Science.gov

Sample records for aerial survey method

  1. A study of methods for lowering aerial environmental survey cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansberry, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The results are presented of a study of methods for lowering the cost of environmental aerial surveys. A wide range of low cost techniques were investigated for possible application to current pressing urban and rural problems. The objective of the study is to establish a definition of the technical problems associated with conducting aerial surveys using various low cost techniques, to conduct a survey of equipment which may be used in low cost systems, and to establish preliminary estimates of cost. A set of candidate systems were selected and described for the environmental survey tasks.

  2. Evaluation of aerial survey methods for Dall's sheep

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Udevitz, M.S.; Shults, B.S.; Adams, L.G.; Kleckner, C.

    2006-01-01

    Most Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) population-monitoring efforts use intensive aerial surveys with no attempt to estimate variance or adjust for potential sightability bias. We used radiocollared sheep to assess factors that could affect sightability of Dall's sheep in standard fixed-wing and helicopter surveys and to evaluate feasibility of methods that might account for sightability bias. Work was conducted in conjunction with annual aerial surveys of Dall's sheep in the western Baird Mountains, Alaska, USA, in 2000-2003. Overall sightability was relatively high compared with other aerial wildlife surveys, with 88% of the available, marked sheep detected in our fixed-wing surveys. Total counts from helicopter surveys were not consistently larger than counts from fixed-wing surveys of the same units, and detection probabilities did not differ for the 2 aircraft types. Our results suggest that total counts from helicopter surveys cannot be used to obtain reliable estimates of detection probabilities for fixed-wing surveys. Groups containing radiocollared sheep often changed in size and composition before they could be observed by a second crew in units that were double-surveyed. Double-observer methods that require determination of which groups were detected by each observer will be infeasible unless survey procedures can be modified so that groups remain more stable between observations. Mean group sizes increased during our study period, and our logistic regression sightability model indicated that detection probabilities increased with group size. Mark-resight estimates of annual population sizes were similar to sightability-model estimates, and confidence intervals overlapped broadly. We recommend the sightability-model approach as the most effective and feasible of the alternatives we considered for monitoring Dall's sheep populations.

  3. An aerial survey method to estimate sea otter abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, J.L.; Udevitz, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) occur in shallow coastal habitats and can be highly visible on the sea surface. They generally rest in groups and their detection depends on factors that include sea conditions, viewing platform, observer technique and skill, distance, habitat and group size. While visible on the surface, they are difficult to see while diving and may dive in response to an approaching survey platform. We developed and tested an aerial survey method that uses intensive searches within portions of strip transects to adjust for availability and sightability biases. Correction factors are estimated independently for each survey and observer. In tests of our method using shore-based observers, we estimated detection probabilities of 0.52-0.72 in standard strip-transects and 0.96 in intensive searches. We used the survey method in Prince William Sound, Alaska to estimate a sea otter population size of 9,092 (SE = 1422). The new method represents an improvement over various aspects of previous methods, but additional development and testing will be required prior to its broad application.

  4. Aerial radiation surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Jobst, J.

    1980-01-01

    A recent aerial radiation survey of the surroundings of the Vitro mill in Salt Lake City shows that uranium mill tailings have been removed to many locations outside their original boundary. To date, 52 remote sites have been discovered within a 100 square kilometer aerial survey perimeter surrounding the mill; 9 of these were discovered with the recent aerial survey map. Five additional sites, also discovered by aerial survey, contained uranium ore, milling equipment, or radioactive slag. Because of the success of this survey, plans are being made to extend the aerial survey program to other parts of the Salt Lake valley where diversions of Vitro tailings are also known to exist.

  5. Sightability adjustment methods for aerial surveys of wildlife populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinhorst, R.K.; Samuel, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    Aerial surveys are routinely conducted to estimate the abundance of wildlife species and the rate of population change. However, sightability of animal groups is acknowledged as a significant source of bias in these estimates. Recent research has focused on the development of sightability models to predict the probability of sighting groups under various conditions. Given such models, we show how sightability can be incorporated into the estimator of population size as a probability of response using standard results from sample surveys. We develop formulas for the cases where the sighting probability must be estimated. An example, using data from a helicopter survey of moose in Alberta (Jacobson, Alberta Oil Sands Research Project Report, 1976), is given to illustrate the technique.

  6. AERIAL RADIOLOGICAL SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, A.E.

    1997-06-09

    Measuring terrestrial gamma radiation from airborne platforms has proved to be a useful method for characterizing radiation levels over large areas. Over 300 aerial radiological surveys have been carried out over the past 25 years including U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, commercial nuclear power plants, Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program/Uranium Mine Tailing Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP/UMTRAP) sites, nuclear weapons test sites, contaminated industrial areas, and nuclear accident sites. This paper describes the aerial measurement technology currently in use by the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) for routine environmental surveys and emergency response activities. Equipment, data-collection and -analysis methods, and examples of survey results are described.

  7. A double-observer method to estimate detection rate during aerial waterfowl surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koneff, M.D.; Royle, J. Andrew; Otto, M.C.; Wortham, J.S.; Bidwell, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated double-observer methods for aerial surveys as a means to adjust counts of waterfowl for incomplete detection. We conducted our study in eastern Canada and the northeast United States utilizing 3 aerial-survey crews flying 3 different types of fixed-wing aircraft. We reconciled counts of front- and rear-seat observers immediately following an observation by the rear-seat observer (i.e., on-the-fly reconciliation). We evaluated 6 a priori models containing a combination of several factors thought to influence detection probability including observer, seat position, aircraft type, and group size. We analyzed data for American black ducks (Anas rubripes) and mallards (A. platyrhynchos), which are among the most abundant duck species in this region. The best-supported model for both black ducks and mallards included observer effects. Sample sizes of black ducks were sufficient to estimate observer-specific detection rates for each crew. Estimated detection rates for black ducks were 0.62 (SE = 0.10), 0.63 (SE = 0.06), and 0.74 (SE = 0.07) for pilot-observers, 0.61 (SE = 0.08), 0.62 (SE = 0.06), and 0.81 (SE = 0.07) for other front-seat observers, and 0.43 (SE = 0.05), 0.58 (SE = 0.06), and 0.73 (SE = 0.04) for rear-seat observers. For mallards, sample sizes were adequate to generate stable maximum-likelihood estimates of observer-specific detection rates for only one aerial crew. Estimated observer-specific detection rates for that crew were 0.84 (SE = 0.04) for the pilot-observer, 0.74 (SE = 0.05) for the other front-seat observer, and 0.47 (SE = 0.03) for the rear-seat observer. Estimated observer detection rates were confounded by the position of the seat occupied by an observer, because observers did not switch seats, and by land-cover because vegetation and landform varied among crew areas. Double-observer methods with on-the-fly reconciliation, although not without challenges, offer one viable option to account for detection bias in aerial waterfowl

  8. Unmanned aerial survey of elephants.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Cédric; Lejeune, Philippe; Lisein, Jonathan; Sawadogo, Prosper; Bouché, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The use of a UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System) was tested to survey large mammals in the Nazinga Game Ranch in the south of Burkina Faso. The Gatewing ×100™ equipped with a Ricoh GR III camera was used to test animal reaction as the UAS passed, and visibility on the images. No reaction was recorded as the UAS passed at a height of 100 m. Observations, made on a set of more than 7000 images, revealed that only elephants (Loxodonta africana) were easily visible while medium and small sized mammals were not. The easy observation of elephants allows experts to enumerate them on images acquired at a height of 100 m. We, therefore, implemented an aerial strip sample count along transects used for the annual wildlife foot count. A total of 34 elephants were recorded on 4 transects, each overflown twice. The elephant density was estimated at 2.47 elephants/km(2) with a coefficient of variation (CV%) of 36.10%. The main drawback of our UAS was its low autonomy (45 min). Increased endurance of small UAS is required to replace manned aircraft survey of large areas (about 1000 km of transect per day vs 40 km for our UAS). The monitoring strategy should be adapted according to the sampling plan. Also, the UAS is as expensive as a second-hand light aircraft. However the logistic and flight implementation are easier, the running costs are lower and its use is safer. Technological evolution will make civil UAS more efficient, allowing them to compete with light aircraft for aerial wildlife surveys. PMID:23405088

  9. Unmanned Aerial Survey of Elephants

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Cédric; Lejeune, Philippe; Lisein, Jonathan; Sawadogo, Prosper; Bouché, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The use of a UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System) was tested to survey large mammals in the Nazinga Game Ranch in the south of Burkina Faso. The Gatewing ×100™ equipped with a Ricoh GR III camera was used to test animal reaction as the UAS passed, and visibility on the images. No reaction was recorded as the UAS passed at a height of 100 m. Observations, made on a set of more than 7000 images, revealed that only elephants (Loxodonta africana) were easily visible while medium and small sized mammals were not. The easy observation of elephants allows experts to enumerate them on images acquired at a height of 100 m. We, therefore, implemented an aerial strip sample count along transects used for the annual wildlife foot count. A total of 34 elephants were recorded on 4 transects, each overflown twice. The elephant density was estimated at 2.47 elephants/km2 with a coefficient of variation (CV%) of 36.10%. The main drawback of our UAS was its low autonomy (45 min). Increased endurance of small UAS is required to replace manned aircraft survey of large areas (about 1000 km of transect per day vs 40 km for our UAS). The monitoring strategy should be adapted according to the sampling plan. Also, the UAS is as expensive as a second-hand light aircraft. However the logistic and flight implementation are easier, the running costs are lower and its use is safer. Technological evolution will make civil UAS more efficient, allowing them to compete with light aircraft for aerial wildlife surveys. PMID:23405088

  10. Practical Bias Correction in Aerial Surveys of Large Mammals: Validation of Hybrid Double-Observer with Sightability Method against Known Abundance of Feral Horse (Equus caballus) Populations.

    PubMed

    Lubow, Bruce C; Ransom, Jason I

    2016-01-01

    Reliably estimating wildlife abundance is fundamental to effective management. Aerial surveys are one of the only spatially robust tools for estimating large mammal populations, but statistical sampling methods are required to address detection biases that affect accuracy and precision of the estimates. Although various methods for correcting aerial survey bias are employed on large mammal species around the world, these have rarely been rigorously validated. Several populations of feral horses (Equus caballus) in the western United States have been intensively studied, resulting in identification of all unique individuals. This provided a rare opportunity to test aerial survey bias correction on populations of known abundance. We hypothesized that a hybrid method combining simultaneous double-observer and sightability bias correction techniques would accurately estimate abundance. We validated this integrated technique on populations of known size and also on a pair of surveys before and after a known number was removed. Our analysis identified several covariates across the surveys that explained and corrected biases in the estimates. All six tests on known populations produced estimates with deviations from the known value ranging from -8.5% to +13.7% and <0.7 standard errors. Precision varied widely, from 6.1% CV to 25.0% CV. In contrast, the pair of surveys conducted around a known management removal produced an estimated change in population between the surveys that was significantly larger than the known reduction. Although the deviation between was only 9.1%, the precision estimate (CV = 1.6%) may have been artificially low. It was apparent that use of a helicopter in those surveys perturbed the horses, introducing detection error and heterogeneity in a manner that could not be corrected by our statistical models. Our results validate the hybrid method, highlight its potentially broad applicability, identify some limitations, and provide insight and guidance

  11. Practical Bias Correction in Aerial Surveys of Large Mammals: Validation of Hybrid Double-Observer with Sightability Method against Known Abundance of Feral Horse (Equus caballus) Populations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Reliably estimating wildlife abundance is fundamental to effective management. Aerial surveys are one of the only spatially robust tools for estimating large mammal populations, but statistical sampling methods are required to address detection biases that affect accuracy and precision of the estimates. Although various methods for correcting aerial survey bias are employed on large mammal species around the world, these have rarely been rigorously validated. Several populations of feral horses (Equus caballus) in the western United States have been intensively studied, resulting in identification of all unique individuals. This provided a rare opportunity to test aerial survey bias correction on populations of known abundance. We hypothesized that a hybrid method combining simultaneous double-observer and sightability bias correction techniques would accurately estimate abundance. We validated this integrated technique on populations of known size and also on a pair of surveys before and after a known number was removed. Our analysis identified several covariates across the surveys that explained and corrected biases in the estimates. All six tests on known populations produced estimates with deviations from the known value ranging from -8.5% to +13.7% and <0.7 standard errors. Precision varied widely, from 6.1% CV to 25.0% CV. In contrast, the pair of surveys conducted around a known management removal produced an estimated change in population between the surveys that was significantly larger than the known reduction. Although the deviation between was only 9.1%, the precision estimate (CV = 1.6%) may have been artificially low. It was apparent that use of a helicopter in those surveys perturbed the horses, introducing detection error and heterogeneity in a manner that could not be corrected by our statistical models. Our results validate the hybrid method, highlight its potentially broad applicability, identify some limitations, and provide insight and guidance

  12. Aerial radiation survey at a military range.

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, G. P.; Martino, L. E.; Wrobel, J.; Environmental Assessment; U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground

    2001-04-01

    Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) is currently listed on the Superfund National Priorities List because of past waste handling practices at 13 'study areas.' Concern has been expressed that anthropogenic radioisotopes may have been released at some of the study areas, with the potential of posing health risks to human or ecological receptors. This concern was addressed by thoroughly searching archival records, sampling and analyzing environmental media, and performing an aerial radiation survey. The aerial radiation survey techniques employed have been used over all U.S. Department of Energy and commercial reactor sites. Use of the Aerial Measurement System (AMS) allowed investigators to safely survey areas where surveys using hand-held instruments would be difficult to perform. In addition, the AMS delivered a full spectrum of the measured gamma radiation, thereby providing a means of determining which radioisotopes were present at the surface. As a quality check on the aerial measurements, four ground truth measurements were made at selected locations and compared with the aerial data for the same locations. The results of the survey revealed no evidence of surface radioactive contamination. The measured background radiation, including the cosmic contribution, ranged from 4 to 11 {mu}R/h.

  13. GIS for mapping waterfowl density and distribution from aerial surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, W.I.; Stehn, R.A.; Balogh, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    We modified standard aerial survey data collection to obtain the geographic location for each waterfowl observation on surveys in Alaska during 1987-1993. Using transect navigation with CPS (global positioning system), data recording on continuously running tapes, and a computer data input program, we located observations with an average deviation along transects of 214 m. The method provided flexibility in survey design and data analysis. Although developed for geese nesting near the coast of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, the methods are widely applicable and were used on other waterfowl surveys in Alaska to map distribution and relative abundance of waterfowl. Accurate location data with GIS analysis and display may improve precision and usefulness of data from any aerial transect survey.

  14. Inertial instrument system for aerial surveying

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, R.H.; Chapman, W.H.; Hanna, W.F.; Mongan, C.E.; Hursh, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    An inertial guidance system for aerial surveying has been developed under contract to the U.S. Geological Survey. This prototype system, known as the aerial profiling of terrain (APT) system, is designed to determine continuously the positions of points along an aircraft flight path, or the underlying terrain profile, to an accuracy of + or - 0.5 ft (15 cm) vertically and + or - 2 ft (61 cm) horizontally. The system 's objective thus is to accomplish, from a fixed-wing aircraft, what would traditionally be accomplished from ground-based topographic surveys combined with aerial photography and photogrammetry. The two-part strategy for measuring the terrain profile entails: (1) use of an inertial navigator for continuous determination of the three-coordinate position of the aircraft, and (2) use of an eye-safe pulsed laser profiler for continuous measurement of the vertical distance from aircraft to land surface, so that the desired terrain profile can then be directly computed. The APT system, installed in a DeHavilland Twin Otter aircraft, is typically flown at a speed of 115 mph (105 knots) at an altitude of 2,000 ft (610 m) above the terrain. Performance-evaluation flights have shown that the vertical and horizontal accuracy specifications are met. (USGS)

  15. Astronomical Methods in Aerial Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beij, K Hilding

    1925-01-01

    The astronomical method of determining position is universally used in marine navigation and may also be of service in aerial navigation. The practical application of the method, however, must be modified and adapted to conform to the requirements of aviation. Much of this work of adaptation has already been accomplished, but being scattered through various technical journals in a number of languages, is not readily available. This report is for the purpose of collecting under one cover such previous work as appears to be of value to the aerial navigator, comparing instruments and methods, indicating the best practice, and suggesting future developments. The various methods of determining position and their application and value are outlined, and a brief resume of the theory of the astronomical method is given. Observation instruments are described in detail. A complete discussion of the reduction of observations follows, including a rapid method of finding position from the altitudes of two stars. Maps and map cases are briefly considered. A bibliography of the subject is appended.

  16. Aerial survey estimates of fallow deer abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gogan, Peter J.; Gates, Natalie B.; Lubow, Bruce C.; Pettit, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Reliable estimates of the distribution and abundance of an ungulate species is essential prior to establishing and implementing a management program. We used ground surveys to determine distribution and ground and aerial surveys and individually marked deer to estimate the abundance of fallow deer (Dama dama) in north-coastal California. Fallow deer had limited distribution and heterogeneous densities. Estimated post-rut densities across 4 annual surveys ranged from a low of 1.4 (SE=0.2) deer/km2 to a high of 3.3 (se=0.5) deer/km2 in a low density stratum and from 49.0 (SE=8.3) deer/km2 to 111.6 deer/km2 in a high density stratum. Sightability was positively influenced by the presence of white color-phase deer in a group and group size, and varied between airial and ground-based observers and by density strata. Our findings underscore the utility of double-observer surveys and aerial surveys with individually marked deer, both incorporating covariates to model sightability, to estimate deer abundance.

  17. A hybrid double-observer sightability model for aerial surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffin, Paul C.; Lubow, Bruce C.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Vales, David J.; Moeller, Barbara J.; Reid, Mason; Happe, Patricia J.; Mccorquodale, Scott M.; Tirhi, Michelle J.; Schaberi, Jim P.; Beirne, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Raw counts from aerial surveys make no correction for undetected animals and provide no estimate of precision with which to judge the utility of the counts. Sightability modeling and double-observer (DO) modeling are 2 commonly used approaches to account for detection bias and to estimate precision in aerial surveys. We developed a hybrid DO sightability model (model MH) that uses the strength of each approach to overcome the weakness in the other, for aerial surveys of elk (Cervus elaphus). The hybrid approach uses detection patterns of 2 independent observer pairs in a helicopter and telemetry-based detections of collared elk groups. Candidate MH models reflected hypotheses about effects of recorded covariates and unmodeled heterogeneity on the separate front-seat observer pair and back-seat observer pair detection probabilities. Group size and concealing vegetation cover strongly influenced detection probabilities. The pilot's previous experience participating in aerial surveys influenced detection by the front pair of observers if the elk group was on the pilot's side of the helicopter flight path. In 9 surveys in Mount Rainier National Park, the raw number of elk counted was approximately 80–93% of the abundance estimated by model MH. Uncorrected ratios of bulls per 100 cows generally were low compared to estimates adjusted for detection bias, but ratios of calves per 100 cows were comparable whether based on raw survey counts or adjusted estimates. The hybrid method was an improvement over commonly used alternatives, with improved precision compared to sightability modeling and reduced bias compared to DO modeling.

  18. Aerial surveys adjusted by ground surveys to estimate area occupied by black-tailed prairie dog colonies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sidle, John G.; Augustine, David J.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Miller, Sterling D.; Cully, Jack F., Jr.; Reading, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    Aerial surveys using line-intercept methods are one approach to estimate the extent of prairie dog colonies in a large geographic area. Although black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) construct conspicuous mounds at burrow openings, aerial observers have difficulty discriminating between areas with burrows occupied by prairie dogs (colonies) versus areas of uninhabited burrows (uninhabited colony sites). Consequently, aerial line-intercept surveys may overestimate prairie dog colony extent unless adjusted by an on-the-ground inspection of a sample of intercepts. We compared aerial line-intercept surveys conducted over 2 National Grasslands in Colorado, USA, with independent ground-mapping of known black-tailed prairie dog colonies. Aerial line-intercepts adjusted by ground surveys using a single activity category adjustment overestimated colonies by ≥94% on the Comanche National Grassland and ≥58% on the Pawnee National Grassland. We present a ground-survey technique that involves 1) visiting on the ground a subset of aerial intercepts classified as occupied colonies plus a subset of intercepts classified as uninhabited colony sites, and 2) based on these ground observations, recording the proportion of each aerial intercept that intersects a colony and the proportion that intersects an uninhabited colony site. Where line-intercept techniques are applied to aerial surveys or remotely sensed imagery, this method can provide more accurate estimates of black-tailed prairie dog abundance and trends

  19. Recent advances in aerial gamma-ray surveying.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Bruce L

    2004-01-01

    Aerial gamma-ray surveying uses NaI(Tl) detectors mounted in small aircraft to measure gamma radiation, emitted from the earth's surface. The data are collected as gamma-ray spectra, typically with 1 s counting times, from which are derived K, U and Th concentrations in the ground. Applications of aerial surveying include geological mapping for mineral exploration, soil mapping for agriculture, pollution studies and location of lost sources. Recent advances in applying statistical methods to the spectral data have resulted in large reductions in the noise levels in the surveys. Some of the methods available to do this include noise adjusted singular value decomposition (NASVD) [Proceedings of Exploration 97: Fourth Decennial International Conference on Mineral Exploration (1997) 753] and maximum noise fraction (MNF) and enhanced MNF (eMNF) [Explor. Geophys. 31 (2000) 73]. These methods, in general, apply normalization for variance to the spectra, use a principal component method to obtain the "significant" components of the data and reconstruct cleaned spectra, which are then processed in a standard manner to get radionuclide concentrations. However, they differ in the detail of the application and thus give slightly different results. In this paper, the application of noise reduction methods to various synthetic surveys is used to examine the strengths and weaknesses of the methods. In tests where there are high correlations between U and Th, the eMNF method performs best although the results are improved by prior clustering of the data by the Th/U ratio. If the data show no correlations, then the effectiveness of all the noise removal methods is reduced. If a data set is small (<1500 spectra), then MNF appears to be the better method. Consideration of the various tests suggests an optimum process whereby spectra are sorted into groups by the Th/U ratio of areas identified in a standard processing and then cleaned by eMNF or MNF, depending on the number of spectra

  20. Aerial Measuring System (AMS) Baseline Surveys for Emergency Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, C

    2012-06-04

    Originally established in the 1960s to support the Nuclear Test Program, the AMS mission is to provide a rapid and comprehensive worldwide aerial measurement, analysis, and interpretation capability in response to a nuclear/radiological emergency. AMS provides a responsive team of individuals whose processes allow for a mission to be conducted and completed with results available within hours. This presentation slide-show reviews some of the history of the AMS, summarizes present capabilities and methods, and addresses the value of the surveys.

  1. Methods development and applications evaluations of NURE aerial reconnaissance survey data for uranium resource evaluation: Beeville/Bay City and Crystal City quadrangles, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.A.S.; Harrill, S.F.; Oddo, J.E.

    1981-04-01

    The area studied covers some 50,000 square kilometers of land area in south Texas and is designated the Beeville/Bay City and Crystal City quadrangles, which are bounded by north latitude lines 28/sup 0/ and 29/sup 0/ and west longitude lines 94/sup 0/ and 100/sup 0/. The NURE open-file reports on the aerial gamma spectrometric, hydrologic, and stream-sediment surveys of this area were studied in regard to their utility in identifying regions of high or higher favorability for uranium deposits. The investigation concentrated on six formations, three of which were assumed to be favorable and three unfavorable. Traversing a few stationary ground gamma spectrometric determinations were made in connection with the present work. In addition to the 35 new ground determinations on the Beaumont formation, 1500 spectra previously obtained by a helicopter survey from an altitude of 15 meters around the South Texas Nuclear Power Plant Site near Bay City were used in the present study. There is substantial agreement between the NURE aerial data and the ground and helicopter data as regards the general radioelement distributions in the stratigraphic units described above. The vehicle-mounted gamma-ray spectrometer used in this work systematically gave some 30 percent higher thorium concentration estimates when compared with those from the NURE aerial data. The NURE aerial data are adequate in number to characterize the major stratigraphic units, but they may not be quantitative enough for detailed comparisons from one quadrangle to another, and the optimum sampling area for each formation is not known.The development or refinement of a unique geochemical model for the formation of south Texas-type sandstone uranium deposits was not achieved starting with the NURE open-file data and the published literature.

  2. An aerial radiological survey of the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, T J; Riedhauser, S R

    1999-12-01

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted an aerial radiological survey of the US Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site including three neighboring areas during August and September 1994. The survey team measured the terrestrial gamma radiation at the Nevada Test Site to determine the levels of natural and man-made radiation. This survey included the areas covered by previous surveys conducted from 1962 through 1993. The results of the aerial survey showed a terrestrial background exposure rate that varied from less than 6 microroentgens per hour (mR/h) to 50 mR/h plus a cosmic-ray contribution that varied from 4.5 mR/h at an elevation of 900 meters (3,000 feet) to 8.5 mR/h at 2,400 meters (8,000 feet). In addition to the principal gamma-emitting, naturally occurring isotopes (potassium-40, thallium-208, bismuth-214, and actinium-228), the man-made radioactive isotopes found in this survey were cobalt-60, cesium-137, europium-152, protactinium-234m an indicator of depleted uranium, and americium-241, which are due to human actions in the survey area. Individual, site-wide plots of gross terrestrial exposure rate, man-made exposure rate, and americium-241 activity (approximating the distribution of all transuranic material) are presented. In addition, expanded plots of individual areas exhibiting these man-made contaminations are given. A comparison is made between the data from this survey and previous aerial radiological surveys of the Nevada Test Site. Some previous ground-based measurements are discussed and related to the aerial data. In regions away from man-made activity, the exposure rates inferred from the gamma-ray measurements collected during this survey agreed very well with the exposure rates inferred from previous aerial surveys.

  3. An aerial radiological survey of Maralinga and EMU, South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Tipton, W J; Berry, H A; Fritzsche, A E

    1988-10-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the former British nuclear test ranges at Maralinga and Emu in South Australia from May through July 1987. The survey covered an area of approximately 1,550 square kilometers which included the nine major trial sites, where a nuclear yield occurred, and all the minor trial sites, where physics experiments were conducted. Flight lines were flown at an altitude of 30 meters with line spacings of 50, 100, and 200 meters depending on the area and whether man-made contamination was present. Results of the aerial survey were processed for americium-241 (used to determine plutonium contamination), cesium-137, cobalt-60, and uranium-238. The aerial survey also detected the presence of europium-152, a soil activation product, in the immediate vicinity of the major trial ground zeros. Ground measurements were also made at approximately 120 locations using a high-resolution germanium detector to provide supplemental data for the aerial survey. This survey was conducted as part of a series of studies being conducted over a two to three-year timeframe to obtain information from which options and associated costs can be formulated about the decontamination and possible rehabilitation of the former nuclear test sites.

  4. Detection probability in aerial surveys of feral horses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ransom, Jason I.

    2011-01-01

    Observation bias pervades data collected during aerial surveys of large animals, and although some sources can be mitigated with informed planning, others must be addressed using valid sampling techniques that carefully model detection probability. Nonetheless, aerial surveys are frequently employed to count large mammals without applying such methods to account for heterogeneity in visibility of animal groups on the landscape. This often leaves managers and interest groups at odds over decisions that are not adequately informed. I analyzed detection of feral horse (Equus caballus) groups by dual independent observers from 24 fixed-wing and 16 helicopter flights using mixed-effect logistic regression models to investigate potential sources of observation bias. I accounted for observer skill, population location, and aircraft type in the model structure and analyzed the effects of group size, sun effect (position related to observer), vegetation type, topography, cloud cover, percent snow cover, and observer fatigue on detection of horse groups. The most important model-averaged effects for both fixed-wing and helicopter surveys included group size (fixed-wing: odds ratio = 0.891, 95% CI = 0.850–0.935; helicopter: odds ratio = 0.640, 95% CI = 0.587–0.698) and sun effect (fixed-wing: odds ratio = 0.632, 95% CI = 0.350–1.141; helicopter: odds ratio = 0.194, 95% CI = 0.080–0.470). Observer fatigue was also an important effect in the best model for helicopter surveys, with detection probability declining after 3 hr of survey time (odds ratio = 0.278, 95% CI = 0.144–0.537). Biases arising from sun effect and observer fatigue can be mitigated by pre-flight survey design. Other sources of bias, such as those arising from group size, topography, and vegetation can only be addressed by employing valid sampling techniques such as double sampling, mark–resight (batch-marked animals), mark–recapture (uniquely marked and

  5. Distribution of radionuclides in the surface sea water developed by aerial radiological survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inomata, Yayoi; Aoyama, Michio; Hirose, Katsumi; Sanada, Yukihisa; Torii, Tatsuo; Tsubono, Takaki; Tsumune, Daisuke; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2014-05-01

    This study provides new data analysis method of aerial radiological survey to monitor the distribution of anthropogenic radioactivity in surface seawaters as a first attempt. The aerial radiological survey was performed by the U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) within a 30 km radius of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) on 18 April 2011. We found good correlations between the observed concentrations of FNPP1 derived radionuclides (131I, 134Cs, 137Cs) in the surface seawater and gamma-ray dose rates by aerial radiological surveys (correlation coefficients for 131I, 0.89; 134Cs, 0.96;137Cs, 0.95). The detection limits of 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs in surface seawaters for the aerial radiological survey are 25, 21, 24 Bq L-1, respectively. Based on these relations, we find that the area with high concentrations of the FNPP1 derived radionuclides spread south-southeast from the FNPP1. The maximum concentrations of 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs reached 303, 456, and 528 Bq L-1, respectively. The131I/134Cs ratios in surface waters of the high activities area are about 0.6-0.7. Considering the radioactive decay of 131I (half-life: 8.021 d), we confirm that radionuclides in the surface seawater of this area are due to direct release from FNPP1 to the ocean. From these results, it is concluded that the aerial radiological survey is very effective to investigate the accurate distribution of anthropogenic radioactivity in the surface seawater. Furthermore, the model reproduced the distribution pattern of the FNPP1 derived radionuclides in surface seawater obtained by the aerial radiological survey, although simulated results by regional ocean model are underestimated.

  6. Sources of variation in detection of wading birds from aerial surveys in the florida Everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conroy, M.J.; Peterson, J.T.; Bass, O.L.; Fonnesbeck, C.J.; Howell, J.E.; Moore, C.T.; Runge, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted dual-observer trials to estimate detection probabilities (probability that a group that is present and available is detected) for fixed-wing aerial surveys of wading birds in the Everglades system, Florida. Detection probability ranged from <0.2 to similar to 0.75 and varied according to species, group size, observer, and the observer's position in the aircraft (front or rear seat). Aerial-survey simulations indicated that incomplete detection can have a substantial effect oil assessment of population trends, particularly river relatively short intervals (<= 3 years) and small annual changes in population size (<= 3%). We conclude that detection bias is an important consideration for interpreting observations from aerial surveys of wading birds, potentially limiting the use of these data for comparative purposes and trend analyses. We recommend that workers conducting aerial surveys for wading birds endeavor to reduce observer and other controllable sources of detection bias and account for uncontrollable sources through incorporation of dual-observer or other calibratior methods as part of survey design (e.g., using double sampling).

  7. Coastal Survey Using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, G.

    2012-12-01

    Generating high-resolution 3-dimensional costal imagery from imagery collected on small-unmanned aircraft is opening many opportunities to study marine wildlife and its use of costal habitats as well as climate change effects on northern coasts where storm surges are radically altering the coastline. Additionally, the technology is being evaluated for oil spill response planning and preparation. The University of Alaska Fairbanks works extensively with small-unmanned aircraft and recently began evaluating the aircraft utility for generating survey grade mapping of topographic features. When generating 3-D maps of coastal regions however there are added challenges that the University have identified and are trying to address. Recent projects with Alaska fisheries and BP Exploration Alaska have demonstrated that small-unmanned aircraft can support the generation of map-based products that are nearly impossible to generate with other technologies.

  8. A Methodological Intercomparison of Topographic and Aerial Photographic Habitat Survey Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangen, S. G.; Wheaton, J. M.; Bouwes, N.

    2011-12-01

    A severe decline in Columbia River salmonid populations and subsequent Federal listing of subpopulations has mandated both the monitoring of populations and evaluation of the status of available habitat. Numerous field and analytical methods exist to assist in the quantification of the abundance and quality of in-stream habitat for salmonids. These methods range from field 'stick and tape' surveys to spatially explicit topographic and aerial photographic surveys from a mix of ground-based and remotely sensed airborne platforms. Although several previous studies have assessed the quality of specific individual survey methods, the intercomparison of competing techniques across a diverse range of habitat conditions (wadeable headwater channels to non-wadeable mainstem channels) has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we seek to enumerate relative quality (i.e. accuracy, precision, extent) of habitat metrics and inventories derived from an array of ground-based and remotely sensed surveys of varying degrees of sophistication, as well as quantify the effort and cost in conducting the surveys. Over the summer of 2010, seven sample reaches of varying habitat complexity were surveyed in the Lemhi River Basin, Idaho, USA. Complete topographic surveys were attempted at each site using rtkGPS, total station, ground-based LiDaR and traditional airborne LiDaR. Separate high spatial resolution aerial imagery surveys were acquired using a tethered blimp, a drone UAV, and a traditional fixed-wing aircraft. Here we also developed a relatively simplistic methodology for deriving bathymetry from aerial imagery that could be readily employed by instream habitat monitoring programs. The quality of bathymetric maps derived from aerial imagery was compared with rtkGPS topographic data. The results are helpful for understanding the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches in specific conditions, and how a hybrid of data acquisition methods can be used to build a more complete

  9. An automatic high precision registration method between large area aerial images and aerial light detection and ranging data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Q.; Xie, D.; Sun, Y.

    2015-06-01

    The integration of digital aerial photogrammetry and Light Detetion And Ranging (LiDAR) is an inevitable trend in Surveying and Mapping field. We calculate the external orientation elements of images which identical with LiDAR coordinate to realize automatic high precision registration between aerial images and LiDAR data. There are two ways to calculate orientation elements. One is single image spatial resection using image matching 3D points that registered to LiDAR. The other one is Position and Orientation System (POS) data supported aerotriangulation. The high precision registration points are selected as Ground Control Points (GCPs) instead of measuring GCPs manually during aerotriangulation. The registration experiments indicate that the method which registering aerial images and LiDAR points has a great advantage in higher automation and precision compare with manual registration.

  10. Aerial infrared surveys in the investigation of geothermal and volcanic heat sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1995-01-01

    This factsheet briefly summarizes and clarifies the application of aerial infrared surveys in geophysical exploration for geothermal energy sources and environmental monitoring for potential volcanic hazards.

  11. AMS/NRCan Joint Survey Report: Aerial Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Wasiolek, Piotr; Stampahar, Jez; Malchow, Rusty; Stampahar, Tom; Lukens, Mike; Seywerd, Henry; Fortin, Richard; Harvey, Brad; Sinclair, Laurel

    2014-12-31

    In January 2014 the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Aerial Measuring System (AMS) and the Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) Nuclear Emergency Response project conducted a series of joint surveys at a number of locations in Nevada including the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The goal of this project was to compare the responses of the two agencies’ aerial radiation detection systems and data analysis techniques. This test included varied radioactive surface contamination levels and isotopic composition experienced at the NNSS and the differing data processing techniques utilized by the respective teams. Because both teams used the commercial aerial radiation detection systems from Radiation Solutions, Inc., the main focus of the campaign was to investigate the data acquisition techniques, data analysis, and ground-truth verification. The NRCan system consisted of four 4" × 4" × 16" NaI(Tl) scintillator crystals of which two were externally mounted in a modified commercial cargo basket certified for the Eurocopter AS350; the NNSA AMS system consisted of twelve 2" × 4" × 16" NaI(Tl) crystals in externally mounted dedicated pods. For NRCan, the joint survey provided an opportunity to characterize their system’s response to extended sources of various fission products at the NNSS. Since both systems play an important role in their respective countries’ national framework of radiological emergency response and are subject to multiple mutual cooperation agreements, it was important for each country to obtain more thorough knowledge of how they would employ these important assets and define the roles that they would each play in an actual response.

  12. Ground-Cover Measurements: Assessing Correlation Among Aerial and Ground-Based Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, D. Terrance; Cox, Samuel E.; Meikle, Tim; Zuuring, Hans R.

    2008-12-01

    Wyoming’s Green Mountain Common Allotment is public land providing livestock forage, wildlife habitat, and unfenced solitude, amid other ecological services. It is also the center of ongoing debate over USDI Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM) adjudication of land uses. Monitoring resource use is a BLM responsibility, but conventional monitoring is inadequate for the vast areas encompassed in this and other public-land units. New monitoring methods are needed that will reduce monitoring costs. An understanding of data-set relationships among old and new methods is also needed. This study compared two conventional methods with two remote sensing methods using images captured from two meters and 100 meters above ground level from a camera stand (a ground, image-based method) and a light airplane (an aerial, image-based method). Image analysis used SamplePoint or VegMeasure software. Aerial methods allowed for increased sampling intensity at low cost relative to the time and travel required by ground methods. Costs to acquire the aerial imagery and measure ground cover on 162 aerial samples representing 9000 ha were less than 3000. The four highest correlations among data sets for bare ground—the ground-cover characteristic yielding the highest correlations (r)—ranged from 0.76 to 0.85 and included ground with ground, ground with aerial, and aerial with aerial data-set associations. We conclude that our aerial surveys are a cost-effective monitoring method, that ground with aerial data-set correlations can be equal to, or greater than those among ground-based data sets, and that bare ground should continue to be investigated and tested for use as a key indicator of rangeland health.

  13. Low Cost Surveying Using AN Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, M.; Agüera, F.; Carvajal, F.

    2013-08-01

    Traditional manned airborne surveys are usually expensive and the resolution of the acquired images is often limited. The main advantage of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) system acting as a photogrammetric sensor platform over more traditional manned airborne system is the high flexibility that allows image acquisition from unconventional viewpoints, the low cost in comparison with classical aerial photogrammetry and the high resolution images obtained. Nowadays there is a necessity for surveying small areas and in these cases, it is not economical the use of normal large format aerial or metric cameras to acquire aerial photos, therefore, the use of UAV platforms can be very suitable. Also the large availability of digital cameras has strongly enhanced the capabilities of UAVs. The use of digital non metric cameras together with the UAV could be used for multiple applications such as aerial surveys, GIS, wildfire mapping, stability of landslides, crop monitoring, etc. The aim of this work was to develop a low cost and accurate methodology in the production of orthophotos and Digital Elevation Models (DEM). The study was conducted in the province of Almeria, south of Spain. The photogrammetric flight had an altitude of 50 m over ground, covering an area of 5.000 m2 approximately. The UAV used in this work was the md4-200, which is an electronic battery powered quadrocopter UAV developed by Microdrones GmbH, Germany. It had on-board a Pextax Optio A40 digital non metric camera with 12 Megapixels. It features a 3x optical zoom lens with a focal range covering angles of view equivalent to those of 37-111 mm lens in 35 mm format. The quadrocopter can be programmed to follow a route defined by several waypoints and actions and it has the ability for vertical take off and landing. Proper flight geometry during image acquisition is essential in order to minimize the number of photographs, avoid areas without a good coverage and make the overlaps homogeneous. The flight

  14. Initial Efforts toward Mission-Representative Imaging Surveys from Aerial Explorers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pisanich, Greg; Plice, Laura; Ippolito, Corey; Young, Larry A.; Lau, Benton; Lee, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    Numerous researchers have proposed the use of robotic aerial explorers to perform scientific investigation of planetary bodies in our solar system. One of the essential tasks for any aerial explorer is to be able to perform scientifically valuable imaging surveys. The focus of this paper is to discuss the challenges implicit in, and recent observations related to, acquiring mission-representative imaging data from a small fixed-wing UAV, acting as a surrogate planetary aerial explorer. This question of successfully performing aerial explorer surveys is also tied to other topics of technical investigation, including the development of unique bio-inspired technologies.

  15. Monitoring Whooping Crane Abundance Using Aerial Surveys: Influences on Detectability

    PubMed Central

    Strobel, Bradley N; Butler, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    The whooping crane (Grus americana), an endangered species, has been counted on its winter grounds in Texas, USA, since 1950 using fixed-wing aircraft. Many shortcomings of the traditional survey technique have been identified, calling into question its efficacy, defensibility, repeatability, and usefulness into the future. To improve and standardize monitoring effort, we began investigating new survey techniques. Here we focus on efficacy of line transect-based distance sampling during aerial surveys. We conducted a preliminary test of distance sampling during winter 2010–2011 while flying the traditional survey, which indicated that detectability within 500 m of transects was 0.558 (SE = 0.031). We then used an experimental decoy survey to evaluate impacts of observer experience, sun position, distance from transect, and group size on detectability. Our results indicated decoy detectability increased with group size and exhibited a quadratic relationship with distance likely due to pontoons on the aircraft. We found that detectability was 2.704 times greater when the sun was overhead and 3.912 times greater when the sun was at the observer's back than when it was in the observer's eyes. We found that an inexperienced observer misclassified non-target objects more often than an experienced observer. During the decoy experiment we used marks on the struts to categorize distances into intervals, but we found that observers misclassified distances 46.7% of the time (95% CI = 37.0–56.6%). Also, we found that detectability of individuals within detected groups was affected by group size and distance from transect. We discuss how these results inform design and implementation of future whooping crane monitoring efforts. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:26388657

  16. Aerial surveys give new estimates for orangutans in Sabah, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ancrenaz, Marc; Gimenez, Olivier; Ambu, Laurentius; Ancrenaz, Karine; Andau, Patrick; Goossens, Benoît; Payne, John; Sawang, Azri; Tuuga, Augustine; Lackman-Ancrenaz, Isabelle

    2005-01-01

    Great apes are threatened with extinction, but precise information about the distribution and size of most populations is currently lacking. We conducted orangutan nest counts in the Malaysian state of Sabah (North Borneo), using a combination of ground and helicopter surveys, and provided a way to estimate the current distribution and size of the populations living throughout the entire state. We show that the number of nests detected during aerial surveys is directly related to the estimated true animal density and that a helicopter is an efficient tool to provide robust estimates of orangutan numbers. Our results reveal that with a total estimated population size of about 11,000 individuals, Sabah is one of the main strongholds for orangutans in North Borneo. More than 60% of orangutans living in the state occur outside protected areas, in production forests that have been through several rounds of logging extraction and are still exploited for timber. The role of exploited forests clearly merits further investigation for orangutan conservation in Sabah. PMID:15630475

  17. Sea otter abundance in Kenai Fjords national Park: results from the 2010 aerial survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coletti, Heather A.; Bodkin, James L.; Esslinger, George

    2011-01-01

    Fjord, Nuka Bay and Nuka Island. All observed otters were in the high density stratum, defined as the 0 m to 40 m depth contour and minimum distances from shore, while no sea otters were observed in the low density stratum, which is defined as the area within the 40m to 100 m depth contour. We recommend that prior to the next aerial sea otter survey in KEFJ (scheduled for 2013), a power simulation be conducted to evaluate methods to improve precision of estimates and the ability to detect change.

  18. Analysis of aerial survey data on Florida manatee using Markov chain Monte Carlo.

    PubMed

    Craig, B A; Newton, M A; Garrott, R A; Reynolds, J E; Wilcox, J R

    1997-06-01

    We assess population trends of the Atlantic coast population of Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris, by reanalyzing aerial survey data collected between 1982 and 1992. To do so, we develop an explicit biological model that accounts for the method by which the manatees are counted, the mammals' movement between surveys, and the behavior of the population total over time. Bayesian inference, enabled by Markov chain Monte Carlo, is used to combine the survey data with the biological model. We compute marginal posterior distributions for all model parameters and predictive distributions for future counts. Several conclusions, such as a decreasing population growth rate and low sighting probabilities, are consistent across different prior specifications. PMID:9192449

  19. Surveying a Landslide in a Road Embankment Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvajal, F.; Agüera, F.; Pérez, M.

    2011-09-01

    Most of the works of civil engineering, and some others applications, need to be designed using a basic cartography with a suitable scale to the accuracy and extension of the plot.The Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Photogrammetry covers the gap between classical manned aerial photogrammetry and hand- made surveying techniques because it works in the close-range domain, combining aerial and terrestrial photogrammetry, but also introduces low-cost alternatives. The aim of this work is developing of an accurate and low-cost method to characterize landslides located on the size of a road. It was applied at the kilometric point 339 belonging to the A92 dual carriageway, in the Abla municipal term, province of Almeria, Spain. A photogrammetric project was carried out from a set of images taken from an md4-200 Microdrones with an on-board calibrated camera 12 Megapixels Pentax Optio A40. The flight was previously planned to cover the whole extension of the embankment with three passes composed of 18 photos each one. All the images were taken with the vertical axe and it was registered 85% and 60% longitudinal and transversal overlaps respectively. The accuracy of the products, with planimetric and altimetric errors of 0.049 and 0.108m repectively, lets to take measurements of the landslide and projecting preventive and palliative actuations.

  20. An aerial radiological survey of the Sandia National Laboratories and surrounding area

    SciTech Connect

    Riedhauser, S.R.

    1994-06-01

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted an aerial radiological survey of the area surrounding the Sandia National Laboratories and Kirtland Air Force Base in Albuquerque, New Mexico, during March and April 1993. The survey team measured the terrestrial gamma radiation at the site to determine the levels of natural and man-made radiation. This survey includes the areas covered by a previous survey in 1981. The results of the aerial survey show a background exposure rate which varies between 5 and 18 {mu}R/h plus an approximate 6 {mu}R/h contribution from cosmic rays. The major radioactive isotopes found in this survey were: potassium-40, thallium-208, bismuth-214, and actinium-228, which are all naturally-occurring isotopes, and cobalt-60, cesium-137, and excess amounts of thallium-208 and actinium-228, which are due to human actions in the survey area. In regions away from man-made activity, the exposure rates inferred from this survey`s gamma ray measurements agree almost exactly with the exposure rates inferred from the 1981 survey. In addition to the aerial measurements, another survey team conducted in situ and soil sample radiation measurements at three sites within the survey perimeter. These ground-based measurements agree with the aerial measurements within {+-} 5%.

  1. Spectral anomaly methods for aerial detection using KUT nuisance rejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detwiler, R. S.; Pfund, D. M.; Myjak, M. J.; Kulisek, J. A.; Seifert, C. E.

    2015-06-01

    This work discusses the application and optimization of a spectral anomaly method for the real-time detection of gamma radiation sources from an aerial helicopter platform. Aerial detection presents several key challenges over ground-based detection. For one, larger and more rapid background fluctuations are typical due to higher speeds, larger field of view, and geographically induced background changes. As well, the possible large altitude or stand-off distance variations cause significant steps in background count rate as well as spectral changes due to increased gamma-ray scatter with detection at higher altitudes. The work here details the adaptation and optimization of the PNNL-developed algorithm Nuisance-Rejecting Spectral Comparison Ratios for Anomaly Detection (NSCRAD), a spectral anomaly method previously developed for ground-based applications, for an aerial platform. The algorithm has been optimized for two multi-detector systems; a NaI(Tl)-detector-based system and a CsI detector array. The optimization here details the adaptation of the spectral windows for a particular set of target sources to aerial detection and the tailoring for the specific detectors. As well, the methodology and results for background rejection methods optimized for the aerial gamma-ray detection using Potassium, Uranium and Thorium (KUT) nuisance rejection are shown. Results indicate that use of a realistic KUT nuisance rejection may eliminate metric rises due to background magnitude and spectral steps encountered in aerial detection due to altitude changes and geographically induced steps such as at land-water interfaces.

  2. An aerial radiological survey of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding area, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) and surrounding area in Paducah, Kentucky, was conducted during May 15--25, 1990. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the terrestrial radiological environment at the PGDP and surrounding area for use in effective environmental management and emergency response planning. The aerial survey was flown at an altitude of 61 meters (200 feet) along a series of parallel lines 107 meters (350 feet) apart. The survey encompassed an area of 62 square kilometers (24 square miles), bordered on the north by the Ohio River. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a gamma radiation contour map. Typical background exposure rates were found to vary from 5 to 12 microroentgens per hour ([mu]R/h). Protactinium-234m, a radioisotope indicative of uranium-238, was detected at several facilities at the PGDR. In support of the aerial survey, ground-based exposure rate and soil sample measurements were obtained at several sites within the survey perimeter. The results of the aerial and ground-based measurements were found to agree within [plus minus]15%.

  3. Aerial remote sensing surveys progress report: Helicopter geophysical survey of the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Doll, W.E.; Nyquist, J.E.; King, A.D. ); Bell, D.T. ); Holladay, J.S. ); Labson, V.F.; Pellerin, L. )

    1993-03-01

    The 35,252 acre Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in the western portion of the Appalachian Valley and Ridge Province in Tennessee, has been a nuclear production and development facility for50 years. Contaminants in the many waste sites on the ORR include a wide variety of radioactive isotopes as well as many organic and inorganic compounds. The locations, geometry, and contents of many of these waste sites are reasonably well known, while others are poorly known or unknown. To better characterize the reasonably well known sites and search for additional potentially environmentally hazardous sites, a two-phase aerial survey of the ORR was developed. Phase I began in March 1992 and consisted of aerial radiation, multispectral scanner, and photographic (natural color and color infrared) surveys. Phase II began in November 1992 and is described in this report. Phase II consisted of helicopter electromagnetic (HEM), magnetic, and gamma radiation surveys. Targets of the survey included both man-made (drums, trench boundaries, burn pits, well heads) and geologic (fractures, faults, karst features, geologic contacts) features. The Phase II survey has three components: testing, reconnaissance, and high-resolution data acquisition. To date, the testing and reconnaissance data acquisition have been completed, and some of the data have been processed. They indicate that: (1) magnetic and HEM data are complementary and do not always highlight the same anomaly; (2) under favorable circumstances, helicopter magnetometer systems are capable of detecting groups of four or more 55-gal drums at detector altitudes of 15 m or less; (3) HEM data provide data that compare favorably with surface data collected over burial trenches, (4) well casings may be related to magnetic monopole anomalies, as would be expected; and (5) changes in HEM and magnetic anomaly character are related to lithologic changes and may be used to track contacts between known outcrops.

  4. Aerial survey methodology for bison population estimation in Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, Steven C.

    2002-01-01

    I developed aerial survey methods for statistically rigorous bison population estimation in Yellowstone National Park to support sound resource management decisions and to understand bison ecology. Survey protocols, data recording procedures, a geographic framework, and seasonal stratifications were based on field observations from February 1998-September 2000. The reliability of this framework and strata were tested with long-term data from 1970-1997. I simulated different sample survey designs and compared them to high-effort censuses of well-defined large areas to evaluate effort, precision, and bias. Sample survey designs require much effort and extensive information on the current spatial distribution of bison and therefore do not offer any substantial reduction in time and effort over censuses. I conducted concurrent ground surveys, or 'double sampling' to estimate detection probability during aerial surveys. Group size distribution and habitat strongly affected detection probability. In winter, 75% of the groups and 92% of individual bison were detected on average from aircraft, while in summer, 79% of groups and 97% of individual bison were detected. I also used photography to quantify the bias due to counting large groups of bison accurately and found that undercounting increased with group size and could reach 15%. I compared survey conditions between seasons and identified optimal time windows for conducting surveys in both winter and summer. These windows account for the habitats and total area bison occupy, and group size distribution. Bison became increasingly scattered over the Yellowstone region in smaller groups and more occupied unfavorable habitats as winter progressed. Therefore, the best conditions for winter surveys occur early in the season (Dec-Jan). In summer, bison were most spatially aggregated and occurred in the largest groups by early August. Low variability between surveys and high detection probability provide population estimates

  5. An aerial radiological survey of the Ames Laboratory and surrounding area, Ames, Iowa. Date of survey: July 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Maurer, R.J.

    1993-04-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Ames Laboratory and surrounding area in Ames, Iowa, was conducted during the period July 15--25, 1991. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the terrestrial radiological environment at the Ames Laboratory and the surrounding area for use in effective environmental management and emergency response planning. The aerial survey was flown at an altitude of 200 feet (61 meters) along a series of parallel lines 350 feet (107 meters) apart. The survey encompassed an area of 36 square miles (93 square kilometers) and included the city of Ames, Iowa, and the Iowa State University. The results are reported as exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level (inferred from the aerial data) in the form of a gamma radiation contour map. Typical background exposure rates were found to vary from 7 to 9 microroentgens per hour ({mu}R/h). No anomalous radiation levels were detected at the Ames Laboratory. However, one anomalous radiation source was detected at an industrial storage yard in the city of Ames. In support of the aerial survey, ground-based exposure rate and soil sample measurements were obtained at several sites within the survey perimeter. The results of the aerial and ground-based measurements were found to agree within the expected uncertainty of {+-}15%.

  6. An aerial radiological survey of the project Rio Blanco and surrounding area

    SciTech Connect

    Singman, L.V.

    1994-11-01

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, conducted an aerial radiation survey of the area surrounding ground zero of Project Rio Blanco in the northwestern section of Colorado in June 1993. The object of the survey was to determine if there were man-made radioisotopes on or near the surface resulting from a nuclear explosion in 1972. No indications of surface contamination were found. A search for the cesium-137 radioisotope was negative. The Minimum Detectable Activity for cesium-137 is presented for several detection probabilities. The natural terrestrial exposure rates in units of Roentgens per hour were mapped and are presented in the form of a contour map over-laid on an aerial photograph. A second team made independent ground-based measurements in four places within the survey area. The average agreement of the ground-based with aerial measurements was six percent.

  7. UAV using the open-source flight-control-system in the application of aerial survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ji-chen; Ru, Chen

    2015-12-01

    The aerial survey as one of the branches of the Space Information Technology system, has an important application in data acquisition of the earth's surface. In recent years, the trend of UVA (unmanned aerial vehicle) to replace traditional survey aircraft has become increasingly obvious with the progress of science and technology. At present, the price of the commercial UAV Flight Control System is higher, limiting the application of UVA. This paper mainly discusses the possibility that the open-source's flight-control-system take the place of the commercial one. Result is that the costs of UVA are reduced, and make the application more widely.

  8. Aerial remote sensing surveys, geophysical characterization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Labson, V.F.; Pellerin, L.; Anderson, W.L.

    1998-06-01

    The application of helicopter electromagnetic (HEM) and magnetic methods to the requirements of the environmental restoration of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) demand the use of advanced, nontraditional methods of data acquisition, processing and interpretation. The cooperative study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and University of California (UCB) has resulted in the planning and supervision of data acquisition, the development of tools for data processing and interpretation, and an intensive application of the methods developed. This final report consists of a series of publications which the USGS collaborated with the ORNL technical staff. These reports represent the full scope of the USGS assistance. Copies of the reports and papers are included in the Appendix. The primary goals of this effort were to quantify the effectiveness of the geophysical methods applied in the survey of the ORR for the identification of buried waste, hydrogeologic pathways by which contamination could migrate through or off the site, and for the more accurate geologic mapping of the ORR. The objectives in buried waste identification are the accurate description of the source of the geophysical anomaly and the determination of the limits of resolution of the geophysical methods to acknowledge what we might have missed. The study of hydrogeologic pathways concentrated on the identification of karst features in the limestone underlying much of the ORR. Work in this study has indicated to the ORNL staff that these karst features can be located from the airborne geophysics. The defining characteristic of this helicopter geophysical study is the collaborative nature of the effort. Each task in which the USGS was involved has included a designated staff member from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  9. Detection probability of gyrfalcons and other cliff-nesting raptors during aerial surveys in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Booms, Travis L.; Fuller, Mark R.; Schempf, Philip F.; McCaffery, Brian J.; Lindberg, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Assessing the status of Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus) and other cliffnesting raptors as the Arctic climate changes often requires aerial surveys of their breeding habitats. Because traditional, count-based surveys that do not adjust for differing detection probabilities can provide faulty inference about population status (Link and Sauer 1998, Thompson 2002), it will be important to incorporate measures of detection probability into survey methods whenever possible. To evaluate the feasibility of this, we conducted repeated aerial surveys for breeding cliff-nesting raptors on the Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge (YDNWR) in western Alaska to estimate detection probabilities of Gyrfalcons, Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus), and also Common Ravens (Corvus corax). Using the program PRESENCE, we modeled detection histories of each species based on single species occupancy modeling following MacKenzie et al. (2002, 2006). We used different observers during four helicopter replicate surveys in the Kilbuck Mountains and five fixed-wing replicate surveys in the Ingakslugwat Hills (hereafter called Volcanoes) near Bethel, Alaska. We used the following terms and definitions throughout: Survey Site: site of a nest used previously by a raptor and marked with a GPS-obtained latitude and longitude accurate to within 20 m. All GPS locations were obtained in prior years from a helicopter hovering approximately 10?20 m from a nest. The site was considered occupied if a bird or an egg was detected within approximately 500 m of the nest and this area served as our sampling unit. When multiple historical nests were located on a single cliff, we used only one GPS location to locate the survey site. Detection probability (p): the probability of a species being detected at a site given the site is occupied. Occupancy (?): the probability that the species of interest is present at a site during the survey period. A site was considered occupied if the

  10. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Yucca Mountain Project Proposed Land Withdrawal and Adjacent Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Lyons, Thane Hendricks

    2006-07-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) proposed land withdrawal was conducted from January to April 2006, and encompassed a total area of approximately 284 square miles (73,556 hectares). The aerial radiological survey was conducted to provide a sound technical basis and rigorous statistical approach for determining the potential presence of radiological contaminants in the Yucca Mountain proposed Land withdrawal area. The survey site included land areas currently managed by the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Air Force as part of the Nevada Test and Training Range or the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) as part of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The survey was flown at an approximate ground speed of 70 knots (36 meters per second), at a nominal altitude of 150 ft (46 m) above ground level, along a set of parallel flight lines spaced 250 ft (76 m) apart. The flight lines were oriented in a north-south trajectory. The survey was conducted by the DOE NNSA/NSO Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis, which is located in Las Vegas, Nevada. The aerial survey was conducted at the request of the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The primary contaminant of concern was identified by YMP personnel as cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs). Due to the proposed land withdrawal area's proximity to the historical Nuclear Rocket Development Station (NRDS) facilities located on the NTS, the aerial survey system required sufficient sensitivity to discriminate between dispersed but elevated {sup 137}Cs levels from those normally encountered from worldwide fallout. As part of that process, the survey also measured and mapped the exposure-rate levels that currently existed within the survey area. The inferred aerial exposure rates of the natural terrestrial background radiation varied from less than 3 to 22 microroentgens per hour. This range of exposure rates was primarily due to the

  11. An aerial radiological survey of the Millstone Nuclear Power Station and surrounding area

    SciTech Connect

    Vojtech, R.J.

    1994-03-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period of September 10 to 18, 1990, over a 40-square-mile (104-square-kilometer) area surrounding the Millstone Nuclear Power Station (MNPS). The MNPS is located on the Long Island Sound shoreline, three kilometers south of Waterford, Connecticut. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the terrestrial gamma ray environment of the plant and surrounding areas. A contour map showing radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level was constructed from the aerial data and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a United States Geological Survey map of the area. The exposure rates within the survey region are quite uniform. The area is characterized by an exposure rate of 10-12 microroentgens per hour including an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.6 {mu}R/h. This is typical of natural background. The only exception to the natural background readings is the Millstone station itself, which is characterized by an exposure rate consistent with the standard operation of the reactor units. Radionuclide assays of soil samples and pressurized-ion-chamber gamma ray measurements were obtained at five locations within the survey boundaries. These measurements were taken in support of, and are in agreement with, the aerial data. The radiological environment near the plant is consistent with normal plant operation.

  12. An aerial radiological survey of the area surrounding the Maybell mill site, Maybell, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Jobst, J.E.

    1982-06-01

    An aerial radiological measuring system was used to survey the area surrounding Maybell, Colorado and the nearby mines and mill in late October and early November 1981. The survey was conducted for the US Department of Energy's Office of Operational Safety by the Department's Remote Sensing Laboratory, located in Las Vegas, Nevada. The highest measured radiation exposure rates (normalized to 3 feet above the ground) exceed 300 microroentgens per hour ({mu}R/h) over the leach piles at the mill.

  13. A review of aerial radiological surveys of Nevada Test Site fallout fields 1951 through 1970

    SciTech Connect

    1987-12-01

    Aerial surveys of offsite fallout radiation fields from the Nevada Test Site began in the early 1950s and continued throughout the above-ground testing period. The results of the aerial surveys were used to support ground data in determining the extent of the fallout patterns. For the series of tests conducted in 1953 and 1955, the primary uncertainty of the results was knowing the location of the aircraft. Navigation was made from aeronautical charts of a scale 1:1,000,000, and errors in location of several miles were experienced. Another problem was that exposure rate readings made in the aircraft of 1 milliroentgen per hour or lower were not reliable. Exposure rate measurements above 1 milliroentgen per hour were more accurate, however, and are considered reliable to within a factor of two or three in predicting 3-foot exposure rate levels. For the 1957 series, the aircraft position data were quite accurate. Ground-level exposure rates predicted from aerial data obtained by the United States Geological Survey aircraft for the five-detector array were considered reliable to within +-40% or better for most of the surveys. When the single detector was used, the accuracy decreased to about a factor of two. Relative count rates obtained by the aircraft operated by the Atomic Energy Commission, Raw Materials Division, are probably valid, but quantitative determination of 3-foot exposure rates are not. The Aerial Radiological Monitoring System performed all the aerial surveys in the 1960s. However, the air-to-ground conversion factors used were too low. Using a corrected conversion factor, the predicted 3-foot exposure rates should be valid to +-40% in most fallout fields if all other parameters are considered. 40 refs., 30 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Aerial Transient Electromagnetic Surveys of Alluvial Aquifers in Rural Watersheds of Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pool, D. R.; Callegary, J. B.; Groom, R. W.

