. The optical system with simpler structure, smaller size and lighter weight, can be used in airborne remote sensing.

  14. The payload bay in the nose of NASA's Altair unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) will be able to carry up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The payload bay in the nose of NASA's Altair unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), shown here during final construction at General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., (GA-ASI) facility at Adelanto, Calif., will be able to carry up to 700 lbs. of sensors, imaging equipment and other instruments for Earth science missions. General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., is developing the Altair version of its Predator B unmanned reconnaissance aircraft under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. NASA plans to use the Altair as a technology demonstrator to validate a variety of command and control technologies for UAVs, as well as demonstrate the capability to perform a variety of Earth science missions. The Altair is designed to carry an 700-lb. payload of scientific instruments and imaging equipment for as long as 32 hours at up to 52,000 feet altitude. Eleven-foot extensions have been added to each wing, giving the Altair an overall wingspan of 86 feet with an aspect ratio of 23. It is powered by a 700-hp. rear-mounted TPE-331-10 turboprop engine, driving a three-blade propeller. Altair is scheduled to begin flight tests in the fourth quarter of 2002, and be acquired by NASA following successful completion of basic airworthiness tests in early 2003 for evaluation of over-the-horizon control, detect, see and avoid and other technologies required to allow UAVs to operate safely with other aircraft in the national airspace.

  15. Large aerial bursts: an important class of terrestrial accretionary events.

    PubMed

    Wasson, John T

    2003-01-01

    Large aerial bursts similar to the 1908 Tunguska bolide but much larger in magnitude have surely been responsible for many catastrophic events in the history of the Earth. Because aerial bursts produce shallow (or even negligible) craters, their existence is difficult to document in the geological record. Even aerial bursts as small as Tunguska deposit enough energy to melt approximately 1mm of dry soil. Silica-rich glass formed in such melts has the potential to survive in the soil for many Ma, thus a potential indicator of large aerial bursts is glass that was formed as thick regions within silicate melt sheets. The layered tektites from Southeast Asia and the Libyan desert glass may have formed by a combination of sedimentation and downslope flow of silicate melt heated by radiation from large aerial bursts. The alternative, formation of layered tektites as crater ejecta, cannot account for observations such as uniformly high 10Be contents, the orientation of the magnetic remanence field, and the absence of splash-form (e.g., teardrop or dumbbell) tektites in regions where layered tektites are common. The largest asteroids or comets make craters no matter what their strength. Recent reviews suggest that, for events in the energy range up to 10(19)-10(20) J (about two orders of magnitude larger than the Meteor Crater impact), aerial bursts are more likely than cratering events, and the layered tektites of Southeast Asia imply the existence of aerial bursts one to two orders of magnitude larger still. PMID:12809134

  16. Large Aerial Bursts: An Important Class of Terrestrial Accretionary Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasson, John T.

    2003-01-01

    Large aerial bursts similar to the 1908 Tunguska bolide but much larger in magnitude have surely been responsible for many catastrophic events in the history of the Earth. Because aerial bursts produce shallow (or even negligible) craters, their existence is difficult to document in the geological record. Even aerial bursts as small as Tunguska deposit enough energy to melt ~1mm of dry soil. Silica-rich glass formed in such melts has the potential to survive in the soil for many Ma, thus a potential indicator of large aerial bursts is glass that was formed as thick regions within silicate melt sheets. The layered tektites from Southeast Asia and the Libyan desert glass may have formed by a combination of sedimentation and downslope flow of silicate melt heated by radiation from large aerial bursts. The alternative, formation of layered tektites as crater ejecta, cannot account for observations such as uniformly high 10Be contents, the orientation of the magnetic remanence field, and the absence of splash-form (e.g., teardrop or dumbbell) tektites in regions where layered tektites are common. The largest asteroids or comets make craters no matter what their strength. Recent reviews suggest that, for events in the energy range up to 1019-1020 J (about two orders of magnitude larger than the Meteor Crater impact), aerial bursts are more likely than cratering events, and the layered tektites of Southeast Asia imply the existence of aerial bursts one to two orders of magnitude larger still.

  17. Building and road detection from large aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Shunta; Aoki, Yoshimitsu

    2015-02-01

    Building and road detection from aerial imagery has many applications in a wide range of areas including urban design, real-estate management, and disaster relief. The extracting buildings and roads from aerial imagery has been performed by human experts manually, so that it has been very costly and time-consuming process. Our goal is to develop a system for automatically detecting buildings and roads directly from aerial imagery. Many attempts at automatic aerial imagery interpretation have been proposed in remote sensing literature, but much of early works use local features to classify each pixel or segment to an object label, so that these kind of approach needs some prior knowledge on object appearance or class-conditional distribution of pixel values. Furthermore, some works also need a segmentation step as pre-processing. Therefore, we use Convolutional Neural Networks(CNN) to learn mapping from raw pixel values in aerial imagery to three object labels (buildings, roads, and others), in other words, we generate three-channel maps from raw aerial imagery input. We take a patch-based semantic segmentation approach, so we firstly divide large aerial imagery into small patches and then train the CNN with those patches and corresponding three-channel map patches. Finally, we evaluate our system on a large-scale road and building detection datasets that is publicly available.

  18. Concept options for the aerial survey of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorrington, G. E.

    2011-01-01

    Various aerial platforms intended for long endurance survey of the Titan surface are presented. A few novel concepts are introduced, including a heated methane balloon and a balloon with a tethered wind turbine. All the concept options are predicted to have lower scientific payload fractions than the Huygens probe. It is concluded that the selection of the best aerial platform option depends on more accurate mass estimates and a clear decision on whether, or not, in situ surface composition measurements are required in conjunction with aerial remote sensing.

  19. Aerial image retargeting (AIR): achieving litho-friendly designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yehia Hamouda, Ayman; Word, James; Anis, Mohab; Karim, Karim S.

    2011-04-01

    In this work, we present a new technique to detect non-Litho-Friendly design areas based on their Aerial Image signature. The aerial image is calculated for the litho target (pre-OPC). This is followed by the fixing (retargeting) the design to achieve a litho friendly OPC target. This technique is applied and tested on 28 nm metal layer and shows a big improvement in the process window performance. For an optimized Aerial-Image-Retargeting (AIR) recipe is very computationally efficient and its runtime doesn't consume more than 1% of the OPC flow runtime.

  20. Reconnaissance for radioactivity in the Gold Hill mining area, Boulder county, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, R.H.

    1955-01-01

    Several radioactive deposits were found as a result of reconnaissance in the Gold Hill mining area, Boulder County, Colo. The ore deposits of the area have been worked chiefly for gold. All ore shipped has come from fissure veins, mist of which are gold telluride veins. There are, however, some important sulfide veins which show a vague zonal distribution of pyritic gold ores and silver-lead ores. The results of this reconnaissance suggest a possible relationship of the radioactive deposits to this indistinct sulfide zoning; however, the zoning is so obscure that its practical application to prospecting for uranium is of doubtful value at the present time. Pitchblende, tobernite, metatrobernite, and schroeckingerite have been identified in specimens from the area; however, no uranium minerals have yet been identified from most of the radioactive deposits, and the uraniferous material present is probably in disseminated small particles. Although selected sampled from several localities assay 0.10 percent uranium or more, the known deposits are small and probably are not of immediate economic importance.

  1. Airborne and ground reconnaissance of part of the syenite complex near Wausau, Marathon county, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vickers, R.C.

    1955-01-01

    Airborne and ground reconnaissance for radioactive minerals in part of the syenite complex near Wausau, Marathon county, Wis., found 12 radioactive mineral localities. The rocks in the area are of Precambrian age and consist of syenite and nepheline syenite, which have intruded older granite, greenstone, quartzite, and argillite. There are very few outcrops, and much of the bedrock is deeply weathered and covered by residual soil. Thorium-bearing zircon pegatite float was found within the area of syenite and nepheline syenite at four localities. Reddish-brown euhedral to subeuhedral crystals of well-zoned zircon (variety cyrtolite) comprise more than 40 percent of some of the specimens. The radioactive mineral at four localities outside the area of syneites was identified as thorogummite, which occurred in nodular masses in residual soil. Alinement of the thorogummite float and associated radioactivity suggests that the thorogummite has resulted from weathering of narrow veins or pegmatites containing thorium-bearing minerals. Unidentified thorium-bearing minerals were found at three localities, and a specimen of allanite weighing about 2 pounds was found at one locality. Shallow trenches at two of the largest radioactivity anomalies showed that the radioactive material extended down into weathered bedrock. The occurrences might warrant additional physical exploration should there be sufficient demand for thorium. Further reconnaissance in the area would probably result in the discovery of additional occurrences.

