Science.gov

Sample records for aerial surveys conducted

  1. Aerial radiation surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Jobst, J.

    1980-01-01

    A recent aerial radiation survey of the surroundings of the Vitro mill in Salt Lake City shows that uranium mill tailings have been removed to many locations outside their original boundary. To date, 52 remote sites have been discovered within a 100 square kilometer aerial survey perimeter surrounding the mill; 9 of these were discovered with the recent aerial survey map. Five additional sites, also discovered by aerial survey, contained uranium ore, milling equipment, or radioactive slag. Because of the success of this survey, plans are being made to extend the aerial survey program to other parts of the Salt Lake valley where diversions of Vitro tailings are also known to exist.

  2. AERIAL RADIOLOGICAL SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, A.E.

    1997-06-09

    Measuring terrestrial gamma radiation from airborne platforms has proved to be a useful method for characterizing radiation levels over large areas. Over 300 aerial radiological surveys have been carried out over the past 25 years including U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, commercial nuclear power plants, Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program/Uranium Mine Tailing Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP/UMTRAP) sites, nuclear weapons test sites, contaminated industrial areas, and nuclear accident sites. This paper describes the aerial measurement technology currently in use by the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) for routine environmental surveys and emergency response activities. Equipment, data-collection and -analysis methods, and examples of survey results are described.

  3. Unmanned aerial survey of elephants.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Cédric; Lejeune, Philippe; Lisein, Jonathan; Sawadogo, Prosper; Bouché, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The use of a UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System) was tested to survey large mammals in the Nazinga Game Ranch in the south of Burkina Faso. The Gatewing ×100™ equipped with a Ricoh GR III camera was used to test animal reaction as the UAS passed, and visibility on the images. No reaction was recorded as the UAS passed at a height of 100 m. Observations, made on a set of more than 7000 images, revealed that only elephants (Loxodonta africana) were easily visible while medium and small sized mammals were not. The easy observation of elephants allows experts to enumerate them on images acquired at a height of 100 m. We, therefore, implemented an aerial strip sample count along transects used for the annual wildlife foot count. A total of 34 elephants were recorded on 4 transects, each overflown twice. The elephant density was estimated at 2.47 elephants/km(2) with a coefficient of variation (CV%) of 36.10%. The main drawback of our UAS was its low autonomy (45 min). Increased endurance of small UAS is required to replace manned aircraft survey of large areas (about 1000 km of transect per day vs 40 km for our UAS). The monitoring strategy should be adapted according to the sampling plan. Also, the UAS is as expensive as a second-hand light aircraft. However the logistic and flight implementation are easier, the running costs are lower and its use is safer. Technological evolution will make civil UAS more efficient, allowing them to compete with light aircraft for aerial wildlife surveys. PMID:23405088

  4. Unmanned Aerial Survey of Elephants

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Cédric; Lejeune, Philippe; Lisein, Jonathan; Sawadogo, Prosper; Bouché, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The use of a UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System) was tested to survey large mammals in the Nazinga Game Ranch in the south of Burkina Faso. The Gatewing ×100™ equipped with a Ricoh GR III camera was used to test animal reaction as the UAS passed, and visibility on the images. No reaction was recorded as the UAS passed at a height of 100 m. Observations, made on a set of more than 7000 images, revealed that only elephants (Loxodonta africana) were easily visible while medium and small sized mammals were not. The easy observation of elephants allows experts to enumerate them on images acquired at a height of 100 m. We, therefore, implemented an aerial strip sample count along transects used for the annual wildlife foot count. A total of 34 elephants were recorded on 4 transects, each overflown twice. The elephant density was estimated at 2.47 elephants/km2 with a coefficient of variation (CV%) of 36.10%. The main drawback of our UAS was its low autonomy (45 min). Increased endurance of small UAS is required to replace manned aircraft survey of large areas (about 1000 km of transect per day vs 40 km for our UAS). The monitoring strategy should be adapted according to the sampling plan. Also, the UAS is as expensive as a second-hand light aircraft. However the logistic and flight implementation are easier, the running costs are lower and its use is safer. Technological evolution will make civil UAS more efficient, allowing them to compete with light aircraft for aerial wildlife surveys. PMID:23405088

  5. A study of methods for lowering aerial environmental survey cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansberry, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The results are presented of a study of methods for lowering the cost of environmental aerial surveys. A wide range of low cost techniques were investigated for possible application to current pressing urban and rural problems. The objective of the study is to establish a definition of the technical problems associated with conducting aerial surveys using various low cost techniques, to conduct a survey of equipment which may be used in low cost systems, and to establish preliminary estimates of cost. A set of candidate systems were selected and described for the environmental survey tasks.

  6. An aerial radiological survey of Maralinga and EMU, South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Tipton, W J; Berry, H A; Fritzsche, A E

    1988-10-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the former British nuclear test ranges at Maralinga and Emu in South Australia from May through July 1987. The survey covered an area of approximately 1,550 square kilometers which included the nine major trial sites, where a nuclear yield occurred, and all the minor trial sites, where physics experiments were conducted. Flight lines were flown at an altitude of 30 meters with line spacings of 50, 100, and 200 meters depending on the area and whether man-made contamination was present. Results of the aerial survey were processed for americium-241 (used to determine plutonium contamination), cesium-137, cobalt-60, and uranium-238. The aerial survey also detected the presence of europium-152, a soil activation product, in the immediate vicinity of the major trial ground zeros. Ground measurements were also made at approximately 120 locations using a high-resolution germanium detector to provide supplemental data for the aerial survey. This survey was conducted as part of a series of studies being conducted over a two to three-year timeframe to obtain information from which options and associated costs can be formulated about the decontamination and possible rehabilitation of the former nuclear test sites.

  7. Aerial radiation survey at a military range.

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, G. P.; Martino, L. E.; Wrobel, J.; Environmental Assessment; U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground

    2001-04-01

    Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) is currently listed on the Superfund National Priorities List because of past waste handling practices at 13 'study areas.' Concern has been expressed that anthropogenic radioisotopes may have been released at some of the study areas, with the potential of posing health risks to human or ecological receptors. This concern was addressed by thoroughly searching archival records, sampling and analyzing environmental media, and performing an aerial radiation survey. The aerial radiation survey techniques employed have been used over all U.S. Department of Energy and commercial reactor sites. Use of the Aerial Measurement System (AMS) allowed investigators to safely survey areas where surveys using hand-held instruments would be difficult to perform. In addition, the AMS delivered a full spectrum of the measured gamma radiation, thereby providing a means of determining which radioisotopes were present at the surface. As a quality check on the aerial measurements, four ground truth measurements were made at selected locations and compared with the aerial data for the same locations. The results of the survey revealed no evidence of surface radioactive contamination. The measured background radiation, including the cosmic contribution, ranged from 4 to 11 {mu}R/h.

  8. An aerial radiological survey of the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, T J; Riedhauser, S R

    1999-12-01

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted an aerial radiological survey of the US Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site including three neighboring areas during August and September 1994. The survey team measured the terrestrial gamma radiation at the Nevada Test Site to determine the levels of natural and man-made radiation. This survey included the areas covered by previous surveys conducted from 1962 through 1993. The results of the aerial survey showed a terrestrial background exposure rate that varied from less than 6 microroentgens per hour (mR/h) to 50 mR/h plus a cosmic-ray contribution that varied from 4.5 mR/h at an elevation of 900 meters (3,000 feet) to 8.5 mR/h at 2,400 meters (8,000 feet). In addition to the principal gamma-emitting, naturally occurring isotopes (potassium-40, thallium-208, bismuth-214, and actinium-228), the man-made radioactive isotopes found in this survey were cobalt-60, cesium-137, europium-152, protactinium-234m an indicator of depleted uranium, and americium-241, which are due to human actions in the survey area. Individual, site-wide plots of gross terrestrial exposure rate, man-made exposure rate, and americium-241 activity (approximating the distribution of all transuranic material) are presented. In addition, expanded plots of individual areas exhibiting these man-made contaminations are given. A comparison is made between the data from this survey and previous aerial radiological surveys of the Nevada Test Site. Some previous ground-based measurements are discussed and related to the aerial data. In regions away from man-made activity, the exposure rates inferred from the gamma-ray measurements collected during this survey agreed very well with the exposure rates inferred from previous aerial surveys.

  9. Inertial instrument system for aerial surveying

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, R.H.; Chapman, W.H.; Hanna, W.F.; Mongan, C.E.; Hursh, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    An inertial guidance system for aerial surveying has been developed under contract to the U.S. Geological Survey. This prototype system, known as the aerial profiling of terrain (APT) system, is designed to determine continuously the positions of points along an aircraft flight path, or the underlying terrain profile, to an accuracy of + or - 0.5 ft (15 cm) vertically and + or - 2 ft (61 cm) horizontally. The system 's objective thus is to accomplish, from a fixed-wing aircraft, what would traditionally be accomplished from ground-based topographic surveys combined with aerial photography and photogrammetry. The two-part strategy for measuring the terrain profile entails: (1) use of an inertial navigator for continuous determination of the three-coordinate position of the aircraft, and (2) use of an eye-safe pulsed laser profiler for continuous measurement of the vertical distance from aircraft to land surface, so that the desired terrain profile can then be directly computed. The APT system, installed in a DeHavilland Twin Otter aircraft, is typically flown at a speed of 115 mph (105 knots) at an altitude of 2,000 ft (610 m) above the terrain. Performance-evaluation flights have shown that the vertical and horizontal accuracy specifications are met. (USGS)

  10. Aerial survey estimates of fallow deer abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gogan, Peter J.; Gates, Natalie B.; Lubow, Bruce C.; Pettit, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Reliable estimates of the distribution and abundance of an ungulate species is essential prior to establishing and implementing a management program. We used ground surveys to determine distribution and ground and aerial surveys and individually marked deer to estimate the abundance of fallow deer (Dama dama) in north-coastal California. Fallow deer had limited distribution and heterogeneous densities. Estimated post-rut densities across 4 annual surveys ranged from a low of 1.4 (SE=0.2) deer/km2 to a high of 3.3 (se=0.5) deer/km2 in a low density stratum and from 49.0 (SE=8.3) deer/km2 to 111.6 deer/km2 in a high density stratum. Sightability was positively influenced by the presence of white color-phase deer in a group and group size, and varied between airial and ground-based observers and by density strata. Our findings underscore the utility of double-observer surveys and aerial surveys with individually marked deer, both incorporating covariates to model sightability, to estimate deer abundance.

  11. Evaluation of aerial survey methods for Dall's sheep

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Udevitz, M.S.; Shults, B.S.; Adams, L.G.; Kleckner, C.

    2006-01-01

    Most Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) population-monitoring efforts use intensive aerial surveys with no attempt to estimate variance or adjust for potential sightability bias. We used radiocollared sheep to assess factors that could affect sightability of Dall's sheep in standard fixed-wing and helicopter surveys and to evaluate feasibility of methods that might account for sightability bias. Work was conducted in conjunction with annual aerial surveys of Dall's sheep in the western Baird Mountains, Alaska, USA, in 2000-2003. Overall sightability was relatively high compared with other aerial wildlife surveys, with 88% of the available, marked sheep detected in our fixed-wing surveys. Total counts from helicopter surveys were not consistently larger than counts from fixed-wing surveys of the same units, and detection probabilities did not differ for the 2 aircraft types. Our results suggest that total counts from helicopter surveys cannot be used to obtain reliable estimates of detection probabilities for fixed-wing surveys. Groups containing radiocollared sheep often changed in size and composition before they could be observed by a second crew in units that were double-surveyed. Double-observer methods that require determination of which groups were detected by each observer will be infeasible unless survey procedures can be modified so that groups remain more stable between observations. Mean group sizes increased during our study period, and our logistic regression sightability model indicated that detection probabilities increased with group size. Mark-resight estimates of annual population sizes were similar to sightability-model estimates, and confidence intervals overlapped broadly. We recommend the sightability-model approach as the most effective and feasible of the alternatives we considered for monitoring Dall's sheep populations.

  12. Aerial surveys adjusted by ground surveys to estimate area occupied by black-tailed prairie dog colonies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sidle, John G.; Augustine, David J.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Miller, Sterling D.; Cully, Jack F., Jr.; Reading, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    Aerial surveys using line-intercept methods are one approach to estimate the extent of prairie dog colonies in a large geographic area. Although black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) construct conspicuous mounds at burrow openings, aerial observers have difficulty discriminating between areas with burrows occupied by prairie dogs (colonies) versus areas of uninhabited burrows (uninhabited colony sites). Consequently, aerial line-intercept surveys may overestimate prairie dog colony extent unless adjusted by an on-the-ground inspection of a sample of intercepts. We compared aerial line-intercept surveys conducted over 2 National Grasslands in Colorado, USA, with independent ground-mapping of known black-tailed prairie dog colonies. Aerial line-intercepts adjusted by ground surveys using a single activity category adjustment overestimated colonies by ≥94% on the Comanche National Grassland and ≥58% on the Pawnee National Grassland. We present a ground-survey technique that involves 1) visiting on the ground a subset of aerial intercepts classified as occupied colonies plus a subset of intercepts classified as uninhabited colony sites, and 2) based on these ground observations, recording the proportion of each aerial intercept that intersects a colony and the proportion that intersects an uninhabited colony site. Where line-intercept techniques are applied to aerial surveys or remotely sensed imagery, this method can provide more accurate estimates of black-tailed prairie dog abundance and trends

  13. Aerial Measuring System (AMS) Baseline Surveys for Emergency Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, C

    2012-06-04

    Originally established in the 1960s to support the Nuclear Test Program, the AMS mission is to provide a rapid and comprehensive worldwide aerial measurement, analysis, and interpretation capability in response to a nuclear/radiological emergency. AMS provides a responsive team of individuals whose processes allow for a mission to be conducted and completed with results available within hours. This presentation slide-show reviews some of the history of the AMS, summarizes present capabilities and methods, and addresses the value of the surveys.

  14. Sightability adjustment methods for aerial surveys of wildlife populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinhorst, R.K.; Samuel, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    Aerial surveys are routinely conducted to estimate the abundance of wildlife species and the rate of population change. However, sightability of animal groups is acknowledged as a significant source of bias in these estimates. Recent research has focused on the development of sightability models to predict the probability of sighting groups under various conditions. Given such models, we show how sightability can be incorporated into the estimator of population size as a probability of response using standard results from sample surveys. We develop formulas for the cases where the sighting probability must be estimated. An example, using data from a helicopter survey of moose in Alberta (Jacobson, Alberta Oil Sands Research Project Report, 1976), is given to illustrate the technique.

  15. An aerial radiological survey of the Sandia National Laboratories and surrounding area

    SciTech Connect

    Riedhauser, S.R.

    1994-06-01

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted an aerial radiological survey of the area surrounding the Sandia National Laboratories and Kirtland Air Force Base in Albuquerque, New Mexico, during March and April 1993. The survey team measured the terrestrial gamma radiation at the site to determine the levels of natural and man-made radiation. This survey includes the areas covered by a previous survey in 1981. The results of the aerial survey show a background exposure rate which varies between 5 and 18 {mu}R/h plus an approximate 6 {mu}R/h contribution from cosmic rays. The major radioactive isotopes found in this survey were: potassium-40, thallium-208, bismuth-214, and actinium-228, which are all naturally-occurring isotopes, and cobalt-60, cesium-137, and excess amounts of thallium-208 and actinium-228, which are due to human actions in the survey area. In regions away from man-made activity, the exposure rates inferred from this survey`s gamma ray measurements agree almost exactly with the exposure rates inferred from the 1981 survey. In addition to the aerial measurements, another survey team conducted in situ and soil sample radiation measurements at three sites within the survey perimeter. These ground-based measurements agree with the aerial measurements within {+-} 5%.

  16. Conducting a thermal conductivity survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, P. B.

    1985-01-01

    A physically transparent approximate theory of phonon decay rates is presented starting from a pair potential model of the interatomic forces in an insulator or semiconductor. The theory applies in the classical regime and relates the 3-phonon decay rate to the third derivative of the pair potential. Phonon dispersion relations do not need to be calculated, as sum rules relate all the needed quantities directly to the pair potential. The Brillouin zone averaged phonon lifetime turns out to involve a dimensionless measure of the anharmonicity multiplied by an effective density of states for 3-phonon decay. Results are given for rare gas and alkali halide crystals. For rare gases, the results are in good agreement with more elaborate perturbation calculations. Comparison to experimental data on phonon linewidths and thermal conductivity are made.

  17. AMS/NRCan Joint Survey Report: Aerial Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Wasiolek, Piotr; Stampahar, Jez; Malchow, Rusty; Stampahar, Tom; Lukens, Mike; Seywerd, Henry; Fortin, Richard; Harvey, Brad; Sinclair, Laurel

    2014-12-31

    In January 2014 the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Aerial Measuring System (AMS) and the Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) Nuclear Emergency Response project conducted a series of joint surveys at a number of locations in Nevada including the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The goal of this project was to compare the responses of the two agencies’ aerial radiation detection systems and data analysis techniques. This test included varied radioactive surface contamination levels and isotopic composition experienced at the NNSS and the differing data processing techniques utilized by the respective teams. Because both teams used the commercial aerial radiation detection systems from Radiation Solutions, Inc., the main focus of the campaign was to investigate the data acquisition techniques, data analysis, and ground-truth verification. The NRCan system consisted of four 4" × 4" × 16" NaI(Tl) scintillator crystals of which two were externally mounted in a modified commercial cargo basket certified for the Eurocopter AS350; the NNSA AMS system consisted of twelve 2" × 4" × 16" NaI(Tl) crystals in externally mounted dedicated pods. For NRCan, the joint survey provided an opportunity to characterize their system’s response to extended sources of various fission products at the NNSS. Since both systems play an important role in their respective countries’ national framework of radiological emergency response and are subject to multiple mutual cooperation agreements, it was important for each country to obtain more thorough knowledge of how they would employ these important assets and define the roles that they would each play in an actual response.

  18. An aerial radiological survey of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding area, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) and surrounding area in Paducah, Kentucky, was conducted during May 15--25, 1990. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the terrestrial radiological environment at the PGDP and surrounding area for use in effective environmental management and emergency response planning. The aerial survey was flown at an altitude of 61 meters (200 feet) along a series of parallel lines 107 meters (350 feet) apart. The survey encompassed an area of 62 square kilometers (24 square miles), bordered on the north by the Ohio River. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a gamma radiation contour map. Typical background exposure rates were found to vary from 5 to 12 microroentgens per hour ([mu]R/h). Protactinium-234m, a radioisotope indicative of uranium-238, was detected at several facilities at the PGDR. In support of the aerial survey, ground-based exposure rate and soil sample measurements were obtained at several sites within the survey perimeter. The results of the aerial and ground-based measurements were found to agree within [plus minus]15%.

  19. An aerial radiological survey of the Ames Laboratory and surrounding area, Ames, Iowa. Date of survey: July 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Maurer, R.J.

    1993-04-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Ames Laboratory and surrounding area in Ames, Iowa, was conducted during the period July 15--25, 1991. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the terrestrial radiological environment at the Ames Laboratory and the surrounding area for use in effective environmental management and emergency response planning. The aerial survey was flown at an altitude of 200 feet (61 meters) along a series of parallel lines 350 feet (107 meters) apart. The survey encompassed an area of 36 square miles (93 square kilometers) and included the city of Ames, Iowa, and the Iowa State University. The results are reported as exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level (inferred from the aerial data) in the form of a gamma radiation contour map. Typical background exposure rates were found to vary from 7 to 9 microroentgens per hour ({mu}R/h). No anomalous radiation levels were detected at the Ames Laboratory. However, one anomalous radiation source was detected at an industrial storage yard in the city of Ames. In support of the aerial survey, ground-based exposure rate and soil sample measurements were obtained at several sites within the survey perimeter. The results of the aerial and ground-based measurements were found to agree within the expected uncertainty of {+-}15%.