    2006-12-01

    Development in rural areas of Arizona has led the State of Arizona (Arizona Department of Water Resources), in cooperation with the Arizona Water Science Center of the U.S. Geological Survey, to sponsor investigations of the hydrogeologic framework of several alluvial-basin aquifers. An efficient method for mapping the aquifer extent and lithology was needed due to sparse subsurface information. Aerial Transient Electro-Magnetic (ATEM) methods were selected because they can be used to quickly survey large areas and with a great depth of investigation. Both helicopter and fixed-wing ATEM methods are available. A fixed-wing method (GEOTEM) was selected because of the potential for a depth of investigation of 300 m or more and because previous surveys indicated the method is useful in alluvial basins in southeastern Arizona. About 2,900 km of data along flight lines were surveyed across five alluvial basins, including the Middle San Pedro and Willcox Basins in southeastern Arizona, and Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento Basins in northwestern Arizona. Data initially were analyzed by the contractor (FUGRO Airborne Surveys) to produce conductivity-depth-transforms, which approximate the general subsurface electrical-property distribution along profiles. Physically based two-dimensional physical models of the profile data were then developed by PetRos- Eikon by using EMIGMA software. Hydrologically important lithologies can have different electrical properties. Several types of crystalline and sedimentary rocks generally are poor aquifers that have low porosity and high electrical resistivity. Good alluvial aquifers of sand and gravel generally have an intermediate electrical resistivity. Poor aquifer materials, such as silt and clay, and areas of poor quality water have low electrical resistivity values. Several types of control data were available to constrain the models including drill logs, electrical logs, water levels , and water quality information from wells; and

  15. An aerial radiological survey of the Pilgrim Station Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Plymouth, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, A.E.

    1997-06-01

    Terrestrial radioactivity surrounding the Pilgrim Station Nuclear Power Plant was measured using aerial radiolog- ical survey techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates near the plant and to identify unexpected, man-made radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included land areas within a three-mile radius of the plant site. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that employs sodium iodide, thallium-activated detectors. Exposure rate and photopeak counts were computed from these data and plotted on aerial photographs of the survey area. Several ground-based exposure measurements were made for comparison with the,aerial survey results. Exposure rates in areas surrounding the plant site varied from 6 to 10 microroentgens per hour, with exposure rates below 6 microroentgens per hour occurring over bogs and marshy areas. Man-made radiation was found to be higher than background levels at the plant site. Radation due to nitrogen-1 6, which is produced in the steam cycle of a boiling-water reactor, was the primaty source of activity found at the plant site. Cesium-137 activity at levels slightly above those expected from natural fallout was found at isolated locations inland from the plant site. No other detectable sources of man-made radioactivity were found.

  16. An aerial radiological survey of Frenchman Flat at the Nevada Test Site, Southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, R.C.

    1996-10-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over Frenchman Flat at the Nevada Test Site from January 27 to February 7,1982. Parallel lines were flown at an altitude of 100 feet (30 meters) above ground level with line spacing intervals of 200 feet (61 meters) over a 170-square-mile (440-square-kilometer) area. This covered both Frenchman Flat and the area of the Nellis Range Complex where a fallout deposition plume had exited the Nevada Test Site to the east. The aerial data obtained were reduced to a man-made radiation contour map and overlaid on a U.S. Geological Survey map. The survey detected the presence of fission and activation products. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and Surrounding Area, Portsmouth, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Namdoo Moon

    2007-12-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the 16 square-mile (~41 square-kilometer) area surrounding the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The survey was performed in August 2007 utilizing a large array of helicopter mounted sodium iodide detectors. The purpose of the survey was to update the previous radiological survey levels of the environment and surrounding areas of the plant. A search for a missing radium-226 source was also performed. Implied exposure rates, man-made activity, and excess bismuth-214 activity, as calculated from the aerial data are presented in the form of isopleth maps superimposed on imagery of the surveyed area. Ground level and implied aerial exposure rates for nine specific locations are compared. Detected radioisotopes and their associated gamma ray exposure rates were consistent with those expected from normal background emitters. At specific plant locations described in the report, man-made activity was consistent with the operational histories of the location. There was no spectral activity that would indicate the presence of the lost source.

  18. Computing the Deflection of the Vertical for Improving Aerial Surveys: A Comparison between EGM2008 and ITALGEO05 Estimates.

    PubMed

    Barzaghi, Riccardo; Carrion, Daniela; Pepe, Massimiliano; Prezioso, Giuseppina

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies on the influence of the anomalous gravity field in GNSS/INS applications have shown that neglecting the impact of the deflection of vertical in aerial surveys induces horizontal and vertical errors in the measurement of an object that is part of the observed scene; these errors can vary from a few tens of centimetres to over one meter. The works reported in the literature refer to vertical deflection values based on global geopotential model estimates. In this paper we compared this approach with the one based on local gravity data and collocation methods. In particular, denoted by ξ and η, the two mutually-perpendicular components of the deflection of the vertical vector (in the north and east directions, respectively), their values were computed by collocation in the framework of the Remove-Compute-Restore technique, applied to the gravity database used for estimating the ITALGEO05 geoid. Following this approach, these values have been computed at different altitudes that are relevant in aerial surveys. The (ξ, η) values were then also estimated using the high degree EGM2008 global geopotential model and compared with those obtained in the previous computation. The analysis of the differences between the two estimates has shown that the (ξ, η) global geopotential model estimate can be reliably used in aerial navigation applications that require the use of sensors connected to a GNSS/INS system only above a given height (e.g., 3000 m in this paper) that must be defined by simulations. PMID:27472333

  19. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for surveying marine fauna: a dugong case study.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Amanda; Kelly, Natalie; Peel, David

    2013-01-01

    Aerial surveys of marine mammals are routinely conducted to assess and monitor species' habitat use and population status. In Australia, dugongs (Dugong dugon) are regularly surveyed and long-term datasets have formed the basis for defining habitat of high conservation value and risk assessments of human impacts. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) may facilitate more accurate, human-risk free, and cheaper aerial surveys. We undertook the first Australian UAV survey trial in Shark Bay, western Australia. We conducted seven flights of the ScanEagle UAV, mounted with a digital SLR camera payload. During each flight, ten transects covering a 1.3 km(2) area frequently used by dugongs, were flown at 500, 750 and 1000 ft. Image (photograph) capture was controlled via the Ground Control Station and the capture rate was scheduled to achieve a prescribed 10% overlap between images along transect lines. Images were manually reviewed post hoc for animals and scored according to sun glitter, Beaufort Sea state and turbidity. We captured 6243 images, 627 containing dugongs. We also identified whales, dolphins, turtles and a range of other fauna. Of all possible dugong sightings, 95% (CI = 90%, 98%) were subjectively classed as 'certain' (unmistakably dugongs). Neither our dugong sighting rate, nor our ability to identify dugongs with certainty, were affected by UAV altitude. Turbidity was the only environmental variable significantly affecting the dugong sighting rate. Our results suggest that UAV systems may not be limited by sea state conditions in the same manner as sightings from manned surveys. The overlap between images proved valuable for detecting animals that were masked by sun glitter in the corners of images, and identifying animals initially captured at awkward body angles. This initial trial of a basic camera system has successfully demonstrated that the ScanEagle UAV has great potential as a tool for marine mammal aerial surveys. PMID:24223967

  20. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for Surveying Marine Fauna: A Dugong Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Amanda; Kelly, Natalie; Peel, David

    2013-01-01

    Aerial surveys of marine mammals are routinely conducted to assess and monitor species’ habitat use and population status. In Australia, dugongs (Dugong dugon) are regularly surveyed and long-term datasets have formed the basis for defining habitat of high conservation value and risk assessments of human impacts. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) may facilitate more accurate, human-risk free, and cheaper aerial surveys. We undertook the first Australian UAV survey trial in Shark Bay, western Australia. We conducted seven flights of the ScanEagle UAV, mounted with a digital SLR camera payload. During each flight, ten transects covering a 1.3 km2 area frequently used by dugongs, were flown at 500, 750 and 1000 ft. Image (photograph) capture was controlled via the Ground Control Station and the capture rate was scheduled to achieve a prescribed 10% overlap between images along transect lines. Images were manually reviewed post hoc for animals and scored according to sun glitter, Beaufort Sea state and turbidity. We captured 6243 images, 627 containing dugongs. We also identified whales, dolphins, turtles and a range of other fauna. Of all possible dugong sightings, 95% (CI = 90%, 98%) were subjectively classed as ‘certain’ (unmistakably dugongs). Neither our dugong sighting rate, nor our ability to identify dugongs with certainty, were affected by UAV altitude. Turbidity was the only environmental variable significantly affecting the dugong sighting rate. Our results suggest that UAV systems may not be limited by sea state conditions in the same manner as sightings from manned surveys. The overlap between images proved valuable for detecting animals that were masked by sun glitter in the corners of images, and identifying animals initially captured at awkward body angles. This initial trial of a basic camera system has successfully demonstrated that the ScanEagle UAV has great potential as a tool for marine mammal aerial surveys. PMID:24223967

  1. Small unmanned aerial vehicles for aeromagnetic surveys and their flights in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funaki, Minoru; Higashino, Shin-Ichiro; Sakanaka, Shinya; Iwata, Naoyoshi; Nakamura, Norihiro; Hirasawa, Naohiko; Obara, Noriaki; Kuwabara, Mikio

    2014-12-01

    We developed small computer-controlled unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, Ant-Plane) using parts and technology designed for model airplanes. These UAVs have a maximum flight range of 300-500 km. We planned aeromagnetic and aerial photographic surveys using the UAVs around Bransfield Basin, Antarctica, beginning from King George Island. However, we were unable to complete these flights due to unsuitable weather conditions and flight restrictions. Successful flights were subsequently conducted from Livingston Island to Deception Island in December 2011. This flight covered 302.4 km in 3:07:08, providing aeromagnetic and aerial photographic data from an altitude of 780 m over an area of 9 × 18 km around the northern region of Deception Island. The resulting magnetic anomaly map of Deception Island displayed higher resolution than the marine anomaly maps published already. The flight to South Bay in Livingston Island successfully captured aerial photographs that could be used for assessment of glacial and sea-ice conditions. It is unclear whether the cost-effectiveness of the airborne survey by UAV is superior to that of manned flight. Nonetheless, Ant-Plane 6-3 proved to be highly cost-effective for the Deception Island flight, considering the long downtime of the airplane in the Antarctic storm zone.

  2. An aerial radiological survey of the area surrounding the Gunnison Mill site, Gunnison, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Jobst, J.

    1981-12-01

    An aerial radiological measuring system was used to survey areas surrounding the uranium mill site in Gunnison, Colorado. Part of the survey data were acquired in November 1979, the remainder were collected in August 1980. The survey was conducted for the US Department of Energy's Office of Operational Safety by the Department's Remote Sensing Laboratory of Las Vegas. The highest radiation exposure rates (normalized to 3 feet above the ground) ranged from 200 to 340 microroentgens per hour ({mu}R/h) over the tailings pile on the mill site.

  3. Unmanned Aerial Survey of Fallen Trees in a Deciduous Broadleaved Forest in Eastern Japan

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Tomoharu; Nagai, Shin; Yamashita, Satoshi; Fadaei, Hadi; Ishii, Reiichiro; Okabe, Kimiko; Taki, Hisatomo; Honda, Yoshiaki; Kajiwara, Koji; Suzuki, Rikie

    2014-01-01

    Since fallen trees are a key factor in biodiversity and biogeochemical cycling, information about their spatial distribution is of use in determining species distribution and nutrient and carbon cycling in forest ecosystems. Ground-based surveys are both time consuming and labour intensive. Remote-sensing technology can reduce these costs. Here, we used high-spatial-resolution aerial photographs (0.5–1.0 cm per pixel) taken from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to survey fallen trees in a deciduous broadleaved forest in eastern Japan. In nine sub-plots we found a total of 44 fallen trees by ground survey. From the aerial photographs, we identified 80% to 90% of fallen trees that were >30 cm in diameter or >10 m in length, but missed many that were narrower or shorter. This failure may be due to the similarity of fallen trees to trunks and branches of standing trees or masking by standing trees. Views of the same point from different angles may improve the detection rate because they would provide more opportunity to detect fallen trees hidden by standing trees. Our results suggest that UAV surveys will make it possible to monitor the spatial and temporal variations in forest structure and function at lower cost. PMID:25279817

  4. An aerial radiological survey of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding area, Portsmouth, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted from July 11--20, 1990, over an 83-square-kilometer (32-square-mile) area surrounding the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant located near Portsmouth, Ohio. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 91 meters (300 feet) with line spacings of 122 meters (400 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a set of United States Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps of the area. The terrestrial exposure rates varied from about 7 to 14 microroentgens per hour ([mu]R/h) at 1 meter above the ground. Analysis of the data for man-made sources and for the uranium decay product, protactinium-234m ([sup 234m]Pa), showed five sites within the boundaries of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant with elevated readings. Spectra obtained in the vicinity of the buildings at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant showed the presence of [sup 234m]Pa, a uranium-238 ([sup 238]U) decay product. In addition, spectral analysis of the data obtained over the processing plant facility showed gamma activity indicative of uranium-235 ([sup 234]U). No other man-made gamma ray emitting radioactive material was detected, either on or off the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant property. Soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at five different locations within the survey boundlaries to support the aerial data.

  5. Summary of 1987 and 1988 manatee aerial surveys at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provancha, Jane A.; Provancha, Mark J.

    1989-01-01

    Aerial surveys of manatees conducted since 1977 at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) have provided a very useful and cost effective monitoring tool in the assessment of abundance and distribution of manatees in the northern Banana River. Data collected in the mid 1980's as part of the KSC Environmental Monitoring Program indicated that the numbers of manatees utilizing the northern Banana River had increased dramatically from earlier years and that the animals appeared to have changed their distribution patterns within the area as well (Provancha and Provancha 1988). United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and Florida Department of Natural Resources (FLDNR) conducted bimonthly aerial surveys in 1986 for the entire Florida east coast. Their data clearly show that the Banana River has the highest concentration of manatees during the non-winter months when compared to all other segments of the east coast surveys (B. Wiegle/FLDNR, unpublished data). They further show that, in spring, an average of 71 percent of the manatees in Brevard county were located in the Banana River. During that period 85 percent of the animals were north of the NASA Causeway (State Road (SR) 402) in the KSC security zone. These data indicate the importance of the KSC waters to the Florida east coast manatee population. We reinitiated KSC surveys in 1987 to document distributions and numbers of manatees during the spring influx. Aerial censuses were continued throughout the year in 1988 and this report provides a summary of our findings for the two years.

  6. Unmanned aerial survey of fallen trees in a deciduous broadleaved forest in eastern Japan.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Tomoharu; Nagai, Shin; Yamashita, Satoshi; Fadaei, Hadi; Ishii, Reiichiro; Okabe, Kimiko; Taki, Hisatomo; Honda, Yoshiaki; Kajiwara, Koji; Suzuki, Rikie

    2014-01-01

    Since fallen trees are a key factor in biodiversity and biogeochemical cycling, information about their spatial distribution is of use in determining species distribution and nutrient and carbon cycling in forest ecosystems. Ground-based surveys are both time consuming and labour intensive. Remote-sensing technology can reduce these costs. Here, we used high-spatial-resolution aerial photographs (0.5-1.0 cm per pixel) taken from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to survey fallen trees in a deciduous broadleaved forest in eastern Japan. In nine sub-plots we found a total of 44 fallen trees by ground survey. From the aerial photographs, we identified 80% to 90% of fallen trees that were >30 cm in diameter or >10 m in length, but missed many that were narrower or shorter. This failure may be due to the similarity of fallen trees to trunks and branches of standing trees or masking by standing trees. Views of the same point from different angles may improve the detection rate because they would provide more opportunity to detect fallen trees hidden by standing trees. Our results suggest that UAV surveys will make it possible to monitor the spatial and temporal variations in forest structure and function at lower cost. PMID:25279817

  7. Uav Aerial Survey: Accuracy Estimation for Automatically Generated Dense Digital Surface Model and Orthothoto Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altyntsev, M. A.; Arbuzov, S. A.; Popov, R. A.; Tsoi, G. V.; Gromov, M. O.

    2016-06-01

    A dense digital surface model is one of the products generated by using UAV aerial survey data. Today more and more specialized software are supplied with modules for generating such kind of models. The procedure for dense digital model generation can be completely or partly automated. Due to the lack of reliable criterion of accuracy estimation it is rather complicated to judge the generation validity of such models. One of such criterion can be mobile laser scanning data as a source for the detailed accuracy estimation of the dense digital surface model generation. These data may be also used to estimate the accuracy of digital orthophoto plans created by using UAV aerial survey data. The results of accuracy estimation for both kinds of products are presented in the paper.

  8. Aerial application methods for increasing spray deposition on wheat heads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a major disease of wheat and barley in several small grain production areas in the United States and, as such, the development and evaluation of aerial application technologies that enhance the efficacy of fungicides with aerial spray applications is critical to its man...

  9. Survey on the novel hybrid aquatic-aerial amphibious aircraft: Aquatic unmanned aerial vehicle (AquaUAV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xingbang; Wang, Tianmiao; Liang, Jianhong; Yao, Guocai; Liu, Miao

    2015-04-01

    The aquatic unmanned aerial vehicle (AquaUAV), a kind of vehicle that can operate both in the air and the water, has been regarded as a new breakthrough to broaden the application scenario of UAV. Wide application prospects in military and civil field are more than bright, therefore many institutions have focused on the development of such a vehicle. However, due to the significant difference of the physical properties between the air and the water, it is rather difficult to design a fully-featured AquaUAV. Until now, majority of partially-featured AquaUAVs have been developed and used to verify the feasibility of an aquatic-aerial vehicle. In the present work, we classify the current partially-featured AquaUAV into three categories from the scope of the whole UAV field, i.e., the seaplane UAV, the submarine-launched UAV, and the submersible UAV. Then the recent advancements and common characteristics of the three kinds of AquaUAVs are reviewed in detail respectively. Then the applications of bionics in the design of AquaUAV, the transition mode between the air and the water, the morphing wing structure for air-water adaptation, and the power source and the propulsion type are summarized and discussed. The tradeoff analyses for different transition methods between the air and the water are presented. Furthermore, it indicates that applying the bionics into the design and development of the AquaUAV will be essential and significant. Finally, the significant technical challenges for the AquaUAV to change from a conception to a practical prototype are indicated.

  10. Aerial EM Survey Reveals Groundwater Systems Beneath Taylor Valley, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugan, H.; Mikucki, J.; Auken, E.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Virginia, R. A.; Schamper, C.; Sørensen, K.; Doran, P. T.; Foley, N.

    2014-12-01

    The extent of groundwater and its potential habitability in the ice-free regions and along the coastal margins of Antarctica is poorly understood. Here we report on an airborne transient electromagnetic survey in Antarctica, which for the first time produced extensive imagery of subsurface resistivity in Taylor Valley, an ice-free margin of the Ross Sea. Wide zones of low subsurface resistivity were detected that are inconsistent with the typical high resistivity of glacier ice or dry permafrost. These results are interpreted as an indication that water, with sufficiently high solute content to remain unfrozen well below 0°C, temperatures considered within the range suitable for microbial life. The inferred subsurface brines are widespread and form two isolated groundwater systems: a near shore system, which extends from the ocean 18 km inland; and a sub-/proglacial system, which emanates from beneath Taylor Glacier into Lake Bonney and is associated with the discharge from Blood Falls. The brine networks in Taylor Valley challenge the notion that groundwater is negligible in regions of continuous permafrost, and signify the potential for a deep biosphere that is hydrologically and geochemically connected to the marine system and subglacial environments.

  11. Low-altitude aerial color digital photographic survey of the San Andreas Fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lynch, David K.; Hudnut, Kenneth W.; Dearborn, David S.P.

    2010-01-01

    Ever since 1858, when Gaspard-Félix Tournachon (pen name Félix Nadar) took the first aerial photograph (Professional Aerial Photographers Association 2009), the scientific value and popular appeal of such pictures have been widely recognized. Indeed, Nadar patented the idea of using aerial photographs in mapmaking and surveying. Since then, aerial imagery has flourished, eventually making the leap to space and to wavelengths outside the visible range. Yet until recently, the availability of such surveys has been limited to technical organizations with significant resources. Geolocation required extensive time and equipment, and distribution was costly and slow. While these situations still plague older surveys, modern digital photography and lidar systems acquire well-calibrated and easily shared imagery, although expensive, platform-specific software is sometimes still needed to manage and analyze the data. With current consumer-level electronics (cameras and computers) and broadband internet access, acquisition and distribution of large imaging data sets are now possible for virtually anyone. In this paper we demonstrate a simple, low-cost means of obtaining useful aerial imagery by reporting two new, high-resolution, low-cost, color digital photographic surveys of selected portions of the San Andreas fault in California. All pictures are in standard jpeg format. The first set of imagery covers a 92-km-long section of the fault in Kern and San Luis Obispo counties and includes the entire Carrizo Plain. The second covers the region from Lake of the Woods to Cajon Pass in Kern, Los Angeles, and San Bernardino counties (151 km) and includes Lone Pine Canyon soon after the ground was largely denuded by the Sheep Fire of October 2009. The first survey produced a total of 1,454 oblique digital photographs (4,288 x 2,848 pixels, average 6 Mb each) and the second produced 3,762 nadir images from an elevation of approximately 150 m above ground level (AGL) on the

  12. Mass image data storage system for high resolution aerial photographic survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zen, Luan; Tan, Jiubin; Zhao, Zhongwen

    2008-10-01

    In order to make it possible for an image data acquisition and storage system used for aerial photographic survey to have a continuous storage speed of 144 MB/s and data storage capacity of 260GB, three main problems have been solved in this paper. First, with multi-channel synchronous DMA transfer, parallel data storage of four SCSI hard disks is realized. It solved the problem of the data transfer rate too high for direct storage. Then, to increase the data transfer rate, a high speed BUS based on LVDS and a SCSI control circuit based on FAS368M were designed. It solved the problem of PCI BUS limiting the storage speed. Finally, the problem of the SCSI hard disk continuous storage speed declining led by much time interval between two DMA transfers is solved by optimizing DMA channel. The practical system test shows that the acquisition and storage system has a continuous storage speed of 150 MB/s and a data storage capacity of 280GB. Therefore, it is a new storage method for high speed and mass image data.

  13. Antioxidant activity of bulbs and aerial parts of Crocus caspius, impact of extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Khalili, Masomeh; Fathi, Hamed; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali

    2016-05-01

    Crocus genus (Iridaceae) is comprises approximately 80 species. In this study in vitro antioxidant activities of extracts from C. caspius bulbs and aerial parts were investigated. Ultrasonically assisted extraction (US), percolation method (PE) and polyphenolic fraction (PP) were used. Antioxidant activities were evaluated with five different tests. Aerial parts US extract with high levels of phenol and flavonoids were the most potent extract in DPPH radical scavenging than others. Aerial parts PE extract had shown very potent reducing power, which was so better than other extracts (p<0.01). Aerial parts PP fraction showed very good Fe(2+) chelating ability. Aerial parts US extract were the most potent extract in scavenging of H(2)O(2). Bulb PP fraction with IC(50)=22.8±0.7 µg ml(-1) was the most potent fraction in nitric oxide scavenging. The results improved high levels of antioxidant activities of C. caspius bulbs and aerial parts in all tested models. PMID:27166547

  14. An aerial radiological survey of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and surrounding area, Livermore, California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over four areas in the California cities of Dublin, Livermore, and Tracy from 8 through 29 April 1986. Although a similar aerial survey had been previously conducted over Livermore and Tracy in 1975, this was the first such survey performed over the city of Dublin. The surveyed areas included the Camp Parks training facility in Dublin; the Las Positas Golf Course and the Livermore sewage treatment plant in west Livermore; the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) facilities in east Livermore; and the LLNL facilities at Site 300 located three miles southwest of the city of Tracy, California. Only naturally-occurring radiation was detected over the Camp Parks area in Dublin and over the golf course and sewage treatment plant in west Livermore. Man-made radionuclides were detected over the LLNL facilities in east Livermore and over Site 300. These man-made sources were typical of source storage and radiological activities conducted at the facilities. In areas where only naturally-occurring gamma emitters were detected, the observed range of activity was essentially the same in both the 1975 and 1986 surveys. 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. An aerial radiological survey of the Durango, Colorado uranium mill tailings site and surrounding area

    SciTech Connect

    Hilton, L.K.

    1981-06-01

    An aerial radiological survey of Durango, Colorado, including the inactive uranium mill tailings piles located southwest of the town, was conducted during August 25--29, 1980, for the Department of Energy's Environmental and Safety Engineering Division. Areas of radiation exposure rates higher than the local background, which was about 15 microrentgens per hour ({mu}R/h), were observed directly over and to the south of the mill tailings piles, over a cemetery, and at two spots near the fairgrounds. The rapidly changing radiation exposure rates at the boundaries of the piles preclude accurate extrapolation of aerial radiological data to ground level exposure rates in their immediate vicinity. Estimated radiation exposure rates close to the piles, however, approached 30 times background, or about 450 {mu}R/h. Radiation exposure rates in a long area extending south from the tailings piles were about 25 {mu}R/h.

  16. An aerial radiological survey of the Durango, Colorado uranium mill tailings site and surrounding area. Date of survey: August 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hilton, L.K.

    1981-06-01

    An aerial radiological survey of Durango, Colorado, including the inactive uranium mill tailings piles located southwest of the town, was conducted during August 25--29, 1980, for the Department of Energy`s Environmental and Safety Engineering Division. Areas of radiation exposure rates higher than the local background, which was about 15 microrentgens per hour ({mu}R/h), were observed directly over and to the south of the mill tailings piles, over a cemetery, and at two spots near the fairgrounds. The rapidly changing radiation exposure rates at the boundaries of the piles preclude accurate extrapolation of aerial radiological data to ground level exposure rates in their immediate vicinity. Estimated radiation exposure rates close to the piles, however, approached 30 times background, or about 450 {mu}R/h. Radiation exposure rates in a long area extending south from the tailings piles were about 25 {mu}R/h.

  17. An aerial radiological survey of the neutron products company and surrounding area

    SciTech Connect

    Vojtech, R.J.

    1994-12-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted from November 1-10, 1993, over the Neutron Products Company and neighboring areas. The company, located in Dickerson, Maryland, has two major operations involving the radioisotope cobalt-60 ({sup 60}Co)-the manufacture of commercial {sup 60}Co sources and the sterilization of medical products by exposure to radiation. The sterilization facility consists of two {sup 60}Co sources with activities of approximately 500,000 and 1,500,000 Ci, respectively. The purpose of the aerial survey was to detect and document any anomalous gamma-emitting radionuclides in the environment which may have resulted from operations of the Neutron Products Company. The survey covered two areas: the first was a 6.5- by 6.5-kilometer area centered over the Neutron Products facility; the second area was a 2- by 2.5-kilometer region surrounding a waste pumping station on Muddy Branch in Gaithersburg, Maryland. This site is approximately fifteen kilometers southeast of the Neutron Products facility and was included because sanitary and other liquid waste materials from the plant site are being disposed of at the pumping station. Contour maps showing gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level, overlaid on an aerial photo of the area, were constructed from the data measured during the flights. The exposure rates measured within the survey regions were generally uniform and typical of rates resulting from natural background radiation. Only one area showed an enhanced exposure rate not attributable to natural background. This area, located directly over the Neutron Products facility, was analyzed and identified as {sup 60}Co, the radioisotope used in the irradiation and source production operations conducted at the Neutron Products Company. The measurements over the Muddy Branch area in Gaithersburg were typical of natural background radiation and showed no evidence of {sup 60}Co or any other man-made radionuclide.

  18. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Las Vegas Strip and Adjacent Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Wasiolek, Piotr

    2009-02-01

    As proficiency training for the Radiological Mapping mission of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), a survey team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory–Nellis (RSL-Nellis) conducted an aerial radiological survey of the Las Vegas Strip and adjacent areas on December 29, 2008. This survey was one of the bi-annual surveys carried in support of the city of Las Vegas Police Department (LVPD) before significant events on the Las Vegas Strip: e.g., the annual New Year’s Eve and July Fourth celebrations. The AMS operation and appropriate law enforcement agencies selected this area as an appropriate urban location to exercise AMS capability for mapping environmental radiation and searching for man-made radioactive sources. The surveys covered approximately 11 square miles. Each survey required a 2.5-hour-long flight, performed at an altitude of 300 ft above ground level (AGL) at a line spacing of 600 ft. Water line and test line flights are conducted over the Lake Mead and Government Wash areas to determine the non-terrestrial background contributed by aircraft, radon, and cosmic activity, and to determine the altitude-dependent air mass correction. The data were collected by the AMS data acquisition system (REDAR V) using an array of twelve 2" x 4" x 16" sodium iodide (NaI) detectors flown on-board a twin-engine Bell 412 helicopter. Gamma energy spectral data were collected second-by-second over the survey area. This spectral data allows the system to distinguish between natural terrestrial background contributions and man-made radioisotope contributions. Spectral data can also be used to identify specific man-made radioactive isotopes. Data geo-locations were determined with a Real-Time Differential Global Positioning System (RDGPS).

  19. Aerial Vehicle Surveys of other Planetary Atmospheres and Surfaces: Imaging, Remote-sensing, and Autonomy Technology Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Gregory; Ippolito, Corey; Alena, Rick

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to review the anticipated imaging and remote-sensing technology requirements for aerial vehicle survey missions to other planetary bodies in our Solar system that can support in-atmosphere flight. In the not too distant future such planetary aerial vehicle (a.k.a. aerial explorers) exploration missions will become feasible. Imaging and remote-sensing observations will be a key objective for these missions. Accordingly, it is imperative that optimal solutions in terms of imaging acquisition and real-time autonomous analysis of image data sets be developed for such vehicles.

  20. Aerial Magnetic, Electromagnetic, and Gamma-ray Survey, Berrien County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duval, Joseph S.; Pierce, Herbert A.; Daniels, David L.; Mars, John L.; Webring, Michael W.; Hildenbrand, Thomas G.

    2002-01-01

    This publication includes maps, grids, and flightline databases of a detailed aerial survey and maps and grids of satellite data in Berrien County, Michigan. The purpose of the survey was to map aquifers in glacial terrains. This was accomplished by using a DIGHEMVRES mufti-coil, mufti-frequency electromagnetic system supplemented by a high sensitivity cesium magnetometer and 256-channel spectrometer. The information from these sensors was processed to produce maps, which display the conductive, magnetic and radioactive properties of the survey area. A GPS electronic navigation system ensured accurate positioning of the geophysical data. This report also includes data from the advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection (ASTER) radiometer. ASTER measures thermal emission and reflection data for 14 bands of the spectrum.

  1. An Aerial Radiological Survey of Selected Areas of Area 18 - Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Lyons

    2009-07-31

    As part of the proficiency training for the Radiological Mapping mission of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), a survey team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis (RSL-Nellis) conducted an aerial radiological survey of selected areas of Area 18 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for the purpose of mapping man-made radiation deposited as a result of the Johnnie Boy and Little Feller I tests. The survey area centered over the Johnnie Boy ground zero but also included the ground zero and deposition area of the Little Feller I test, approximately 7,000 feet (2133 meters) southeast of the Johnnie Boy site. The survey was conducted in one flight. The completed survey covered a total of 4.0 square miles. The flight lines (with the turns) over the surveyed areas are presented in Figure 1. One 2.5-hour-long flight was performed at an altitude of 100 ft above ground level (AGL) with 200 foot flight-line spacing. A test-line flight was conducted near the Desert Rock Airstrip to ensure quality control of the data. The test line is not shown in Figure 1. However, Figure 1 does include the flight lines for a ''perimeter'' flight. The path traced by the helicopter flying over distinct roads within the survey area can be used to overlay the survey data on a base map or image. The flight survey lines were flown in an east-west orientation perpendicular to the deposition patterns for both sites. This technique provides better spatial resolution when contouring the data. The data were collected by the AMS data acquisition system (REDAR V) using an array of twelve 2-inch x 4-inch x 16-inch sodium iodide (NaI) detectors flown on-board a twin-engine Bell 412 helicopter. Data, in the form of gamma energy spectra, were collected every second over the course of the survey and were geo-referenced using a differential Global Positioning System. Spectral data allows the system to distinguish between ordinary fluctuations in natural background radiation levels and the signature produced by man

  2. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the City of North Las Vegas (Downtown) and the Motor Speedway

    SciTech Connect

    Piotr Wasiolek

    2007-12-01

    As part of the proficiency training for the Radiological Mapping mission of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), a survey team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis (RSL-Nellis) conducted an aerial radiological survey on December 11-12, 2007, with the purpose of mapping natural radiation background and locating any man-made radioactive sources. The survey covered 19.4 square miles (9.2 square miles over the downtown area of the City of North Las Vegas and 10.2 square miles over the Las Vegas Motor Speedway [LVMS]). The flight lines over the surveyed areas are presented in Figures 1 and 2. A total of four 2.5-hour-long flights were performed at an altitude of 150 ft above ground level (AGL) with 300 ft of flight line spacing. Water line and test line flights were conducted over the Lake Mead and Government Wash areas to ensure quality control of the data. The data were collected by the AMS data acquisition system-REDAR V using an array of twelve 2-inch x 4-inch x 16-inch sodium iodide (NaI) detectors flown on-board a twin-engine Bell 412 helicopter. Data in the form of gamma energy spectra were collected continually (every second) over the course of the survey and were geo-referenced using a differential Global Positioning System. Collection of spectral data allows the system to distinguish between ordinary fluctuations in natural background radiation levels and the signature produced by man-made radioisotopes sources. Spectral data can also be used to identify specific radioactive isotopes. As a courtesy service with the approval of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office, RSL-Nellis is providing this summary to the office of the Mayor of City of North Las Vegas and LVMS security along with the gross counts-based exposure rate and man-made counts maps.

  3. An aerial radiological survey of the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Fort Calhoun, Nebraska

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Plant in Fort Calhoun, Nebraska, during the period June 19 through June 28, 1993. The survey was conducted at an altitude of 150 feet (46 meters) over a 25-square-mile (65-square-kilometer) area centered on the power station. The purpose of the survey was to document the terrestrial gamma radiation environment of the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a contour map. Outside the plant boundary, exposure rates were found to vary between 6 and 12 microroentgens per hour and were attributed to naturally-occurring uranium, thorium, and potassium. The aerial data were compared to ground-based benchmark exposure rate measurements and radionuclide assays of soil samples obtained within the survey boundary. The ground-based measurements were found to be in good agreement with those inferred from the aerial measuring system. A previous survey was conducted on August 9 and 10, 1972, before the plant began operation. Exposure rates measured in both surveys were consistent with normal terrestrial background.

  4. Aerial Surveys Using Consumer Electronics: Fast, Cheap and Best of All: Useful!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, D. K.; Hudnut, K. W.; Dearborn, D. S.

    2010-12-01

    We report results from two low-cost, low-altitude, aerial imaging surveys of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) carried out in late 2009. In total 541 km of the fault was imaged with a ground sample distance (pixel size) of a few cm. The two surveys covered the Carrizo Plain and points north to the Choice Valley on 24 Sep 2009, and the SAF between I-5 (Tejon Pass) and I-15 (Cajon Pass) on 29 Dec 2009. Each area was imaged twice, once on the first pass and a short time later on the return pass. The I-5 to I-15 flight included Lone Pine Canyon east of Wrightwood soon after the Sheep Fire of early Oct 2009. Ground that was normally covered by heavy brush was revealed for the first time in many years. The data set consists of 5216 6Mb jpg photographs (31 Gb total) which were posted on the internet within hours of their acquisition. Shortly thereafter they were placed into PICASA web albums for easy browsing. Total cost for both surveys (excluding camera) was about $5000. The pictures were taken with a Nikon D90 with an attached GP-1 receiver that wrote the aircraft’s position into the EXIF file of each photograph. Organization, manipulation and geolocation of the images were done on a Macintosh laptop. All photographs are freely available and carry no copyright. They are in the public domain. Lynch, David K., Kenneth W. Hudnut and David S. P. Dearborn “Low Altitude Aerial Color Digital Photographic Survey of the San Andreas Fault in the Carrizo Plain”, Seismological Research Letters, 81, 453-459 (2010) Full frame image of Wallace Creek. The inset shows a visitor. The pixel size at the center of the frame is about 4 cm.

  5. Evaluation of unmanned aerial vehicle shape, flight path and camera type for waterfowl surveys: disturbance effects and species recognition.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, John F; Hall, Graham P; McDonald, Paul G

    2016-01-01

    The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for ecological research has grown rapidly in recent years, but few studies have assessed the disturbance impacts of these tools on focal subjects, particularly when observing easily disturbed species such as waterfowl. In this study we assessed the level of disturbance that a range of UAV shapes and sizes had on free-living, non-breeding waterfowl surveyed in two sites in eastern Australia between March and May 2015, as well as the capability of airborne digital imaging systems to provide adequate resolution for unambiguous species identification of these taxa. We found little or no obvious disturbance effects on wild, mixed-species flocks of waterfowl when UAVs were flown at least 60m above the water level (fixed wing models) or 40m above individuals (multirotor models). Disturbance in the form of swimming away from the UAV through to leaving the water surface and flying away from the UAV was visible at lower altitudes and when fixed-wing UAVs either approached subjects directly or rapidly changed altitude and/or direction near animals. Using tangential approach flight paths that did not cause disturbance, commercially available onboard optical equipment was able to capture images of sufficient quality to identify waterfowl and even much smaller taxa such as swallows. Our results show that with proper planning of take-off and landing sites, flight paths and careful UAV model selection, UAVs can provide an excellent tool for accurately surveying wild waterfowl populations and provide archival data with fewer logistical issues than traditional methods such as manned aerial surveys. PMID:27020132

  6. Evaluation of unmanned aerial vehicle shape, flight path and camera type for waterfowl surveys: disturbance effects and species recognition

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Graham P.; McDonald, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for ecological research has grown rapidly in recent years, but few studies have assessed the disturbance impacts of these tools on focal subjects, particularly when observing easily disturbed species such as waterfowl. In this study we assessed the level of disturbance that a range of UAV shapes and sizes had on free-living, non-breeding waterfowl surveyed in two sites in eastern Australia between March and May 2015, as well as the capability of airborne digital imaging systems to provide adequate resolution for unambiguous species identification of these taxa. We found little or no obvious disturbance effects on wild, mixed-species flocks of waterfowl when UAVs were flown at least 60m above the water level (fixed wing models) or 40m above individuals (multirotor models). Disturbance in the form of swimming away from the UAV through to leaving the water surface and flying away from the UAV was visible at lower altitudes and when fixed-wing UAVs either approached subjects directly or rapidly changed altitude and/or direction near animals. Using tangential approach flight paths that did not cause disturbance, commercially available onboard optical equipment was able to capture images of sufficient quality to identify waterfowl and even much smaller taxa such as swallows. Our results show that with proper planning of take-off and landing sites, flight paths and careful UAV model selection, UAVs can provide an excellent tool for accurately surveying wild waterfowl populations and provide archival data with fewer logistical issues than traditional methods such as manned aerial surveys. PMID:27020132

  7. An Aerial Radiological Survey of Selected Areas of the City of North Las Vegas

    SciTech Connect

    Piotr Wasiolek

    2008-06-01

    As part of the proficiency training for the Radiological Mapping mission of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), a survey team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis (RSL-Nellis) conducted an aerial radiological survey of selected areas of the city of North Las Vegas for the purpose of mapping natural radiation background and locating any man-made radioactive sources. Survey areas were selected in collaboration with the City Manager's office and included four separate areas: (1) Las Vegas Motor Speedway (10.6 square miles); (2) North Las Vegas Downtown Area (9.2 square miles); (3) I-15 Industrial Corridor (7.4 square miles); and (4) Future site of University of Nevada Las Vegas campus (17.4 square miles). The survey was conducted in three phases: Phase 1 on December 11-12, 2007 (Areas 1 and 2), Phase 2 on February 28, 2008 (Area 3), and Phase 3 on March 19, 2008 (Area 4). The total completed survey covered a total of 44.6 square miles. The flight lines (without the turns) over the surveyed areas are presented in Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4. A total of eight 2.5-hour-long flights were performed at an altitude of 150 ft above ground level (AGL) with 300 feet of flight-line spacing. Water line and test line flights were conducted over the Lake Mead and Government Wash areas to ensure quality control of the data. The data were collected by the AMS data acquisition system (REDAR V) using an array of twelve 2-inch x 4-inch x 16-inch sodium iodide (NaI) detectors flown on-board a twin-engine Bell 412 helicopter. Data, in the form of gamma energy spectra, were collected continually (every second) over the course of the survey and were geo-referenced using a differential Global Positioning System. Collection of spectral data allows the system to distinguish between ordinary fluctuations in natural background radiation levels and the signature produced by man-made radioisotopes. Spectral data can also be used to identify specific radioactive isotopes. As a courtesy service, with

  8. Aerial radiometric and magnetic reconnaissance survey of portions of Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia: Cumberland quadrangle. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    The results of a high-sensitivity, aerial, gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey of the Cumberland Quadrangle, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia, are presented. Instrumentation and methods are described in Volume 1 of this final report. This work was done as part of the US Department of Energy National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program. Statisical and geological analysis of the radiometric data revealed 38 anomalies worthy of field checking as possible prospects. Seventeen anomalies coincide with cultural features that may be major contributors to their anomalous values. The Elwood Formation of Cambrian age has the greatest concentration of anomalies, followed by the Monongahela Formation of Pennsylvanian age and Hampshire/Catskill formations of Devonian age.

  9. Aerial surveys of landslide bodies through light UAVs: peculiarities and advantages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilotro, Giuseppe; Pellicani, Roberta; Leandro, Gianfranco; Marzo, Cosimo; Manzari, Paola; Belmonte, Antonella

    2015-04-01

    The use of UAV in civil applications and particularly for aerial surveillance or surveying is rapidly expanding for several reasons. The first reason is undoubtedly the lowering of the costs of the machines, accompanied by high technology for their positioning and control. The results are high performances and ease of driving. Authors have surveyed some big landslides by drones, with excellent results, which can retail for this technique a specific role, not in conflict with classical airborne aerial surveys, such as LIDAR and others. Obviously the first difference is in the amount of payload, over 100 Kg for classical airborne apparatus, but 1000 times lower in the case of the drones. Nevertheless the advantages of the use of drones and of their products can be synthesized as follows: -Start from the site, without the need of transfers, flight plans and long time weather forecasts; -Imagery product georeferenced and immediately exportable to GIS -Inspection of areas not easily accessible (impervious areas, high layers of mud, crossing of rivers, etc) or unreachable in safety conditions; -Inspection of specific points, relevant for the interpretation of the type and intensity of movement. -The pilot and the landslide specialist define route and compare images in real time -Possibility of flying at very low altitude and hovering. For the geomorphological interpretation of the big landslide of Montescaglioso (Mt, Italy) has been used a 1.5 m EPP (Expanded polipropilene) fixed wing, driven by 3DR Open Source Autopilot, equipped with a 16 Mp compact camera CANON A2300. Very useful revealed the image of the toe of the landslide, critical point for the interpretation of the mechanics of the whole landslide. Results have been of excellent quality and allowed authors to an early correct analysis Other landslides have been explored with a commercial drone (Phantom Vision 2 Dji), the use of which has proved likewise invaluable for returning images of areas not otherwise

  10. An aerial radiological survey of the Evans Area, US Army Communications-Electronics Command, Fort Monmouth, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Maurer, R.J.

    1989-12-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Evans Area, US Army Communications-Electronics Command, Fort Monmouth, New Jersey, during the period November 14--18, 1988. The purposes of the survey were to document the terrestrial gamma environment of the Evans site and surrounding area and to determine if there had been any radiological impact on the area due to past laboratory operations. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a contour map. The aerial data were compared to ground-based benchmark'' exposure rate measurements and radionuclide assay of soil samples obtained at sites outside the survey perimeter. Similar ground-based measurements were also made at several locations on the Evans site and at the bank of the Shark River bordering the Evans Area. No evidence for contamination was identified by either radionuclide assay of soil samples or the aerial survey. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Application of Digital Image Correlation Method to Improve the Accuracy of Aerial Photo Stitching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Shih-Heng; Jhou, You-Liang; Shih, Ming-Hsiang; Hsiao, Han-Wei; Sung, Wen-Pei

    2016-04-01

    Satellite images and traditional aerial photos have been used in remote sensing for a long time. However, there are some problems with these images. For example, the resolution of satellite image is insufficient, the cost to obtain traditional images is relatively high and there is also human safety risk in traditional flight. These result in the application limitation of these images. In recent years, the control technology of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is rapidly developed. This makes unmanned aerial vehicle widely used in obtaining aerial photos. Compared to satellite images and traditional aerial photos, these aerial photos obtained using UAV have the advantages of higher resolution, low cost. Because there is no crew in UAV, it is still possible to take aerial photos using UAV under unstable weather conditions. Images have to be orthorectified and their distortion must be corrected at first. Then, with the help of image matching technique and control points, these images can be stitched or used to establish DEM of ground surface. These images or DEM data can be used to monitor the landslide or estimate the volume of landslide. For the image matching, we can use such as Harris corner method, SIFT or SURF to extract and match feature points. However, the accuracy of these methods for matching is about pixel or sub-pixel level. The accuracy of digital image correlation method (DIC) during image matching can reach about 0.01pixel. Therefore, this study applies digital image correlation method to match extracted feature points. Then the stitched images are observed to judge the improvement situation. This study takes the aerial photos of a reservoir area. These images are stitched under the situations with and without the help of DIC. The results show that the misplacement situation in the stitched image using DIC to match feature points has been significantly improved. This shows that the use of DIC to match feature points can actually improve the accuracy of

  12. An aerial radiological survey of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Forked River, New Jersey. Date of survey: September 18--25, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, H.A.; McCall, K.A.

    1994-05-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant in Forked River, New Jersey, during the period September 18 through September 24, 1992. The survey was conducted at an altitude of 150 feet (46 meters) over a 26-square-mile (67-square-kilometer) area centered on the power station. The purpose of the survey was to document the terrestrial gamma radiation environment of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power plant and surrounding area. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a contour map. Outside the plant boundary, exposure rates were found to vary between 4 and 10 microroentgens per hour and were attributed to naturally-occurring uranium, thorium, and radioactive potassium gamma emitters. The aerial data were compared to ground-based benchmark exposure rate measurements and radionuclide assays of soil samples obtained within the survey boundary. The ground-based measurements were found to be in good agreement with those inferred from the aerial measuring system. A previous survey of the power plant was conducted in August 1969 during its initial startup phase. Exposure rates and radioactive isotopes revealed in both surveys were consistent and within normal terrestrial background levels.

  13. Aerial radiological survey of Areas 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15 and 17, Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, 8 August-2 September 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Fritzsche, A E

    1982-06-01

    An aerial gamma survey was conducted over Yucca Flat during August 1978. A limited quantity of soil samples was obtained and evaluated in support of the aerial survey. Results are presented in the form of exposure rate isopleths from man-made isotopes and estimates of concentrations and inventories of /sup 152/Eu, /sup 137/Cs and /sup 60/Co.

  14. Aerial surveys of endangered whales in the Beaufort Sea, Fall 1989. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Treacy, S.D.

    1990-11-01

    The OCSLA Amendments of 1978 (43 U.S.C. 1802) established a policy for the management of oil and natural gas in the OCS and for protection of the marine and coastal environments. The amended OCSLA authorizes the Secretary of the Interior to conduct studies in areas or regions of sales to ascertain the environmental impacts on the marine and coastal environments of the outer Continental Shelf and the coastal areas which may be affected by oil and gas development (43 U.S.C. 1346). The report describes field activities and data analyses for aerial surveys of bowhead whales conducted between 1 September 1989 and 20 October 1989 in the Beaufort Sea, primarily between 140 W. and 154 W. longitudes south of 72 N. latitude. Ice cover during September and October 1989 was exceptionally light. A total of 215 bowhead whales, 104 belukha whales, 9 bearded seals, 84 ringed seals, and 32 unidentified pinnipeds were observed in 1989 during 98.70 hours of survey effort that included 38.10 hours on randomized transects. The last sighting of a bowhead whale made during the survey occurred in open water on 19 October 1989. No whales were sighted during a subsequent flight on 20 October 1989. Estimated median and mean water depths were shallower than for previous surveys (1982-1989). This is consistent with a trend for whales to be located in shallower water during years of generally light ice cover.

  15. An aerial radiological survey of the Robert Emmett Ginna Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Ontario, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, A.E.

    1997-06-01

    Terrestrial radioactivity surrounding the Robert Emmett Ginna Nuclear Power Plant was measured using aerial radiological surveying techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates near the plant and to identify unexpected, man-made radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included land areas within a three-mile radius of the plant site. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that employed sodium iodide, thallium-activated detectors. Exposure-rate and photopeak counts were computed from these data and plotted on aerial photographs of the survey area. Several ground-based exposure measurements were made for comparison with the aerial survey results. Exposure rates in the area surrounding the plant site varied from 6 to 10 microroentgens per hour. Man-made radiation (cobalt-60 within the plant site and cesium-1 37 directly over the reactor) was found at the plant site. In addition, small areas of suspected cesium-137 activity were found within the survey areas. Other than these small sites, the survey area was free of man-made radioac- tivity.

  16. The Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Survey (ARES) Mission to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, J. S.

    2005-01-01

    ARES is an exploration mission concept for an Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Survey of Mars designed to fly an instrumented platform over the surface of Mars at very low altitudes (1-3 km) for distances of hundreds to thousands of kilometers to obtain scientific data to address fundamental problems in Mars science. ARES helps to fill a gap in the scale and perspective of the Mars Exploration Program and addresses many key COMPLEX/MEPAG questions (e.g., nature and origin of crustal magnetic anomalies) not readily pursued in other parts of the exploration program. ARES supports the human exploration program through key environmental measurements and high-resolution contiguous data essential to reference mission design. Here we describe the major types of scientific goals, candidate instruments, and reference mission profiles.

  17. Mars Aerial Regional-Scale Environmental Survey (ARES) Coordinate Systems Definitions and Transformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhl, Christoper A.

    2009-01-01

    The Aerial Regional-Scale Environmental Survey (ARES) is a Mars exploration mission concept with the goal of taking scientific measurements of the atmosphere, surface, and subsurface of Mars by using an airplane as the payload platform. ARES team first conducted a Phase-A study for a 2007 launch opportunity, which was completed in May 2003. Following this study, significant efforts were undertaken to reduce the risk of the atmospheric flight system, under the NASA Langley Planetary Airplane Risk Reduction Project. The concept was then proposed to the Mars Scout program in 2006 for a 2011 launch opportunity. This paper summarizes the design and development of the ARES airplane propulsion subsystem beginning with the inception of the ARES project in 2002 through the submittal of the Mars Scout proposal in July 2006.

  18. Applicability Evaluation of Object Detection Method to Satellite and Aerial Imageries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiya, K.; Fuse, T.; Takahashi, M.

    2016-06-01

    Since satellite and aerial imageries are recently widely spread and frequently observed, combination of them are expected to complement spatial and temporal resolution each other. One of the prospective applications is traffic monitoring, where objects of interest, or vehicles, need to be recognized automatically. Techniques that employ object detection before object recognition can save a computational time and cost, and thus take a significant role. However, there is not enough knowledge whether object detection method can perform well on satellite and aerial imageries. In addition, it also has to be studied how characteristics of satellite and aerial imageries affect the object detection performance. This study employ binarized normed gradients (BING) method that runs significantly fast and is robust to rotation and noise. For our experiments, 11-bits BGR-IR satellite imageries from WorldView-3, and BGR-color aerial imageries are used respectively, and we create thousands of ground truth samples. We conducted several experiments to compare the performances with different images, to verify whether combination of different resolution images improved the performance, and to analyze the applicability of mixing satellite and aerial imageries. The results showed that infrared band had little effect on the detection rate, that 11-bit images performed less than 8-bit images and that the better spatial resolution brought the better performance. Another result might imply that mixing higher and lower resolution images for training dataset could help detection performance. Furthermore, we found that aerial images improved the detection performance on satellite images.

  19. An aerial radiological survey of the former Chemetron factory site and surrounding area, Newburgh Heights, Ohio. Date of survey: April 1991

    SciTech Connect

    1992-04-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period April 15--27, 1991, over an area surrounding the former location of a Chemetron Corporation factory and an associated disposal site. The area surveyed is situated in Newburgh Heights, Ohio, 3 kilometers south of Cleveland, Ohio. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the gamma ray environment of the former factory and dump site and surrounding area. Contour maps showing gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level were constructed from the aerial data and overlaid on an aerial photograph of the area. The exposure rates measured within the survey region were generally uniform and typical of natural background: 3--7 microroentgens per hour ({mu}R/h), excluding an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.6 {mu}R/h. Enhanced exposure rates not attributable to natural background were measured over three areas within the survey region. Two areas, both within the boundary of a sewage processing plant, showed evidence of cobalt-60 ({sup 60}CO). A third area, measured over a chemical factory, showed evidence of thorium-232 ({sup 232}Th). Radionuclide assays of soil samples and pressurized ionization chamber measurements were obtained at seven locations within the survey boundaries. These measurements are in agreement with the aerial data.

  20. An aerial radiological survey of the Davis-Monthan Air Force Base and surrounding area, Tucson, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    An aerial radiological survey, which was conducted from March 1 to 13, 1995, covered a 51-square-mile (132-square-kilometer) area centered on the Davis-Monthan Air Force Base (DMAFB) in Tucson, Arizona. The results of the survey are reported as contours of bismuth-214 ({sup 214}Bi) soil concentrations, which are characteristic of natural uranium and its progeny, and as contours of the total terrestrial exposure rates extrapolated to one meter above ground level. All data were scaled and overlaid on an aerial photograph of the DMAFB area. The terrestrial exposure rates varied from 9 to 20 microroentgens per hour at one meter above the ground. Elevated levels of terrestrial radiation due to increased concentrations of {sup 214}Bi (natural uranium) were observed over the Southern Pacific railroad yard and along portions of the railroad track bed areas residing both within and outside the base boundaries. No man-made, gamma ray-emitting radioactive material was observed by the aerial survey. High-purity germanium spectrometer and pressurized ionization chamber measurements at eight locations within the base boundaries were used to verify the integrity of the aerial results. The results of the aerial and ground-based measurements were found to be in agreement. However, the ground-based measurements were able to detect minute quantities of cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) at six of the eight locations examined. The presence of {sup 137}Cs is a remnant of fallout from foreign and domestic atmospheric nuclear weapons testing that occurred in the 1950s and early 1960s. Cesium-137 concentrations varied from 0.1 to 0.3 picocuries per gram, which is below the minimum detectable activity of the aerial system.

  1. An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and surrounding area, West Valley, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, H.A.

    1991-09-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and the surrounding area was conducted from mid-August through early September 1984 by EG G Energy Measurements, Inc. for the United States Department of Energy. The radiological survey was part of the United States Department of Energy Comprehensive Integrated Remote Sensing (CIRS) program, which provides state-of-the-art remote sensing to support the needs of the various DOE facilities. The survey consisted of airborne measurements of both natural and man-made gamma radiation emanating from the terrestrial surface. These measurements allowed an estimate of the distribution of isotopic concentrations in the area surrounding the project site. Results are reported as isopleths superimposed on aerial photographs of the area. Gamma ray energy spectra are also presented for the net man-made radionuclides. 8 refs., 16 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. An Aerial Radiological survey of the Alvin W. Vogtle Nuclear Plant and surrounding area, Waynesboro, Georgia: Date of survey: August--September 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    An Aerial Radiological Survey was conducted during the period of August 24 to September 14, 1988 over an area of approximately 310 square kilometers (120 square miles) surrounding the Alvin W. Vogtle Nuclear Plant. The Vogtle Nuclear Plant is located near Augusta, Georgia, along the Savannah River and adjacent to the Savannah River Site (SRS). Several anomalous areas were identified in the portion of the survey extending into the SRS perimeter. The dominant isotopes found in these areas were cesium-137 and cobalt-60. All of these man-made anomalies identified by the aerial measurements were attributed to SRS processing. For the remainder of the survey area, the inferred radiation exposure rates generally varied from 6 to 10 microroentgens per hour ({mu}R/h), which was found to be due to naturally occurring uranium, thorium, and radioactive potassium gamma emitters. The reported exposure rate values included an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.6 {mu}R/h. Soils samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at three locations within the survey boundaries to support the aerial data. The exposure rate values obtained from these groundbased measurements were in agreement with the corresponding inferred aerial values. 6 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Stream Morphologic Measurements from Airborne Laser Swath Mapping: Comparisons with Field Surveys, Traditional DEMs, and Aerial Photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, N. P.; Schultz, L. L.

    2005-12-01

    Precise measurement of stream morphology over entire watersheds is one of the great research opportunities provided by airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM). ALSM surveys allow for rapid quantification of factors, such as channel width and gradient, that control stream hydraulic and ecologic properties. We compare measurements from digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from ALSM data collected by the National Center for Airborne Laser Mapping (NCALM) to field surveys, traditional DEMs (rasterized from topographic maps), and aerial photographs. The field site is in the northern Black Mountains in arid Death Valley National Park (California). The area is unvegetated, and therefore is excellent for testing DEM analysis methods because the ALSM data required minimal filtering, and the resulting DEM contains relatively few unphysical sinks. Algorithms contained in geographic information systems (GIS) software used to extract stream networks from DEMs yield best results where streams are steep enough for resolvable pixel-to-pixel elevation change, and channel width is on the order of pixel resolution. This presents a new challenge with ALSM-derived DEMs because the pixel size (1 m) is often an order of magnitude or more smaller than channel width. We find the longitudinal profile of Gower Gulch in the northern Black Mountains (~4 km total length) extracted using the ALSM DEM and a flow accumulation algorithm is 14% longer than a traditional 10-m DEM, and 13% longer than a field survey. These differences in length (and therefore gradient) are due to the computed channel path following small-scale topographic variations within the channel bottom that are not relevant during high flows. However, visual analysis of shaded-relief images created from high-resolution ALSM data is an excellent method for digitizing channel banks and thalweg paths. We used these lines to measure distance, elevation, and width. In Gower Gulch, the algorithm-derived profile is 10% longer than that

  4. Detecting lost persons using the k-mean method applied to aerial photographs taken by unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedzielski, Tomasz; Stec, Magdalena; Wieczorek, Malgorzata; Slopek, Jacek; Jurecka, Miroslawa

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this work is to discuss the usefulness of the k-mean method in the process of detecting persons on oblique aerial photographs acquired by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The detection based on the k-mean procedure belongs to one of the modules of a larger Search and Rescue (SAR) system which is being developed at the University of Wroclaw, Poland (research project no. IP2014 032773 financed by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of Poland). The module automatically processes individual geotagged visual-light UAV-taken photographs or their orthorectified versions. Firstly, we separate red (R), green (G) and blue (B) channels, express raster data as numeric matrices and acquire coordinates of centres of images using the exchangeable image file format (EXIF). Subsequently, we divide the matrices into matrices of smaller dimensions, the latter being associated with the size of spatial window which is suitable for discriminating between human and terrain. Each triplet of the smaller matrices (R, G and B) serves as input spatial data for the k-mean classification. We found that, in several configurations of the k-mean parameters, it is possible to distinguish a separate class which characterizes a person. We compare the skills of this approach by performing two experiments, based on UAV-taken RGB photographs and their orthorectified versions. This allows us to verify the hypothesis that the two exercises lead to similar classifications. In addition, we discuss the performance of the approach for dissimilar spatial windows, hence various dimensions of the above-mentioned matrices, and we do so in order to find the one which offers the most adequate classification. The numerical experiment is carried out using the data acquired during a dedicated observational UAV campaign carried out in the Izerskie Mountains (SW Poland).

  5. Application of concurrent engineering methods to the design of an autonomous aerial robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingalls, Stephen A.

    1991-12-01

    This paper documents the year-long efforts of a multidisciplinary design team to design, build, and support an autonomous aerial robotics system. The system was developed to participate in the Association for Unmanned Vehicle System's (AUVS) First International Aerial Robotics Competition which was held in Atlanta, Georgia on the Georgia Tech campus on July 29th, 1991. As development time and budget were extremely limited, the team elected to attempt the design using concurrent engineering design methods. These methods were validated in an IDA study by Winner 1 in the late- 1980's to be particularly adept at handling the difficulties to design presented by these limitations.

  6. An Adaptive Altitude Information Fusion Method for Autonomous Landing Processes of Small Unmanned Aerial Rotorcraft

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Xusheng; Li, Jingjing

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive information fusion method to improve the accuracy and reliability of the altitude measurement information for small unmanned aerial rotorcraft during the landing process. Focusing on the low measurement performance of sensors mounted on small unmanned aerial rotorcraft, a wavelet filter is applied as a pre-filter to attenuate the high frequency noises in the sensor output. Furthermore, to improve altitude information, an adaptive extended Kalman filter based on a maximum a posteriori criterion is proposed to estimate measurement noise covariance matrix in real time. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is proved by static tests, hovering flight and autonomous landing flight tests. PMID:23201993

  7. Estimating abundance of the Southern Hudson Bay polar bear subpopulation using aerial surveys, 2011 and 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Obbard, Martyn E.; Middel, Kevin R.; Stapleton, Seth P.; Thibault, Isabelle; Brodeur, Vincent; Jutras, Charles

    2013-01-01

    The Southern Hudson Bay (SH) polar bear subpopulation occurs at the southern extent of the species’ range. Although capture-recapture studies indicate that abundance remained stable between 1986 and 2005, declines in body condition and survival were documented during the period, possibly foreshadowing a future decrease in abundance. To obtain a current estimate of abundance, we conducted a comprehensive line transect aerial survey of SH during 2011–2012. We stratified the study site by anticipated densities and flew coastal contour transects and systematically spaced inland transects in Ontario and on Akimiski Island and large offshore islands in 2011. Data were collected with double observer and distance sampling protocols. We also surveyed small islands in Hudson Bay and James Bay and flew a comprehensive transect along the Québec coastline in 2012. We observed 667 bears in Ontario and on Akimiski Island and nearby islands in 2011, and we sighted 80 bears on offshore islands during 2012. Mark-recapture distance sampling and sightresight models yielded a model-averaged estimate of 868 (SE: 177) for the 2011 study area. Our estimate of abundance for the entire SH subpopulation (951; SE: 177) suggests that abundance has remained unchanged. However, this result should be interpreted cautiously because of the methodological differences between historical studies (physical capture) and this survey. A conservative management approach is warranted given the previous increases in the duration of the ice-free season, which are predicted to continue in the future, and previously documented declines in body condition and vital rates.