  2. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer Observations of Water Vapor and Carbon Monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michael D.; Wolff, Michael J.; Clancy, R. Todd; Murchie, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft began taking observations in September 2006 and has now collected more than a full Martian year of data. Retrievals performed using the near-infrared spectra obtained by CRISM are used to characterize the seasonal and spatial variation of the column abundance of water vapor and the column-averaged mixing ratio of carbon monoxide. CRISM retrievals show nominal behavior in water vapor during northern hemisphere spring and summer with maximum abundance reaching 50 precipitable micrometers. Water vapor abundance during the southern hemisphere spring and summer appears significantly reduced compared to observations by other instruments taken during previous years. The CRISM retrievals show the seasonally and globally averaged carbon monoxide mixing ratio to be 700 ppm, but with strong seasonal variations at high latitudes. The summertime near-polar carbon monoxide mixing ratio falls to 200 ppm in the south and 400 ppm in the north as carbon dioxide sublimates from the seasonal polar ice caps and dilutes noncondensable species including carbon monoxide. At low latitudes, the carbon monoxide mixing ratio varies in response to the mean seasonal cycle of surface pressure.

  3. Geometric Calibration of the Clementine UVVIS Camera Using Images Acquired by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speyerer, E. J.; Wagner, R. V.; Robinson, M. S.

    2016-06-01

    The Clementine UVVIS camera returned over half a million images while in orbit around the Moon in 1994. Since the Clementine mission, our knowledge of lunar topography, gravity, and the location of features on the surface has vastly improved with the success of the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission and ongoing Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission. In particular, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) has returned over a million images of the Moon since entering orbit in 2009. With the aid of improved ephemeris and on-orbit calibration, the LROC team created a series of precise and accurate global maps. With the updated reference frame, older lunar maps, such as those generated from Clementine UVVIS images, are misaligned making cross-mission analysis difficult. In this study, we use feature-based matching routines to refine and recalibrate the interior and exterior orientation parameters of the Clementine UVVIS camera. After applying these updates and rigorous orthorectification, we are able generate precise and accurate maps from UVVIS images to help support lunar science and future cross-mission investigations.

  4. Inflight Calibration of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera Wide Angle Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahanti, P.; Humm, D. C.; Robinson, M. S.; Boyd, A. K.; Stelling, R.; Sato, H.; Denevi, B. W.; Braden, S. E.; Bowman-Cisneros, E.; Brylow, S. M.; Tschimmel, M.

    2016-04-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) has acquired more than 250,000 images of the illuminated lunar surface and over 190,000 observations of space and non-illuminated Moon since 1 January 2010. These images, along with images from the Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) and other Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter instrument datasets are enabling new discoveries about the morphology, composition, and geologic/geochemical evolution of the Moon. Characterizing the inflight WAC system performance is crucial to scientific and exploration results. Pre-launch calibration of the WAC provided a baseline characterization that was critical for early targeting and analysis. Here we present an analysis of WAC performance from the inflight data. In the course of our analysis we compare and contrast with the pre-launch performance wherever possible and quantify the uncertainty related to various components of the calibration process. We document the absolute and relative radiometric calibration, point spread function, and scattered light sources and provide estimates of sources of uncertainty for spectral reflectance measurements of the Moon across a range of imaging conditions.

  5. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle to Estimate Nitrogen Status of Turfgrasses

    PubMed Central

    Corniglia, Matteo; Gaetani, Monica; Grossi, Nicola; Magni, Simone; Migliazzi, Mauro; Angelini, Luciana; Mazzoncini, Marco; Silvestri, Nicola; Fontanelli, Marco; Raffaelli, Michele; Peruzzi, Andrea; Volterrani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Spectral reflectance data originating from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) imagery is a valuable tool to monitor plant nutrition, reduce nitrogen (N) application to real needs, thus producing both economic and environmental benefits. The objectives of the trial were i) to compare the spectral reflectance of 3 turfgrasses acquired via UAV and by a ground-based instrument; ii) to test the sensitivity of the 2 data acquisition sources in detecting induced variation in N levels. N application gradients from 0 to 250 kg ha-1 were created on 3 different turfgrass species: Cynodon dactylon x transvaalensis (Cdxt) ‘Patriot’, Zoysia matrella (Zm) ‘Zeon’ and Paspalum vaginatum (Pv) ‘Salam’. Proximity and remote-sensed reflectance measurements were acquired using a GreenSeeker handheld crop sensor and a UAV with onboard a multispectral sensor, to determine Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Proximity-sensed NDVI is highly correlated with data acquired from UAV with r values ranging from 0.83 (Zm) to 0.97 (Cdxt). Relating NDVI-UAV with clippings N, the highest r is for Cdxt (0.95). The most reactive species to N fertilization is Cdxt with a clippings N% ranging from 1.2% to 4.1%. UAV imagery can adequately assess the N status of turfgrasses and its spatial variability within a species, so for large areas, such as golf courses, sod farms or race courses, UAV acquired data can optimize turf management. For relatively small green areas, a hand-held crop sensor can be a less expensive and more practical option. PMID:27341674

  6. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle to Estimate Nitrogen Status of Turfgrasses.

    PubMed

    Caturegli, Lisa; Corniglia, Matteo; Gaetani, Monica; Grossi, Nicola; Magni, Simone; Migliazzi, Mauro; Angelini, Luciana; Mazzoncini, Marco; Silvestri, Nicola; Fontanelli, Marco; Raffaelli, Michele; Peruzzi, Andrea; Volterrani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Spectral reflectance data originating from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) imagery is a valuable tool to monitor plant nutrition, reduce nitrogen (N) application to real needs, thus producing both economic and environmental benefits. The objectives of the trial were i) to compare the spectral reflectance of 3 turfgrasses acquired via UAV and by a ground-based instrument; ii) to test the sensitivity of the 2 data acquisition sources in detecting induced variation in N levels. N application gradients from 0 to 250 kg ha-1 were created on 3 different turfgrass species: Cynodon dactylon x transvaalensis (Cdxt) 'Patriot', Zoysia matrella (Zm) 'Zeon' and Paspalum vaginatum (Pv) 'Salam'. Proximity and remote-sensed reflectance measurements were acquired using a GreenSeeker handheld crop sensor and a UAV with onboard a multispectral sensor, to determine Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Proximity-sensed NDVI is highly correlated with data acquired from UAV with r values ranging from 0.83 (Zm) to 0.97 (Cdxt). Relating NDVI-UAV with clippings N, the highest r is for Cdxt (0.95). The most reactive species to N fertilization is Cdxt with a clippings N% ranging from 1.2% to 4.1%. UAV imagery can adequately assess the N status of turfgrasses and its spatial variability within a species, so for large areas, such as golf courses, sod farms or race courses, UAV acquired data can optimize turf management. For relatively small green areas, a hand-held crop sensor can be a less expensive and more practical option.

  7. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle to Estimate Nitrogen Status of Turfgrasses.