  20. Low Cost Surveying Using AN Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, M.; Agüera, F.; Carvajal, F.

    2013-08-01

    Traditional manned airborne surveys are usually expensive and the resolution of the acquired images is often limited. The main advantage of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) system acting as a photogrammetric sensor platform over more traditional manned airborne system is the high flexibility that allows image acquisition from unconventional viewpoints, the low cost in comparison with classical aerial photogrammetry and the high resolution images obtained. Nowadays there is a necessity for surveying small areas and in these cases, it is not economical the use of normal large format aerial or metric cameras to acquire aerial photos, therefore, the use of UAV platforms can be very suitable. Also the large availability of digital cameras has strongly enhanced the capabilities of UAVs. The use of digital non metric cameras together with the UAV could be used for multiple applications such as aerial surveys, GIS, wildfire mapping, stability of landslides, crop monitoring, etc. The aim of this work was to develop a low cost and accurate methodology in the production of orthophotos and Digital Elevation Models (DEM). The study was conducted in the province of Almeria, south of Spain. The photogrammetric flight had an altitude of 50 m over ground, covering an area of 5.000 m2 approximately. The UAV used in this work was the md4-200, which is an electronic battery powered quadrocopter UAV developed by Microdrones GmbH, Germany. It had on-board a Pextax Optio A40 digital non metric camera with 12 Megapixels. It features a 3x optical zoom lens with a focal range covering angles of view equivalent to those of 37-111 mm lens in 35 mm format. The quadrocopter can be programmed to follow a route defined by several waypoints and actions and it has the ability for vertical take off and landing. Proper flight geometry during image acquisition is essential in order to minimize the number of photographs, avoid areas without a good coverage and make the overlaps homogeneous. The flight

  1. An aerial radiological survey of the project Rio Blanco and surrounding area

    SciTech Connect

    Singman, L.V.

    1994-11-01

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, conducted an aerial radiation survey of the area surrounding ground zero of Project Rio Blanco in the northwestern section of Colorado in June 1993. The object of the survey was to determine if there were man-made radioisotopes on or near the surface resulting from a nuclear explosion in 1972. No indications of surface contamination were found. A search for the cesium-137 radioisotope was negative. The Minimum Detectable Activity for cesium-137 is presented for several detection probabilities. The natural terrestrial exposure rates in units of Roentgens per hour were mapped and are presented in the form of a contour map over-laid on an aerial photograph. A second team made independent ground-based measurements in four places within the survey area. The average agreement of the ground-based with aerial measurements was six percent.

  2. GIS for mapping waterfowl density and distribution from aerial surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, W.I.; Stehn, R.A.; Balogh, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    We modified standard aerial survey data collection to obtain the geographic location for each waterfowl observation on surveys in Alaska during 1987-1993. Using transect navigation with CPS (global positioning system), data recording on continuously running tapes, and a computer data input program, we located observations with an average deviation along transects of 214 m. The method provided flexibility in survey design and data analysis. Although developed for geese nesting near the coast of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, the methods are widely applicable and were used on other waterfowl surveys in Alaska to map distribution and relative abundance of waterfowl. Accurate location data with GIS analysis and display may improve precision and usefulness of data from any aerial transect survey.

  3. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Yucca Mountain Project Proposed Land Withdrawal and Adjacent Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Lyons, Thane Hendricks

    2006-07-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) proposed land withdrawal was conducted from January to April 2006, and encompassed a total area of approximately 284 square miles (73,556 hectares). The aerial radiological survey was conducted to provide a sound technical basis and rigorous statistical approach for determining the potential presence of radiological contaminants in the Yucca Mountain proposed Land withdrawal area. The survey site included land areas currently managed by the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Air Force as part of the Nevada Test and Training Range or the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) as part of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The survey was flown at an approximate ground speed of 70 knots (36 meters per second), at a nominal altitude of 150 ft (46 m) above ground level, along a set of parallel flight lines spaced 250 ft (76 m) apart. The flight lines were oriented in a north-south trajectory. The survey was conducted by the DOE NNSA/NSO Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis, which is located in Las Vegas, Nevada. The aerial survey was conducted at the request of the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The primary contaminant of concern was identified by YMP personnel as cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs). Due to the proposed land withdrawal area's proximity to the historical Nuclear Rocket Development Station (NRDS) facilities located on the NTS, the aerial survey system required sufficient sensitivity to discriminate between dispersed but elevated {sup 137}Cs levels from those normally encountered from worldwide fallout. As part of that process, the survey also measured and mapped the exposure-rate levels that currently existed within the survey area. The inferred aerial exposure rates of the natural terrestrial background radiation varied from less than 3 to 22 microroentgens per hour. This range of exposure rates was primarily due to the

  4. Monitoring Whooping Crane Abundance Using Aerial Surveys: Influences on Detectability

    PubMed Central

    Strobel, Bradley N; Butler, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    The whooping crane (Grus americana), an endangered species, has been counted on its winter grounds in Texas, USA, since 1950 using fixed-wing aircraft. Many shortcomings of the traditional survey technique have been identified, calling into question its efficacy, defensibility, repeatability, and usefulness into the future. To improve and standardize monitoring effort, we began investigating new survey techniques. Here we focus on efficacy of line transect-based distance sampling during aerial surveys. We conducted a preliminary test of distance sampling during winter 2010–2011 while flying the traditional survey, which indicated that detectability within 500 m of transects was 0.558 (SE = 0.031). We then used an experimental decoy survey to evaluate impacts of observer experience, sun position, distance from transect, and group size on detectability. Our results indicated decoy detectability increased with group size and exhibited a quadratic relationship with distance likely due to pontoons on the aircraft. We found that detectability was 2.704 times greater when the sun was overhead and 3.912 times greater when the sun was at the observer's back than when it was in the observer's eyes. We found that an inexperienced observer misclassified non-target objects more often than an experienced observer. During the decoy experiment we used marks on the struts to categorize distances into intervals, but we found that observers misclassified distances 46.7% of the time (95% CI = 37.0–56.6%). Also, we found that detectability of individuals within detected groups was affected by group size and distance from transect. We discuss how these results inform design and implementation of future whooping crane monitoring efforts. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:26388657

  5. Sources of variation in detection of wading birds from aerial surveys in the florida Everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conroy, M.J.; Peterson, J.T.; Bass, O.L.; Fonnesbeck, C.J.; Howell, J.E.; Moore, C.T.; Runge, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted dual-observer trials to estimate detection probabilities (probability that a group that is present and available is detected) for fixed-wing aerial surveys of wading birds in the Everglades system, Florida. Detection probability ranged from <0.2 to similar to 0.75 and varied according to species, group size, observer, and the observer's position in the aircraft (front or rear seat). Aerial-survey simulations indicated that incomplete detection can have a substantial effect oil assessment of population trends, particularly river relatively short intervals (<= 3 years) and small annual changes in population size (<= 3%). We conclude that detection bias is an important consideration for interpreting observations from aerial surveys of wading birds, potentially limiting the use of these data for comparative purposes and trend analyses. We recommend that workers conducting aerial surveys for wading birds endeavor to reduce observer and other controllable sources of detection bias and account for uncontrollable sources through incorporation of dual-observer or other calibratior methods as part of survey design (e.g., using double sampling).

  6. Aerial surveys give new estimates for orangutans in Sabah, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ancrenaz, Marc; Gimenez, Olivier; Ambu, Laurentius; Ancrenaz, Karine; Andau, Patrick; Goossens, Benoît; Payne, John; Sawang, Azri; Tuuga, Augustine; Lackman-Ancrenaz, Isabelle

    2005-01-01

    Great apes are threatened with extinction, but precise information about the distribution and size of most populations is currently lacking. We conducted orangutan nest counts in the Malaysian state of Sabah (North Borneo), using a combination of ground and helicopter surveys, and provided a way to estimate the current distribution and size of the populations living throughout the entire state. We show that the number of nests detected during aerial surveys is directly related to the estimated true animal density and that a helicopter is an efficient tool to provide robust estimates of orangutan numbers. Our results reveal that with a total estimated population size of about 11,000 individuals, Sabah is one of the main strongholds for orangutans in North Borneo. More than 60% of orangutans living in the state occur outside protected areas, in production forests that have been through several rounds of logging extraction and are still exploited for timber. The role of exploited forests clearly merits further investigation for orangutan conservation in Sabah. PMID:15630475

  7. An aerial radiological survey of the area surrounding the Maybell mill site, Maybell, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Jobst, J.E.

    1982-06-01

    An aerial radiological measuring system was used to survey the area surrounding Maybell, Colorado and the nearby mines and mill in late October and early November 1981. The survey was conducted for the US Department of Energy's Office of Operational Safety by the Department's Remote Sensing Laboratory, located in Las Vegas, Nevada. The highest measured radiation exposure rates (normalized to 3 feet above the ground) exceed 300 microroentgens per hour ({mu}R/h) over the leach piles at the mill.

  8. Conducting the Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Lois A., Ed.; Sue, Valerie M., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Research regarding the optimal fielding of online surveys is in its infancy and just beginning to offer clear suggestions for effective recruiting of participants as well as techniques for maximizing the response rate. In this article, the authors discuss the process of recruiting participants by e-mailing invitations to a list of recipients…

  9. An aerial radiological survey of the Millstone Nuclear Power Station and surrounding area

    SciTech Connect

    Vojtech, R.J.

    1994-03-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period of September 10 to 18, 1990, over a 40-square-mile (104-square-kilometer) area surrounding the Millstone Nuclear Power Station (MNPS). The MNPS is located on the Long Island Sound shoreline, three kilometers south of Waterford, Connecticut. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the terrestrial gamma ray environment of the plant and surrounding areas. A contour map showing radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level was constructed from the aerial data and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a United States Geological Survey map of the area. The exposure rates within the survey region are quite uniform. The area is characterized by an exposure rate of 10-12 microroentgens per hour including an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.6 {mu}R/h. This is typical of natural background. The only exception to the natural background readings is the Millstone station itself, which is characterized by an exposure rate consistent with the standard operation of the reactor units. Radionuclide assays of soil samples and pressurized-ion-chamber gamma ray measurements were obtained at five locations within the survey boundaries. These measurements were taken in support of, and are in agreement with, the aerial data. The radiological environment near the plant is consistent with normal plant operation.

  10. A hybrid double-observer sightability model for aerial surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffin, Paul C.; Lubow, Bruce C.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Vales, David J.; Moeller, Barbara J.; Reid, Mason; Happe, Patricia J.; Mccorquodale, Scott M.; Tirhi, Michelle J.; Schaberi, Jim P.; Beirne, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Raw counts from aerial surveys make no correction for undetected animals and provide no estimate of precision with which to judge the utility of the counts. Sightability modeling and double-observer (DO) modeling are 2 commonly used approaches to account for detection bias and to estimate precision in aerial surveys. We developed a hybrid DO sightability model (model MH) that uses the strength of each approach to overcome the weakness in the other, for aerial surveys of elk (Cervus elaphus). The hybrid approach uses detection patterns of 2 independent observer pairs in a helicopter and telemetry-based detections of collared elk groups. Candidate MH models reflected hypotheses about effects of recorded covariates and unmodeled heterogeneity on the separate front-seat observer pair and back-seat observer pair detection probabilities. Group size and concealing vegetation cover strongly influenced detection probabilities. The pilot's previous experience participating in aerial surveys influenced detection by the front pair of observers if the elk group was on the pilot's side of the helicopter flight path. In 9 surveys in Mount Rainier National Park, the raw number of elk counted was approximately 80–93% of the abundance estimated by model MH. Uncorrected ratios of bulls per 100 cows generally were low compared to estimates adjusted for detection bias, but ratios of calves per 100 cows were comparable whether based on raw survey counts or adjusted estimates. The hybrid method was an improvement over commonly used alternatives, with improved precision compared to sightability modeling and reduced bias compared to DO modeling.

  11. Aerial radiological survey of Areas 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15 and 17, Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, 8 August-2 September 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Fritzsche, A E

    1982-06-01

    An aerial gamma survey was conducted over Yucca Flat during August 1978. A limited quantity of soil samples was obtained and evaluated in support of the aerial survey. Results are presented in the form of exposure rate isopleths from man-made isotopes and estimates of concentrations and inventories of /sup 152/Eu, /sup 137/Cs and /sup 60/Co.

  12. Coastal Survey Using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, G.

    2012-12-01

    Generating high-resolution 3-dimensional costal imagery from imagery collected on small-unmanned aircraft is opening many opportunities to study marine wildlife and its use of costal habitats as well as climate change effects on northern coasts where storm surges are radically altering the coastline. Additionally, the technology is being evaluated for oil spill response planning and preparation. The University of Alaska Fairbanks works extensively with small-unmanned aircraft and recently began evaluating the aircraft utility for generating survey grade mapping of topographic features. When generating 3-D maps of coastal regions however there are added challenges that the University have identified and are trying to address. Recent projects with Alaska fisheries and BP Exploration Alaska have demonstrated that small-unmanned aircraft can support the generation of map-based products that are nearly impossible to generate with other technologies.

  13. An aerial radiological survey of Frenchman Flat at the Nevada Test Site, Southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, R.C.

    1996-10-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over Frenchman Flat at the Nevada Test Site from January 27 to February 7,1982. Parallel lines were flown at an altitude of 100 feet (30 meters) above ground level with line spacing intervals of 200 feet (61 meters) over a 170-square-mile (440-square-kilometer) area. This covered both Frenchman Flat and the area of the Nellis Range Complex where a fallout deposition plume had exited the Nevada Test Site to the east. The aerial data obtained were reduced to a man-made radiation contour map and overlaid on a U.S. Geological Survey map. The survey detected the presence of fission and activation products. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. A Methodological Intercomparison of Topographic and Aerial Photographic Habitat Survey Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangen, S. G.; Wheaton, J. M.; Bouwes, N.

    2011-12-01

    A severe decline in Columbia River salmonid populations and subsequent Federal listing of subpopulations has mandated both the monitoring of populations and evaluation of the status of available habitat. Numerous field and analytical methods exist to assist in the quantification of the abundance and quality of in-stream habitat for salmonids. These methods range from field 'stick and tape' surveys to spatially explicit topographic and aerial photographic surveys from a mix of ground-based and remotely sensed airborne platforms. Although several previous studies have assessed the quality of specific individual survey methods, the intercomparison of competing techniques across a diverse range of habitat conditions (wadeable headwater channels to non-wadeable mainstem channels) has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we seek to enumerate relative quality (i.e. accuracy, precision, extent) of habitat metrics and inventories derived from an array of ground-based and remotely sensed surveys of varying degrees of sophistication, as well as quantify the effort and cost in conducting the surveys. Over the summer of 2010, seven sample reaches of varying habitat complexity were surveyed in the Lemhi River Basin, Idaho, USA. Complete topographic surveys were attempted at each site using rtkGPS, total station, ground-based LiDaR and traditional airborne LiDaR. Separate high spatial resolution aerial imagery surveys were acquired using a tethered blimp, a drone UAV, and a traditional fixed-wing aircraft. Here we also developed a relatively simplistic methodology for deriving bathymetry from aerial imagery that could be readily employed by instream habitat monitoring programs. The quality of bathymetric maps derived from aerial imagery was compared with rtkGPS topographic data. The results are helpful for understanding the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches in specific conditions, and how a hybrid of data acquisition methods can be used to build a more complete

  15. A review of aerial radiological surveys of Nevada Test Site fallout fields 1951 through 1970

    SciTech Connect

    1987-12-01

    Aerial surveys of offsite fallout radiation fields from the Nevada Test Site began in the early 1950s and continued throughout the above-ground testing period. The results of the aerial surveys were used to support ground data in determining the extent of the fallout patterns. For the series of tests conducted in 1953 and 1955, the primary uncertainty of the results was knowing the location of the aircraft. Navigation was made from aeronautical charts of a scale 1:1,000,000, and errors in location of several miles were experienced. Another problem was that exposure rate readings made in the aircraft of 1 milliroentgen per hour or lower were not reliable. Exposure rate measurements above 1 milliroentgen per hour were more accurate, however, and are considered reliable to within a factor of two or three in predicting 3-foot exposure rate levels. For the 1957 series, the aircraft position data were quite accurate. Ground-level exposure rates predicted from aerial data obtained by the United States Geological Survey aircraft for the five-detector array were considered reliable to within +-40% or better for most of the surveys. When the single detector was used, the accuracy decreased to about a factor of two. Relative count rates obtained by the aircraft operated by the Atomic Energy Commission, Raw Materials Division, are probably valid, but quantitative determination of 3-foot exposure rates are not. The Aerial Radiological Monitoring System performed all the aerial surveys in the 1960s. However, the air-to-ground conversion factors used were too low. Using a corrected conversion factor, the predicted 3-foot exposure rates should be valid to +-40% in most fallout fields if all other parameters are considered. 40 refs., 30 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. An aerial radiological survey of the area surrounding the Gunnison Mill site, Gunnison, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Jobst, J.

    1981-12-01

    An aerial radiological measuring system was used to survey areas surrounding the uranium mill site in Gunnison, Colorado. Part of the survey data were acquired in November 1979, the remainder were collected in August 1980. The survey was conducted for the US Department of Energy's Office of Operational Safety by the Department's Remote Sensing Laboratory of Las Vegas. The highest radiation exposure rates (normalized to 3 feet above the ground) ranged from 200 to 340 microroentgens per hour ({mu}R/h) over the tailings pile on the mill site.