  8. Estimating the abundance of the Southern Hudson Bay polar bear subpopulation with aerial surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Obbard, Martyn E.; Stapleton, Seth P.; Middel, Kevin R.; Thibault, Isabelle; Brodeur, Vincent; Jutras, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The Southern Hudson Bay (SH) polar bear subpopulation occurs at the southern extent of the species’ range. Although capture–recapture studies indicate abundance was likely unchanged between 1986 and 2005, declines in body condition and survival occurred during the period, possibly foreshadowing a future decrease in abundance. To obtain a current estimate of abundance, we conducted a comprehensive line transect aerial survey of SH during 2011–2012. We stratified the study site by anticipated densities and flew coastal contour transects and systematically spaced inland transects in Ontario and on Akimiski Island and large offshore islands in 2011. Data were collected with double-observer and distance sampling protocols. We surveyed small islands in James Bay and eastern Hudson Bay and flew a comprehensive transect along the Québec coastline in 2012. We observed 667 bears in Ontario and on Akimiski Island and nearby islands in 2011, and we sighted 80 bears on offshore islands during 2012. Mark–recapture distance sampling and sight–resight models yielded an estimate of 860 (SE = 174) for the 2011 study area. Our estimate of abundance for the entire SH subpopulation (943; SE = 174) suggests that abundance is unlikely to have changed significantly since 1986. However, this result should be interpreted cautiously because of the methodological differences between historical studies (physical capture–recapture) and this survey. A conservative management approach is warranted given previous increases in duration of the ice-free season, which are predicted to continue in the future, and previously documented declines in body condition and vital rates.

  9. An aerial radiological survey of Project Gasbuggy and surrounding area, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico. Date of survey: October 27, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Project Gasbuggy site, 55 miles (89 kilometers) east of Farmington, New Mexico, on October 27, 1994. Parallel lines were flown at intervals of 300 feet (91 meters) over a 16-square-mile (41-square-kilometer) area at a 150-foot (46-meter) altitude centered on the Gasbuggy site. The gamma energy spectra obtained were reduced to an exposure rate contour map overlaid on a high altitude aerial photograph of the area. The terrestrial exposure rate varied from 14 to 20 {micro}R/h at 1 meter above ground level. No anomalous or man-made isotopes were found.

  10. A Planetary Protection Strategy for the Mars Aerial Regional-Scale Environmental Survey (ARES) Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhl, Christopher A.

    2008-01-01

    The Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Survey (ARES) is a Mars exploration mission concept designed to send an airplane to fly through the lower atmosphere of Mars, with the goal of taking scientific measurements of the atmosphere, surface, and subsurface phenomenon. ARES was first proposed to the Mars Scout program in December 2002 for a 2007 launch opportunity and was selected to proceed with a Phase A study, step-2 proposal which was submitted in May 2003. ARES was not selected for the Scout mission, but efforts continued on risk reduction of the atmospheric flight system in preparation for the next Mars Scout opportunity in 2006. The ARES concept was again proposed in July 2006 to the Mars Scout program but was not selected to proceed into Phase A. This document describes the Planetary Protection strategy that was developed in ARES Pre Phase-A activities to help identify, early in the design process, certain hardware, assemblies, and/or subsystems that will require unique design considerations based on constraints imposed by Planetary Protection requirements. Had ARES been selected as an exploration project, information in this document would make up the ARES Project Planetary Protection Plan.

  11. Infrared Surveys of Hawaiian Volcanoes: Aerial surveys with infrared imaging radiometer depict volcanic thermal patterns and structural features.

    PubMed

    Fisher, W A; Moxham, R M; Polcyn, F; Landis, G H

    1964-11-01

    Aerial infrared-sensor surveys of Kilauea volcano have depicted the areal extent and the relative intensity of abnormal thermal features in the caldera area of the volcano and along its associated rift zones. Many of these anomalies show correlation with visible steaming and reflect convective transfer of heat to the surface from subterranean sources. Structural details of the volcano, some not evident from surface observation, are also delineated by their thermal abnormalities. Several changes were observed in the patterns of infrared emission during the period of study; two such changes show correlation in location with subsequent eruptions, but the cause-and-effect relationship is uncertain. Thermal anomalies were also observed on the southwest flank of Mauna Loa; images of other volcanoes on the island of Hawaii, and of Haleakala on the island of Maui, revealed no thermal abnormalities. Approximately 25 large springs issuing into the ocean around the periphery of Hawaii have been detected. Infrared emission varies widely with surface texture and composition, suggesting that similar observations may have value for estimating surface conditions on the moon or planets. PMID:17729994

  12. Payette National Forest aerial survey project using the Kodak digital color infrared camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, Jerry D.

    1997-11-01

    Staff of the Payette National Forest located in central Idaho used the Kodak Digital Infrared Camera to collect digital photographic images over a wide variety of selected areas. The objective of this aerial survey project is to collect airborne digital camera imagery and to evaluate it for potential use in forest assessment and management. The data collected from this remote sensing system is being compared with existing resource information and with personal knowledge of the areas surveyed. Resource specialists are evaluating the imagery to determine if it may be useful for; identifying cultural sites (pre-European settlement tribal villages and camps); recognizing ecosystem landscape pattern; mapping recreation areas; evaluating the South Fork Salmon River road reconstruction project; designing the Elk Summit Road; assessing the impact of sediment on anadramous fish in the South Fork Salmon River; assessing any contribution of sediment to the South Fork from the reconstructed road; determining post-wildfire stress development in conifer timber; in assessing the development of insect populations in areas initially determined to be within low intensity wildfire burn polygons; and to search for Idaho Ground Squirrel habitat. Project sites include approximately 60 linear miles of the South Fork of the Salmon River; a parallel road over about half that distance; 3 archaeological sites; two transects of about 6 miles each for landscape patterns; 3 recreation areas; 5 miles of the Payette River; 4 miles of the Elk Summit Road; a pair of transects 4.5 miles long for stress assessment in timber; a triplet of transects about 3 miles long for the assessment of the identification of species; and an area of about 640 acres to evaluate habitat for the endangered Idaho Ground Squirrel. Preliminary results indicate that the imagery is an economically viable way to collect site specific resource information that is of value in the management of a national forest.

  13. A Possibility of the Aeromagnetic Survey by a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Ant-Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funaki, M.

    2004-12-01

    Magnetic surveys by helicopters and airplanes are a useful technique to estimate the geological structure under the ice sheets in Antarctica. However, it is not easy to employ this due to the transportation of the planes, logistic supports, security, and financial problems. Members of Ant-Plane Project have investigated the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV, Ant-Plane) for the solution of the problems. Recently the aeromagnetic survey is verified by a model airplane navigated by GPS and a magneto-resistant (MR) magnetometer. The airplane (Ant-Plane) consists of 2m wing length, 2-cycles and 2-cylinder 85cc gasoline engine, GPS navigation system by microcomputer and radio telemeter system. The total weight is 15kg including 2 litter fuels, the MR magnetometer, a video camera and an emergency parachute. The speed is 130 km/h and maximum height is 2000m. The magnetometer system consists of a 3- component MR magnetometer, GPS and data logger. Three components of magnetic field, latitude, longitude, altitude, number of satellite and time are recorded in every second during 3 hours. The sensitivity of the magnetometer is 7 nT and we use a total magnetic field intensity for magnetic analysis due to unknown heading of the plane. November 2003 we succeeded the magnetic survey by the Ant-Plane at the slope of Sakurajima Volcano, Kyushu, Japan. The plane rotated 9 times along the programmed route of about 4x1 km, total flight distance of 80 km, keeping the altitude of 700 m. Consequently we obtained almost similar field variation on the route. The maximum deviation of each course was less than 100 m. Therefore, we concluded that the aeromagnetic survey in the relatively large anomaly areas can be performed by Ant-Plane with the MR magnetometer system. Finally the plane flew up 1400m with a video camera to take the photo of active volcano Sakurajima (1117m). It succeeded to take photos of craters through steam from the volcano.

  14. Plating methods, a survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkowitz, J. B.; Emerson, N. H.

    1972-01-01

    Results are presented of a comprehensive search of the literature available, much of which has been generated by the research centers of NASA and its contractors, on plating and coating methods and techniques. Methods covered included: (1) electroplating from aqueous solutions; (2) electroplating from nonaqueous solutions; (3) electroplating from fused-salt baths; (4) electroforming; (5) electroless plating, immersion plating, and mirroring; (6) electroplating from gaseous plasmas; and (7) anodized films and conversion coatings.

  15. An aerial radiological survey of the area surrounding the Gunnison Mill site, Gunnison, Colorado. Dates of survey: November 1979 and August 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Jobst, J.

    1981-12-01

    An aerial radiological measuring system was used to survey areas surrounding the uranium mill site in Gunnison, Colorado. Part of the survey data were acquired in November 1979, the remainder were collected in August 1980. The survey was conducted for the US Department of Energy`s Office of Operational Safety by the Department`s Remote Sensing Laboratory of Las Vegas. The highest radiation exposure rates (normalized to 3 feet above the ground) ranged from 200 to 340 microroentgens per hour ({mu}R/h) over the tailings pile on the mill site.

  16. Possible methods for distinguishing icebergs from ships by aerial remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howes, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    The simplest methods for aerial remote sensing which are least affected by atmospheric opacities are summarized. Radar is preferred for targets off the flight path, and microwave radiometry for targets along the flight path. Radar methods are classified by ability to resolve targets. Techniques which do not require target resolution are preferred. Among these techniques, polarization methods appear most promising, specifically those which differentiate the expected relatively greater depolarization by icebergs from that by ships or which detect doubly-reversed circular polarization.

  17. An aerial radiological survey of the Babcock and Wilcox Nuclear Facilities and surrounding area, Lynchburg, Virginia. Date of survey: July 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Guss, P.P.

    1993-04-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted from July 18 through July 25, 1988, over a 41-square-kilometer (16-square-mile) area surrounding the Babcock and Wilcox nuclear facilities located near Lynchburg, Virginia. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 61 meters (200 feet) with line spacings of 91 meters (300 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph. The terrestrial exposure rates varied from 8 to 12 microroentgens per hour ({mu}R/h). A search of the data for man-made radiation sources revealed the presence of three areas of high count rates in the survey area. Spectra accumulated over the main plant showed the presence of cobalt-60 ({sup 60}Co) and cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs). A second area near the main plant indicated the presence of uranium-235 ({sup 235}U). Protactinium-234m ({sup 234m}Pa) and {sup 60}Co were detected over a building to the east of the main plant. Soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations within the survey boundaries in support of the aerial data.

  18. An aerial radiological survey of the Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and surrounding area, Titusville, Florida: Date of survey: October 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the entire Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) was performed during the period 9 through 23 October 1985. This survey was conducted in three parts. First, a low resolution, low sensitivity background survey was performed that encompassed the entire KSC and CCAFS area. Next, two smaller, high resolution, high sensitivity surveys were conducted: the first focused on Launch Complexes 39A and 39B, and the second on the Shuttle Landing Facility. The areas encompassed by the surveys were 200, 5.5, and 8.5 square miles (500, 14, and 22 sq km), respectively. The purpose of these surveys was to provide information useful for an emergency response to a radiological accident. Results of the background survey are presented as isoradiation contour maps of both total exposure rate and man-made gross count superimposed on a mosaic of recent aerial photographs. Results of the two small, detailed surveys are also presented as an isoradiation contour map of exposure rate on the aerial photograph base. These data were evaluated to establish sensitivity limits for mapping the presence of plutonium-238. Natural background exposure rates at the Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station are very low, generally ranging from 4 to 6.5 microroentgens per hour (..mu..R/h) and less than 4 ..mu..R/h in wet areas. However, exposure rates in developed areas were observed to be higher due to the importation of construction materials not characteristic of the area. 8 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Composite Digital Terrain Models: Synthesizing Aerial and Terrestrial LiDAR with Conventional Survey Data to Monitor Sediment Transport Through the Sunol Dam Removal Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storesund, R.; Minear, T.; Saleh, R.

    2007-12-01

    In 2006, the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission removed Sunol dam, located on Alameda Creek, near San Francisco California. The primary goals of the project were to improve fish passage, restore a self- sustaining population of steelhead to the watershed, and eliminate an existing public safety hazard. Approximately 28,300 cubic meters of sand and gravel-sized sediment had accumulated upstream of the dam and was left in place to move downstream naturally over a period of several decades. To create a baseline for future monitoring of sediment transport through the dam area, a combination of Aerial LiDAR, Terrestrial LiDAR, and conventional survey data was compiled and synthesized to generate a three dimensional digital model of the study area both upstream and downstream of the damsite. The primary survey method for characterization of above ground topography was Terrestrial LiDAR, with an approximate point spacing of centimeters. In submerged areas conventional survey techniques were used to augment the Aerial and Terrestrial LiDAR data sets. We found this approach to be effective in developing a high accuracy-high detail sediment volume model from which sediment transport can be monitored and modeled.

  20. Monitoring winter and summer abundance of cetaceans in the Pelagos Sanctuary (northwestern Mediterranean Sea) through aerial surveys.

    PubMed

    Panigada, Simone; Lauriano, Giancarlo; Burt, Louise; Pierantonio, Nino; Donovan, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Systematic long-term monitoring of abundance is essential to inform conservation measures and evaluate their effectiveness. To instigate such work in the Pelagos Sanctuary in the Mediterranean, two aerial surveys were conducted in winter and summer 2009. A total of 467 (131 in winter, 336 in summer) sightings of 7 species was made. Sample sizes were sufficient to estimate abundance of fin whales in summer (148; 95% CI = 87-254) and striped dolphins in winter (19,462; 95% CI = 12 939-29 273) and in summer (38 488; 95% CI = 27 447-53 968). Numbers of animals within the Sanctuary are significantly higher in summer, when human activities and thus potential population level impacts are highest. Comparisons with data from past shipboard surveys suggest an appreciable decrease in fin whales within the Sanctuary area and an appreciable increase in striped dolphins. Aerial surveys proved to be more efficient than ship surveys, allowing more robust estimates, with smaller CIs and CVs. These results provide essential baseline data for this marine protected area and continued regular surveys will allow the effectiveness of the MPA in terms of cetacean conservation to be evaluated and inform future management measures. The collected data may also be crucial in assessing whether ship strikes, one of the main causes of death for fin whales in the Mediterranean, are affecting the Mediterranean population. PMID:21829544

  1. Monitoring Winter and Summer Abundance of Cetaceans in the Pelagos Sanctuary (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea) Through Aerial Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Panigada, Simone; Lauriano, Giancarlo; Burt, Louise; Pierantonio, Nino; Donovan, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Systematic long-term monitoring of abundance is essential to inform conservation measures and evaluate their effectiveness. To instigate such work in the Pelagos Sanctuary in the Mediterranean, two aerial surveys were conducted in winter and summer 2009. A total of 467 (131 in winter, 336 in summer) sightings of 7 species was made. Sample sizes were sufficient to estimate abundance of fin whales in summer (148; 95% CI = 87–254) and striped dolphins in winter (19,462; 95% CI = 12 939–29 273) and in summer (38 488; 95% CI = 27 447–53 968). Numbers of animals within the Sanctuary are significantly higher in summer, when human activities and thus potential population level impacts are highest. Comparisons with data from past shipboard surveys suggest an appreciable decrease in fin whales within the Sanctuary area and an appreciable increase in striped dolphins. Aerial surveys proved to be more efficient than ship surveys, allowing more robust estimates, with smaller CIs and CVs. These results provide essential baseline data for this marine protected area and continued regular surveys will allow the effectiveness of the MPA in terms of cetacean conservation to be evaluated and inform future management measures. The collected data may also be crucial in assessing whether ship strikes, one of the main causes of death for fin whales in the Mediterranean, are affecting the Mediterranean population. PMID:21829544

  2. Seasonal distribution and aerial surveys of mountain goats in Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic National Parks, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Kurt; Beirne, Katherine; Happe, Patricia; Hoffman, Roger; Rice, Cliff; Schaberl, Jim

    2011-01-01

    We described the seasonal distribution of Geographic Positioning System (GPS)-collared mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) in Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic National Parks to evaluate aerial survey sampling designs and provide general information for park managers. This work complemented a companion study published elsewhere of aerial detection biases of mountain goat surveys in western Washington. Specific objectives reported here were to determine seasonal and altitudinal movements, home range distributions, and temporal dynamics of mountain goat movements in and out of aerial survey sampling frames established within each park. We captured 25 mountain goats in Mount Rainier (9), North Cascades (5), and Olympic (11) National Parks, and fitted them with GPS-collars programmed to obtain 6-8 locations daily. We obtained location data on 23 mountain goats for a range of 39-751 days from 2003 to 2008. Altitudinal distributions of GPS-collared mountain goats varied individually and seasonally, but median altitudes used by individual goats during winter ranged from 817 to 1,541 meters in Olympic and North Cascades National Parks, and 1,215 to 1,787 meters in Mount Rainier National Park. Median altitudes used by GPS-collared goats during summer ranged from 1,312 to 1,819 meters in Olympic and North Cascades National Parks, and 1,780 to 2,061 meters in Mount Rainier National Park. GPS-collared mountain goats generally moved from low-altitude winter ranges to high-altitude summer ranges between June 11 and June 19 (range April 24-July 3) and from summer to winter ranges between October 26 and November 9 (range September 11-December 23). Seasonal home ranges (95 percent of adaptive kernel utilization distribution) of males and female mountain goats were highly variable, ranging from 1.6 to 37.0 kilometers during summers and 0.7 to 9.5 kilometers during winters. Locations of GPS-collared mountain goats were almost 100 percent within the sampling frame used for

  3. Aerial radiological survey of the Nuclear Fuel Services Center (NFS) and surrounding area, West Valley, New York, September 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    An aerial radiological survey encompassing the Western New York Nuclear Fuel Services Center (NFS) near West Valley, New York, was conducted during 7-12 September 1979. The survey data showed that the average ground surface radiation levels for the site and its environs are less than were measured during the 1969 survey when reprocessing was occurring. The area exhibiting above-background radiation levels is decreasing with time due to (1) radioactive decay, (2) dilution and dispersion of man-made radionuclide reprocessing plant effluents produced during the period April 1966 to early 1972, and (3) the discontinuation of reprocessing operations. Excluding specific, localized NFS site facility areas, the background radiation levels for the recently surveyed area approximate the preoperational background radiation levels.

  4. Aerial radiological survey of the William H. Zimmer Nuclear Power Station and surrounding area, Moscow, Ohio. Date of survey: July 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Feimster, E.L.

    1982-07-01

    An aerial radiological survey was performed during the period 29 June through 12 July 1981 over a 250-square-kilometer area centered on the William H. Zimmer Nuclear Power Station near Moscow, Ohio. All gamma ray data were collected along flight lines oriented east to west. The lines were 200 meters apart and flown at an altitude of 122 meters above ground level. Processed data showed that all gamma rays detected within the survey area were those expected from naturally occurring terrestrial background emitters. Count rates obtained from the aerial platform were converted to exposure rates at 1 meter above the ground and are presented in the form of an exposure rate contour map. The resulting exposure rates were between 6 and 12 microroentgens per hour (..mu..R/h), with most of the area ranging from 6 to 9 ..mu..R/h. These values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 4 ..mu..R/h. The exposure rate obtained from soil samples taken from within the survey site displayed positive agreement with the aerial data.

  5. Aerial radiological survey of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Bonsal, North Carolina. Date of survey: June 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Jobst, J.E.

    1984-10-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant near Bonsal, North Carolina was conducted during the period 19 to 26 June 1984. The survey encompassed a 263-square-kilometer (101-square-mile) area centered on the reactor facilities. Inferred exposure rates were due primarily to naturally occurring gamma-emitting radionuclides and cosmic ray activity (estimated at 3.6 ..mu..R/h). The exposure rates varied broadly, from 4 to 11 ..mu..R/h. Most of the forest and farm land in the surrounding countryside ranged from 6 to 9 ..mu..R/h. Two areas showed slightly elevated activity (9 to 11 ..mu..R/h) due to Plant activities: (1) the land immediately surrounding the reactor because of construction materials and the absence of vegetation, (2) a metallurgical laboratory storage area containing small quantities of fission products. Spectral analysis of the latter showed that /sup 60/Co was the primary contributor to this elevated activity. Ground-based measurements made in several areas around the Plant site were consistent with the aerial data. This was the first aerial radiological survey conducted over this area. 6 references, 7 figures, 3 tables.

  6. An aerial radiological survey of the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base and surrounding area, Fairborn, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over areas of Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) and the immediate surrounding area, during the period July 7 through 20, 1994. The survey was conducted to measure and map the gamma radiation in the area. This mission was the first aerial radiation survey conducted at WPAFB. In the surveyed area, five small localized sources of gamma radiation were detected which were atypical of naturally-occurring radionuclides. On WPAFB property, these sources included a radiation storage facility in Area B (krypton-85) and an ash pile near the Area C flight line (low energy gamma activity). In the area covered outside WPAFB boundaries, sources included cesium-137 in excess of worldwide fallout over a landfill in a northern Dayton industrial area, an X-ray radiography source over a steel plant in the same industrial area, and a mixture of cesium-137 in excess of worldwide fallout and possibly iridium-192 in an area near Crystal Lakes, Ohio. The naturally-occurring gamma emitters (uranium-238 and progeny, thorium and progeny, and potassium-40) were detected in the remaining area with a total exposure rate range of 4 to 16 {mu}R/h; this range is typical of that found in the United States, 1 to 20 {mu}R/h.

  7. An aerial radiological survey of the area surrounding the Maybell mill site, Maybell, Colorado. Date of survey: October/November 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Jobst, J.E.

    1982-06-01

    An aerial radiological measuring system was used to survey the area surrounding Maybell, Colorado and the nearby mines and mill in late October and early November 1981. The survey was conducted for the US Department of Energy`s Office of Operational Safety by the Department`s Remote Sensing Laboratory, located in Las Vegas, Nevada. The highest measured radiation exposure rates (normalized to 3 feet above the ground) exceed 300 microroentgens per hour ({mu}R/h) over the leach piles at the mill.

  8. Early aerial photography and contributions to Digital Earth - The case of the 1921 Halifax air survey mission in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werle, D.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents research into the military and civilian history, technological development, and practical outcomes of aerial photography in Canada immediately after the First World War. The collections of early aerial photography in Canada and elsewhere, as well as the institutional and practical circumstances and arrangements of their creation, represent an important part of remote sensing heritage. It is argued that the digital rendition of the air photos and their representation in mosaic form can make valuable contributions to Digital Earth historic inquiries and mapping exercises today. An episode of one of the first urban surveys, carried out over Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1921, is highlighted and an air photo mosaic and interpretation key is presented. Using the almost one hundred year old air photos and a digitally re-assembled mosaic of a substantial portion of that collection as a guide, a variety of features unique to the post-war urban landscape of the Halifax peninsula are analysed, illustrated, and compared with records of past and current land use. The pan-chromatic air photo ensemble at a nominal scale of 1:5,000 is placed into the historical context with contemporary thematic maps, recent air photos, and modern satellite imagery. Further research opportunities and applications concerning early Canadian aerial photography are outlined.

  9. Aerial Survey Results for 131I Deposition on the Ground after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Torii, Tatsuo; Sugita, Takeshi; Okada, Colin E.; Reed, Michael S.; Blumenthal, Daniel J.

    2013-08-01

    In March 2011 the second largest accidental release of radioactivity in history occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant following a magnitude 9.0 earthquake and subsequent tsunami. Teams from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Emergency Response performed aerial surveys to provide initial maps of the dispersal of radioactive material in Japan. The initial results from the surveys did not report the concentration of 131I. This work reports on analyses performed on the initial survey data by a joint Japan-US collaboration to determine 131I ground concentration. This information is potentially useful in reconstruction of the inhalation and external exposure doses from this short-lived radionuclide. The deposited concentration of 134Cs is also reported.

  10. Interpretation of detailed aerial gamma-ray survey, Jabal Ashirah area, southeastern Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duval, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    A detailed aerial gamma-ray spectrometric survey of the Jabal Ashirah area in the southeastern Arabian Shield has been analyzed using computer-classification algorithms. The analysis resulted in maps that show radiometric map units and gamma-ray anomalies indicating the presence of possible concentrations of potassium and uranium. The radiometric-unit map was interpreted to 'produce a simplified radiolithic map that was correlated with the mapped geology. The gamma-ray data show uranium anomalies that coincide with a tin-bearing granite, but known gold and nickel mineralization do not have any associated gamma-ray signatures.

  11. An aerial radiological survey of the Tonopah Test Range including Clean Slate 1,2,3, Roller Coaster, decontamination area, Cactus Springs Ranch target areas. Central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, A.E.; Hendricks, T.J.

    1995-08-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted of major sections of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in central Nevada from August through October 1993. The survey consisted of aerial measurements of both natural and man-made gamma radiation emanating from the terrestrial surface. The initial purpose of the survey was to locate depleted uranium (detecting {sup 238}U) from projectiles which had impacted on the TTR. The examination of areas near Cactus Springs Ranch (located near the western boundary of the TTR) and an animal burial area near the Double Track site were secondary objectives. When more widespread than expected {sup 241}Am contamination was found around the Clean Slates sites, the survey was expanded to cover the area surrounding the Clean Slates and also the Double Track site. Results are reported as radiation isopleths superimposed on aerial photographs of the area.

  12. An aerial radiological survey of the area surrounding the Rifle Mill sites, Rifle, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Jobst, J.

    1980-08-01

    Gamma ray isopleth maps have been constructed from aerial data taken over the old and new Rifle tailing piles near Rifle, Colorado. Spectral data from the more active areas reveal anomalous concentrations of bismuth-214. Tables that convert these anomalous levels to ground concentrations and corresponding exposure rates are included.

  13. Research on calibration method of axis-shift multi-camera for aerial photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao; Fang, Junyong; Ma, Jingyu; Zhang, Xiaohong; Zhao, Dong; Liu, Xue

    2015-12-01

    Axis-shift multi-camera has been gradually applied in the aerial photogrammetry because of its advantages on structure design. In this paper, the basic axis-shift theory is analyzed, and an improved calibration method is described. A prototype system, including two axis-shift cameras, is developed to validate the feasibility and correctness of the proposed method. With the help of a high-precision indoor control field, the parameters of single camera and the relative orientation parameters of the dual camera system are calculated respectively. Experiment result indicates that this calibration method is suitable for the axis-shift multi camera system.

  14. Aerial infrared surveys of Reykjanes and Torfajökull thermal areas, Iceland, with a section on cost of exploration surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pálmason, G.; Friedman, J.D.; Williams, R.S., Jr.; Jónsson, J.; Saemundsson, K.

    1970-01-01

    In 1966 and 1968 aerial infrared surveys were conducted over 10 of 13 high-temperature thermal areas in Iceland. The surveys were made with an airborne scanner system, utilizing radiation in the 4.5–5.5 μm wavelength band. Supplementary ground geological studies were made in the Reykjanes and Torfajökull thermal areas to interpret features depicted on the infrared imagery and to relate zones of high heat flux to tectonic structure. In the Reykjanes area in southwestern Iceland a shallow ground temperature map was prepared for temperatures at a depth of 0.5 meters; comparison of this map with the infrared imagery reveals some striking similarities. It appears that aerial infrared surveys outline the surface thermal patterns of high-temperature areas and aid in relating these patterns to possible geological structures controlling the upflow of hot water. Amplitude-slicing techniques applied to the magnetically taped airborne scanner data permit an estimate to be made of the natural heat output on the basis of size of area and specific radiance. In addition to their value in preliminary studies of high-temperature areas, infrared surveys conducted at regular intervals over thermal area under exploitation can provide valuable data on changes that occur in surface manifestations with time.

  15. a Method for Simultaneous Aerial and Terrestrial Geodata Acquisition for Corridor Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, P.; Blázquez, M.; Sastre, J.; Colomina, I.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we present mapKITE, a new mobile, simultaneous terrestrial and aerial, geodata collection and post-processing method. On one side, the method combines a terrestrial mobile mapping system (TMMS) with an unmanned aerial mapping one, both equipped with remote sensing payloads (at least, a nadir-looking visible-band camera in the UA) by means of which aerial and terrestrial geodata are acquired simultaneously. This tandem geodata acquisition system is based on a terrestrial vehicle (TV) and on an unmanned aircraft (UA) linked by a 'virtual tether', that is, a mechanism based on the real-time supply of UA waypoints by the TV. By means of the TV-to-UA tether, the UA follows the TV keeping a specific relative TV-to-UA spatial configuration enabling the simultaneous operation of both systems to obtain highly redundant and complementary geodata. On the other side, mapKITE presents a novel concept for geodata post-processing favoured by the rich geometrical aspects derived from the mapKITE tandem simultaneous operation. The approach followed for sensor orientation and calibration of the aerial images captured by the UA inherits the principles of Integrated Sensor Orientation (ISO) and adds the pointing-and-scaling photogrammetric measurement of a distinctive element observed in every UA image, which is a coded target mounted on the roof of the TV. By means of the TV navigation system, the orientation of the TV coded target is performed and used in the post-processing UA image orientation approach as a Kinematic Ground Control Point (KGCP). The geometric strength of a mapKITE ISO network is therefore high as it counts with the traditional tie point image measurements, static ground control points, kinematic aerial control and the new point-and-scale measurements of the KGCPs. With such a geometry, reliable system and sensor orientation and calibration and eventual further reduction of the number of traditional ground control points is feasible. The different

  16. Kite Aerial Photography (KAP) as a Tool for Field Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    Kite aerial photography (KAP) is proposed as a creative tool for geography field teaching and as a medium to approach the complexity of readily available geodata. The method can be integrated as field experiment, surveying technique or group activity. The acquired aerial images can instantaneously be integrated in geographic information systems…

  17. A Small Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, Ant-Plane 4, for aeromagnetic survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funaki, M.; Tanabe, S.; Project, A.

    2007-05-01

    Autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are expected to use in Antarctica for geophysical research due to economy and safety operations. We have developed the technology of small UAVwith autonomous navigation referred to GPS and onboard magnetometer, meteorolgical devices and digital camera under the Ant-Plane project. The UAV focuses on operation for use in the summer season at coastal area in Antarctica; higher temperature than -15C under calm wind. In case of Ant-Plane 4, it can fly continuously more than 500 km, probably more than 1000 km, although the flight in Antarcitca has not succeeded The UAV of FRP is pusher type drone consisting of 2.6m span and 2.0m length with 2-cycles and 2-cylinder 86cc gasoline engine (7.2 HP) navigated. The maximum takeoff weight is 25kg including 1kg of payload. Cruising distance 500 km at speed of 130 km/h using 10 litter of fuel. The UAV is controlled by radio telemeter within 5km from a ground station and autonomous navigation referred to GPS latitude and longitude, pitot tube speed and barometer altitude. The magnetometer system consists of a 3-component magneto-resistant magnetometer (MR) sensor (Honeywell HMR2300), GPS and data logger. Three components of magnetic field, latitude, longitude, altitude, the number of satellite and time are recorded every second during 6 hours. The sensitivity of the magnetometer is 7 nT and we use a total magnetic field intensity for magnetic analysis due to unknown direction of heading of the plane. We succeeded in long distant flight to 500km with magnetometer by Ant-Plane 4 collaborated with Geoscience Australia, in March 2006. The survey was performed in the area 10kmx10km at Kalgoorlie, Western Australia. The magnetic data are obtained from 41 courses (250m in interval) of EW direction. The altitude of the flight was 900m from sea level and 500m from the runway. MR-magnetometer sensor was installed at the tip of a FRP pipe of 1m length, and the pipe was fixed to the head of the plane

  18. The Use of Small Scale Aerial Photography in a Regional Agricultural Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draeger, W. C.

    1971-01-01

    The feasibility of performing inventories of agricultural resources using very small scale aerial or space photography has been investigated. Results to date are encouraging on two counts: (1) the questions posed initially are being answered, and (2) it would seem that a fully operational agricultural inventory using very small scale photography is not beyond the scope of present technology. The biggest problems to be faced in establishing a functional inventory system are those concerning logistics and data handling.

  19. An aerial radiological survey of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and surrounding area, Carlsbad, New Mexico: Date of survey, April 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period April 8 to April 19, 1988 over a 404-square-kilometer (156-square-mile) area covering the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) located near Carlsbad, New Mexico, the surrounding area. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 91 meters (300 feet) with a line spacing of 152 meters (500 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial exposure rates plus the cosmic exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph of the area. The average terrestrial exposure rates ranged from approximately 6.0 to 9.0 microroentgens per hour ({mu}R/h). Two areas of increased exposure rate were evident. Both areas indicated higher than normal concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides. A machine-aided search of the data for man-made sources of radiation indicated the presence of Cs-137 at the Gnome Site, which was expected from previous survey work done in the area. No other sources of man-made radiation were found.

  20. Reliable aerial thermography for energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, J. R.; Bowman, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    A method for energy conservation, the aerial thermography survey, is discussed. It locates sources of energy losses and wasteful energy management practices. An operational map is presented for clear sky conditions. The map outlines the key environmental conditions conductive to obtaining reliable aerial thermography. The map is developed from defined visual and heat loss discrimination criteria which are quantized based on flat roof heat transfer calculations.

  1. Remote sensing methods for power line corridor surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matikainen, Leena; Lehtomäki, Matti; Ahokas, Eero; Hyyppä, Juha; Karjalainen, Mika; Jaakkola, Anttoni; Kukko, Antero; Heinonen, Tero

    2016-09-01

    To secure uninterrupted distribution of electricity, effective monitoring and maintenance of power lines are needed. This literature review article aims to give a wide overview of the possibilities provided by modern remote sensing sensors in power line corridor surveys and to discuss the potential and limitations of different approaches. Monitoring of both power line components and vegetation around them is included. Remotely sensed data sources discussed in the review include synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, optical satellite and aerial images, thermal images, airborne laser scanner (ALS) data, land-based mobile mapping data, and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) data. The review shows that most previous studies have concentrated on the mapping and analysis of network components. In particular, automated extraction of power line conductors has achieved much attention, and promising results have been reported. For example, accuracy levels above 90% have been presented for the extraction of conductors from ALS data or aerial images. However, in many studies datasets have been small and numerical quality analyses have been omitted. Mapping of vegetation near power lines has been a less common research topic than mapping of the components, but several studies have also been carried out in this field, especially using optical aerial and satellite images. Based on the review we conclude that in future research more attention should be given to an integrated use of various data sources to benefit from the various techniques in an optimal way. Knowledge in related fields, such as vegetation monitoring from ALS, SAR and optical image data should be better exploited to develop useful monitoring approaches. Special attention should be given to rapidly developing remote sensing techniques such as UAVs and laser scanning from airborne and land-based platforms. To demonstrate and verify the capabilities of automated monitoring approaches, large tests in various environments

  2. Navigation and Remote Sensing Payloads and Methods of the Sarvant Unmanned Aerial System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, P.; Fortuny, P.; Colomina, I.; Remy, M.; Macedo, K. A. C.; Zúnigo, Y. R. C.; Vaz, E.; Luebeck, D.; Moreira, J.; Blázquez, M.

    2013-08-01

    In a large number of scenarios and missions, the technical, operational and economical advantages of UAS-based photogrammetry and remote sensing over traditional airborne and satellite platforms are apparent. Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) or combined optical/SAR operation in remote areas might be a case of a typical "dull, dirty, dangerous" mission suitable for unmanned operation - in harsh environments such as for example rain forest areas in Brazil, topographic mapping of small to medium sparsely inhabited remote areas with UAS-based photogrammetry and remote sensing seems to be a reasonable paradigm. An example of such a system is the SARVANT platform, a fixed-wing aerial vehicle with a six-meter wingspan and a maximumtake- of-weight of 140 kilograms, able to carry a fifty-kilogram payload. SARVANT includes a multi-band (X and P) interferometric SAR payload, as the P-band enables the topographic mapping of densely tree-covered areas, providing terrain profile information. Moreover, the combination of X- and P-band measurements can be used to extract biomass estimations. Finally, long-term plan entails to incorporate surveying capabilities also at optical bands and deliver real-time imagery to a control station. This paper focuses on the remote-sensing concept in SARVANT, composed by the aforementioned SAR sensor and envisioning a double optical camera configuration to cover the visible and the near-infrared spectrum. The flexibility on the optical payload election, ranging from professional, medium-format cameras to mass-market, small-format cameras, is discussed as a driver in the SARVANT development. The paper also focuses on the navigation and orientation payloads, including the sensors (IMU and GNSS), the measurement acquisition system and the proposed navigation and orientation methods. The latter includes the Fast AT procedure, which performs close to traditional Integrated Sensor Orientation (ISO) and better than Direct Sensor Orientation (Di

  3. Trial aerial survey of sea otters in Prince William Sound, Alaska, 1993. Restoration project 93043-2. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bodkin, J.L.; Udevitz, M.S.

    1996-05-01

    We developed an aerial survey method for sea otters, using a strip transect design where otters observed in a strip along one side of the aircraft are counted. Two strata are sampled, one lies close to shore and/or in shallow. The other strata lies offshore and over deeper water. We estimate the proportion of otters not seen by the observer by conducting intensive searches of units (ISU`s) within strips when otters are observed. The first study found no significant differences in sea otter detection probabilities between ISU`s initiated by the sighting of an otter group compared to systematically located ISU`s. The second study consisted of a trial survey of all of Prince William Sound, excluding Orca Inlet. The survey area consisted of 5,017 sq km of water between the shore line and an offshore boundary based on shoreline physiography, the 100 m depth contour or a distance of 2 km from the shore. From 5-13 August 1993, two observers surveyed 1,023 linear km of high density sea otter habitat and 355 linear km of low density habitat.

  4. Site survey method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Oldham, J.G.; Spencer, C.R.; Begley, C.L.; Meyer, H.R.

    1991-06-18

    The disclosure of the invention is directed to a site survey ground vehicle based apparatus and method for automatically detecting source materials, such as radioactivity, marking the location of the source materials, such as with paint, and mapping the location of the source materials on a site. The apparatus of the invention is also useful for collecting and analyzing samples. The apparatus includes a ground vehicle, detectors mounted at the front of the ground vehicle, and individual detector supports which follow somewhat irregular terrain to allow consistent and accurate detection, and autolocation equipment. 19 figures.

  5. Site survey method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Oldham, James G.; Spencer, Charles R.; Begley, Carl L.; Meyer, H. Robert

    1991-06-18

    The disclosure of the invention is directed to a site survey ground vehicle based apparatus and method for automatically detecting source materials, such as radioactivity, marking the location of the source materials, such as with paint, and mapping the location of the source materials on a site. The apparatus of the invention is also useful for collecting and analyzing samples. The apparatus includes a ground vehicle, detectors mounted at the front of the ground vehicle, and individual detector supports which follow somewhat irregular terrain to allow consistent and accurate detection, and autolocation equipment.

  6. Aerial photographic reproductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1975-01-01

    The National Cartographic Information Center of the U.S. Geological Survey maintains records of aerial photographic coverage of the United States and its Territories, based on reports from other Federal agencies as well as State governmental agencies and commercial companies. From these records, the Center furnishes data to prospective purchasers on available photography and the agency holding the aerial film.

  7. Particle swarm optimization method for the control of a fleet of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkadi, A.; Ciarletta, L.; Theilliol, D.

    2015-11-01

    This paper concerns a control approach of a fleet of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) based on virtual leader. Among others, optimization methods are used to develop the virtual leader control approach, particularly the particle swarm optimization method (PSO). The goal is to find optimal positions at each instant of each UAV to guarantee the best performance of a given task by minimizing a predefined objective function. The UAVs are able to organize themselves on a 2D plane in a predefined architecture, following a mission led by a virtual leader and simultaneously avoiding collisions between various vehicles of the group. The global proposed method is independent from the model or the control of a particular UAV. The method is tested in simulation on a group of UAVs whose model is treated as a double integrator. Test results for the different cases are presented.

  8. Survey of Anomaly Detection Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, B

    2006-10-12

    This survey defines the problem of anomaly detection and provides an overview of existing methods. The methods are categorized into two general classes: generative and discriminative. A generative approach involves building a model that represents the joint distribution of the input features and the output labels of system behavior (e.g., normal or anomalous) then applies the model to formulate a decision rule for detecting anomalies. On the other hand, a discriminative approach aims directly to find the decision rule, with the smallest error rate, that distinguishes between normal and anomalous behavior. For each approach, we will give an overview of popular techniques and provide references to state-of-the-art applications.

  9. Design of a Mars Airplane Propulsion System for the Aerial Regional-Scale Environmental Survey (ARES) Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhl, Christopher A.

    2008-01-01

    The Aerial Regional-Scale Environmental Survey (ARES) is a Mars exploration mission concept that utilizes a rocket propelled airplane to take scientific measurements of atmospheric, surface, and subsurface phenomena. The liquid rocket propulsion system design has matured through several design cycles and trade studies since the inception of the ARES concept in 2002. This paper describes the process of selecting a bipropellant system over other propulsion system options, and provides details on the rocket system design, thrusters, propellant tank and PMD design, propellant isolation, and flow control hardware. The paper also summarizes computer model results of thruster plume interactions and simulated flight performance. The airplane has a 6.25 m wingspan with a total wet mass of 185 kg and has to ability to fly over 600 km through the atmosphere of Mars with 45 kg of MMH / MON3 propellant.

  10. Design of a Mars Airplane Propulsion System for the Aerial Regional-Scale Environmental Survey (ARES) Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhl. Christopher A.

    2009-01-01

    The Aerial Regional-Scale Environmental Survey (ARES) is a Mars exploration mission concept with the goal of taking scientific measurements of the atmosphere, surface, and subsurface of Mars by using an airplane as the payload platform. ARES team first conducted a Phase-A study for a 2007 launch opportunity, which was completed in May 2003. Following this study, significant efforts were undertaken to reduce the risk of the atmospheric flight system, under the NASA Langley Planetary Airplane Risk Reduction Project. The concept was then proposed to the Mars Scout program in 2006 for a 2011 launch opportunity. This paper summarizes the design and development of the ARES airplane propulsion subsystem beginning with the inception of the ARES project in 2002 through the submittal of the Mars Scout proposal in July 2006.

  11. Aerial Photography Summary Record System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1998-01-01

    The Aerial Photography Summary Record System (APSRS) describes aerial photography projects that meet specified criteria over a given geographic area of the United States and its territories. Aerial photographs are an important tool in cartography and a number of other professions. Land use planners, real estate developers, lawyers, environmental specialists, and many other professionals rely on detailed and timely aerial photographs. Until 1975, there was no systematic approach to locate an aerial photograph, or series of photographs, quickly and easily. In that year, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) inaugurated the APSRS, which has become a standard reference for users of aerial photographs.

  12. Age Determination by Back Length for African Savanna Elephants: Extending Age Assessment Techniques for Aerial-Based Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Trimble, Morgan J.; van Aarde, Rudi J.; Ferreira, Sam M.; Nørgaard, Camilla F.; Fourie, Johan; Lee, Phyllis C.; Moss, Cynthia J.

    2011-01-01

    Determining the age of individuals in a population can lead to a better understanding of population dynamics through age structure analysis and estimation of age-specific fecundity and survival rates. Shoulder height has been used to accurately assign age to free-ranging African savanna elephants. However, back length may provide an analog measurable in aerial-based surveys. We assessed the relationship between back length and age for known-age elephants in Amboseli National Park, Kenya, and Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa. We also compared age- and sex-specific back lengths between these populations and compared adult female back lengths across 11 widely dispersed populations in five African countries. Sex-specific Von Bertalanffy growth curves provided a good fit to the back length data of known-age individuals. Based on back length, accurate ages could be assigned relatively precisely for females up to 23 years of age and males up to 17. The female back length curve allowed more precise age assignment to older females than the curve for shoulder height does, probably because of divergence between the respective growth curves. However, this did not appear to be the case for males, but the sample of known-age males was limited to ≤27 years. Age- and sex-specific back lengths were similar in Amboseli National Park and Addo Elephant National Park. Furthermore, while adult female back lengths in the three Zambian populations were generally shorter than in other populations, back lengths in the remaining eight populations did not differ significantly, in support of claims that growth patterns of African savanna elephants are similar over wide geographic regions. Thus, the growth curves presented here should allow researchers to use aerial-based surveys to assign ages to elephants with greater precision than previously possible and, therefore, to estimate population variables. PMID:22028925

  13. Introduction and testing of a monitoring and colony-mapping method for waterbird populations that uses high-speed and ultra-detailed aerial remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Bakó, Gábor; Tolnai, Márton; Takács, Ádám

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing is a method that collects data of the Earth's surface without causing disturbances. Thus, it is worthwhile to use remote sensing methods to survey endangered ecosystems, as the studied species will behave naturally while undisturbed. The latest passive optical remote sensing solutions permit surveys from long distances. State-of-the-art highly sensitive sensor systems allow high spatial resolution image acquisition at high altitudes and at high flying speeds, even in low-visibility conditions. As the aerial imagery captured by an airplane covers the entire study area, all the animals present in that area can be recorded. A population assessment is conducted by visual interpretations of an ortho image map. The basic objective of this study is to determine whether small- and medium-sized bird species are recognizable in the ortho images by using high spatial resolution aerial cameras. The spatial resolution needed for identifying the bird species in the ortho image map was studied. The survey was adjusted to determine the number of birds in a colony at a given time. PMID:25046012

  14. Introduction and Testing of a Monitoring and Colony-Mapping Method for Waterbird Populations That Uses High-Speed and Ultra-Detailed Aerial Remote Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Bakó, Gábor; Tolnai, Márton; Takács, Ádám

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing is a method that collects data of the Earth's surface without causing disturbances. Thus, it is worthwhile to use remote sensing methods to survey endangered ecosystems, as the studied species will behave naturally while undisturbed. The latest passive optical remote sensing solutions permit surveys from long distances. State-of-the-art highly sensitive sensor systems allow high spatial resolution image acquisition at high altitudes and at high flying speeds, even in low-visibility conditions. As the aerial imagery captured by an airplane covers the entire study area, all the animals present in that area can be recorded. A population assessment is conducted by visual interpretations of an ortho image map. The basic objective of this study is to determine whether small- and medium-sized bird species are recognizable in the ortho images by using high spatial resolution aerial cameras. The spatial resolution needed for identifying the bird species in the ortho image map was studied. The survey was adjusted to determine the number of birds in a colony at a given time. PMID:25046012

  15. Aerial radiological and photographic survey of eleven atolls and two islands within the Northern Marshall Islands. Dates of surveys, July-November 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over eleven atolls and two islands within the northern Marshall Islands between September and November 1978. This survey was part of a comprehensive radiological survey, which included extensive terrestrial and marine sampling, to determine possible residual contamination which might remain as a result of the United States nuclear testing program conducted at Bikini Enewetak Atolls between 1946 and 1958. A similar survey was conducted at Enewetak Atoll in 1972. The present survey covered those atolls known to have received direct fallout from the Bravo event, conducted in March 1954 at Bikini Atoll. These included Bikini, Rongelap, Rongerik, Ailinginae, Bikar, Taka, and Utirik Atolls. In addition, several atolls and islands which might have been at the fringes of the Bravo fallout were also surveyed, including Likiep and Ailuk Atolls, Jemo and Mejit Islands, and Wotho Atoll. Ujelang Atoll, which lies approximately 200 km southwest of Enewetak, was also surveyed. Island-averaged terrestrial exposure rates in the range of 30 to 50 ..mu..R/h were observed over parts of Bikini Atoll, including Bikini Island, and over the northern part of Rongelap Atoll. Levels over southern Rongelap and over Rongerik Atoll ranged from 4 to 7 ..mu..R/h. Levels were somewhat lower at Ailinginae Atoll (approximately 2 ..mu..R/h) and at Utirik Atoll (approximately 0.7 ..mu..R/h). The variations observed were consistent with what might be expected from the fallout pattern of the Bravo event. Levels at Ailuk, Likiep, Wotho and Ujelang Atolls and at Mejit and Jemo Islands were consistent with /sup 137/Cs activity, due to worldwide fallout, observed within the United States and at other locations in the central Pacific. These four atolls and the two islands, therefore, do not appear to have recieved any significant direct contamination from the Bravo event or the other tests conducted at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls.

  16. Methods for Evaluating the Temperature Structure-Function Parameter Using Unmanned Aerial Systems and Large-Eddy Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainwright, Charlotte E.; Bonin, Timothy A.; Chilson, Phillip B.; Gibbs, Jeremy A.; Fedorovich, Evgeni; Palmer, Robert D.

    2015-05-01

    Small-scale turbulent fluctuations of temperature are known to affect the propagation of both electromagnetic and acoustic waves. Within the inertial-subrange scale, where the turbulence is locally homogeneous and isotropic, these temperature perturbations can be described, in a statistical sense, using the structure-function parameter for temperature, . Here we investigate different methods of evaluating , using data from a numerical large-eddy simulation together with atmospheric observations collected by an unmanned aerial system and a sodar. An example case using data from a late afternoon unmanned aerial system flight on April 24 2013 and corresponding large-eddy simulation data is presented and discussed.

  17. Fractal methods for extracting artificial objects from the unmanned aerial vehicle images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markov, Eugene

    2016-04-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have become used increasingly in earth surface observations, with a special interest put into automatic modes of environmental control and recognition of artificial objects. Fractal methods for image processing well detect the artificial objects in digital space images but were not applied previously to the UAV-produced imagery. Parameters of photography, on-board equipment, and image characteristics differ considerably for spacecrafts and UAVs. Therefore, methods that work properly with space images can produce different results for the UAVs. In this regard, testing the applicability of fractal methods for the UAV-produced images and determining the optimal range of parameters for these methods represent great interest. This research is dedicated to the solution of this problem. Specific features of the earth's surface images produced with UAVs are described in the context of their interpretation and recognition. Fractal image processing methods for extracting artificial objects are described. The results of applying these methods to the UAV images are presented.

  18. A supervised method for object-based 3D building change detection on aerial stereo images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, R.; Gruen, A.

    2014-08-01

    There is a great demand for studying the changes of buildings over time. The current trend for building change detection combines the orthophoto and DSM (Digital Surface Models). The pixel-based change detection methods are very sensitive to the quality of the images and DSMs, while the object-based methods are more robust towards these problems. In this paper, we propose a supervised method for building change detection. After a segment-based SVM (Support Vector Machine) classification with features extracted from the orthophoto and DSM, we focus on the detection of the building changes of different periods by measuring their height and texture differences, as well as their shapes. A decision tree analysis is used to assess the probability of change for each building segment and the traffic lighting system is used to indicate the status "change", "non-change" and "uncertain change" for building segments. The proposed method is applied to scanned aerial photos of the city of Zurich in 2002 and 2007, and the results have demonstrated that our method is able to achieve high detection accuracy.

  19. Planialtimetric Accuracy Evaluation of Digital Surface Model (dsm) and Digital Terrain Model (dtm) Obtained from Aerial Survey with LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, C. B. M.; Barros, R. S.; Rabaco, L. M. L.

    2012-07-01

    It's noticed a significant increase in the development of orbital and airborne sensors that enable the extraction of three-dimensional data. Consequently, it's important the increment of studies about the quality of altimetric values derived from these sensors to verify if the improvements implemented in the acquisition of data may influence the results. In this context, as part of a larger project that aims to evaluate the accuracy of various sensors, this work aims to analysis the planialtimetric accuracy of DSM and DTM generated from an aerial survey with LIDAR, using as reference for the planimetric analysis of the orthophotos obtained. The project was developed for an area of São Sebastião city, located in the basin of the North Coast of São Paulo state. The area's relief is very steep, with a predominance of dense forest vegetation, typical of the Atlantic Forest. All points have been established in the field, with the use of GNSS of one frequency (L1) through static relative positioning, acquiring a minimum of 1,500 epochs, for a distance less than 20 km to the base. In this work it's considered the Brazilian standard specifications for classification of cartographic bases (PEC). The Brazilian company responsible for the aerial survey (LACTEC) gave the following products for analysis: point clouds in raw format (x, y, z) using orthometric heights; point clouds (first and last pulse) for each range of flight to verify systematic errors; DTM uniformly spaced, filtering small natural obstacles, buildings and vegetation, in Geotiff format; DSM also uniformly spaced, in Geotiff format; and the mosaic of georeferenced digital images. The analysis realized on products from the LIDAR indicated their adoption to the scales 1:2,000 (Class A for the orthophotos and Class B for the DTM) and 1:5,000 (class C for the DSM). There were no indications of trends in the results. The average error was 0.01 m. It's important that new areas with different topographic

  20. U.S. Geological Survey Aids Federal Agencies in ObtainingCommercial Satellite and Aerial Imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is a leading U.S. Federal civil agency in the implementation of the civil aspects of the Commercial Remote Sensing Space Policy (CRSSP). The USGS is responsible for collecting inter-agency near-term requirements, establishing an operational infrastructure, and supporting the policy and other Federal agencies.

  1. NOAA's National Geodetic Survey Utilization of Aerial Sensors for Emergency Response Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Remote Sensing Division has a Coastal Mapping program and a Airport Survey program and research and development that support both programs. NOAA/NGS/RSD plans to acquire remotely sensed data to support the agency's homeland security and emergency response requirements.

  2. Detection of conduit-controlled ground-water flow in northwestern Puerto Rico using aerial photograph interpretation and geophysical methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús; Richards, Ronald T.

    2000-01-01

    The development potential of ground-water resources in the karst limestone of northwestern Puerto Rico, in an area extending from the Río Camuy to Aguadilla, is uncertain as a result of limited knowledge of the location of areas where a high density of cavities (interconnected fractures, conduits, and other dissolution features) might suggest the occurrence of high water yields. The presence in northwestern Puerto Rico of numerous coastal submarine springs, cavernous porosity in some of the wells, and rivers with entrenched and underground paths, indicate that it is probable that water-bearing, subterranean interconnected cavities occur in the area between the Río Camuy and Aguadilla. The number of exploratory wells needed to determine the location of these conduits or zones of enhanced secondary porosity could be substantially reduced if more information were available about the location of these subterranean features, greatly reducing the drilling costs associated with a trial-and-error exploratory process. A 3-year study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority, to detect the presence of cavities that might suggest the occurrence of conduit-controlled groundwater flow. Aerial photographs, geologic and topographic maps, and field reconnaissance were used to identify such linear terrain features as ridges, entrenched canyons, and fracture traces. Natural potential and gravity geophysical methods were also used. The following sites were selected for the aerial photograph interpretation and geophysical testing: Caimital Bajo uplands and former Ramey Air Force Base in Aguadilla; Quebrada de los Cedros between Aguadilla and Isabela; the University of Puerto Rico Agricultural Experiment Station, Otilio dairy farm, and Pozo Brujo in Isabela; the Monte Encantado area in Moca and Isabela; and the Rio Camuy cave system in Hatillo and Camuy. In general, the degree of success varied with site and the

  3. Satellite and aerial data as a tool for digs localisation and their verification using geophysical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavelka, Karel; Faltynova, Martina; Bila, Zdenka

    2013-04-01

    The Middle Europe such as next world cultural centres are inhabited by humans tens of thousands years. In the last ten years, new methods are implemented in archaeology. It means new sensitive geophysical methods, very high resolution remote sensing and Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS). This contribution will refer about new technological possibilities for archaeology in the Czech Republic to two project examples. VHR satellite data or aerial image data can be used for searching of potential archaeological sites. In some cases, orthophoto mosaic is very useful; nowadays, different aerial orthophotomosaic layers are available in the Czech Republic (2002-3, 2006 and 2009) with pixel resolution 25cm. The archaeological findings are best visible in the Czech Republic by their vegetation indices. For this reason, the best time for data acquiring is mid of spring, in rapid vegetation process. Another option is the soil indices - the best time is early spring or autumn, after crop. A new progressive method is ALS, which can be used for spatial indices. Since autumn 2009 the entire area of the Czech Republic is mapped by technology of ALS. The aim of mapping is to get authentic and detailed digital terrain model (DTM) of the Czech Republic. About 80% (autumn 2012) of the Czech territory is currently covered by the DTM based on ALS. The standard deviation of model points in altitude is better than 20cm. The DTM displayed in appropriate form (as shaded surface) can be used as a data source for searching and description of archaeological sites - mainly in forested areas. By using of above mentioned methods a lot of interesting historical sites were discovered. The logical next step is a verification of these findings by using terrestrial methods - in this case by using of geophysical instruments. At the CTU Prague, the walking gradiometer GSM-19 and georadar SIR-3000 are at disposal. In first example the former fortification from Prussia - Austrian was localized on orthophoto

  4. Aerial Surveys of Waterfowl Production in North America, 1955-71

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Anderson, D.R.; Pospahala, R.S.

    1972-01-01

    Basic information obtained from the July Waterfowl Production Survey is presented in 32 Appendix tables for the period 1955-71. The discussion of the data is minimized because the report is designed primarily to make the data available to waterfowl biologists and other interested individuals. Data presented include: (1) the number of July ponds, (2) the brood index, (3) the average size forClass II and Cia s s !II broods, and (4) the late nesting index. These statistics are presented for each stratum surveyed. A few of the obvious correlations are discussed, although more refined analyses of the data will be presented in the Mallard Study reports. Furthermore, additional supporting information will be available for the mallard reports.

  5. Aerial Mobile Radiation Survey Following Detonation of a Radiological Dispersal Device.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Laurel E; Fortin, Richard; Buckle, John L; Coyle, Maurice J; Van Brabant, Reid A; Harvey, Bradley J A; Seywerd, Henry C J; McCurdy, Martin W

    2016-05-01

    A series of experiments was conducted in 2012 at the Defence Research and Development Canada's Suffield Research Centre in Alberta, Canada, during which three radiological dispersal devices were detonated. The detonations released radioactive (140)La into the air, which was then carried by winds and detectable over distances of up to 2 km. The Nuclear Emergency Response group of Natural Resources Canada conducted airborne radiometric surveys shortly following the explosions to map the pattern of radioactivity deposited on the ground. The survey instrument suite was based on large volume NaI(Tl) scintillation gamma radiation detectors, which were situated in a basket mounted exterior to the helicopter and oriented end-to-end to maximize the sensitivity. A standard geophysical data treatment was used to subtract backgrounds and to correct the data to produce counts due to (140)La at the nominal altitude. Sensitivity conversion factors obtained from Monte Carlo simulations were then applied to express the measurements in terms of surface activity concentration in kBq m(-2). Integrated over the survey area, the results indicate that only 20 to 25% of the bomb's original inventory of radioactive material is deposited within a 1.5-km radius of ground zero. These results can be accommodated with a simple model for the RDD behavior and atmospheric dispersion. PMID:27023033

  6. NURE aerial gamma ray and magnetic detail survey of portions of northeast Washington. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    The Northeast Washington Survey was performed under the United States Department of Energy's National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program, which is designed to provide radioelement distribution information to assist in assessing the uraniferous material potential of the United States. The radiometric and ancilliary data were digitally recorded and processed. The results are presented in the form of stacked profiles, contour maps, flight path maps, statistical tables and frequency distribution histograms. These graphical outputs are presented at a scale of 1:62,500 and are contained in the individual Volume 2 reports.

  7. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Hobbs National Topographic Map, New Mexico/Texas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Hobbs National Topographic Map NI13-12 are presented in this report. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also.

  8. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey, San Angelo National Topographic Map: Texas, West Texas Project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the San Angelo National Topographic Map NH14-1 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium, and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included.

  9. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: San Antonio National Topographic Map, Texas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the San Antonio National Topographic Map NH14-8 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium, and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also.

  10. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Burlington National Topographic Map, Illinois/Iowa/Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Burlington National Topographic Map NK15-12 is presented in this report. The airborne data gathered is reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also.

  11. NURE aerial gamma-ray and magnetic reconnaissance survey of portions of New Mexico, Arizona and Texas. Volume II. New Mexico-Roswell NI 13-8 quadrangle. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    The results of a high-sensitivity, aerial gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey of the Roswell two degree quadrangle, New Mexico are presented. Instrumentation and methods are described in Volume I of this final report. The work was done by Carson Helicopters, Inc., and Carson Helicopters was assisted in the interpretation by International Exploration, Inc. The work was performed for the US Department of Energy - National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. Analysis of this radiometric data yielded 238 statistically significant eU anomalies. Of this number, seventy-four were considered to be sufficient strength to warrant further investigation.

  12. NURE aerial gamma-ray and magnetic reconnaissance survey of portions of New Mexico, Arizona and Texas. Volume II. New Mexico-Las Cruces NI 13-10 Quadrangle. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    The results of a high-sensitivity, aerial gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey of the Las Cruces two degree quadrangle, New Mexico, are presented. Instrumentation and methods are described in Volume 1 of this final report. The work was done by Carson Helicopters, Inc., and International Exploration, Inc. The work was performed for the US Department of Energy - National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. Analysis of this radiometric data yielded 192 statistically significant eU anomalies. Of this number, thirty-nine were considered to be of sufficient strength to warrant further investigation.

  13. a Robust Matching Method for Unmmaned Aerial Vehicle Images with Different Viewpoint Angles Based on Regional Coherency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Z.; Li, C.; Yang, N.

    2015-08-01

    One of the main challenges confronting high-resolution remote sensing image matching is how to address the issue of geometric deformation between images, especially when the images are obtained from different viewpoints. In this paper, a robust matching method for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle images of different viewpoint angles based on regional coherency is proposed. The literature on the geometric transform analysis reveals that if transformations between different pixel pairs are different, they can't be expressed by a uniform affine transform. While for the same real scene, if the instantaneous field of view or the target depth changes is small, transformation between pixels in the whole image can be approximated by an affine transform. On the basis of this analysis, a region coherency matching method for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle images is proposed. In the proposed method, the simplified mapping from image view change to scale change and rotation change has been derived. Through this processing, the matching between view change images can be converted into the matching between rotation and scale changed images. In the method, firstly local image regions are detected and view changes between these local regions are mapped to rotation and scale change by performing local region simulation. And then, point feature detection and matching are implemented in the simulated image regions. Finally, a group of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle images are adopted to verify the performance of proposed matching method respectively, and a comparative analysis with other methods demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey: Tallahassee and Apalachicola quadrangles, Florida, Georgia and Alabama. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    The combined Tallahassee and Apalachicola quadrangles cover 8800 square miles of area in southwestern Georgia and the eastern panhandle of Florida. The area includes thick sections of Cenozoic and Mesozoic platform deposits of the Southwestern Georgia Basin. Surficial exposures are comprised of Eocene to Recent deposits. A search of the available literature revealed no economically feasible uranium deposits within the area. A total of 45 uranium anomalies were detected by the survey and are discussed briefly in this report. All anomalies are extremely low in equivalent ppM values and a large number correlate well with cultural features. The magnetic data appear to be in general agreement with present structural interpretation. The data does suggest that some lithologic and/or structural complexities may be present in the Paleozoic and older basement material.