    PubMed

    Caturegli, Lisa; Corniglia, Matteo; Gaetani, Monica; Grossi, Nicola; Magni, Simone; Migliazzi, Mauro; Angelini, Luciana; Mazzoncini, Marco; Silvestri, Nicola; Fontanelli, Marco; Raffaelli, Michele; Peruzzi, Andrea; Volterrani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Spectral reflectance data originating from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) imagery is a valuable tool to monitor plant nutrition, reduce nitrogen (N) application to real needs, thus producing both economic and environmental benefits. The objectives of the trial were i) to compare the spectral reflectance of 3 turfgrasses acquired via UAV and by a ground-based instrument; ii) to test the sensitivity of the 2 data acquisition sources in detecting induced variation in N levels. N application gradients from 0 to 250 kg ha-1 were created on 3 different turfgrass species: Cynodon dactylon x transvaalensis (Cdxt) 'Patriot', Zoysia matrella (Zm) 'Zeon' and Paspalum vaginatum (Pv) 'Salam'. Proximity and remote-sensed reflectance measurements were acquired using a GreenSeeker handheld crop sensor and a UAV with onboard a multispectral sensor, to determine Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Proximity-sensed NDVI is highly correlated with data acquired from UAV with r values ranging from 0.83 (Zm) to 0.97 (Cdxt). Relating NDVI-UAV with clippings N, the highest r is for Cdxt (0.95). The most reactive species to N fertilization is Cdxt with a clippings N% ranging from 1.2% to 4.1%. UAV imagery can adequately assess the N status of turfgrasses and its spatial variability within a species, so for large areas, such as golf courses, sod farms or race courses, UAV acquired data can optimize turf management. For relatively small green areas, a hand-held crop sensor can be a less expensive and more practical option. PMID:27341674

  8. A new flavonoid from the aerial part of Thalictrum atriplex.

    PubMed

    Guangyao, G; Sibao, C; Junshan, Y; Peigen, X

    2000-12-01

    A new flavone glycoside, identified as kaempferol 3-O-[3'"-acetyl-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1'"-6")]-beta-D-gluco pyranoside (1), has been isolated from the aerial part of Thalictrum atriplex. PMID:11077167

  9. 33. GENERAL HIGH ALTITUDE AERIAL VIEW OF COMPLEX AND GENERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. GENERAL HIGH ALTITUDE AERIAL VIEW OF COMPLEX AND GENERAL SETTING. October 1982 - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 15, Upper Mississipi River (Arsenal Island), Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  10. 13. GENERAL HIGH ALTITUDE AERIAL VIEW OF COMPLEX AND GENERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. GENERAL HIGH ALTITUDE AERIAL VIEW OF COMPLEX AND GENERAL SETTING. October 1982 - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 17, Upper Mississippi River, New Boston, Mercer County, IL

  11. Aerial photography summary record system - five years later.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lauterborn, T.J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the APSRS, an automated information system for conventional aerial photography projects, established after the formation of the National Cartographic Information Center in the US Geological Survey in 1974. -after Author

  12. Bureau of Aeronautics, October 16, 1943, Photograph #4875. AERIAL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bureau of Aeronautics, October 16, 1943, Photograph #4875. AERIAL OF ROOSEVELT BASE LOOKING EAST - Roosevelt Base, Bounded by Ocean Boulevard, Pennsylvania Avenue, Richardson Avenue, & Idaho Street, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. 1. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST (OLD HARVARD STREET BRIDGE AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST (OLD HARVARD STREET BRIDGE AT LEFT, NEW BRIDGE AT RIGHT) - Old Harvard Street Bridge, Spanning Rock Creek at National Zoological Park, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. 1. AERIAL VIEW OF THE PATH TRANSIT SYSTEM BRIDGE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW OF THE PATH TRANSIT SYSTEM BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE CONRAIL BRIDGE (HAER No. NJ-43) AND THE NEWARK TURNPIKE ARE VISIBLE IN THE BACKGROUND - Path Transit System Bridge, Spanning Hackensack River, Kearny, Hudson County, NJ

  15. 45. Aerial view of station in 1944, four years after ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Aerial view of station in 1944, four years after automation and before construction of the parking lot.U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) Photo - Bodie Island Light Station, Off Highway 12, Nags Head, Dare County, NC

  16. AERIAL VIEW FACING EAST. VIEW OF FABRIC BUILDING, STRUCTURAL WAREHOUSE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW FACING EAST. VIEW OF FABRIC BUILDING, STRUCTURAL WAREHOUSE, RAIL MILLS & OPEN HEARTH COMPLEX (RIGHT TO LEFT). CITY OF MONESSEN IN BACKGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  17. 2. Photocopy of aerial view of the museum, taken October ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of aerial view of the museum, taken October 26, 1966. Original photo in possession of the Philadelphia Museum of Art. - Philadelphia Museum of Art, Benjamin Franklin Parkway, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. 21. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH UP MEETING STREET FROM THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH UP MEETING STREET FROM THE INTERSECTION OF MEETING AND BROAD STREETS (FOUR CORNERS--ST. MICHAEL'S EPISCOPAL CHURCH, FIREPROOF BUILDING, COURTHOUSE, U.S. POST OFFICE). - City Plan of Charleston, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  19. 80. PHOTOCOPY OF 1976 AERIAL PHOTO OF BULLFROG MINE. From ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    80. PHOTOCOPY OF 1976 AERIAL PHOTO OF BULLFROG MINE. From National Park Service Environmental Review and Analysis, Bullfrog Mine Plan of Operations, Death Valley Nat'l Monument (24 March 1976) - Bullfrog Mine, Rhyolite, Nye County, NV

  20. 81. PHOTOCOPY OF 1978 AERIAL PHOTO OF BULLFROG MINE. From ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    81. PHOTOCOPY OF 1978 AERIAL PHOTO OF BULLFROG MINE. From National Park Service Environmental Review and Analysis, BullfroG Mine Plan of Operations, Death Valley Nat'l Monument (24 August 1978) - Bullfrog Mine, Rhyolite, Nye County, NV