  17. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for surveying marine fauna: a dugong case study.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Amanda; Kelly, Natalie; Peel, David

    2013-01-01

    Aerial surveys of marine mammals are routinely conducted to assess and monitor species' habitat use and population status. In Australia, dugongs (Dugong dugon) are regularly surveyed and long-term datasets have formed the basis for defining habitat of high conservation value and risk assessments of human impacts. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) may facilitate more accurate, human-risk free, and cheaper aerial surveys. We undertook the first Australian UAV survey trial in Shark Bay, western Australia. We conducted seven flights of the ScanEagle UAV, mounted with a digital SLR camera payload. During each flight, ten transects covering a 1.3 km(2) area frequently used by dugongs, were flown at 500, 750 and 1000 ft. Image (photograph) capture was controlled via the Ground Control Station and the capture rate was scheduled to achieve a prescribed 10% overlap between images along transect lines. Images were manually reviewed post hoc for animals and scored according to sun glitter, Beaufort Sea state and turbidity. We captured 6243 images, 627 containing dugongs. We also identified whales, dolphins, turtles and a range of other fauna. Of all possible dugong sightings, 95% (CI = 90%, 98%) were subjectively classed as 'certain' (unmistakably dugongs). Neither our dugong sighting rate, nor our ability to identify dugongs with certainty, were affected by UAV altitude. Turbidity was the only environmental variable significantly affecting the dugong sighting rate. Our results suggest that UAV systems may not be limited by sea state conditions in the same manner as sightings from manned surveys. The overlap between images proved valuable for detecting animals that were masked by sun glitter in the corners of images, and identifying animals initially captured at awkward body angles. This initial trial of a basic camera system has successfully demonstrated that the ScanEagle UAV has great potential as a tool for marine mammal aerial surveys. PMID:24223967

  18. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for Surveying Marine Fauna: A Dugong Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Amanda; Kelly, Natalie; Peel, David

    2013-01-01

    Aerial surveys of marine mammals are routinely conducted to assess and monitor species’ habitat use and population status. In Australia, dugongs (Dugong dugon) are regularly surveyed and long-term datasets have formed the basis for defining habitat of high conservation value and risk assessments of human impacts. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) may facilitate more accurate, human-risk free, and cheaper aerial surveys. We undertook the first Australian UAV survey trial in Shark Bay, western Australia. We conducted seven flights of the ScanEagle UAV, mounted with a digital SLR camera payload. During each flight, ten transects covering a 1.3 km2 area frequently used by dugongs, were flown at 500, 750 and 1000 ft. Image (photograph) capture was controlled via the Ground Control Station and the capture rate was scheduled to achieve a prescribed 10% overlap between images along transect lines. Images were manually reviewed post hoc for animals and scored according to sun glitter, Beaufort Sea state and turbidity. We captured 6243 images, 627 containing dugongs. We also identified whales, dolphins, turtles and a range of other fauna. Of all possible dugong sightings, 95% (CI = 90%, 98%) were subjectively classed as ‘certain’ (unmistakably dugongs). Neither our dugong sighting rate, nor our ability to identify dugongs with certainty, were affected by UAV altitude. Turbidity was the only environmental variable significantly affecting the dugong sighting rate. Our results suggest that UAV systems may not be limited by sea state conditions in the same manner as sightings from manned surveys. The overlap between images proved valuable for detecting animals that were masked by sun glitter in the corners of images, and identifying animals initially captured at awkward body angles. This initial trial of a basic camera system has successfully demonstrated that the ScanEagle UAV has great potential as a tool for marine mammal aerial surveys. PMID:24223967

  19. An aerial radiological survey of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding area, Portsmouth, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted from July 11--20, 1990, over an 83-square-kilometer (32-square-mile) area surrounding the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant located near Portsmouth, Ohio. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 91 meters (300 feet) with line spacings of 122 meters (400 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a set of United States Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps of the area. The terrestrial exposure rates varied from about 7 to 14 microroentgens per hour ([mu]R/h) at 1 meter above the ground. Analysis of the data for man-made sources and for the uranium decay product, protactinium-234m ([sup 234m]Pa), showed five sites within the boundaries of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant with elevated readings. Spectra obtained in the vicinity of the buildings at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant showed the presence of [sup 234m]Pa, a uranium-238 ([sup 238]U) decay product. In addition, spectral analysis of the data obtained over the processing plant facility showed gamma activity indicative of uranium-235 ([sup 234]U). No other man-made gamma ray emitting radioactive material was detected, either on or off the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant property. Soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at five different locations within the survey boundlaries to support the aerial data.

  20. Summary of 1987 and 1988 manatee aerial surveys at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provancha, Jane A.; Provancha, Mark J.

    1989-01-01

    Aerial surveys of manatees conducted since 1977 at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) have provided a very useful and cost effective monitoring tool in the assessment of abundance and distribution of manatees in the northern Banana River. Data collected in the mid 1980's as part of the KSC Environmental Monitoring Program indicated that the numbers of manatees utilizing the northern Banana River had increased dramatically from earlier years and that the animals appeared to have changed their distribution patterns within the area as well (Provancha and Provancha 1988). United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and Florida Department of Natural Resources (FLDNR) conducted bimonthly aerial surveys in 1986 for the entire Florida east coast. Their data clearly show that the Banana River has the highest concentration of manatees during the non-winter months when compared to all other segments of the east coast surveys (B. Wiegle/FLDNR, unpublished data). They further show that, in spring, an average of 71 percent of the manatees in Brevard county were located in the Banana River. During that period 85 percent of the animals were north of the NASA Causeway (State Road (SR) 402) in the KSC security zone. These data indicate the importance of the KSC waters to the Florida east coast manatee population. We reinitiated KSC surveys in 1987 to document distributions and numbers of manatees during the spring influx. Aerial censuses were continued throughout the year in 1988 and this report provides a summary of our findings for the two years.

  1. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and Surrounding Area, Portsmouth, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Namdoo Moon

    2007-12-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the 16 square-mile (~41 square-kilometer) area surrounding the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The survey was performed in August 2007 utilizing a large array of helicopter mounted sodium iodide detectors. The purpose of the survey was to update the previous radiological survey levels of the environment and surrounding areas of the plant. A search for a missing radium-226 source was also performed. Implied exposure rates, man-made activity, and excess bismuth-214 activity, as calculated from the aerial data are presented in the form of isopleth maps superimposed on imagery of the surveyed area. Ground level and implied aerial exposure rates for nine specific locations are compared. Detected radioisotopes and their associated gamma ray exposure rates were consistent with those expected from normal background emitters. At specific plant locations described in the report, man-made activity was consistent with the operational histories of the location. There was no spectral activity that would indicate the presence of the lost source.

  2. Small unmanned aerial vehicles for aeromagnetic surveys and their flights in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funaki, Minoru; Higashino, Shin-Ichiro; Sakanaka, Shinya; Iwata, Naoyoshi; Nakamura, Norihiro; Hirasawa, Naohiko; Obara, Noriaki; Kuwabara, Mikio

    2014-12-01

    We developed small computer-controlled unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, Ant-Plane) using parts and technology designed for model airplanes. These UAVs have a maximum flight range of 300-500 km. We planned aeromagnetic and aerial photographic surveys using the UAVs around Bransfield Basin, Antarctica, beginning from King George Island. However, we were unable to complete these flights due to unsuitable weather conditions and flight restrictions. Successful flights were subsequently conducted from Livingston Island to Deception Island in December 2011. This flight covered 302.4 km in 3:07:08, providing aeromagnetic and aerial photographic data from an altitude of 780 m over an area of 9 × 18 km around the northern region of Deception Island. The resulting magnetic anomaly map of Deception Island displayed higher resolution than the marine anomaly maps published already. The flight to South Bay in Livingston Island successfully captured aerial photographs that could be used for assessment of glacial and sea-ice conditions. It is unclear whether the cost-effectiveness of the airborne survey by UAV is superior to that of manned flight. Nonetheless, Ant-Plane 6-3 proved to be highly cost-effective for the Deception Island flight, considering the long downtime of the airplane in the Antarctic storm zone.

  3. An aerial radiological survey of the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Fort Calhoun, Nebraska

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Plant in Fort Calhoun, Nebraska, during the period June 19 through June 28, 1993. The survey was conducted at an altitude of 150 feet (46 meters) over a 25-square-mile (65-square-kilometer) area centered on the power station. The purpose of the survey was to document the terrestrial gamma radiation environment of the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a contour map. Outside the plant boundary, exposure rates were found to vary between 6 and 12 microroentgens per hour and were attributed to naturally-occurring uranium, thorium, and potassium. The aerial data were compared to ground-based benchmark exposure rate measurements and radionuclide assays of soil samples obtained within the survey boundary. The ground-based measurements were found to be in good agreement with those inferred from the aerial measuring system. A previous survey was conducted on August 9 and 10, 1972, before the plant began operation. Exposure rates measured in both surveys were consistent with normal terrestrial background.

  4. An aerial radiological survey of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and surrounding area, Livermore, California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over four areas in the California cities of Dublin, Livermore, and Tracy from 8 through 29 April 1986. Although a similar aerial survey had been previously conducted over Livermore and Tracy in 1975, this was the first such survey performed over the city of Dublin. The surveyed areas included the Camp Parks training facility in Dublin; the Las Positas Golf Course and the Livermore sewage treatment plant in west Livermore; the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) facilities in east Livermore; and the LLNL facilities at Site 300 located three miles southwest of the city of Tracy, California. Only naturally-occurring radiation was detected over the Camp Parks area in Dublin and over the golf course and sewage treatment plant in west Livermore. Man-made radionuclides were detected over the LLNL facilities in east Livermore and over Site 300. These man-made sources were typical of source storage and radiological activities conducted at the facilities. In areas where only naturally-occurring gamma emitters were detected, the observed range of activity was essentially the same in both the 1975 and 1986 surveys. 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Aerial infrared surveys in the investigation of geothermal and volcanic heat sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1995-01-01

    This factsheet briefly summarizes and clarifies the application of aerial infrared surveys in geophysical exploration for geothermal energy sources and environmental monitoring for potential volcanic hazards.

  6. Recent advances in aerial gamma-ray surveying.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Bruce L

    2004-01-01

    Aerial gamma-ray surveying uses NaI(Tl) detectors mounted in small aircraft to measure gamma radiation, emitted from the earth's surface. The data are collected as gamma-ray spectra, typically with 1 s counting times, from which are derived K, U and Th concentrations in the ground. Applications of aerial surveying include geological mapping for mineral exploration, soil mapping for agriculture, pollution studies and location of lost sources. Recent advances in applying statistical methods to the spectral data have resulted in large reductions in the noise levels in the surveys. Some of the methods available to do this include noise adjusted singular value decomposition (NASVD) [Proceedings of Exploration 97: Fourth Decennial International Conference on Mineral Exploration (1997) 753] and maximum noise fraction (MNF) and enhanced MNF (eMNF) [Explor. Geophys. 31 (2000) 73]. These methods, in general, apply normalization for variance to the spectra, use a principal component method to obtain the "significant" components of the data and reconstruct cleaned spectra, which are then processed in a standard manner to get radionuclide concentrations. However, they differ in the detail of the application and thus give slightly different results. In this paper, the application of noise reduction methods to various synthetic surveys is used to examine the strengths and weaknesses of the methods. In tests where there are high correlations between U and Th, the eMNF method performs best although the results are improved by prior clustering of the data by the Th/U ratio. If the data show no correlations, then the effectiveness of all the noise removal methods is reduced. If a data set is small (<1500 spectra), then MNF appears to be the better method. Consideration of the various tests suggests an optimum process whereby spectra are sorted into groups by the Th/U ratio of areas identified in a standard processing and then cleaned by eMNF or MNF, depending on the number of spectra

  7. An aerial radiological survey of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Forked River, New Jersey. Date of survey: September 18--25, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, H.A.; McCall, K.A.

    1994-05-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant in Forked River, New Jersey, during the period September 18 through September 24, 1992. The survey was conducted at an altitude of 150 feet (46 meters) over a 26-square-mile (67-square-kilometer) area centered on the power station. The purpose of the survey was to document the terrestrial gamma radiation environment of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power plant and surrounding area. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a contour map. Outside the plant boundary, exposure rates were found to vary between 4 and 10 microroentgens per hour and were attributed to naturally-occurring uranium, thorium, and radioactive potassium gamma emitters. The aerial data were compared to ground-based benchmark exposure rate measurements and radionuclide assays of soil samples obtained within the survey boundary. The ground-based measurements were found to be in good agreement with those inferred from the aerial measuring system. A previous survey of the power plant was conducted in August 1969 during its initial startup phase. Exposure rates and radioactive isotopes revealed in both surveys were consistent and within normal terrestrial background levels.

  8. An aerial survey method to estimate sea otter abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, J.L.; Udevitz, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) occur in shallow coastal habitats and can be highly visible on the sea surface. They generally rest in groups and their detection depends on factors that include sea conditions, viewing platform, observer technique and skill, distance, habitat and group size. While visible on the surface, they are difficult to see while diving and may dive in response to an approaching survey platform. We developed and tested an aerial survey method that uses intensive searches within portions of strip transects to adjust for availability and sightability biases. Correction factors are estimated independently for each survey and observer. In tests of our method using shore-based observers, we estimated detection probabilities of 0.52-0.72 in standard strip-transects and 0.96 in intensive searches. We used the survey method in Prince William Sound, Alaska to estimate a sea otter population size of 9,092 (SE = 1422). The new method represents an improvement over various aspects of previous methods, but additional development and testing will be required prior to its broad application.

  9. Detection probability in aerial surveys of feral horses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ransom, Jason I.

    2011-01-01

    Observation bias pervades data collected during aerial surveys of large animals, and although some sources can be mitigated with informed planning, others must be addressed using valid sampling techniques that carefully model detection probability. Nonetheless, aerial surveys are frequently employed to count large mammals without applying such methods to account for heterogeneity in visibility of animal groups on the landscape. This often leaves managers and interest groups at odds over decisions that are not adequately informed. I analyzed detection of feral horse (Equus caballus) groups by dual independent observers from 24 fixed-wing and 16 helicopter flights using mixed-effect logistic regression models to investigate potential sources of observation bias. I accounted for observer skill, population location, and aircraft type in the model structure and analyzed the effects of group size, sun effect (position related to observer), vegetation type, topography, cloud cover, percent snow cover, and observer fatigue on detection of horse groups. The most important model-averaged effects for both fixed-wing and helicopter surveys included group size (fixed-wing: odds ratio = 0.891, 95% CI = 0.850–0.935; helicopter: odds ratio = 0.640, 95% CI = 0.587–0.698) and sun effect (fixed-wing: odds ratio = 0.632, 95% CI = 0.350–1.141; helicopter: odds ratio = 0.194, 95% CI = 0.080–0.470). Observer fatigue was also an important effect in the best model for helicopter surveys, with detection probability declining after 3 hr of survey time (odds ratio = 0.278, 95% CI = 0.144–0.537). Biases arising from sun effect and observer fatigue can be mitigated by pre-flight survey design. Other sources of bias, such as those arising from group size, topography, and vegetation can only be addressed by employing valid sampling techniques such as double sampling, mark–resight (batch-marked animals), mark–recapture (uniquely marked and

  10. An aerial radiological survey of the Durango, Colorado uranium mill tailings site and surrounding area

    SciTech Connect

    Hilton, L.K.

    1981-06-01

    An aerial radiological survey of Durango, Colorado, including the inactive uranium mill tailings piles located southwest of the town, was conducted during August 25--29, 1980, for the Department of Energy's Environmental and Safety Engineering Division. Areas of radiation exposure rates higher than the local background, which was about 15 microrentgens per hour ({mu}R/h), were observed directly over and to the south of the mill tailings piles, over a cemetery, and at two spots near the fairgrounds. The rapidly changing radiation exposure rates at the boundaries of the piles preclude accurate extrapolation of aerial radiological data to ground level exposure rates in their immediate vicinity. Estimated radiation exposure rates close to the piles, however, approached 30 times background, or about 450 {mu}R/h. Radiation exposure rates in a long area extending south from the tailings piles were about 25 {mu}R/h.

  11. An aerial radiological survey of the Durango, Colorado uranium mill tailings site and surrounding area. Date of survey: August 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hilton, L.K.

    1981-06-01

    An aerial radiological survey of Durango, Colorado, including the inactive uranium mill tailings piles located southwest of the town, was conducted during August 25--29, 1980, for the Department of Energy`s Environmental and Safety Engineering Division. Areas of radiation exposure rates higher than the local background, which was about 15 microrentgens per hour ({mu}R/h), were observed directly over and to the south of the mill tailings piles, over a cemetery, and at two spots near the fairgrounds. The rapidly changing radiation exposure rates at the boundaries of the piles preclude accurate extrapolation of aerial radiological data to ground level exposure rates in their immediate vicinity. Estimated radiation exposure rates close to the piles, however, approached 30 times background, or about 450 {mu}R/h. Radiation exposure rates in a long area extending south from the tailings piles were about 25 {mu}R/h.

  12. An aerial radiological survey of the neutron products company and surrounding area

    SciTech Connect

    Vojtech, R.J.

    1994-12-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted from November 1-10, 1993, over the Neutron Products Company and neighboring areas. The company, located in Dickerson, Maryland, has two major operations involving the radioisotope cobalt-60 ({sup 60}Co)-the manufacture of commercial {sup 60}Co sources and the sterilization of medical products by exposure to radiation. The sterilization facility consists of two {sup 60}Co sources with activities of approximately 500,000 and 1,500,000 Ci, respectively. The purpose of the aerial survey was to detect and document any anomalous gamma-emitting radionuclides in the environment which may have resulted from operations of the Neutron Products Company. The survey covered two areas: the first was a 6.5- by 6.5-kilometer area centered over the Neutron Products facility; the second area was a 2- by 2.5-kilometer region surrounding a waste pumping station on Muddy Branch in Gaithersburg, Maryland. This site is approximately fifteen kilometers southeast of the Neutron Products facility and was included because sanitary and other liquid waste materials from the plant site are being disposed of at the pumping station. Contour maps showing gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level, overlaid on an aerial photo of the area, were constructed from the data measured during the flights. The exposure rates measured within the survey regions were generally uniform and typical of rates resulting from natural background radiation. Only one area showed an enhanced exposure rate not attributable to natural background. This area, located directly over the Neutron Products facility, was analyzed and identified as {sup 60}Co, the radioisotope used in the irradiation and source production operations conducted at the Neutron Products Company. The measurements over the Muddy Branch area in Gaithersburg were typical of natural background radiation and showed no evidence of {sup 60}Co or any other man-made radionuclide.

  13. Initial Efforts toward Mission-Representative Imaging Surveys from Aerial Explorers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pisanich, Greg; Plice, Laura; Ippolito, Corey; Young, Larry A.; Lau, Benton; Lee, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    Numerous researchers have proposed the use of robotic aerial explorers to perform scientific investigation of planetary bodies in our solar system. One of the essential tasks for any aerial explorer is to be able to perform scientifically valuable imaging surveys. The focus of this paper is to discuss the challenges implicit in, and recent observations related to, acquiring mission-representative imaging data from a small fixed-wing UAV, acting as a surrogate planetary aerial explorer. This question of successfully performing aerial explorer surveys is also tied to other topics of technical investigation, including the development of unique bio-inspired technologies.

  14. Sea otter abundance in Kenai Fjords national Park: results from the 2010 aerial survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coletti, Heather A.; Bodkin, James L.; Esslinger, George

    2011-01-01

    Fjord, Nuka Bay and Nuka Island. All observed otters were in the high density stratum, defined as the 0 m to 40 m depth contour and minimum distances from shore, while no sea otters were observed in the low density stratum, which is defined as the area within the 40m to 100 m depth contour. We recommend that prior to the next aerial sea otter survey in KEFJ (scheduled for 2013), a power simulation be conducted to evaluate methods to improve precision of estimates and the ability to detect change.

  15. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Las Vegas Strip and Adjacent Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Wasiolek, Piotr

    2009-02-01

    As proficiency training for the Radiological Mapping mission of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), a survey team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory–Nellis (RSL-Nellis) conducted an aerial radiological survey of the Las Vegas Strip and adjacent areas on December 29, 2008. This survey was one of the bi-annual surveys carried in support of the city of Las Vegas Police Department (LVPD) before significant events on the Las Vegas Strip: e.g., the annual New Year’s Eve and July Fourth celebrations. The AMS operation and appropriate law enforcement agencies selected this area as an appropriate urban location to exercise AMS capability for mapping environmental radiation and searching for man-made radioactive sources. The surveys covered approximately 11 square miles. Each survey required a 2.5-hour-long flight, performed at an altitude of 300 ft above ground level (AGL) at a line spacing of 600 ft. Water line and test line flights are conducted over the Lake Mead and Government Wash areas to determine the non-terrestrial background contributed by aircraft, radon, and cosmic activity, and to determine the altitude-dependent air mass correction. The data were collected by the AMS data acquisition system (REDAR V) using an array of twelve 2" x 4" x 16" sodium iodide (NaI) detectors flown on-board a twin-engine Bell 412 helicopter. Gamma energy spectral data were collected second-by-second over the survey area. This spectral data allows the system to distinguish between natural terrestrial background contributions and man-made radioisotope contributions. Spectral data can also be used to identify specific man-made radioactive isotopes. Data geo-locations were determined with a Real-Time Differential Global Positioning System (RDGPS).