  15. Development of test methods for scale model simulation of aerial applications in the NASA Langley Vortex Research Facility. [agricultural aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, F. L., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    As part of basic research to improve aerial applications technology, methods were developed at the Langley Vortex Research Facility to simulate and measure deposition patterns of aerially-applied sprays and granular materials by means of tests with small-scale models of agricultural aircraft and dynamically-scaled test particles. Interactions between the aircraft wake and the dispersed particles are being studied with the objective of modifying wake characteristics and dispersal techniques to increase swath width, improve deposition pattern uniformity, and minimize drift. The particle scaling analysis, test methods for particle dispersal from the model aircraft, visualization of particle trajectories, and measurement and computer analysis of test deposition patterns are described. An experimental validation of the scaling analysis and test results that indicate improved control of chemical drift by use of winglets are presented to demonstrate test methods.

  16. Aerial Surveys of Elevated Hydrocarbon Emissions from Oil and Gas Production Sites.

    PubMed

    Lyon, David R; Alvarez, Ramón A; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Brandt, Adam R; Jackson, Robert B; Hamburg, Steven P

    2016-05-01

    Oil and gas (O&G) well pads with high hydrocarbon emission rates may disproportionally contribute to total methane and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from the production sector. In turn, these emissions may be missing from most bottom-up emission inventories. We performed helicopter-based infrared camera surveys of more than 8000 O&G well pads in seven U.S. basins to assess the prevalence and distribution of high-emitting hydrocarbon sources (detection threshold ∼ 1-3 g s(-1)). The proportion of sites with such high-emitting sources was 4% nationally but ranged from 1% in the Powder River (Wyoming) to 14% in the Bakken (North Dakota). Emissions were observed three times more frequently at sites in the oil-producing Bakken and oil-producing regions of mixed basins (p < 0.0001, χ(2) test). However, statistical models using basin and well pad characteristics explained 14% or less of the variance in observed emission patterns, indicating that stochastic processes dominate the occurrence of high emissions at individual sites. Over 90% of almost 500 detected sources were from tank vents and hatches. Although tank emissions may be partially attributable to flash gas, observed frequencies in most basins exceed those expected if emissions were effectively captured and controlled, demonstrating that tank emission control systems commonly underperform. Tanks represent a key mitigation opportunity for reducing methane and VOC emissions. PMID:27045743

  17. Aeromagnetic Survey by Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with Magneto-Resistant Magnetometer at the northern Kalgoorlie area, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funaki, M.; Group, A.; Milligan, P.

    2006-12-01

    We have developed the technology of small drones (unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV)) and an onboard magnetometer focussed on the aeromagnetic surveys under the Ant-Plane project. We succeeded long distant flight to 500km with agnetometer by Ant-Plene4 drone collaborated with Geoscience, Australia, in March 2006. The survey was carried out in the area 10kmx10km around Mt. Vetters Station, Kalgoorlie, West Australian. The magnetic data are obtained from 41 courses (250m in interval) of EW dierction. The altitude of the flight was 900m from sea level and 500m from the runway. The Ant-Plane #4 consists of 2.6m span and 2.0m length with 2-cycles and 2-cylinder 85cc gasoline engine, GPS navigation system by microcomputer and radio telemeter system. The total weight is 25kg including 12.4 litter fuels and the coursing speed is 130. The magnetometer system consists of a 3-component magneto- resistant magnetometer (MR) sensor (Honeywell HMR2300), GPS and data logger. Three components of magnetic field, latitude, longitude, altitude, the number of satellite and time can be recorded in every second during 6 hours. The sensitivity of the magnetometer is 7 nT and we use a total magnetic field intensity for magnetic analysis due to unknown direction of heading of the plane. MR-magnetometer sensor was installed at the tip of a FRP pipe of 1m length, and the pipe was fixed to the head of the plane in order to reduce the plane magnetization. After 4 hours 14 minutes from the takeoff, the 500km flight was accomplished and the magnetic data were obtained from the data logger. The straight flight course was almost consistent with the way point course, but the course was drastically disturbed when the plane was turning. The magnetic noise level during the flight increased to 30nT, when the plane was flight in the tail wind. However, it is much higher when the plane flew in the head wind. The anomaly pattern obtained from Ant-Plane 4 was compared with the magnetic anomaly map published by

  18. An asymmetric re-weighting method for the precision combined bundle adjustment of aerial oblique images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Linfu; Hu, Han; Wang, Jingxue; Zhu, Qing; Chen, Min

    2016-07-01

    Combined bundle adjustment is a fundamental step in the processing of massive oblique images. Traditional bundle adjustment designed for nadir images gives identical weights to different parts of image point observations made from different directions, due to the assumption that the errors in the observations follow the same Gaussian distribution. However, because of their large tilt angles, aerial oblique images have trapezoidal footprints on the ground, and their areas correspond to conspicuously different ground sample distances. The errors in different observations no longer conform to the above assumption, which leads to suboptimal bundle adjustment accuracy and restricts subsequent 3D applications. To model the distribution of the errors correctly for the combined bundle adjustment of oblique images, this paper proposes an asymmetric re-weighting method. The scale of each pixel is used to determine a re-weighting factor, and each pixel is subsequently projected onto the ground to identify another anisotropic re-weighting factor using the shape of its quadrangle. Next, these two factors are integrated into the combined bundle adjustment using asymmetric weights for the image point observations; greater weights are assigned to observations with fine resolutions, and those with coarse resolutions are penalized. This paper analyzes urban and rural images captured by three different five-angle camera systems, from both proprietary datasets and the ISPRS/EuroSDR benchmark. The results reveal that the proposed method outperforms the traditional method in both back-projected and triangulated precision by approximately 5-10% in most cases. Furthermore, the misalignments of point clouds generated by the different cameras are significantly alleviated after combined bundle adjustment.

  19. Aerial Surveys of the Beaufort Sea Seasonal Ice Zone in 2012-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewey, S.; Morison, J.; Andersen, R.; Zhang, J.

    2014-12-01

    Seasonal Ice Zone Reconnaissance Surveys (SIZRS) of the Beaufort Sea aboard U.S. Coast Guard Arctic Domain Awareness flights were made monthly from May 2012 to October 2012, June 2013 to August 2013, and June 2014 to October 2014. In 2012 sea ice extent reached a record minimum and the SIZRS sampling ranged from complete ice cover to open water; in addition to its large spatial coverage, the SIZRS program extends temporal coverage of the seasonal ice zone (SIZ) beyond the traditional season for ship-based observations, and is a good set of measurements for model validation and climatological comparison. The SIZ, where ice melts and reforms annually, encompasses the marginal ice zone (MIZ). Thus SIZRS tracks interannual MIZ conditions, providing a regional context for smaller-scale MIZ processes. Observations with Air eXpendable CTDs (AXCTDs) reveal two near-surface warm layers: a locally-formed surface seasonal mixed layer and a layer of Pacific origin at 50-60m. Temperatures in the latter differ from the freezing point by up to 2°C more than climatologies. To distinguish vertical processes of mixed layer formation from Pacific advection, vertical heat and salt fluxes are quantified using a 1-D Price-Weller-Pinkel (PWP) model adapted for ice-covered seas. This PWP simulates mixing processes in the top 100m of the ocean. Surface forcing fluxes are taken from the Marginal Ice Zone Modeling and Assimilation System MIZMAS. Comparison of SIZRS observations with PWP output shows that the ocean behaves one-dimensionally above the Pacific layer of the Beaufort Gyre. Despite agreement with the MIZMAS-forced PWP, SIZRS observations remain fresher to 100m than do outputs from MIZMAS and ECCO.2. The shapes of seasonal cycles in SIZRS salinity and temperature agree with MIZMAS and ECCO.2 model outputs despite differences in the values of each. However, the seasonal change of surface albedo is not high enough resolution to accurately drive the PWP. Use of ice albedo

  20. Autonomous Aerial Refueling Ground Test Demonstration—A Sensor-in-the-Loop, Non-Tracking Method

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chao-I; Koseluk, Robert; Buchanan, Chase; Duerner, Andrew; Jeppesen, Brian; Laux, Hunter

    2015-01-01

    An essential capability for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to extend its airborne duration without increasing the size of the aircraft is called the autonomous aerial refueling (AAR). This paper proposes a sensor-in-the-loop, non-tracking method for probe-and-drogue style autonomous aerial refueling tasks by combining sensitivity adjustments of a 3D Flash LIDAR camera with computer vision based image-processing techniques. The method overcomes the inherit ambiguity issues when reconstructing 3D information from traditional 2D images by taking advantage of ready to use 3D point cloud data from the camera, followed by well-established computer vision techniques. These techniques include curve fitting algorithms and outlier removal with the random sample consensus (RANSAC) algorithm to reliably estimate the drogue center in 3D space, as well as to establish the relative position between the probe and the drogue. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method on a real system, a ground navigation robot was designed and fabricated. Results presented in the paper show that using images acquired from a 3D Flash LIDAR camera as real time visual feedback, the ground robot is able to track a moving simulated drogue and continuously narrow the gap between the robot and the target autonomously. PMID:25970254

  1. Autonomous Aerial Refueling Ground Test Demonstration--A Sensor-in-the-Loop, Non-Tracking Method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao-I; Koseluk, Robert; Buchanan, Chase; Duerner, Andrew; Jeppesen, Brian; Laux, Hunter

    2015-01-01

    An essential capability for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to extend its airborne duration without increasing the size of the aircraft is called the autonomous aerial refueling (AAR). This paper proposes a sensor-in-the-loop, non-tracking method for probe-and-drogue style autonomous aerial refueling tasks by combining sensitivity adjustments of a 3D Flash LIDAR camera with computer vision based image-processing techniques. The method overcomes the inherit ambiguity issues when reconstructing 3D information from traditional 2D images by taking advantage of ready to use 3D point cloud data from the camera, followed by well-established computer vision techniques. These techniques include curve fitting algorithms and outlier removal with the random sample consensus (RANSAC) algorithm to reliably estimate the drogue center in 3D space, as well as to establish the relative position between the probe and the drogue. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method on a real system, a ground navigation robot was designed and fabricated. Results presented in the paper show that using images acquired from a 3D Flash LIDAR camera as real time visual feedback, the ground robot is able to track a moving simulated drogue and continuously narrow the gap between the robot and the target autonomously. PMID:25970254

  2. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey, Montrose detail Area 5, Colorado. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    The Montrose Detail Area No. 5 consists of a 180 square mile area covering portions of the West Elk Mountains, the Ruby Range, and associated mountainous regions of the Southern Rocky Mountains. The area's geology is dominated by Tertiary intrusive and extrusive rocks related to the West Elk Mountains Volcanic Province. Some exposures of underlying Tertiary and Cretaceous material are present. The Irwin Mining District (Anthracite) lies within the detail area, as well as several small prospects for zinc, lead, and silver. No uranium occurrences are known to be associated with these mineralized areas. A total of 26 groups of samples in the uranium window constitute anomalies as defined in Volume I. These anomalies lie over the highest uranium count rate areas in the Ruby Range, the Anthracite Range, and the East Beckwith Mountain area. The highest count rates appear associated with dikes of granodiorite and/or white quartz porphyry. Magnetic data outline the major intrusive and extrusive bodies in the south, but only partially define the intrusive complex to the north. Little correlation with the radiometric data was expected or observed. Despite a wide range in the count rates of the three radioisotopes, the area appeared to be geochemically homogeneous according to the criteria set forth in Volume I. Other methods of separating geochemically distinctive areas may be more successful. Multivariate analysis showed a high degree of correleation between the three isotopes.

  3. A Survey of Patch Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnhill, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    Patch methods are someshow a response to the fact that surface geometry is local, that is, only small parts of a surface are created at a time. The two categories of patches, transfinite patches and finite dimensional patches are examined and a discussion of trivariate patches is presented.

  4. Aerial Explorers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg; Ippolito, Corey

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents recent results from a mission architecture study of planetary aerial explorers. In this study, several mission scenarios were developed in simulation and evaluated on success in meeting mission goals. This aerial explorer mission architecture study is unique in comparison with previous Mars airplane research activities. The study examines how aerial vehicles can find and gain access to otherwise inaccessible terrain features of interest. The aerial explorer also engages in a high-level of (indirect) surface interaction, despite not typically being able to takeoff and land or to engage in multiple flights/sorties. To achieve this goal, a new mission paradigm is proposed: aerial explorers should be considered as an additional element in the overall Entry, Descent, Landing System (EDLS) process. Further, aerial vehicles should be considered primarily as carrier/utility platforms whose purpose is to deliver air-deployed sensors and robotic devices, or symbiotes, to those high-value terrain features of interest.

  5. Integration of historical aerial and satellite photos, recent satellite images and geophysical surveys for the knowledge of the ancient Dyrrachium (Durres, Albania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malfitana, Daniele; Shehi, Eduard; Masini, Nicola; Scardozzi, Giuseppe

    2010-05-01

    The paper presents the preliminary results of an integrated multidiscipliary research project concerning the urban area of the modern Durres (ancient Dyrrachium). Here a joint Italian and Albanian researcher are starting preliminary investigations on the place of an ancient roman villa placed in the urban centre of the modern town. In a initial phase are offering interesting results the use of a rich multitemporal remote sensing data-set, historical aerial photos of 1920s and 1930s, photos of USA spy satellites of 1960s and 1970s (Corona KH-4A and KH-4B), and very high resolution satellite imagery. The historical aerial documentation is very rich and includes aerial photogrammetrich flights of two Italian Institutions: the private company SARA - Società Anonima Rilevamenti Aerofotogrammetrici in Rome (1928) and the IGM - Istituto Geografico Militare (1936, 1937 e 1941), which flew on Durres for purposes of cartographic production and military. These photos offer an image of the city before the urban expansion after the Second World War and in recent decades, progressively documented by satellite images of the 1960s-1970s and recent years. They enable a reconstruction of the ancient topography of the urban area, even with the possibility of detailed analysis, as in the case of the the Roman villa, nowadays buried under a modern garden, but also investigated with a GPR survey, in order to rebuild its plan and contextualize the villa in relation to the urban area of the ancient Dyrrachium.

  6. Survey of fracture toughness test methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. F., Jr.; Jones, M. H.; Srawley, J. E.

    1968-01-01

    Comprehensive survey presents current methods of fracture toughness testing that are based on linear elastic fracture mechanics. General principles of the basic two dimensional crack stress field model are discussed in relation to real three dimensional specimens. Methods of test instrumentation and procedure are described.

  7. Trachoma survey methods: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Reacher, Mark; Matthews, Fiona; Brayne, Carol; Emerson, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Reliable population-based prevalence data are essential for planning, monitoring and evaluating trachoma control programmes and understanding the scale of the problem, yet they are not currently available for 22 out of 56 trachoma-endemic countries. Three survey methods have been advocated for trachoma: cluster random sampling (CRS); trachoma rapid assessment (TRA); and acceptance sampling trachoma rapid assessment (ASTRA). Our review highlights the benefits of CRS being simple, efficient, repeatable and giving population-based prevalence estimates of all signs of trachoma. There are limitations to TRA, which include: non-representative sampling; does not estimate prevalence; and lacks consistency and accuracy. ASTRA advocates small sample sizes but it is relatively complex, may result in imprecise prevalence estimates and does not estimate cicatricial signs of trachoma. We conclude that CRS should therefore remain the “gold” standard for trachoma surveys. However, among the CRS surveys reviewed, we also found several methodological deficiencies of sample-size calculations, standardization of trachoma graders, reporting of confidence intervals of prevalence estimates, variability of age groups for presentation of age-specific prevalence, and lack of estimation of district prevalence estimates. Properly conducted surveys will be crucial if the objective of global elimination of blinding trachoma is to be charted and realized. Harmonization of survey methods will enhance the conduct and comparability of trachoma surveys needed for reliable mapping of prevalence within endemic countries. Consistent with WHO recommendations, we advocate for continued use of CRS as the survey design of choice for trachoma control programmes and propose ways of improving future surveys based on this method. PMID:19274367

  8. Hierarchical scheduling method of UAV resources for emergency surveying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junxiao; Zhu, Qing; Shen, Fuqiang; Miao, Shuangxi; Cao, Zhenyu; Weng, Qiqiang

    2015-12-01

    Traditional mission scheduling methods are unable to meet the timeliness requirements of emergency surveying. Different size and overlaps of different missions lead to inefficient scheduling and poor mission returns. Especially for UAVs, based on their agile and flexible ability, the scheduling result becomes diversiform; as affected by environment and unmanned aerial vehicle performance, different scheduling will lead to different time costs and mission payoffs. An effective scheduling solution is to arrange the UAVs reasonably to complete as many as missions possible with better quality and satisfaction of different demands. This paper proposes a method for mission decomposition or aggregation to generate a mission unit for specific UAVs based on the spatio-temporal constraints of different missions and UAV observation ability demands. In this way, the problems of lack or redundancy of resource scheduling, which can be caused by mission overload, various information demands and spatial overlapping will be effectively reduced. Furthermore, the global efficiency evaluation function is built by considering typical scheduling objectives, such as mission returns, priority and load balancing of resources. Then, an improved ant colony algorithm is designed to acquire an optimal scheduling scheme and the dynamic adjustment strategy is employed. Finally, the correctness and validity are demonstrated by the simulation experiment.

  9. Aerial photographic reproductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1971-01-01

    Geological Survey vertical aerial photography is obtained primarily for topographic and geologic mapping. Reproductions from this photography are usually satisfactory for general use. Because reproductions are not stocked, but are custom processed for each order, they cannot be returned for credit or refund.

  10. A survey of aftbody flow prediction methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, L. E.; Mace, J.

    1981-01-01

    A survey of computational methods used in the calculation of nozzle aftbody flows is presented. One class of methods reviewed are those which patch together solutions for the inviscid, boundary layer, and plume flow regions. The second class of methods reviewed are those which computationally solve the Navier Stokes equations over nozzle aftbodies with jet exhaust flow. Computed results from the methods are compared with experiment. Advantages and disadvantages of the various methods are discussed along with opportunities for further development of these methods.

  11. Survey on large scale system control methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercadal, Mathieu

    1987-01-01

    The problem inherent to large scale systems such as power network, communication network and economic or ecological systems were studied. The increase in size and flexibility of future spacecraft has put those dynamical systems into the category of large scale systems, and tools specific to the class of large systems are being sought to design control systems that can guarantee more stability and better performance. Among several survey papers, reference was found to a thorough investigation on decentralized control methods. Especially helpful was the classification made of the different existing approaches to deal with large scale systems. A very similar classification is used, even though the papers surveyed are somehow different from the ones reviewed in other papers. Special attention is brought to the applicability of the existing methods to controlling large mechanical systems like large space structures. Some recent developments are added to this survey.

  12. Georeferencing the Large-Scale Aerial Photographs of a Great Lakes Coastal Wetland: A Modified Photogrammetric Method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, Marilyn K.; Kowalski, Kurt P.; Grapentine, Joel L.

    2010-01-01

    The geocontrol template method was developed to georeference multiple, overlapping analog aerial photographs without reliance upon conventionally obtained horizontal ground control. The method was tested as part of a long-term wetland habitat restoration project at a Lake Erie coastal wetland complex in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge. As in most coastal wetlands, annually identifiable ground-control features required to georeference photo-interpreted data are difficult to find. The geocontrol template method relies on the following four components: (a) an uncontrolled aerial photo mosaic of the study area, (b) global positioning system (GPS) derived horizontal coordinates of each photo’s principal point, (c) a geocontrol template created by the transfer of fiducial markings and calculated principal points to clear acetate from individual photographs arranged in a mosaic, and (d) the root-mean-square-error testing of the system to ensure an acceptable level of planimetric accuracy. Once created for a study area, the geocontrol template can be registered in geographic information system (GIS) software to facilitate interpretation of multiple images without individual image registration. The geocontrol template enables precise georeferencing of single images within larger blocks of photographs using a repeatable and consistent method.

  13. A Survey of Methods and Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, Candida; And Others

    Designed to assess and describe the nature and frequency of teaching methods, activities, and materials used in secondary school English courses, this survey consists of 14 questions related to teaching objectives, activities, and materials, each followed by a list of possible responses. Teachers are asked to select a course, and to circle for…

  14. Identification of School Bullies by Survey Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Joanna C. M.; Cornell, Dewey G.; Sheras, Peter

    2006-01-01

    How can middle school counselors identify bullies? This study compared two methods of identifying bullies in a sample of 386 middle school students. A peer nomination survey identified many more bullies than did student self-report. Moreover, self-reported and peer nominated bullies differed in their types of bullying behaviors, level of general…

  15. Assessment of benthic disturbance associated with stingray foraging for ghost shrimp by aerial survey over an intertidal sandflat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Seiji; Tamaki, Akio

    2014-08-01

    One notable type of bioturbation in marine soft sediments involves the excavation of large pits and displacement of sediment associated with predator foraging for infaunal benthos. Batoids are among the most powerful excavators, yet their impact on sediment has been poorly studied. For expansive tidal flats, only relatively small proportions of the habitat can be sampled due to physical and logistical constraints. The knowledge of the dynamics of these habitats, including the spatial and temporal distribution of ray bioturbation, thus remains limited. We combined the use of aerial photogrammetry and in situ benthic sampling to quantify stingray feeding pits in Tomioka Bay, Amakusa, Japan. Specifically, we mapped newly-formed pits over an 11-ha section of an intertidal sandflat over two consecutive daytime low tides. Pit size and distribution patterns were assumed to scale with fish size and reflect size-specific feeding behaviors, respectively. In situ benthic surveys were conducted for sandflat-surface elevation and prey density (callianassid shrimp). The volume versus area relationship was established as a logistic function for pits of varying sizes by photographing and refilling them with sediment. This relationship was applied to the area of every pit detected by air to estimate volume, in which special attention was paid to ray ontogenetic change in space utilization patterns. In total, 18,103 new pits were formed per day, with a mean individual area of 1060 cm2. The pits were divided into six groups (G1 to G6 in increasing areas), with abundances of G1, G2+G3, and G4-G6 being medium, high, and low, respectively. Statistical analyses using generalized linear models revealed a marked preference for the higher prey-density areas in G1 and the restriction of feeding grounds of G4-G6 to the lower shore, with G2+G3 being generalists for prey density and sandflat elevation. The lower degrees of overall bioturbation by G1 and G4-G6 were spatially structured for the

  16. A survey of modal synthesis methods.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, G. C.; Hurty, W. C.; Collins, J. D.

    1971-01-01

    Several modal synthesis procedures for the dynamic analysis of largy composite structural systems are surveyed. The matrix formulation of the free-free modal synthesis procedures is presented. Also given are schematic flow charts of the analysis procedure used in three prominent methods. The advantages and disadvantages of several modal synthesis methods for different classes of structural problems are presented in order to enable the engineer to select the best procedure for his particular type of problem.

  17. Survey of emissivity measurement by radiometric methods.

    PubMed

    Honner, M; Honnerová, P

    2015-02-01

    A survey of the state of the art in the field of spectral directional emissivity measurements by using radiometric methods is presented. Individual quantity types such as spectral, band, or total emissivity are defined. Principles of emissivity measurement by various methods (direct and indirect, and calorimetric and radiometric) are discussed. The paper is focused on direct radiometric methods. An overview of experimental setups is provided, including the design of individual parts such as the applied reference sources of radiation, systems of sample clamping and heating, detection systems, methods for the determination of surface temperature, and procedures for emissivity evaluation. PMID:25967774

  18. NURE aerial gamma-ray and magnetic reconnaissance survey of portions of New Mexico, Arizona and Texas. Volume II. Texas-New Mexico-El Paso NH 13-1 Quadrangle. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    The results of a high-sensitivity, aerial gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey of the El Paso, two degree quadrangle, New Mexico, are presented. Instrumentation and methods are described in Volume I of this final report. The work was done by Carson Helicopters Inc., and Carson Helicopters was assisted in the interpretation by International Exploration, Inc. The work was performed for the US Department of Energy - National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. A total of 72 statistically significant eU anomalies were identified in this quadrangle. Of this number 20 were considered to be of sufficient intensity to warrant field investigations, however, many of these anomalies appear to be wholly, or in part, associated with various unconsolidated Quaternary deposits. Only three of the 20 can, with certainty be identified with bedrock; one with a Quaternary flow, one with Cambrian sandstone and one with a Precambrian granite.

  19. NURE aerial gamma-ray and magnetic reconnaissance survey of portions of New Mexico, Arizona and Texas. Volume II. Arizona-Holbrook NI 12-5 Quadrangle. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    The results of a high-sensitivity, aerial gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey of the Holbrook two degree quadrangle, Arizona are presented. Instrumentation and methods are described in Volume 1 of this final report. The work was done by Carson Helicopters, Inc., and Carson Helicopters was assisted in the interpretation by International Exploration, Inc. The work was performed for the US Department of Energy - National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. Analysis of this radiometric data yielded 260 statistically significant eU anomalies. Of this number, forty-four were considered to be of sufficient strength to warrant further investigation. These preferred anomalies are separated into groups having some geologic aspect in common.

  20. Extraction of Point Source Gamma Signals from Aerial Survey Data Taken over a Las Vegas Nevada Residential Area

    SciTech Connect

    Thane J. Hendricks

    2007-05-01

    Detection of point-source gamma signals from aerial measurements is complicated by widely varying terrestrial gamma backgrounds, since these variations frequently resemble signals from point-sources. Spectral stripping techniques have been very useful in separating man-made and natural radiation contributions which exist on Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) plant sites and other like facilities. However, these facilities are generally situated in desert areas or otherwise flat terrain with few man-made structures to disturb the natural background. It is of great interest to determine if the stripping technique can be successfully applied in populated areas where numerous man-made disturbances (houses, streets, yards, vehicles, etc.) exist.

  1. The Spatial and Temporal Variability of a High-Energy Beach: Insight Gained From Over 50 High-Resolution Sub-aerial Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. E.; Barnard, P. L.

    2008-12-01

    Since April 2004 a monitoring program of 7 km-long Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA, has led to the completion of 55 Global Positioning System topographic surveys of the sub-aerial beach. The four-year timeseries contains over 1 million beach elevation measurements and documents detailed changes of the beach over a variety of spatial, temporal, and physical forcing scales. The goal of this ongoing data collection is to understand the variability in beach response as a function of wave forcing and offshore morphology which will ultimately aid in sediment management and erosion mitigation efforts. Several statistical methods are used to describe and account for the observed beach change, including empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) and linear regression. Results from the EOF analysis show that the first mode, and approximately 50% of the observed variance of either the mean high water (MHW) or mean sea level (MSL) position, is explained by the seasonal movement of sediment on and offshore. The second mode, and approximately 15% of the variance, is dominated by alongshore variability, possibly corresponding to the position of cusps and embayments. Higher level modes become increasingly variable in the alongshore direction and each explain little of the observed variance. In both cases the first temporal mode is well correlated (R2~=0.7) with offshore significant wave height averaged over the previous 80 to 110 days, suggesting that seasonal wave height variations are the primary driver of intra-annual shoreline position. No other modes exhibit good correlation with offshore wave parameters regardless of the averaging time. The observed seasonal change is superimposed on a longer term trend of net annual accretion at the north end of Ocean Beach and erosion at the south end. Areas at the northern end have seen as much as 60 m of cumulative shoreline progradation since 2004, while some areas of the southern portion have retrograded nearly as much. This pattern shows an

  2. Aerial surveys of endangered cetaceans and other marine mammals in the northwestern Gulf of Alaska and southeastern Bering Sea. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brueggeman, J.J.; Green, G.A.; Grotefendt, R.A.; Chapman, D.G.

    1987-09-01

    Aerial surveys were conducted in the Northwestern Gulf of Alaska and southeastern Bering Sea to determine the abundance, distribution, and habitat use patterns of endangered cetaceans and other marine mammals. Four species of cetaceans listed by the Federal Government as endangered were observed: gray, humpback, finback, and sperm whales. Sightings were also made to seven nonendangered species of cetaceans: minke, Cuvier's beaked, Baird's beaked, belukha, and killer whales, and Dall and harbor porpoises. Results show that the project area is an important feeding ground for relatively large numbers of humpback and finback whales and lower numbers of gray whale migration route between seasonal ranges. The project area also supports a variety of other marine mammals both seasonally and annually.

  3. AERIAL MEASURING SYSTEM IN JAPAN

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, Craig; Colton, David

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Agency’s Aerial Measuring System deployed personnel and equipment to partner with the U.S. Air Force in Japan to conduct multiple aerial radiological surveys. These were the first and most comprehensive sources of actionable information for U.S. interests in Japan and provided early confirmation to the government of Japan as to the extent of the release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Generation Station. Many challenges were overcome quickly during the first 48 hours; including installation and operation of Aerial Measuring System equipment on multiple U.S. Air Force Japan aircraft, flying over difficult terrain, and flying with talented pilots who were unfamiliar with the Aerial Measuring System flight patterns. These all combined to make for a dynamic and non-textbook situation. In addition, the data challenges of the multiple and on-going releases, and integration with the Japanese government to provide valid aerial radiological survey products that both military and civilian customers could use to make informed decisions, was extremely complicated. The Aerial Measuring System Fukushima response provided insight in addressing these challenges and gave way to an opportunity for the expansion of the Aerial Measuring System’s mission beyond the borders of the US.

  4. Agreement between measurements of shrub cover using ground-based methods and Very Large Scale Aerial (VLSA)imagery-measured shrub cover.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New sampling methods are needed for measuring rangeland cover that are more efficient than conventional methods. Very large scale aerial (VLSA) imagery has been suggested as a tool for improving cover sampling efficiency. Because of aircraft pitch and roll, camera misalignment, and errors in the n...

  5. Wavefront aberration measurement method for a hyper-NA lithographic projection lens based on principal component analysis of an aerial image.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Boer; Wang, Xiangzhao; Li, Sikun; Yan, Guanyong; Shen, Lina; Duan, Lifeng

    2016-04-20

    A wavefront aberration measurement method for a hyper-NA lithographic projection lens by use of an aerial image based on principal component analysis is proposed. Aerial images of the hyper-NA lithographic projection lens are expressed accurately by using polarized light and a vector imaging model, as well as by considering the polarization properties. As a result, the wavefront aberrations of the hyper-NA lithographic projection lens are measured accurately. The lithographic simulator PROLITH is used to validate the accuracies of the wavefront aberration measurement and analyze the impact of the polarization rotation of illumination on the accuracy of the wavefront aberration measurement, as well as the degree of polarized light and the sample interval of aerial images. The result shows that the proposed method can retrieve 33 terms of Zernike coefficients (Z5-Z37) with a maximum error of less than 0.00085λ. PMID:27140087

  6. Aerial thermography for energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Thermal infrared scanning from an aircraft is a convenient and commercially available means for determining relative rates of energy loss from building roofs. The need to conserve energy as fuel costs makes the mass survey capability of aerial thermography an attractive adjunct to community energy awareness programs. Background information on principles of aerial thermography is presented. Thermal infrared scanning systems, flight and environmental requirements for data acquisition, preparation of thermographs for display, major users and suppliers of thermography, and suggested specifications for obtaining aerial scanning services were reviewed.

  7. An aerial radiological survey of Par Pond and associated drainage pathways of the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The first of a three-phase effort to radiologically monitor the lowering of Par Pond and associated drainage pathways was conducted over three areas of the Savannah River Site (SRS). The areas surveyed during this first phase included Par Pond, the Savannah River swamp from Steel Creek to Little Hell Landing, and Lower Three Runs Creek from the mouth of Lower Three Runs to the Highway 301 Bridge. The first phase was conducted to coincide with the lowering of the water level of Par Pond to an elevation of 190 feet above sea level. Additional surveys were conducted when the water level was at an elevation of 180 feet and prior to refill. The first survey began August 19, 1991, and was completed September 11, 1991. The second survey was conducted in October/November, 1991, during the SRS site-wide survey, and the third survey was conducted in August/September, 1992. Only the Par Pond area itself was surveyed during the third and final phase. The radiation detected over the Creek Plantation portion of the Savannah River swamp and Lower Three Runs areas during the August 1991 survey was consistent with the spatial distribution, quantity, and kinds of radionuclides detected during the 1983 and 1986 surveys. No migration of man-made gamma emitting materials was detected when compared to the prior surveys. The major differences occurred along the Par Pond shoreline where lowered water levels exposed the contaminated pond bed. The activity in the pond bed was attenuated by the water cover prior to the start of the lowering of Par Pond in June 1991. The data collected during each survey were processed in the field and were presented to SRS. A comparison report is being generated after the completion of each survey. A final report will be generated for the three surveys and will include a quantitative comparison of the three surveys in the Par Pond area only.

  8. A series of low-altitude aerial radiological surveys of selected regions within Areas 3, 5, 8, 9, 11, 18, and 25 at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Colton, D.P.

    1999-12-01

    A series of low-altitude, aerial radiological surveys of selected regions within Areas 3, 5, 8, 9, 11, 18,and 25 of the Nevada Test Site was conducted from December 1996 through June 1999. The surveys were conducted for the US Department of Energy by the Remote Sensing Laboratory, located in Las Vegas, Nevada, and maintained and operated by Bechtel Nevada. The flights were conducted at a nominal altitude of 15 meters above ground level along a set of parallel flight lines spaced 23 meters apart. The purpose of these low-altitude surveys was to measure, map, and define the areas of americium-241 activity. The americium contamination will be used to determine the areas of plutonium contamination. Americium-241 activity was detected within 8 of the 11 regions. The three regions where americium-241 was not detected were in the inactive Nuclear Rocket Development Station complex in Area 25, which encompassed the Test Cell A and Test Cell C reactor test stands and the Reactor Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly facility.

  9. Assessing responses of humpback whales to North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory (NPAL) transmissions: results of 2001--2003 aerial surveys north of Kauai.

    PubMed

    Mobley, Joseph R

    2005-03-01

    Eight aerial surveys were flown north of the Hawaiian island of Kauai during 2001 when the North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory (NPAL) source was not transmitting, and during 2002 and 2003 when it was. All surveys were performed during the period of peak residency of humpback whales (Feb-Mar). During 2002 and 2003, surveys commenced immediately upon cessation of a 24-h cycle of transmissions. Numbers and distribution of whales observed within 40 km of the NPAL source during 2001 (source off) were compared with those observed during 2002 and 2003 (source on). A total of 75 sightings was noted during 2001, as compared with 81 and 55 during 2002 and 2003, respectively. Differences in sighting rates (sightings/km) across years were not statistically significant. Assessment of distributional changes relied upon comparisons of three measures: (a) location depths; (b) distance from the NPAL source; and (c) distance offshore. None of the distributional comparisons revealed statistically significant differences across years. Several possible interpretations are examined: (a) whales have habituated to the NPAL signal; (b) insufficient statistical power exists in the present design to detect any effects; and (c) the effects are short-lived and become undetectable shortly after the cessation of transmissions. PMID:15810697

  10. An UAV scheduling and planning method for post-disaster survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G. Q.; Zhou, X. G.; Yin, J.; Xiao, Q. Y.

    2014-11-01

    Annually, the extreme climate and special geological environments lead to frequent natural disasters, e.g., earthquakes, floods, etc. The disasters often bring serious casualties and enormous economic losses. Post-disaster surveying is very important for disaster relief and assessment. As the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) remote sensing with the advantage of high efficiency, high precision, high flexibility, and low cost, it is widely used in emergency surveying in recent years. As the UAVs used in emergency surveying cannot stop and wait for the happening of the disaster, when the disaster happens the UAVs usually are working at everywhere. In order to improve the emergency surveying efficiency, it is needed to track the UAVs and assign the emergency surveying task for each selected UAV. Therefore, a UAV tracking and scheduling method for post-disaster survey is presented in this paper. In this method, Global Positioning System (GPS), and GSM network are used to track the UAVs; an emergency tracking UAV information database is built in advance by registration, the database at least includes the following information, e.g., the ID of the UAVs, the communication number of the UAVs; when catastrophe happens, the real time location of all UAVs in the database will be gotten using emergency tracking method at first, then the traffic cost time for all UAVs to the disaster region will be calculated based on the UAVs' the real time location and the road network using the nearest services analysis algorithm; the disaster region is subdivided to several emergency surveying regions based on DEM, area, and the population distribution map; the emergency surveying regions are assigned to the appropriated UAV according to shortest cost time rule. The UAVs tracking and scheduling prototype is implemented using SQLServer2008, ArcEnginge 10.1 SDK, Visual Studio 2010 C#, Android, SMS Modem, and Google Maps API.

  11. Can reliable sage-grouse lek counts be obtained using aerial infrared technology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillette, Gifford L.; Coates, Peter S.; Petersen, Steven; Romero, John P.

    2013-01-01

    More effective methods for counting greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are needed to better assess population trends through enumeration or location of new leks. We describe an aerial infrared technique for conducting sage-grouse lek counts and compare this method with conventional ground-based lek count methods. During the breeding period in 2010 and 2011, we surveyed leks from fixed-winged aircraft using cryogenically cooled mid-wave infrared cameras and surveyed the same leks on the same day from the ground following a standard lek count protocol. We did not detect significant differences in lek counts between surveying techniques. These findings suggest that using a cryogenically cooled mid-wave infrared camera from an aerial platform to conduct lek surveys is an effective alternative technique to conventional ground-based methods, but further research is needed. We discuss multiple advantages to aerial infrared surveys, including counting in remote areas, representing greater spatial variation, and increasing the number of counted leks per season. Aerial infrared lek counts may be a valuable wildlife management tool that releases time and resources for other conservation efforts. Opportunities exist for wildlife professionals to refine and apply aerial infrared techniques to wildlife monitoring programs because of the increasing reliability and affordability of this technology.

  12. Offshore Observations of Eastern Red Bats (Lasiurus borealis) in the Mid-Atlantic United States Using Multiple Survey Methods

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, Shaylyn K.; Connelly, Emily E.; Divoll, Timothy J.; Stenhouse, Iain J.; Williams, Kathryn A.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the migration and movements of migratory tree-roosting bat species in North America, though anecdotal observations of migrating bats over the Atlantic Ocean have been reported since at least the 1890s. Aerial surveys and boat-based surveys of wildlife off the Atlantic Seaboard detected a possible diurnal migration event of eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis) in September 2012. One bat was sighted approximately 44 km east of Rehoboth Beach, Delaware during a boat-based survey. Eleven additional bats were observed between 16.9 and 41.8 km east of New Jersey, Delaware, and Virginia in high definition video footage collected during digital aerial surveys. Observations were collected incidentally as part of a large baseline study of seabird, marine mammal, and sea turtle distributions and movements in the offshore environment. Digital survey methods also allowed for altitude estimation for several of these bats at >100 m above sea level. These observations provide new evidence of bat movements offshore, and offer insight into their flight heights above sea level and the times of day at which such migrations may occur. PMID:24367614

  13. Aerial thermography in archaeological prospection: Applications & processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cool, Autumn Chrysantha

    Aerial thermography is one of the least utilized archaeological prospection methods, yet it has great potential for detecting anthropogenic anomalies. Thermal infrared radiation is absorbed and reemitted at varying rates by all objects on and within the ground depending upon their density, composition, and moisture content. If an area containing archaeological features is recorded at the moment when their thermal signatures most strongly contrast with that of the surrounding matrix, they can be visually identified in thermal images. Research conducted in the 1960s and 1970s established a few basic rules for conducting thermal survey, but the expense associated with the method deterred most archaeologists from using this technology. Subsequent research was infrequent and almost exclusively appeared in the form of case studies. However, as the current proliferation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and compact thermal cameras draws renewed attention to aerial thermography as an attractive and exciting form of survey, it is appropriate and necessary to reevaluate our approach. In this thesis I have taken a two-pronged approach. First, I built upon the groundwork of earlier researchers and created an experiment to explore the impact that different environmental and climatic conditions have on the success or failure of thermal imaging. I constructed a test site designed to mimic a range of archaeological features and imaged it under a variety of conditions to compare and contrast the results. Second, I explored a new method for processing thermal data that I hope will lead to a means of reducing noise and increasing the clarity of thermal images. This step was done as part of a case study so that the effectiveness of the processing method could be evaluated by comparison with the results of other geophysical surveys.

  14. Aerial surveys of endangered whales in the Alaskan Chukchi and western Beaufort Seas, 1990. Final report, Oct-Nov 90

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.E.; Clarke, J.T.

    1991-06-01

    In keeping with the National Environmental Policy Act (1969), the Marine Mammal Protection Act (1972) and the Endangered Species Act (1973), the OCS Lands Act Amendments (1978) established a management policy that included studies in OCS lease sale areas to ascertain potential environmental impacts of oil and gas development on OCS marine coastal environments. The Minerals Management Service (MMS) is the agency responsible for these studies and for the leasing of submerged Federal lands. The report summarizes the 1990 investigations of the distribution, abundance, migration, behavior and habitat relationships of endangered whales in the Alaskan Chukchi and western Beaufort Seas (hereafter, study area); 1990 was the second of a three year (1989-91) study. The Bering Sea stock of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) was the principal species studied, with incidental sightings of all other marine mammals routinely recorded. The 1990 season was compromised by circumstances that restricted the availability of the survey aircraft (Grumman Goose, model G21G) to the period 26 October - 7 November; opportunistic surveys were flown in the study area from 3-25 October. In 1990, there were 14 sightings of 19 bowheads from 9-29 October; 5 whales, including 2 calves, were seen north of the study area. One gray whale, 110 belukhas and 53 polar bears were also seen. Over nine survey seasons (1982-90), there were 240 sightings of 520 bowhead whales and 148 sightings of 398 gray whales.

  15. Multidisciplinary eHealth Survey Evaluation Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karras, Bryant T.; Tufano, James T.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the development process of an evaluation framework for describing and comparing web survey tools. We believe that this approach will help shape the design, development, deployment, and evaluation of population-based health interventions. A conceptual framework for describing and evaluating web survey systems will enable the…

  16. Validation of a method for the determination of sterols and triterpenes in the aerial part of Justicia anselliana (Nees) T. Anders by capillary gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kpoviéssi, Dossou Sika Salomé; Gbaguidi, Fernand; Gbénou, Joachim; Accrombessi, Georges; Moudachirou, Mansourou; Rozet, Eric; Hubert, Philippe; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle

    2008-12-01

    An accurate and sensitive method, combining soxhlet extraction, solid phase-extraction and capillary gas chromatography is described for the quantitative determination of one triterpene (lupeol) and three sterols (stigmasterol, campesterol and beta-sitosterol) and the detection of another triterpene (alpha-amyrin) from the aerial part of Justicia anselliana. This is the first method allowing the quantification of sterols and triterpenes in this plant. It has been fully validated in order to be able to compare the sterol and triterpene composition of different samples of J. anselliana and therefore help to explain the allelopathic activity due to these compounds. This method showed that the aerial part of J. anselliana contained (292+/-2)mg/kg of lupeol, (206+/-1)mg/kg of stigmasterol, (266+/-2)mg/kg of campesterol and (184+/-9)mg/kg of beta-sitosterol. PMID:18951746

  17. Aerial photographic surveys analyzed to deduce oil spill movement during the decay and breakup of fast ice, Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lissauer, I.M.; Baird, D.A.

    1982-09-01

    During the summers of 1979 and 1980 aerial photographs of the land fast ice north of Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, were taken. These photographs, covering two-week periods, highlight the decay and break-up of the land fast ice sheet. During the period of photography, wind speed, wind direction, barometric pressure, and tidal height measurements were recorded continuously. Several larger ice floes were 'tagged' with colored plywood markers during 1979. Both these marked flows and other distinctively shaped floes were tracked on the photographic surveys to determine the effect the wind had on their movement. Within the barrier islands, average ice floe velocities as a percentage of wind speed exceeded the 3.5% figure 'normally' found in the literature. North of these islands average ice floe velocities as a percentage of wind speed were less than the 3.5% value. In addition to the flow drift calculations the photographs provide information on melt pool formation and a comparison of the decay and breakup processes between the 1979 and 1980 seasons. The decay and breakup process appears to be triggered by strong wind events in early July.

  18. Guiding the Search for Surface Rupture and Paleoseismic Sites using Low-Level Aerial Surveys, Geodetic Imaging, Remote Sensing and Field Mapping (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudnut, K. W.; Fletcher, J. M.; Teran, O.; Gonzalez-Garcia, J. J.; Hinojosa, A.; Rockwell, T. K.; Akciz, S. O.; Leprince, S.; Fielding, E. J.; Briggs, R. W.; Crone, A. J.; Gold, R. D.; Prentice, C. S.; Stock, J.; Avouac, J.; Simons, M.; Galetzka, J. E.; Lynch, D. K.; Cowgill, E.; Oskin, M. E.; Morelan, A.; Aslaksen, M.; Sellars, J.; Woolard, J.

    2010-12-01

    The significant earthquakes of 2010 produced surficial expressions ranging from blind faulting and coastal uplift in Leogane, Haiti and Maule, Chile to surface faulting in Baja California, Mexico and Yushu, China. In Haiti and Baja California geodetic imaging methods strongly guided field reconnaissance and surface rupture mapping efforts, yet in quite different ways. In these challenging examples, InSAR, UAVSAR and optical image differencing, as well as SAR pixel tracking methods, were used to locate and quantify ground deformation and ruptures. In Baja California prominent rupture occurred in parts of the Cucapah mountains, yet along an 11 km-long stepover section, the zone of faulting was discontinuous and obscured by rockfalls. Optical image differencing helped identify surface rupture, especially through this stepover. SAR pixel tracking confirmed that rupture occurred along the newly identified Indiviso fault in Baja California, though masked by ground failure in the Colorado River Delta. Also in Baja California (and extending north of the US-MX border), a complex set of NE-SW cross-faults and N-S breaks were imaged with UAVSAR, InSAR, and aerial photography allowing the intricate pattern of faulting to be scrutinized. In Haiti, surface rupture along the inferred source fault was not observed during initial reconnaissance. This led to extensive imagery- and field-based searches for surface deformation, aided by InSAR, which revealed that surface deformation was caused primarily by off-fault blind thrusting. In Baja California, high resolution (up to 3-5 cm GSD) aerial imaging by low-altitude aerial stereo photography was then used to identify promising locations for measuring slip vectors on the fault, and to aid in mapping the surface rupture in detail (at 1:500 scale). Digital aerial photography with 0.1 m GSD by NOAA using their DSS 439 camera was rapidly reduced to orthomosaics (at 0.25 m GSD) and then used as uniform base imagery for rupture mapping. In

  19. Feature selection methods for object-based classification of sub-decimeter resolution digital aerial imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the availability of numerous spectral, spatial, and contextual features, the determination of optimal features and class separabilities can be a time consuming process in object-based image analysis (OBIA). While several feature selection methods have been developed to assist OBIA, a robust c...

  20. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer survey data application in spatial methods

    SciTech Connect

    Bresnahan, P.J.

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this research was to develop a methodology that used geographic information system (GIS) tools to convert airborne gamma-ray spectrometer (AGRS) survey data to various spatial data formats for use in radiological hazard mapping and risk assessments. The importance of this conversion methodology results from the versatility and consistency of spatial interpolations using commercially supported software as opposed to previous methods. Maps of interpolated AGRS data provide potential radiological hazard boundaries, delineated by user-defined limits, to guide intense field surveys. Resulting GIS products may be combined with other risk assessment inputs to model and monitor hazardous environments. The AGRS data used in this research was collected during the 1991 sitewide survey at Savannah River site (SRS) as part of the comprehensive integrated remote sensing (CIRS) program conducted by EG&G for the SRS. The AGRS survey component of the program is designed to provide a database for studying the transport of manufactured radionuclides through the environment at the SRS and surrounding areas. The AGRS data have historically been presented only in hardcopy format as acetate overlays on aerial photography. Recently, digital files representing contoured isotopic response have been delivered to the SRS as GIS themes. Since AGRS data are often a collection of dense sample points, interpolation of the data has previously been conducted by connecting points in series along flight paths. To improve on the original algorithm used to contour AGRS data, a triangulated irregular network (TIN) was used as the data model for contour and raster generation.

  1. The Use of National Survey Data in Teaching Methods of Survey Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egginton, Everett

    A description is given of a college course in survey research and attitudinal measurement offered by the School of Education at the University of Louisville. The graduate level course focuses on the principles of social research; survey research methods; and data analysis, interpretation, and application. National survey data are used to teach all…

  2. National Uranium Resource Evaluation. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey, Tawas City and Flint quadrangles, Michigan. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    The Tawas City and Flint quadrangles of Michigan cover a land area of 6500 square miles, and an additional water surface area of 7200 square miles. Extremely thick Paleozoic deposits overlie a regional downwarp of the Precambrian basement called the Michigan Basin. These Paleozoic deposits shoal to only 1500 feet in the northeast corner. The entire survey area is covered by a mantle of Quaternary glacial material. A search of available literature revealed no economically feasible uranium deposits. Thirty-five uranium anomalies were detected and are discussed briefly. All appear to have cultural, and/or locally unsaturated associations, and none appear to contain significant measured quantities of uranium. Magnetic data appear to be in good agreement with existing structural interpretations of the area.

  3. Preparation of magnetic anomaly profile and contour maps from DOE-NURE aerial survey data. Volume I. Processing procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Tinnel, E.P.; Hinze, W.J.

    1981-09-01

    Total intensity magnetic anomaly data acquired as a supplement to radiometric data in the DOE National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program are useful in preparing regional profile and contour maps. Survey-contractor-supplied magnetic anomaly data are subjected to a multiprocess, computer-based procedure which prepares these data for presentation. This procedure is used to produce the following machine plotted maps of National Topographic Map Series quadrangle units at a 1:250,000 scale: (1) profile map of contractor-supplied magnetic anomaly data, (2) profile map of high-cut filtered data with contour levels of each profile marked and annotated on the associated flight track, (3) profile map of critical-point data with contour levels indicated, and (4) contour map of filtered and selected data. These quadrangle maps are supplemented with a range of statistical measures of the data which are useful in quality evaluation.

  4. NATIONAL SURFACE WATER SURVEY, WESTERN LAKE SURVEY (PHASE 1 - SYNOPTIC CHEMISTRY) ANALYTICAL METHODS MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Analytical Methods Manual for the Western Lake Survey - Phase I is a supplement to the Analytical Methods Manual for the Eastern Lake Survey Phase I. The supplement provides a general description of the analytical methods that are used by the field laboratories and by the ana...

  5. Identification and extraction of the seaward edge of terrestrial vegetation using digital aerial photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Melanie; Brock, John C.; Nayegandhi, A.; Duffy, M.; Wright, C.W.

    2006-01-01

    This report is created as part of the Aerial Data Collection and Creation of Products for Park Vital Signs Monitoring within the Northeast Region Coastal and Barrier Network project, which is a joint project between the National Park Service Inventory and Monitoring Program (NPS-IM), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Observational Sciences Branch, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Coastal and Watershed Studies (CCWS). This report is one of a series that discusses methods for extracting topographic features from aerial survey data. It details step-by-step methods used to extract a spatially referenced digital line from aerial photography that represents the seaward edge of terrestrial vegetation along the coast of Assateague Island National Seashore (ASIS). One component of the NPS-IM/USGS/NASA project includes the collection of NASA aerial surveys over various NPS barrier islands and coastal parks throughout the National Park Service's Northeast Region. These aerial surveys consist of collecting optical remote sensing data from a variety of sensors, including the NASA Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), the NASA Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), and down-looking digital mapping cameras.

  6. Research on autofocusing method with automatic calibration for aerial camera based on imaging resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yu-liang; Zhao, Hong-qiang; Li, Shu-jun; Zhang, Yu-ye

    2014-09-01

    Air materiel depot is a warehouse which store consumed all the parts and equipment vault of the plane. In order to ensure the various aviation equipment integrity of the backup piece rate, the inside temperature of depot must be controlled within a certain range. Therefore, the depot must be equipped a self-contained temperature real-time monitoring system. This paper presents a distributed temperature sensing alarm system to apply to real-time measure spatial distribution of temperature field. In order to eliminate influence to the scattering strength from the light source instability and the fiber bending splice loss and to improve temperature measurement accuracy, the system design used dual-channel dual-wavelength comparison method which make Anti-Stokes as signal channel and Stokes as a reference channel to collect signals of two channel respectively and detect the ratio of the two channels' signals. The light of LD directional coupling to the sensing optical fiber in the temperature field to test, domain reflect light from the sensing optical fiber directional coupling to receive channel again, Rayleigh domain reflect light is filtered after optical filter, the Anti-Stokes and Stokes are both taken out, converted and magnified, the two signals is digitalized by A/D Converter, and written to the storage machine , which linear cumulative to the content of the storage unit, The distributed measurement of the temperature field to test is finished. The collected 2900 measuring points real-time on 2km of optical fiber. The spatial resolution of the system was 0.7m, measurement range was -20-370 °C, and measurement error was +/- 2 °C. All index of the system achieved the desired objective. To get an accurate temperature field spatial distribution and the information of temporal variation, the system enabled real-time temperature of aviation depot monitoring and early warning. As a new sensing technology, the distributed fiber optic sensor has the functions of self

  7. Aerial videotape mapping of coastal geomorphic changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Debusschere, Karolien; Penland, Shea; Westphal, Karen A.; Reimer, P. Douglas; McBride, Randolph A.

    1991-01-01

    An aerial geomorphic mapping system was developed to examine the spatial and temporal variability in the coastal geomorphology of Louisiana. Between 1984 and 1990 eleven sequential annual and post-hurricane aerial videotape surveys were flown covering periods of prolonged fair weather, hurricane impacts and subsequent post-storm recoveries. A coastal geomorphic classification system was developed to map the spatial and temporal geomorphic changes between these surveys. The classification system is based on 10 years of shoreline monitoring, analysis of aerial photography for 1940-1989, and numerous field surveys. The classification system divides shorelines into two broad classes: natural and altered. Each class consists of several genetically linked categories of shorelines. Each category is further subdivided into morphologic types on the basis of landform relief, elevation, habitat type, vegetation density and type, and sediment characteristics. The classification is used with imagery from the low-altitude, high-resolution aerial videotape surveys to describe and quantify the longshore and cross-shore geomorphic, sedimentologic, and vegetative character of Louisiana's shoreline systems. The mapping system makes it possible to delineate and map detailed geomorphic habitat changes at a resolution higher than that of conventional vertical aerial photography. Morphologic units are mapped parallel to the regional shoreline from the aerial videotape imagery onto the base maps at a scale of 1:24,000. The base maps were constructed from vertical aerial photography concurrent with the data of the video imagery.

  8. A DECADE OF MAPPING SUBMERGED AQUATIC VEGETATION USING COLOR INFRARED AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY: METHODS USED AND LESSONS LEARNED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Annual color infrared aerial photographs acquired annually between 1997 and 2007 were used to classify distributions of intertidal and shallow subtidal native eelgrass Zostera marina and non-indigenous dwarf eelgrass Z. japonica in lower Yaquina estuary, Oregon. The use of digit...

  9. Topics in Research Methods: Survey Sampling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Tony; Rushton, Brian S.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews a computer-assisted learning package (available from CONDUIT) which introduces survey and sampling techniques by pretending that the user is a pollster asking one of six questions of a more or less political nature. Documentation and performance are rated fair while ease of use is considered excellent. (JN)

  10. NCES Handbook of Survey Methods: Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurgood, Lori; Walter, Elizabeth; Carter, George; Henn, Susan; Huang, Gary; Nooter, Daniel; Smith, Wray; Cash, R. William; Salvucci, Sameena; Seastrom, Marilyn; Phan, Tai; Cohen, Michael

    This handbook presents current explanations of how each survey program of the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) obtains and prepared the data it publishes. The handbook aims to provide users of NCES data with the most current information necessary to evaluate the suitability of the statistics for their needs, with a focus on the…

  11. An Innovative, Effective and Cost Effective Survey Method Using a Survey-Check Response Format

    PubMed Central

    Feil, Edward G.; Severson, Herbert; Taylor, Ted; Boles, Shawn; Albert, David A.; Blair, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Maximizing the response rate to surveys involves thoughtful choices about survey design, sampling and collection methods. This paper describes an innovative survey method, to provide immediate reinforcement for responding and to minimize the response cost. This method involves using a questionnaire printed as checks on security (anti-fraud) paper with questions and responses separated using a perforated tear off section. Once a participant completes the survey, the response area is detached from the questions, thus protecting the confidentiality of the subject, and the check is returned via the banking system. This report describes the survey-check methodology, the survey flow process, and the results from four research studies which have used this method. These studies include (1) a technology accessibility survey of parents with children enrolled in a low-income preschool program; (2) a parent report of their child’s behavior used as screening criteria for inclusion in a computer-mediated parent education project; (3) a follow-up questionnaire as part of a longitudinal study of child behavior, covering home and classroom interventions, and service utilization, and; (4) a survey of dentists in support of efforts to recruit them to participate in a randomized control trial of tobacco cessation in dental offices. The results of using this method show great improvement in response rates over traditionally administered surveys for three of the four reported studies. Results are discussed in terms of future applications of this method, limitations, and potential cost savings. PMID:17180473

  12. An innovative, effective and cost effective survey method using a survey-check response format.

    PubMed

    Feil, Edward G; Severson, Herbert; Taylor, Ted K; Boles, Shawn; Albert, David A; Blair, Jason

    2007-06-01

    Maximizing the response rate to surveys involves thoughtful choices about survey design, sampling and collection methods. This paper describes an innovative survey method, to provide immediate reinforcement for responding and to minimize the response cost. This method involves using a questionnaire printed as checks on security (anti-fraud) paper with questions and responses separated using a perforated tear off section. Once a participant completes the survey, the response area is detached from the questions, thus protecting the confidentiality of the subject, and the check is returned via the banking system. This report describes the survey-check methodology, the survey flow process, and the results from four research studies which have used this method. These studies include (1) a technology accessibility survey of parents with children enrolled in a low-income preschool program; (2) a parent report of their child's behavior used as screening criteria for inclusion in a computer-mediated parent education project; (3) a follow-up questionnaire as part of a longitudinal study of child behavior, covering home and classroom interventions, and service utilization, and; (4) a survey of dentists in support of efforts to recruit them to participate in a randomized control trial of tobacco cessation in dental offices. The results of using this method show great improvement in response rates over traditionally administered surveys for three of the four reported studies. Results are discussed in terms of future applications of this method, limitations, and potential cost savings. PMID:17180473

  13. Sea otter studies in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve: Aerial surveys, foraging observations, and intertidal clam sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, J.L.; Kloecker, K.A.; Esslinger, G.G.; Monson, D.H.; DeGroot, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    Following translocations to the outer coast of Southeast Alaska in 1965, sea otters have been expanding their range and increasing in abundance. We began conducting surveys for sea otters in Cross Sound, Icy Strait and Glacier Bay, Alaska in 1994, following initial reports of their presence in Glacier Bay in 1993. Since 1995, the number of sea otters in Glacier Bay proper has increased from about 5 to more than 500. Between 1993 and 1997 sea otters were apparently only occasional visitors to Glacier Bay, but in 1998 long-term residence was established as indicated by the presence of adult females and their dependent pups. Sea otter distribution is limited to the Lower Bay, south of Sandy Cove, and is not continuous within that area. Concentration occur in the vicinity of Sita Reef and Boulder Island and between Pt. Carolus and Rush Pt. on the west side of the Bay (Figure 1). We describe the diet of sea otters in Glacier Bay and south Icy Strait through visual observations of prey during >4,000 successful forage dives. In 2,399 successful foraging dives observed in Glacier Bay proper, diet consisted of 40% clam, 21% urchins, 18% mussel, 4% crab, 5% other and 12% unidentified. Most prey recovered by sea otters are commercially, socially, or ecological important species. Species of clam are primarily Saxidomus gigantea, Protothaca staminea, and Serripes groenlandicus. Urchins are primarily Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis while both mussles, Modiolus modiolus and Mytilus trossulus, are taken. Crabs include species of Cancer, Chinoecetes, Paralithodes, and Telmessus. Although we characterize diet at broad geographic scales, we found diet to vary between sites separated by as little as several hundred meters. Dietary variation among and within sites can reflect differences in prey availability and individual choice. We estimated species composition, density, biomass, and sizes of intertidal clams at 59 sites in Glacier Bay, 14 sites in Idaho Inlet, 12 sites in Port

  14. Verification of Potency of Aerial Digital Oblique Cameras for Aerial Photogrammetry in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakada, Ryuji; Takigawa, Masanori; Ohga, Tomowo; Fujii, Noritsuna

    2016-06-01

    Digital oblique aerial camera (hereinafter called "oblique cameras") is an assembly of medium format digital cameras capable of shooting digital aerial photographs in five directions i.e. nadir view and oblique views (forward and backward, left and right views) simultaneously and it is used for shooting digital aerial photographs efficiently for generating 3D models in a wide area. For aerial photogrammetry of public survey in Japan, it is required to use large format cameras, like DMC and UltraCam series, to ensure aerial photogrammetric accuracy. Although oblique cameras are intended to generate 3D models, digital aerial photographs in 5 directions taken with them should not be limited to 3D model production but they may also be allowed for digital mapping and photomaps of required public survey accuracy in Japan. In order to verify the potency of using oblique cameras for aerial photogrammetry (simultaneous adjustment, digital mapping and photomaps), (1) a viewer was developed to interpret digital aerial photographs taken with oblique cameras, (2) digital aerial photographs were shot with an oblique camera owned by us, a Penta DigiCAM of IGI mbH, and (3) accuracy of 3D measurements was verified.