  1. Photocopy of photograph. AERIAL VIEW. Original photograph taken April 1957 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph. AERIAL VIEW. Original photograph taken April 1957 by Mr. Lewis, and on file at the Edison National Historic Site, negative number 0-998 - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  2. 69. AERIAL VIEW OF EAST END OF PARKWAY, LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. AERIAL VIEW OF EAST END OF PARKWAY, LOOKING WEST TOWARD BRIDGE AND SIKORSKY HELICOPTER PLANT. - Merritt Parkway, Beginning in Greenwich & running 38 miles to Stratford, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  3. 64. AERIAL VIEW OF EAST END OF PARKWAY, LOOKING WEST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. AERIAL VIEW OF EAST END OF PARKWAY, LOOKING WEST, SIKORSKY HELICOPTER PLANT TO THE RIGHT. - Merritt Parkway, Beginning in Greenwich & running 38 miles to Stratford, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  4. 7. Historic aerial photo of rocket engine test facility complex, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic aerial photo of rocket engine test facility complex, June 1962. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA GRC photo number C-60674. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  5. 14. Photocopy of Photograph AERIAL VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, GENERAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopy of Photograph AERIAL VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, GENERAL VIEW OF COMPLEX, 16 April 1973. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  6. 13. Photocopy of Photograph AERIAL VIEW TO NORTHWEST, GENERAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of Photograph AERIAL VIEW TO NORTHWEST, GENERAL VIEW OF COMPLEX, 16 April 1973. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  7. AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING NORTH, WITH FORMER TCIUS STEEL ORE MINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING NORTH, WITH FORMER TCI-US STEEL ORE MINE HEADQUARTERS (BOTTOM) AND SUPERINTENDENT'S AND FOREMAN HOUSING ALONG MINNESOTA AVENUE AT CREST OF RED MOUNTAIN (TOP LEFT). - Muscoda Red Ore Mining Community, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  8. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST TOWARDS TCIUS STEEL, ENSLEY WORKS OPEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST TOWARDS TCI-US STEEL, ENSLEY WORKS OPEN HEARTH IN BACKGROUND. - Tennessee Coal & Iron Company, Ensley Works, West of residential & commercial districts, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  9. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH WEST, BIRMINGPORT ROAD AND DON DRENNEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH WEST, BIRMINGPORT ROAD AND DON DRENNEN OVERPASS IN FOREGROUND, TCI-US STEEL ENSLEY WORKS OPEN HEARTH (RUINS) IN THE BACKGROUND. - Tennessee Coal & Iron Company, Ensley Works, West of residential & commercial districts, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  10. 52. CLOSEUP AERIAL VIEW OF THE MERCURY CAPSULE SITTING ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. CLOSE-UP AERIAL VIEW OF THE MERCURY CAPSULE SITTING ON TOP OF THE REDSTONE ROCKET IN THE TEST STAND. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  11. DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWER TWO, WITH TOWERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWER TWO, WITH TOWERS THREE,FOUR, FIVE AND SIX IN DISTANCE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  12. 45. HISTORIC AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT THE TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. HISTORIC AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT THE TEST STAND AND THE SURROUNDING ELECTRONICS AND EQUIPMENT TRAILERS. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  13. 1. NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ISLAND. REMAINS OF SEA WALL VISIBLE IN FOREGROUND AND RIGHT OF IMAGE. - Fort Delaware, Sea Wall, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  14. NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ISLAND. REMAINS OF SEA WALL VISIBLE IN FOREGROUND AND RIGHT OF IMAGE - Fort Delaware, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  15. 30. Aerial view looking SE at Brooklyn Tower and the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Aerial view looking SE at Brooklyn Tower and the intersection of Water Street and Camden Plaza. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  16. 14. AERIAL VIEW OF ENGINE DISPLAY INSIDE PASSENGER CAR SHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. AERIAL VIEW OF ENGINE DISPLAY INSIDE PASSENGER CAR SHOP (NOW A TRANSPORTATION MUSEUM) - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  17. 50. AERIAL VIEW OF THE SOUTH END OF ALEXANDRIA LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. AERIAL VIEW OF THE SOUTH END OF ALEXANDRIA LOOKING NORTH. (WASHINGTON ST.) - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  18. 67. AERIAL VIEW OF WATERFOWL SANCTUARY WITH INTERSTATE 395 LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    67. AERIAL VIEW OF WATERFOWL SANCTUARY WITH INTERSTATE 395 LOOKING NORTHEAST INTO WASHINGTON D.C. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  19. 4. AERIAL VIEW OF MT. VERNON TERMINUS, SOUTHERN TERMINUS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. AERIAL VIEW OF MT. VERNON TERMINUS, SOUTHERN TERMINUS OF GEORGE WASHINGTON MEMORIAL PARKWAY (GWMP), LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  20. 2. AERIAL VIEW OF THE WEST GROUNDS OF THE CAPITOL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW OF THE WEST GROUNDS OF THE CAPITOL, UNION PLAZA AND REFLECTING POOL AND THE BOTANIC GARDENS, LOOKING NORTH FROM OVER FIRST STREET, SW. - National Mall & Monument Grounds, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  1. 262. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer June 1998 AERIAL VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    262. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer June 1998 AERIAL VIEW OF CANTILEVER TRUSS CANTILEVER ARM AND SUSPENDED SPAN, NORTH SIDE, FACING SOUTH. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  2. HISTORIC IMAGE: AERIAL VIEW OF CEMETERY AND ITS ENVIRONS. PHOTOGRAPH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HISTORIC IMAGE: AERIAL VIEW OF CEMETERY AND ITS ENVIRONS. PHOTOGRAPH 15 SEPTEMBER 1950. NCA HISTORY COLLECTION. - San Francisco National Cemetery, 1 Lincoln Boulevard, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  3. 13. AERIAL OF FORT SHERIDAN LOOKING NORTH TOWARD THE WATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. AERIAL OF FORT SHERIDAN LOOKING NORTH TOWARD THE WATER TOWER (Copy negative made from negative by TASO, U.S. Army, Fort Sheridan, Illinois). - Fort Sheridan, 25 miles Northeast of Chicago, on Lake Michigan, Lake Forest, Lake County, IL

  4. 38. DETAIL AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT 45 DEGREE ANGLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. DETAIL AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT 45 DEGREE ANGLE SHOWING TOP VIEW OF 210' 9' LIFT SPAN - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Newark Bay Lift Bridge, Spanning Newark Bay, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  5. 39. DETAIL AERIAL VIEW LOOKING AT 210' 9' LIFT SPAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. DETAIL AERIAL VIEW LOOKING AT 210' 9' LIFT SPAN TOWER SHEAVES SHOWING 1 SET WITH AND 1 SET WITHOUT SHEAVE HOODS - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Newark Bay Lift Bridge, Spanning Newark Bay, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  6. 2. AERIAL VIEW OF ROLLING LIFT BRIDGE. DORCHESTER AVENUE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW OF ROLLING LIFT BRIDGE. DORCHESTER AVENUE IN BACKGROUND. SOUTH STATION VISIBLE AT TOP LEFT. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Fort Point Channel Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  7. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems for Disaster Relief: Tornado Alley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeBusk, Wesley M.

    2009-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle systems are currently in limited use for public service missions worldwide. Development of civil unmanned technology in the United States currently lags behind military unmanned technology development in part because of unresolved regulatory and technological issues. Civil unmanned aerial vehicle systems have potential to augment disaster relief and emergency response efforts. Optimal design of aerial systems for such applications will lead to unmanned vehicles which provide maximum potentiality for relief and emergency response while accounting for public safety concerns and regulatory requirements. A case study is presented that demonstrates application of a civil unmanned system to a disaster relief mission with the intent on saving lives. The concept utilizes unmanned aircraft to obtain advanced warning and damage assessments for tornados and severe thunderstorms. Overview of a tornado watch mission architecture as well as commentary on risk, cost, need for, and design tradeoffs for unmanned aerial systems are provided.

  8. 74. AERIAL VIEW OF MEMORIAL BRIDGE AND MEMORIAL AVENUE LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    74. AERIAL VIEW OF MEMORIAL BRIDGE AND MEMORIAL AVENUE LOOKING EAST AT LINCOLN MEMORIAL. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  9. Meteorological influences on mass accountability of aerially applied sprays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The deposition and drift of aerially applied crop protection materials is influenced by a number of factors including equpment setup and operational parameters, spray material characteristics, and meteorological effects. This work examines the meteorological influences that effect the ultimate fate...

  10. 56. AERIAL VIEW OF WIDE MEDIAN NEXT TO WASHINGTON SAILING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. AERIAL VIEW OF WIDE MEDIAN NEXT TO WASHINGTON SAILING MARINA LOOKING NORTH. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  11. 54. AERIAL VIEW OF WIDE MEDIAN JUST SOUTH OF WASHINGTON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. AERIAL VIEW OF WIDE MEDIAN JUST SOUTH OF WASHINGTON SAILING MARINA LOOKING NORTH. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  12. 11. COPY OF 1970 AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF LORING AIR FORCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. COPY OF 1970 AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF LORING AIR FORCE BASE. PHOTOGRAPH LOCATED AT AIR FORCE BASE CONVERSION AGENCY, LORING AIR FORCE BASE, MAINE. - Loring Air Force Base, Airfield, Central portion of base, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  13. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST, OF ARRASTRA GULCH, WITH SILVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST, OF ARRASTRA GULCH, WITH SILVER LAKE IN FOREGROUND. NOTE SILVER LAKE MINE AND MILL RUINS ON FAR SHORE. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  14. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF SILVER LAKE. NOTE IOWA MINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF SILVER LAKE. NOTE IOWA MINE RUINS AT LEFT CENTER AND SILVER LAKE MINE RUINS BEYOND NORTHWEST SHORE. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  15. 1. AERIAL VIEW FROM SE LOOKING NW, SHOWING BRIDGE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW FROM SE LOOKING NW, SHOWING BRIDGE AND SITE CONTEXT - Slates' Mill Bridge, Township Road 439 spanning South Branch of Tunkhannock Creek in Benton Township, Dalton, Lackawanna County, PA

  16. 5. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF BUILDING 371 AFTER CONSTRUCTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF BUILDING 371 AFTER CONSTRUCTION WAS COMPLETED. (11/7/78) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  17. 2. AERIAL VIEW OF BRIDGE IN CONTEXT FROM SOUTHWEST. LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW OF BRIDGE IN CONTEXT FROM SOUTHWEST. LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Rue Road Bridge, Rue Road, spanning Matchaponix Brook, .35 mile east of intersection with Route 613, Jamesburg, Middlesex County, NJ