  16. Aerial Magnetic, Electromagnetic, and Gamma-ray Survey, Berrien County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duval, Joseph S.; Pierce, Herbert A.; Daniels, David L.; Mars, John L.; Webring, Michael W.; Hildenbrand, Thomas G.

    2002-01-01

    This publication includes maps, grids, and flightline databases of a detailed aerial survey and maps and grids of satellite data in Berrien County, Michigan. The purpose of the survey was to map aquifers in glacial terrains. This was accomplished by using a DIGHEMVRES mufti-coil, mufti-frequency electromagnetic system supplemented by a high sensitivity cesium magnetometer and 256-channel spectrometer. The information from these sensors was processed to produce maps, which display the conductive, magnetic and radioactive properties of the survey area. A GPS electronic navigation system ensured accurate positioning of the geophysical data. This report also includes data from the advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection (ASTER) radiometer. ASTER measures thermal emission and reflection data for 14 bands of the spectrum.

  17. An Aerial Radiological Survey of Selected Areas of Area 18 - Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Lyons

    2009-07-31

    As part of the proficiency training for the Radiological Mapping mission of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), a survey team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis (RSL-Nellis) conducted an aerial radiological survey of selected areas of Area 18 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for the purpose of mapping man-made radiation deposited as a result of the Johnnie Boy and Little Feller I tests. The survey area centered over the Johnnie Boy ground zero but also included the ground zero and deposition area of the Little Feller I test, approximately 7,000 feet (2133 meters) southeast of the Johnnie Boy site. The survey was conducted in one flight. The completed survey covered a total of 4.0 square miles. The flight lines (with the turns) over the surveyed areas are presented in Figure 1. One 2.5-hour-long flight was performed at an altitude of 100 ft above ground level (AGL) with 200 foot flight-line spacing. A test-line flight was conducted near the Desert Rock Airstrip to ensure quality control of the data. The test line is not shown in Figure 1. However, Figure 1 does include the flight lines for a ''perimeter'' flight. The path traced by the helicopter flying over distinct roads within the survey area can be used to overlay the survey data on a base map or image. The flight survey lines were flown in an east-west orientation perpendicular to the deposition patterns for both sites. This technique provides better spatial resolution when contouring the data. The data were collected by the AMS data acquisition system (REDAR V) using an array of twelve 2-inch x 4-inch x 16-inch sodium iodide (NaI) detectors flown on-board a twin-engine Bell 412 helicopter. Data, in the form of gamma energy spectra, were collected every second over the course of the survey and were geo-referenced using a differential Global Positioning System. Spectral data allows the system to distinguish between ordinary fluctuations in natural background radiation levels and the signature produced by man

  18. An aerial radiological survey of the Evans Area, US Army Communications-Electronics Command, Fort Monmouth, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Maurer, R.J.

    1989-12-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Evans Area, US Army Communications-Electronics Command, Fort Monmouth, New Jersey, during the period November 14--18, 1988. The purposes of the survey were to document the terrestrial gamma environment of the Evans site and surrounding area and to determine if there had been any radiological impact on the area due to past laboratory operations. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a contour map. The aerial data were compared to ground-based benchmark'' exposure rate measurements and radionuclide assay of soil samples obtained at sites outside the survey perimeter. Similar ground-based measurements were also made at several locations on the Evans site and at the bank of the Shark River bordering the Evans Area. No evidence for contamination was identified by either radionuclide assay of soil samples or the aerial survey. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. An aerial radiological survey of the former Chemetron factory site and surrounding area, Newburgh Heights, Ohio. Date of survey: April 1991

    SciTech Connect

    1992-04-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period April 15--27, 1991, over an area surrounding the former location of a Chemetron Corporation factory and an associated disposal site. The area surveyed is situated in Newburgh Heights, Ohio, 3 kilometers south of Cleveland, Ohio. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the gamma ray environment of the former factory and dump site and surrounding area. Contour maps showing gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level were constructed from the aerial data and overlaid on an aerial photograph of the area. The exposure rates measured within the survey region were generally uniform and typical of natural background: 3--7 microroentgens per hour ({mu}R/h), excluding an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.6 {mu}R/h. Enhanced exposure rates not attributable to natural background were measured over three areas within the survey region. Two areas, both within the boundary of a sewage processing plant, showed evidence of cobalt-60 ({sup 60}CO). A third area, measured over a chemical factory, showed evidence of thorium-232 ({sup 232}Th). Radionuclide assays of soil samples and pressurized ionization chamber measurements were obtained at seven locations within the survey boundaries. These measurements are in agreement with the aerial data.

  20. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the City of North Las Vegas (Downtown) and the Motor Speedway

    SciTech Connect

    Piotr Wasiolek

    2007-12-01

    As part of the proficiency training for the Radiological Mapping mission of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), a survey team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis (RSL-Nellis) conducted an aerial radiological survey on December 11-12, 2007, with the purpose of mapping natural radiation background and locating any man-made radioactive sources. The survey covered 19.4 square miles (9.2 square miles over the downtown area of the City of North Las Vegas and 10.2 square miles over the Las Vegas Motor Speedway [LVMS]). The flight lines over the surveyed areas are presented in Figures 1 and 2. A total of four 2.5-hour-long flights were performed at an altitude of 150 ft above ground level (AGL) with 300 ft of flight line spacing. Water line and test line flights were conducted over the Lake Mead and Government Wash areas to ensure quality control of the data. The data were collected by the AMS data acquisition system-REDAR V using an array of twelve 2-inch x 4-inch x 16-inch sodium iodide (NaI) detectors flown on-board a twin-engine Bell 412 helicopter. Data in the form of gamma energy spectra were collected continually (every second) over the course of the survey and were geo-referenced using a differential Global Positioning System. Collection of spectral data allows the system to distinguish between ordinary fluctuations in natural background radiation levels and the signature produced by man-made radioisotopes sources. Spectral data can also be used to identify specific radioactive isotopes. As a courtesy service with the approval of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office, RSL-Nellis is providing this summary to the office of the Mayor of City of North Las Vegas and LVMS security along with the gross counts-based exposure rate and man-made counts maps.

  1. An aerial radiological survey of Project Gasbuggy and surrounding area, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico. Date of survey: October 27, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Project Gasbuggy site, 55 miles (89 kilometers) east of Farmington, New Mexico, on October 27, 1994. Parallel lines were flown at intervals of 300 feet (91 meters) over a 16-square-mile (41-square-kilometer) area at a 150-foot (46-meter) altitude centered on the Gasbuggy site. The gamma energy spectra obtained were reduced to an exposure rate contour map overlaid on a high altitude aerial photograph of the area. The terrestrial exposure rate varied from 14 to 20 {micro}R/h at 1 meter above ground level. No anomalous or man-made isotopes were found.

  2. Aerial survey methodology for bison population estimation in Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, Steven C.

    2002-01-01

    I developed aerial survey methods for statistically rigorous bison population estimation in Yellowstone National Park to support sound resource management decisions and to understand bison ecology. Survey protocols, data recording procedures, a geographic framework, and seasonal stratifications were based on field observations from February 1998-September 2000. The reliability of this framework and strata were tested with long-term data from 1970-1997. I simulated different sample survey designs and compared them to high-effort censuses of well-defined large areas to evaluate effort, precision, and bias. Sample survey designs require much effort and extensive information on the current spatial distribution of bison and therefore do not offer any substantial reduction in time and effort over censuses. I conducted concurrent ground surveys, or 'double sampling' to estimate detection probability during aerial surveys. Group size distribution and habitat strongly affected detection probability. In winter, 75% of the groups and 92% of individual bison were detected on average from aircraft, while in summer, 79% of groups and 97% of individual bison were detected. I also used photography to quantify the bias due to counting large groups of bison accurately and found that undercounting increased with group size and could reach 15%. I compared survey conditions between seasons and identified optimal time windows for conducting surveys in both winter and summer. These windows account for the habitats and total area bison occupy, and group size distribution. Bison became increasingly scattered over the Yellowstone region in smaller groups and more occupied unfavorable habitats as winter progressed. Therefore, the best conditions for winter surveys occur early in the season (Dec-Jan). In summer, bison were most spatially aggregated and occurred in the largest groups by early August. Low variability between surveys and high detection probability provide population estimates

  3. A double-observer method to estimate detection rate during aerial waterfowl surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koneff, M.D.; Royle, J. Andrew; Otto, M.C.; Wortham, J.S.; Bidwell, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated double-observer methods for aerial surveys as a means to adjust counts of waterfowl for incomplete detection. We conducted our study in eastern Canada and the northeast United States utilizing 3 aerial-survey crews flying 3 different types of fixed-wing aircraft. We reconciled counts of front- and rear-seat observers immediately following an observation by the rear-seat observer (i.e., on-the-fly reconciliation). We evaluated 6 a priori models containing a combination of several factors thought to influence detection probability including observer, seat position, aircraft type, and group size. We analyzed data for American black ducks (Anas rubripes) and mallards (A. platyrhynchos), which are among the most abundant duck species in this region. The best-supported model for both black ducks and mallards included observer effects. Sample sizes of black ducks were sufficient to estimate observer-specific detection rates for each crew. Estimated detection rates for black ducks were 0.62 (SE = 0.10), 0.63 (SE = 0.06), and 0.74 (SE = 0.07) for pilot-observers, 0.61 (SE = 0.08), 0.62 (SE = 0.06), and 0.81 (SE = 0.07) for other front-seat observers, and 0.43 (SE = 0.05), 0.58 (SE = 0.06), and 0.73 (SE = 0.04) for rear-seat observers. For mallards, sample sizes were adequate to generate stable maximum-likelihood estimates of observer-specific detection rates for only one aerial crew. Estimated observer-specific detection rates for that crew were 0.84 (SE = 0.04) for the pilot-observer, 0.74 (SE = 0.05) for the other front-seat observer, and 0.47 (SE = 0.03) for the rear-seat observer. Estimated observer detection rates were confounded by the position of the seat occupied by an observer, because observers did not switch seats, and by land-cover because vegetation and landform varied among crew areas. Double-observer methods with on-the-fly reconciliation, although not without challenges, offer one viable option to account for detection bias in aerial waterfowl

  4. An aerial radiological survey of the Davis-Monthan Air Force Base and surrounding area, Tucson, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    An aerial radiological survey, which was conducted from March 1 to 13, 1995, covered a 51-square-mile (132-square-kilometer) area centered on the Davis-Monthan Air Force Base (DMAFB) in Tucson, Arizona. The results of the survey are reported as contours of bismuth-214 ({sup 214}Bi) soil concentrations, which are characteristic of natural uranium and its progeny, and as contours of the total terrestrial exposure rates extrapolated to one meter above ground level. All data were scaled and overlaid on an aerial photograph of the DMAFB area. The terrestrial exposure rates varied from 9 to 20 microroentgens per hour at one meter above the ground. Elevated levels of terrestrial radiation due to increased concentrations of {sup 214}Bi (natural uranium) were observed over the Southern Pacific railroad yard and along portions of the railroad track bed areas residing both within and outside the base boundaries. No man-made, gamma ray-emitting radioactive material was observed by the aerial survey. High-purity germanium spectrometer and pressurized ionization chamber measurements at eight locations within the base boundaries were used to verify the integrity of the aerial results. The results of the aerial and ground-based measurements were found to be in agreement. However, the ground-based measurements were able to detect minute quantities of cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) at six of the eight locations examined. The presence of {sup 137}Cs is a remnant of fallout from foreign and domestic atmospheric nuclear weapons testing that occurred in the 1950s and early 1960s. Cesium-137 concentrations varied from 0.1 to 0.3 picocuries per gram, which is below the minimum detectable activity of the aerial system.

  5. An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and surrounding area, West Valley, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, H.A.

    1991-09-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and the surrounding area was conducted from mid-August through early September 1984 by EG G Energy Measurements, Inc. for the United States Department of Energy. The radiological survey was part of the United States Department of Energy Comprehensive Integrated Remote Sensing (CIRS) program, which provides state-of-the-art remote sensing to support the needs of the various DOE facilities. The survey consisted of airborne measurements of both natural and man-made gamma radiation emanating from the terrestrial surface. These measurements allowed an estimate of the distribution of isotopic concentrations in the area surrounding the project site. Results are reported as isopleths superimposed on aerial photographs of the area. Gamma ray energy spectra are also presented for the net man-made radionuclides. 8 refs., 16 figs., 9 tabs.

  6. An Aerial Radiological survey of the Alvin W. Vogtle Nuclear Plant and surrounding area, Waynesboro, Georgia: Date of survey: August--September 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    An Aerial Radiological Survey was conducted during the period of August 24 to September 14, 1988 over an area of approximately 310 square kilometers (120 square miles) surrounding the Alvin W. Vogtle Nuclear Plant. The Vogtle Nuclear Plant is located near Augusta, Georgia, along the Savannah River and adjacent to the Savannah River Site (SRS). Several anomalous areas were identified in the portion of the survey extending into the SRS perimeter. The dominant isotopes found in these areas were cesium-137 and cobalt-60. All of these man-made anomalies identified by the aerial measurements were attributed to SRS processing. For the remainder of the survey area, the inferred radiation exposure rates generally varied from 6 to 10 microroentgens per hour ({mu}R/h), which was found to be due to naturally occurring uranium, thorium, and radioactive potassium gamma emitters. The reported exposure rate values included an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.6 {mu}R/h. Soils samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at three locations within the survey boundaries to support the aerial data. The exposure rate values obtained from these groundbased measurements were in agreement with the corresponding inferred aerial values. 6 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Conducting Surveys on Sensitive Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, John H.

    2004-01-01

    Many institutions are surveying students about sensitive topics such as alcohol and drug use, sexual behavior, and academic dishonesty. Yet these can be some of the most difficult surveys to administer successfully, given reluctance on the part of respondents both to participate and to provide truthful answers. (Contains 1 table.)

  8. An Aerial Radiological Survey of Selected Areas of the City of North Las Vegas

    SciTech Connect

    Piotr Wasiolek

    2008-06-01

    As part of the proficiency training for the Radiological Mapping mission of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), a survey team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis (RSL-Nellis) conducted an aerial radiological survey of selected areas of the city of North Las Vegas for the purpose of mapping natural radiation background and locating any man-made radioactive sources. Survey areas were selected in collaboration with the City Manager's office and included four separate areas: (1) Las Vegas Motor Speedway (10.6 square miles); (2) North Las Vegas Downtown Area (9.2 square miles); (3) I-15 Industrial Corridor (7.4 square miles); and (4) Future site of University of Nevada Las Vegas campus (17.4 square miles). The survey was conducted in three phases: Phase 1 on December 11-12, 2007 (Areas 1 and 2), Phase 2 on February 28, 2008 (Area 3), and Phase 3 on March 19, 2008 (Area 4). The total completed survey covered a total of 44.6 square miles. The flight lines (without the turns) over the surveyed areas are presented in Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4. A total of eight 2.5-hour-long flights were performed at an altitude of 150 ft above ground level (AGL) with 300 feet of flight-line spacing. Water line and test line flights were conducted over the Lake Mead and Government Wash areas to ensure quality control of the data. The data were collected by the AMS data acquisition system (REDAR V) using an array of twelve 2-inch x 4-inch x 16-inch sodium iodide (NaI) detectors flown on-board a twin-engine Bell 412 helicopter. Data, in the form of gamma energy spectra, were collected continually (every second) over the course of the survey and were geo-referenced using a differential Global Positioning System. Collection of spectral data allows the system to distinguish between ordinary fluctuations in natural background radiation levels and the signature produced by man-made radioisotopes. Spectral data can also be used to identify specific radioactive isotopes. As a courtesy service, with

  9. Aerial surveys of endangered whales in the Beaufort Sea, Fall 1989. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Treacy, S.D.

    1990-11-01

    The OCSLA Amendments of 1978 (43 U.S.C. 1802) established a policy for the management of oil and natural gas in the OCS and for protection of the marine and coastal environments. The amended OCSLA authorizes the Secretary of the Interior to conduct studies in areas or regions of sales to ascertain the environmental impacts on the marine and coastal environments of the outer Continental Shelf and the coastal areas which may be affected by oil and gas development (43 U.S.C. 1346). The report describes field activities and data analyses for aerial surveys of bowhead whales conducted between 1 September 1989 and 20 October 1989 in the Beaufort Sea, primarily between 140 W. and 154 W. longitudes south of 72 N. latitude. Ice cover during September and October 1989 was exceptionally light. A total of 215 bowhead whales, 104 belukha whales, 9 bearded seals, 84 ringed seals, and 32 unidentified pinnipeds were observed in 1989 during 98.70 hours of survey effort that included 38.10 hours on randomized transects. The last sighting of a bowhead whale made during the survey occurred in open water on 19 October 1989. No whales were sighted during a subsequent flight on 20 October 1989. Estimated median and mean water depths were shallower than for previous surveys (1982-1989). This is consistent with a trend for whales to be located in shallower water during years of generally light ice cover.

  10. Aerial remote sensing surveys progress report: Helicopter geophysical survey of the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Doll, W.E.; Nyquist, J.E.; King, A.D. ); Bell, D.T. ); Holladay, J.S. ); Labson, V.F.; Pellerin, L. )

    1993-03-01

    The 35,252 acre Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in the western portion of the Appalachian Valley and Ridge Province in Tennessee, has been a nuclear production and development facility for50 years. Contaminants in the many waste sites on the ORR include a wide variety of radioactive isotopes as well as many organic and inorganic compounds. The locations, geometry, and contents of many of these waste sites are reasonably well known, while others are poorly known or unknown. To better characterize the reasonably well known sites and search for additional potentially environmentally hazardous sites, a two-phase aerial survey of the ORR was developed. Phase I began in March 1992 and consisted of aerial radiation, multispectral scanner, and photographic (natural color and color infrared) surveys. Phase II began in November 1992 and is described in this report. Phase II consisted of helicopter electromagnetic (HEM), magnetic, and gamma radiation surveys. Targets of the survey included both man-made (drums, trench boundaries, burn pits, well heads) and geologic (fractures, faults, karst features, geologic contacts) features. The Phase II survey has three components: testing, reconnaissance, and high-resolution data acquisition. To date, the testing and reconnaissance data acquisition have been completed, and some of the data have been processed. They indicate that: (1) magnetic and HEM data are complementary and do not always highlight the same anomaly; (2) under favorable circumstances, helicopter magnetometer systems are capable of detecting groups of four or more 55-gal drums at detector altitudes of 15 m or less; (3) HEM data provide data that compare favorably with surface data collected over burial trenches, (4) well casings may be related to magnetic monopole anomalies, as would be expected; and (5) changes in HEM and magnetic anomaly character are related to lithologic changes and may be used to track contacts between known outcrops.

  11. An aerial radiological survey of the area surrounding the Gunnison Mill site, Gunnison, Colorado. Dates of survey: November 1979 and August 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Jobst, J.