  15. Aerial camera auto focusing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuan; Lan, Gongpu; Gao, Xiaodong; Liang, Wei

    2012-10-01

    Before the aerial photographic task, the cameras focusing work should be performed at first to compensate the defocus caused by the changes of the temperature, pressure etc. A new method of aerial camera auto focusing is proposed through traditional photoelectric self-collimation combined with image processing method. Firstly, the basic principles of optical self-collimation and image processing are introduced. Secondly, the limitations of the two are illustrated and the benefits of the new method are detailed. Then the basic principle, the system composition and the implementation of this new method are presented. Finally, the data collection platform is set up reasonably and the focus evaluation function curve is draw. The results showed that: the method can be used in the Aerial camera focusing field, adapt to the aviation equipment trends of miniaturization and lightweight .This paper is helpful to the further work of accurate and automatic focusing.

  16. Underwater sediment-contact radiation survey method

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.R.; St. Aubin, M.; Welch, S.J. )

    1991-11-01

    The authors are striving to produce a practical system for mapping lateral distributions in gamma activity on submerged sediments. This is in response to the need for quality control and interpretation of data obtainable by sediment sampling and analyses near nuclear utilities. A prototype gamma probe has been constructed and tested. The prototype is essentially a background survey meter packaged in a 53-cm-long {times} 5.4-cm-diam waterproof vehicle. This usage-shaped vehicle is connected to a cable for towing in contact with bottom sediments of lakes, rivers, and coastal waters. This vehicle, or sediment probe as it is called, was initially developed for measuring sediment electrical conductances, a parameter that can be used to locate underwater areas of groundwater and contaminant upwelling. During towing, the probe does not roll or twist around its longitudinal axis by more than 10 deg, so that sensors, which have been fixed within the vehicle, can be oriented to look up, down, or sideways. In over 450 lin-km of underwater survey, only a single sediment probe has been irretrievably snagged on sunken rocks or other debris. Work in the Ottawa River near the Chalk River Laboratories has shown good agreement among point measurements of river sediment with continuous measurements using the moving probe.

  17. An easy and low-cost method for preprocessing and matching small-scale amateur aerial photography for assessing agricultural land use in Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellens, Joost; Midekor, Akoly; Traore, Farid; Tychon, Bernard

    2013-08-01

    In recent decades, the Kou watershed in south-western Burkina Faso has suffered from poor water management. Despite the abundance of water, most water users regularly face water shortages because of the increase in the amount of land under irrigation. To help them achieve a more equitable allocation of irrigated land, local stakeholders need an easily managed low-cost tool for monitoring and mapping these irrigated zones. The aim of this study was to develop a fast and low-cost procedure for mosaicing and geo referencing amateur small-scale aerial photographs for land-use surveys. Sets of tens (2009) and hundreds (2007) of low-altitude aerial photographs, with a resolution of 0.4 m and 0.8 m, respectively, were used to create a detailed land-cover map of typical African small-scale irrigated agriculture. A commercially available stitching tool and GIS allowed geo referenced ‘mono-images’ to be constructed; both mosaics were warped on a high-resolution SPOT image with a horizontal root mean square error (RMSE) of about 11 m. The RMSE between the two image datasets was 2 m. This approach is less sensitive to atmospheric conditions that are non-predictable in programming satellite imagery.

  18. Tree Crown Delineation on Vhr Aerial Imagery with Svm Classification Technique Optimized by Taguchi Method: a Case Study in Zagros Woodlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erfanifard, Y.; Behnia, N.; Moosavi, V.

    2013-09-01

    The Support Vector Machine (SVM) is a theoretically superior machine learning methodology with great results in classification of remotely sensed datasets. Determination of optimal parameters applied in SVM is still vague to some scientists. In this research, it is suggested to use the Taguchi method to optimize these parameters. The objective of this study was to detect tree crowns on very high resolution (VHR) aerial imagery in Zagros woodlands by SVM optimized by Taguchi method. A 30 ha plot of Persian oak (Quercus persica) coppice trees was selected in Zagros woodlands, Iran. The VHR aerial imagery of the plot with 0.06 m spatial resolution was obtained from National Geographic Organization (NGO), Iran, to extract the crowns of Persian oak trees in this study. The SVM parameters were optimized by Taguchi method and thereafter, the imagery was classified by the SVM with optimal parameters. The results showed that the Taguchi method is a very useful approach to optimize the combination of parameters of SVM. It was also concluded that the SVM method could detect the tree crowns with a KHAT coefficient of 0.961 which showed a great agreement with the observed samples and overall accuracy of 97.7% that showed the accuracy of the final map. Finally, the authors suggest applying this method to optimize the parameters of classification techniques like SVM.

  19. A survey of payload integration methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engels, R. C.; Harcrow, H. W.

    1981-01-01

    The most prominent payload integration methods are presented and evaluated. The paper outlines the problem and some of the difficulties encountered when analyzing a coupled booster/payload system. Descriptions of both full-scale and short-cut methods are given together with an assessment of their strengths and weaknesses. Finally, an extensive list of references is included.

  20. Methods for the survey and genetic analysis of populations

    DOEpatents

    Ashby, Matthew

    2003-09-02

    The present invention relates to methods for performing surveys of the genetic diversity of a population. The invention also relates to methods for performing genetic analyses of a population. The invention further relates to methods for the creation of databases comprising the survey information and the databases created by these methods. The invention also relates to methods for analyzing the information to correlate the presence of nucleic acid markers with desired parameters in a sample. These methods have application in the fields of geochemical exploration, agriculture, bioremediation, environmental analysis, clinical microbiology, forensic science and medicine.

  1. A survey of mixed finite element methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brezzi, F.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to and an overview of mixed finite element methods. It discusses the mixed formulation of certain basic problems in elasticity and hydrodynamics. It also discusses special techniques for solving the discrete problem.

  2. Daytime multispectral scanner aerial surveys of the Oak Ridge Reservation, 1992--1994: Overview of data processing and analysis by the Environmental Restoration Remote Sensing Program, Fiscal year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Smyre, J.L.; Hodgson, M.E.; Moll, B.W.; King, A.L.; Cheng, Yang

    1995-11-01

    Environmental Restoration (ER) Remote Sensing and Special Surveys Program was in 1992 to apply the benefits of remote sensing technologies to Environmental Restoration Management (ERWM) programs at all of the five United States Department of Energy facilities operated and managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (now Lockheed Martin Energy Systems)-the three Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) facilities, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS)-and adjacent off-site areas. The Remote Sensing Program includes the management of routine and special surveys at these sites, application of state-of-the-art remote sensing and geophysical technologies, and data transformation, integration, and analyses required to make the information valuable to ER. Remotely-sensed data collected of the ORR include natural color and color infrared (IR) aerial photography, 12-band multispectral scanner imagery, predawn thermal IR sensor imagery, magnetic and electromagnetic geophysical surveys, and gamma radiological data.

  3. A survey of payload integration methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engels, R. C.; Craig, R. R., Jr.; Harcrow, H. W.

    1984-01-01

    Several full-scale and short-cut methods for analyzing a booster/payload system are presented. Two full-scale techniques are considered: (1) a technique that uses a restrained payload together with a free-booster model, the latter being augmented with residual mass and stiffness correction and (2) a technique that uses a restrained payload and booster model. Both techniques determine the 'modal modes', which require the solution of a system eigenvalue problem; the loads usually are then determined via an acceleration approach. A brief description is given of a number of short-cut methods which are of special interest to Shuttle payload design: structural modification, base drive, and interface impedance methods. Directions for further research and development are suggested.

  4. Exploration of mineral resource deposits based on analysis of aerial and satellite image data employing artificial intelligence methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, Gennady

    2013-04-01

    We propose a solution to the problem of exploration of various mineral resource deposits, determination of their forms / classification of types (oil, gas, minerals, gold, etc.) with the help of satellite photography of the region of interest. Images received from satellite are processed and analyzed to reveal the presence of specific signs of deposits of various minerals. Course of data processing and making forecast can be divided into some stages: Pre-processing of images. Normalization of color and luminosity characteristics, determination of the necessary contrast level and integration of a great number of separate photos into a single map of the region are performed. Construction of semantic map image. Recognition of bitmapped image and allocation of objects and primitives known to system are realized. Intelligent analysis. At this stage acquired information is analyzed with the help of a knowledge base, which contain so-called "attention landscapes" of experts. Used methods of recognition and identification of images: a) combined method of image recognition, b)semantic analysis of posterized images, c) reconstruction of three-dimensional objects from bitmapped images, d)cognitive technology of processing and interpretation of images. This stage is fundamentally new and it distinguishes suggested technology from all others. Automatic registration of allocation of experts` attention - registration of so-called "attention landscape" of experts - is the base of the technology. Landscapes of attention are, essentially, highly effective filters that cut off unnecessary information and emphasize exactly the factors used by an expert for making a decision. The technology based on denoted principles involves the next stages, which are implemented in corresponding program agents. Training mode -> Creation of base of ophthalmologic images (OI) -> Processing and making generalized OI (GOI) -> Mode of recognition and interpretation of unknown images. Training mode

  5. Off-the-Wall Project Brings Aerial Mapping down to Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidhazy, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The technology of aerial photography, photogrametry, has widespread applications in mapping and aerial surveying. A multi-billion-dollar industry, aerial surveying and mapping is "big business" in both civilian and military sectors. While the industry has grown increasingly automated, employment opportunities still exist for people with a basic…

  6. Laser Scanning in Engineering Surveying: Methods of Measurement and Modeling of Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenda, Grzegorz; Uznański, Andrzej; Strach, Michał; Lewińska, Paulina

    2016-06-01

    The study is devoted to the uses of laser scanning in the field of engineering surveying. It is currently one of the main trends of research which is developed at the Department of Engineering Surveying and Civil Engineering at the Faculty of Mining Surveying and Environmental Engineering of AGH University of Science and Technology in Krakow. They mainly relate to the issues associated with tower and shell structures, infrastructure of rail routes, or development of digital elevation models for a wide range of applications. These issues often require the use of a variety of scanning techniques (stationary, mobile), but the differences also regard the planning of measurement stations and methods of merging point clouds. Significant differences appear during the analysis of point clouds, especially when modeling objects. Analysis of the selected parameters is already possible basing on ad hoc measurements carried out on a point cloud. However, only the construction of three-dimensional models provides complete information about the shape of structures, allows to perform the analysis in any place and reduces the amount of the stored data. Some structures can be modeled in the form of simple axes, sections, or solids, for others it becomes necessary to create sophisticated models of surfaces, depicting local deformations. The examples selected for the study allow to assess the scope of measurement and office work for a variety of uses related to the issue set forth in the title of this study. Additionally, the latest, forward-looking technology was presented - laser scanning performed from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (drones). Currently, it is basically in the prototype phase, but it might be expected to make a significant progress in numerous applications in the field of engineering surveying.

  7. A Survey of Quantum Lyapunov Control Methods

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The condition of a quantum Lyapunov-based control which can be well used in a closed quantum system is that the method can make the system convergent but not just stable. In the convergence study of the quantum Lyapunov control, two situations are classified: nondegenerate cases and degenerate cases. For these two situations, respectively, in this paper the target state is divided into four categories: the eigenstate, the mixed state which commutes with the internal Hamiltonian, the superposition state, and the mixed state which does not commute with the internal Hamiltonian. For these four categories, the quantum Lyapunov control methods for the closed quantum systems are summarized and analyzed. Particularly, the convergence of the control system to the different target states is reviewed, and how to make the convergence conditions be satisfied is summarized and analyzed. PMID:23766732

  8. Controlling flexible structures: A survey of methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Russell A.; Coleman, Edward E.

    1989-01-01

    Most of the presently available control system design techniques applicable to flexible structure problems were developed to design controllers for rigid body systems. Although many of these design methods can be applied to flexible dynamics problems, recently developed techniques may be more suitable for flexible structure controller design. The purpose of this presentation is to examine briefly the peculiarities of the dynamics of flexible structures and to stimulate discussion about top level controller design approaches when designing controllers for flexible structures. Presented here is a suggestion of a set of categories of design methods for designing controllers for flexible structures as well as a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of each category. No attempt has been made herein to select one category of design techniques as the best for flexible structure controller design. Instead, it is hoped that the structure suggested by these categories will facilitate further discussion on the merits of particular methods that will eventually point to those design techniques suitable for further development.

  9. Survey of assay methods of antivenins

    PubMed Central

    Grasset, E.

    1957-01-01

    In view of the multiplicity of methods used at present for the preparation and assay of antivenins and as a first step towards the international standardization of antivenins, it seemed advisable to make a comparative study of the methods used in the institutes specializing in the production of these sera. With this end in view, the author circulated to the serologists of institutes concerned a detailed questionnaire on the assay methods used for the determination of the neutralization potency of the various types of antivenins prepared under their direction. The information supplied by these institutes is reproduced, in condensed form, in this report and is analysed by the author. The author emphasizes that the great variety in the constitution of venoms necessitates: (1) the use of monovalent standard sera against homologous “test” venoms of high activity and stability; and (2) the establishment, on a regional basis, of standard antivenins corresponding to groups of snakes characterized by venoms of common or closely related antigenic constitution. PMID:13413648

  10. Learning Japanese in America: A Survey of Preferred Teaching Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furuhata, Hamako

    2002-01-01

    Reports a survey of students in eight colleges that their opinions were sought on the teaching methods and learning styles most suited to the learning of Japanese in their own setting. Results show that students favor a mixture of traditional and contemporary methods and have no difficulty with traditional methods of teaching that are no loner…

  11. Survey of methods for soil moisture determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T. J.; Jackson, T. J.; Mckim, H. L.

    1979-01-01

    Existing and proposed methods for soil moisture determination are discussed. These include: (1) in situ investigations including gravimetric, nuclear, and electromagnetic techniques; (2) remote sensing approaches that use the reflected solar, thermal infrared, and microwave portions of the electromagnetic spectrum; and (3) soil physics models that track the behavior of water in the soil in response to meteorological inputs (precipitation) and demands (evapotranspiration). The capacities of these approaches to satisfy various user needs for soil moisture information vary from application to application, but a conceptual scheme for merging these approaches into integrated systems to provide soil moisture information is proposed that has the potential for meeting various application requirements.

  12. Precision wildlife monitoring using unmanned aerial vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Jarrod C.; Baylis, Shane M.; Mott, Rowan; Herrod, Ashley; Clarke, Rohan H.

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a new frontier in environmental research. Their use has the potential to revolutionise the field if they prove capable of improving data quality or the ease with which data are collected beyond traditional methods. We apply UAV technology to wildlife monitoring in tropical and polar environments and demonstrate that UAV-derived counts of colony nesting birds are an order of magnitude more precise than traditional ground counts. The increased count precision afforded by UAVs, along with their ability to survey hard-to-reach populations and places, will likely drive many wildlife monitoring projects that rely on population counts to transition from traditional methods to UAV technology. Careful consideration will be required to ensure the coherence of historic data sets with new UAV-derived data and we propose a method for determining the number of duplicated (concurrent UAV and ground counts) sampling points needed to achieve data compatibility. PMID:26986721

  13. Precision wildlife monitoring using unmanned aerial vehicles.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Jarrod C; Baylis, Shane M; Mott, Rowan; Herrod, Ashley; Clarke, Rohan H

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a new frontier in environmental research. Their use has the potential to revolutionise the field if they prove capable of improving data quality or the ease with which data are collected beyond traditional methods. We apply UAV technology to wildlife monitoring in tropical and polar environments and demonstrate that UAV-derived counts of colony nesting birds are an order of magnitude more precise than traditional ground counts. The increased count precision afforded by UAVs, along with their ability to survey hard-to-reach populations and places, will likely drive many wildlife monitoring projects that rely on population counts to transition from traditional methods to UAV technology. Careful consideration will be required to ensure the coherence of historic data sets with new UAV-derived data and we propose a method for determining the number of duplicated (concurrent UAV and ground counts) sampling points needed to achieve data compatibility. PMID:26986721

  14. [Historical survey of modern reversible contraceptive methods].

    PubMed

    Mbabajende, V

    1986-04-01

    Because of contraception, pregnancy need not be viewed by women as punishment for sexual activity but as a planned and desired event. Most of the contraceptive methods used in developing countries at present were introduced during the 1960s, but use of contraception has a long history and some methods date back to antiquity. Contraceptive pills were already used around 2000 BC in the form of mercury and arsenic tablets. Their effectiveness was questionable. The role of hormones in human reproduction began to be understood only in the early 1900s. The discovery of progesterone in a Mexican iguana in the 1940s permitted production of progesterone on a large scale. Estrogens had been identified around 1930. Human trials of a contraceptive pill beginning in 1956 in Puerto Rico demonstrated that progestins could prevent pregnancy by suppressing ovulation. Later on, estrogen was added to reduce menstrual irregularities. The 1st generation of combined oral contraceptives contained very high levels of hormones associated with high rates of side effects. Numerous formulations with lower hormonal contents became available beginning around 1970 and constitute the principal formulations in use today. A number of long acting hormonal methods based on progestins have been developed, including injectables, some IUDs and vaginal rings, and implants. The 1st commercially available injectable, norethisterone enanthate, did not acquire the wide distribution of medroxyprogesterone acetate, sold as Depo Provera and used to treat various pathological conditions as well as for contraception. The 1st true IUDs were small stones placed within the uteri of camels by nomads to prevent pregnancy during long caravans. An IUD was developed in 1909 by Richter, and the 2 most widely used models before 1960 were the Grafenberg and Ota silver rings. Use of the 2 rings became rare for medical reasons after 1935 despite their efficacy. Safe plastic IUDs which appeared beginning in the early 1960s

  15. Methods for In-Flight Wing Shape Predictions of Highly Flexible Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Formulation of Ko Displacement Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.; Fleischer, Van Tran

    2010-01-01

    The Ko displacement theory is formulated for a cantilever tubular wing spar under bending, torsion, and combined bending and torsion loading. The Ko displacement equations are expressed in terms of strains measured at multiple sensing stations equally spaced on the surface of the wing spar. The bending and distortion strain data can then be input to the displacement equations to calculate slopes, deflections, and cross-sectional twist angles of the wing spar at the strain-sensing stations for generating the deformed shapes of flexible aircraft wing spars. The displacement equations have been successfully validated for accuracy by finite-element analysis. The Ko displacement theory that has been formulated could also be applied to calculate the deformed shape of simple and tapered beams, plates, and tapered cantilever wing boxes. The Ko displacement theory and associated strain-sensing system (such as fiber optic sensors) form a powerful tool for in-flight deformation monitoring of flexible wings and tails, such as those often employed on unmanned aerial vehicles. Ultimately, the calculated displacement data can be visually displayed in real time to the ground-based pilot for monitoring the deformed shape of unmanned aerial vehicles during flight.

  16. Pacific Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment (PaCSEA): aerial seabird and marine mammal surveys off northern California, Oregon, and Washington, 2011-2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Josh; Felis, Jonathan J.; Mason, John W.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2014-01-01

    Marine birds and mammals comprise an important community of meso- and upper-trophic-level predators within the northern California Current System (NCCS). The NCCS is located within one of the world’s four major eastern boundary currents and is characterized by an abundant and diverse marine ecosystem fuelled seasonally by wind-driven upwelling which supplies nutrient-rich water to abundant phytoplankton inhabiting the surface euphotic zone. The oceanographic conditions throughout the NCCS fluctuate according to well-described seasonal, inter-annual, and decadal cycles. Such oceanographic variability can influence patterns in the distribution, abundance, and habitat use among marine birds and mammals. Although there are an increasing number of studies documenting distributions and abundances among birds and mammals in various portions of the NCCS, there have been no comprehensive, large-scale, multi-seasonal surveys completed throughout this region since the early 1980s (off northern California; Briggs et al. 1987) and early 1990s (off Oregon and Washington; Bonnell et al. 1992, Briggs et al. 1992, Green et al. 1992). During 2011 and 2012, we completed the Pacific Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment (PaCSEA) which included replicated surveys over the continental shelfslope from shore to the 2000-meter (m) isobath along 32 broad-scale transects from Fort Bragg, California (39° N) through Grays Harbor, Washington (47° N). Additionally, surveys at a finer scale were conducted over the continental shelf within six designated Focal Areas: Fort Bragg, CA; Eureka, CA; Siltcoos Bank, OR; Newport, OR; Nehalem Bank, OR; and Grays Harbor, WA. We completed a total of 26,752 km of standardized, low-elevation aerial survey effort across three bathymetric domains: inner-shelf waters ( Overall, we recorded 15,403 sightings of 59,466 individual marine birds (12 families, 54 species). During winter, seven species groupings comprised >90% of the total number of birds

  17. The National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices survey: Multilevel survey methods and procedures⋆

    PubMed Central

    Taxman, Faye S.; Young, Douglas W.; Wiersema, Brian; Rhodes, Anne; Mitchell, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    The National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices (NCJTP) survey provides a comprehensive inquiry into the nature of programs and services provided to adult and juvenile offenders involved in the justice system in the United States. The multilevel survey design covers topics such as the mission and goals of correctional and treatment programs; organizational climate and culture for providing services; organizational capacity and needs; opinions of administrators and staff regarding rehabilitation, punishment, and services provided to offenders; treatment policies and procedures; and working relationships between correctional and other agencies. The methodology generates national estimates of the availability of programs and services for offenders. This article details the methodology and sampling frame for the NCJTP survey, response rates, and survey procedures. Prevalence estimates of juvenile and adult offenders under correctional control are provided with externally validated comparisons to illustrate the veracity of the methodology. Limitations of the survey methods are also discussed. PMID:17383548

  18. Methods for Bayesian Power Spectrum Inference with Galaxy Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasche, Jens; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2013-12-01

    We derive and implement a full Bayesian large scale structure inference method aiming at precision recovery of the cosmological power spectrum from galaxy redshift surveys. Our approach improves upon previous Bayesian methods by performing a joint inference of the three-dimensional density field, the cosmological power spectrum, luminosity dependent galaxy biases, and corresponding normalizations. We account for all joint and correlated uncertainties between all inferred quantities. Classes of galaxies with different biases are treated as separate subsamples. This method therefore also allows the combined analysis of more than one galaxy survey. In particular, it solves the problem of inferring the power spectrum from galaxy surveys with non-trivial survey geometries by exploring the joint posterior distribution with efficient implementations of multiple block Markov chain and Hybrid Monte Carlo methods. Our Markov sampler achieves high statistical efficiency in low signal-to-noise regimes by using a deterministic reversible jump algorithm. This approach reduces the correlation length of the sampler by several orders of magnitude, turning the otherwise numerically unfeasible problem of joint parameter exploration into a numerically manageable task. We test our method on an artificial mock galaxy survey, emulating characteristic features of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7, such as its survey geometry and luminosity-dependent biases. These tests demonstrate the numerical feasibility of our large scale Bayesian inference frame work when the parameter space has millions of dimensions. This method reveals and correctly treats the anti-correlation between bias amplitudes and power spectrum, which are not taken into account in current approaches to power spectrum estimation, a 20% effect across large ranges in k space. In addition, this method results in constrained realizations of density fields obtained without assuming the power spectrum or bias parameters

  19. Methods for Bayesian power spectrum inference with galaxy surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Jasche, Jens; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2013-12-10

    We derive and implement a full Bayesian large scale structure inference method aiming at precision recovery of the cosmological power spectrum from galaxy redshift surveys. Our approach improves upon previous Bayesian methods by performing a joint inference of the three-dimensional density field, the cosmological power spectrum, luminosity dependent galaxy biases, and corresponding normalizations. We account for all joint and correlated uncertainties between all inferred quantities. Classes of galaxies with different biases are treated as separate subsamples. This method therefore also allows the combined analysis of more than one galaxy survey. In particular, it solves the problem of inferring the power spectrum from galaxy surveys with non-trivial survey geometries by exploring the joint posterior distribution with efficient implementations of multiple block Markov chain and Hybrid Monte Carlo methods. Our Markov sampler achieves high statistical efficiency in low signal-to-noise regimes by using a deterministic reversible jump algorithm. This approach reduces the correlation length of the sampler by several orders of magnitude, turning the otherwise numerically unfeasible problem of joint parameter exploration into a numerically manageable task. We test our method on an artificial mock galaxy survey, emulating characteristic features of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7, such as its survey geometry and luminosity-dependent biases. These tests demonstrate the numerical feasibility of our large scale Bayesian inference frame work when the parameter space has millions of dimensions. This method reveals and correctly treats the anti-correlation between bias amplitudes and power spectrum, which are not taken into account in current approaches to power spectrum estimation, a 20% effect across large ranges in k space. In addition, this method results in constrained realizations of density fields obtained without assuming the power spectrum or bias parameters

  20. Checklist and Pollard Walk butterfly survey methods on public lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royer, R.A.; Austin, J.E.; Newton, W.E.

    1998-01-01

    Checklist and Pollard Walk butterfly survey methods were contemporaneously applied to seven public sites in North Dakota during the summer of 1995. Results were compared for effect of method and site on total number of butterflies and total number of species detected per hour. Checklist searching produced significantly more butterfly detections per hour than Pollard Walks at all sites. Number of species detected per hour did not differ significantly either among sites or between methods. Many species were detected by only one method, and at most sites generalist and invader species were more likely to be observed during checklist searches than during Pollard Walks. Results indicate that checklist surveys are a more efficient means for initial determination of a species list for a site, whereas for long-term monitoring the Pollard Walk is more practical and statistically manageable. Pollard Walk transects are thus recommended once a prairie butterfly fauna has been defined for a site by checklist surveys.

  1. Adaptive planning of emergency aerial photogrammetric mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Fuqiang; Zhu, Qing; Zhang, Junxiao; Miao, Shuangxi; Zhou, Xingxia; Cao, Zhenyu

    2015-12-01

    Aiming at the diversity of emergency aerial photogrammetric mission requirements, complex ground and air environmental constraints make the planning mission time-consuming. This paper presents a fast adaptation for the UAV aerial photogrammetric mission planning. First, Building emergency aerial UAVs mission the unified expression of UAVs model and mechanical model of performance parameters in the semantic space make the integrated expression of mission requirements and low altitude environment. Proposed match assessment method which based on resource and mission efficiency. Made the Adaptive match of UAV aerial resources and mission. According to the emergency aerial resource properties, considering complex air-ground environment and mission requirements constraints. Made accurate design of UAV route. Experimental results show, the method scientific and efficient, greatly enhanced the emergency response rate.

  2. Monitoring gray wolf populations using multiple survey methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ausband, David E.; Rich, Lindsey N.; Glenn, Elizabeth M.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Zager, Pete; Miller, David A.W.; Waits, Lisette P.; Ackerman, Bruce B.; Mack, Curt M.

    2013-01-01

    The behavioral patterns and large territories of large carnivores make them challenging to monitor. Occupancy modeling provides a framework for monitoring population dynamics and distribution of territorial carnivores. We combined data from hunter surveys, howling and sign surveys conducted at predicted wolf rendezvous sites, and locations of radiocollared wolves to model occupancy and estimate the number of gray wolf (Canis lupus) packs and individuals in Idaho during 2009 and 2010. We explicitly accounted for potential misidentification of occupied cells (i.e., false positives) using an extension of the multi-state occupancy framework. We found agreement between model predictions and distribution and estimates of number of wolf packs and individual wolves reported by Idaho Department of Fish and Game and Nez Perce Tribe from intensive radiotelemetry-based monitoring. Estimates of individual wolves from occupancy models that excluded data from radiocollared wolves were within an average of 12.0% (SD = 6.0) of existing statewide minimum counts. Models using only hunter survey data generally estimated the lowest abundance, whereas models using all data generally provided the highest estimates of abundance, although only marginally higher. Precision across approaches ranged from 14% to 28% of mean estimates and models that used all data streams generally provided the most precise estimates. We demonstrated that an occupancy model based on different survey methods can yield estimates of the number and distribution of wolf packs and individual wolf abundance with reasonable measures of precision. Assumptions of the approach including that average territory size is known, average pack size is known, and territories do not overlap, must be evaluated periodically using independent field data to ensure occupancy estimates remain reliable. Use of multiple survey methods helps to ensure that occupancy estimates are robust to weaknesses or changes in any 1 survey method

  3. Aerial Photographs and Satellite Images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1997-01-01

    Photographs and other images of the Earth taken from the air and from space show a great deal about the planet's landforms, vegetation, and resources. Aerial and satellite images, known as remotely sensed images, permit accurate mapping of land cover and make landscape features understandable on regional, continental, and even global scales. Transient phenomena, such as seasonal vegetation vigor and contaminant discharges, can be studied by comparing images acquired at different times. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), which began using aerial photographs for mapping in the 1930's, archives photographs from its mapping projects and from those of some other Federal agencies. In addition, many images from such space programs as Landsat, begun in 1972, are held by the USGS. Most satellite scenes can be obtained only in digital form for use in computer-based image processing and geographic information systems, but in some cases are also available as photographic products.

  4. Methods for Determining the Uncertainty of Population Estimates Derived from Satellite Imagery and Limited Survey Data: A Case Study of Bo City, Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Hillson, Roger; Alejandre, Joel D.; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Ansumana, Rashid; Bockarie, Alfred S.; Bangura, Umaru; Lamin, Joseph M.; Malanoski, Anthony P.; Stenger, David A.

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates the use of bootstrap methods to estimate the total population of urban and periurban areas using satellite imagery and limited survey data. We conducted complete household surveys in 20 neighborhoods in the city of Bo, Sierra Leone, which collectively were home to 25,954 persons living in 1,979 residential structures. For five of those twenty sections, we quantized the rooftop areas of structures extracted from satellite images. We used bootstrap statistical methods to estimate the total population of the pooled sections, including the associated uncertainty intervals, as a function of sample size. Evaluations based either on rooftop area per person or on the mean number of occupants per residence both converged on the true population size. We demonstrate with this simulation that demographic surveys of a relatively small proportion of residences can provide a foundation for accurately estimating the total population in conjunction with aerial photographs. PMID:25398101

  5. Methods for determining the uncertainty of population estimates derived from satellite imagery and limited survey data: a case study of Bo city, Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Hillson, Roger; Alejandre, Joel D; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Ansumana, Rashid; Bockarie, Alfred S; Bangura, Umaru; Lamin, Joseph M; Malanoski, Anthony P; Stenger, David A

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates the use of bootstrap methods to estimate the total population of urban and periurban areas using satellite imagery and limited survey data. We conducted complete household surveys in 20 neighborhoods in the city of Bo, Sierra Leone, which collectively were home to 25,954 persons living in 1,979 residential structures. For five of those twenty sections, we quantized the rooftop areas of structures extracted from satellite images. We used bootstrap statistical methods to estimate the total population of the pooled sections, including the associated uncertainty intervals, as a function of sample size. Evaluations based either on rooftop area per person or on the mean number of occupants per residence both converged on the true population size. We demonstrate with this simulation that demographic surveys of a relatively small proportion of residences can provide a foundation for accurately estimating the total population in conjunction with aerial photographs. PMID:25398101

  6. Cadastral Audit and Assessments Using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, K.; Walker, G.; Stahlke, E.; Wilson, R.

    2011-09-01

    Ground surveys and remote sensing are integral to establishing fair and equitable property valuations necessary for real property taxation. The International Association of Assessing Officers (IAAO) has embraced aerial and street-view imaging as part of its standards related to property tax assessments and audits. New technologies, including unmanned aerial systems (UAS) paired with imaging sensors, will become more common as local governments work to ensure their cadastre and tax rolls are both accurate and complete. Trends in mapping technology have seen an evolution in platforms from large, expensive manned aircraft to very small, inexpensive UAS. Traditional methods of photogrammetry have also given way to new equipment and sensors: digital cameras, infrared imagers, light detection and ranging (LiDAR) laser scanners, and now synthetic aperture radar (SAR). At the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF), we work extensively with unmanned aerial systems equipped with each of these newer sensors. UAF has significant experience flying unmanned systems in the US National Airspace, having begun in 1969 with scientific rockets and expanded to unmanned aircraft in 2003. Ongoing field experience allows UAF to partner effectively with outside organizations to test and develop leading-edge research in UAS and remote sensing. This presentation will discuss our research related to various sensors and payloads for mapping. We will also share our experience with UAS and optical systems for creating some of the first cadastral surveys in rural Alaska.

  7. Aerial Image Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, Robert E.

    1987-09-01

    Aerial images produce the best stereoscopic images of the viewed world. Despite the fact that every optic in existence produces an aerial image, few persons are aware of their existence and possible uses. Constant reference to the eye and other optical systems have produced a psychosis of design that only considers "focal planes" in the design and analysis of optical systems. All objects in the field of view of the optical device are imaged by the device as an aerial image. Use of aerial images in vision and visual display systems can provide a true stereoscopic representation of the viewed world. This paper discusses aerial image systems - their applications and designs and presents designs and design concepts that utilize aerial images to obtain superior visual displays, particularly with application to visual simulation.

  8. BLS Handbook of Methods for Surveys and Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This handbook outlines the scope of the Bureau of Labor Statistics programs and the methods it uses to collect, tabulate, evaluate, and publish a wide range of economic and statistical information from the studies and surveys that it conducts. These statistical programs are organized according to subject matter areas. The broad subject areas…

  9. Using the Case Survey Method To Analyze Policy Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.; Heald, Karen A.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a case study survey method that allows an analyst to aggregate (by means of a closed-ended questionnaire) the case study experiences and to assess the quality of each case study in a reliable and replicable manner. (Author/IRT)

  10. Automatic Sea Bird Detection from High Resolution Aerial Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, S.; Grenzdörffer, G. J.

    2016-06-01

    Great efforts are presently taken in the scientific community to develop computerized and (fully) automated image processing methods allowing for an efficient and automatic monitoring of sea birds and marine mammals in ever-growing amounts of aerial imagery. Currently the major part of the processing, however, is still conducted by especially trained professionals, visually examining the images and detecting and classifying the requested subjects. This is a very tedious task, particularly when the rate of void images regularly exceeds the mark of 90%. In the content of this contribution we will present our work aiming to support the processing of aerial images by modern methods from the field of image processing. We will especially focus on the combination of local, region-based feature detection and piecewise global image segmentation for automatic detection of different sea bird species. Large image dimensions resulting from the use of medium and large-format digital cameras in aerial surveys inhibit the applicability of image processing methods based on global operations. In order to efficiently handle those image sizes and to nevertheless take advantage of globally operating segmentation algorithms, we will describe the combined usage of a simple performant feature detector based on local operations on the original image with a complex global segmentation algorithm operating on extracted sub-images. The resulting exact segmentation of possible candidates then serves as a basis for the determination of feature vectors for subsequent elimination of false candidates and for classification tasks.

  11. Survey of methods for calculating sensitivity of general eigenproblems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, Durbha V.; Haftka, Raphael T.

    1987-01-01

    A survey of methods for sensitivity analysis of the algebraic eigenvalue problem for non-Hermitian matrices is presented. In addition, a modification of one method based on a better normalizing condition is proposed. Methods are classified as Direct or Adjoint and are evaluated for efficiency. Operation counts are presented in terms of matrix size, number of design variables and number of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of interest. The effect of the sparsity of the matrix and its derivatives is also considered, and typical solution times are given. General guidelines are established for the selection of the most efficient method.

  12. The Second National Sun Survey: overview and methods.

    PubMed

    Marrett, Loraine D; Northrup, David A; Pichora, Erin C; Spinks, Michael T; Rosen, Cheryl F

    2010-01-01

    The Second National Sun Survey (NSS2) was carried out in 2006 to estimate ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure, sun protection and related knowledge, attitudes and beliefs among Canadians. This paper provides a detailed overview of NSS2 methods and discusses the strengths and limitations of the survey. The NSS2 consists of two questionnaires administered to two samples of adults (age 16+ years). The base sample provides in-depth information on UVR exposure, protective behaviours, tanning, and knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about sun safety for adults, as well as some sun behaviour information for a sample of their children aged 1-12 years. The shorter comparison sample facilitates direct comparison with the 1996 first national sun survey. Data were collected using computer-assisted telephone interviewing, and sample weights were computed for all respondents for estimation and analysis of both adult and child data. Base sample interviews were completed for 7,121 adults, of whom 1,437 reported on the sun behaviour of one of their children, and the comparison sample yielded 2,115 interviews. Response rates were 63% for both surveys. The NSS2 provides in-depth and up-to-date UVR exposure information among Canadians. The results of this survey will aid health promotion experts and policy-makers in developing effective programs to minimize UVR exposure. A public use data file and training in statistical analysis of the NSS2 has been made available to data analysts from across Canada. Key strengths and limitations identified in this survey will inform the development and implementation of future sun surveys. PMID:21033539

  13. Prenotification, Incentives, and Survey Modality: An Experimental Test of Methods to Increase Survey Response Rates of School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Robin Tepper; Jacob, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Teacher and principal surveys are among the most common data collection techniques employed in education research. Yet there is remarkably little research on survey methods in education, or about the most cost-effective way to raise response rates among teachers and principals. In an effort to explore various methods for increasing survey response…

  14. Topsoil thickness mapping at watershed scale by integration of field survey, geophysics and remote sensing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francés, Alain Pascal; Lubczynski, Maciek

    2010-05-01

    The adequate parameterisation of near subsurface is a critical issue due to the large spatial variability of soil properties. Direct observations made by common invasive field sampling procedures through drilling and trench excavations can be complemented in an efficient way by non-invasive geophysical methods, improving spatial data coverage in cost and time efficient way. The geophysical methods measure a physical property of subsurface that is convertible into the parameter or variable of interest. Such conversion requires development of data integration method. In this study, we present a methodology of data integration to assess spatially the topsoil thickness at the watershed scale. To integrate the spatial variability of the soil characteristics, we used a combination of field survey, ground-geophysics, satellite and aerial imagery processing and statistical estimation techniques. The ground-geophysics was used to complement and extend the direct field observations of the topsoil thickness. The conversion of the geophysical data in topsoil thickness and the estimation of the topsoil thickness over the catchment were done through statistical methods that integrated auxiliary variables derived from the remote sensing imagery (soil and geomorphology classifications and terrain attributes). A simple and expedite soil classification based on multi-resolution segmentation of image objects and fuzzy logic was derived from a high-resolution multispectral QuickBird image combined with aerial photograph. Landform classes and terrain attributes were computed from the Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) satellite. We applied this methodology to the Pisões catchment (~19 km2, Portugal) where the AB horizon, following the standard pedologic classification, is characterized by its high concentration in swelling clay. In the first step, we elaborated the sampling schema of the geophysical

  15. Survey of aircraft subcritical flight flutter testing methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenbaum, R.

    1974-01-01

    The results of a survey of U. S., British and French subcritical aircraft flight flutter testing methods are presented and evaluation of the applicability of these methods to the testing of the space shuttle are discussed. Ten U. S. aircraft programs covering the large civil transport aircraft and a variety of military aircraft are reviewed. In addition, three major French and British programs are covered by the survey. The significant differences between the U. S., French and British practices in the areas of methods of excitation, data acquisition, transmission and analysis are reviewed. The effect of integrating the digital computer into the flight flutter test program is discussed. Significant saving in analysis and flight test time are shown to result from the use of special digital computer routines and digital filters.

  16. Archive of post-Hurricane Isabel coastal oblique aerial photographs collected during U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 03CCH01 from Ocean City, Maryland, to Fort Caswell, North Carolina and Inland from Waynesboro to Redwood, Virginia, September 21 - 23, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Subino, Janice A.; Morgan, Karen L.M.; Krohn, M. Dennis; Dadisman, Shawn V.

    2013-01-01

    On September 21 - 23, 2003, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey along the Atlantic coast from Ocean City, Md., to Fort Caswell, N.C., and inland oblique aerial photographic survey from Waynesboro to Redwood, Va., aboard a Navajo Piper twin-engine airplane. The coastal survey was conducted at an altitude of 500 feet (ft) and approximately 1,000 ft offshore. For the inland photos, the aircraft tried to stay approximately 500 ft above the terrain. These coastal photos were used to document coastal changes like beach erosion and overwash caused by Hurricane Isabel, while the inland photos looked for potential landslides caused by heavy rains. The photos may also be used as baseline data for future coastal change analysis. The USGS and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) surveyed the impact zone of Hurricane Isabel to better understand the changes in vulnerability of the Nation’s coasts to extreme storms (Morgan, 2009). This report serves as an archive of photographs collected during the September 21 - 23, 2003, post-Hurricane Isabel coastal and inland oblique aerial survey along with associated survey maps, KML files, navigation files, digital Field Activity Collection System (FACS) logs, and Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata. Refer to the Acronyms page for expansions of all acronyms and abbreviations used in this report. The USGS St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center (SPCMSC) assigns a unique identifier to each cruise or field activity. For example, 03CCH01 tells us the data were collected in 2003 for the Coastal Change Hazards (CCH) study and the data were collected during the first field activity for that project in that calendar year. Refer to http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/infobank/programs/html/definition/activity.html for a detailed description of the method used to assign the ID number. The photographs provided here are Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG

  17. Radiological decontamination, survey, and statistical release method for vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwill, M.E.; Lively, J.W.; Morris, R.L.

    1996-06-01

    Earth-moving vehicles (e.g., dump trucks, belly dumps) commonly haul radiologically contaminated materials from a site being remediated to a disposal site. Traditionally, each vehicle must be surveyed before being released. The logistical difficulties of implementing the traditional approach on a large scale demand that an alternative be devised. A statistical method for assessing product quality from a continuous process was adapted to the vehicle decontamination process. This method produced a sampling scheme that automatically compensates and accommodates fluctuating batch sizes and changing conditions without the need to modify or rectify the sampling scheme in the field. Vehicles are randomly selected (sampled) upon completion of the decontamination process to be surveyed for residual radioactive surface contamination. The frequency of sampling is based on the expected number of vehicles passing through the decontamination process in a given period and the confidence level desired. This process has been successfully used for 1 year at the former uranium millsite in Monticello, Utah (a cleanup site regulated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act). The method forces improvement in the quality of the decontamination process and results in a lower likelihood that vehicles exceeding the surface contamination standards are offered for survey. Implementation of this statistical sampling method on Monticello projects has resulted in more efficient processing of vehicles through decontamination and radiological release, saved hundreds of hours of processing time, provided a high level of confidence that release limits are met, and improved the radiological cleanliness of vehicles leaving the controlled site.

  18. Rapid Mapping Method Based on Free Blocks of Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xianwen; Wang, Huiqing; Wang, Jinling

    2016-06-01

    While producing large-scale larger than 1:2000 maps in cities or towns, the obstruction from buildings leads to difficult and heavy tasks of measuring mapping control points. In order to avoid measuring the mapping control points and shorten the time of fieldwork, in this paper, a quick mapping method is proposed. This method adjusts many free blocks of surveys together, and transforms the points from all free blocks of surveys into the same coordinate system. The entire surveying area is divided into many free blocks, and connection points are set on the boundaries between free blocks. An independent coordinate system of every free block is established via completely free station technology, and the coordinates of the connection points, detail points and control points in every free block in the corresponding independent coordinate systems are obtained based on poly-directional open traverses. Error equations are established based on connection points, which are determined together to obtain the transformation parameters. All points are transformed from the independent coordinate systems to a transitional coordinate system via the transformation parameters. Several control points are then measured by GPS in a geodetic coordinate system. All the points can then be transformed from the transitional coordinate system to the geodetic coordinate system. In this paper, the implementation process and mathematical formulas of the new method are presented in detail, and the formula to estimate the precision of surveys is given. An example has demonstrated that the precision of using the new method could meet large-scale mapping needs.

  19. Aerial photography summary record system - five years later.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lauterborn, T.J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the APSRS, an automated information system for conventional aerial photography projects, established after the formation of the National Cartographic Information Center in the US Geological Survey in 1974. -after Author

  20. Critical Assessment of Object Segmentation in Aerial Image Using Geo-Hausdorff Distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, H.; Ding, Y.; Huang, Y.; Wang, G.

    2016-06-01

    Aerial Image records the large-range earth objects with the ever-improving spatial and radiometric resolution. It becomes a powerful tool for earth observation, land-coverage survey, geographical census, etc., and helps delineating the boundary of different kinds of objects on the earth both manually and automatically. In light of the geo-spatial correspondence between the pixel locations of aerial image and the spatial coordinates of ground objects, there is an increasing need of super-pixel segmentation and high-accuracy positioning of objects in aerial image. Besides the commercial software package of eCognition and ENVI, many algorithms have also been developed in the literature to segment objects of aerial images. But how to evaluate the segmentation results remains a challenge, especially in the context of the geo-spatial correspondence. The Geo-Hausdorff Distance (GHD) is proposed to measure the geo-spatial distance between the results of various object segmentation that can be done with the manual ground truth or with the automatic algorithms.Based on the early-breaking and random-sampling design, the GHD calculates the geographical Hausdorff distance with nearly-linear complexity. Segmentation results of several state-of-the-art algorithms, including those of the commercial packages, are evaluated with a diverse set of aerial images. They have different signal-to-noise ratio around the object boundaries and are hard to trace correctly even for human operators. The GHD value is analyzed to comprehensively measure the suitability of different object segmentation methods for aerial images of different spatial resolution. By critically assessing the strengths and limitations of the existing algorithms, the paper provides valuable insight and guideline for extensive research in automating object detection and classification of aerial image in the nation-wide geographic census. It is also promising for the optimal design of operational specification of remote

  1. Metrically preserving the USGS aerial film archive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moe, Donald; Longhenry, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Since 1972, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, has provided fi lm-based products to the public. EROS is home to an archive of 12 million frames of analog photography ranging from 1937 to the present. The archive contains collections from both aerial and satellite platforms including programs such as the National High Altitude Program (NHAP), National Aerial Photography Program (NAPP), U.S. Antarctic Resource Center (USARC), Declass 1(CORONA, ARGON, and LANYARD), Declass 2 (KH-7 and KH-9), and Landsat (1972 – 1992, Landsat 1–5).

  2. Identification of volatile oil components from aerial parts of Trigonella torbatjamensis Ranjbar by GC-FID and GC-MS methods

    PubMed Central

    Hajizadeh, Arezu; Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Chamsaz, Mahmood; Asili, Javad

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Various species of genus Trigonella are important from medical and culinary points of view. The essential oil of Trigonella torbatejamensis Ranjbar as an endemic plant in Iran has not been studied previously. The essential oil of this plant was analyzed by different methods for identification of its components. Materials and Methods: The essential oil composition of aerial parts of T. torbatjamensis was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS apparatus. Results: Forty components, representing 98.5 % of the total components, were identified. The pattern of the main grouped components in essential oil was: sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (70.2%), oxygenated sesquitepenes (16.5%), oxygenated monoterpenes (3.5%) and monoterpene hydrocarbons (0.5%). Germacrene -D (33.0%), bicyclogermacrene (26.0%), and viridiflorol (5.3%) were the main components of the essential oil. Conclusion: The essential oil of T. torbatjamensis Ranjbar consisted of forty components with sesquiterpene hydrocarbons as the main group of components. PMID:25429346

  3. Survey and Method for Determination of Trajectory Predictor Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rentas, Tamika L.; Green, Steven M.; Cate, Karen Tung

    2009-01-01

    A survey of air-traffic-management researchers, representing a broad range of automation applications, was conducted to document trajectory-predictor requirements for future decision-support systems. Results indicated that the researchers were unable to articulate a basic set of trajectory-prediction requirements for their automation concepts. Survey responses showed the need to establish a process to help developers determine the trajectory-predictor-performance requirements for their concepts. Two methods for determining trajectory-predictor requirements are introduced. A fast-time simulation method is discussed that captures the sensitivity of a concept to the performance of its trajectory-prediction capability. A characterization method is proposed to provide quicker, yet less precise results, based on analysis and simulation to characterize the trajectory-prediction errors associated with key modeling options for a specific concept. Concept developers can then identify the relative sizes of errors associated with key modeling options, and qualitatively determine which options lead to significant errors. The characterization method is demonstrated for a case study involving future airport surface traffic management automation. Of the top four sources of error, results indicated that the error associated with accelerations to and from turn speeds was unacceptable, the error associated with the turn path model was acceptable, and the error associated with taxi-speed estimation was of concern and needed a higher fidelity concept simulation to obtain a more precise result

  4. High resolution channel geometry from repeat aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, T.; Neilson, B. T.; Jensen, A.; Torres-Rua, A. F.; Winkelaar, M.; Rasmussen, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    River channel cross sectional geometry is a key attribute for controlling the river energy balances where surface heat fluxes dominate and discharge varies significantly over short time periods throughout the open water season. These dynamics are seen in higher gradient portions of Arctic rivers where surface heat fluxes can dominates river energy balances and low hillslope storage produce rapidly varying hydrographs. Additionally, arctic river geometry can be highly dynamic in the face of thermal erosion of permafrost landscape. While direct in-situ measurements of channel cross sectional geometry are accurate, they are limited in spatial resolution and coverage, and can be access limited in remote areas. Remote sensing can help gather data at high spatial resolutions and large areas, however techniques for extracting channel geometry is often limited to the banks and flood plains adjacent to river, as the water column inhibits sensing of the river bed itself. Green light LiDAR can be used to map bathymetry, however this is expensive, difficult to obtain at large spatial scales, and dependent on water quality. Alternatively, 3D photogrammetry from aerial imagery can be used to analyze the non-wetted portion of the river channel, but extracting full cross sections requires extrapolation into the wetted portion of the river. To bridge these gaps, an approach for using repeat aerial imagery surveys with visual (RGB) and near infrared (NIR) to extract high resolution channel geometry for the Kuparuk River in the Alaskan Arctic was developed. Aerial imagery surveys were conducted under multiple flow conditions and water surface geometry (elevation and width) were extracted through photogrammetry. Channel geometry was extracted by combining water surface widths and elevations from multiple flights. The accuracy of these results were compared against field surveyed cross sections at many locations throughout the study reach and a digital elevation model created under

  5. Comparison and assessment of aerial and ground estimates of waterbird colonies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, M.C.; Luent, M.C.; Michot, T.C.; Jeske, C.W.; Leberg, P.L.

    2008-01-01

    Aerial surveys are often used to quantify sizes of waterbird colonies; however, these surveys would benefit from a better understanding of associated biases. We compared estimates of breeding pairs of waterbirds, in colonies across southern Louisiana, USA, made from the ground, fixed-wing aircraft, and a helicopter. We used a marked-subsample method for ground-counting colonies to obtain estimates of error and visibility bias. We made comparisons over 2 sampling periods: 1) surveys conducted on the same colonies using all 3 methods during 3-11 May 2005 and 2) an expanded fixed-wing and ground-survey comparison conducted over 4 periods (May and Jun, 2004-2005). Estimates from fixed-wing aircraft were approximately 65% higher than those from ground counts for overall estimated number of breeding pairs and for both dark and white-plumaged species. The coefficient of determination between estimates based on ground and fixed-wing aircraft was ???0.40 for most species, and based on the assumption that estimates from the ground were closer to the true count, fixed-wing aerial surveys appeared to overestimate numbers of nesting birds of some species; this bias often increased with the size of the colony. Unlike estimates from fixed-wing aircraft, numbers of nesting pairs made from ground and helicopter surveys were very similar for all species we observed. Ground counts by one observer resulted in underestimated number of breeding pairs by 20% on average. The marked-subsample method provided an estimate of the number of missed nests as well as an estimate of precision. These estimates represent a major advantage of marked-subsample ground counts over aerial methods; however, ground counts are difficult in large or remote colonies. Helicopter surveys and ground counts provide less biased, more precise estimates of breeding pairs than do surveys made from fixed-wing aircraft. We recommend managers employ ground counts using double observers for surveying waterbird colonies

  6. Trends in quantitative aerial thermography

    SciTech Connect

    Schott, J.R.; Wilkinson, E.P.

    1983-06-01

    Recent improvements in aerial thermographic techniques, particularly in achievable spatial resolution and noise equivalent temperature variation, have enabled the use of thermography in a more objective fashion. Interpretation of the information contained in thermograms has also been improved through the use of certain techniques accounting for roof material type (emissivity), background effects, and atmospheric variables. With current methods, roof surface temperature from aerial imagery can be measured to within 1.8/sup 0/F (1.0/sup 0/C) of the actual temperature. These advances in thermogram analysis have opened the door for potential direct measurement of rooftop heat-loss levels from thermogram data. Ultimately, it is felt that this type of information would make it feasible to direct intensive energy-conservation efforts toward a smaller population, where the need and cost benefits will be the greatest.

  7. Survey of predators and sampling method comparison in sweet corn.

    PubMed

    Musser, Fred R; Nyrop, Jan P; Shelton, Anthony M

    2004-02-01

    Natural predation is an important component of integrated pest management that is often overlooked because it is difficult to quantify and perceived to be unreliable. To begin incorporating natural predation into sweet corn, Zea mays L., pest management, a predator survey was conducted and then three sampling methods were compared for their ability to accurately monitor the most abundant predators. A predator survey on sweet corn foliage in New York between 1999 and 2001 identified 13 species. Orius insidiosus (Say), Coleomegilla maculata (De Geer), and Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) were the most numerous predators in all years. To determine the best method for sampling adult and immature stages of these predators, comparisons were made among nondestructive field counts, destructive counts, and yellow sticky cards. Field counts were correlated with destructive counts for all populations, but field counts of small insects were biased. Sticky cards underrepresented immature populations. Yellow sticky cards were more attractive to C. maculata adults than H. axyridis adults, especially before pollen shed, making coccinellid population estimates based on sticky cards unreliable. Field counts were the most precise method for monitoring adult and immature stages of the three major predators. Future research on predicting predation of pests in sweet corn should be based on field counts of predators because these counts are accurate, have no associated supply costs, and can be made quickly. PMID:14998137

  8. Characterization of Shrubland-Atmosphere Interactions through Use of the Eddy Covariance Method, Distributed Footprint Sampling, and Imagery from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, C.; Vivoni, E. R.; Pierini, N.; Robles-Morua, A.; Rango, A.; Laliberte, A.; Saripalli, S.

    2012-12-01

    Ecohydrological dynamics can be evaluated from field observations of land-atmosphere states and fluxes, including water, carbon, and energy exchanges measured through the eddy covariance method. In heterogeneous landscapes, the representativeness of these measurements is not well understood due to the variable nature of the sampling footprint and the mixture of underlying herbaceous, shrub, and soil patches. In this study, we integrate new field techniques to understand how ecosystem surface states are related to turbulent fluxes in two different semiarid shrubland settings in the Jornada (New Mexico) and Santa Rita (Arizona) Experimental Ranges. The two sites are characteristic of Chihuahuan (NM) and Sonoran (AZ) Desert mixed-shrub communities resulting from woody plant encroachment into grassland areas. In each study site, we deployed continuous soil moisture and soil temperature profile observations at twenty sites around an eddy covariance tower after local footprint estimation revealed the optimal sensor network design. We then characterized the tower footprint through terrain and vegetation analyses derived at high resolution (<1 m) from imagery obtained from a fixed-wing and rotary-wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). Our analysis focuses on the summertime land-atmosphere states and fluxes during which each ecosystem responded differentially to the North American monsoon. We found that vegetation heterogeneity induces spatial differences in soil moisture and temperature that are important to capture when relating these states to the eddy covariance flux measurements. Spatial distributions of surface states at different depths reveal intricate patterns linked to vegetation cover that vary between the two sites. Furthermore, single site measurements at the tower are insufficient to capture the footprint conditions and their influence on turbulent fluxes. We also discuss techniques for aggregating the surface states based upon the vegetation and soil

  9. Survey of NASA V and V Processes/Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pecheur, Charles; Nelson, Stacy

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe current NASA Verification and Validation (V&V) techniques and to explain how these techniques are applicable to 2nd Generation RLV Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) software. It also contains recommendations for special V&V requirements for IVHM. This report is divided into the following three sections: 1) Survey - Current NASA V&V Processes/Methods; 2) Applicability of NASA V&V to 2nd Generation RLV IVHM; and 3) Special 2nd Generation RLV IVHM V&V Requirements.

  10. The IMACS Cluster Building Survey. I. Description of the Survey and Analysis Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oemler Jr., Augustus; Dressler, Alan; Gladders, Michael G.; Rigby, Jane R.; Bai, Lei; Kelson, Daniel; Villanueva, Edward; Fritz, Jacopo; Rieke, George; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Vulcani, Benedetta

    2013-01-01

    The IMACS Cluster Building Survey uses the wide field spectroscopic capabilities of the IMACS spectrograph on the 6.5 m Baade Telescope to survey the large-scale environment surrounding rich intermediate-redshift clusters of galaxies. The goal is to understand the processes which may be transforming star-forming field galaxies into quiescent cluster members as groups and individual galaxies fall into the cluster from the surrounding supercluster. This first paper describes the survey: the data taking and reduction methods. We provide new calibrations of star formation rates (SFRs) derived from optical and infrared spectroscopy and photometry. We demonstrate that there is a tight relation between the observed SFR per unit B luminosity, and the ratio of the extinctions of the stellar continuum and the optical emission lines.With this, we can obtain accurate extinction-corrected colors of galaxies. Using these colors as well as other spectral measures, we determine new criteria for the existence of ongoing and recent starbursts in galaxies.

  11. Comparison of Three Tobacco Survey Methods with College Students: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Delores C. S.; Chen, W. William; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye

    2005-01-01

    The goals of this case study were to: (1) determine the efficiency and effectiveness of three survey methods--postal mail survey, web-based survey, and random in-class administration survey--in assessing tobacco-related attitudes and behaviors among college students and (2) compare the response rate and procedures of these three methods. There was…

  12. An Effective Method for Detecting Potential Woodland Vernal Pools Using High-Resolution LiDAR Data and Aerial Imagery

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective conservation of woodland vernal pools – important components of regional amphibian diversity and ecosystem services – depends on locating and mapping these pools accurately. Current methods for identifying potential vernal pools are primarily based on visual interpretat...

  13. The Potential of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Large Scale Mapping of Coastal Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darwin, N.; Ahmad, A.; Zainon, O.

    2014-02-01

    Many countries in the tropical region are covered with cloud for most of the time, hence, it is difficult to get clear images especially from high resolution satellite imagery. Aerial photogrammetry can be used but most of the time the cloud problem still exists. Today, this problem could be solved using a system known as unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) where the aerial images can be acquired at low altitude and the system can fly under the cloud. The UAV system could be used in various applications including mapping coastal area. The UAV system is equipped with an autopilot system and automatic method known as autonomous flying that can be utilized for data acquisition. To achieve high resolution imagery, a compact digital camera of high resolution was used to acquire the aerial images at an altitude. In this study, the UAV system was employed to acquire aerial images of a coastal simulation model at low altitude. From the aerial images, photogrammetric image processing was executed to produce photogrammetric outputs such a digital elevation model (DEM), contour line and orthophoto. In this study, ground control point (GCP) and check point (CP) were established using conventional ground surveying method (i.e total station). The GCP is used for exterior orientation in photogrammetric processes and CP for accuracy assessment based on Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). From this study, it was found that the UAV system can be used for large scale mapping of coastal simulation model with accuracy at millimeter level. It is anticipated that the same system could be used for large scale mapping of real coastal area and produces good accuracy. Finally, the UAV system has great potential to be used for various applications that require accurate results or products at limited time and less man power.

  14. Scattered data interpolation methods for electronic imaging systems: a survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amidror, Isaac

    2002-04-01

    Numerous problems in electronic imaging systems involve the need to interpolate from irregularly spaced data. One example is the calibration of color input/output devices with respect to a common intermediate objective color space, such as XYZ or L*a*b*. In the present report we survey some of the most important methods of scattered data interpolation in two-dimensional and in three-dimensional spaces. We review both single-valued cases, where the underlying function has the form f: R2 yields R or f: R3 yields R, and multivalued cases, where the underlying function is f: R2 yields R2 or f: R3 yields R3. The main methods we review include linear triangular (or tetrahedral) interpolation, cubic triangular (Clough--Tocher) interpolation, triangle based blending interpolation, inverse distance weighted methods, radial basis function methods, and natural neighbor interpolation methods. We also review one method of scattered data fitting, as an illustration to the basic differences between scattered data interpolation and scattered data fitting.

  15. Calibrated propensity score method for survey nonresponse in cluster sampling

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Kwang; Kwon, Yongchan; Paik, Myunghee Cho

    2016-01-01

    Weighting adjustment is commonly used in survey sampling to correct for unit nonresponse. In cluster sampling, the missingness indicators are often correlated within clusters and the response mechanism is subject to cluster-specific nonignorable missingness. Based on a parametric working model for the response mechanism that incorporates cluster-specific nonignorable missingness, we propose a method of weighting adjustment. We provide a consistent estimator of the mean or totals in cases where the study variable follows a generalized linear mixed-effects model. The proposed method is robust in the sense that the consistency of the estimator does not require correct specification of the functional forms of the response and outcome models. A consistent variance estimator based on Taylor linearization is also proposed. Numerical results, including a simulation and a real-data application, are presented.

  16. NURE aerial gamma-ray and magnetic-reconnaissance survey portions of New Mexico, Arizona, and Texas. Volume I. Instrumentation and data reduction. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program, a rotary-wing high sensitivity radiometric and magnetic survey was flown covering portions of the State of New Mexico, Arizona and Texas. The survey encompassed six 1:250,000 scale quadrangles, Holbrook, El Paso, Las Cruces, Carlsbad, Fort Sumner and Roswell. The survey was flown with a Sikorsky S58T helicopter equipped with a high sensitivity gamma ray spectrometer which was calibrated at the DOE calibration facilities at Walker Field in Grand Junction, Colorado, and the Dynamic Test Range at Lake Mead, Arizona. The radiometric data were processed to compensate for Compton scattering effects and altitude variations. The data were normalized to 400 feet terrain clearance. The reduced data is presented in the form of stacked profiles, standard deviation anomaly plots, histogram plots and microfiche listings. The results of the geologic interpretation of the radiometric data together with the profiles, anomaly maps and histograms are presented in the individual quadrangle reports. The survey was awarded to LKB Resources, Inc. which completed the data acquisition. In April, 1980 Carson Helicopters, Inc. and Carson Geoscience Company agreed to manage the project and complete delivery of this final report.