  18. 1. AERIAL VIEW OF BRIDGE IN CONTEXT INCLUDING VICTORY CIRCLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW OF BRIDGE IN CONTEXT INCLUDING VICTORY CIRCLE FROM SOUTH. LOOKING NORTH. - Rue Road Bridge, Rue Road, spanning Matchaponix Brook, .35 mile east of intersection with Route 613, Jamesburg, Middlesex County, NJ

  19. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, OF SHENANDOAHDIVES (MAYFLOWER) MINE PORTAL, IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, OF SHENANDOAH-DIVES (MAYFLOWER) MINE PORTAL, IN SHADOW AT WIDENED END OF ROAD, THREE-EIGHTHS FROM THE BOTTOM. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  20. 83. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer June 1998 CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    83. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer June 1998 CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW OF EAST BAY CROSSING FROM YERBA BUENA ISLAND TO OAKLAND, NORTH SIDE, FACING EAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  1. 89. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer June 1998 CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    89. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer June 1998 CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW OF EAST BAY CROSSING FROM YERBA BUENA ISLAND TO OAKLAND, FACING NORTHEAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  2. 3. AERIAL VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, WITH INTERSECTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, WITH INTERSECTION OF PACIFIC COAST HIGHWAY AND MAIN STREET IN FOREGROUND - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  3. 1. AERIAL VIEW OF BOTH ACTIVE AND INACTIVE FLUMES, TAKEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW OF BOTH ACTIVE AND INACTIVE FLUMES, TAKEN FROM EAST, NOTE STOCK SHELTERS IN BACKGROUND AND HAYSTACKS AND STORAGE IN FOREGROUND - Grant-Kohrs Ranch, Flumes, Highway 10, Deer Lodge, Powell County, MT

  4. East wall, showing rails of a halfton aerial gantry attached ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East wall, showing rails of a half-ton aerial gantry attached to roof frame - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  5. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST SHOWING PACKAGE FREIGHTER (VESSEL 54), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST SHOWING PACKAGE FREIGHTER (VESSEL 54), BROKEN BOW OF VESSEL IN FOREGROUND Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 54, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  6. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING COVERED BARGE (VESSEL 37) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING COVERED BARGE (VESSEL 37) IN CENTER OF PICTURE WITH FOUR HATCHES SHOWING IN SUPERSTRUCTURE Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 37, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  7. 2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING TOP, SIDE, AND REAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING TOP, SIDE, AND REAR VIEW OF VESSEL 37 SUPERSTRUCTURE Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 37, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  8. 2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING STERN OF HULL IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING STERN OF HULL IN FOREGROUND. TWO MASTS VISIBLE Charles Wisniewski, photographer, JanuAry 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 54, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  9. 2. NORTH SIDE. MASTER AERIAL SWITCH ON LOWER RIGHT PORTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. NORTH SIDE. MASTER AERIAL SWITCH ON LOWER RIGHT PORTION OF WALL. TRIPOD AND TENSION WEIGHTS AT LEFT. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Helix House, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  10. DETAIL TOP VIEW OF AERIAL TRAMWAY DRIVE MECHANISM, LOOKING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL TOP VIEW OF AERIAL TRAMWAY DRIVE MECHANISM, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE FRICTION BRAKING SYSTEM CAN BE SEEN IN SHADOW ABOVE THE LARGE CABLE WHEEL BELOW. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  11. 326. Clyde Sunderland, Photographer November 11, 1936 AERIAL VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    326. Clyde Sunderland, Photographer November 11, 1936 AERIAL VIEW OF OAKLAND APPROACH TO YERBA BUENA ISLAND UNDER CONSTRUCTION. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  12. AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH FORMER TCIUS STEEL WORKER HOUSES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH FORMER TCI-US STEEL WORKER HOUSES ALONG AVENUES G, H, I AND J AND MORGAN ROAD (BOTTOM, RUNNING LEFT TO RIGHT). - Muscoda Red Ore Mining Community, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  13. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING FURTHER SOUTH EAST, VILLAGE CREEK WATER TREATMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW LOOKING FURTHER SOUTH EAST, VILLAGE CREEK WATER TREATMENT PLANT ON RIGHT SIDE, ENSLEY IN BACKGROUND. - Birmingham Southern Railroad Yard, Thirty-fourth Street, Ensley, Jefferson County, AL

  14. Aerial overview of the Denver International Airport site, looking southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial overview of the Denver International Airport site, looking southwest - Denver International Airport Site, Between Fifty-sixth & 128th Avenues, Buckley Road & Box Elder Creek, Denver, Denver County, CO

  15. 33. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. AERIAL VIEW OF AREA DURING FLOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. AERIAL VIEW OF AREA DURING FLOOD STAGE. GIANELLA BRIDGE AT UPPER RIGHT Photographer unknown, January 24, 1970 - Gianella Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at State Highway 32, Hamilton City, Glenn County, CA

  16. 68. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking northeast, spring, 1957 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  17. 14. AERIAL VIEW OF POOL AND STRUCTURES Photocopy of photocopy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. AERIAL VIEW OF POOL AND STRUCTURES Photocopy of photocopy of 1931 rendering by Alexander, Becker and Schoeppe, architects and engineers - Glen Echo Park, Crystal Swimming Pool, 7300 McArthur Boulevard, Glen Echo, Montgomery County, MD

  18. 3. AERIAL VIEW OF THE MALL BETWEEN TWELFTH STREET AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW OF THE MALL BETWEEN TWELFTH STREET AND THE WASHINGTON MONUMENT, LOOKING NORTH UP THE 14TH STREET AXIS FROM OVER THE WASHINGTON CHANNEL. - National Mall & Monument Grounds, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. 63. Aerial view of SAC command post construction, looking west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. Aerial view of SAC command post construction, looking west - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  20. 67. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    67. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking northeast, undated - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  1. 62. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking east - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  2. 25. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING WEST OVER THE INTERSECTION OF MEETING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING WEST OVER THE INTERSECTION OF MEETING AND TRADD STREETS WITH THE NATHANIEL RUSSELL HOUSE AND THE FIRST SCOTT PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH AS LANDMARKS ALONG MEETING STREET. - City Plan of Charleston, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  3. Ontogeny of aerial righting and wing flapping in juvenile birds.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, Dennis; Cam, Sharlene; Huynh, Tony; Krivitskiy, Igor; Dudley, Robert

    2014-08-01

    Mechanisms of aerial righting in juvenile chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar) were studied from hatching to 14 days-post-hatching (dph). Asymmetric movements of the wings were used from 1 to 8 dph to effect progressively more successful righting behaviour via body roll. Following 8 dph, wing motions transitioned to bilaterally symmetric flapping that yielded aerial righting via nose-down pitch, along with substantial increases in vertical force production during descent. Ontogenetically, the use of such wing motions to effect aerial righting precedes both symmetric flapping and a previously documented behaviour in chukar (i.e. wing-assisted incline running) hypothesized to be relevant to incipient flight evolution in birds. These findings highlight the importance of asymmetric wing activation and controlled aerial manoeuvres during bird development and are potentially relevant to understanding the origins of avian flight. PMID:25165451

  4. Aerial view looking northwest. Buildings 1 and 2 fronting seaplane ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view looking northwest. Buildings 1 and 2 fronting seaplane ramps 2,3, and 4, are located bayside in center of view. - Naval Air Station North Island, North Island, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  5. Historic Image: Aerial view of Mount of Victory Plot. Photograph ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Historic Image: Aerial view of Mount of Victory Plot. Photograph 1961. NCA History Collection - Cypress Hills National Cemetery, Mount of Victory Plot Unit, 625 Jamaica Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  6. 3. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING THE ENTIRE BRIDGE FROM EAST CABLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING THE ENTIRE BRIDGE FROM EAST CABLE ANCHORAGE (EXTREME LEFT) TO WEST CABLE ANCHORAGE (UPPER RIGHT CORNER). March 1987. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  7. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST, OF ARRASTRA BASIN, SILVER LAKE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST, OF ARRASTRA BASIN, SILVER LAKE, AND THE SHENANDOAH-DIVES (MAYFLOWER) MILL IN DISTANT ANIMAS VALLEY. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  8. 1. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING AT GLENDALE ROAD CROSSING OF DEEP CREEK LAKE (PHOTOGRAPH BY RUTHVAN MORROW) - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  9. 2. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING AT GLENDALE ROAD CROSSING OF DEEP CREEK LAKE (PHOTOGRAPH BY RUTHVAN MORROW) - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  10. 1. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING MOBILE LAUNCHER. BASE IS CALLED LAUNCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING MOBILE LAUNCHER. BASE IS CALLED LAUNCH PLATFORM AND TOWER ON RIGHT IS CALLED LAUNCH UMBILICAL TOWER, (LUT). - Mobile Launcher One, Kennedy Space Center, Titusville, Brevard County, FL

  11. 70. AERIAL VIEW OF ROUTE 110 WITH PENTAGON AND PARKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. AERIAL VIEW OF ROUTE 110 WITH PENTAGON AND PARKING AREA LOOKING SOUTHEAST.(EXPRESSWAY V.S. PARKWAY) - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  12. Precision aerial application for site-specific rice crop management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision agriculture includes different technologies that allow agricultural professional to use information management tools to optimize agriculture production. The new technologies allow aerial application applicators to improve application accuracy and efficiency, which saves time and money for...