    1981-12-01

    An aerial radiological measuring system was used to survey areas surrounding the uranium mill site in Gunnison, Colorado. Part of the survey data were acquired in November 1979, the remainder were collected in August 1980. The survey was conducted for the US Department of Energy`s Office of Operational Safety by the Department`s Remote Sensing Laboratory of Las Vegas. The highest radiation exposure rates (normalized to 3 feet above the ground) ranged from 200 to 340 microroentgens per hour ({mu}R/h) over the tailings pile on the mill site.

  12. Mars Aerial Regional-Scale Environmental Survey (ARES) Coordinate Systems Definitions and Transformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhl, Christoper A.

    2009-01-01

    The Aerial Regional-Scale Environmental Survey (ARES) is a Mars exploration mission concept with the goal of taking scientific measurements of the atmosphere, surface, and subsurface of Mars by using an airplane as the payload platform. ARES team first conducted a Phase-A study for a 2007 launch opportunity, which was completed in May 2003. Following this study, significant efforts were undertaken to reduce the risk of the atmospheric flight system, under the NASA Langley Planetary Airplane Risk Reduction Project. The concept was then proposed to the Mars Scout program in 2006 for a 2011 launch opportunity. This paper summarizes the design and development of the ARES airplane propulsion subsystem beginning with the inception of the ARES project in 2002 through the submittal of the Mars Scout proposal in July 2006.

  13. An aerial radiological survey of the Babcock and Wilcox Nuclear Facilities and surrounding area, Lynchburg, Virginia. Date of survey: July 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Guss, P.P.

    1993-04-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted from July 18 through July 25, 1988, over a 41-square-kilometer (16-square-mile) area surrounding the Babcock and Wilcox nuclear facilities located near Lynchburg, Virginia. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 61 meters (200 feet) with line spacings of 91 meters (300 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph. The terrestrial exposure rates varied from 8 to 12 microroentgens per hour ({mu}R/h). A search of the data for man-made radiation sources revealed the presence of three areas of high count rates in the survey area. Spectra accumulated over the main plant showed the presence of cobalt-60 ({sup 60}Co) and cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs). A second area near the main plant indicated the presence of uranium-235 ({sup 235}U). Protactinium-234m ({sup 234m}Pa) and {sup 60}Co were detected over a building to the east of the main plant. Soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations within the survey boundaries in support of the aerial data.

  14. An aerial radiological survey of the Tonopah Test Range including Clean Slate 1,2,3, Roller Coaster, decontamination area, Cactus Springs Ranch target areas. Central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, A.E.; Hendricks, T.J.

    1995-08-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted of major sections of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in central Nevada from August through October 1993. The survey consisted of aerial measurements of both natural and man-made gamma radiation emanating from the terrestrial surface. The initial purpose of the survey was to locate depleted uranium (detecting {sup 238}U) from projectiles which had impacted on the TTR. The examination of areas near Cactus Springs Ranch (located near the western boundary of the TTR) and an animal burial area near the Double Track site were secondary objectives. When more widespread than expected {sup 241}Am contamination was found around the Clean Slates sites, the survey was expanded to cover the area surrounding the Clean Slates and also the Double Track site. Results are reported as radiation isopleths superimposed on aerial photographs of the area.

  15. Detection probability of gyrfalcons and other cliff-nesting raptors during aerial surveys in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Booms, Travis L.; Fuller, Mark R.; Schempf, Philip F.; McCaffery, Brian J.; Lindberg, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Assessing the status of Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus) and other cliffnesting raptors as the Arctic climate changes often requires aerial surveys of their breeding habitats. Because traditional, count-based surveys that do not adjust for differing detection probabilities can provide faulty inference about population status (Link and Sauer 1998, Thompson 2002), it will be important to incorporate measures of detection probability into survey methods whenever possible. To evaluate the feasibility of this, we conducted repeated aerial surveys for breeding cliff-nesting raptors on the Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge (YDNWR) in western Alaska to estimate detection probabilities of Gyrfalcons, Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus), and also Common Ravens (Corvus corax). Using the program PRESENCE, we modeled detection histories of each species based on single species occupancy modeling following MacKenzie et al. (2002, 2006). We used different observers during four helicopter replicate surveys in the Kilbuck Mountains and five fixed-wing replicate surveys in the Ingakslugwat Hills (hereafter called Volcanoes) near Bethel, Alaska. We used the following terms and definitions throughout: Survey Site: site of a nest used previously by a raptor and marked with a GPS-obtained latitude and longitude accurate to within 20 m. All GPS locations were obtained in prior years from a helicopter hovering approximately 10?20 m from a nest. The site was considered occupied if a bird or an egg was detected within approximately 500 m of the nest and this area served as our sampling unit. When multiple historical nests were located on a single cliff, we used only one GPS location to locate the survey site. Detection probability (p): the probability of a species being detected at a site given the site is occupied. Occupancy (?): the probability that the species of interest is present at a site during the survey period. A site was considered occupied if the

  16. An aerial radiological survey of the Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and surrounding area, Titusville, Florida: Date of survey: October 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the entire Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) was performed during the period 9 through 23 October 1985. This survey was conducted in three parts. First, a low resolution, low sensitivity background survey was performed that encompassed the entire KSC and CCAFS area. Next, two smaller, high resolution, high sensitivity surveys were conducted: the first focused on Launch Complexes 39A and 39B, and the second on the Shuttle Landing Facility. The areas encompassed by the surveys were 200, 5.5, and 8.5 square miles (500, 14, and 22 sq km), respectively. The purpose of these surveys was to provide information useful for an emergency response to a radiological accident. Results of the background survey are presented as isoradiation contour maps of both total exposure rate and man-made gross count superimposed on a mosaic of recent aerial photographs. Results of the two small, detailed surveys are also presented as an isoradiation contour map of exposure rate on the aerial photograph base. These data were evaluated to establish sensitivity limits for mapping the presence of plutonium-238. Natural background exposure rates at the Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station are very low, generally ranging from 4 to 6.5 microroentgens per hour (..mu..R/h) and less than 4 ..mu..R/h in wet areas. However, exposure rates in developed areas were observed to be higher due to the importation of construction materials not characteristic of the area. 8 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Distribution of radionuclides in the surface sea water developed by aerial radiological survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inomata, Yayoi; Aoyama, Michio; Hirose, Katsumi; Sanada, Yukihisa; Torii, Tatsuo; Tsubono, Takaki; Tsumune, Daisuke; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2014-05-01

    This study provides new data analysis method of aerial radiological survey to monitor the distribution of anthropogenic radioactivity in surface seawaters as a first attempt. The aerial radiological survey was performed by the U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) within a 30 km radius of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) on 18 April 2011. We found good correlations between the observed concentrations of FNPP1 derived radionuclides (131I, 134Cs, 137Cs) in the surface seawater and gamma-ray dose rates by aerial radiological surveys (correlation coefficients for 131I, 0.89; 134Cs, 0.96;137Cs, 0.95). The detection limits of 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs in surface seawaters for the aerial radiological survey are 25, 21, 24 Bq L-1, respectively. Based on these relations, we find that the area with high concentrations of the FNPP1 derived radionuclides spread south-southeast from the FNPP1. The maximum concentrations of 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs reached 303, 456, and 528 Bq L-1, respectively. The131I/134Cs ratios in surface waters of the high activities area are about 0.6-0.7. Considering the radioactive decay of 131I (half-life: 8.021 d), we confirm that radionuclides in the surface seawater of this area are due to direct release from FNPP1 to the ocean. From these results, it is concluded that the aerial radiological survey is very effective to investigate the accurate distribution of anthropogenic radioactivity in the surface seawater. Furthermore, the model reproduced the distribution pattern of the FNPP1 derived radionuclides in surface seawater obtained by the aerial radiological survey, although simulated results by regional ocean model are underestimated.

  18. Aerial radiological survey of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Bonsal, North Carolina. Date of survey: June 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Jobst, J.E.

    1984-10-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant near Bonsal, North Carolina was conducted during the period 19 to 26 June 1984. The survey encompassed a 263-square-kilometer (101-square-mile) area centered on the reactor facilities. Inferred exposure rates were due primarily to naturally occurring gamma-emitting radionuclides and cosmic ray activity (estimated at 3.6 ..mu..R/h). The exposure rates varied broadly, from 4 to 11 ..mu..R/h. Most of the forest and farm land in the surrounding countryside ranged from 6 to 9 ..mu..R/h. Two areas showed slightly elevated activity (9 to 11 ..mu..R/h) due to Plant activities: (1) the land immediately surrounding the reactor because of construction materials and the absence of vegetation, (2) a metallurgical laboratory storage area containing small quantities of fission products. Spectral analysis of the latter showed that /sup 60/Co was the primary contributor to this elevated activity. Ground-based measurements made in several areas around the Plant site were consistent with the aerial data. This was the first aerial radiological survey conducted over this area. 6 references, 7 figures, 3 tables.

  19. An aerial radiological survey of the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base and surrounding area, Fairborn, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over areas of Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) and the immediate surrounding area, during the period July 7 through 20, 1994. The survey was conducted to measure and map the gamma radiation in the area. This mission was the first aerial radiation survey conducted at WPAFB. In the surveyed area, five small localized sources of gamma radiation were detected which were atypical of naturally-occurring radionuclides. On WPAFB property, these sources included a radiation storage facility in Area B (krypton-85) and an ash pile near the Area C flight line (low energy gamma activity). In the area covered outside WPAFB boundaries, sources included cesium-137 in excess of worldwide fallout over a landfill in a northern Dayton industrial area, an X-ray radiography source over a steel plant in the same industrial area, and a mixture of cesium-137 in excess of worldwide fallout and possibly iridium-192 in an area near Crystal Lakes, Ohio. The naturally-occurring gamma emitters (uranium-238 and progeny, thorium and progeny, and potassium-40) were detected in the remaining area with a total exposure rate range of 4 to 16 {mu}R/h; this range is typical of that found in the United States, 1 to 20 {mu}R/h.

  20. UAV using the open-source flight-control-system in the application of aerial survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ji-chen; Ru, Chen

    2015-12-01

    The aerial survey as one of the branches of the Space Information Technology system, has an important application in data acquisition of the earth's surface. In recent years, the trend of UVA (unmanned aerial vehicle) to replace traditional survey aircraft has become increasingly obvious with the progress of science and technology. At present, the price of the commercial UAV Flight Control System is higher, limiting the application of UVA. This paper mainly discusses the possibility that the open-source's flight-control-system take the place of the commercial one. Result is that the costs of UVA are reduced, and make the application more widely.

  1. An aerial radiological survey of the area surrounding the Maybell mill site, Maybell, Colorado. Date of survey: October/November 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Jobst, J.E.

    1982-06-01

    An aerial radiological measuring system was used to survey the area surrounding Maybell, Colorado and the nearby mines and mill in late October and early November 1981. The survey was conducted for the US Department of Energy`s Office of Operational Safety by the Department`s Remote Sensing Laboratory, located in Las Vegas, Nevada. The highest measured radiation exposure rates (normalized to 3 feet above the ground) exceed 300 microroentgens per hour ({mu}R/h) over the leach piles at the mill.

  2. NSTA Conducts Nuclear Energy Survey for AIF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 1972

    1972-01-01

    A survey conducted to determine teacher's instructional resources, methods, materials, and attitudes toward various uses of nuclear energy resulted in nearly one thousand science teachers throughout the nation responding. Results of survey are presented and five recommendations for action are made. (DF)

  3. Conducting User Surveys: An Ongoing Information Imperative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plosker, George R.

    2002-01-01

    Offers practical tips and suggestions on how to conduct user surveys to evaluate library services. Topics include how trends, such as online services impact library reference services; incorporating survey questions into reference interviews; segmenting academic and public library users; questionnaire design; measuring value; and tabulating…

  4. Aerial radiological survey of the Nuclear Fuel Services Center (NFS) and surrounding area, West Valley, New York, September 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    An aerial radiological survey encompassing the Western New York Nuclear Fuel Services Center (NFS) near West Valley, New York, was conducted during 7-12 September 1979. The survey data showed that the average ground surface radiation levels for the site and its environs are less than were measured during the 1969 survey when reprocessing was occurring. The area exhibiting above-background radiation levels is decreasing with time due to (1) radioactive decay, (2) dilution and dispersion of man-made radionuclide reprocessing plant effluents produced during the period April 1966 to early 1972, and (3) the discontinuation of reprocessing operations. Excluding specific, localized NFS site facility areas, the background radiation levels for the recently surveyed area approximate the preoperational background radiation levels.

  5. Monitoring winter and summer abundance of cetaceans in the Pelagos Sanctuary (northwestern Mediterranean Sea) through aerial surveys.

    PubMed

    Panigada, Simone; Lauriano, Giancarlo; Burt, Louise; Pierantonio, Nino; Donovan, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Systematic long-term monitoring of abundance is essential to inform conservation measures and evaluate their effectiveness. To instigate such work in the Pelagos Sanctuary in the Mediterranean, two aerial surveys were conducted in winter and summer 2009. A total of 467 (131 in winter, 336 in summer) sightings of 7 species was made. Sample sizes were sufficient to estimate abundance of fin whales in summer (148; 95% CI = 87-254) and striped dolphins in winter (19,462; 95% CI = 12 939-29 273) and in summer (38 488; 95% CI = 27 447-53 968). Numbers of animals within the Sanctuary are significantly higher in summer, when human activities and thus potential population level impacts are highest. Comparisons with data from past shipboard surveys suggest an appreciable decrease in fin whales within the Sanctuary area and an appreciable increase in striped dolphins. Aerial surveys proved to be more efficient than ship surveys, allowing more robust estimates, with smaller CIs and CVs. These results provide essential baseline data for this marine protected area and continued regular surveys will allow the effectiveness of the MPA in terms of cetacean conservation to be evaluated and inform future management measures. The collected data may also be crucial in assessing whether ship strikes, one of the main causes of death for fin whales in the Mediterranean, are affecting the Mediterranean population. PMID:21829544

  6. Monitoring Winter and Summer Abundance of Cetaceans in the Pelagos Sanctuary (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea) Through Aerial Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Panigada, Simone; Lauriano, Giancarlo; Burt, Louise; Pierantonio, Nino; Donovan, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Systematic long-term monitoring of abundance is essential to inform conservation measures and evaluate their effectiveness. To instigate such work in the Pelagos Sanctuary in the Mediterranean, two aerial surveys were conducted in winter and summer 2009. A total of 467 (131 in winter, 336 in summer) sightings of 7 species was made. Sample sizes were sufficient to estimate abundance of fin whales in summer (148; 95% CI = 87–254) and striped dolphins in winter (19,462; 95% CI = 12 939–29 273) and in summer (38 488; 95% CI = 27 447–53 968). Numbers of animals within the Sanctuary are significantly higher in summer, when human activities and thus potential population level impacts are highest. Comparisons with data from past shipboard surveys suggest an appreciable decrease in fin whales within the Sanctuary area and an appreciable increase in striped dolphins. Aerial surveys proved to be more efficient than ship surveys, allowing more robust estimates, with smaller CIs and CVs. These results provide essential baseline data for this marine protected area and continued regular surveys will allow the effectiveness of the MPA in terms of cetacean conservation to be evaluated and inform future management measures. The collected data may also be crucial in assessing whether ship strikes, one of the main causes of death for fin whales in the Mediterranean, are affecting the Mediterranean population. PMID:21829544

  7. An aerial radiological survey of the Pilgrim Station Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Plymouth, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, A.E.

    1997-06-01

    Terrestrial radioactivity surrounding the Pilgrim Station Nuclear Power Plant was measured using aerial radiolog- ical survey techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates near the plant and to identify unexpected, man-made radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included land areas within a three-mile radius of the plant site. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that employs sodium iodide, thallium-activated detectors. Exposure rate and photopeak counts were computed from these data and plotted on aerial photographs of the survey area. Several ground-based exposure measurements were made for comparison with the,aerial survey results. Exposure rates in areas surrounding the plant site varied from 6 to 10 microroentgens per hour, with exposure rates below 6 microroentgens per hour occurring over bogs and marshy areas. Man-made radiation was found to be higher than background levels at the plant site. Radation due to nitrogen-1 6, which is produced in the steam cycle of a boiling-water reactor, was the primaty source of activity found at the plant site. Cesium-137 activity at levels slightly above those expected from natural fallout was found at isolated locations inland from the plant site. No other detectable sources of man-made radioactivity were found.

  8. Aerial infrared surveys of Reykjanes and Torfajökull thermal areas, Iceland, with a section on cost of exploration surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pálmason, G.; Friedman, J.D.; Williams, R.S., Jr.; Jónsson, J.; Saemundsson, K.

    1970-01-01

    In 1966 and 1968 aerial infrared surveys were conducted over 10 of 13 high-temperature thermal areas in Iceland. The surveys were made with an airborne scanner system, utilizing radiation in the 4.5–5.5 μm wavelength band. Supplementary ground geological studies were made in the Reykjanes and Torfajökull thermal areas to interpret features depicted on the infrared imagery and to relate zones of high heat flux to tectonic structure. In the Reykjanes area in southwestern Iceland a shallow ground temperature map was prepared for temperatures at a depth of 0.5 meters; comparison of this map with the infrared imagery reveals some striking similarities. It appears that aerial infrared surveys outline the surface thermal patterns of high-temperature areas and aid in relating these patterns to possible geological structures controlling the upflow of hot water. Amplitude-slicing techniques applied to the magnetically taped airborne scanner data permit an estimate to be made of the natural heat output on the basis of size of area and specific radiance. In addition to their value in preliminary studies of high-temperature areas, infrared surveys conducted at regular intervals over thermal area under exploitation can provide valuable data on changes that occur in surface manifestations with time.

  9. Seasonal distribution and aerial surveys of mountain goats in Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic National Parks, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Kurt; Beirne, Katherine; Happe, Patricia; Hoffman, Roger; Rice, Cliff; Schaberl, Jim

    2011-01-01

    mountain goat surveys in Mount Rainier National Park, whereas generally greater than 80 and greater than 60 percent of locations were within sampling units delineated in North Cascades and Olympic National Parks, respectively. Presence of GPS-collared mountain goats within the sampling frame of Olympic National Park varied by diurnal period (midday versus crepuscular), survey season (July versus September), and the interaction of diurnal period and survey season. Aerial surveys conducted in developing a sightability model for mountain goat aerial surveys indicated mean detection probabilities of 0.69, 0.76, and 0.87 in North Cascades, Olympic, and Mount Rainier National Parks, respectively. Higher detection probabilities in Mount Rainier likely reflected larger group sizes and more open habitat conditions than in North Cascades and Olympic National Parks. Use of sightability models will reduce biases of population estimates in each park, but resulting population estimates must still be considered minimum population estimates in Olympic and North Cascades National Parks because the current sampling frames do not encompass those populations completely. Because mountain goats were reliably present within the sampling frame in Mount Rainier National Park, we found no compelling need to adjust mountain goat survey boundaries in that park. Expanding survey coverage in North Cascades and Olympic National Parks to more reliably encompass the altitudinal distribution of mountain goats during summer would enhance population estimation accuracy in the future. Lowering the altitude boundary of mountain goat survey units by as little as 100 meters to 1,425 meters in Olympic National Park would increase mountain goat presence within the survey and reduce variation in counts related to movements of mountain goats outside the survey boundaries.

  10. Aerial Transient Electromagnetic Surveys of Alluvial Aquifers in Rural Watersheds of Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pool, D. R.; Callegary, J. B.; Groom, R. W.