  17. Retrospective farm scale spatial analysis of viticultural terroir fertility using a 70 y-aerial photograph time series, soil survey and very high resolution Pléiades and EM38 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaudour, Emmanuelle; Leclercq, Léa; Gilliot, Jean-Marc; Chaignon, Benoît

    2016-04-01

    In order to elaborate adequate and sustainable practices while better controlling harvest composition at farm scale, the detailed spatial assessment of terroir units is needed. Although such assessment is made in the present time, it reflects vine behaviour and soil quality according to cumulated past choices in vineyard management. in addition to demarcate homogeneous within-vineyard zones, there is a need, in cases where the winegrower starts up its activities, to retrace the behaviour of these zones in the past, so as to consolidate the diagnosis of vine fertility, and determine further adoption of new soil and vineyard management practices that are likely to favour a long-term preservation of quality production together with soil ecosystem functions. In this study we aimed at performing such historical and spatial tracing using a long term time-series of aerial survey images, in combination with a set of very high resolution data: resistivity EM38 measurements and very high resolution Pléiades satellite images. This study was conducted over a 6 ha-farm mainly planted with rainfed black Grenache and Syrah varieties in the Southern Rhone Valley. In a previous study carried out at regional scale, soil landscape and potential terroir units had been characterized. A new field survey carried out in January 2015 considered a total of 98 topsoil sampling sites in addition to 14 soil pits, the horizons of which were described and sampled. Physico-chemical analyses were made for all soil samples, and for those horizons having the highest root development, additional analytical parameters such as copper, active lime and mineral nutrients contents were determined. Along with soil parameters, soil surface condition, vine biological parameters including vigour, presence of diseases, stock-unearthing were collected. A total of 25 aerial photographs in digitized format from the French National Institute of Geographic and Forest Information (IGN) were examined over the 1947

  18. Borehole survey method and apparatus for drilling substantially horizontal boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Trowsdale, L.S.

    1982-11-30

    A borehole survey method and apparatus are claimed for use in drilling substantially horizontal boreholes through a mineral deposit wherein a dip accelerometer, a roll accelerometer assembly and a fluxgate are disposed near the drill bit, which is mounted on a bent sub, and connected to a surface computation and display unit by a cable which extends through the drill string. The dip angle of the borehole near the drill bit, the azimuth of the borehole near the drill bit and the roll angle or orientation of the bent sub are measured and selectively displayed at the surface while the drill string is in the borehole for utilization in guiding the drill bit through the mineral deposit along a predetermined path.

  19. A survey on methods of design features identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowik, C.; Kalinowski, K.; Paprocka, I.; Kempa, W.

    2015-11-01

    currently identified feature. In the IFR method system designer defines a set of features and sets a collection of recognition process parameters. It allows to unambiguously identifying individual features in automatic or semiautomatic way directly in CAD system or in an external application to which the part model might be transferred. Additionally a user is able to define non-geometrical information such as: overall dimensions, surface roughness etc. In this paper a survey on methods of features identification and recognition is presented especially in context of AFR methods.

  20. Profiles of gamma-ray and magnetic data for aerial surveys over parts of the Western United States from longitude 108 to 126 degrees W. and from latitude 34 to 49 degrees N.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duval, Joseph S.

    1995-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains images generated from geophysical data, software for displaying and analyzing the images and software for displaying and examining profile data from aerial surveys flown as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The images included are of gamma-ray data (uranium, thorium, and potassium channels), Bouguer gravity data, isostatic residual gravity data, aeromagnetic anomalies, topography, and topography with bathymetry. This publication contains image data for the conterminous United States and profile data for the conterminous United States within the area longitude 108 to 126 degrees W. and latitude 34 to 49 degrees N. The profile data include apparent surface concentrations of potassium, uranium, and thorium, the residual magnetic field, and the height above the ground. The images on this CD-ROM include graytone and color images of each data set, color shaded-relief images of the potential-field and topographic data, and color composite images of the gamma-ray data. The image display and analysis software can register images with geographic and geologic overlays. The profile display software permits the user to view the profiles as well as obtain data listings and export ASCII versions of data for selected flight lines.

  1. Vision and Control for UAVs: A Survey of General Methods and of Inexpensive Platforms for Infrastructure Inspection

    PubMed Central

    Máthé, Koppány; Buşoniu, Lucian

    2015-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have gained significant attention in recent years. Low-cost platforms using inexpensive sensor payloads have been shown to provide satisfactory flight and navigation capabilities. In this report, we survey vision and control methods that can be applied to low-cost UAVs, and we list some popular inexpensive platforms and application fields where they are useful. We also highlight the sensor suites used where this information is available. We overview, among others, feature detection and tracking, optical flow and visual servoing, low-level stabilization and high-level planning methods. We then list popular low-cost UAVs, selecting mainly quadrotors. We discuss applications, restricting our focus to the field of infrastructure inspection. Finally, as an example, we formulate two use-cases for railway inspection, a less explored application field, and illustrate the usage of the vision and control techniques reviewed by selecting appropriate ones to tackle these use-cases. To select vision methods, we run a thorough set of experimental evaluations. PMID:26121608

  2. Testing methods to produce landscape-scale presettlement vegetation maps from the U.S. public land survey records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manies, K.L.; Mladenoff, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Public Land Survey (PLS) notebooks are one of the best records of the pre-European settlement landscape and are widely used to recreate presettlement vegetation maps. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative ability of several interpolation techniques to map this vegetation, as sampled by the PLS surveyors, at the landscape level. Field data from Sylvania Wilderness Area, MI (U.S.A.), sampled at the same scale as the PLS data, were used for this test. Sylvania is comprised of a forested landscape similar to that present during presettlement times. Data were analyzed using two Arc/Info interpolation processes and indicator kriging. The resulting maps were compared to a 'correct' map of Sylvania, which was classified from aerial photographs. We found that while the interpolation methods used accurately estimated the relative forest composition of the landscape and the order of dominance of different vegetation types, they were unable to accurately estimate the actual area occupied by each vegetation type. Nor were any of the methods we tested able to recreate the landscape patterns found in the natural landscape. The most likely cause for these inabilities is the scale at which the field data (and hence the PLS data) were recorded. Therefore, these interpolation methods should not be used with the PLS data to recreate pre-European settlement vegetation at small scales (e.g., less than several townships or areas < 104 ha). Recommendations are given for ways to increase the accuracy of these vegetation maps.

  3. Vision and Control for UAVs: A Survey of General Methods and of Inexpensive Platforms for Infrastructure Inspection.

    PubMed

    Máthé, Koppány; Buşoniu, Lucian

    2015-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have gained significant attention in recent years. Low-cost platforms using inexpensive sensor payloads have been shown to provide satisfactory flight and navigation capabilities. In this report, we survey vision and control methods that can be applied to low-cost UAVs, and we list some popular inexpensive platforms and application fields where they are useful. We also highlight the sensor suites used where this information is available. We overview, among others, feature detection and tracking, optical flow and visual servoing, low-level stabilization and high-level planning methods. We then list popular low-cost UAVs, selecting mainly quadrotors. We discuss applications, restricting our focus to the field of infrastructure inspection. Finally, as an example, we formulate two use-cases for railway inspection, a less explored application field, and illustrate the usage of the vision and control techniques reviewed by selecting appropriate ones to tackle these use-cases. To select vision methods, we run a thorough set of experimental evaluations. PMID:26121608

  4. Exploration of Titan using Vertical Lift Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. A.

    2001-01-01

    Autonomous vertical lift aerial vehicles (such as rotorcraft or powered-lift vehicles) hold considerable potential for supporting planetary science and exploration missions. Vertical lift aerial vehicles would have the following advantages/attributes for planetary exploration: low-speed and low-altitude detailed aerial surveys; remote-site sample return to lander platforms; precision placement of scientific probes; soft landing capability for vehicle reuse (multiple flights) and remote-site monitoring; greater range, speed, and access to hazardous terrain than a surface rover; greater resolution of surface details than an orbiter or balloons. Exploration of Titan presents an excellent opportunity for the development and usage of such vehicles.

  5. A DECADE OF MAPPING SUBMERGED AQUATIC VEGETATION USING COLOR INFRARED AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY: METHODS USED AND LESSONS LEARNED - 5-14-2014

    EPA Science Inventory

    Annual color infrared (CIR) aerial photographs acquired annually between 1997 and 2007 were used to classify distributions of intertidal and shallow subtidal native eelgrass Zostera marina and non-indigenous dwarf eelgrass Z. japonica in lower Yaquina estuary, Oregon. The use of...

  6. Improved chemical control for the Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in sugarcane: Larval exposure, a novel scouting method, and efficacy of a single aerial insecticide application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A three-treatment aerial application insecticide experiment was conducted in five commercial sugarcane, Saccharum spp., fields in south Texas to evaluate the use of pheromone traps for improving chemical control of the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), in 2009 and 2010. A threshold of 20 m...

  7. The effect of survey method on survey participation: Analysis of data from the Health Survey for England 2006 and the Boost Survey for London

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is a need for local level health data for local government and health bodies, for health surveillance and planning and monitoring of policies and interventions. The Health Survey for England (HSE) is a nationally-representative survey of the English population living in private households, but sub-national analyses can be performed only at a regional level because of sample size. A boost of the HSE was commissioned to address the need for local level data in London but a different mode of data collection was used to maximise participant numbers for a given cost. This study examines the effects on survey and item response of the different survey modes. Methods Household and individual level data are collected in HSE primarily through interviews plus individual measures through a nurse visit. For the London Boost, brief household level data were collected through interviews and individual level data through a longer self-completion questionnaire left by the interviewer and collected later. Sampling and recruitment methods were identical, and both surveys were conducted by the same organisation. There was no nurse visit in the London Boost. Data were analysed to assess the effects of differential response rates, item non-response, and characteristics of respondents. Results Household response rates were higher in the 'Boost' (61%) than 'Core' (HSE participants in London) sample (58%), but the individual response rate was considerably higher in the Core (85%) than Boost (65%). There were few differences in participant characteristics between the Core and Boost samples, with the exception of ethnicity and educational qualifications. Item non-response was similar for both samples, except for educational level. Differences in ethnicity were corrected with non-response weights, but differences in educational qualifications persisted after non-response weights were applied. When item non-response was added to those reporting no qualification, participants

  8. User guide for the USGS aerial camera Report of Calibration.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tayman, W.P.

    1984-01-01

    Calibration and testing of aerial mapping cameras includes the measurement of optical constants and the check for proper functioning of a number of complicated mechanical and electrical parts. For this purpose the US Geological Survey performs an operational type photographic calibration. This paper is not strictly a scientific paper but rather a 'user guide' to the USGS Report of Calibration of an aerial mapping camera for compliance with both Federal and State mapping specifications. -Author

  9. Aerial Explorers and Robotic Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg

    2004-01-01

    A unique bio-inspired approach to autonomous aerial vehicle, a.k.a. aerial explorer technology is discussed. The work is focused on defining and studying aerial explorer mission concepts, both as an individual robotic system and as a member of a small robotic "ecosystem." Members of this robotic ecosystem include the aerial explorer, air-deployed sensors and robotic symbiotes, and other assets such as rovers, landers, and orbiters.

  10. Quantifying heat losses using aerial thermography

    SciTech Connect

    Haigh, G.A.; Pritchard, S.E.

    1980-01-01

    A theoretical model is described for calculating flat roof total heat losses and thermal conductances from aerial infrared data. Three empirical methods for estimating convective losses are described. The disagreement between the methods shows that they are prone to large (20%) errors, and that the survey should be carried out in low wind speeds, in order to minimize the effect of these errors on the calculation of total heat loss. The errors associated with knowledge of ground truth data are discussed for a high emissivity roof and three sets of environmental conditions. It is shown that the error in the net radiative loss is strongly dependent on the error in measuring the broad-band radiation incident on the roof. This is minimized for clear skies, but should be measured. Accurate knowledge of roof emissivity and the radiation reflected from the roof is shown to be less important. Simple techniques are described for measuring all three factors. Using these techniques in good conditions it should be possible to measure total heat losses to within 15%.

  11. Survey and evaluation of aging risk assessment methods and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sanzo, D.L.; Kvam, P.; Apostolakis, G.; Wu, J.; Milici, T.; Ghoniem, N.; Guarro, S.

    1993-11-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated the nuclear power plant aging research (NPAR) program about 6 years ago to gather information about nuclear power plant aging. Since then, this program has collected a significant amount of information, largely qualitative, on plant aging and its potential effects on plant safety. However, this body of knowledge has not yet been integrated into formalisms that can be used effectively and systematically to assess plant risk resulting from aging, although models for assessing the effect of increasing failure rates on core damage frequency have been proposed. The purpose of this review is to survey the work conducted to address the aging of systems, structures, and components (SSCs) of nuclear power plants (NPPs), as well as the associated data bases. The review takes a critical look at the need to revise probabilistic risk assessment (PRAs) so that they will include the contribution to risk from plant aging, the adequacy of existing methods for evaluating this contribution, and the adequacy of the data that have been used in these evaluation methods. A preliminary framework is identified for integrating the aging of SSCs into the PRA, including the identification of needed data for such an integration.

  12. Survey methods for assessing land cover map accuracy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nusser, S.M.; Klaas, E.E.

    2003-01-01

    The increasing availability of digital photographic materials has fueled efforts by agencies and organizations to generate land cover maps for states, regions, and the United States as a whole. Regardless of the information sources and classification methods used, land cover maps are subject to numerous sources of error. In order to understand the quality of the information contained in these maps, it is desirable to generate statistically valid estimates of accuracy rates describing misclassification errors. We explored a full sample survey framework for creating accuracy assessment study designs that balance statistical and operational considerations in relation to study objectives for a regional assessment of GAP land cover maps. We focused not only on appropriate sample designs and estimation approaches, but on aspects of the data collection process, such as gaining cooperation of land owners and using pixel clusters as an observation unit. The approach was tested in a pilot study to assess the accuracy of Iowa GAP land cover maps. A stratified two-stage cluster sampling design addressed sample size requirements for land covers and the need for geographic spread while minimizing operational effort. Recruitment methods used for private land owners yielded high response rates, minimizing a source of nonresponse error. Collecting data for a 9-pixel cluster centered on the sampled pixel was simple to implement, and provided better information on rarer vegetation classes as well as substantial gains in precision relative to observing data at a single-pixel.

  13. Preparation of magnetic anomaly profile and contour maps from DOE-NURE aerial survey data. Volume I: processing procedures. [National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Tinnel, E.P.; Hinze, W.J.

    1981-09-01

    Total intensity magnetic anomaly data acquired as a supplement to radiometric data in the DOE National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program are useful in preparing regional profile and contour maps. Survey-contractor-supplied magnetic anomaly data are subjected to a multiprocess, computer-based procedure which prepares these data for presentation. This procedure is used to produce the following machine plotted maps of National Topographic Map Series quadrangle units at a 1:250,000 scale: (1) profile map of contractor-supplied magnetic anomaly data, (2) profile map of high-cut filtered data with contour levels of each profile marked and annotated on the associated flight track, (3) profile map of critical-point data with contour levels indicated, and (4) contour map of filtered and selected data. These quadrangle maps are supplemented with a range of statistical measures of the data which are useful in quality evaluation.

  14. 1:500 Scale Aerial Triangulation Test with Unmanned Airship in Hubei Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feifei, Xie; Zongjian, Lin; Dezhu, Gui

    2014-03-01

    A new UAVS (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle System) for low altitude aerial photogrammetry is introduced for fine surveying and mapping, including the platform airship, sensor system four-combined wide-angle camera and photogrammetry software MAP-AT. It is demonstrated that this low-altitude aerial photogrammetric system meets the precision requirements of 1:500 scale aerial triangulation based on the test of this system in Hubei province, including the working condition of the airship, the quality of image data and the data processing report. This work provides a possibility for fine surveying and mapping.

  15. Aerial of the VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Even in this aerial view at KSC, the Vehicle Assembly Building is imposing. In front of it is the Launch Control Center. In the background is the Rotation/Processing Facility, next to the Banana Creek. In the foreground is the Saturn Causeway that leads to Launch Pads 39A and 39B.

  16. Aerial Perspective Artistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a lesson centering on aerial perspective artistry of students and offers suggestions on how art teachers should carry this project out. This project serves to develop students' visual perception by studying reproductions by famous artists. This lesson allows one to imagine being lured into a landscape capable of captivating…

  17. The application of GPS precise point positioning technology in aerial triangulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiuxiao; Fu, Jianhong; Sun, Hongxing; Toth, Charles

    In traditional GPS-supported aerotriangulation, differential GPS (DGPS) positioning technology is used to determine the 3-dimensional coordinates of the perspective centers at exposure time with an accuracy of centimeter to decimeter level. This method can significantly reduce the number of ground control points (GCPs). However, the establishment of GPS reference stations for DGPS positioning is not only labor-intensive and costly, but also increases the implementation difficulty of aerial photography. This paper proposes aerial triangulation supported with GPS precise point positioning (PPP) as a way to avoid the use of the GPS reference stations and simplify the work of aerial photography. Firstly, we present the algorithm for GPS PPP in aerial triangulation applications. Secondly, the error law of the coordinate of perspective centers determined using GPS PPP is analyzed. Thirdly, based on GPS PPP and aerial triangulation software self-developed by the authors, four sets of actual aerial images taken from surveying and mapping projects, different in both terrain and photographic scale, are given as experimental models. The four sets of actual data were taken over a flat region at a scale of 1:2500, a mountainous region at a scale of 1:3000, a high mountainous region at a scale of 1:32000 and an upland region at a scale of 1:60000 respectively. In these experiments, the GPS PPP results were compared with results obtained through DGPS positioning and traditional bundle block adjustment. In this way, the empirical positioning accuracy of GPS PPP in aerial triangulation can be estimated. Finally, the results of bundle block adjustment with airborne GPS controls from GPS PPP are analyzed in detail. The empirical results show that GPS PPP applied in aerial triangulation has a systematic error of half-meter level and a stochastic error within a few decimeters. However, if a suitable adjustment solution is adopted, the systematic error can be eliminated in GPS

  18. Understanding Sample Surveys: Selective Learning about Social Science Research Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currin-Percival, Mary; Johnson, Martin

    2010-01-01

    We investigate differences in what students learn about survey methodology in a class on public opinion presented in two critically different ways: with the inclusion or exclusion of an original research project using a random-digit-dial telephone survey. Using a quasi-experimental design and data obtained from pretests and posttests in two public…

  19. Enhancing Field Research Methods with Mobile Survey Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the experience of undergraduate students using mobile devices and a commercial application, iSurvey, to conduct a neighborhood survey. Mobile devices offer benefits for enhancing student learning and engagement. This field exercise created the opportunity for classroom discussions on the practicalities of urban research, the…

  20. A Survey of Formal Methods for Intelligent Swarms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walt; Rash, James; Hinchey, Mike; Rouff, Chrustopher A.

    2004-01-01

    cutting edge in system correctness, and requires higher levels of assurance than other (traditional) missions that use a single or small number of spacecraft that are deterministic in nature and have near continuous communication access. One of the highest possible levels of assurance comes from the application of formal methods. Formal methods are mathematics-based tools and techniques for specifying and verifying (software and hardware) systems. They are particularly useful for specifying complex parallel systems, such as exemplified by the ANTS mission, where the entire system is difficult for a single person to fully understand, a problem that is multiplied with multiple developers. Once written, a formal specification can be used to prove properties of a system (e.g., the underlying system will go from one state to another or not into a specific state) and check for particular types of errors (e.g., race or livelock conditions). A formal specification can also be used as input to a model checker for further validation. This report gives the results of a survey of formal methods techniques for verification and validation of space missions that use swarm technology. Multiple formal methods were evaluated to determine their effectiveness in modeling and assuring the behavior of swarms of spacecraft using the ANTS mission as an example system. This report is the first result of the project to determine formal approaches that are promising for formally specifying swarm-based systems. From this survey, the most promising approaches were selected and are discussed relative to their possible application to the ANTS mission. Future work will include the application of an integrated approach, based on the selected approaches identified in this report, to the formal specification of the ANTS mission.

  1. Ground cover estimated from aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerbermann, A. H.; Cuellar, J. A.; Wiegand, C. L.

    1976-01-01

    Estimates of per cent ground cover made by ground observers were compared with independent estimates made on the basis of low-altitude (640-1219 m) aerial photographs of the same fields. Standard statistical simple correlation and linear regression analyses revealed a high correlation between the two estimation methods. In crops such as grain, sorghum, corn, and forage sorghum, in which the broadest part of the leaf canopy is near the top of the plant, there was a tendency to overestimate the per cent ground cover from aerial photographs.

  2. Precision agriculture in dry land: spatial variability of crop yield and roles of soil surveys, aerial photos, and digital elevation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachabe, Mahmood; Ahuja, Laj; Shaffer, Mary Lou; Ascough, J.; Flynn, Brian; Cipra, J.

    1998-12-01

    In dryland, yield of crop varies substantially in space, often changing by an order of magnitude within few meters. Precision agriculture aims at exploiting this variability by changing agriculture management practices in space according to site specific conditions. Thus instead of managing a field (typical area 50 to 100 hectares) as a single unit using average conditions, the field is partitioned into small pieces of land known as management units. The size of management units can be in the order of 100 to 1,000 m2 to capture the patterns of variation of yield in the field. Agricultural practices like seeding rate, type of crop, and tillage and fertilizers are applied at the scale of the management unit to suit local agronomic conditions in unit. If successfully practiced, precision agriculture has the potential of increasing income and minimizing environmental impacts by reducing over application of crop production inputs. In the 90s, the implementation of precision agriculture was facilitated tremendously due to the wide availability and use of three technologies: (1) the Global Positioning System (GPS), (2) the Geographic Information System (GIS), and (3) remote sensing. The introduction of the GPS allowed the farmer to determine his coordinate location as equipments are moved in the field. Thus, any piece of equipment can be easily programmed to vary agricultural practices according to coordinate location over the field. The GIS allowed the storage and manipulation of large sets of data and the production of yield maps. Yield maps can be correlated with soil attributes from soil survey, and/or topographical attributes from a Digital Elevation Model (DEM). This helps predicting variation of potential yield over the landscape based on the spatial distribution of soil and topographical attributes. Soil attributes may include soil PH, Organic Matter, porosity, and hydraulic conductivity, whereas topographical attributes involve the estimations of elevation, slope

  3. Aerial views of the San Andreas Fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, M.

    1988-01-01

    These aerial photographs of the San Andreas fault were taken in 1965 by Robert E. Wallace of the U.S Geological Survey. The pictures were taken with a Rolliflex camera on 20 format black and white flim; Wallace was aboard a light, fixed-wing aircraft, flying mostly at low altitudes. He photographed the fault from San Francisco near its north end where it enters by the Salton Sea. These images represent only a sampling of the more than 300 images prodcued during this project. All the photographs reside in the U.S Geological Survey Library in Menlo Park, California. 

  4. Aerial Infrared Photos for Citrus Growers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blazquez, C. H.; Horn, F. W. J.

    1982-01-01

    Handbook advises on benefits and methods of aerial photography with color infrared film. Interpretation of photographs is discussed in detail. Necessary equipment for interpretation is described--light table, magnifying lenses, and microfiche viewers, for example. Advice is given on rating tree condition; identifying effects of diseases, insects, and nematodes; and evaluating effects of soil, water, and weather.

  5. Results of a Flight Simulation Software Methods Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, E. Bruce

    1995-01-01

    A ten-page questionnaire was mailed to members of the AIAA Flight Simulation Technical Committee in the spring of 1994. The survey inquired about various aspects of developing and maintaining flight simulation software, as well as a few questions dealing with characterization of each facility. As of this report, 19 completed surveys (out of 74 sent out) have been received. This paper summarizes those responses.

  6. Generalizing Observational Study Results: Applying Propensity Score Methods to Complex Surveys

    PubMed Central

    DuGoff, Eva H; Schuler, Megan; Stuart, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo provide a tutorial for using propensity score methods with complex survey data. Data SourcesSimulated data and the 2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Study DesignUsing simulation, we compared the following methods for estimating the treatment effect: a naïve estimate (ignoring both survey weights and propensity scores), survey weighting, propensity score methods (nearest neighbor matching, weighting, and subclassification), and propensity score methods in combination with survey weighting. Methods are compared in terms of bias and 95 percent confidence interval coverage. In Example 2, we used these methods to estimate the effect on health care spending of having a generalist versus a specialist as a usual source of care. Principal FindingsIn general, combining a propensity score method and survey weighting is necessary to achieve unbiased treatment effect estimates that are generalizable to the original survey target population. ConclusionsPropensity score methods are an essential tool for addressing confounding in observational studies. Ignoring survey weights may lead to results that are not generalizable to the survey target population. This paper clarifies the appropriate inferences for different propensity score methods and suggests guidelines for selecting an appropriate propensity score method based on a researcher’s goal. PMID:23855598

  7. Aerial Scene Recognition using Efficient Sparse Representation

    SciTech Connect

    Cheriyadat, Anil M

    2012-01-01

    Advanced scene recognition systems for processing large volumes of high-resolution aerial image data are in great demand today. However, automated scene recognition remains a challenging problem. Efficient encoding and representation of spatial and structural patterns in the imagery are key in developing automated scene recognition algorithms. We describe an image representation approach that uses simple and computationally efficient sparse code computation to generate accurate features capable of producing excellent classification performance using linear SVM kernels. Our method exploits unlabeled low-level image feature measurements to learn a set of basis vectors. We project the low-level features onto the basis vectors and use simple soft threshold activation function to derive the sparse features. The proposed technique generates sparse features at a significantly lower computational cost than other methods~\\cite{Yang10, newsam11}, yet it produces comparable or better classification accuracy. We apply our technique to high-resolution aerial image datasets to quantify the aerial scene classification performance. We demonstrate that the dense feature extraction and representation methods are highly effective for automatic large-facility detection on wide area high-resolution aerial imagery.

  8. Cross Cultural Methods for Survey Research in Black Urban Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Word, Carl O.

    This paper summarizes the development of a new approach to survey research in black urban communities, in part by adapting standard techniques. Attention is directed at a group of salient assumptions underlying social science investigations, namely: (1) the universality of majority culture models of attitude structure; (2) sociolinguistic and…

  9. A Socratic Method for Surveying Students' Readiness to Study Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, William D.

    2013-01-01

    Before beginning a series of presentations on evolution, it would be prudent to survey the general level of students' understanding of prerequisite basic concepts of reproduction, heredity, ontology, and phenotypic diversity so that teachers can avoid devoting time to well-known subjects of general knowledge and can spend more time on subjects…

  10. Standardised survey method for identifying catchment risks to water quality.

    PubMed

    Baker, D L; Ferguson, C M; Chier, P; Warnecke, M; Watkinson, A

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the development and application of a systematic methodology to identify and quantify risks in drinking water and recreational catchments. The methodology assesses microbial and chemical contaminants from both diffuse and point sources within a catchment using Escherichia coli, protozoan pathogens and chemicals (including fuel and pesticides) as index contaminants. Hazard source information is gathered by a defined sanitary survey process involving use of a software tool which groups hazards into six types: sewage infrastructure, on-site sewage systems, industrial, stormwater, agriculture and recreational sites. The survey estimates the likelihood of the site affecting catchment water quality, and the potential consequences, enabling the calculation of risk for individual sites. These risks are integrated to calculate a cumulative risk for each sub-catchment and the whole catchment. The cumulative risks process accounts for the proportion of potential input sources surveyed and for transfer of contaminants from upstream to downstream sub-catchments. The output risk matrices show the relative risk sources for each of the index contaminants, highlighting those with the greatest impact on water quality at a sub-catchment and catchment level. Verification of the sanitary survey assessments and prioritisation is achieved by comparison with water quality data and microbial source tracking. PMID:27280603

  11. Methods of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey: Waves 1, 2, and 3

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Changbao; Thompson, Mary E.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Jiang, Yuan; Yang, Yan; Feng, Guoze; Quah, Anne C.K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the methods of sampling design and data collection of Waves 1, 2, and 3 of the ITC China Survey, with major focus on longitudinal features of the study. Key measures of quality of the survey data, such as retention rates and final sample sizes, are presented. Sample replenishment procedures are outlined, including the addition of a new city, Kunming, at Wave 3. Methods for constructing the longitudinal and cross-sectional survey weights are briefly described. PMID:25550421

  12. DOE/NNSA Aerial Measuring System (AMS): Flying the 'Real' Thing

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Lyons

    2011-06-24

    This slide show documents aerial radiation surveys over Japan. Map product is a compilation of daily aerial measuring system missions from the Fukushima Daiichi power plant to 80 km radius. In addition, other flights were conducted over US military bases and the US embassy.

  13. Detecting new Buffel grass infestations in Australian arid lands: evaluation of methods using high-resolution multispectral imagery and aerial photography.

    PubMed

    Marshall, V M; Lewis, M M; Ostendorf, B

    2014-03-01

    We assess the feasibility of using airborne imagery for Buffel grass detection in Australian arid lands and evaluate four commonly used image classification techniques (visual estimate, manual digitisation, unsupervised classification and normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) thresholding) for their suitability to this purpose. Colour digital aerial photography captured at approximately 5 cm of ground sample distance (GSD) and four-band (visible–near-infrared) multispectral imagery (25 cm GSD) were acquired (14 February 2012) across overlapping subsets of our study site. In the field, Buffel grass projected cover estimates were collected for quadrates (10 m diameter), which were subsequently used to evaluate the four image classification techniques. Buffel grass was found to be widespread throughout our study site; it was particularly prevalent in riparian land systems and alluvial plains. On hill slopes, Buffel grass was often present in depressions, valleys and crevices of rock outcrops, but the spread appeared to be dependent on soil type and vegetation communities. Visual cover estimates performed best (r 2 0.39), and pixel-based classifiers (unsupervised classification and NDVI thresholding) performed worst (r 2 0.21). Manual digitising consistently underrepresented Buffel grass cover compared with field- and image-based visual cover estimates; we did not find the labours of digitising rewarding. Our recommendation for regional documentation of new infestation of Buffel grass is to acquire ultra-high-resolution aerial photography and have a trained observer score cover against visual standards and use the scored sites to interpolate density across the region. PMID:24234223

  14. A Survey of Functional Behavior Assessment Methods Used by Behavior Analysts in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Anthony C.; Pratt, Leigh A.; Normand, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    To gather information about the functional behavior assessment (FBA) methods behavior analysts use in practice, we sent a web-based survey to 12,431 behavior analysts certified by the Behavior Analyst Certification Board. Ultimately, 724 surveys were returned, with the results suggesting that most respondents regularly use FBA methods, especially…

  15. Consulting the Delphi: A New Idea for Collecting Student Feedback through the Two Survey Method (TSM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finelli, Cynthia J.; Wright, Mary C.; Pinder-Grover, Tershia

    2010-01-01

    The Two Survey Method (TSM) is a new time-efficient tool for gathering formative student feedback. Based on the Delphi technique, the TSM uses iterative surveys to develop student consensus about key strengths and suggestions for instruction. Evaluation data indicate that both faculty and students are satisfied with the method's efficiency and the…

  16. INERTIAL INSTRUMENT SYSTEM FOR AERIAL SURVEYING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Russell H.; Chapman, William H.; Hanna, William F.; Mongan, Charles E.; Hursh, John W.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe an inertial guidance or navigation system that will enable use of relatively light aircraft for efficient data-gathering in geologgy, hydrology, terrain mapping, and gravity-field mapping. The instrument system capitalizes not only on virtual state-of-the-art inertial guidance technology but also on similarly advanced technology for measuring distance with electromagnetic radiating devices. The distance measurement can be made with a transceiver beamed at either a cooperative taget, with a specially designed reflecting surface, or a noncooperative target, such as the Earth's surface. The instrument system features components that use both techniques. Thus, a laser tracker device, which updates the inertial guidance unit or navigator in flight, makes distance measurements to a retroreflector target mounted at a ground-control point; a laser profiler device, beamed vertically downward, makes distance measurements to the Earth's surface along a path that roughly mirrors the aircraft flight path.

  17. Aerial Video Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    When Michael Henry wanted to start an aerial video service, he turned to Johnson Space Center for assistance. Two NASA engineers - one had designed and developed TV systems in Apollo, Skylab, Apollo- Soyuz and Space Shuttle programs - designed a wing-mounted fiberglass camera pod. Camera head and angles are adjustable, and the pod is shaped to reduce vibration. The controls are located so a solo pilot can operate the system. A microprocessor displays latitude, longitude, and bearing, and a GPS receiver provides position data for possible legal references. The service has been successfully utilized by railroads, oil companies, real estate companies, etc.

  18. NURE aerial gamma-ray and magnetic reconnaissance survey of portions of New Mexico, Arizona and Texas. Volume II. New Mexico-Carlsbad NI 31-11 Quadrangle. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Nation Uranium Resource Evaluation Program, a rotary-wing high sensitivity radiometric and magnetic survey was flown covering the Carlsbad Quadrangle of the State of New Mexico. The area surveyed consisted of approximately 1732 line miles. The survey was flown with a Sikorsky S58T helicopter equipped with a high sensitivity gamma ray spectrometer which was calibrated at the DOE calibration facilities at Walker Field in Grand Junction, Colorado, and the Dynamic Test Range at Lake Mead, Arizona. Instrumentation and data reduction methods are presented in Volume I of this report. The reduced data is presented in the form of stacked profiles, standard deviation anomaly plots, histogram plots and microfiche listings. The results of the geologic interpretation of the radiometric data together with the profiles, anomaly maps and histograms are presented in this Volume II final report.

  19. Survey of Machine Learning Methods for Database Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamra, Ashish; Ber, Elisa

    Application of machine learning techniques to database security is an emerging area of research. In this chapter, we present a survey of various approaches that use machine learning/data mining techniques to enhance the traditional security mechanisms of databases. There are two key database security areas in which these techniques have found applications, namely, detection of SQL Injection attacks and anomaly detection for defending against insider threats. Apart from the research prototypes and tools, various third-party commercial products are also available that provide database activity monitoring solutions by profiling database users and applications. We present a survey of such products. We end the chapter with a primer on mechanisms for responding to database anomalies.

  20. Survey of Technetium Analytical Production Methods Supporting Hanford Nuclear Materials Processing

    SciTech Connect

    TROYER, G.L.

    1999-11-03

    This document provides a historical survey of analytical methods used for measuring {sup 99}Tc in nuclear fuel reprocessing materials and wastes at Hanford. Method challenges including special sludge matrices tested are discussed. Special problems and recommendations are presented.

  1. Concordance and discordance of sequence survey methods for molecular epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Nur A.; Cebula, Thomas A.; Colwell, Rita R.; Robison, Richard A.; Johnson, W. Evan; Crandall, Keith A.

    2015-01-01

    The post-genomic era is characterized by the direct acquisition and analysis of genomic data with many applications, including the enhancement of the understanding of microbial epidemiology and pathology. However, there are a number of molecular approaches to survey pathogen diversity, and the impact of these different approaches on parameter estimation and inference are not entirely clear. We sequenced whole genomes of bacterial pathogens, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Yersinia pestis, and Brucella spp. (60 new genomes), and combined them with 55 genomes from GenBank to address how different molecular survey approaches (whole genomes, SNPs, and MLST) impact downstream inferences on molecular evolutionary parameters, evolutionary relationships, and trait character associations. We selected isolates for sequencing to represent temporal, geographic origin, and host range variability. We found that substitution rate estimates vary widely among approaches, and that SNP and genomic datasets yielded different but strongly supported phylogenies. MLST yielded poorly supported phylogenies, especially in our low diversity dataset, i.e., Y. pestis. Trait associations showed that B. pseudomallei and Y. pestis phylogenies are significantly associated with geography, irrespective of the molecular survey approach used, while Brucella spp. phylogeny appears to be strongly associated with geography and host origin. We contrast inferences made among monomorphic (clonal) and non-monomorphic bacteria, and between intra- and inter-specific datasets. We also discuss our results in light of underlying assumptions of different approaches. PMID:25737810

  2. Horvitz-Thompson survey sample methods for estimating large-scale animal abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Garton, E.O.

    1994-01-01

    Large-scale surveys to estimate animal abundance can be useful for monitoring population status and trends, for measuring responses to management or environmental alterations, and for testing ecological hypotheses about abundance. However, large-scale surveys may be expensive and logistically complex. To ensure resources are not wasted on unattainable targets, the goals and uses of each survey should be specified carefully and alternative methods for addressing these objectives always should be considered. During survey design, the impoflance of each survey error component (spatial design, propofiion of detected animals, precision in detection) should be considered carefully to produce a complete statistically based survey. Failure to address these three survey components may produce population estimates that are inaccurate (biased low), have unrealistic precision (too precise) and do not satisfactorily meet the survey objectives. Optimum survey design requires trade-offs in these sources of error relative to the costs of sampling plots and detecting animals on plots, considerations that are specific to the spatial logistics and survey methods. The Horvitz-Thompson estimators provide a comprehensive framework for considering all three survey components during the design and analysis of large-scale wildlife surveys. Problems of spatial and temporal (especially survey to survey) heterogeneity in detection probabilities have received little consideration, but failure to account for heterogeneity produces biased population estimates. The goal of producing unbiased population estimates is in conflict with the increased variation from heterogeneous detection in the population estimate. One solution to this conflict is to use an MSE-based approach to achieve a balance between bias reduction and increased variation. Further research is needed to develop methods that address spatial heterogeneity in detection, evaluate the effects of temporal heterogeneity on survey

  3. Aerial Terrain Mapping Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahar, K. N.

    2012-08-01

    This paper looks into the latest achievement in the low-cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology in their capacity to map the semi-development areas. The objectives of this study are to establish a new methodology or a new algorithm in image registration during interior orientation process and to determine the accuracy of the photogrammetric products by using UAV images. Recently, UAV technology has been used in several applications such as mapping, agriculture and surveillance. The aim of this study is to scrutinize the usage of UAV to map the semi-development areas. The performance of the low cost UAV mapping study was established on a study area with two image processing methods so that the results could be comparable. A non-metric camera was attached at the bottom of UAV and it was used to capture images at both sites after it went through several calibration steps. Calibration processes were carried out to determine focal length, principal distance, radial lens distortion, tangential lens distortion and affinity. A new method in image registration for a non-metric camera is discussed in this paper as a part of new methodology of this study. This method used the UAV Global Positioning System (GPS) onboard to register the UAV image for interior orientation process. Check points were established randomly at both sites using rapid static Global Positioning System. Ground control points are used for exterior orientation process, and check point is used for accuracy assessment of photogrammetric product. All acquired images were processed in a photogrammetric software. Two methods of image registration were applied in this study, namely, GPS onboard registration and ground control point registration. Both registrations were processed by using photogrammetric software and the result is discussed. Two results were produced in this study, which are the digital orthophoto and the digital terrain model. These results were analyzed by using the root mean square

  4. Infrared film for aerial photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, William H.

    1979-01-01

    Considerable interest has developed recently in the use of aerial photographs for agricultural management. Even the simplest hand-held aerial photographs, especially those taken with color infrared film, often provide information not ordinarily available through routine ground observation. When fields are viewed from above, patterns and variations become more apparent, often allowing problems to be spotted which otherwise may go undetected.

  5. AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY AND LEGAL APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aerial photographic interpretation is the process of examining objects on aerial photographs and determining their significance. t is often defined as both art and science because the process, and the quality of the derived information, is often a qualitative nature and much depe...

  6. Adjusting for undercoverage of access-points in creel surveys with fewer overflights.

    PubMed

    Béliveau, Audrey; Lockhart, Richard A; Schwarz, Carl J; Arndt, Steven K

    2015-12-01

    Creel surveys are used in recreational fisheries to estimate angling effort, catch, and harvest. Aerial-access creel surveys rely on two components: (1) a ground component in which fishing parties returning from their trips are interviewed at some access-points of the fishery; (2) an aerial component in which the number of fishing parties is counted. A common practice is to sample fewer aerial survey days than ground survey days. This is thought by practitioners to reduce the cost of the survey, but there is a lack of sound statistical methodology for this case. In this article, we propose various estimation methods to handle this situation and evaluate their asymptotic properties from a design-based perspective. We also propose formulas for the optimal allocation of the effort between the ground and the aerial portion of the survey, for given costs and budget. A simulation study investigates the performance of the estimators. Finally, we apply our methods to data from an annual Kootenay Lake survey (Canada). PMID:26111074

  7. Action cameras and low-cost aerial vehicles in archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballarin, M.; Balletti, C.; Guerra, F.

    2015-05-01

    This research is focused on the analysis of the potential of a close range aerial photogrammetry system, which is accessible both in economic terms and in terms of simplicity of use. In particular the Go Pro Hero3 Black Edition and the Parrot Ar. Drone 2.0 were studied. There are essentially two limitations to the system and they were found for both the instruments used. Indeed, the frames captured by the Go Pro are subject to great distortion and consequently pose numerous calibration problems. On the other hand, the limitation of the system lies in the difficulty of maintaining a flight configuration suitable for photogrammetric purposes in unfavourable environmental conditions. The aim of this research is to analyse how far the limitations highlighted can influence the precision of the survey and consequent quality of the results obtained. To this end, the integrated GoPro and Parrot system was used during a survey campaign on the Altilia archaeological site, in Molise. The data obtained was compared with that gathered by more traditional methods, such as the laser scanner. The system was employed in the field of archaeology because here the question of cost often has a considerable importance and the metric aspect is frequently subordinate to the qualitative and interpretative aspects. Herein one of the products of these systems; the orthophoto will be analysed, which is particularly useful in archaeology, especially in situations such as this dig in which there aren't many structures in elevation present. The system proposed has proven to be an accessible solution for producing an aerial documentation, which adds the excellent quality of the result to metric data for which the precision is known.

  8. The swift UVOT stars survey. I. Methods and test clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, Michael H.; Porterfield, Blair L.; Linevsky, Jacquelyn S.; Bond, Howard E.; Hoversten, Erik A.; Berrier, Joshua L.; Gronwall, Caryl A.; Holland, Stephen T.; Breeveld, Alice A.; Brown, Peter J. E-mail: blp14@psu.edu E-mail: caryl@astro.psu.edu E-mail: aab@mssl.ucl.ac.uk

    2014-12-01

    We describe the motivations and background of a large survey of nearby stellar populations using the Ultraviolet Optical Telescope (UVOT) on board the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Mission. UVOT, with its wide field, near-UV sensitivity, and 2.″3 spatial resolution, is uniquely suited to studying nearby stellar populations and providing insight into the near-UV properties of hot stars and the contribution of those stars to the integrated light of more distant stellar populations. We review the state of UV stellar photometry, outline the survey, and address problems specific to wide- and crowded-field UVOT photometry. We present color–magnitude diagrams of the nearby open clusters M67, NGC 188, and NGC 2539, and the globular cluster M79. We demonstrate that UVOT can easily discern the young- and intermediate-age main sequences, blue stragglers, and hot white dwarfs, producing results consistent with previous studies. We also find that it characterizes the blue horizontal branch of M79 and easily identifies a known post-asymptotic giant branch star.

  9. First National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing: survey design and methods for the allergen and endotoxin components.

    PubMed Central

    Vojta, Patrick J; Friedman, Warren; Marker, David A; Clickner, Robert; Rogers, John W; Viet, Susan M; Muilenberg, Michael L; Thorne, Peter S; Arbes, Samuel J; Zeldin, Darryl C

    2002-01-01

    From July 1998 to August 1999, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences conducted the first National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing. The purpose of the survey was to assess children's potential household exposure to lead, allergens, and bacterial endotoxins. We surveyed a sample of 831 homes, representing 96 million permanently occupied, noninstitutional housing units that permit resident children. We administered questionnaires to household members, made home observations, and took environmental samples. This article provides general background information on the survey, an overview of the survey design, and a description of the data collection and laboratory methods pertaining to the allergen and endotoxin components. We collected dust samples from a bed, the bedroom floor, a sofa or chair, the living room floor, the kitchen floor, and a basement floor and analyzed them for cockroach allergen Bla g 1, the dust mite allergens Der f 1 and Der p 1, the cat allergen Fel d 1, the dog allergen Can f 1, the rodent allergens Rat n 1 and mouse urinary protein, allergens of the fungus Alternaria alternata, and endotoxin. This article provides the essential context for subsequent reports that will describe the prevalence of allergens and endotoxin in U.S. households, their distribution by various housing characteristics, and their associations with allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis. PMID:12003758

  10. Data processing programs for aerial gamma-ray data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duval1, Joseph S.

    1985-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) uses computer programs to process aerial gamma-ray data; some do editing and data manipulation to allow for corrections. Programs to convert flight-line data to latitude-longitude coordinates are included. Plotting programs include contour plotting, profile plots, and photographic raster plots.

  11. 7 CFR 611.21 - Availability of aerial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SOIL SURVEYS Cartographic...

  12. 7 CFR 611.21 - Availability of aerial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SOIL SURVEYS Cartographic...

  13. 7 CFR 611.21 - Availability of aerial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SOIL SURVEYS Cartographic...

  14. 7 CFR 611.21 - Availability of aerial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SOIL SURVEYS Cartographic...

  15. 7 CFR 611.21 - Availability of aerial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SOIL SURVEYS Cartographic...

  16. Comparing Coral Reef Survey Methods. Unesco Reports in Marine Science No. 21 Report of a Regional Unesco/UNEP Workshop on Coral Reef Survey Management and Assessment Methods in Asia and the Pacific (Phuket, Thailand, December 13-17, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Marine Sciences.

    This report includes nine papers prepared for a workshop on coral reef survey management and assessment methods in Asia and the Pacific. The papers are: "A Contrast in Methodologies between Surveying and Testing" (Charles Birkeland); "Coral Reef Survey Methods in the Andaman Sea" (Hansa Chansang); "A Review of Coral Reef Survey and Management…

  17. 3D Modelling of Inaccessible Areas using UAV-based Aerial Photography and Structure from Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obanawa, Hiroyuki; Hayakawa, Yuichi; Gomez, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    In hardly accessible areas, the collection of 3D point-clouds using TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanner) can be very challenging, while airborne equivalent would not give a correct account of subvertical features and concave geometries like caves. To solve such problem, the authors have experimented an aerial photography based SfM (Structure from Motion) technique on a 'peninsular-rock' surrounded on three sides by the sea at a Pacific coast in eastern Japan. The research was carried out using UAS (Unmanned Aerial System) combined with a commercial small UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) carrying a compact camera. The UAV is a DJI PHANTOM: the UAV has four rotors (quadcopter), it has a weight of 1000 g, a payload of 400 g and a maximum flight time of 15 minutes. The camera is a GoPro 'HERO3 Black Edition': resolution 12 million pixels; weight 74 g; and 0.5 sec. interval-shot. The 3D model has been constructed by digital photogrammetry using a commercial SfM software, Agisoft PhotoScan Professional®, which can generate sparse and dense point-clouds, from which polygonal models and orthophotographs can be calculated. Using the 'flight-log' and/or GCPs (Ground Control Points), the software can generate digital surface model. As a result, high-resolution aerial orthophotographs and a 3D model were obtained. The results have shown that it was possible to survey the sea cliff and the wave cut-bench, which are unobservable from land side. In details, we could observe the complexity of the sea cliff that is nearly vertical as a whole while slightly overhanging over the thinner base. The wave cut bench is nearly flat and develops extensively at the base of the cliff. Although there are some evidences of small rockfalls at the upper part of the cliff, there is no evidence of very recent activity, because no fallen rock exists on the wave cut bench. This system has several merits: firstly lower cost than the existing measuring methods such as manned-flight survey and aerial laser

  18. Assessment of forest plantations from low altitude aerial photography. [North Carolina coastal plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, H. A.

    1977-01-01

    Vertical color, and color-infrared, aerial photography obtained from altitudes between 183 m and 915 m provide a cost effective method of determining tree survival and height growth in pine plantations on the North Carolina Coastal Plain. All interpretations were performed by professional forestry personnel from the original 70 mm color transparencies. Prompt assessment of tree survival is necessary if failed spots are to be successfully replanted. Counts of living trees made after the third growing season, and sometimes only two growing seasons after planting, are accurate enough to permit planning of replanting operations without extensive ground surveys.

  19. An historical survey of computational methods in optimal control.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polak, E.

    1973-01-01

    Review of some of the salient theoretical developments in the specific area of optimal control algorithms. The first algorithms for optimal control were aimed at unconstrained problems and were derived by using first- and second-variation methods of the calculus of variations. These methods have subsequently been recognized as gradient, Newton-Raphson, or Gauss-Newton methods in function space. A much more recent addition to the arsenal of unconstrained optimal control algorithms are several variations of conjugate-gradient methods. At first, constrained optimal control problems could only be solved by exterior penalty function methods. Later algorithms specifically designed for constrained problems have appeared. Among these are methods for solving the unconstrained linear quadratic regulator problem, as well as certain constrained minimum-time and minimum-energy problems. Differential-dynamic programming was developed from dynamic programming considerations. The conditional-gradient method, the gradient-projection method, and a couple of feasible directions methods were obtained as extensions or adaptations of related algorithms for finite-dimensional problems. Finally, the so-called epsilon-methods combine the Ritz method with penalty function techniques.

  20. Aerothermodynamic methods for a Mars environmental survey Mars entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitcheltree, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics models for the thermodynamics and transport properties used in an equilibrium version of the Langley aerothermodynamics upwind relaxation algorithm (LAURA) for Mars atmospheric entries are described. In addition, the physical models used in a nonequilibrium version of LAURA for Mars-entry flows are described. Uncertainties exist in defining constants used in the transport properties for the equilibrium model and in many of the physical models for the nonequilibrium version. Solutions from the two codes using the best available constants are examined at the Mars-entry conditions characteristics of the Mars environmental survey mission. While the flowfields are near thermal equilibrium, chemical nonequilibrium effects are present in the entry cases examined. Convective heating at the stagnation point for these flows (assuming fully catalytic wall boundary conditions) is approximately 100 W/cm(exp 2). Radiative heating is negligible.

  1. A comparison of survey methods to evaluate macrophyte index of biotic integrity performance in Minnesota lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vondracek, Bruce C.; Koch, Justine D.; Beck, Marcus W.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic macrophytes shape trophic web dynamics, provide food and refuge for macroinvertebrates and fish, and increase nutrient retention, sediment stabilization, and water clarity. Macrophytes are well-suited as indicators of ecological health because they are immobile, relatively easy to sample and identify, and respond to anthropogenic disturbance on an ecological time scale. Aquatic plant monitoring programs can provide valuable information to water resource managers, especially in conjunction with macrophyte-based indices of biotic integrity (IBI). However, there are several current sampling designs and the precision of IBI scores has not been evaluated across different surveys. We evaluated the performance of the Minnesota macrophyte-based IBI for two survey designs; a point intercept (PI) survey and a belt transect (BT) survey. PI surveys are time intensive, especially on large lakes, whereas BT are less time intensive and have been used historically in Minnesota. Our objectives were to compare the PI surveys with BT surveys on the same lakes, and to modify the BT survey (MT survey) to improve information obtained from BT surveys. BT surveys consistently overestimated IBI scores compared to the PI method (t = 6.268, df = 60, p < 0.001). Overall IBI scores calculated from MT surveys differed significantly from PI scores, but on average, MT surveys predicted scores only 3% lower than PI scores. Implementation of the Minnesota macrophyte-based IBI through the adoption of the MT survey approach would improve sampling efficiency and enable widespread documentation of the effects of landscape change, shifts in hydrologic regimes, and other anthropogenic activities on the integrity of lacustrine systems.

  2. Teaching and Assessment Methods in Undergraduate Economics: A Fourth National Quinquennial Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Michael; Schaur, Georg

    2011-01-01

    Surveys in 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010 investigated teaching and assessment methods in different undergraduate courses. In this article, the authors offer basic results from the 2010 survey. "Chalk and talk" remains the dominant teaching style, but there were drops in mean (although not median) values for those pedagogies and some growth in the use…

  3. Applicability of Aerial Green LiDAR to a Large River in the Western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conner, J. T.; Welcker, C. W.; Cooper, C.; Faux, R.; Butler, M.; Nayegandhi, A.

    2013-12-01

    In October 2012, aerial green LiDAR data were collected in the Snake River (within Idaho and Oregon) to test this emerging technology in a large river with poor water clarity. Six study areas (total of 30 river miles spread out over 250 river miles) were chosen to represent a variety of depths, channel types, and surface conditions to test the accuracy, depth penetration, data density of aerial green LiDAR. These characteristics along with cost and speed of acquisition were compared to other bathymetric survey techniques including rod surveys (total station and RTK-GPS), single-beam sonar, and multibeam echosounder (MBES). The green LiDAR system typically measured returns from the riverbed through 1-2 meters of water, which was less than one Secchi depth. However, in areas with steep banks or aquatic macrophytes, LiDAR returns from the riverbed were less frequent or non-existent. In areas of good return density, depths measured from green LiDAR data corresponded well with previously collected data sets from traditional bathymetric survey techniques. In such areas, the green LiDAR point density was much higher than both rod and single beam sonar surveys, yet lower than MBES. The green LiDAR survey was also collected more efficiently than all other methods. In the Snake River, green LiDAR does not provide a method to map the entire riverbed as it only receives bottom returns in shallow water, typically at the channel margins. However, green LiDAR does provide survey data that is an excellent complement to MBES, which is more effective at surveying the deeper portions of the channel. In some cases, the green LiDAR was able to provide data in areas that the MBES could not, often due to issues with navigating the survey boat in shallow water. Even where both MBES and green LiDAR mapped the river bottom, green LiDAR often provides more accurate data through a better angle of incidence and less shadowing than the MBES survey. For one MBES survey in 2013, the green Li

  4. UAS imaging for archaeological survey and documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, S.; Fallavollita, P.; Melis, M. G.; Balsi, M.; Jankowski, S.

    2013-10-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are extensively used in diverse fields, wherever inexpensive and easy-to-deploy platforms are required for close-range remote sensing. Applications proposed in archaeology to date include ortho-photography and 3-D modeling. On the other hand, use of image processing and feature detection methods, well developed in other fields is hardly used. After reviewing technologies and methods for UAS-based surveying and surface modeling, we propose feature detection methods (e.g. line detection, texture segmentation) dedicated to extraction of structures in the images that are significant for archaeological survey, planning, and documentation and show results on selected case studies.

  5. 77 FR 24684 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2013-2015 American Community Survey Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... Methods Panel Testing AGENCY: U.S. Census Bureau. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce, as... materials. The ACS Methods Panel is a research program that is designed to address and respond to survey issues and needs. During the 2013-2015 period, the Methods Panel may include testing methods...

  6. A survey of strength analysis methods for laminates with holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crews, J. H., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The methods for predicting the strength of composite laminates with fastener holes are reviewed for the cases of unloaded as well as loaded holes. Three categories of methods are discussed: (1) the hole-boundary stress (HBS) methods which compare the peak stresses and the laminate strength; (2) the linear elastic fracture (LEFM) methods which assume cracks emanating from the hole and predict failure when the stress intensity factor for a crack equals the laminate fracture toughness; and (3) two different two-parameter (TP) methods: the average-stress (ASTP) method, which predicts failure when the average stress over a distance from the hole equals the laminate strength; and the point-stress (PSTP) Whitney-Nuismer (1974) approach, which predicts failure when the stress near the hole equals the material strength. The PSTP is relatively accurate and is by far the most widely used of all the prediction methods. However, for large ranges of variables and cases, the current strength predictions may not always be accurate.

  7. Finding a Fox: An Evaluation of Survey Methods to Estimate Abundance of a Small Desert Carnivore

    PubMed Central

    Dempsey, Steven J.; Gese, Eric M.; Kluever, Bryan M.

    2014-01-01

    The status of many carnivore species is a growing concern for wildlife agencies, conservation organizations, and the general public. Historically, kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis) were classified as abundant and distributed in the desert and semi-arid regions of southwestern North America, but is now considered rare throughout its range. Survey methods have been evaluated for kit foxes, but often in populations where abundance is high and there is little consensus on which technique is best to monitor abundance. We conducted a 2-year study to evaluate four survey methods (scat deposition surveys, scent station surveys, spotlight survey, and trapping) for detecting kit foxes and measuring fox abundance. We determined the probability of detection for each method, and examined the correlation between the relative abundance as estimated by each survey method and the known minimum kit fox abundance as determined by radio-collared animals. All surveys were conducted on 15 5-km transects during the 3 biological seasons of the kit fox. Scat deposition surveys had both the highest detection probabilities (p = 0.88) and were most closely related to minimum known fox abundance (r2 = 0.50, P = 0.001). The next best method for kit fox detection was the scent station survey (p = 0.73), which had the second highest correlation to fox abundance (r2 = 0.46, P<0.001). For detecting kit foxes in a low density population we suggest using scat deposition transects during the breeding season. Scat deposition surveys have low costs, resilience to weather, low labor requirements, and pose no risk to the study animals. The breeding season was ideal for monitoring kit fox population size, as detections consisted of the resident population and had the highest detection probabilities. Using appropriate monitoring techniques will be critical for future conservation actions for this rare desert carnivore. PMID:25148102

  8. A Survey of Methods of Teaching Mathematics. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovach, L. D.

    Several methods of teaching college-level mathematics sequences are examined for their advantages, disadvantages, and costs. Materials considered include textbooks, film sequences, videotaped lectures, and individualized teaching machines. (SD)

  9. Analysis of Operation PLUMBBOB nuclear test smoky aerial radiological data

    SciTech Connect

    Steadman, C.R. Jr.; Kennedy, N.C.; Quinn, V.E.

    1984-03-01

    This report describes the Weather Service Nuclear Support Office (WSNSO) analysis of the aerial radiological data collected following the SMOKY nuclear test of Operation PLUMBBOB. The methods of converting these aerial data to exposure rates compatible with those measured by ground-level monitors are discussed. A fallout pattern, based upon the resulting aerial exposure-rate values, is presented for the downwind area where no ground-level exposure-rate measurements were made. This WSNSO extended fallout pattern is compared with a similar analysis prepared in the late 1950s. An evaluation of the enhanced fallout areas shown in the extended pattern is made. The appendices contain discussions of the aerial data collection and analysis procedures, and contain tabulated radiological data used in the extended fallout pattern analysis. 7 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.

  10. A survey of design methods for failure detection in dynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willsky, A. S.

    1975-01-01

    A number of methods for the detection of abrupt changes (such as failures) in stochastic dynamical systems were surveyed. The class of linear systems were emphasized, but the basic concepts, if not the detailed analyses, carry over to other classes of systems. The methods surveyed range from the design of specific failure-sensitive filters, to the use of statistical tests on filter innovations, to the development of jump process formulations. Tradeoffs in complexity versus performance are discussed.

  11. A survey of design methods for failure detection in dynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willsky, A. S.

    1975-01-01

    A number of methods for detecting abrupt changes (such as failures) in stochastic dynamical systems are surveyed. The class of linear systems is concentrated on but the basic concepts, if not the detailed analyses, carry over to other classes of systems. The methods surveyed range from the design of specific failure-sensitive filters, to the use of statistical tests on filter innovations, to the development of jump process formulations. Tradeoffs in complexity versus performance are discussed.

  12. A survey of the broadband shock associated noise prediction methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Chan M.; Krejsa, Eugene A.; Khavaran, Abbas

    1992-01-01

    Several different prediction methods to estimate the broadband shock associated noise of a supersonic jet are introduced and compared with experimental data at various test conditions. The nozzle geometries considered for comparison include a convergent and a convergent-divergent nozzle, both axisymmetric. Capabilities and limitations of prediction methods in incorporating the two nozzle geometries, flight effect, and temperature effect are discussed. Predicted noise field shows the best agreement for a convergent nozzle geometry under static conditions. Predicted results for nozzles in flight show larger discrepancies from data and more dependable flight data are required for further comparison. Qualitative effects of jet temperature, as observed in experiment, are reproduced in predicted results.

  13. A survey of machine learning methods for secondary and supersecondary protein structure prediction.

    PubMed

    Ho, Hui Kian; Zhang, Lei; Ramamohanarao, Kotagiri; Martin, Shawn

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter we provide a survey of protein secondary and supersecondary structure prediction using methods from machine learning. Our focus is on machine learning methods applicable to β-hairpin and β-sheet prediction, but we also discuss methods for more general supersecondary structure prediction. We provide background on the secondary and supersecondary structures that we discuss, the features used to describe them, and the basic theory behind the machine learning methods used. We survey the machine learning methods available for secondary and supersecondary structure prediction and compare them where possible. PMID:22987348

  14. Comparison of visual survey and seining methods for estimating abundance of an endangered, benthic stream fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordan, F.; Jelks, H.L.; Bortone, S.A.; Dorazio, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    We compared visual survey and seining methods for estimating abundance of endangered Okaloosa darters, Etheostoma okaloosae, in 12 replicate stream reaches during August 2001. For each 20-m stream reach, two divers systematically located and marked the position of darters and then a second crew of three to five people came through with a small-mesh seine and exhaustively sampled the same area. Visual surveys required little extra time to complete. Visual counts (24.2 ?? 12.0; mean ?? one SD) considerably exceeded seine captures (7.4 ?? 4.8), and counts from the two methods were uncorrelated. Visual surveys, but not seines, detected the presence of Okaloosa darters at one site with low population densities. In 2003, we performed a depletion removal study in 10 replicate stream reaches to assess the accuracy of the visual survey method. Visual surveys detected 59% of Okaloosa darters present, and visual counts and removal estimates were positively correlated. Taken together, our comparisons indicate that visual surveys more accurately and precisely estimate abundance of Okaloosa darters than seining and more reliably detect presence at low population densities. We recommend evaluation of visual survey methods when designing programs to monitor abundance of benthic fishes in clear streams, especially for threatened and endangered species that may be sensitive to handling and habitat disturbance. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  15. NCES Handbook of Survey Methods. NCES 2011-609

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Shelley, Ed.; Wang, Xiaolei, Ed.; Henning, Alexandra, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Since its inception, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) has been committed to the practice of documenting its statistical methods for its customers and of seeking to avoid misinterpretation of its published data. The reason for this policy is to assure customers that proper statistical standards and techniques have been observed,…

  16. A Survey of Methods in the Human Potential Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolis, Fredric

    1977-01-01

    Training methods which affect the mind, body consciousness, values, and purpose of life, according to this article, include biofeedback, extrasensory perception, Yoga, transcendental meditation, and Zen. The article describes some elements common to these systems, lists a number of the systems with their costs, and gives some considerations in…

  17. A survey of numerical methods for shock physics applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hertel, E.S. Jr.