  13. 3. AERIAL VIEW OF THREE BEARS LAKE, SHOWING OUTLET STREAM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW OF THREE BEARS LAKE, SHOWING OUTLET STREAM, BURLINGTON NORTHERN TRACKS, AND U.S. HIGHWAY 2, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Three Bears Lake & Dams, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  14. Photocopy of aerial photograph taken in 1959, showing Newark Airport. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of aerial photograph taken in 1959, showing Newark Airport. Photographer unknown. Original photograph property of Continental Airlines, Houston, Texas - Newark International Airport, Between New Jersey Turnpike, U.S. Routes 1 & 9, & Interstate 78, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  15. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, FROM RED MOUNTAIN TO USX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, FROM RED MOUNTAIN TO USX FAIRFIELD WORKS (TOP LEFT) WITH WENONAH SINTERING PLANT (BOTTOM CENTER) AND WENONAH COMMUNITY (CENTER RIGHT). - High Line Railroad, From Red Mountain to Fairfield Works, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  16. 7 CFR 1755.507 - Aerial cable services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Design of Aerial Plant. The same tension as would be used in normal line construction so as not to exceed... masonry or on studs of wood frame buildings. Cable attachment devices may be installed on sheet...

  17. 7 CFR 1755.507 - Aerial cable services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Design of Aerial Plant. The same tension as would be used in normal line construction so as not to exceed... masonry or on studs of wood frame buildings. Cable attachment devices may be installed on sheet...

  18. 7 CFR 1755.507 - Aerial cable services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Design of Aerial Plant. The same tension as would be used in normal line construction so as not to exceed... masonry or on studs of wood frame buildings. Cable attachment devices may be installed on sheet...

  19. 7 CFR 1755.507 - Aerial cable services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Design of Aerial Plant. The same tension as would be used in normal line construction so as not to exceed... masonry or on studs of wood frame buildings. Cable attachment devices may be installed on sheet...

  20. 7 CFR 1755.507 - Aerial cable services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Design of Aerial Plant. The same tension as would be used in normal line construction so as not to exceed... masonry or on studs of wood frame buildings. Cable attachment devices may be installed on sheet...

  1. 1. AERIAL VIEW OF WHITSETT (INTAKE) PUMP PLANT ON LAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW OF WHITSETT (INTAKE) PUMP PLANT ON LAKE SHORE IN FOREGROUND; GENE IN BACKGROUND, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Whitsett Pump Plant, West side of Colorado River, north of Parker Dam, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

  2. 4. AERIAL VIEW OF GENE WASH RESERVOIR AND GENE CAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. AERIAL VIEW OF GENE WASH RESERVOIR AND GENE CAMP LOOKING SOUTHWEST. DAM AND SPILLWAY VISIBLE IN BOTTOM OF PHOTO. - Gene Wash Reservoir & Dam, 2 miles west of Parker Dam, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

  3. 4. Aerial view of Whitsett intake (lower right), Parker Dam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Aerial view of Whitsett intake (lower right), Parker Dam and village (left), Gene Wash Reservoir, Gene Pump Plant and village (right). - Parker Dam, Spanning Colorado River between AZ & CA, Parker, La Paz County, AZ

  4. 5. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTH SHOWING PHILADELPHIA MUSEUM OF ART, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTH SHOWING PHILADELPHIA MUSEUM OF ART, SITE OF FORMER MAIN STORAGE RESERVOIR - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. 1. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING WATER WORKS SITE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING WATER WORKS SITE AND PHILADELPHIA MUSEUM OF ART ON HILL ABOVE - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. 2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SW. TIP OF GOOSE ISLAND AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SW. TIP OF GOOSE ISLAND AT TOP LEFT OF FRAME. - Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, Bridge No. Z-2, Spanning North Branch Canal at North Cherry Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  7. 3. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING ESE. TIP OF GOOSE ISLAND AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING ESE. TIP OF GOOSE ISLAND AT TOP RIGHT OF FRAME. - Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, Bridge No. Z-2, Spanning North Branch Canal at North Cherry Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  8. 16. AERIAL VIEW OF GOOSE ISLAND, LOOKING SOUTH, CIRCA 1960. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. AERIAL VIEW OF GOOSE ISLAND, LOOKING SOUTH, CIRCA 1960. BRIDGE No. Z-2 AT LOWER LEFT OF FRAME. - Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, Bridge No. Z-2, Spanning North Branch Canal at North Cherry Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  9. 4. AERIAL VIEW OF DAM SITE SHOWING OUTLET WORKS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. AERIAL VIEW OF DAM SITE SHOWING OUTLET WORKS AND DIVERSION CHANNEL IN FOREGROUND.... Volume XVIII, No. 9, March 5, 1940. - Prado Dam, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  10. 13. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING IN THE FOREGROUND, EXCAVATION FOR THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING IN THE FOREGROUND, EXCAVATION FOR THE SPILLWAY APRON.... Volume XVII, No. 12, December 26, 1939. - Prado Dam, Spillway, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  11. 6. EASTERLY AERIAL VIEW SHOWING THE RIGHT ABUTMENT AND OUTLET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. EASTERLY AERIAL VIEW SHOWING THE RIGHT ABUTMENT AND OUTLET CONTROL WORKS IN THE FOREGROUND.... Volume XX, No. 8, September 9, 1940. - Prado Dam, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  12. 21. AERIAL VIEW OF THE OUTLET STRUCTURE AND OUTLET CHANNEL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. AERIAL VIEW OF THE OUTLET STRUCTURE AND OUTLET CHANNEL, LOOKING UPSTREAM.... Volume XVII, No. 11, December 26, 1939. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  13. 15. AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF DAM SITE SHOWING SPILLWAY OGEE SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF DAM SITE SHOWING SPILLWAY OGEE SECTION AND SPILLWAY APRON EXCAVATION IN FOREGROUND.... Volume XVIII, No. 10, January 18, 1940. - Prado Dam, Spillway, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  14. F/A-18 Automated Aerial Refueling (AAR) Phase 1

    NASA Video Gallery

    Engineers at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center are evaluating the capability of an F/A-18A aircraft as an in-flight refueling tanker to develop analytical models for an automated aerial refuelin...