    2006-12-01

    Development in rural areas of Arizona has led the State of Arizona (Arizona Department of Water Resources), in cooperation with the Arizona Water Science Center of the U.S. Geological Survey, to sponsor investigations of the hydrogeologic framework of several alluvial-basin aquifers. An efficient method for mapping the aquifer extent and lithology was needed due to sparse subsurface information. Aerial Transient Electro-Magnetic (ATEM) methods were selected because they can be used to quickly survey large areas and with a great depth of investigation. Both helicopter and fixed-wing ATEM methods are available. A fixed-wing method (GEOTEM) was selected because of the potential for a depth of investigation of 300 m or more and because previous surveys indicated the method is useful in alluvial basins in southeastern Arizona. About 2,900 km of data along flight lines were surveyed across five alluvial basins, including the Middle San Pedro and Willcox Basins in southeastern Arizona, and Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento Basins in northwestern Arizona. Data initially were analyzed by the contractor (FUGRO Airborne Surveys) to produce conductivity-depth-transforms, which approximate the general subsurface electrical-property distribution along profiles. Physically based two-dimensional physical models of the profile data were then developed by PetRos- Eikon by using EMIGMA software. Hydrologically important lithologies can have different electrical properties. Several types of crystalline and sedimentary rocks generally are poor aquifers that have low porosity and high electrical resistivity. Good alluvial aquifers of sand and gravel generally have an intermediate electrical resistivity. Poor aquifer materials, such as silt and clay, and areas of poor quality water have low electrical resistivity values. Several types of control data were available to constrain the models including drill logs, electrical logs, water levels , and water quality information from wells; and

  11. Estimating abundance of the Southern Hudson Bay polar bear subpopulation using aerial surveys, 2011 and 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Obbard, Martyn E.; Middel, Kevin R.; Stapleton, Seth P.; Thibault, Isabelle; Brodeur, Vincent; Jutras, Charles

    2013-01-01

    The Southern Hudson Bay (SH) polar bear subpopulation occurs at the southern extent of the species’ range. Although capture-recapture studies indicate that abundance remained stable between 1986 and 2005, declines in body condition and survival were documented during the period, possibly foreshadowing a future decrease in abundance. To obtain a current estimate of abundance, we conducted a comprehensive line transect aerial survey of SH during 2011–2012. We stratified the study site by anticipated densities and flew coastal contour transects and systematically spaced inland transects in Ontario and on Akimiski Island and large offshore islands in 2011. Data were collected with double observer and distance sampling protocols. We also surveyed small islands in Hudson Bay and James Bay and flew a comprehensive transect along the Québec coastline in 2012. We observed 667 bears in Ontario and on Akimiski Island and nearby islands in 2011, and we sighted 80 bears on offshore islands during 2012. Mark-recapture distance sampling and sightresight models yielded a model-averaged estimate of 868 (SE: 177) for the 2011 study area. Our estimate of abundance for the entire SH subpopulation (951; SE: 177) suggests that abundance has remained unchanged. However, this result should be interpreted cautiously because of the methodological differences between historical studies (physical capture) and this survey. A conservative management approach is warranted given the previous increases in the duration of the ice-free season, which are predicted to continue in the future, and previously documented declines in body condition and vital rates.

  12. Estimating the abundance of the Southern Hudson Bay polar bear subpopulation with aerial surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Obbard, Martyn E.; Stapleton, Seth P.; Middel, Kevin R.; Thibault, Isabelle; Brodeur, Vincent; Jutras, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The Southern Hudson Bay (SH) polar bear subpopulation occurs at the southern extent of the species’ range. Although capture–recapture studies indicate abundance was likely unchanged between 1986 and 2005, declines in body condition and survival occurred during the period, possibly foreshadowing a future decrease in abundance. To obtain a current estimate of abundance, we conducted a comprehensive line transect aerial survey of SH during 2011–2012. We stratified the study site by anticipated densities and flew coastal contour transects and systematically spaced inland transects in Ontario and on Akimiski Island and large offshore islands in 2011. Data were collected with double-observer and distance sampling protocols. We surveyed small islands in James Bay and eastern Hudson Bay and flew a comprehensive transect along the Québec coastline in 2012. We observed 667 bears in Ontario and on Akimiski Island and nearby islands in 2011, and we sighted 80 bears on offshore islands during 2012. Mark–recapture distance sampling and sight–resight models yielded an estimate of 860 (SE = 174) for the 2011 study area. Our estimate of abundance for the entire SH subpopulation (943; SE = 174) suggests that abundance is unlikely to have changed significantly since 1986. However, this result should be interpreted cautiously because of the methodological differences between historical studies (physical capture–recapture) and this survey. A conservative management approach is warranted given previous increases in duration of the ice-free season, which are predicted to continue in the future, and previously documented declines in body condition and vital rates.

  13. An Astronomical Survey Conducted in Belgium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazé, Yaël; Fantaine, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the first survey conducted in Belgium about the interest in and knowledge of astronomy. Two samples were studied, the public at large (667 questionnaires) and students (2589 questionnaires), but the results are generally similar in both samples. We evaluated people's interest, main information source and…

  14. Unmanned Aerial Survey of Fallen Trees in a Deciduous Broadleaved Forest in Eastern Japan

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Tomoharu; Nagai, Shin; Yamashita, Satoshi; Fadaei, Hadi; Ishii, Reiichiro; Okabe, Kimiko; Taki, Hisatomo; Honda, Yoshiaki; Kajiwara, Koji; Suzuki, Rikie

    2014-01-01

    Since fallen trees are a key factor in biodiversity and biogeochemical cycling, information about their spatial distribution is of use in determining species distribution and nutrient and carbon cycling in forest ecosystems. Ground-based surveys are both time consuming and labour intensive. Remote-sensing technology can reduce these costs. Here, we used high-spatial-resolution aerial photographs (0.5–1.0 cm per pixel) taken from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to survey fallen trees in a deciduous broadleaved forest in eastern Japan. In nine sub-plots we found a total of 44 fallen trees by ground survey. From the aerial photographs, we identified 80% to 90% of fallen trees that were >30 cm in diameter or >10 m in length, but missed many that were narrower or shorter. This failure may be due to the similarity of fallen trees to trunks and branches of standing trees or masking by standing trees. Views of the same point from different angles may improve the detection rate because they would provide more opportunity to detect fallen trees hidden by standing trees. Our results suggest that UAV surveys will make it possible to monitor the spatial and temporal variations in forest structure and function at lower cost. PMID:25279817

  15. Unmanned aerial survey of fallen trees in a deciduous broadleaved forest in eastern Japan.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Tomoharu; Nagai, Shin; Yamashita, Satoshi; Fadaei, Hadi; Ishii, Reiichiro; Okabe, Kimiko; Taki, Hisatomo; Honda, Yoshiaki; Kajiwara, Koji; Suzuki, Rikie

    2014-01-01

    Since fallen trees are a key factor in biodiversity and biogeochemical cycling, information about their spatial distribution is of use in determining species distribution and nutrient and carbon cycling in forest ecosystems. Ground-based surveys are both time consuming and labour intensive. Remote-sensing technology can reduce these costs. Here, we used high-spatial-resolution aerial photographs (0.5-1.0 cm per pixel) taken from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to survey fallen trees in a deciduous broadleaved forest in eastern Japan. In nine sub-plots we found a total of 44 fallen trees by ground survey. From the aerial photographs, we identified 80% to 90% of fallen trees that were >30 cm in diameter or >10 m in length, but missed many that were narrower or shorter. This failure may be due to the similarity of fallen trees to trunks and branches of standing trees or masking by standing trees. Views of the same point from different angles may improve the detection rate because they would provide more opportunity to detect fallen trees hidden by standing trees. Our results suggest that UAV surveys will make it possible to monitor the spatial and temporal variations in forest structure and function at lower cost. PMID:25279817

  16. An aerial radiological survey of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and surrounding area, Carlsbad, New Mexico: Date of survey, April 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period April 8 to April 19, 1988 over a 404-square-kilometer (156-square-mile) area covering the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) located near Carlsbad, New Mexico, the surrounding area. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 91 meters (300 feet) with a line spacing of 152 meters (500 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial exposure rates plus the cosmic exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph of the area. The average terrestrial exposure rates ranged from approximately 6.0 to 9.0 microroentgens per hour ({mu}R/h). Two areas of increased exposure rate were evident. Both areas indicated higher than normal concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides. A machine-aided search of the data for man-made sources of radiation indicated the presence of Cs-137 at the Gnome Site, which was expected from previous survey work done in the area. No other sources of man-made radiation were found.

  17. Uav Aerial Survey: Accuracy Estimation for Automatically Generated Dense Digital Surface Model and Orthothoto Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altyntsev, M. A.; Arbuzov, S. A.; Popov, R. A.; Tsoi, G. V.; Gromov, M. O.

    2016-06-01

    A dense digital surface model is one of the products generated by using UAV aerial survey data. Today more and more specialized software are supplied with modules for generating such kind of models. The procedure for dense digital model generation can be completely or partly automated. Due to the lack of reliable criterion of accuracy estimation it is rather complicated to judge the generation validity of such models. One of such criterion can be mobile laser scanning data as a source for the detailed accuracy estimation of the dense digital surface model generation. These data may be also used to estimate the accuracy of digital orthophoto plans created by using UAV aerial survey data. The results of accuracy estimation for both kinds of products are presented in the paper.

  18. Helicopter magnetic survey conducted to locate wells

    SciTech Connect

    Veloski, G.A.; Hammack, R.W.; Stamp, V.; Hall, R.; Colina, K.

    2008-07-01

    A helicopter magnetic survey was conducted in August 2007 over 15.6 sq mi at the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3’s (NPR-3) Teapot Dome Field near Casper, Wyoming. The survey’s purpose was to accurately locate wells drilled there during more than 90 years of continuous oilfield operation. The survey was conducted at low altitude and with closely spaced flight lines to improve the detection of wells with weak magnetic response and to increase the resolution of closely spaced wells. The survey was in preparation for a planned CO2 flood for EOR, which requires a complete well inventory with accurate locations for all existing wells. The magnetic survey was intended to locate wells missing from the well database and to provide accurate locations for all wells. The ability of the helicopter magnetic survey to accurately locate wells was accomplished by comparing airborne well picks with well locations from an intense ground search of a small test area.

  19. Aerial remote sensing surveys, geophysical characterization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Labson, V.F.; Pellerin, L.; Anderson, W.L.

    1998-06-01

    The application of helicopter electromagnetic (HEM) and magnetic methods to the requirements of the environmental restoration of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) demand the use of advanced, nontraditional methods of data acquisition, processing and interpretation. The cooperative study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and University of California (UCB) has resulted in the planning and supervision of data acquisition, the development of tools for data processing and interpretation, and an intensive application of the methods developed. This final report consists of a series of publications which the USGS collaborated with the ORNL technical staff. These reports represent the full scope of the USGS assistance. Copies of the reports and papers are included in the Appendix. The primary goals of this effort were to quantify the effectiveness of the geophysical methods applied in the survey of the ORR for the identification of buried waste, hydrogeologic pathways by which contamination could migrate through or off the site, and for the more accurate geologic mapping of the ORR. The objectives in buried waste identification are the accurate description of the source of the geophysical anomaly and the determination of the limits of resolution of the geophysical methods to acknowledge what we might have missed. The study of hydrogeologic pathways concentrated on the identification of karst features in the limestone underlying much of the ORR. Work in this study has indicated to the ORNL staff that these karst features can be located from the airborne geophysics. The defining characteristic of this helicopter geophysical study is the collaborative nature of the effort. Each task in which the USGS was involved has included a designated staff member from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  20. An aerial survey of radioactivity associated with Atomic Energy plants

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, F.J.; Harlan, W.E.; Humphrey, P.A.; Kane, R.L.; Reinhardt, P.W.

    1992-09-02

    The project covered was an endeavor to (1) compare a group of laboratory instruments as airborne detectors of radioactivity and (2) simultaneously obtain data relative to the diffusion rate of radioactive contamination emitted into the atmosphere from off-gas stacks of production runs. Research was conducted in the Oak Ridge, Tennessee and Hanford, Washington areas. Detection was accomplished at a maximum distance of seventeen miles from the plant. Very little information of a conclusive nature was gained concerning the diffusion. Further research with the nuclear instruments, using a stronger source, is recommended. To obtain conclusive information concerning the meteorological aspects of the project, a larger observational program will be needed.

  1. Aerial EM Survey Reveals Groundwater Systems Beneath Taylor Valley, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugan, H.; Mikucki, J.; Auken, E.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Virginia, R. A.; Schamper, C.; Sørensen, K.; Doran, P. T.; Foley, N.

    2014-12-01

    The extent of groundwater and its potential habitability in the ice-free regions and along the coastal margins of Antarctica is poorly understood. Here we report on an airborne transient electromagnetic survey in Antarctica, which for the first time produced extensive imagery of subsurface resistivity in Taylor Valley, an ice-free margin of the Ross Sea. Wide zones of low subsurface resistivity were detected that are inconsistent with the typical high resistivity of glacier ice or dry permafrost. These results are interpreted as an indication that water, with sufficiently high solute content to remain unfrozen well below 0°C, temperatures considered within the range suitable for microbial life. The inferred subsurface brines are widespread and form two isolated groundwater systems: a near shore system, which extends from the ocean 18 km inland; and a sub-/proglacial system, which emanates from beneath Taylor Glacier into Lake Bonney and is associated with the discharge from Blood Falls. The brine networks in Taylor Valley challenge the notion that groundwater is negligible in regions of continuous permafrost, and signify the potential for a deep biosphere that is hydrologically and geochemically connected to the marine system and subglacial environments.

  2. Low-altitude aerial color digital photographic survey of the San Andreas Fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lynch, David K.; Hudnut, Kenneth W.; Dearborn, David S.P.

    2010-01-01

    Ever since 1858, when Gaspard-Félix Tournachon (pen name Félix Nadar) took the first aerial photograph (Professional Aerial Photographers Association 2009), the scientific value and popular appeal of such pictures have been widely recognized. Indeed, Nadar patented the idea of using aerial photographs in mapmaking and surveying. Since then, aerial imagery has flourished, eventually making the leap to space and to wavelengths outside the visible range. Yet until recently, the availability of such surveys has been limited to technical organizations with significant resources. Geolocation required extensive time and equipment, and distribution was costly and slow. While these situations still plague older surveys, modern digital photography and lidar systems acquire well-calibrated and easily shared imagery, although expensive, platform-specific software is sometimes still needed to manage and analyze the data. With current consumer-level electronics (cameras and computers) and broadband internet access, acquisition and distribution of large imaging data sets are now possible for virtually anyone. In this paper we demonstrate a simple, low-cost means of obtaining useful aerial imagery by reporting two new, high-resolution, low-cost, color digital photographic surveys of selected portions of the San Andreas fault in California. All pictures are in standard jpeg format. The first set of imagery covers a 92-km-long section of the fault in Kern and San Luis Obispo counties and includes the entire Carrizo Plain. The second covers the region from Lake of the Woods to Cajon Pass in Kern, Los Angeles, and San Bernardino counties (151 km) and includes Lone Pine Canyon soon after the ground was largely denuded by the Sheep Fire of October 2009. The first survey produced a total of 1,454 oblique digital photographs (4,288 x 2,848 pixels, average 6 Mb each) and the second produced 3,762 nadir images from an elevation of approximately 150 m above ground level (AGL) on the

  3. Aerial radiological and photographic survey of eleven atolls and two islands within the Northern Marshall Islands. Dates of surveys, July-November 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over eleven atolls and two islands within the northern Marshall Islands between September and November 1978. This survey was part of a comprehensive radiological survey, which included extensive terrestrial and marine sampling, to determine possible residual contamination which might remain as a result of the United States nuclear testing program conducted at Bikini Enewetak Atolls between 1946 and 1958. A similar survey was conducted at Enewetak Atoll in 1972. The present survey covered those atolls known to have received direct fallout from the Bravo event, conducted in March 1954 at Bikini Atoll. These included Bikini, Rongelap, Rongerik, Ailinginae, Bikar, Taka, and Utirik Atolls. In addition, several atolls and islands which might have been at the fringes of the Bravo fallout were also surveyed, including Likiep and Ailuk Atolls, Jemo and Mejit Islands, and Wotho Atoll. Ujelang Atoll, which lies approximately 200 km southwest of Enewetak, was also surveyed. Island-averaged terrestrial exposure rates in the range of 30 to 50 ..mu..R/h were observed over parts of Bikini Atoll, including Bikini Island, and over the northern part of Rongelap Atoll. Levels over southern Rongelap and over Rongerik Atoll ranged from 4 to 7 ..mu..R/h. Levels were somewhat lower at Ailinginae Atoll (approximately 2 ..mu..R/h) and at Utirik Atoll (approximately 0.7 ..mu..R/h). The variations observed were consistent with what might be expected from the fallout pattern of the Bravo event. Levels at Ailuk, Likiep, Wotho and Ujelang Atolls and at Mejit and Jemo Islands were consistent with /sup 137/Cs activity, due to worldwide fallout, observed within the United States and at other locations in the central Pacific. These four atolls and the two islands, therefore, do not appear to have recieved any significant direct contamination from the Bravo event or the other tests conducted at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls.

  4. Surveying a Landslide in a Road Embankment Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvajal, F.; Agüera, F.; Pérez, M.

    2011-09-01

    Most of the works of civil engineering, and some others applications, need to be designed using a basic cartography with a suitable scale to the accuracy and extension of the plot.The Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Photogrammetry covers the gap between classical manned aerial photogrammetry and hand- made surveying techniques because it works in the close-range domain, combining aerial and terrestrial photogrammetry, but also introduces low-cost alternatives. The aim of this work is developing of an accurate and low-cost method to characterize landslides located on the size of a road. It was applied at the kilometric point 339 belonging to the A92 dual carriageway, in the Abla municipal term, province of Almeria, Spain. A photogrammetric project was carried out from a set of images taken from an md4-200 Microdrones with an on-board calibrated camera 12 Megapixels Pentax Optio A40. The flight was previously planned to cover the whole extension of the embankment with three passes composed of 18 photos each one. All the images were taken with the vertical axe and it was registered 85% and 60% longitudinal and transversal overlaps respectively. The accuracy of the products, with planimetric and altimetric errors of 0.049 and 0.108m repectively, lets to take measurements of the landslide and projecting preventive and palliative actuations.

  5. Aerial Vehicle Surveys of other Planetary Atmospheres and Surfaces: Imaging, Remote-sensing, and Autonomy Technology Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Gregory; Ippolito, Corey; Alena, Rick

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to review the anticipated imaging and remote-sensing technology requirements for aerial vehicle survey missions to other planetary bodies in our Solar system that can support in-atmosphere flight. In the not too distant future such planetary aerial vehicle (a.k.a. aerial explorers) exploration missions will become feasible. Imaging and remote-sensing observations will be a key objective for these missions. Accordingly, it is imperative that optimal solutions in terms of imaging acquisition and real-time autonomous analysis of image data sets be developed for such vehicles.

  6. Analysis of aerial survey data on Florida manatee using Markov chain Monte Carlo.

    PubMed

    Craig, B A; Newton, M A; Garrott, R A; Reynolds, J E; Wilcox, J R

    1997-06-01

    We assess population trends of the Atlantic coast population of Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris, by reanalyzing aerial survey data collected between 1982 and 1992. To do so, we develop an explicit biological model that accounts for the method by which the manatees are counted, the mammals' movement between surveys, and the behavior of the population total over time. Bayesian inference, enabled by Markov chain Monte Carlo, is used to combine the survey data with the biological model. We compute marginal posterior distributions for all model parameters and predictive distributions for future counts. Several conclusions, such as a decreasing population growth rate and low sighting probabilities, are consistent across different prior specifications. PMID:9192449

  7. Design of a Mars Airplane Propulsion System for the Aerial Regional-Scale Environmental Survey (ARES) Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhl. Christopher A.