    1997-10-01

    Hydrocodes or more accurately, shock physics analysis packages, have been widely used in the US Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories and elsewhere around the world for over 30 years. Initial applications included weapons effects studies where the pressure levels were high enough to disregard the material strength, hence the term hydrocode. Over the last 30 years, Sandia has worked extensively to develop and apply advanced hydrocodes to armor/anti-armor interactions, warhead design, high explosive initiation, and nuclear weapon safety issues. The needs of the DOE have changed over the last 30 years, especially over the last decade. A much stronger emphasis is currently placed on the details of material deformation and high explosive initiation phenomena. The hydrocodes of 30 years ago have now evolved into sophisticated analysis tools that can replace testing in some situations and complement it in all situations. A brief history of the development of hydrocodes in the US will be given. The author also discusses and compares the four principal methods in use today for the solution of the conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy for shock physics applications. The techniques discussed are the Eulerian methods currently employed by the Sandia multi-dimensional shock physics analysis package known as CTH; the element based Lagrangian method currently used by codes like DYNA; the element free Lagrangian method (also known as smooth particle hydrodynamics) used by codes like the Los Alamos code SPHINX; and the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian methods used by codes like the Lawrence Livermore code CALE or the Sandia code ALEGRA.

  18. Aerial color infrared photography applications to citriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blazquez, C. H.; Horn, F. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Results of a one-year experimental study on the use of aerial color infrared photography in citrus grove management are presented. It is found that the spring season, when trees are in flush (have young leaves), is the best season to photograph visible differences between healthy and diseased trees. It is also shown that the best photography can be obtained with a 12-in. focal length lens. The photographic scale that allowed good photo interpretation with simple inexpensive equipment was 1 in. = 330 ft. The use of a window-overlay transparency method allowed rapid photo interpretation and data recording in computer-compatible forms. Aerial color infrared photography carried out during the spring season revealed a more accurate status of tree condition than visual inspection.

  19. Research of Active Contour Model in Aerial Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kun, Wang; Li, Guo

    With the development of computer and aviation technology, the aerial image is facing an important issue is how to automate, including aerial images of the automatic extraction of the target. In this paper, the issue of aerial images to study the active contour model is introduced, that is, Snake model, to achieve the target aerial image of the semi-automatic contour extraction method. Snake model used the unique characteristic of the energy minimization, carried out on the image contour extraction, to obtain a clear, consistent and accurate image contour. The model is defined through the energy minimization of the function, given in the initial position of artificial circumstances, through the iterative calculation of Snake model will eventually form the minimum energy function has been described in the outline of the target partition. The results indicate that Snake model for aerial images of the edge contour extraction, verification, concluded that the Snake-based edge detection methods could be more objectively and accurately extract the edge of the outline of aerial images.

  20. A Delphi Method Analysis to Create an Emergency Medicine Educational Patient Satisfaction Survey

    PubMed Central

    London, Kory S.; Singal, Bonita; Fowler, Jennifer; Prepejchal, Rebecca; Simmons, Stefanie; Finefrock, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Feedback on patient satisfaction (PS) as a means to monitor and improve performance in patient communication is lacking in residency training. A physician’s promotion, compensation and job satisfaction may be impacted by his individual PS scores, once he is in practice. Many communication and satisfaction surveys exist but none focus on the emergency department setting for educational purposes. The goal of this project was to create an emergency medicine-based educational PS survey with strong evidence for content validity. Methods We used the Delphi Method (DM) to obtain expert opinion via an iterative process of surveying. Questions were mined from four PS surveys as well as from group suggestion. The DM analysis determined the structure, content and appropriate use of the tool. The group used four-point Likert-type scales and Lynn’s criteria for content validity to determine relevant questions from the stated goals. Results Twelve recruited experts participated in a series of seven surveys to achieve consensus. A 10-question, single-page survey with an additional page of qualitative questions and demographic questions was selected. Thirty one questions were judged to be relevant from an original 48-question list. Of these, the final 10 questions were chosen. Response rates for individual survey items was 99.5%. Conclusion The DM produced a consensus survey with content validity evidence. Future work will be needed to obtain evidence for response process, internal structure and construct validity. PMID:26759663

  1. Modeling aerial refueling operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Allen B., III

    Aerial Refueling (AR) is the act of offloading fuel from one aircraft (the tanker) to another aircraft (the receiver) in mid flight. Meetings between tanker and receiver aircraft are referred to as AR events and are scheduled to: escort one or more receivers across a large body of water; refuel one or more receivers; or train receiver pilots, tanker pilots, and boom operators. In order to efficiently execute the Aerial Refueling Mission, the Air Mobility Command (AMC) of the United States Air Force (USAF) depends on computer models to help it make tanker basing decisions, plan tanker sorties, schedule aircraft, develop new organizational doctrines, and influence policy. We have worked on three projects that have helped AMC improve its modeling and decision making capabilities. Optimal Flight Planning. Currently Air Mobility simulation and optimization software packages depend on algorithms which iterate over three dimensional fuel flow tables to compute aircraft fuel consumption under changing flight conditions. When a high degree of fidelity is required, these algorithms use a large amount of memory and CPU time. We have modeled the rate of aircraft fuel consumption with respect to AC GrossWeight, Altitude and Airspeed. When implemented, this formula will decrease the amount of memory and CPU time needed to compute sortie fuel costs and cargo capacity values. We have also shown how this formula can be used in optimal control problems to find minimum costs flight plans. Tanker Basing Demand Mismatch Index. Since 1992, AMC has relied on a Tanker Basing/AR Demand Mismatch Index which aggregates tanker capacity and AR demand data into six regions. This index was criticized because there were large gradients along regional boundaries. Meanwhile tankers frequently cross regional boundaries to satisfy the demand for AR support. In response we developed continuous functions to score locations with respect to their proximity to demand for AR support as well as their

  2. Radiological Disaster Simulators for Field and Aerial Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    H. W. Clark, Jr

    2002-11-01

    Simulators have been developed to dramatically improve the fidelity of play for field monitors and aircraft participating in radiological disaster drills and exercises. Simulated radiological measurements for the current Global Positioning System (GPS) location are derived from realistic models of radiological consequences for accidents and malicious acts. The aerial version outputs analog pulses corresponding to the signal that would be produced by various NaI (Tl) detectors at that location. The field monitor version reports the reading for any make/model of survey instrument selected. Position simulation modes are included in the aerial and field versions. The aerial version can generate a flight path based on input parameters or import an externally generated sequence of latitude and longitude coordinates. The field version utilizes a map-based point and click/drag interface to generate individual or a sequence of evenly spaced instrument measurements.

  3. Exploration of Titan Using Vertical Lift Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. A.

    2001-01-01

    Autonomous vertical lift aerial vehicles (such as rotorcraft or powered-lift vehicles) hold considerable potential for supporting planetary science and exploration missions. Vertical lift aerial vehicles would have the following advantages/attributes for planetary exploration: (1) low-speed and low-altitude detailed aerial surveys; (2) remote-site sample return to lander platforms; (3) precision placement of scientific probes; (4) soft landing capability for vehicle reuse (multiple flights) and remote-site monitoring; (5) greater range, speed, and access to hazardous terrain than a surface rover; and (6) greater resolution of surface details than an orbiter or balloons. Exploration of Titan presents an excellent opportunity for the development and usage of such vehicles. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. A survey of synchronization methods for parallel computers

    SciTech Connect

    Dinning, A. )

    1989-07-01

    This article examines how traditional synchronization methods influence the design of MIMD multiprocessors. This particular class of architectures is one in which high-level synchronization plays an important role. Although vector processors, dataflow machines, and single instruction, multiple-data (SIMD) computers are highly synchronized, their synchronization is generally an explicit part of the control flow and is executed as part of every instruction. In MIMD multiprocessors, synchronization must occur on demand, so more sophisticated schemes are needed.

  5. Survey and analysis of multiresolution methods for turbulence data

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pulido, Jesus; Livescu, Daniel; Woodring, Jonathan; Ahrens, James; Hamann, Bernd

    2015-11-10

    This paper compares the effectiveness of various multi-resolution geometric representation methods, such as B-spline, Daubechies, Coiflet and Dual-tree wavelets, curvelets and surfacelets, to capture the structure of fully developed turbulence using a truncated set of coefficients. The turbulence dataset is obtained from a Direct Numerical Simulation of buoyancy driven turbulence on a 5123 mesh size, with an Atwood number, A = 0.05, and turbulent Reynolds number, Ret = 1800, and the methods are tested against quantities pertaining to both velocities and active scalar (density) fields and their derivatives, spectra, and the properties of constant density surfaces. The comparisons between themore » algorithms are given in terms of performance, accuracy, and compression properties. The results should provide useful information for multi-resolution analysis of turbulence, coherent feature extraction, compression for large datasets handling, as well as simulations algorithms based on multi-resolution methods. In conclusion, the final section provides recommendations for best decomposition algorithms based on several metrics related to computational efficiency and preservation of turbulence properties using a reduced set of coefficients.« less

  6. Survey and analysis of multiresolution methods for turbulence data

    SciTech Connect

    Pulido, Jesus; Livescu, Daniel; Woodring, Jonathan; Ahrens, James; Hamann, Bernd

    2015-11-10

    This paper compares the effectiveness of various multi-resolution geometric representation methods, such as B-spline, Daubechies, Coiflet and Dual-tree wavelets, curvelets and surfacelets, to capture the structure of fully developed turbulence using a truncated set of coefficients. The turbulence dataset is obtained from a Direct Numerical Simulation of buoyancy driven turbulence on a 5123 mesh size, with an Atwood number, A = 0.05, and turbulent Reynolds number, Ret = 1800, and the methods are tested against quantities pertaining to both velocities and active scalar (density) fields and their derivatives, spectra, and the properties of constant density surfaces. The comparisons between the algorithms are given in terms of performance, accuracy, and compression properties. The results should provide useful information for multi-resolution analysis of turbulence, coherent feature extraction, compression for large datasets handling, as well as simulations algorithms based on multi-resolution methods. In conclusion, the final section provides recommendations for best decomposition algorithms based on several metrics related to computational efficiency and preservation of turbulence properties using a reduced set of coefficients.

  7. A Comparison between Survey and Verbal Choice Methods of Identifying Potential Reinforcers among Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, David A; Therrien, Kelly; Wine, Byron

    2006-01-01

    Two methods of assessing preference for stimuli (i.e., potential reinforcers) were compared for adult administrative assistant employees. During Phase 1, a survey method and a verbal choice method of assessing preference for 6 stimuli were administered. During Phase 2, a coupon system was used to determine which categories of stimuli actually…

  8. A Comparison of Web-Based and Paper-Based Survey Methods: Testing Assumptions of Survey Mode and Response Cost

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenlaw, Corey; Brown-Welty, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Web-based surveys have become more prevalent in areas such as evaluation, research, and marketing research to name a few. The proliferation of these online surveys raises the question, how do response rates compare with traditional surveys and at what cost? This research explored response rates and costs for Web-based surveys, paper surveys, and…

  9. Using mark–recapture distance sampling methods on line transect surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burt, Louise M.; Borchers, David L.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Marques, Tigao A

    2014-01-01

    Synthesis and applications. Mark–recapture DS is a widely used method for estimating animal density and abundance when detection of animals at distance zero is not certain. Two observer configurations and three statistical models are described, and it is important to choose the most appropriate model for the observer configuration and target species in question. By way of making the methods more accessible to practicing ecologists, we describe the key ideas underlying MRDS methods, the sometimes subtle differences between them, and we illustrate these by applying different kinds of MRDS method to surveys of two different target species using different survey configurations.

  10. [Essential procedure and key methods for survey of traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Gong; Huang, Lu-qi; Xue, Da-yuan; Zhang, Xiao-bo

    2014-12-01

    The survey of traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources is the important component and one of the innovative aspects of the fourth national survey of the Chinese materia medica resources. China has rich traditional knowledge of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the comprehensive investigation of TCM traditional knowledge aims to promote conservation and sustainable use of Chinese materia medica resources. Building upon the field work of pilot investigations, this paper introduces the essential procedures and key methods for conducting the survey of traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources. The essential procedures are as follows. First is the preparation phrase. It is important to review all relevant literature and provide training to the survey teams so that they have clear understanding of the concept of traditional knowledge and master key survey methods. Second is the field investigation phrase. When conducting field investigations, survey teams should identify the traditional knowledge holders by using the 'snowball method', record the traditional knowledge after obtaining prior informed concerned from the traditional knowledge holders. Researchers should fill out the survey forms provided by the Technical Specification of the Fourth National Survey of Chinese Materia Medica Resources. Researchers should pay particular attention to the scope of traditional knowledge and the method of inheriting the knowledge, which are the key information for traditional knowledge holders and potential users to reach mutual agreed terms to achieve benefit sharing. Third is the data compilation and analysis phrase. Researchers should try to compile and edit the TCM traditional knowledge in accordance with intellectual property rights requirements so that the information collected through the national survey can serve as the basic data for the TCM traditional knowledge database. The key methods of the survey include regional

  11. A survey about methods dedicated to epistasis detection.

    PubMed

    Niel, Clément; Sinoquet, Christine; Dina, Christian; Rocheleau, Ghislain

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade, findings of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) improved our knowledge and understanding of disease genetics. To date, thousands of SNPs have been associated with diseases and other complex traits. Statistical analysis typically looks for association between a phenotype and a SNP taken individually via single-locus tests. However, geneticists admit this is an oversimplified approach to tackle the complexity of underlying biological mechanisms. Interaction between SNPs, namely epistasis, must be considered. Unfortunately, epistasis detection gives rise to analytic challenges since analyzing every SNP combination is at present impractical at a genome-wide scale. In this review, we will present the main strategies recently proposed to detect epistatic interactions, along with their operating principle. Some of these methods are exhaustive, such as multifactor dimensionality reduction, likelihood ratio-based tests or receiver operating characteristic curve analysis; some are non-exhaustive, such as machine learning techniques (random forests, Bayesian networks) or combinatorial optimization approaches (ant colony optimization, computational evolution system). PMID:26442103

  12. A survey about methods dedicated to epistasis detection

    PubMed Central

    Niel, Clément; Sinoquet, Christine; Dina, Christian; Rocheleau, Ghislain

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade, findings of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) improved our knowledge and understanding of disease genetics. To date, thousands of SNPs have been associated with diseases and other complex traits. Statistical analysis typically looks for association between a phenotype and a SNP taken individually via single-locus tests. However, geneticists admit this is an oversimplified approach to tackle the complexity of underlying biological mechanisms. Interaction between SNPs, namely epistasis, must be considered. Unfortunately, epistasis detection gives rise to analytic challenges since analyzing every SNP combination is at present impractical at a genome-wide scale. In this review, we will present the main strategies recently proposed to detect epistatic interactions, along with their operating principle. Some of these methods are exhaustive, such as multifactor dimensionality reduction, likelihood ratio-based tests or receiver operating characteristic curve analysis; some are non-exhaustive, such as machine learning techniques (random forests, Bayesian networks) or combinatorial optimization approaches (ant colony optimization, computational evolution system). PMID:26442103

  13. Estimation of walrus populations on sea ice with infrared imagery and aerial photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Udevitz, M.S.; Burn, D.M.; Webber, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Population sizes of ice-associated pinnipeds have often been estimated with visual or photographic aerial surveys, but these methods require relatively slow speeds and low altitudes, limiting the area they can cover. Recent developments in infrared imagery and its integration with digital photography could allow substantially larger areas to be surveyed and more accurate enumeration of individuals, thereby solving major problems with previous survey methods. We conducted a trial survey in April 2003 to estimate the number of Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) hauled out on sea ice around St. Lawrence Island, Alaska. The survey used high altitude infrared imagery to detect groups of walruses on strip transects. Low altitude digital photography was used to determine the number of walruses in a sample of detected groups and calibrate the infrared imagery for estimating the total number of walruses. We propose a survey design incorporating this approach with satellite radio telemetry to estimate the proportion of the population in the water and additional low-level flights to estimate the proportion of the hauled-out population in groups too small to be detected in the infrared imagery. We believe that this approach offers the potential for obtaining reliable population estimates for walruses and other ice-associated pinnipeds. ?? 2007 by the Society for Marine Mammalogy.

  14. The sky is the limit? 20 years of small-format aerial photography taken from UAS for monitoring geomorphological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzolff, Irene

    2014-05-01

    One hundred years after the first publication on aerial photography taken from unmanned aerial platforms (Arthur Batut 1890), small-format aerial photography (SFAP) became a distinct niche within remote sensing during the 1990s. Geographers, plant biologists, archaeologists and other researchers with geospatial interests re-discovered the usefulness of unmanned platforms for taking high-resolution, low-altitude photographs that could then be digitized and analysed with geographical information systems, (softcopy) photogrammetry and image processing techniques originally developed for digital satellite imagery. Even before the ubiquity of digital consumer-grade cameras and 3D analysis software accessible to the photogrammetric layperson, do-it-yourself remote sensing using kites, blimps, drones and micro air vehicles literally enabled the questing researcher to get their own pictures of the world. As a flexible, cost-effective method, SFAP offered images with high spatial and temporal resolutions that could be ideally adapted to the scales of landscapes, forms and distribution patterns to be monitored. During the last five years, this development has been significantly accelerated by the rapid technological advancements of GPS navigation, autopiloting and revolutionary softcopy-photogrammetry techniques. State-of-the-art unmanned aerial systems (UAS) now allow automatic flight planning, autopilot-controlled aerial surveys, ground control-free direct georeferencing and DEM plus orthophoto generation with centimeter accuracy, all within the space of one day. The ease of use of current UAS and processing software for the generation of high-resolution topographic datasets and spectacular visualizations is tempting and has spurred the number of publications on these issues - but which advancements in our knowledge and understanding of geomorphological processes have we seen and can we expect in the future? This presentation traces the development of the last two decades

  15. Aerial Photogrammetric Analysis of a Scree Slope and Cliff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, Greg; Galland, Olivier; Mair, Karen

    2014-05-01

    Mapping the physical features of landslide tracks provides information about factors controlling landslide movement. The increasing availability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) provides the opportunity to efficiently and cost effectively map terrain. The main goal of this field study is to create a streamlined work-flow from acquisition to interpretation for the photogrammetric analysis of landslide tracks. Here an open source software package MicMac is used for ortho-image and point-cloud creation. A series of two flights were conducted over a scree (rockfall) slope in Kolsas, Norway. The slope runs roughly 500 m north-south with a maximum width of 60 m. A cliff to the west is the source area for the scree. The cliff consists of conglomerate, basalt, and porphyry from bottom to top respectively. The grain size of boulders in the scree slope apparently varies due to lateral differences in the cliff composition. The flights were completed under cloud cover and consisted of multiple lengthwise passes over the scree field. There was a minimum of 75% overlap between images. During the first flight the altitude was roughly 100 m, the camera was positioned normal to the scree (60 degrees from horizontal), and the resolution was 2.7 cm per pixel. The second flight had an altitude of 200 m, the camera orientation was 30 degrees from horizontal, and the resolution was 4.0 cm per pixel. Using the Micmac engine, Ortho-photos and Digital Elevation Models (DEM) were created for both the scree and the cliff. This data will allow for analysis of grain-size, surface roughness, grain-shape, fracture plane orientation, as well as geological mapping. Further work will focus the quantitative assessment of the significance different camera altitudes and angles have on the results. The work-flow used in this study provides a repeatable method for aerial photogrammetric surveys of scree slopes.

  16. Survey of sodium removal methods: LMFBR conceptual design study, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    1981-09-01

    At the project design review of the nuclear island maintenance on May 5, 1981, DOE requested a survey of current sodium cleaning methods and facilities. Stone & Webster provided a plan and schedule for providing this survey. This plan was approved by Boeing Engineering and Construction Company. The purpose of this survey is to document the sodium removal technology and experience as it relates to the CDS Large Developmental Plant, summarize the information, and provide a prospective for the CDS project. The recommendations generated are intended to provide input for a design and layout review of the Nuclear Island Maintenance Building (NIMB).

  17. Low-Altitude Coastal Aerial Photogrammetry for High-Resolution Seabed Imaging and Habitat Mapping of Shallow Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alevizos, E.

    2012-04-01

    This paper explores the application of Kite Aerial Photography at the coastal environment along with digital photogrammetry for seabed geomorphological mapping. This method takes advantage of sea-water clearance that allows the transmission of sunlight through the water column and backscatter of seabed reflection under certain conditions of sunlight, weather and sea state. We analyze the procedure of acquisition, processing and interpretation of kite aerial imagery from the sub-littoral zone up to 5 meters depth. Using a calibrated non-metric digital compact camera we managed to acquire several vertical aerial images from two coastal sites in the Attica Peninsula (Greece) covering an area of approximately 200x100 meters. Both sites express significant geomorphological variability and they have a relatively smooth slope profile. For the photogrammetric processing we acquired topographic and bathymetric survey simultaneously with Kite Aerial Photography using a portable GPS of sub-meter accuracy. In order to deal with bottom control measurements we developed Bottom Control Points which were placed on the seabed. These act like the Ground Control Points and they can be easily deployed in the marine environment. The processing included interior and exterior orientation as well as ortho-rectification of images. This produced final orthomosaics for each site at scales 1:500 - 1:1500 with a resolution of a few centimeters. Interpretation of the seabed was based on color and texture features of certain areas with explicit seabed reflectivity and was supported by underwater photographs for ground truthing. At the final stage of image analysis, we recognized the boundaries (contrasting reflectivity) between different bottom types and digitized them as 2D objects using GIS. Concluding, this project emphasizes on the advantages and physical restrictions of Kite Aerial Photography in mapping small-scale geomorphological features in coastal, estuarine and lagoonal environments

  18. Conditional pseudolikelihood methods for clustered ordinal, multinomial, or count outcomes with complex survey data.

    PubMed

    Brumback, Babette A; Cai, Zhuangyu; He, Zhulin; Zheng, Hao W; Dailey, Amy B

    2013-04-15

    In order to adjust individual-level covariate effects for confounding due to unmeasured neighborhood characteristics, we have recently developed conditional pseudolikelihood methods to estimate the parameters of a proportional odds model for clustered ordinal outcomes with complex survey data. The methods require sampling design joint probabilities for each within-neighborhood pair. In the present article, we develop a similar methodology for a baseline category logit model for clustered multinomial outcomes and for a loglinear model for clustered count outcomes. All of the estimators and asymptotic sampling distributions we present can be conveniently computed using standard logistic regression software for complex survey data, such as sas proc surveylogistic. We demonstrate validity of the methods theoretically and also empirically by using simulations. We apply the new method for clustered multinomial outcomes to data from the 2008 Florida Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey in order to investigate disparities in frequency of dental cleaning both unadjusted and adjusted for confounding by neighborhood. PMID:22976045

  19. U. S. Department of Energy Aerial Measuring Systems

    SciTech Connect

    J. J. Lease

    1998-10-01

    The Aerial Measuring Systems (AMS) is an aerial surveillance system. This system consists of remote sensing equipment to include radiation detectors; multispectral, thermal, radar, and laser scanners; precision cameras; and electronic imaging and still video systems. This equipment, in varying combinations, is mounted in an airplane or helicopter and flown at different heights in specific patterns to gather various types of data. This system is a key element in the US Department of Energy's (DOE) national emergency response assets. The mission of the AMS program is twofold--first, to respond to emergencies involving radioactive materials by conducting aerial surveys to rapidly track and map the contamination that may exist over a large ground area and second, to conduct routinely scheduled, aerial surveys for environmental monitoring and compliance purposes through the use of credible science and technology. The AMS program evolved from an early program, begun by a predecessor to the DOE--the Atomic Energy Commission--to map the radiation that may have existed within and around the terrestrial environments of DOE facilities, which produced, used, or stored radioactive materials.

  20. Indigo snake capture methods: effectiveness of two survey techniques for Drymarchon couperi in Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyslop, N.L.; Meyers, J.M.; Cooper, R.J.; Stevenson, J.

    2009-01-01

    Drymarchon couperi (Eastern Indigo Snake), a federally threatened species of the southeastern Coastal Plain, has presented challenges for surveyors, with few reliable methods developed for its detection or monitoring. Surveys for D. couperi at potential underground shelters conducted in late fall through early spring have been relatively successful when conducted by experienced surveyors, especially in the northern portions of the range. However, trapping efforts for D. couperi conducted throughout the range have met with limited success. To further evaluate detection methods, we conducted trapping and surveying from December 2002 to April 2004 in areas known to support D. couperi in southeastern Georgia. We captured 18 D. couperi through surveys of potential underground shelters from December 2002 to March 2003 (14 person-hours per capture) and six individuals through trapping (141 trap days or 27 in-field person-hours per capture). Trapping was most successful during early fall, a period when surveys are often less effective compared to those conducted in late fall through early spring. We recommend a combination of surveys from mid-fall through March in conjunction with trapping, especially from late-summer through fall in the northern portions of the snake?s range. We also recommend further experimentation with alternative trap designs and survey methods for D. couperi.

  1. Error Estimation Techniques to Refine Overlapping Aerial Image Mosaic Processes via Detected Parameters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, William Glenn

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I propose to demonstrate a means of error estimation preprocessing in the assembly of overlapping aerial image mosaics. The mosaic program automatically assembles several hundred aerial images from a data set by aligning them, via image registration using a pattern search method, onto a GIS grid. The method presented first locates…

  2. Comparative analysis of different survey methods for monitoring fish assemblages in coastal habitats.

    PubMed

    Baker, Duncan G L; Eddy, Tyler D; McIver, Reba; Schmidt, Allison L; Thériault, Marie-Hélène; Boudreau, Monica; Courtenay, Simon C; Lotze, Heike K

    2016-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems are among the most productive yet increasingly threatened marine ecosystems worldwide. Particularly vegetated habitats, such as eelgrass (Zostera marina) beds, play important roles in providing key spawning, nursery and foraging habitats for a wide range of fauna. To properly assess changes in coastal ecosystems and manage these critical habitats, it is essential to develop sound monitoring programs for foundation species and associated assemblages. Several survey methods exist, thus understanding how different methods perform is important for survey selection. We compared two common methods for surveying macrofaunal assemblages: beach seine netting and underwater visual census (UVC). We also tested whether assemblages in shallow nearshore habitats commonly sampled by beach seines are similar to those of nearby eelgrass beds often sampled by UVC. Among five estuaries along the Southern Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada, our results suggest that the two survey methods yield comparable results for species richness, diversity and evenness, yet beach seines yield significantly higher abundance and different species composition. However, sampling nearshore assemblages does not represent those in eelgrass beds despite considerable overlap and close proximity. These results have important implications for how and where macrofaunal assemblages are monitored in coastal ecosystems. Ideally, multiple survey methods and locations should be combined to complement each other in assessing the entire assemblage and full range of changes in coastal ecosystems, thereby better informing coastal zone management. PMID:27018396

  3. Comparative analysis of different survey methods for monitoring fish assemblages in coastal habitats

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Duncan G.L.; McIver, Reba; Schmidt, Allison L.; Thériault, Marie-Hélène; Boudreau, Monica; Courtenay, Simon C.; Lotze, Heike K.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems are among the most productive yet increasingly threatened marine ecosystems worldwide. Particularly vegetated habitats, such as eelgrass (Zostera marina) beds, play important roles in providing key spawning, nursery and foraging habitats for a wide range of fauna. To properly assess changes in coastal ecosystems and manage these critical habitats, it is essential to develop sound monitoring programs for foundation species and associated assemblages. Several survey methods exist, thus understanding how different methods perform is important for survey selection. We compared two common methods for surveying macrofaunal assemblages: beach seine netting and underwater visual census (UVC). We also tested whether assemblages in shallow nearshore habitats commonly sampled by beach seines are similar to those of nearby eelgrass beds often sampled by UVC. Among five estuaries along the Southern Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada, our results suggest that the two survey methods yield comparable results for species richness, diversity and evenness, yet beach seines yield significantly higher abundance and different species composition. However, sampling nearshore assemblages does not represent those in eelgrass beds despite considerable overlap and close proximity. These results have important implications for how and where macrofaunal assemblages are monitored in coastal ecosystems. Ideally, multiple survey methods and locations should be combined to complement each other in assessing the entire assemblage and full range of changes in coastal ecosystems, thereby better informing coastal zone management. PMID:27018396

  4. Informetric Theories and Methods for Exploring the Internet: An Analytical Survey of Recent Research Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar-Ilan, Judit; Peritz, Bluma C.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a selective review of research based on the Internet, using bibliometric and informetric methods and tools. Highlights include data collection methods on the Internet, including surveys, logging, and search engines; and informetric analysis, including citation analysis and content analysis. (Contains 78 references.) (Author/LRW)

  5. Google Street View as an alternative method to car surveys in large-scale vegetation assessments.

    PubMed

    Deus, Ernesto; Silva, Joaquim S; Catry, Filipe X; Rocha, Miguel; Moreira, Francisco

    2015-10-01

    Car surveys (CS) are a common method for assessing the distribution of alien invasive plants. Google Street View (GSV), a free-access web technology where users may experience a virtual travel along roads, has been suggested as a cost-effective alternative to car surveys. We tested if we could replicate the results from a countrywide survey conducted by car in Portugal using GSV as a remote sensing tool, aiming at assessing the distribution of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. wildlings on roadsides adjacent to eucalypt stands. Georeferenced points gathered along CS were used to create road transects visible as lines overlapping the road in GSV environment, allowing surveying the same sampling areas using both methods. This paper presents the results of the comparison between the two methods. Both methods produced similar models of plant abundance, selecting the same explanatory variables, in the same hierarchical order of importance and depicting a similar influence on plant abundance. Even though the GSV model had a lower performance and the GSV survey detected fewer plants, additional variables collected exclusively with GSV improved model performance and provided a new insight into additional factors influencing plant abundance. The survey using GSV required ca. 9 % of the funds and 62 % of the time needed to accomplish the CS. We conclude that GSV may be a cost-effective alternative to CS. We discuss some advantages and limitations of GSV as a survey method. We forecast that GSV may become a widespread tool in road ecology, particularly in large-scale vegetation assessments. PMID:27624742

  6. Fusion of monocular cues to detect man-made structures in aerial imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shufelt, Jefferey; Mckeown, David M.

    1991-01-01

    The extraction of buildings from aerial imagery is a complex problem for automated computer vision. It requires locating regions in a scene that possess properties distinguishing them as man-made objects as opposed to naturally occurring terrain features. It is reasonable to assume that no single detection method can correctly delineate or verify buildings in every scene. A cooperative-methods paradigm is useful in approaching the building extraction problem. Using this paradigm, each extraction technique provides information which can be added or assimilated into an overall interpretation of the scene. Thus, the main objective is to explore the development of computer vision system that integrates the results of various scene analysis techniques into an accurate and robust interpretation of the underlying three dimensional scene. The problem of building hypothesis fusion in aerial imagery is discussed. Building extraction techniques are briefly surveyed, including four building extraction, verification, and clustering systems. A method for fusing the symbolic data generated by these systems is described, and applied to monocular image and stereo image data sets. Evaluation methods for the fusion results are described, and the fusion results are analyzed using these methods.

  7. An aerial sightability model for estimating ferruginous hawk population size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayers, L.W.; Anderson, S.H.

    1999-01-01

    Most raptor aerial survey projects have focused on numeric description of visibility bias without identifying the contributing factors or developing predictive models to account for imperfect detection rates. Our goal was to develop a sightability model for nesting ferruginous hawks (Buteo regalis) that could account for nests missed during aerial surveys and provide more accurate population estimates. Eighteen observers, all unfamiliar with nest locations in a known population, searched for nests within 300 m of flight transects via a Maule fixed-wing aircraft. Flight variables tested for their influence on nest-detection rates included aircraft speed, height, direction of travel, time of day, light condition, distance to nest, and observer experience level. Nest variables included status (active vs. inactive), condition (i.e., excellent, good, fair, poor, bad), substrate type, topography, and tree density. A multiple logistic regression model identified nest substrate type, distance to nest, and observer experience level as significant predictors of detection rates (P < 0.05). The overall model was significant (??26 = 124.4, P < 0.001, n = 255 nest observations), and the correct classification rate was 78.4%. During 2 validation surveys, observers saw 23.7% (14/59) and 36.5% (23/63) of the actual population. Sightability model predictions, with 90% confidence intervals, captured the true population in both tests. Our results indicate standardized aerial surveys, when used in conjunction with the predictive sightability model, can provide unbiased population estimates for nesting ferruginous hawks.

  8. Environmental waste site characterization utilizing aerial photographs, remote sensing, and surface geophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, P.; Van Eeckhout, E.; Rofer, C.; Baldridge, S.; Ferguson, J.; Jiracek, G.; Balick, L.; Josten, N.; Carpenter, M.

    1996-04-18

    Six different techniques were used to delineate 40 year old trench boundary at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Data from historical aerial photographs, a magnetic gradient survey, airborne multispectral and thermal infra-red imagery, seismic refraction, DC resistivity, and total field magnetometry were utilized in this process. Each data set indicated a southern and northern edge for the trench. Average locations and 95% confidence limits for each edge were determined along a survey line perpendicular to the trench. Trench edge locations were fairly consistent among all six techniques. Results from a modeling effort performed with the total magnetic field data was the least consistent. However, each method provided unique and complementary information, and the integration of all this information led to a more complete characterization of the trench boundaries and contents.

  9. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) associated DTM quality evaluation and hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Mei-Jen; Chen, Shao-Der; Chao, Yu-Jui; Chiang, Yi-Lin; Chang, Kuo-Jen

    2014-05-01

    Taiwan, due to the high seismicity and high annual rainfall, numerous landslides triggered every year and severe impacts affect the island. Concerning to the catastrophic landslides, the key information of landslide, including range of landslide, volume estimation and the subsequent evolution are important when analyzing the triggering mechanism, hazard assessment and mitigation. Thus, the morphological analysis gives a general overview for the landslides and been considered as one of the most fundamental information. We try to integrate several technologies, especially by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and multi-spectral camera, to decipher the consequence and the potential hazard, and the social impact. In recent years, the remote sensing technology improves rapidly, providing a wide range of image, essential and precious information. Benefited of the advancing of informatics, remote-sensing and electric technologies, the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry mas been improve significantly. The study tries to integrate several methods, including, 1) Remote-sensing images gathered by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and by aerial photos taken in different periods; 2) field in-situ geologic investigation; 3) Differential GPS, RTK GPS and Ground LiDAR field in-site geoinfomatics measurements; 4) Construct the DTMs before and after landslide, as well as the subsequent periods using UAV and aerial photos; 5) Discrete element method should be applied to understand the geomaterial composing the slope failure, for predicting earthquake-induced and rainfall-induced landslides displacement. First at all, we evaluate the Microdrones MD4-1000 UAV airphotos derived Digital Terrain Model (DTM). The ground resolution of the DSM point cloud of could be as high as 10 cm. By integrated 4 ground control point within an area of 56 hectares, compared with LiDAR DSM and filed RTK-GPS surveying, the mean error is as low as 6cm with a standard deviation of 17cm. The quality of the

  10. Hierarchical Methods for the Generation, Publication and Visualization of Huge Astronomical Data Cube Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernique, P.; Allen, M.; Boch, T.; Bonnarel, F.; Oberto, A.

    2015-09-01

    The CDS has developed and validated new methods to generate, publish and display huge astronomical image data cubes based on the Hierarchical Progressive Survey (HiPS) framework. Data cubes with two spatial dimensions and an additional spectral or temporal dimension can be mapped onto HEALPix grids at different resolutions, which supports zooming and panning of the data across the sky with the ability to explore the third dimension of the cube. These methods are successfully applied to different sorts of cube data, and surveys of cube data.

  11. Compilation of field methods used in geochemical prospecting by the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lakin, Hubert William; Ward, Frederick Norville; Almond, Hy

    1952-01-01

    The field methods described in this report are those currently used in geochemical prospecting by the U. S. Geological Survey. Some have been published, others are being processed for publication, while others are still being investigated. The purpose in compiling these methods is to make them readily available in convenient form. The methods have not been thoroughly tested and none is wholly satisfactory. Research is being continued.

  12. A comparison of web-based and paper-based survey methods: testing assumptions of survey mode and response cost.

    PubMed

    Greenlaw, Corey; Brown-Welty, Sharon

    2009-10-01

    Web-based surveys have become more prevalent in areas such as evaluation, research, and marketing research to name a few. The proliferation of these online surveys raises the question, how do response rates compare with traditional surveys and at what cost? This research explored response rates and costs for Web-based surveys, paper surveys, and mixed-mode surveys. The participants included evaluators from the American Evaluation Association (AEA). Results included that mixed-mode, while more expensive, had higher response rates. PMID:19605623

  13. Dynamics of aerial target pursuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, S.

    2015-12-01

    During pursuit and predation, aerial species engage in multitasking behavior that involve simultaneous target detection, tracking, decision-making, approach and capture. The mobility of the pursuer and the target in a three dimensional environment during predation makes the capture task highly complex. Many researchers have studied and analyzed prey capture dynamics in different aerial species such as insects and bats. This article focuses on reviewing the capture strategies adopted by these species while relying on different sensory variables (vision and acoustics) for navigation. In conclusion, the neural basis of these capture strategies and some applications of these strategies in bio-inspired navigation and control of engineered systems are discussed.

  14. AERIAL OF VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING & SURROUNDING AREA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    AERIAL OF VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING & SURROUNDING AREA KSC-377C-0082.41 116-KSC-377C-82.41, P-15877, ARCHIVE-04151 Aerial view - Shuttle construction progress - VAB and Orbiter Processing Facilities - direction northwest.

  15. Wildlife Multispecies Remote Sensing Using Visible and Thermal Infrared Imagery Acquired from AN Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (uav)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrétien, L.-P.; Théau, J.; Ménard, P.

    2015-08-01

    Wildlife aerial surveys require time and significant resources. Multispecies detection could reduce costs to a single census for species that coexist spatially. Traditional methods are demanding for observers in terms of concentration and are not adapted to multispecies censuses. The processing of multispectral aerial imagery acquired from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) represents a potential solution for multispecies detection. The method used in this study is based on a multicriteria object-based image analysis applied on visible and thermal infrared imagery acquired from a UAV. This project aimed to detect American bison, fallow deer, gray wolves, and elks located in separate enclosures with a known number of individuals. Results showed that all bison and elks were detected without errors, while for deer and wolves, 0-2 individuals per flight line were mistaken with ground elements or undetected. This approach also detected simultaneously and separately the four targeted species even in the presence of other untargeted ones. These results confirm the potential of multispectral imagery acquired from UAV for wildlife census. Its operational application remains limited to small areas related to the current regulations and available technology. Standardization of the workflow will help to reduce time and expertise requirements for such technology.

  16. Tests of smoothing methods for topological study of galaxy redshift surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melott, Adrian L.; Dominik, Kurt G.

    1993-01-01

    Studying the topology of large-scale structure as a way to better understand initial conditions has become more widespread in recent years. Studying topology of simulations (which have periodic boundary conditions) in redshift space produces results compatible with the real topological characteristics of the simulation. Thus we expect we can extract useful information from redshift surveys. However, with nonperiodic boundary conditions, the use of smoothing must result in the loss of information at survey boundaries. In this paper, we test different methods of smoothing samples with nonperiodic boundary conditions to see which most efficiently preserves the topological features of the real distribution. We find that a smoothing method which (unlike most previous published analysis) sums only over cells inside the survey volume produces the best results among the schemes tested.

  17. A rapid method of grading cataract in epidemiological studies and eye surveys.

    PubMed Central

    Mehra, V; Minassian, D C

    1988-01-01

    A rapid method of grading clinically important central lens opacities has been developed for use in eye surveys and in epidemiological studies of cataract and has been field-tested in a specifically designed observer agreement study in a survey of a rural community in Central India. The grading method is based on simple measurement of the area of lens opacity that obscures the red reflex relative to the area of clear red reflex, as visualised through the undilated normal pupil. Good to almost perfect agreements were attained between two ophthalmologists and two trained ophthalmic assistants for overall grades of central lens opacity. Most disagreements were trivial in nature and were concerned with difficulties in distinguishing grade 0 from grade 1, and with hazy appearance of the red reflex in high myopes and in cases of early nuclear sclerosis. Teaching materials including video tape and slides for training survey teams and other workers are in preparation. PMID:3207653

  18. Experimental Methods to Evaluate Science Utility Relative to the Decadal Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Widergren, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    The driving factor for competed missions is the science that it plans on performing once it has reached its target body. These science goals are derived from the science recommended by the most current Decadal Survey. This work focuses on science goals in previous Venus mission proposals with respect to the 2013 Decadal Survey. By looking at how the goals compare to the survey and how much confidence NASA has in the mission's ability to accomplish these goals, a method was created to assess the science return utility of each mission. This method can be used as a tool for future Venus mission formulation and serves as a starting point for future development of create science utility assessment tools.

  19. Aeronautic Instruments. Section VI : Aerial Navigation and Navigating Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, H N

    1923-01-01

    This report outlines briefly the methods of aerial navigation which have been developed during the past few years, with a description of the different instruments used. Dead reckoning, the most universal method of aerial navigation, is first discussed. Then follows an outline of the principles of navigation by astronomical observation; a discussion of the practical use of natural horizons, such as sea, land, and cloud, in making extant observations; the use of artificial horizons, including the bubble, pendulum, and gyroscopic types. A description is given of the recent development of the radio direction finder and its application to navigation.

  20. Aeolic vibration of aerial electricity transmission cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, A.; Rodriguez-Vera, Ramon; Rayas, Juan A.; Barrientos, Bernardino

    2005-02-01

    A feasibility study for amplitude and frequency vibration measurement in aerial electricity transmission cable has been made. This study was carried out incorporating a fringe projection method for the experimental part and horizontal taut string model for theoretical one. However, this kind of model ignores some inherent properties such as cable sag and cable inclination. Then, this work reports advances on aeolic vibration considering real cables. Catenary and sag are considered in our theoretical model in such a way that an optical theodolite for measuring has been used. Preliminary measurements of the catenary as well as numerical simulation of a sagged cable vibration are given.

  1. Robust crack detection strategies for aerial inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldea, Emanuel; Le Hégarat, Sylvie

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we evaluate the relevance of current state of the art algorithms widely employed in the detection of cracks, for the specific context of aerial inspection, which is characterized by image quality degradation. In this study we focus on minimal cost path and on Marked Point Process algorithms, and we test their resilience to motion blur. The results show that the current strategies for defect detection are sensitive to the quality of input images; alternatively, we suggest some improvements based on a-contrario methods that are able to cope with significant motion blur.

  2. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... lift, except in case of emergency. (x) Climbers shall not be worn while performing work from an aerial... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aerial lifts. 1926.453 Section 1926.453 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Scaffolds § 1926.453 Aerial lifts. (a)...

  3. Methods of Gas Phase Capture of Iodine from Fuel Reprocessing Off-Gas: A Literature Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Daryl Haefner

    2007-02-01

    A literature survey was conducted to collect information and summarize the methods available to capture iodine from fuel reprocessing off-gases. Techniques were categorized as either wet scrubbing or solid adsorbent methods, and each method was generally described as it might be used under reprocessing conditions. Decontamination factors are quoted only to give a rough indication of the effectiveness of the method. No attempt is made to identify a preferred capture method at this time, although activities are proposed that would provide a consistent baseline that would aid in evaluating technologies.

  4. Efficient pedestrian detection from aerial vehicles with object proposals and deep convolutional neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minnehan, Breton; Savakis, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    As Unmanned Aerial Systems grow in numbers, pedestrian detection from aerial platforms is becoming a topic of increasing importance. By providing greater contextual information and a reduced potential for occlusion, the aerial vantage point provided by Unmanned Aerial Systems is highly advantageous for many surveillance applications, such as target detection, tracking, and action recognition. However, due to the greater distance between the camera and scene, targets of interest in aerial imagery are generally smaller and have less detail. Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN's) have demonstrated excellent object classification performance and in this paper we adopt them to the problem of pedestrian detection from aerial platforms. We train a CNN with five layers consisting of three convolution-pooling layers and two fully connected layers. We also address the computational inefficiencies of the sliding window method for object detection. In the sliding window configuration, a very large number of candidate patches are generated from each frame, while only a small number of them contain pedestrians. We utilize the Edge Box object proposal generation method to screen candidate patches based on an "objectness" criterion, so that only regions that are likely to contain objects are processed. This method significantly reduces the number of image patches processed by the neural network and makes our classification method very efficient. The resulting two-stage system is a good candidate for real-time implementation onboard modern aerial vehicles. Furthermore, testing on three datasets confirmed that our system offers high detection accuracy for terrestrial pedestrian detection in aerial imagery.

  5. Survey of spatial data needs and land use forecasting methods in the electric utility industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A representative sample of the electric utility industry in the United States was surveyed to determine industry need for spatial data (specifically LANDSAT and other remotely sensed data) and the methods used by the industry to forecast land use changes and future energy demand. Information was acquired through interviews, written questionnaires, and reports (both published and internal).

  6. EVALUATION OF A MEASUREMENT METHOD FOR FOREST VEGETATION IN A LARGE-SCALE ECOLOGICAL SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluate a field method for determining species richness and canopy cover of vascular plants for the Forest Health Monitoring Program (FHM), an ecological survey of U.S. forests. Measurements are taken within 12 1-m2 quadrats on 1/15 ha plots in FHM. Species richness and cover...

  7. Random Qualitative Validation: A Mixed-Methods Approach to Survey Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Duzer, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the process and value of Random Qualitative Validation (RQV) in the development and interpretation of survey data. RQV is a method of gathering clarifying qualitative data that improves the validity of the quantitative analysis. This paper is concerned with validity in relation to the participants'…

  8. A Survey of Singular Value Decomposition Methods and Performance Comparison of Some Available Serial Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plassman, Gerald E.

    2005-01-01

    This contractor report describes a performance comparison of available alternative complete Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) methods and implementations which are suitable for incorporation into point spread function deconvolution algorithms. The report also presents a survey of alternative algorithms, including partial SVD's special case SVD's, and others developed for concurrent processing systems.

  9. Examining Stress in Graduate Assistants: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Survey Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzola, Joseph J.; Walker, Erin J.; Shockley, Kristen M.; Spector, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to employ qualitative and quantitative survey methods in a concurrent mixed model design to assess stressors and strains in graduate assistants. The stressors most frequently reported qualitatively were work overload, interpersonal conflict, and organizational constraints; the most frequently reported psychological…

  10. Methods of estimating or accounting for neighborhood associations with health using complex survey data.

    PubMed

    Brumback, Babette A; Cai, Zhuangyu; Dailey, Amy B

    2014-05-15

    Reasons for health disparities may include neighborhood-level factors, such as availability of health services, social norms, and environmental determinants, as well as individual-level factors. Investigating health inequalities using nationally or locally representative data often requires an approach that can accommodate a complex sampling design, in which individuals have unequal probabilities of selection into the study. The goal of the present article is to review and compare methods of estimating or accounting for neighborhood influences with complex survey data. We considered 3 types of methods, each generalized for use with complex survey data: ordinary regression, conditional likelihood regression, and generalized linear mixed-model regression. The relative strengths and weaknesses of each method differ from one study to another; we provide an overview of the advantages and disadvantages of each method theoretically, in terms of the nature of the estimable associations and the plausibility of the assumptions required for validity, and also practically, via a simulation study and 2 epidemiologic data analyses. The first analysis addresses determinants of repeat mammography screening use using data from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey. The second analysis addresses disparities in preventive oral health care using data from the 2008 Florida Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey. PMID:24723000

  11. Analysis of method of polarization surveying of water surface oil pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhukov, B. S.

    1979-01-01

    A method of polarization surveying of oil films on the water surface is analyzed. Model calculations of contrasted oil and water obtained with different orientations of the analyzer are discussed. The model depends on the spectral range, water transparency and oil film, and the selection of observational direction.

  12. Reconnaissance mapping from aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeden, H. A.; Bolling, N. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Engineering soil and geology maps were successfully made from Pennsylvania aerial photographs taken at scales from 1:4,800 to 1:60,000. The procedure involved a detailed study of a stereoscopic model while evaluating landform, drainage, erosion, color or gray tones, tone and texture patterns, vegetation, and cultural or land use patterns.

  13. Survey of systems safety analysis methods and their application to nuclear waste management systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pelto, P.J.; Winegardner, W.K.; Gallucci, R.H.V.

    1981-11-01

    This report reviews system safety analysis methods and examines their application to nuclear waste management systems. The safety analysis methods examined include expert opinion, maximum credible accident approach, design basis accidents approach, hazard indices, preliminary hazards analysis, failure modes and effects analysis, fault trees, event trees, cause-consequence diagrams, G0 methodology, Markov modeling, and a general category of consequence analysis models. Previous and ongoing studies on the safety of waste management systems are discussed along with their limitations and potential improvements. The major safety methods and waste management safety related studies are surveyed. This survey provides information on what safety methods are available, what waste management safety areas have been analyzed, and what are potential areas for future study.

  14. Applications of numerical optimization methods to helicopter design problems: A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miura, H.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of applications of mathematical programming methods is used to improve the design of helicopters and their components. Applications of multivariable search techniques in the finite dimensional space are considered. Five categories of helicopter design problems are considered: (1) conceptual and preliminary design, (2) rotor-system design, (3) airframe structures design, (4) control system design, and (5) flight trajectory planning. Key technical progress in numerical optimization methods relevant to rotorcraft applications are summarized.

  15. Applications of numerical optimization methods to helicopter design problems - A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miura, H.

    1985-01-01

    A survey of applications of mathematical programming methods is used to improve the design of helicopters and their components. Applications of multivariable search techniques in the finite dimensional space are considered. Five categories of helicopter design problems are considered: (1) conceptual and preliminary design, (2) rotor-system design, (3) airframe structures design, (4) control system design, and (5) flight trajectory planning. Key technical progress in numerical optimization methods relevant to rotorcraft applications are summarized.

  16. Applications of numerical optimization methods to helicopter design problems - A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miura, H.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of applications of mathematical programming methods is used to improve the design of helicopters and their components. Applications of multivariable search techniques in the finite dimensional space are considered. Five categories of helicopter design problems are considered: (1) conceptual and preliminary design, (2) rotor-system design, (3) airframe structures design, (4) control system design, and (5) flight trajectory planning. Key technical progress in numerical optimization methods relevant to rotorcraft applications are summarized.

  17. Moving Obstacle Avoidance for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yucong

    There has been a vast increase in applications of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in civilian domains. To operate in the civilian airspace, a UAV must be able to sense and avoid both static and moving obstacles for flight safety. While indoor and low-altitude environments are mainly occupied by static obstacles, risks in space of higher altitude primarily come from moving obstacles such as other aircraft or flying vehicles in the airspace. Therefore, the ability to avoid moving obstacles becomes a necessity for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Towards enabling a UAV to autonomously sense and avoid moving obstacles, this thesis makes the following contributions. Initially, an image-based reactive motion planner is developed for a quadrotor to avoid a fast approaching obstacle. Furthermore, A Dubin's curve based geometry method is developed as a global path planner for a fixed-wing UAV to avoid collisions with aircraft. The image-based method is unable to produce an optimal path and the geometry method uses a simplified UAV model. To compensate these two disadvantages, a series of algorithms built upon the Closed-Loop Rapid Exploratory Random Tree are developed as global path planners to generate collision avoidance paths in real time. The algorithms are validated in Software-In-the-Loop (SITL) and Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) simulations using a fixed-wing UAV model and in real flight experiments using quadrotors. It is observed that the algorithm enables a UAV to avoid moving obstacles approaching to it with different directions and speeds.

  18. A field trial of a survey method for estimating the coverage of selective feeding programmes.

    PubMed Central

    Myatt, Mark; Feleke, Teshome; Sadler, Kate; Collins, Steve

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test a survey method for estimating the coverage of selective feeding programmes in humanitarian emergencies. METHODS: The trial survey used a stratified design with strata that were defined using the centric systematic area sample method. Thirty 100 km2 quadrats were sampled. The communities located closest to the centre of each quadrat were sampled using a case-finding approach. FINDINGS: The method proved simple and rapid to implement and allowed overall and per-quadrat coverage to be estimated. Overall coverage was 20.0% (95% confidence intervals, 13.8-26.3%). Per-quadrat coverage ranged from zero (in nine quadrats) to 50% (in one quadrat). Coverage was highest in the quadrats closest to therapeutic feeding centres and in quadrats containing major roads leading to the towns in which therapeutic feeding centres were located. CONCLUSION: The method should be used, in preference to WHO Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI)-derived survey methods, for estimating the coverage of selective feeding programmes. Its use should also be considered when evaluating the coverage of other selective entry programmes or when coverage is likely to be spatially inhomogeneous. PMID:15682245

  19. The Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2012: Rationale, Methods, Description of Participants, and Response Rates

    PubMed Central

    Waruiru, Wanjiru; Kim, Andrea A.; Kimanga, Davies O.; Ng’ang’a, James; Schwarcz, Sandra; Kimondo, Lucy; Ng’ang’a, Anne; Umuro, Mamo; Mwangi, Mary; Ojwang’, James K.; Maina, William K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cross-sectional population-based surveys are essential surveillance tools for tracking changes in HIV epidemics. In 2007, Kenya implemented the first AIDS Indicator Survey [Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS) 2007)], a nationally representative, population-based survey that collected demographic and behavioral data and blood specimens from individuals aged 15–64 years. Kenya’s second AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2012) was conducted to monitor changes in the epidemic, evaluate HIV prevention, care, and treatment initiatives, and plan for an efficient and effective response to the HIV epidemic. Methods KAIS 2012 was a cross-sectional 2-stage cluster sampling design, household-based HIV serologic survey that collected information on households as well as demographic and behavioral data from Kenyans aged 18 months to 64 years. Participants also provided blood samples for HIV serology and other related tests at the National HIV Reference Laboratory. Results Among 9300 households sampled, 9189 (98.8%) were eligible for the survey. Of the eligible households, 8035 (87.4%) completed household-level questionnaires. Of 16,383 eligible individuals aged 15–64 years and emancipated minors aged less than 15 years in these households, 13,720 (83.7%) completed interviews; 11,626 (84.7%) of the interviewees provided a blood specimen. Of 6302 eligible children aged 18 months to 14 years, 4340 (68.9%) provided a blood specimen. Of the 2094 eligible children aged 10–14 years, 1661 (79.3%) completed interviews. Conclusions KAIS 2012 provided representative data to inform a strategic response to the HIV epidemic in the country. PMID:24732819

  20. Simulated likelihood methods for complex double-platform line transect surveys.

    PubMed

    Schweder, T; Skaug, H J; Langaas, M; Dimakos, X K

    1999-09-01

    The conventional line transect approach of estimating effective search width from the perpendicular distance distribution is inappropriate in certain types of surveys, e.g., when an unknown fraction of the animals on the track line is detected, the animals can be observed only at discrete points in time, there are errors in positional measurements, and covariate heterogeneity exists in detectability. For such situations a hazard probability framework for independent observer surveys is developed. The likelihood of the data, including observed positions of both initial and subsequent observations of animals, is established under the assumption of no measurement errors. To account for measurement errors and possibly other complexities, this likelihood is modified by a function estimated from extensive simulations. This general method of simulated likelihood is explained and the methodology applied to data from a double-platform survey of minke whales in the northeastern Atlantic in 1995. PMID:11314993

  1. The survey activities in whole Japan done by Tadataka Inou using the methods of Yoshitoki

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakoiwa, Eiichi

    2005-06-01

    In 2001, 207 sheets of copies of Japanese map were discovered in the Library of Congress of USA in Washington D.C. Those maps called "Daizu" were surveyed by Tadataka Inou who was a surveyor in Edo era. Last year, home coming exhibitions for those maps were held in all over Japan during one year. These highly accurate maps were surveyed by Tadataka Inou who entered into a private school of Yoshitoki Takahashi who was a governmental official regarding astronomy of the Edo shogunate using theory of astronomy and methods of surveying learned from Yoshitoki Inou completed these maps spending 3,727 days and traveling 39,000 km distance on foot.

  2. D Surface Generation from Aerial Thermal Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodaei, B.; Samadzadegan, F.; Dadras Javan, F.; Hasani, H.

    2015-12-01

    Aerial thermal imagery has been recently applied to quantitative analysis of several scenes. For the mapping purpose based on aerial thermal imagery, high accuracy photogrammetric process is necessary. However, due to low geometric resolution and low contrast of thermal imaging sensors, there are some challenges in precise 3D measurement of objects. In this paper the potential of thermal video in 3D surface generation is evaluated. In the pre-processing step, thermal camera is geometrically calibrated using a calibration grid based on emissivity differences between the background and the targets. Then, Digital Surface Model (DSM) generation from thermal video imagery is performed in four steps. Initially, frames are extracted from video, then tie points are generated by Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) algorithm. Bundle adjustment is then applied and the camera position and orientation parameters are determined. Finally, multi-resolution dense image matching algorithm is used to create 3D point cloud of the scene. Potential of the proposed method is evaluated based on thermal imaging cover an industrial area. The thermal camera has 640×480 Uncooled Focal Plane Array (UFPA) sensor, equipped with a 25 mm lens which mounted in the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The obtained results show the comparable accuracy of 3D model generated based on thermal images with respect to DSM generated from visible images, however thermal based DSM is somehow smoother with lower level of texture. Comparing the generated DSM with the 9 measured GCPs in the area shows the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) value is smaller than 5 decimetres in both X and Y directions and 1.6 meters for the Z direction.

  3. GPR survey, as one of the best geophysical methods for social and industrial needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernov, Anatolii

    2016-04-01

    This paper is about ways and methods of applying non-invasive geophysical method - Ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey in different spheres of science, industry, social life and culture. Author would like to show that geological methods could be widely used for solving great variety of industrial, human safety and other problems. In that article, we take GPR survey as an example of such useful geophysical methods. It is a fact that investigation of near surface underground medium is important process, which influence on development of different spheres of science and social life: investigation of near surface geology (layering, spreading of rock types, identification of voids, etc.), hydrogeology (depth to water horizons, their thickness), preparation step for construction of roads and buildings (civil geology, engineering geology), investigation of cultural heritage (burial places, building remains,...), ecological investigations (land slides, variation in underground water level, etc.), glaciology. These tasks can be solved by geological methods, but as usual, geophysical survey takes a lot of time and energy (especially electric current and resistivity methods, seismic survey). Author claims that GPR survey can be performed faster than other geophysical surveys and results of GPR survey are informative enough to make proper conclusions. Some problems even cannot be solved without GPR. For example, identification of burial place (one of author's research objects): results of magnetic and electric resistivity tomography survey do not contain enough information to identify burial place, but according to anomalies on GPR survey radarograms, presence of burial place can be proven. Identification of voids and non-magnetic objects also hardly can be done by another non-invasive geophysics surveys and GPR is applicable for that purpose. GPR can be applied for monitoring of dangerous processes in geological medium under roads, buildings, parks and other places of human

  4. Complementary methods of system usability evaluation: surveys and observations during software design and development cycles.

    PubMed

    Horsky, Jan; McColgan, Kerry; Pang, Justine E; Melnikas, Andrea J; Linder, Jeffrey A; Schnipper, Jeffrey L; Middleton, Blackford

    2010-10-01

    Poor usability of clinical information systems delays their adoption by clinicians and limits potential improvements to the efficiency and safety of care. Recurring usability evaluations are therefore, integral to the system design process. We compared four methods employed during the development of outpatient clinical documentation software: clinician email response, online survey, observations and interviews. Results suggest that no single method identifies all or most problems. Rather, each approach is optimal for evaluations at a different stage of design and characterizes different usability aspect. Email responses elicited from clinicians and surveys report mostly technical, biomedical, terminology and control problems and are most effective when a working prototype has been completed. Observations of clinical work and interviews inform conceptual and workflow-related problems and are best performed early in the cycle. Appropriate use of these methods consistently during development may significantly improve system usability and contribute to higher adoption rates among clinicians and to improved quality of care. PMID:20546936

  5. Application of Adaptive Autopilot Designs for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Yoonghyun; Calise, Anthony J.; Motter, Mark A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes the application of two adaptive approaches to autopilot design, and presents an evaluation and comparison of the two approaches in simulation for an unmanned aerial vehicle. One approach employs two-stage dynamic inversion and the other employs feedback dynamic inversions based on a command augmentation system. Both are augmented with neural network based adaptive elements. The approaches permit adaptation to both parametric uncertainty and unmodeled dynamics, and incorporate a method that permits adaptation during periods of control saturation. Simulation results for an FQM-117B radio controlled miniature aerial vehicle are presented to illustrate the performance of the neural network based adaptation.

  6. Towards aerial natural gas leak detection system based on TDLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuyang; Zhou, Tao; Jia, Xiaodong

    2014-11-01

    Pipeline leakage is a complex scenario for sensing system due to the traditional high cost, low efficient and labor intensive detection scheme. TDLAS has been widely accepted as industrial trace gas detection method and, thanks to its high accuracy and reasonable size, it has the potential to meet pipeline gas leakage detection requirements if it combines with the aerial platform. Based on literature study, this paper discussed the possibility of applying aerial TDLAS principle in pipeline gas leak detection and the key technical foundation of implementing it. Such system is able to result in a high efficiency and accuracy measurement which will provide sufficient data in time for the pipeline leakage detection.

  7. Uas for Archaeology - New Perspectives on Aerial Documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallavollita, P.; Balsi, M.; Esposito, S.; Melis, M. G.; Milanese, M.; Zappino, L.

    2013-08-01

    In this work some Unmanned Aerial Systems applications are discussed and applied to archaeological sites survey and 3D model reconstructions. Interesting results are shown for three important and different aged sites on north Sardinia (Italy). An easy and simplified procedure has proposed permitting the adoption of multi-rotor aircrafts for daily archaeological survey during excavation and documentation, involving state of art in UAS design, flight control systems, high definition sensor cameras and innovative photogrammetric software tools. Very high quality 3D models results are shown and discussed and how they have been simplified the archaeologist work and decisions.

  8. Characterization of shrubland-atmosphere interactions through use of eddy covariance method distributed footprint sampling, and imagery from unmanned aerial vehicles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ecohydrological dynamics can be evaluated from field observations of land-atmosphere states and fluxes, including water, carbon, and energy exchanges measured through the eddy covariance method. In heterogeneous landscapes, the representativeness of these measurements is not well understood due to t...