  15. 1. AERIAL SHOT HANGARS 14 (IN CENTER OF VIEW), WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL SHOT HANGARS 1-4 (IN CENTER OF VIEW), WEST FACING, SIDE LOOKING EAST. BUILDING 100 IS IN FOREGROUND. - Hill Field, Airplane Repair Hangars No. 1-No. 4, 5875 Southgate Avenue, Layton, Davis County, UT

  16. 2. AERIAL SHOT HANGARS 14 (IN CENTER OF VIEW), SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL SHOT HANGARS 1-4 (IN CENTER OF VIEW), SOUTH AND WEST FACING SIDES. BUILDING 238 IS IN LOWER RIGHT FOREGROUND. - Hill Field, Airplane Repair Hangars No. 1-No. 4, 5875 Southgate Avenue, Layton, Davis County, UT

  17. Aerial view of construction of both LTA ship hangars (looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view of construction of both LTA ship hangars (looking north) circa 1942. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  18. Aerial view of entire LTA base after completion of both ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view of entire LTA base after completion of both LTA ship hangars. Date unknown but probably circa 1945. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  19. Aerial view of reroofing of northern LTA ship hangar, circa ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view of re-roofing of northern LTA ship hangar, circa 1957. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  20. 129. FULL AERIAL VIEW SHOWING FORWARD PORT QUARTER, ENTERING PEARL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    129. FULL AERIAL VIEW SHOWING FORWARD PORT QUARTER, ENTERING PEARL HARBOR AFTER APOLLO 11 RECOVERY. 26 JULY 1969. (NATIONAL ARCHIVES NO. 428-KN-18090) - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  1. 26. AERIAL VIEW OF WASTE CALCINING FACILITY WITH SOLIDS STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. AERIAL VIEW OF WASTE CALCINING FACILITY WITH SOLIDS STORAGE FACILITY BEHIND. CAMERA FACING EAST. INEEL PHOTO NUMBER PHOTO 72-4571. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. 1. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING AQUEDUCT RIGHTOFWAY, WITH WASTE WEIR VISIBLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING AQUEDUCT RIGHT-OF-WAY, WITH WASTE WEIR VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Mill River Waste Weir, U.S. Route 9 at Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Tarrytown, Westchester County, NY

  3. 25. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS AERIAL VIEW OF WASTE CALCINING FACILITY TAKEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS AERIAL VIEW OF WASTE CALCINING FACILITY TAKEN WHEN STRUCTURE WAS 99 PERCENT COMPLETE. INEEL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-60-5409. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. 2. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SOUTHWEST SHOWING DOLPHIN MANUFACTURING CO., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SOUTHWEST SHOWING DOLPHIN MANUFACTURING CO., BARBOUR FLAX SPINNING CO. -- SPRUCE ST. MILL, ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS -- MILLWRIGHT SHOP AND FITTING SHOP. - Great Falls S. U. M. Historic District, Oliver Street, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  5. 10. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST SHOWING (from left) INDUSTRY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST SHOWING (from left) INDUSTRY MILL, HARMONY MILL, PHOENIX MILL, CONGDON MILL, TODD RAFFERTY MACHINE CO. - Great Falls S. U. M. Historic District, Oliver Street, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  6. 13. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SHOWING UNION WORKS (ROSEN MILL), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SHOWING UNION WORKS (ROSEN MILL), GRANT LOCOMOTIVE WORKS -- MACHINE SHOP, DANFORTH (COOKE) LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE CO. - Great Falls S. U. M. Historic District, Oliver Street, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  7. 22. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST SHOWING GRANT LOCOMOTIVE WORKS, UNION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST SHOWING GRANT LOCOMOTIVE WORKS, UNION WORKS (ROSEN MILL), ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE COMPANY AND IVANHOE MILL WHEELHOUSE UNDER RESTORATION. - Great Falls S. U. M. Historic District, Oliver Street, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  8. The Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) 2002 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Fink, Mary M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents and overview of the Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL). It covers the University of Nebraska's areas of research, and its outreach to students at Native American schools as part of AERIAL. The report contains three papers: "Airborne Remote Sensing (ARS) for Agricultural Research and Commercialization Application" (White Paper), "Validated Numerical Models for the Convective Extinction of Fuel Droplets (CEFD)", and "The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS): Research Collaborations with the NASA Langley Research Center".

  9. Optimization and application of Retinex algorithm in aerial image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Bo; He, Jun; Li, Hongyu

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, we provide a segmentation based Retinex for improving the visual quality of aerial images obtained under complex weather conditions. With the method, an aerial image will be segmented into different regions, and then an adaptive Gaussian based on the segmentations will be used to process it. The method addresses the problems existing in previously developed Retinex algorithms, such as halo artifacts and graying-out artifacts. The experimental result also shows evidence of its better effect.

  10. Ecological Energetics of an Abundant Aerial Insectivore, the Purple Martin

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Jeffrey F.; Bridge, Eli S.; Frick, Winifred F.; Chilson, Phillip B.

    2013-01-01

    The atmospheric boundary layer and lower free atmosphere, or aerosphere, is increasingly important for human transportation, communication, environmental monitoring, and energy production. The impacts of anthropogenic encroachment into aerial habitats are not well understood. Insectivorous birds and bats are inherently valuable components of biodiversity and play an integral role in aerial trophic dynamics. Many of these insectivores are experiencing range-wide population declines. As a first step toward gaging the potential impacts of these declines on the aerosphere’s trophic system, estimates of the biomass and energy consumed by aerial insectivores are needed. We developed a suite of energetics models for one of the largest and most common avian aerial insectivores in North America, the Purple Martin (Prognesubis). The base model estimated that Purple Martins consumed 412 (± 104) billion insects*y-1 with a biomass of 115,860 (± 29,192) metric tonnes*y-1. During the breeding season Purple Martins consume 10.3 (+ 3.0) kg of prey biomass per km3 of aerial habitat, equal to about 36,000 individual insects*km-3. Based on these calculations, the cumulative seasonal consumption of insects*km-3 is greater in North America during the breeding season than during other phases of the annual cycle, however the maximum daily insect consumption*km-3 occurs during fall migration. This analysis provides the first range-wide quantitative estimate of the magnitude of the trophic impact of this large and common aerial insectivore. Future studies could use a similar modeling approach to estimate impacts of the entire guild of aerial insectivores at a variety of temporal and spatial scales. These analyses would inform our understanding of the impact of population declines among aerial insectivores on the aerosphere’s trophic dynamics. PMID:24086755

  11. User guide for the USGS aerial camera Report of Calibration.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tayman, W.P.

    1984-01-01

    Calibration and testing of aerial mapping cameras includes the measurement of optical constants and the check for proper functioning of a number of complicated mechanical and electrical parts. For this purpose the US Geological Survey performs an operational type photographic calibration. This paper is not strictly a scientific paper but rather a 'user guide' to the USGS Report of Calibration of an aerial mapping camera for compliance with both Federal and State mapping specifications. -Author

  12. Measured Noise from Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabell, Randolph; McSwain, Robert; Grosveld, Ferdinand

    2016-01-01

    Proposed uses of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), including home package delivery, have the potential to expose large portions of communities to a new noise source. This paper discusses results of flyover noise measurements of four small UAVs, including an internal combustion-powered model airplane and three battery-powered multicopters. Basic noise characteristics of these vehicles are discussed, including spectral properties and sound level metrics such as sound pressure level, effective perceived noise level, and sound exposure level. The size and aerodynamic characteristics of the multicopters in particular make their flight path susceptible to atmospheric disturbances such as wind gusts. These gusts, coupled with a flight control system that varies rotor speed to maintain vehicle stability, create an unsteady acoustic signature. The spectral variations resulting from this unsteadiness are explored, in both hover and flyover conditions for the multicopters. The time varying noise, which differs from the relatively steady noise generated by large transport aircraft, may complicate the prediction of human annoyance using conventional sound level metrics.

  13. Solar-powered unmanned aerial vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhardt, K.C.; Lamp, T.R.; Geis, J.W.; Colozza, A.J.

    1996-12-31

    An analysis was performed to determine the impact of various power system components and mission requirements on the size of solar-powered high altitude long endurance (HALE)-type aircraft. The HALE unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) has good potential for use in many military and civil applications. The primary power system components considered in this study were photovoltaic (PV) modules for power generation and regenerative fuel cells for energy storage. The impact of relevant component performance on UAV size and capability were considered; including PV module efficiency and mass, power electronics efficiency, and fuel cell specific energy. Mission parameters such as time of year, flight altitude, flight latitude, and payload mass and power were also varied to determine impact on UAV size. The aircraft analysis method used determines the required aircraft wing aspect ratio, wing area, and total mass based on maximum endurance or minimum required power calculations. The results indicate that the capacity of the energy storage system employed, fuel cells in this analysis, greatly impacts aircraft size, whereas the impact of PV module efficiency and mass is much less important. It was concluded that an energy storage specific energy (total system) of 250--500 Whr/kg is required to enable most useful missions, and that PV cells with efficiencies greater than {approximately} 12% are suitable for use.