    2009-01-01

    The Aerial Regional-Scale Environmental Survey (ARES) is a Mars exploration mission concept with the goal of taking scientific measurements of the atmosphere, surface, and subsurface of Mars by using an airplane as the payload platform. ARES team first conducted a Phase-A study for a 2007 launch opportunity, which was completed in May 2003. Following this study, significant efforts were undertaken to reduce the risk of the atmospheric flight system, under the NASA Langley Planetary Airplane Risk Reduction Project. The concept was then proposed to the Mars Scout program in 2006 for a 2011 launch opportunity. This paper summarizes the design and development of the ARES airplane propulsion subsystem beginning with the inception of the ARES project in 2002 through the submittal of the Mars Scout proposal in July 2006.

  8. Practical Bias Correction in Aerial Surveys of Large Mammals: Validation of Hybrid Double-Observer with Sightability Method against Known Abundance of Feral Horse (Equus caballus) Populations.

    PubMed

    Lubow, Bruce C; Ransom, Jason I

    2016-01-01

    Reliably estimating wildlife abundance is fundamental to effective management. Aerial surveys are one of the only spatially robust tools for estimating large mammal populations, but statistical sampling methods are required to address detection biases that affect accuracy and precision of the estimates. Although various methods for correcting aerial survey bias are employed on large mammal species around the world, these have rarely been rigorously validated. Several populations of feral horses (Equus caballus) in the western United States have been intensively studied, resulting in identification of all unique individuals. This provided a rare opportunity to test aerial survey bias correction on populations of known abundance. We hypothesized that a hybrid method combining simultaneous double-observer and sightability bias correction techniques would accurately estimate abundance. We validated this integrated technique on populations of known size and also on a pair of surveys before and after a known number was removed. Our analysis identified several covariates across the surveys that explained and corrected biases in the estimates. All six tests on known populations produced estimates with deviations from the known value ranging from -8.5% to +13.7% and <0.7 standard errors. Precision varied widely, from 6.1% CV to 25.0% CV. In contrast, the pair of surveys conducted around a known management removal produced an estimated change in population between the surveys that was significantly larger than the known reduction. Although the deviation between was only 9.1%, the precision estimate (CV = 1.6%) may have been artificially low. It was apparent that use of a helicopter in those surveys perturbed the horses, introducing detection error and heterogeneity in a manner that could not be corrected by our statistical models. Our results validate the hybrid method, highlight its potentially broad applicability, identify some limitations, and provide insight and guidance

  9. Practical Bias Correction in Aerial Surveys of Large Mammals: Validation of Hybrid Double-Observer with Sightability Method against Known Abundance of Feral Horse (Equus caballus) Populations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Reliably estimating wildlife abundance is fundamental to effective management. Aerial surveys are one of the only spatially robust tools for estimating large mammal populations, but statistical sampling methods are required to address detection biases that affect accuracy and precision of the estimates. Although various methods for correcting aerial survey bias are employed on large mammal species around the world, these have rarely been rigorously validated. Several populations of feral horses (Equus caballus) in the western United States have been intensively studied, resulting in identification of all unique individuals. This provided a rare opportunity to test aerial survey bias correction on populations of known abundance. We hypothesized that a hybrid method combining simultaneous double-observer and sightability bias correction techniques would accurately estimate abundance. We validated this integrated technique on populations of known size and also on a pair of surveys before and after a known number was removed. Our analysis identified several covariates across the surveys that explained and corrected biases in the estimates. All six tests on known populations produced estimates with deviations from the known value ranging from -8.5% to +13.7% and <0.7 standard errors. Precision varied widely, from 6.1% CV to 25.0% CV. In contrast, the pair of surveys conducted around a known management removal produced an estimated change in population between the surveys that was significantly larger than the known reduction. Although the deviation between was only 9.1%, the precision estimate (CV = 1.6%) may have been artificially low. It was apparent that use of a helicopter in those surveys perturbed the horses, introducing detection error and heterogeneity in a manner that could not be corrected by our statistical models. Our results validate the hybrid method, highlight its potentially broad applicability, identify some limitations, and provide insight and guidance

  10. Aerial Surveys Using Consumer Electronics: Fast, Cheap and Best of All: Useful!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, D. K.; Hudnut, K. W.; Dearborn, D. S.

    2010-12-01

    We report results from two low-cost, low-altitude, aerial imaging surveys of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) carried out in late 2009. In total 541 km of the fault was imaged with a ground sample distance (pixel size) of a few cm. The two surveys covered the Carrizo Plain and points north to the Choice Valley on 24 Sep 2009, and the SAF between I-5 (Tejon Pass) and I-15 (Cajon Pass) on 29 Dec 2009. Each area was imaged twice, once on the first pass and a short time later on the return pass. The I-5 to I-15 flight included Lone Pine Canyon east of Wrightwood soon after the Sheep Fire of early Oct 2009. Ground that was normally covered by heavy brush was revealed for the first time in many years. The data set consists of 5216 6Mb jpg photographs (31 Gb total) which were posted on the internet within hours of their acquisition. Shortly thereafter they were placed into PICASA web albums for easy browsing. Total cost for both surveys (excluding camera) was about $5000. The pictures were taken with a Nikon D90 with an attached GP-1 receiver that wrote the aircraft’s position into the EXIF file of each photograph. Organization, manipulation and geolocation of the images were done on a Macintosh laptop. All photographs are freely available and carry no copyright. They are in the public domain. Lynch, David K., Kenneth W. Hudnut and David S. P. Dearborn “Low Altitude Aerial Color Digital Photographic Survey of the San Andreas Fault in the Carrizo Plain”, Seismological Research Letters, 81, 453-459 (2010) Full frame image of Wallace Creek. The inset shows a visitor. The pixel size at the center of the frame is about 4 cm.

  11. Aerial surveys of landslide bodies through light UAVs: peculiarities and advantages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilotro, Giuseppe; Pellicani, Roberta; Leandro, Gianfranco; Marzo, Cosimo; Manzari, Paola; Belmonte, Antonella

    2015-04-01

    The use of UAV in civil applications and particularly for aerial surveillance or surveying is rapidly expanding for several reasons. The first reason is undoubtedly the lowering of the costs of the machines, accompanied by high technology for their positioning and control. The results are high performances and ease of driving. Authors have surveyed some big landslides by drones, with excellent results, which can retail for this technique a specific role, not in conflict with classical airborne aerial surveys, such as LIDAR and others. Obviously the first difference is in the amount of payload, over 100 Kg for classical airborne apparatus, but 1000 times lower in the case of the drones. Nevertheless the advantages of the use of drones and of their products can be synthesized as follows: -Start from the site, without the need of transfers, flight plans and long time weather forecasts; -Imagery product georeferenced and immediately exportable to GIS -Inspection of areas not easily accessible (impervious areas, high layers of mud, crossing of rivers, etc) or unreachable in safety conditions; -Inspection of specific points, relevant for the interpretation of the type and intensity of movement. -The pilot and the landslide specialist define route and compare images in real time -Possibility of flying at very low altitude and hovering. For the geomorphological interpretation of the big landslide of Montescaglioso (Mt, Italy) has been used a 1.5 m EPP (Expanded polipropilene) fixed wing, driven by 3DR Open Source Autopilot, equipped with a 16 Mp compact camera CANON A2300. Very useful revealed the image of the toe of the landslide, critical point for the interpretation of the mechanics of the whole landslide. Results have been of excellent quality and allowed authors to an early correct analysis Other landslides have been explored with a commercial drone (Phantom Vision 2 Dji), the use of which has proved likewise invaluable for returning images of areas not otherwise

  12. An aerial radiological survey of the Robert Emmett Ginna Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Ontario, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, A.E.

    1997-06-01

    Terrestrial radioactivity surrounding the Robert Emmett Ginna Nuclear Power Plant was measured using aerial radiological surveying techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates near the plant and to identify unexpected, man-made radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included land areas within a three-mile radius of the plant site. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that employed sodium iodide, thallium-activated detectors. Exposure-rate and photopeak counts were computed from these data and plotted on aerial photographs of the survey area. Several ground-based exposure measurements were made for comparison with the aerial survey results. Exposure rates in the area surrounding the plant site varied from 6 to 10 microroentgens per hour. Man-made radiation (cobalt-60 within the plant site and cesium-1 37 directly over the reactor) was found at the plant site. In addition, small areas of suspected cesium-137 activity were found within the survey areas. Other than these small sites, the survey area was free of man-made radioac- tivity.

  13. The Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Survey (ARES) Mission to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, J. S.

    2005-01-01

    ARES is an exploration mission concept for an Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Survey of Mars designed to fly an instrumented platform over the surface of Mars at very low altitudes (1-3 km) for distances of hundreds to thousands of kilometers to obtain scientific data to address fundamental problems in Mars science. ARES helps to fill a gap in the scale and perspective of the Mars Exploration Program and addresses many key COMPLEX/MEPAG questions (e.g., nature and origin of crustal magnetic anomalies) not readily pursued in other parts of the exploration program. ARES supports the human exploration program through key environmental measurements and high-resolution contiguous data essential to reference mission design. Here we describe the major types of scientific goals, candidate instruments, and reference mission profiles.

  14. Conducting a Survey: The Dollars and Sense of It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boser, Judith A.

    This paper helps researchers develop criteria for conducting surveys. Cost considerations frame the paper's suggestions. Specifically, the text advises that researchers consider the human and material resources needed, type of survey instrument, medium for conducting the survey (mail, telephone, personal interview, etc.), data analysis…

  15. AERIAL MEASURING SYSTEM IN JAPAN

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, Craig; Colton, David

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Agency’s Aerial Measuring System deployed personnel and equipment to partner with the U.S. Air Force in Japan to conduct multiple aerial radiological surveys. These were the first and most comprehensive sources of actionable information for U.S. interests in Japan and provided early confirmation to the government of Japan as to the extent of the release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Generation Station. Many challenges were overcome quickly during the first 48 hours; including installation and operation of Aerial Measuring System equipment on multiple U.S. Air Force Japan aircraft, flying over difficult terrain, and flying with talented pilots who were unfamiliar with the Aerial Measuring System flight patterns. These all combined to make for a dynamic and non-textbook situation. In addition, the data challenges of the multiple and on-going releases, and integration with the Japanese government to provide valid aerial radiological survey products that both military and civilian customers could use to make informed decisions, was extremely complicated. The Aerial Measuring System Fukushima response provided insight in addressing these challenges and gave way to an opportunity for the expansion of the Aerial Measuring System’s mission beyond the borders of the US.

  16. Survey on the novel hybrid aquatic-aerial amphibious aircraft: Aquatic unmanned aerial vehicle (AquaUAV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xingbang; Wang, Tianmiao; Liang, Jianhong; Yao, Guocai; Liu, Miao

    2015-04-01

    The aquatic unmanned aerial vehicle (AquaUAV), a kind of vehicle that can operate both in the air and the water, has been regarded as a new breakthrough to broaden the application scenario of UAV. Wide application prospects in military and civil field are more than bright, therefore many institutions have focused on the development of such a vehicle. However, due to the significant difference of the physical properties between the air and the water, it is rather difficult to design a fully-featured AquaUAV. Until now, majority of partially-featured AquaUAVs have been developed and used to verify the feasibility of an aquatic-aerial vehicle. In the present work, we classify the current partially-featured AquaUAV into three categories from the scope of the whole UAV field, i.e., the seaplane UAV, the submarine-launched UAV, and the submersible UAV. Then the recent advancements and common characteristics of the three kinds of AquaUAVs are reviewed in detail respectively. Then the applications of bionics in the design of AquaUAV, the transition mode between the air and the water, the morphing wing structure for air-water adaptation, and the power source and the propulsion type are summarized and discussed. The tradeoff analyses for different transition methods between the air and the water are presented. Furthermore, it indicates that applying the bionics into the design and development of the AquaUAV will be essential and significant. Finally, the significant technical challenges for the AquaUAV to change from a conception to a practical prototype are indicated.

  17. How to Conduct a Barrier Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens.

    Provided is a sample survey form for identifying architectural barriers in any building or area that needs to be accessible for the handicapped. The checklist covers the following areas: offstreet parking, on street parking, passenger loading zone, approach to selected entrance, entrance doors, elevators-escalators, essential areas, access from…

  18. Training Neighborhood Residents to Conduct a Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Back, Susan Malone; Tseng, Wan-Chun; Li, Jiaqi; Wang, Yuanhua; Phan, Van Thanh; Yeter, Ibrahim Halil

    2015-01-01

    As a requirement for a federal neighborhood revitalization grant, the authors trained resident interviewers and coordinated the conduct of more than 1000 door-to-door interviews of a stratified random sample. The targeted area was a multiethnic, lower income neighborhood that continues to experience the effects of past segregation. Monitoring and…

  19. Use of Internet panels to conduct surveys.

    PubMed

    Hays, Ron D; Liu, Honghu; Kapteyn, Arie

    2015-09-01

    The use of Internet panels to collect survey data is increasing because it is cost-effective, enables access to large and diverse samples quickly, takes less time than traditional methods to obtain data for analysis, and the standardization of the data collection process makes studies easy to replicate. A variety of probability-based panels have been created, including Telepanel/CentERpanel, Knowledge Networks (now GFK KnowledgePanel), the American Life Panel, the Longitudinal Internet Studies for the Social Sciences panel, and the Understanding America Study panel. Despite the advantage of having a known denominator (sampling frame), the probability-based Internet panels often have low recruitment participation rates, and some have argued that there is little practical difference between opting out of a probability sample and opting into a nonprobability (convenience) Internet panel. This article provides an overview of both probability-based and convenience panels, discussing potential benefits and cautions for each method, and summarizing the approaches used to weight panel respondents in order to better represent the underlying population. Challenges of using Internet panel data are discussed, including false answers, careless responses, giving the same answer repeatedly, getting multiple surveys from the same respondent, and panelists being members of multiple panels. More is to be learned about Internet panels generally and about Web-based data collection, as well as how to evaluate data collected using mobile devices and social-media platforms. PMID:26170052

  20. A Planetary Protection Strategy for the Mars Aerial Regional-Scale Environmental Survey (ARES) Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhl, Christopher A.

    2008-01-01

    The Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Survey (ARES) is a Mars exploration mission concept designed to send an airplane to fly through the lower atmosphere of Mars, with the goal of taking scientific measurements of the atmosphere, surface, and subsurface phenomenon. ARES was first proposed to the Mars Scout program in December 2002 for a 2007 launch opportunity and was selected to proceed with a Phase A study, step-2 proposal which was submitted in May 2003. ARES was not selected for the Scout mission, but efforts continued on risk reduction of the atmospheric flight system in preparation for the next Mars Scout opportunity in 2006. The ARES concept was again proposed in July 2006 to the Mars Scout program but was not selected to proceed into Phase A. This document describes the Planetary Protection strategy that was developed in ARES Pre Phase-A activities to help identify, early in the design process, certain hardware, assemblies, and/or subsystems that will require unique design considerations based on constraints imposed by Planetary Protection requirements. Had ARES been selected as an exploration project, information in this document would make up the ARES Project Planetary Protection Plan.

  1. Mass image data storage system for high resolution aerial photographic survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zen, Luan; Tan, Jiubin; Zhao, Zhongwen

    2008-10-01

    In order to make it possible for an image data acquisition and storage system used for aerial photographic survey to have a continuous storage speed of 144 MB/s and data storage capacity of 260GB, three main problems have been solved in this paper. First, with multi-channel synchronous DMA transfer, parallel data storage of four SCSI hard disks is realized. It solved the problem of the data transfer rate too high for direct storage. Then, to increase the data transfer rate, a high speed BUS based on LVDS and a SCSI control circuit based on FAS368M were designed. It solved the problem of PCI BUS limiting the storage speed. Finally, the problem of the SCSI hard disk continuous storage speed declining led by much time interval between two DMA transfers is solved by optimizing DMA channel. The practical system test shows that the acquisition and storage system has a continuous storage speed of 150 MB/s and a data storage capacity of 280GB. Therefore, it is a new storage method for high speed and mass image data.

  2. Infrared Surveys of Hawaiian Volcanoes: Aerial surveys with infrared imaging radiometer depict volcanic thermal patterns and structural features.

    PubMed

    Fisher, W A; Moxham, R M; Polcyn, F; Landis, G H

    1964-11-01

    Aerial infrared-sensor surveys of Kilauea volcano have depicted the areal extent and the relative intensity of abnormal thermal features in the caldera area of the volcano and along its associated rift zones. Many of these anomalies show correlation with visible steaming and reflect convective transfer of heat to the surface from subterranean sources. Structural details of the volcano, some not evident from surface observation, are also delineated by their thermal abnormalities. Several changes were observed in the patterns of infrared emission during the period of study; two such changes show correlation in location with subsequent eruptions, but the cause-and-effect relationship is uncertain. Thermal anomalies were also observed on the southwest flank of Mauna Loa; images of other volcanoes on the island of Hawaii, and of Haleakala on the island of Maui, revealed no thermal abnormalities. Approximately 25 large springs issuing into the ocean around the periphery of Hawaii have been detected. Infrared emission varies widely with surface texture and composition, suggesting that similar observations may have value for estimating surface conditions on the moon or planets. PMID:17729994

  3. Payette National Forest aerial survey project using the Kodak digital color infrared camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, Jerry D.

    1997-11-01

    Staff of the Payette National Forest located in central Idaho used the Kodak Digital Infrared Camera to collect digital photographic images over a wide variety of selected areas. The objective of this aerial survey project is to collect airborne digital camera imagery and to evaluate it for potential use in forest assessment and management. The data collected from this remote sensing system is being compared with existing resource information and with personal knowledge of the areas surveyed. Resource specialists are evaluating the imagery to determine if it may be useful for; identifying cultural sites (pre-European settlement tribal villages and camps); recognizing ecosystem landscape pattern; mapping recreation areas; evaluating the South Fork Salmon River road reconstruction project; designing the Elk Summit Road; assessing the impact of sediment on anadramous fish in the South Fork Salmon River; assessing any contribution of sediment to the South Fork from the reconstructed road; determining post-wildfire stress development in conifer timber; in assessing the development of insect populations in areas initially determined to be within low intensity wildfire burn polygons; and to search for Idaho Ground Squirrel habitat. Project sites include approximately 60 linear miles of the South Fork of the Salmon River; a parallel road over about half that distance; 3 archaeological sites; two transects of about 6 miles each for landscape patterns; 3 recreation areas; 5 miles of the Payette River; 4 miles of the Elk Summit Road; a pair of transects 4.5 miles long for stress assessment in timber; a triplet of transects about 3 miles long for the assessment of the identification of species; and an area of about 640 acres to evaluate habitat for the endangered Idaho Ground Squirrel. Preliminary results indicate that the imagery is an economically viable way to collect site specific resource information that is of value in the management of a national forest.

  4. A Possibility of the Aeromagnetic Survey by a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Ant-Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funaki, M.