  9. Aerospace toxicology overview: aerial application and cabin air quality.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K

    2011-01-01

    Aerospace toxicology is a rather recent development and is closely related to aerospace medicine. Aerospace toxicology can be defined as a field of study designed to address the adverse effects of medications, chemicals, and contaminants on humans who fly within or outside the atmosphere in aviation or on space flights. The environment extending above and beyond the surface of the Earth is referred to as aerospace. The term aviation is frequently used interchangeably with aerospace. The focus of the literature review performed to prepare this paper was on aerospace toxicology-related subject matters, aerial application and aircraft cabin air quality. Among the important topics addressed are the following: · Aerial applications of agricultural chemicals, pesticidal toxicity, and exposures to aerially applied mixtures of chemicals and their associated formulating solvents/surfactants The safety of aerially encountered chemicals and the bioanalytical methods used to monitor exposures to some of them · The presence of fumes and smoke, as well as other contaminants that may generally be present in aircraft/space vehicle cabin air · And importantly, the toxic effects of aerially encountered contaminants, with emphasis on the degradation products of oils, fluids, and lubricants used in aircraft, and finally · Analytical methods used for monitoring human exposure to CO and HCN are addressed in the review, as are the signs and symptoms associated with exposures to these combustion gases. Although many agricultural chemical monitoring studies have been published, few have dealt with the occurrence of such chemicals in aircraft cabin air. However, agricultural chemicals do appear in cabin air; indeed, attempts have been made to establish maximum allowable concentrations for several of the more potentially toxic ones that are found in aircraft cabin air. In this article, I emphasize the need for precautionary measures to be taken to minimize exposures to aerially

  10. Short assessment of the Big Five: robust across survey methods except telephone interviewing.

    PubMed

    Lang, Frieder R; John, Dennis; Lüdtke, Oliver; Schupp, Jürgen; Wagner, Gert G

    2011-06-01

    We examined measurement invariance and age-related robustness of a short 15-item Big Five Inventory (BFI-S) of personality dimensions, which is well suited for applications in large-scale multidisciplinary surveys. The BFI-S was assessed in three different interviewing conditions: computer-assisted or paper-assisted face-to-face interviewing, computer-assisted telephone interviewing, and a self-administered questionnaire. Randomized probability samples from a large-scale German panel survey and a related probability telephone study were used in order to test method effects on self-report measures of personality characteristics across early, middle, and late adulthood. Exploratory structural equation modeling was used in order to test for measurement invariance of the five-factor model of personality trait domains across different assessment methods. For the short inventory, findings suggest strong robustness of self-report measures of personality dimensions among young and middle-aged adults. In old age, telephone interviewing was associated with greater distortions in reliable personality assessment. It is concluded that the greater mental workload of telephone interviewing limits the reliability of self-report personality assessment. Face-to-face surveys and self-administrated questionnaire completion are clearly better suited than phone surveys when personality traits in age-heterogeneous samples are assessed. PMID:21424189

  11. Development of a Validated HPLC/Photodiode Array Method for the Determination of Isomenthone in the Aerial Parts of Ziziphora tenuior L.

    PubMed Central

    Ghassemi, Nasrollah; Ghanadian, Mustafa; Ghaemmaghami, Lili; Kiani, Haran

    2013-01-01

    Background Ziziphora tenuior L. known as Kakuti in Persian, is used in traditional medicine for fever, dysentery, uterus infection and as an analgesic. It is used also in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders as carminative, or remedy of diarrhea or nausea. Major components of plant essential oil including pulegone, isomenthone, thymol, menthone, and piperitone are suggested to be responsible for the mentioned medicinal properties. Objectives In the present study, a normal high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/photodiode array validated method for quantification of isomenthone, one of the major constituents of Ziziphora, was established for the first time with a simple, rapid and accurate method. Materials and Methods HPLC analysis was done on a Waters system, equipped with 515 HPLC pump and waters 2996 photodiode array detector. The column was a Nova-Pak Silica (3.9 × 150 mm), and Empower software was used for the determination of the compounds and processing the data. The method was validated according to USP 32 requirements. Results A selective method for the resolution of isomenthone from two nearest peaks, thymol, and carvacrol was obtained with gradient system of hexane (A), and hexane: ethyl acetate (9:1) (B), starting with A: B (100:0) for 2 minutes, then 0−20% B in 5 minutes, A:B (80:20) for 5 minutes, then 20-30% B in 3 minutes, 30-100% B for 5 minutes, A:B (0:100) for 4 minutes following with equilibrating for 10 minutes. The flow rate was 1 mL/min at 22˚C and the injection volume for the standards and the samples was 20 μL. The retention time for isomenthone was found to be 7.45 minutes. The regression equation was y = 143235x - 2433 with the correlation co-factor R2 = 0.9992 and the percent recovery of 65.4 ± 3.85%. The sample obtained from 5 g of Z. teniour dried powder in 6 mL extract was standardized to contain 1.14 ± 0.030 μL/mL isomenthone which is equivalent to % 1.37 μL/g of the dried powdered plant. Limit of detection

  12. Detecting population declines over large areas with presence-absence, time-to-encounter, and count survey methods.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Jacob E

    2006-06-01

    Ecologists often discount presence-absence surveys as a poor way to gain insight into population dynamics, in part because these surveys are not amenable to many standard statistical tests. Still, presence-absence surveys are sometimes the only feasible alternative for monitoring large areas when funds are limited, especially for sparse or difficult-to-detect species. I undertook a detailed simulation study to compare the power of presence-absence, count, and time-to-encounter surveys to detect regional declines in a population. I used a modeling approach that simulates both population numbers and the monitoring process, accounting for observation and other measurement errors. In gauging the efficacy of presence-absence surveys versus other approaches, I varied the number of survey sites, the spatial variation in encounter rate, the mean encounter rate, and the type of population loss. My results showed that presence-absence data can be as or more powerful than count data in many cases. Quantitative guidelines for choosing between presence-absence surveys and count surveys depend on the biological and logistical constraints governing a conservation monitoring situation. Generally, presence-absence surveys work best when there is little variability in abundance among the survey sites, the organism is rare, and the species is difficult to detect so that the time spent getting to each survey site is less than or equal to the time spent surveying each site. Count surveys work best otherwise. I present a case study with count data on the Northern Flicker (Colaptes auratus) from the North American Breeding Bird Survey to illustrate how the method might be used with field-survey data. The case study demonstrates that a count survey would be the most cost-effective design but would entail reduction in the number of sites. If this site reduction is not desirable, a presence-absence survey would be the most cost-effective survey. PMID:16909580

  13. A Survey of Symplectic and Collocation Integration Methods for Orbit Propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Brandon A.; Anderson, Rodney L.

    2012-01-01

    Demands on numerical integration algorithms for astrodynamics applications continue to increase. Common methods, like explicit Runge-Kutta, meet the orbit propagation needs of most scenarios, but more specialized scenarios require new techniques to meet both computational efficiency and accuracy needs. This paper provides an extensive survey on the application of symplectic and collocation methods to astrodynamics. Both of these methods benefit from relatively recent theoretical developments, which improve their applicability to artificial satellite orbit propagation. This paper also details their implementation, with several tests demonstrating their advantages and disadvantages.

  14. Does survey method bias the description of northern goshawk nest-site structure?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daw, S.K.; DeStefano, S.; Steidl, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Past studies on the nesting habitat of northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) often relied on nests found opportunistically, either during timber-sale operations, by searching apparently 'good' goshawk habitat, or by other search methods where areas were preselected based on known forest conditions. Therefore, a bias in the characterization of habitat surrounding northern goshawk nest sites may exist toward late-forest structure (large trees, high canopy closure). This potential problem has confounded interpretation of data on nesting habitat of northern goshawks and added to uncertainty in the review process to consider the species for federal listing as threatened or endangered. Systematic survey methods, which strive for complete coverage of an area and often use broadcasts of conspecific calls, have been developed to overcome these potential biases, but no study has compared habitat characteristics around nests found opportunistically with those found systematically. We compared habitat characteristics in a 0.4-ha area around nests found systematically (n = 27) versus those found opportunistically (n = 22) on 3 national forests in eastern Oregon. We found that both density of large trees (systematic: x?? = 16.4 ?? 3.1 trees/ha; x?? ?? SE; opportunistic: x?? = 21.3 ?? 3.2; P = 0.56) and canopy closure (systematic: x?? = 72 ?? 2%; opportunistic: x?? = 70 ?? 2%; P = 0.61) were similar around nests found with either search method. Our results diminish concern that past survey methods mischaracterized northern goshawk nest-site structure. However, because northern goshawks nest in a variety of forest cover types with a wide range of structural characteristics, these results do not decrease the value of systematic survey methods in determining the most representative habitat descriptions for northern goshawks. Rigorous survey protocols allow repeatability and comparability of monitoring efforts and results over time.

  15. Regional agriculture surveys using ERTS-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draeger, W. C.; Nichols, J. D.; Benson, A. S.; Larrabee, D. G.; Jenkus, W. M.; Hay, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    The Center for Remote Sensing Research has conducted studies designed to evaluate the potential application of ERTS data in performing agricultural inventories, and to develop efficient methods of data handling and analysis useful in the operational context for performing large area surveys. This work has resulted in the development of an integrated system utilizing both human and computer analysis of ground, aerial, and space imagery, which has been shown to be very efficient for regional crop acreage inventories. The technique involves: (1) the delineation of ERTS images into relatively homogeneous strata by human interpreters, (2) the point-by-point classification of the area within each strata on the basis of crop type using a human/machine interactive digital image processing system; and (3) a multistage sampling procedure for the collection of supporting aerial and ground data used in the adjustment and verification of the classification results.

  16. Methods for implementing a medicine outlet survey: lessons from the anti-malarial market

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years an increasing number of public investments and policy changes have been made to improve the availability, affordability and quality of medicines available to consumers in developing countries, including anti-malarials. It is important to monitor the extent to which these interventions are successful in achieving their aims using quantitative data on the supply side of the market. There are a number of challenges related to studying supply, including outlet sampling, gaining provider cooperation and collecting accurate data on medicines. This paper provides guidance on key steps to address these issues when conducting a medicine outlet survey in a developing country context. While the basic principles of good survey design and implementation are important for all surveys, there are a set of specific issues that should be considered when conducting a medicine outlet survey. Methods This paper draws on the authors’ experience of designing and implementing outlet surveys, including the lessons learnt from ACTwatch outlet surveys on anti-malarial retail supply, and other key studies in the field. Key lessons and points of debate are distilled around the following areas: selecting a sample of outlets; techniques for collecting and analysing data on medicine availability, price and sales volumes; and methods for ensuring high quality data in general. Results and conclusions The authors first consider the inclusion criteria for outlets, contrasting comprehensive versus more focused approaches. Methods for developing a reliable sampling frame of outlets are then presented, including use of existing lists, key informants and an outlet census. Specific issues in the collection of data on medicine prices and sales volumes are discussed; and approaches for generating comparable price and sales volume data across products using the adult equivalent treatment dose (AETD) are explored. The paper concludes with advice on practical considerations

  17. Aerial robotic data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Hayes, D.W.; Pendergast, M.M.; Corban, J.E.

    1993-12-31

    A small, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), equipped with sensors for physical and chemical measurements of remote environments, is described. A miniature helicopter airframe is used as a platform for sensor testing and development. The sensor output is integrated with the flight control system for real-time, interactive, data acquisition and analysis. Pre-programmed flight missions will be flown with several sensors to demonstrate the cost-effective surveillance capabilities of this new technology.

  18. Telemetry of Aerial Radiological Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    H. W. Clark, Jr.

    2002-10-01

    Telemetry has been added to National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA's) Aerial Measuring System (AMS) Incident Response aircraft to accelerate availability of aerial radiological mapping data. Rapid aerial radiological mapping is promptly performed by AMS Incident Response aircraft in the event of a major radiological dispersal. The AMS airplane flies the entire potentially affected area, plus a generous margin, to provide a quick look at the extent and severity of the event. The primary result of the AMS Incident Response over flight is a map of estimated exposure rate on the ground along the flight path. Formerly, it was necessary to wait for the airplane to land before the map could be seen. Now, while the flight is still in progress, data are relayed via satellite directly from the aircraft to an operations center, where they are displayed and disseminated. This permits more timely utilization of results by decision makers and redirection of the mission to optimize its value. The current telemetry capability can cover all of North America. Extension to a global capability is under consideration.

  19. Precision grid survey apparatus and method for the mapping of hidden ferromagnetic structures

    DOEpatents

    von Wimmerspeg, Udo

    2004-11-16

    The present invention is for a precision grid surveyor having a stationary unit and a roving unit. The stationary unit has a light source unit that emits a light beam and a rotator to project the light beam toward detectors on a roving unit. The roving unit moves over an area to be surveyed. Further the invention is for a method of mapping details of hidden underground iron pipelines, and more particularly the location of bell joints.

  20. 3D Buildings Extraction from Aerial Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikova, O.; Prandi, F.

    2011-09-01

    This paper introduces a semi-automatic method for buildings extraction through multiple-view aerial image analysis. The advantage of the used semi-automatic approach is that it allows processing of each building individually finding the parameters of buildings features extraction more precisely for each area. On the early stage the presented technique uses an extraction of line segments that is done only inside of areas specified manually. The rooftop hypothesis is used further to determine a subset of quadrangles, which could form building roofs from a set of extracted lines and corners obtained on the previous stage. After collecting of all potential roof shapes in all images overlaps, the epipolar geometry is applied to find matching between images. This allows to make an accurate selection of building roofs removing false-positive ones and to identify their global 3D coordinates given camera internal parameters and coordinates. The last step of the image matching is based on geometrical constraints in contrast to traditional correlation. The correlation is applied only in some highly restricted areas in order to find coordinates more precisely, in such a way significantly reducing processing time of the algorithm. The algorithm has been tested on a set of Milan's aerial images and shows highly accurate results.

  1. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles unique cost estimating requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, P.; Apgar, H.; Stukes, S.; Sterk, S.

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also referred to as drones, are aerial platforms that fly without a human pilot onboard. UAVs are controlled autonomously by a computer in the vehicle or under the remote control of a pilot stationed at a fixed ground location. There are a wide variety of drone shapes, sizes, configurations, complexities, and characteristics. Use of these devices by the Department of Defense (DoD), NASA, civil and commercial organizations continues to grow. UAVs are commonly used for intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR). They are also use for combat operations, and civil applications, such as firefighting, non-military security work, surveillance of infrastructure (e.g. pipelines, power lines and country borders). UAVs are often preferred for missions that require sustained persistence (over 4 hours in duration), or are “ too dangerous, dull or dirty” for manned aircraft. Moreover, they can offer significant acquisition and operations cost savings over traditional manned aircraft. Because of these unique characteristics and missions, UAV estimates require some unique estimating methods. This paper describes a framework for estimating UAV systems total ownership cost including hardware components, software design, and operations. The challenge of collecting data, testing the sensitivities of cost drivers, and creating cost estimating relationships (CERs) for each key work breakdown structure (WBS) element is discussed. The autonomous operation of UAVs is especially challenging from a software perspective.

  2. Wafer weak point detection based on aerial images or WLCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Guoxiang; Philipp, Peter; Litt, Lloyd C.; Ackmann, Paul; Crell, Christian; Chen, Norman

    2015-10-01

    Aerial image measurement is a key technique for model based optical proximity correction (OPC) verification. Actual aerial images obtained by AIMS (aerial image measurement system) or WLCD (wafer level critical dimension) can detect printed wafer weak point structures in advance of wafer exposure and defect inspection. Normally, the potential wafer weak points are determined based on optical rule check (ORC) simulation in advance. However, the correlation to real wafer weak points is often not perfect due to the contribution of mask three dimension (M3D) effects, actual mask errors, and scanner lens effects. If the design weak points can accurately be detected in advance, it will reduce the wafer fab cost and improve cycle time. WLCD or AIMS tools are able to measure the aerial images CD and bossung curve through focus window. However, it is difficult to detect the wafer weak point in advance without defining selection criteria. In this study, wafer weak points sensitive to mask mean-to-nominal values are characterized for a process with very high MEEF (normally more than 4). Aerial image CD uses fixed threshold to detect the wafer weak points. By using WLCD through threshold and focus window, the efficiency of wafer weak point detection is also demonstrated. A novel method using contrast range evaluation is shown in the paper. Use of the slope of aerial images for more accurate detection of the wafer weak points using WLCD is also discussed. The contrast range can also be used to detect the wafer weak points in advance. Further, since the mean to nominal of the reticle contributes to the effective contrast range in a high MEEF area this work shows that control of the mask error is critical for high MEEF layers such as poly, active and metal layers. Wafer process based weak points that cannot be detected by wafer lithography CD or WLCD will be discussed.

  3. Random Sampling of Quantum States: a Survey of Methods. And Some Issues Regarding the Overparametrized Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maziero, Jonas

    2015-12-01

    The numerical generation of random quantum states (RQS) is an important procedure for investigations in quantum information science. Here, we review some methods that may be used for performing that task. We start by presenting a simple procedure for generating random state vectors, for which the main tool is the random sampling of unbiased discrete probability distributions (DPD). Afterwards, the creation of random density matrices is addressed. In this context, we first present the standard method, which consists in using the spectral decomposition of a quantum state for getting RQS from random DPDs and random unitary matrices. In the sequence, the Bloch vector parametrization method is described. This approach, despite being useful in several instances, is not in general convenient for RQS generation. In the last part of the article, we regard the overparametrized method (OPM) and the related Ginibre and Bures techniques. The OPM can be used to create random positive semidefinite matrices with unit trace from randomly produced general complex matrices in a simple way that is friendly for numerical implementations. We consider a physically relevant issue related to the possible domains that may be used for the real and imaginary parts of the elements of such general complex matrices. Subsequently, a too fast concentration of measure in the quantum state space that appears in this parametrization is noticed.

  4. Basis and methods of NASA airborne topographic mapper lidar surveys for coastal studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Sallenger, Asbury H.; Krabill, William B.; Swift, Robert N.

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the basic principles of airborne laser altimetry for surveys of coastal topography, and describes the methods used in the acquisition and processing of NASA Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) surveys that cover much of the conterminous US coastline. This form of remote sensing, also known as "topographic lidar", has undergone extremely rapid development during the last two decades, and has the potential to contribute within a wide range of coastal scientific investigations. Various airborne laser surveying (ALS) applications that are relevant to coastal studies are being pursued by researchers in a range of Earth science disciplines. Examples include the mapping of "bald earth" land surfaces below even moderately dense vegetation in studies of geologic framework and hydrology, and determination of the vegetation canopy structure, a key variable in mapping wildlife habitats. ALS has also proven to be an excellent method for the regional mapping of geomorphic change along barrier island beaches and other sandy coasts due to storms or long-term sedimentary processes. Coastal scientists are adopting ALS as a basic method in the study of an array of additional coastal topics. ALS can provide useful information in the analysis of shoreline change, the prediction and assessment of landslides along seacliffs and headlands, examination of subsidence causing coastal land loss, and in predicting storm surge and tsunami inundation.

  5. A method of measuring the [α/Fe] ratios from the spectra of the LAMOST survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ji; Han, Chen; Xiang, Mao-Sheng; Shi, Jian-Rong; Zhao, Jing-Kun; Liu, Xiao-Wei; Zhang, Hua-Wei; Yuan, Hai-Bo; Ci, Xuan; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Yue-Xiang; Huang, Yang; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yong-Hui; Wang, Yue-Fei; Cao, Zi-Huang

    2016-07-01

    The [α/Fe] ratios in stars are good tracers to probe the formation history of stellar populations and the chemical evolution of the Galaxy. The spectroscopic survey of LAMOST provides a good opportunity to determine [α/Fe] of millions of stars in the Galaxy. We present a method of measuring the [α/Fe] ratios from LAMOST spectra using the template-matching technique of the LSP3 pipeline. We use three test samples of stars selected from the ELODIE and MILES libraries, as well as the LEGUE survey to validate our method. Based on the test results, we conclude that our method is valid for measuring [α/Fe] from low-resolution spectra acquired by the LAMOST survey. Within the range of the stellar parameters T eff = [5000, 7500] K, log g = [1.0, 5.0] dex and [Fe/H]= [-1.5, +0.5] dex, our [α/Fe] measurements are consistent with values derived from high-resolution spectra, and the accuracy of our [α/Fe] measurements from LAMOST spectra is better than 0.1 dex with spectral signal-to-noise higher than 20.

  6. A fast method for quantifying observational selection effects in asteroid surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedicke, Robert; Bolin, Bryce; Granvik, Mikael; Beshore, Ed

    2016-03-01

    We present a fast method to calculate an asteroid survey's 'bias' - essentially a correction factor from the observed number of objects to the actual number in the population. The method builds upon the work of Jedicke and Metcalfe (Jedicke, R., Metcalfe, T.S. [1998]. Icaurs 131, 245-260) and Granvik et al. (Granvik, M., Vaubaillon, J., Jedicke, R. [2012]. Icarus 218, 262-277) and essentially efficiently maps out the phase space of orbit elements that can appear in a field-of-view. It does so by 'integrating' outwards in geocentric distance along a field's boresite from the topocentric location of the survey and calculating the allowable angular elements for each desired combination of semi-major axis, eccentricity and inclination. We then use a contour algorithm to map out the orbit elements that place an object at the edge of the field-of-view. We illustrate the method's application to calculate the bias correction for near Earth Objects detected with the Catalina Sky Survey (Christensen, E. et al. [2012]. AAS/Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting Abstracts, vol. 44, p. 210.13; Larson, S. et al. [1998]. Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, vol. 30, p. 1037).

  7. Improved land cover mapping using aerial photographs and satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, Katalin; Szabó, Szilárd; Szabó, Gergely; Dévai, György; Tóthmérész, Béla

    2014-10-01

    Manual Land Cover Mapping using aerial photographs provides sufficient level of resolution for detailed vegetation or land cover maps. However, in some cases it is not possible to achieve the desired information over large areas, for example from historical data where the quality and amount of available images is definitely lower than from modern data. The use of automated and semiautomated methods offers the means to identify the vegetation cover using remotely sensed data. In this paper automated methods were tested on aerial photographs and satellite images to extract better and more reliable information about vegetation cover. These testswere performed by using automated analysis of LANDSAT7 images (with and without the surface model of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM)) and two temporally similar aerial photographs. The spectral bands were analyzed with supervised (maximum likelihood) methods. In conclusion, the SRTM and the combination of two temporally similar aerial photographs from earlier years were useful in separating the vegetation cover on a floodplain area. In addition the different date of the vegetation season also gave reliable information about the land cover. High quality information about old and present vegetation on a large area is an essential prerequisites ensuring the conservation of ecosystems

  8. Development of sea ice monitoring with aerial remote sensing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xuhui; Han, Lei; Dong, Liang; Cui, Lulu; Bie, Jun; Fan, Xuewei

    2014-11-01

    In the north China Sea district, sea ice disaster is very serious every winter, which brings a lot of adverse effects to shipping transportation, offshore oil exploitation, and coastal engineering. In recent years, along with the changing of global climate, the sea ice situation becomes too critical. The monitoring of sea ice is playing a very important role in keeping human life and properties in safety, and undertaking of marine scientific research. The methods to monitor sea ice mainly include: first, shore observation; second, icebreaker monitoring; third, satellite remote sensing; and then aerial remote sensing monitoring. The marine station staffs use relevant equipments to monitor the sea ice in the shore observation. The icebreaker monitoring means: the workers complete the test of the properties of sea ice, such as density, salinity and mechanical properties. MODIS data and NOAA data are processed to get sea ice charts in the satellite remote sensing means. Besides, artificial visual monitoring method and some airborne remote sensors are adopted in the aerial remote sensing to monitor sea ice. Aerial remote sensing is an important means in sea ice monitoring because of its strong maneuverability, wide watching scale, and high resolution. In this paper, several methods in the sea ice monitoring using aerial remote sensing technology are discussed.

  9. Novel survey method finds dramatic decline of wild cotton-top tamarin population

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Anne; Thomas, Len; Leighty, Katherine A.; Soto, Luis H.; Medina, Felix S.

    2010-01-01

    The cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus) is a critically endangered primate, endemic to the tropical forests of Colombia. Population monitoring is essential to evaluate the success of conservation efforts, yet standard survey methods are ineffective because animals flee silently before they are seen. We developed a novel technique that combines the use of playbacks of territorial vocalizations with traditional transect surveys. We used remote sensing to identify potential habitat within the species' historic range, and visited the 27% that we could survey safely. Of this, only 99 km2 was extant forest, containing an estimated 2,045 animals (95% confidence interval 1,587–2,634). Assuming comparable densities in non-surveyed areas, approximately 7,394 wild cotton-top tamarins remain in Colombia. With 20–30,000 animals exported to the United States in the late 1960s, this must represent a precipitous decline. Habitat destruction and capture for the illegal pet trade are ongoing. Urgent conservation measures are required to prevent extinction in the wild. PMID:20975684

  10. Characterising Upland Swamps Using Object-Based Classification Methods and Hyper-Spatial Resolution Imagery Derived from AN Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechner, A. M.; Fletcher, A.; Johansen, K.; Erskine, P.

    2012-07-01

    Subsidence, resulting from underground coal mining can alter the structure of overlying rock formations changing hydrological conditions and potentially effecting ecological communities found on the surface. Of particular concern are impacts to endangered and/or protected swamp communities and swamp species sensitive to changes in hydrologic conditions. This paper describes a monitoring approach that uses UAVs with modified digital cameras and object-based image analysis methods to characterise swamp landcover on the Newnes plateau in the Blue Mountains near Sydney, Australia. The characterisation of swamp spatial distribution is key to identifying long term changes in swamp condition. In this paper we describe i) the characteristics of the UAV and the sensor, ii) the pre-processing of the remote sensing data with sub-decimeter pixel size to derive visible and near infrared multispectral imagery and a digital surface model (DSM), and iii) the application of object-based image analysis in eCognition using the multi-spectral data and DSM to map swamp extent. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of the potential application of remote sensing data derived from UAVs to conduct environmental monitoring.

  11. Rapid-Response or Repeat-Mode Topography from Aerial Structure from Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissen, E.; Johnson, K. L.; Fitzgerald, F. S.; Morgan, M.; White, J.

    2014-12-01

    This decade has seen a surge of interest in Structure-from-Motion (SfM) as a means of generating high-resolution topography and coregistered texture maps from stereo digital photographs. Using an unstructured set of overlapping photographs captured from multiple viewpoints and minimal GPS ground control, SfM solves simultaneously for scene topography and camera positions, orientations and lens parameters. The use of cheap unmanned aerial vehicles or tethered helium balloons as camera platforms expedites data collection and overcomes many of the cost, time and logistical limitations of LiDAR surveying, making it a potentially valuable tool for rapid response mapping and repeat monitoring applications. We begin this presentation by assessing what data resolutions and precisions are achievable using a simple aerial camera platform and commercial SfM software (we use the popular Agisoft Photoscan package). SfM point clouds generated at two small (~0.1 km2), sparsely-vegetated field sites in California compare favorably with overlapping airborne and terrestrial LiDAR surveys, with closest point distances of a few centimeters between the independent datasets. Next, we go on to explore the method in more challenging conditions, in response to a major landslide in Mesa County, Colorado, on 25th May 2014. Photographs collected from a small UAV were used to generate a high-resolution model of the 4.5 x 1 km landslide several days before an airborne LiDAR survey could be organized and flown. An initial estimate of the mass balance of the landslide could quickly be made by differencing this model against pre-event topography generated using stereo photographs collected in 2009 as part of the National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP). This case study therefore demonstrates the rich potential offered by this technique, as well as some of the challenges, particularly with respect to the treatment of vegetation.

  12. Quantifying post-fire ponderosa pine snags using GIS techniques on scanned aerial photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Kevin

    Snags are an important component of forest ecosystems because of their utility in forest-nutrient cycling and provision of critical wildlife habitat, as well as associated fuel management concerns relating to coarse woody debris (CWD). Knowledge of snag and CWD trajectories are needed for land managers to plan for long-term ecosystem change in post-fire regimes. This need will likely be exacerbated by increasingly warm and dry climatic conditions projected for the U.S. Southwest. One of the best prospects for studying fire-induced landscape change beyond the plot scale, but still at a resolution sufficient to resolve individual snags, is to utilize the available aerial photography record. Previous field-based studies of snag and CWD loads in the Southwest have relied on regional chronosequences to judge the recovery dynamic of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) burns. This previous research has been spatially and temporally restricted because of field survey extent limitations and uncertainty associated with the chronosequence approach (i.e., space-for-time substitution), which does not consider differences between specific site conditions and histories. This study develops highly automated methods for remotely quantifying and characterizing the spatial and temporal distribution of large snags associated with severe forest fires from very high resolution (VHR) landscape imagery I obtained from scans of aerial photos. Associated algorithms utilize the sharp edges, shape, shadow, and contrast characteristics of snags to enable feature recognition. Additionally, using snag shadow length, image acquisition time, and location information, heights were estimated for each identified snag. Furthermore, a novel solution was developed for extracting individual snags from areas of high snag density by overlaying parallel lines in the direction of the snag shadows and extracting local maxima lines contained by each snag polygon. Field survey data coincident to imagery coverage

  13. Use of High Fidelity Methods in Multidisciplinary Optimization-A Preliminary Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guruswamy, Guru P.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Multidisciplinary optimization is a key element of design process. To date multidiscipline optimization methods that use low fidelity methods are well advanced. Optimization methods based on simple linear aerodynamic equations and plate structural equations have been applied to complex aerospace configurations. However, use of high fidelity methods such as the Euler/ Navier-Stokes for fluids and 3-D (three dimensional) finite elements for structures has begun recently. As an activity of Multidiscipline Design Optimization Technical Committee (MDO TC) of AIAA (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics), an effort was initiated to assess the status of the use of high fidelity methods in multidisciplinary optimization. Contributions were solicited through the members MDO TC committee. This paper provides a summary of that survey.

  14. Combining terrestrial laser scanning and UAV photogrammetry for fast and lightweight surveying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conforti, Dario

    2015-04-01

    To create detailed and accurate 3D maps of small- to medium-sized areas surveyors often turn to a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS). A TLS can make thousands of lidar measurements per second with centimeter-level accuracy even at long ranges, using scanning mirrors to aim the laser up/down and left/right for full coverage of the target area. One limitation of using a TLS is that complex objects may require many more TLS survey positions than simpler ones. Since protrusions may block line of sight to certain areas that can only be seen from particular angles, surveyors must survey from several additional locations to make sure the entire area is covered. This is particularly true for setups where the scanner cannot be elevated to gain line of sight to all the areas that are required to be surveyed. To resolve this issue, surveyors often turn to aerial survey vehicles. An aerial vehicle's bird's-eye perspective resolves features easily and its mobility lets the surveyor quickly capture the whole survey region from multiple angles. To survey more efficiently, surveyors can combine the strengths of TLS and airborne systems, resulting in a cost-effective method of mapping small- to medium-sized sites with 3D data and imagery. This process uses a standard TLS to survey from a few points around the area of interest, particularly vertical faces that would be difficult to survey from the air. Simultaneously, the surveyor uses a lightweight UAV equipped with a camera, gimbal, and basic GPS receiver to collect photogrammetric imagery over the site. During post-processing, the aerial imagery is processed to create 3D data of its own using automated triangulation software. This aerial 3D data is then merged with the 3D data created by the TLS. The aerial 3D data is discarded where it conflicts with the more precise TLS data, but is used to fill in the gaps in the areas where the TLS could not collect any data at all. Finally, the resultant 3D data is merged with the original

  15. A survey on palette reordering methods for improving the compression of color-indexed images.

    PubMed

    Pinho, Armando J; Neves, António J R

    2004-11-01

    Palette reordering is a well-known and very effective approach for improving the compression of color-indexed images. In this paper, we provide a survey of palette reordering methods, and we give experimental results comparing the ability of seven of them in improving the compression efficiency of JPEG-LS and lossless JPEG 2000. We concluded that the pairwise merging heuristic proposed by Memon et al. is the most effective, but also the most computationally demanding. Moreover, we found that the second most effective method is a modified version of Zeng's reordering technique, which was 3%-5% worse than pairwise merging, but much faster. PMID:15540450

  16. Searching transients in large-scale surveys. A method based on the Abbe value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mowlavi, N.

    2014-08-01

    Aims: A new method is presented to identify transient candidates in large-scale surveys based on the variability pattern in their light curves. Methods: The method is based on the Abbe value, Ab, that estimates the smoothness of a light curve, and on a newly introduced value called the excess Abbe and denoted excessAb, that estimates the regularity of the light curve variability pattern over the duration of the observations. Results: Based on simulated light curves, transients are shown to occupy a specific region in the {diagram} diagram, distinct from sources presenting pulsating-like features in their light curves or having featureless light curves. The method is tested on real light curves taken from EROS-2 and OGLE-II surveys in a 0.50° × 0.17° field of the sky in the Large Magellanic Cloud centered at RA(J2000) = 5h25m56.5s and Dec(J2000) = -69d29m43.3s. The method identifies 43 EROS-2 transient candidates out of a total of 1300 variable stars, and 19 more OGLE-II candidates, 10 of which do not have any EROS-2 variable star matches and which would need further confirmation to assess their reliability. The efficiency of the method is further tested by comparing the list of transient candidates with known Be stars in the literature. It is shown that all Be stars known in the studied field of view with detectable bursts or outbursts are successfully extracted by the method. In addition, four new transient candidates displaying bursts and/or outbursts are found in the field, of which at least two are good new Be candidates. Conclusions: The new method proves to be a potentially powerful tool to extract transient candidates from large-scale multi-epoch surveys. The better the photometric measurement uncertainties are, the cleaner the list of detected transient candidates is. In addition, the diagram diagram is shown to be a good diagnostic tool to check the data quality of multi-epoch photometric surveys. A trend of instrumental and/or data reduction origin

  17. Survey Field Methods for Expanded Biospecimen and Biomeasure Collection in NSHAP Wave 2

    PubMed Central

    Jaszczak, Angela; Hoffmann, Joscelyn N.; You, Hannah M.; Kern, David W.; Pagel, Kristina; McPhillips, Jane; Schumm, L. Philip; Dale, William; Huang, Elbert S.; McClintock, Martha K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project is a nationally representative, longitudinal survey of older adults. A main component is the collection of biomeasures to objectively assess physiological status relevant to psychosocial variables, aging conditions, and disease. Wave 2 added novel biomeasures, refined those collected in Wave 1, and provides a reference for the collection protocols and strategy common to the biomeasures. The effects of aging, gender, and their interaction are presented in the specific biomeasure papers included in this Special Issue. Method. A transdisciplinary working group expanded the biomeasures collected to include physiological, genetic, anthropometric, functional, neuropsychological, and sensory measures, yielding 37 more than in Wave 1. All were designed for collection in respondents’ homes by nonmedically trained field interviewers. Results. Both repeated and novel biomeasures were successful. Those in Wave 1 were refined to improve quality, and ensure consistency for longitudinal analysis. Four new biospecimens yielded 27 novel measures. During the interview, 19 biomeasures were recorded covering anthropometric, functional, neuropsychological, and sensory measures and actigraphy provided data on activity and sleep. Discussion. Improved field methods included in-home collection, temperature control, establishment of a central survey biomeasure laboratory, and shipping, all of which were crucial for successful collection by the field interviewers and accurate laboratory assay of the biomeasures (92.1% average co-operation rate and 97.3% average assay success rate). Developed for home interviews, these biomeasures are readily applicable to other surveys. PMID:25360025

  18. Resampling method for applying density-dependent habitat selection theory to wildlife surveys.

    PubMed

    Tardy, Olivia; Massé, Ariane; Pelletier, Fanie; Fortin, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Isodar theory can be used to evaluate fitness consequences of density-dependent habitat selection by animals. A typical habitat isodar is a regression curve plotting competitor densities in two adjacent habitats when individual fitness is equal. Despite the increasing use of habitat isodars, their application remains largely limited to areas composed of pairs of adjacent habitats that are defined a priori. We developed a resampling method that uses data from wildlife surveys to build isodars in heterogeneous landscapes without having to predefine habitat types. The method consists in randomly placing blocks over the survey area and dividing those blocks in two adjacent sub-blocks of the same size. Animal abundance is then estimated within the two sub-blocks. This process is done 100 times. Different functional forms of isodars can be investigated by relating animal abundance and differences in habitat features between sub-blocks. We applied this method to abundance data of raccoons and striped skunks, two of the main hosts of rabies virus in North America. Habitat selection by raccoons and striped skunks depended on both conspecific abundance and the difference in landscape composition and structure between sub-blocks. When conspecific abundance was low, raccoons and striped skunks favored areas with relatively high proportions of forests and anthropogenic features, respectively. Under high conspecific abundance, however, both species preferred areas with rather large corn-forest edge densities and corn field proportions. Based on random sampling techniques, we provide a robust method that is applicable to a broad range of species, including medium- to large-sized mammals with high mobility. The method is sufficiently flexible to incorporate multiple environmental covariates that can reflect key requirements of the focal species. We thus illustrate how isodar theory can be used with wildlife surveys to assess density-dependent habitat selection over large

  19. Resampling Method for Applying Density-Dependent Habitat Selection Theory to Wildlife Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Tardy, Olivia; Massé, Ariane; Pelletier, Fanie; Fortin, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Isodar theory can be used to evaluate fitness consequences of density-dependent habitat selection by animals. A typical habitat isodar is a regression curve plotting competitor densities in two adjacent habitats when individual fitness is equal. Despite the increasing use of habitat isodars, their application remains largely limited to areas composed of pairs of adjacent habitats that are defined a priori. We developed a resampling method that uses data from wildlife surveys to build isodars in heterogeneous landscapes without having to predefine habitat types. The method consists in randomly placing blocks over the survey area and dividing those blocks in two adjacent sub-blocks of the same size. Animal abundance is then estimated within the two sub-blocks. This process is done 100 times. Different functional forms of isodars can be investigated by relating animal abundance and differences in habitat features between sub-blocks. We applied this method to abundance data of raccoons and striped skunks, two of the main hosts of rabies virus in North America. Habitat selection by raccoons and striped skunks depended on both conspecific abundance and the difference in landscape composition and structure between sub-blocks. When conspecific abundance was low, raccoons and striped skunks favored areas with relatively high proportions of forests and anthropogenic features, respectively. Under high conspecific abundance, however, both species preferred areas with rather large corn-forest edge densities and corn field proportions. Based on random sampling techniques, we provide a robust method that is applicable to a broad range of species, including medium- to large-sized mammals with high mobility. The method is sufficiently flexible to incorporate multiple environmental covariates that can reflect key requirements of the focal species. We thus illustrate how isodar theory can be used with wildlife surveys to assess density-dependent habitat selection over large

  20. Methods of practice and guidelines for using survey-grade global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) to establish vertical datum in the United States Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rydlund, Paul H.; Densmore, Brenda K.

    2012-01-01

    Geodetic surveys have evolved through the years to the use of survey-grade (centimeter level) global positioning to perpetuate and post-process vertical datum. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) uses Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) technology to monitor natural hazards, ensure geospatial control for climate and land use change, and gather data necessary for investigative studies related to water, the environment, energy, and ecosystems. Vertical datum is fundamental to a variety of these integrated earth sciences. Essentially GNSS surveys provide a three-dimensional position x, y, and z as a function of the North American Datum of 1983 ellipsoid and the most current hybrid geoid model. A GNSS survey may be approached with post-processed positioning for static observations related to a single point or network, or involve real-time corrections to provide positioning "on-the-fly." Field equipment required to facilitate GNSS surveys range from a single receiver, with a power source for static positioning, to an additional receiver or network communicated by radio or cellular for real-time positioning. A real-time approach in its most common form may be described as a roving receiver augmented by a single-base station receiver, known as a single-base real-time (RT) survey. More efficient real-time methods involving a Real-Time Network (RTN) permit the use of only one roving receiver that is augmented to a network of fixed receivers commonly known as Continually Operating Reference Stations (CORS). A post-processed approach in its most common form involves static data collection at a single point. Data are most commonly post-processed through a universally accepted utility maintained by the National Geodetic Survey (NGS), known as the Online Position User Service (OPUS). More complex post-processed methods involve static observations among a network of additional receivers collecting static data at known benchmarks. Both classifications provide users

  1. Survey on methods of increasing the efficiency of extended state disturbance observers.

    PubMed

    Madoński, R; Herman, P

    2015-05-01

    This survey presents various methods of improving the overall estimation quality in the class of extended state observers (ESO), which estimate not only the conventional states of the system, but the acting disturbance as well. This type of observers is crucial in forming the active disturbance rejection control structure (ADRC), where the precision of online perturbation reconstruction and cancellation directly influences the robustness of the closed-loop control system. Various aspects of the observer-based disturbance estimation/rejection loop are covered by this work and divided into three categories, related with observer: structure, tuning, and working conditions. The survey is dedicated to researchers and practitioners who are interested in increasing the efficiency of their ADRC-based governing schemes. PMID:25702045

  2. Virtual and super - virtual refraction method: Application to synthetic data and 2012 of Karangsambung survey data

    SciTech Connect

    Nugraha, Andri Dian; Adisatrio, Philipus Ronnie

    2013-09-09

    Seismic refraction survey is one of geophysical method useful for imaging earth interior, definitely for imaging near surface. One of the common problems in seismic refraction survey is weak amplitude due to attenuations at far offset. This phenomenon will make it difficult to pick first refraction arrival, hence make it challenging to produce the near surface image. Seismic interferometry is a new technique to manipulate seismic trace for obtaining Green's function from a pair of receiver. One of its uses is for improving first refraction arrival quality at far offset. This research shows that we could estimate physical properties such as seismic velocity and thickness from virtual refraction processing. Also, virtual refraction could enhance the far offset signal amplitude since there is stacking procedure involved in it. Our results show super - virtual refraction processing produces seismic image which has higher signal-to-noise ratio than its raw seismic image. In the end, the numbers of reliable first arrival picks are also increased.

  3. The use of unmanned aerial systems for the mapping of legacy uranium mines.

    PubMed

    Martin, P G; Payton, O D; Fardoulis, J S; Richards, D A; Scott, T B

    2015-05-01

    Historical mining of uranium mineral veins within Cornwall, England, has resulted in a significant amount of legacy radiological contamination spread across numerous long disused mining sites. Factors including the poorly documented and aged condition of these sites as well as the highly localised nature of radioactivity limit the success of traditional survey methods. A newly developed terrain-independent unmanned aerial system [UAS] carrying an integrated gamma radiation mapping unit was used for the radiological characterisation of a single legacy mining site. Using this instrument to produce high-spatial-resolution maps, it was possible to determine the radiologically contaminated land areas and to rapidly identify and quantify the degree of contamination and its isotopic nature. The instrument was demonstrated to be a viable tool for the characterisation of similar sites worldwide. PMID:25771221

  4. Men who have sex with men in Great Britain: comparing methods and estimates from probability and convenience sample surveys

    PubMed Central

    Prah, Philip; Hickson, Ford; Bonell, Chris; McDaid, Lisa M; Johnson, Anne M; Wayal, Sonali; Clifton, Soazig; Sonnenberg, Pam; Nardone, Anthony; Erens, Bob; Copas, Andrew J; Riddell, Julie; Weatherburn, Peter; Mercer, Catherine H

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine sociodemographic and behavioural differences between men who have sex with men (MSM) participating in recent UK convenience surveys and a national probability sample survey. Methods We compared 148 MSM aged 18–64 years interviewed for Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) undertaken in 2010–2012, with men in the same age range participating in contemporaneous convenience surveys of MSM: 15 500 British resident men in the European MSM Internet Survey (EMIS); 797 in the London Gay Men's Sexual Health Survey; and 1234 in Scotland's Gay Men's Sexual Health Survey. Analyses compared men reporting at least one male sexual partner (past year) on similarly worded questions and multivariable analyses accounted for sociodemographic differences between the surveys. Results MSM in convenience surveys were younger and better educated than MSM in Natsal-3, and a larger proportion identified as gay (85%–95% vs 62%). Partner numbers were higher and same-sex anal sex more common in convenience surveys. Unprotected anal intercourse was more commonly reported in EMIS. Compared with Natsal-3, MSM in convenience surveys were more likely to report gonorrhoea diagnoses and HIV testing (both past year). Differences between the samples were reduced when restricting analysis to gay-identifying MSM. Conclusions National probability surveys better reflect the population of MSM but are limited by their smaller samples of MSM. Convenience surveys recruit larger samples of MSM but tend to over-represent MSM identifying as gay and reporting more sexual risk behaviours. Because both sampling strategies have strengths and weaknesses, methods are needed to triangulate data from probability and convenience surveys. PMID:26965869

  5. THE BOLOCAM GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY. VIII. A MID-INFRARED KINEMATIC DISTANCE DISCRIMINATION METHOD

    SciTech Connect

    Ellsworth-Bowers, Timothy P.; Glenn, Jason; Battersby, Cara; Ginsburg, Adam; Bally, John; Rosolowsky, Erik; Mairs, Steven; Evans, Neal J. II; Shirley, Yancy L.

    2013-06-10

    We present a new distance estimation method for dust-continuum-identified molecular cloud clumps. Recent (sub-)millimeter Galactic plane surveys have cataloged tens of thousands of these objects, plausible precursors to stellar clusters, but detailed study of their physical properties requires robust distance determinations. We derive Bayesian distance probability density functions (DPDFs) for 770 objects from the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey in the Galactic longitude range 7. Degree-Sign 5 {<=} l {<=} 65 Degree-Sign . The DPDF formalism is based on kinematic distances, and uses any number of external data sets to place prior distance probabilities to resolve the kinematic distance ambiguity (KDA) for objects in the inner Galaxy. We present here priors related to the mid-infrared absorption of dust in dense molecular regions and the distribution of molecular gas in the Galactic disk. By assuming a numerical model of Galactic mid-infrared emission and simple radiative transfer, we match the morphology of (sub-)millimeter thermal dust emission with mid-infrared absorption to compute a prior DPDF for distance discrimination. Selecting objects first from (sub-)millimeter source catalogs avoids a bias towards the darkest infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) and extends the range of heliocentric distance probed by mid-infrared extinction and includes lower-contrast sources. We derive well-constrained KDA resolutions for 618 molecular cloud clumps, with approximately 15% placed at or beyond the tangent distance. Objects with mid-infrared contrast sufficient to be cataloged as IRDCs are generally placed at the near kinematic distance. Distance comparisons with Galactic Ring Survey KDA resolutions yield a 92% agreement. A face-on view of the Milky Way using resolved distances reveals sections of the Sagittarius and Scutum-Centaurus Arms. This KDA-resolution method for large catalogs of sources through the combination of (sub-)millimeter and mid-infrared observations of molecular

  6. Survey of engineering computational methods and experimental programs for estimating supersonic missile aerodynamic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, W. C.; Allen, J. M.; Hernandez, G.; Dillenius, M. F. E.; Hemsch, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of engineering computational methods and experimental programs used for estimating the aerodynamic characteristics of missile configurations. Emphasis is placed on those methods which are suitable for preliminary design of conventional and advanced concepts. An analysis of the technical approaches of the various methods is made in order to assess their suitability to estimate longitudinal and/or lateral-directional characteristics for different classes of missile configurations. Some comparisons between the predicted characteristics and experimental data are presented. These comparisons are made for a large variation in flow conditions and model attitude parameters. The paper also presents known experimental research programs developed for the specific purpose of validating analytical methods and extending the capability of data-base programs.

  7. Dietary survey methods. 1. A semi-weighted technique for measuring dietary intake within families.

    PubMed

    Nelson, M; Nettleton, P A

    1980-10-01

    Family diet studies which measure total family consumption can determine only the average nutrient intake. A method has been devised to measure all family members' individual diets concurrently in order to learn how food and nutrient intake is distributed within the family. In this semi-weighed method, the total quantity of food available for consumption by the family is weighted at time of preparation or serving, and the distribution between family members is recorded in household measures. The method is described in detail. It provides data on individual consumption with an accuracy approaching that of a weighed survey. A co-operation rate of 73 per cent in a random sample of 74 households with two adults and two or three children indicates that this semi-weighed method can be used to assess family diets in a broad cross-section of socio-economic backgounds. PMID:7419908

  8. Research on Reef Bathymetric Survey of Uav Stereopair Based on Two-Medium Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Dongmei; Liao, Ming; Nan, Ao; Wang, Enquan; Zhou, Gaowei

    2016-06-01

    This paper is based on the principles of two-medium photogrammetry, with the purpose to perform a bathymetric survey of a reef in the South China Sea, using aerial imagery acquired by UAV. The first objectives are to introduce the basic principles of two-medium photogrammetry, discuss the technical requirements of this methodology to determine an accurate refractive index of sea water, and propose a new method to calculate seawater refraction and calculate corrected reef elevations. The second objective is to analyse and integrate the elevation and depth datum for both the land mass and the undersea reef. The final objective of this paper is performing stereoscopic mensuration on the UAV photography in order to transform reef elevation and depth datum. Our test shows that aerial two-medium photogrammetry is feasible in practical application, but requires relatively high aerial photography conditions.

  9. A Survey of Stochastic Simulation and Optimization Methods in Signal Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereyra, Marcelo; Schniter, Philip; Chouzenoux, Emilie; Pesquet, Jean-Christophe; Tourneret, Jean-Yves; Hero, Alfred O.; McLaughlin, Steve

    2016-03-01

    Modern signal processing (SP) methods rely very heavily on probability and statistics to solve challenging SP problems. SP methods are now expected to deal with ever more complex models, requiring ever more sophisticated computational inference techniques. This has driven the development of statistical SP methods based on stochastic simulation and optimization. Stochastic simulation and optimization algorithms are computationally intensive tools for performing statistical inference in models that are analytically intractable and beyond the scope of deterministic inference methods. They have been recently successfully applied to many difficult problems involving complex statistical models and sophisticated (often Bayesian) statistical inference techniques. This survey paper offers an introduction to stochastic simulation and optimization methods in signal and image processing. The paper addresses a variety of high-dimensional Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods as well as deterministic surrogate methods, such as variational Bayes, the Bethe approach, belief and expectation propagation and approximate message passing algorithms. It also discusses a range of optimization methods that have been adopted to solve stochastic problems, as well as stochastic methods for deterministic optimization. Subsequently, areas of overlap between simulation and optimization, in particular optimization-within-MCMC and MCMC-driven optimization are discussed.

  10. A Spherical Aerial Terrestrial Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, Christopher J.

    This thesis focuses on the design of a novel, ultra-lightweight spherical aerial terrestrial robot (ATR). The ATR has the ability to fly through the air or roll on the ground, for applications that include search and rescue, mapping, surveillance, environmental sensing, and entertainment. The design centers around a micro-quadcopter encased in a lightweight spherical exoskeleton that can rotate about the quadcopter. The spherical exoskeleton offers agile ground locomotion while maintaining characteristics of a basic aerial robot in flying mode. A model of the system dynamics for both modes of locomotion is presented and utilized in simulations to generate potential trajectories for aerial and terrestrial locomotion. Details of the quadcopter and exoskeleton design and fabrication are discussed, including the robot's turning characteristic over ground and the spring-steel exoskeleton with carbon fiber axle. The capabilities of the ATR are experimentally tested and are in good agreement with model-simulated performance. An energy analysis is presented to validate the overall efficiency of the robot in both modes of locomotion. Experimentally-supported estimates show that the ATR can roll along the ground for over 12 minutes and cover the distance of 1.7 km, or it can fly for 4.82 minutes and travel 469 m, on a single 350 mAh battery. Compared to a traditional flying-only robot, the ATR traveling over the same distance in rolling mode is 2.63-times more efficient, and in flying mode the system is only 39 percent less efficient. Experimental results also demonstrate the ATR's transition from rolling to flying mode.

  11. Methods and results for small area estimation using smoking data from the 2008 National Health Interview Survey.

    PubMed

    Ha, Neung Soo; Lahiri, Partha; Parsons, Van

    2014-09-28

    The National Health Interview Survey, conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics, is designed to provide reliable design-based estimates for a wide range of health-related variables for national and four major geographical regions of the USA. However, state-level or substate-level estimates are likely to be unreliable because they are based on small sample sizes. In this paper, we compare the efficiency of different area-level models in estimating smoking prevalence for the 50 US states and the District of Columbia. Our study is based on survey data from the 2008 National Health Interview Survey in conjunction with a number of potentially related auxiliary variables obtained from the American Community Survey, an ongoing large complex survey conducted by the US Census. A major portion of this study is devoted to the investigation of several methods for estimating survey sampling variances needed to implement an area-level hierarchical model. Based on our findings, a hierarchical Bayesian method that uses a survey-adjusted random sampling variance model to capture the complex survey sampling variability appears to be somewhat superior to the other considered area-level models in accounting for small sample behavior of estimated survey sampling variances. Several diagnostic procedures are presented to compare the proposed methods. PMID:24910281

  12. Developing accurate survey methods for estimating population sizes and trends of the critically endangered Nihoa Millerbird and Nihoa Finch.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorresen, P. Marcos; Camp, Richard J.; Brinck, Kevin W.; Farmer, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Point-transect surveys indicated that millerbirds were more abundant than shown by the striptransect method, and were estimated at 802 birds in 2010 (95%CI = 652 – 964) and 704 birds in 2011 (95%CI = 579 – 837). Point-transect surveys yielded population estimates with improved precision which will permit trends to be detected in shorter time periods and with greater statistical power than is available from strip-transect survey methods. Mean finch population estimates and associated uncertainty were not markedly different among the three survey methods, but the performance of models used to estimate density and population size are expected to improve as the data from additional surveys are incorporated. Using the pointtransect survey, the mean finch population size was estimated at 2,917 birds in 2010 (95%CI = 2,037 – 3,965) and 2,461 birds in 2011 (95%CI = 1,682 – 3,348). Preliminary testing of the line-transect method in 2011 showed that it would not generate sufficient detections to effectively model bird density, and consequently, relatively precise population size estimates. Both species were fairly evenly distributed across Nihoa and appear to occur in all or nearly all available habitat. The time expended and area traversed by observers was similar among survey methods; however, point-transect surveys do not require that observers walk a straight transect line, thereby allowing them to avoid culturally or biologically sensitive areas and minimize the adverse effects of recurrent travel to any particular area. In general, pointtransect surveys detect more birds than strip-survey methods, thereby improving precision and resulting population size and trend estimation. The method is also better suited for the steep and uneven terrain of Nihoa

  13. Cross-continental comparison of national food consumption survey methods--a narrative review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food consumption surveys are performed in many countries. Comparison of results from those surveys across nations is difficult because of differences in methodological approaches. While consensus about the preferred methodology associated with national food consumption surveys is increasing, no in...

  14. Archive of post-Hurricane Charley coastal oblique aerial photographs collected during U.S. Geological Survey field activity 04CCH01 from Marco Island to Fort DeSoto, Florida, August 15, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Subino, Janice A.; Morgan, Karen L.M.; Krohn, M. Dennis; Miller, Gregory K.; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Forde, Arnell S.

    2012-01-01

    To view the survey maps and navigation files, and for more information about these items, see the Navigation page. Figure 1 displays the acquisition geometry. The tables provide detailed information about the assigned location, name, data, and time the photograph was taken along with links to the photo and corresponding 5-min contact sheet. Refer to table 1 and table 2 for details of the northern and southern county photographs, respectively.

  15. The contribution of optical methods and geodetic instruments in structural monitoring: a brief historical survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radulescu, Gheorghe M. T.; Radulescu, Adrian T. G.

    2013-09-01

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is an all-embracing process of implementing a damage detection and characterization strategy for critical infrastructures. Its data acquisition portion relies on a multi-disciplinary approach that combines a variety of sensing technologies to capture, log and analyze data of various types. Engineering surveying science and practice is a key element in SHM that contributes to the detailed characterization of structures' geometry in space and time. Optical and digital imagery systems and methods form an integral part of surveying techniques, and therefore, their evolution has a profound effect in SHM applications. This paper attempts a summary classification and a critical discussion of conventional and emerging engineering surveying techniques related to optical systems for SHM. More specifically, optical sensors are categorized and cross-compared using various criteria, such as their principle of operation, their accuracy characteristics, their limitations due to atmospheric and other effects and their potential to monitor low or high dynamic phenomena. Also, practical issues of interest are examined including their ability to provide simultaneously measurements at a single- /multi-point locations and their capacity to operate remotely and /or integrated within a sensors network. Finally, examples and summary results from various sources are included to further enhance discussion.

  16. How to Score the Sexual Experiences Survey? A Comparison of Nine Methods

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Gilmore, Amanda K.; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Balsan, Michael J.; George, William H.; Norris, Jeanette

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although assessments of sexual assault victimization and perpetration have greatly improved, current scoring methods do not fully utilize the wealth of information they provide. The present studies assessed new methods for scoring sexual assault severity using the Sexual Experiences Survey (SES; Koss et al., 2007). Method In two studies of female (n = 436) and male (n = 313) non-problem drinkers who had engaged in unprotected sex within the past year, we compared three severity ranking schemes as well as three scoring methods per severity scheme for a total of nine scoring methods. New severity ranking schemes considered tactic types separately, varied combinations of assault outcomes, and accounted for multiple types and frequencies of assaults. Measures assessing convergent validity were also administered. Results Seventy-eight percent (n = 340) of the women reported victimization, and 58% (n = 180) of the men reported perpetration. All severity scoring methods were strongly associated with convergent measures. Conclusions Each scoring method is viable; however especially among samples with greater victimization/perpetration rates, there can be advantages to incorporating multiple types and frequencies of assault experiences into SES scores. Recent refinements of the SES necessitate commensurate improvements in its scoring methods in order to significantly advance the field of sexual assault assessment. PMID:25512879

  17. Predator foraging altitudes reveal the structure of aerial insect communities.

    PubMed

    Helms, Jackson A; Godfrey, Aaron P; Ames, Tayna; Bridge, Eli S

    2016-01-01

    The atmosphere is populated by a diverse array of dispersing insects and their predators. We studied aerial insect communities by tracking the foraging altitudes of an avian insectivore, the Purple Martin (Progne subis). By attaching altitude loggers to nesting Purple Martins and collecting prey delivered to their nestlings, we determined the flight altitudes of ants and other insects. We then tested hypotheses relating ant body size and reproductive ecology to flight altitude. Purple Martins flew up to 1,889 meters above ground, and nestling provisioning trips ranged up to 922 meters. Insect communities were structured by body size such that species of all sizes flew near the ground but only light insects flew to the highest altitudes. Ant maximum flight altitudes decreased by 60% from the lightest to the heaviest species. Winged sexuals of social insects (ants, honey bees, and termites) dominated the Purple Martin diet, making up 88% of prey individuals and 45% of prey biomass. By transferring energy from terrestrial to aerial food webs, mating swarms of social insects play a substantial role in aerial ecosystems. Although we focus on Purple Martins and ants, our combined logger and diet method could be applied to a range of aerial organisms. PMID:27352817

  18. Predator foraging altitudes reveal the structure of aerial insect communities

    PubMed Central

    Helms, Jackson A.; Godfrey, Aaron P.; Ames, Tayna; Bridge, Eli S.

    2016-01-01

    The atmosphere is populated by a diverse array of dispersing insects and their predators. We studied aerial insect communities by tracking the foraging altitudes of an avian insectivore, the Purple Martin (Progne subis). By attaching altitude loggers to nesting Purple Martins and collecting prey delivered to their nestlings, we determined the flight altitudes of ants and other insects. We then tested hypotheses relating ant body size and reproductive ecology to flight altitude. Purple Martins flew up to 1,889 meters above ground, and nestling provisioning trips ranged up to 922 meters. Insect communities were structured by body size such that species of all sizes flew near the ground but only light insects flew to the highest altitudes. Ant maximum flight altitudes decreased by 60% from the lightest to the heaviest species. Winged sexuals of social insects (ants, honey bees, and termites) dominated the Purple Martin diet, making up 88% of prey individuals and 45% of prey biomass. By transferring energy from terrestrial to aerial food webs, mating swarms of social insects play a substantial role in aerial ecosystems. Although we focus on Purple Martins and ants, our combined logger and diet method could be applied to a range of aerial organisms. PMID:27352817

  19. A generic risk-based surveying method for invading plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Parnell, S; Gottwald, T R; Riley, T; van den Bosch, F

    2014-06-01

    Invasive plant pathogens are increasing with international trade and travel, with damaging environmental and economic consequences. Recent examples include tree diseases such as sudden oak death in the Western United States and ash dieback in Europe. To control an invading pathogen it is crucial that newly infected sites are quickly detected so that measures can be implemented to control the epidemic. However, since sampling resources are often limited, not all locations can be inspected and locations must be prioritized for surveying. Existing approaches to achieve this are often species specific and rely on detailed data collection and parameterization, which is difficult, especially when new arrivals are unanticipated. Consequently regulatory sampling responses are often ad hoc and developed without due consideration of epidemiology, leading to the suboptimal deployment of expensive sampling resources. We introduce a flexible risk-based sampling method that is pathogen generic and enables available information to be utilized to develop epidemiologically informed sampling programs for virtually any biologically relevant plant pathogen. By targeting risk we aim to inform sampling schemes that identify high-impact locations that can be subsequently treated in order to reduce inoculum in the landscape. This "damage limitation" is often the initial management objective following the first discovery of a new invader. Risk at each location is determined by the product of the basic reproductive number (R0), as a measure of local epidemic size, and the probability of infection. We illustrate how the risk estimates can be used to prioritize a survey by weighting a random sample so that the highest-risk locations have the highest probability of selection. We demonstrate and test the method using a high-quality spatially and temporally resolved data set on Huanglongbing disease (HLB) in Florida, USA. We show that even when available epidemiological information is relatively

  20. Survey of in-situ and remote sensing methods for soil moisture determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T. J.; Jackson, T. J.; Mckim, H. L.

    1981-01-01

    General methods for determining the moisture content in the surface layers of the soil based on in situ or point measurements, soil water models and remote sensing observations are surveyed. In situ methods described include gravimetric techniques, nuclear techniques based on neutron scattering or gamma-ray attenuation, electromagnetic techniques, tensiometric techniques and hygrometric techniques. Soil water models based on column mass balance treat soil moisture contents as a result of meteorological inputs (precipitation, runoff, subsurface flow) and demands (evaporation, transpiration, percolation). The remote sensing approaches are based on measurements of the diurnal range of surface temperature and the crop canopy temperature in the thermal infrared, measurements of the radar backscattering coefficient in the microwave region, and measurements of microwave emission or brightness temperature. Advantages and disadvantages of the various methods are pointed out, and it is concluded that a successful monitoring system must incorporate all of the approaches considered.