  14. The design of aerial camera focusing mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Changchang; Yang, Hongtao; Niu, Haijun

    2015-10-01

    In order to ensure the imaging resolution of aerial camera and compensating defocusing caused by the changing of atmospheric temperature, pressure, oblique photographing distance and other environmental factor [1,2], and to meeting the overall design requirements of the camera for the lower mass and smaller size , the linear focusing mechanism is designed. Through the target surface support, the target surface component is connected with focusing driving mechanism. Make use of precision ball screws, focusing mechanism transforms the input rotary motion of motor into linear motion of the focal plane assembly. Then combined with the form of linear guide restraint movement, the magnetic encoder is adopted to detect the response of displacement. And the closed loop control is adopted to realize accurate focusing. This paper illustrated the design scheme for a focusing mechanism and analyzed its error sources. It has the advantages of light friction and simple transmission chain and reducing the transmission error effectively. And this paper also analyses the target surface by finite element analysis and lightweight design. Proving that the precision of focusing mechanism can achieve higher than 3um, and the focusing range is +/-2mm.

  15. [Death by explosion of an aerial mine].

    PubMed

    Stockhausen, Sarah; Wöllner, Kirsten; Madea, Burkhard; Doberentz, Elke

    2014-01-01

    Civilians are rarely killed by military weapons except in times of war. In early 2014, a 50-year-old man died in an explosion of an aerial mine from the Second World War when he was crushing concrete chunks with an excavator at a recycling plant. In the burned operator's cab, the remains of a body were found on the driver's seat. The thorax and the head were missing. Still sticking in the shoe, the right foot severed at the ankle was found about 7 m from the excavator together with numerous small to tiny body parts. At autopsy, the completely disrupted, strongly charred lower torso of a male connected to the left extremities as well as a large number of small tissue fragments and calcined bones were found. According to calculations performed by the seismographical station on the basis of seismic data, only about 45-60 percent of the charge had detonated. The autopsy results illustrate all the more the massive impact of such an explosion. PMID:26548019

  16. Directed aerial robot explorers for planetary exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankine, A. A.; Aaron, K. M.; Heun, M. K.; Nock, K. T.; Schlaifer, R. S.; Wyszkowski, C. J.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Lorenz, R. D.

    2004-01-01

    Global Aerospace Corporation (GAC) is developing a revolutionary system architecture for exploration of planetary atmospheres and surfaces from atmospheric altitudes. The work is supported by the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC). The innovative system architecture relies upon the use of Directed Aerial Robot Explorers (DAREs), which essentially are long-duration-flight autonomous balloons with trajectory control capabilities that can deploy swarms of miniature probes over multiple target areas. The balloons will serve a dual purpose as independent explorers and as microprobe delivery systems for targeted observations. Trajectory control capabilities will offer unprecedented opportunities in high-resolution, targeted observations of both atmospheric and surface phenomena. Multifunctional microprobes will be deployed from the balloons once over the target areas, and perform a multitude of functions, such as atmospheric profiling or surface exploration, relaying data back to the balloons or an orbiter. This architecture will enable low-cost, low-energy, long-term global exploration of planetary atmospheres and surfaces. We report here results of the preliminary analysis of the trajectory control capabilities and potential applications for DARE platforms at Venus, Mars, Titan and Jupiter.

  17. Mars Exploration with Directed Aerial Robot Explorers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankine, Alexey A.; Aaron, Kim M.; Heun, Matthew K.; Nock, Kerry T.; Schlaifer, R. Stephen; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Lorenz, Ralph D.

    2004-02-01

    Global Aerospace Corporation (GAC) is developing a revolutionary system architecture for exploration of planetary atmospheres and surfaces from atmospheric altitudes. The work is supported by the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC). The innovative system architecture relies upon the use of Directed Aerial Robot Explorers (DAREs), which essentially are long-duration-flight autonomous balloons with trajectory control capabilities that can deploy swarms of miniature probes over multiple target areas. Balloon guidance capabilities will offer unprecedented opportunities in high-resolution, targeted observations of both atmospheric and surface phenomena. Multifunctional microprobes will be deployed from the balloons when over the target areas, and perform a multitude of functions, such as atmospheric profiling or surface exploration, relaying data back to the balloons or an orbiter. This architecture will enable low-cost, low-energy, long-term global exploration of planetary atmospheres and surfaces. A conceptual analysis of DARE capabilities and science applications for Mars is presented. Initial results of simulations indicate that a relatively small trajectory control wing can significantly change planetary balloon flight paths, especially during summer seasons in Polar Regions. This opens new possibilities for high-resolution observations of crustal magnetic anomalies, polar layered terrain, polar clouds, dust storms at the edges of the Polar caps and of seasonal variability of volatiles in the atmosphere.

  18. Adapting unmanned aerial vehicles for turbulence measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, Brandon; Helvey, Jacob; Mullen, Jon; Thamann, Michael; Bailey, Sean

    2015-11-01

    We describe the approach of using highly instrumented and autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to spatially interrogate the atmospheric boundary layer's turbulent flow structure. This approach introduces new capabilities not available in contemporary micro-meteorological measurement techniques such as instrumented towers, balloons, and manned aircraft. A key advantage in utilizing UAVs as an atmospheric turbulence research tool is that it reduces the reliance on assumptions regarding temporal evolution of the turbulence inherent within Taylor's frozen flow hypothesis by facilitating the ability to spatially sample the flow field over a wide range of spatial scales. In addition, UAVs offer the ability to measure in a wide range of boundary conditions and distance from the earth's surface, the ability to gather many boundary layer thicknesses of data during brief periods of statistical quasi-stationarity, and the ability to acquire data where and when it is needed. We describe recent progress made in manufacturing purpose-built airframes and adapting pre-fabricated airframes for these measurements by integrating sensors into those airframes and developing data analysis techniques to isolate the atmospheric turbulence from the measured velocity signal. This research is supported by NSF Award CBET-1351411.

  19. Aerial view of the KSC crawler transporters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In this aerial view the Crawler Transporter Maintenance Building (center) sits between two crawler transporters. The KSC crawlers are the largest tracked vehicles known. Once used to move assembled Apollo/Saturn from the VAB to the launch pad, they are now used for transporting Shuttle vehicles. They move the Mobile Launcher Platform into the Vehicle Assembly Building and then to the Launch Pad with an assembled space vehicle. Maximum speed is 1.6 km (one mile) per hour loaded, about 3.2 km (2 miles) per hour unloaded. Launch Pad to VAB trip time with the Mobile Launch Platform is about 5 hours. The crawler burns 568 liters (150 gallons) of diesel oil per mile. KSC's two crawlers have accumulated 1,243 miles since 1977. Including the Apollo years, the transporters have racked up 2,526 miles, about the same distance as a one-way trip from KSC to Los Angeles by interstate highway or a round trip between KSC and New York City.

  20. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle in Cadastral Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manyoky, M.; Theiler, P.; Steudler, D.; Eisenbeiss, H.

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents the investigation of UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) for use in cadastral surveying. Within the scope of a pilot study UAVs were tested for capturing geodata and compared with conventional data acquisition methods for cadastral surveying. Two study sites were therefore surveyed with a tachymeter-GNSS combination as well as a UAV system. The workflows of both methods were investigated and the resulting data were compared with the requirements of Swiss cadastral surveying. Concerning data acquisition and evaluation, the two systems are found to be comparable in terms of time expenditure, accuracy, and completeness. In conclusion, the UAV image orientation proved to be the limiting factor for the obtained accuracy due to the low- cost camera including camera calibration, image quality, and definition of the ground control points (natural or artificial). However, the required level of accuracy for cadastral surveying was reached. The advantage of UAV systems lies in their high flexibility and efficiency in capturing the surface of an area from a low flight altitude. In addition, further information such as orthoimages, elevation models and 3D objects can easily be gained from UAV images. Altogether, this project endorses the benefit of using UAVs in cadastral applications and the new opportunities they provide for cadastral surveying.