    2004-12-01

    Magnetic surveys by helicopters and airplanes are a useful technique to estimate the geological structure under the ice sheets in Antarctica. However, it is not easy to employ this due to the transportation of the planes, logistic supports, security, and financial problems. Members of Ant-Plane Project have investigated the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV, Ant-Plane) for the solution of the problems. Recently the aeromagnetic survey is verified by a model airplane navigated by GPS and a magneto-resistant (MR) magnetometer. The airplane (Ant-Plane) consists of 2m wing length, 2-cycles and 2-cylinder 85cc gasoline engine, GPS navigation system by microcomputer and radio telemeter system. The total weight is 15kg including 2 litter fuels, the MR magnetometer, a video camera and an emergency parachute. The speed is 130 km/h and maximum height is 2000m. The magnetometer system consists of a 3- component MR magnetometer, GPS and data logger. Three components of magnetic field, latitude, longitude, altitude, number of satellite and time are recorded in every second during 3 hours. The sensitivity of the magnetometer is 7 nT and we use a total magnetic field intensity for magnetic analysis due to unknown heading of the plane. November 2003 we succeeded the magnetic survey by the Ant-Plane at the slope of Sakurajima Volcano, Kyushu, Japan. The plane rotated 9 times along the programmed route of about 4x1 km, total flight distance of 80 km, keeping the altitude of 700 m. Consequently we obtained almost similar field variation on the route. The maximum deviation of each course was less than 100 m. Therefore, we concluded that the aeromagnetic survey in the relatively large anomaly areas can be performed by Ant-Plane with the MR magnetometer system. Finally the plane flew up 1400m with a video camera to take the photo of active volcano Sakurajima (1117m). It succeeded to take photos of craters through steam from the volcano.

  5. Yavapai College Student Satisfaction Survey Conducted December 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yavapai Coll., Prescott, AZ.

    Yavapai College, Arizona, conducted a telephone survey of current college students in December 2002. The survey provides data for future marketing efforts, as well as providing information to be used as part of an ongoing assessment of student opinions and needs. An independent telemarketing firm called students from a random list of 1,400 credit…

  6. Computing the Deflection of the Vertical for Improving Aerial Surveys: A Comparison between EGM2008 and ITALGEO05 Estimates.

    PubMed

    Barzaghi, Riccardo; Carrion, Daniela; Pepe, Massimiliano; Prezioso, Giuseppina

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies on the influence of the anomalous gravity field in GNSS/INS applications have shown that neglecting the impact of the deflection of vertical in aerial surveys induces horizontal and vertical errors in the measurement of an object that is part of the observed scene; these errors can vary from a few tens of centimetres to over one meter. The works reported in the literature refer to vertical deflection values based on global geopotential model estimates. In this paper we compared this approach with the one based on local gravity data and collocation methods. In particular, denoted by ξ and η, the two mutually-perpendicular components of the deflection of the vertical vector (in the north and east directions, respectively), their values were computed by collocation in the framework of the Remove-Compute-Restore technique, applied to the gravity database used for estimating the ITALGEO05 geoid. Following this approach, these values have been computed at different altitudes that are relevant in aerial surveys. The (ξ, η) values were then also estimated using the high degree EGM2008 global geopotential model and compared with those obtained in the previous computation. The analysis of the differences between the two estimates has shown that the (ξ, η) global geopotential model estimate can be reliably used in aerial navigation applications that require the use of sensors connected to a GNSS/INS system only above a given height (e.g., 3000 m in this paper) that must be defined by simulations. PMID:27472333

  7. Reliable aerial thermography for energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, J. R.; Bowman, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    A method for energy conservation, the aerial thermography survey, is discussed. It locates sources of energy losses and wasteful energy management practices. An operational map is presented for clear sky conditions. The map outlines the key environmental conditions conductive to obtaining reliable aerial thermography. The map is developed from defined visual and heat loss discrimination criteria which are quantized based on flat roof heat transfer calculations.

  8. Aerial radiological survey of the William H. Zimmer Nuclear Power Station and surrounding area, Moscow, Ohio. Date of survey: July 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Feimster, E.L.

    1982-07-01

    An aerial radiological survey was performed during the period 29 June through 12 July 1981 over a 250-square-kilometer area centered on the William H. Zimmer Nuclear Power Station near Moscow, Ohio. All gamma ray data were collected along flight lines oriented east to west. The lines were 200 meters apart and flown at an altitude of 122 meters above ground level. Processed data showed that all gamma rays detected within the survey area were those expected from naturally occurring terrestrial background emitters. Count rates obtained from the aerial platform were converted to exposure rates at 1 meter above the ground and are presented in the form of an exposure rate contour map. The resulting exposure rates were between 6 and 12 microroentgens per hour (..mu..R/h), with most of the area ranging from 6 to 9 ..mu..R/h. These values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 4 ..mu..R/h. The exposure rate obtained from soil samples taken from within the survey site displayed positive agreement with the aerial data.

  9. A series of low-altitude aerial radiological surveys of selected regions within Areas 3, 5, 8, 9, 11, 18, and 25 at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Colton, D.P.

    1999-12-01

    A series of low-altitude, aerial radiological surveys of selected regions within Areas 3, 5, 8, 9, 11, 18,and 25 of the Nevada Test Site was conducted from December 1996 through June 1999. The surveys were conducted for the US Department of Energy by the Remote Sensing Laboratory, located in Las Vegas, Nevada, and maintained and operated by Bechtel Nevada. The flights were conducted at a nominal altitude of 15 meters above ground level along a set of parallel flight lines spaced 23 meters apart. The purpose of these low-altitude surveys was to measure, map, and define the areas of americium-241 activity. The americium contamination will be used to determine the areas of plutonium contamination. Americium-241 activity was detected within 8 of the 11 regions. The three regions where americium-241 was not detected were in the inactive Nuclear Rocket Development Station complex in Area 25, which encompassed the Test Cell A and Test Cell C reactor test stands and the Reactor Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly facility.

  10. Aerial Mobile Radiation Survey Following Detonation of a Radiological Dispersal Device.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Laurel E; Fortin, Richard; Buckle, John L; Coyle, Maurice J; Van Brabant, Reid A; Harvey, Bradley J A; Seywerd, Henry C J; McCurdy, Martin W

    2016-05-01

    A series of experiments was conducted in 2012 at the Defence Research and Development Canada's Suffield Research Centre in Alberta, Canada, during which three radiological dispersal devices were detonated. The detonations released radioactive (140)La into the air, which was then carried by winds and detectable over distances of up to 2 km. The Nuclear Emergency Response group of Natural Resources Canada conducted airborne radiometric surveys shortly following the explosions to map the pattern of radioactivity deposited on the ground. The survey instrument suite was based on large volume NaI(Tl) scintillation gamma radiation detectors, which were situated in a basket mounted exterior to the helicopter and oriented end-to-end to maximize the sensitivity. A standard geophysical data treatment was used to subtract backgrounds and to correct the data to produce counts due to (140)La at the nominal altitude. Sensitivity conversion factors obtained from Monte Carlo simulations were then applied to express the measurements in terms of surface activity concentration in kBq m(-2). Integrated over the survey area, the results indicate that only 20 to 25% of the bomb's original inventory of radioactive material is deposited within a 1.5-km radius of ground zero. These results can be accommodated with a simple model for the RDD behavior and atmospheric dispersion. PMID:27023033

  11. Early aerial photography and contributions to Digital Earth - The case of the 1921 Halifax air survey mission in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werle, D.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents research into the military and civilian history, technological development, and practical outcomes of aerial photography in Canada immediately after the First World War. The collections of early aerial photography in Canada and elsewhere, as well as the institutional and practical circumstances and arrangements of their creation, represent an important part of remote sensing heritage. It is argued that the digital rendition of the air photos and their representation in mosaic form can make valuable contributions to Digital Earth historic inquiries and mapping exercises today. An episode of one of the first urban surveys, carried out over Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1921, is highlighted and an air photo mosaic and interpretation key is presented. Using the almost one hundred year old air photos and a digitally re-assembled mosaic of a substantial portion of that collection as a guide, a variety of features unique to the post-war urban landscape of the Halifax peninsula are analysed, illustrated, and compared with records of past and current land use. The pan-chromatic air photo ensemble at a nominal scale of 1:5,000 is placed into the historical context with contemporary thematic maps, recent air photos, and modern satellite imagery. Further research opportunities and applications concerning early Canadian aerial photography are outlined.

  12. Aerial Survey Results for 131I Deposition on the Ground after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Torii, Tatsuo; Sugita, Takeshi; Okada, Colin E.; Reed, Michael S.; Blumenthal, Daniel J.

    2013-08-01

    In March 2011 the second largest accidental release of radioactivity in history occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant following a magnitude 9.0 earthquake and subsequent tsunami. Teams from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Emergency Response performed aerial surveys to provide initial maps of the dispersal of radioactive material in Japan. The initial results from the surveys did not report the concentration of 131I. This work reports on analyses performed on the initial survey data by a joint Japan-US collaboration to determine 131I ground concentration. This information is potentially useful in reconstruction of the inhalation and external exposure doses from this short-lived radionuclide. The deposited concentration of 134Cs is also reported.

  13. Interpretation of detailed aerial gamma-ray survey, Jabal Ashirah area, southeastern Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duval, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    A detailed aerial gamma-ray spectrometric survey of the Jabal Ashirah area in the southeastern Arabian Shield has been analyzed using computer-classification algorithms. The analysis resulted in maps that show radiometric map units and gamma-ray anomalies indicating the presence of possible concentrations of potassium and uranium. The radiometric-unit map was interpreted to 'produce a simplified radiolithic map that was correlated with the mapped geology. The gamma-ray data show uranium anomalies that coincide with a tin-bearing granite, but known gold and nickel mineralization do not have any associated gamma-ray signatures.

  14. Aerial surveys of endangered cetaceans and other marine mammals in the northwestern Gulf of Alaska and southeastern Bering Sea. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brueggeman, J.J.; Green, G.A.; Grotefendt, R.A.; Chapman, D.G.

    1987-09-01

    Aerial surveys were conducted in the Northwestern Gulf of Alaska and southeastern Bering Sea to determine the abundance, distribution, and habitat use patterns of endangered cetaceans and other marine mammals. Four species of cetaceans listed by the Federal Government as endangered were observed: gray, humpback, finback, and sperm whales. Sightings were also made to seven nonendangered species of cetaceans: minke, Cuvier's beaked, Baird's beaked, belukha, and killer whales, and Dall and harbor porpoises. Results show that the project area is an important feeding ground for relatively large numbers of humpback and finback whales and lower numbers of gray whale migration route between seasonal ranges. The project area also supports a variety of other marine mammals both seasonally and annually.

  15. An aerial radiological survey of the area surrounding the Rifle Mill sites, Rifle, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Jobst, J.

    1980-08-01

    Gamma ray isopleth maps have been constructed from aerial data taken over the old and new Rifle tailing piles near Rifle, Colorado. Spectral data from the more active areas reveal anomalous concentrations of bismuth-214. Tables that convert these anomalous levels to ground concentrations and corresponding exposure rates are included.

  16. Trial aerial survey of sea otters in Prince William Sound, Alaska, 1993. Restoration project 93043-2. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bodkin, J.L.; Udevitz, M.S.

    1996-05-01

    We developed an aerial survey method for sea otters, using a strip transect design where otters observed in a strip along one side of the aircraft are counted. Two strata are sampled, one lies close to shore and/or in shallow. The other strata lies offshore and over deeper water. We estimate the proportion of otters not seen by the observer by conducting intensive searches of units (ISU`s) within strips when otters are observed. The first study found no significant differences in sea otter detection probabilities between ISU`s initiated by the sighting of an otter group compared to systematically located ISU`s. The second study consisted of a trial survey of all of Prince William Sound, excluding Orca Inlet. The survey area consisted of 5,017 sq km of water between the shore line and an offshore boundary based on shoreline physiography, the 100 m depth contour or a distance of 2 km from the shore. From 5-13 August 1993, two observers surveyed 1,023 linear km of high density sea otter habitat and 355 linear km of low density habitat.

  17. Results of the Student Satisfaction Survey Conducted in Spring 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beachler, Judith A.

    2004-01-01

    During the Spring 2004 semester, the Office of Institutional Research of Los Rios Community College District (Sacramento, CA) collaborated with the College Research Offices to conduct the Noel-Levitz Student Satisfaction Inventory, the third administration of this student satisfaction survey since 1998. This analytical report summarizes the…

  18. Facts & Figures: A Layman's Guide to Conducting Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burges, Bill

    This book is intended to aid school officials in conducting effective community surveys for the purpose of improving citizen involvement and influence in educational decision-making. Although the book is of considerable value when used alone, it is designed for use as part of a set of related publications collectively entitled, "Factual Politics."…

  19. A Small Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, Ant-Plane 4, for aeromagnetic survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funaki, M.; Tanabe, S.; Project, A.

    2007-05-01

    Autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are expected to use in Antarctica for geophysical research due to economy and safety operations. We have developed the technology of small UAVwith autonomous navigation referred to GPS and onboard magnetometer, meteorolgical devices and digital camera under the Ant-Plane project. The UAV focuses on operation for use in the summer season at coastal area in Antarctica; higher temperature than -15C under calm wind. In case of Ant-Plane 4, it can fly continuously more than 500 km, probably more than 1000 km, although the flight in Antarcitca has not succeeded The UAV of FRP is pusher type drone consisting of 2.6m span and 2.0m length with 2-cycles and 2-cylinder 86cc gasoline engine (7.2 HP) navigated. The maximum takeoff weight is 25kg including 1kg of payload. Cruising distance 500 km at speed of 130 km/h using 10 litter of fuel. The UAV is controlled by radio telemeter within 5km from a ground station and autonomous navigation referred to GPS latitude and longitude, pitot tube speed and barometer altitude. The magnetometer system consists of a 3-component magneto-resistant magnetometer (MR) sensor (Honeywell HMR2300), GPS and data logger. Three components of magnetic field, latitude, longitude, altitude, the number of satellite and time are recorded every second during 6 hours. The sensitivity of the magnetometer is 7 nT and we use a total magnetic field intensity for magnetic analysis due to unknown direction of heading of the plane. We succeeded in long distant flight to 500km with magnetometer by Ant-Plane 4 collaborated with Geoscience Australia, in March 2006. The survey was performed in the area 10kmx10km at Kalgoorlie, Western Australia. The magnetic data are obtained from 41 courses (250m in interval) of EW direction. The altitude of the flight was 900m from sea level and 500m from the runway. MR-magnetometer sensor was installed at the tip of a FRP pipe of 1m length, and the pipe was fixed to the head of the plane

  20. The Use of Small Scale Aerial Photography in a Regional Agricultural Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draeger, W. C.

    1971-01-01

    The feasibility of performing inventories of agricultural resources using very small scale aerial or space photography has been investigated. Results to date are encouraging on two counts: (1) the questions posed initially are being answered, and (2) it would seem that a fully operational agricultural inventory using very small scale photography is not beyond the scope of present technology. The biggest problems to be faced in establishing a functional inventory system are those concerning logistics and data handling.

  1. An aerial radiological survey of Par Pond and associated drainage pathways of the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The first of a three-phase effort to radiologically monitor the lowering of Par Pond and associated drainage pathways was conducted over three areas of the Savannah River Site (SRS). The areas surveyed during this first phase included Par Pond, the Savannah River swamp from Steel Creek to Little Hell Landing, and Lower Three Runs Creek from the mouth of Lower Three Runs to the Highway 301 Bridge. The first phase was conducted to coincide with the lowering of the water level of Par Pond to an elevation of 190 feet above sea level. Additional surveys were conducted when the water level was at an elevation of 180 feet and prior to refill. The first survey began August 19, 1991, and was completed September 11, 1991. The second survey was conducted in October/November, 1991, during the SRS site-wide survey, and the third survey was conducted in August/September, 1992. Only the Par Pond area itself was surveyed during the third and final phase. The radiation detected over the Creek Plantation portion of the Savannah River swamp and Lower Three Runs areas during the August 1991 survey was consistent with the spatial distribution, quantity, and kinds of radionuclides detected during the 1983 and 1986 surveys. No migration of man-made gamma emitting materials was detected when compared to the prior surveys. The major differences occurred along the Par Pond shoreline where lowered water levels exposed the contaminated pond bed. The activity in the pond bed was attenuated by the water cover prior to the start of the lowering of Par Pond in June 1991. The data collected during each survey were processed in the field and were presented to SRS. A comparison report is being generated after the completion of each survey. A final report will be generated for the three surveys and will include a quantitative comparison of the three surveys in the Par Pond area only.

  2. Evaluation of unmanned aerial vehicle shape, flight path and camera type for waterfowl surveys: disturbance effects and species recognition.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, John F; Hall, Graham P; McDonald, Paul G

    2016-01-01

    The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for ecological research has grown rapidly in recent years, but few studies have assessed the disturbance impacts of these tools on focal subjects, particularly when observing easily disturbed species such as waterfowl. In this study we assessed the level of disturbance that a range of UAV shapes and sizes had on free-living, non-breeding waterfowl surveyed in two sites in eastern Australia between March and May 2015, as well as the capability of airborne digital imaging systems to provide adequate resolution for unambiguous species identification of these taxa. We found little or no obvious disturbance effects on wild, mixed-species flocks of waterfowl when UAVs were flown at least 60m above the water level (fixed wing models) or 40m above individuals (multirotor models). Disturbance in the form of swimming away from the UAV through to leaving the water surface and flying away from the UAV was visible at lower altitudes and when fixed-wing UAVs either approached subjects directly or rapidly changed altitude and/or direction near animals. Using tangential approach flight paths that did not cause disturbance, commercially available onboard optical equipment was able to capture images of sufficient quality to identify waterfowl and even much smaller taxa such as swallows. Our results show that with proper planning of take-off and landing sites, flight paths and careful UAV model selection, UAVs can provide an excellent tool for accurately surveying wild waterfowl populations and provide archival data with fewer logistical issues than traditional methods such as manned aerial surveys. PMID:27020132

  3. Evaluation of unmanned aerial vehicle shape, flight path and camera type for waterfowl surveys: disturbance effects and species recognition

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Graham P.; McDonald, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for ecological research has grown rapidly in recent years, but few studies have assessed the disturbance impacts of these tools on focal subjects, particularly when observing easily disturbed species such as waterfowl. In this study we assessed the level of disturbance that a range of UAV shapes and sizes had on free-living, non-breeding waterfowl surveyed in two sites in eastern Australia between March and May 2015, as well as the capability of airborne digital imaging systems to provide adequate resolution for unambiguous species identification of these taxa. We found little or no obvious disturbance effects on wild, mixed-species flocks of waterfowl when UAVs were flown at least 60m above the water level (fixed wing models) or 40m above individuals (multirotor models). Disturbance in the form of swimming away from the UAV through to leaving the water surface and flying away from the UAV was visible at lower altitudes and when fixed-wing UAVs either approached subjects directly or rapidly changed altitude and/or direction near animals. Using tangential approach flight paths that did not cause disturbance, commercially available onboard optical equipment was able to capture images of sufficient quality to identify waterfowl and even much smaller taxa such as swallows. Our results show that with proper planning of take-off and landing sites, flight paths and careful UAV model selection, UAVs can provide an excellent tool for accurately surveying wild waterfowl populations and provide archival data with fewer logistical issues than traditional methods such as manned aerial surveys. PMID:27020132

  4. Aerial photographic reproductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1975-01-01

    The National Cartographic Information Center of the U.S. Geological Survey maintains records of aerial photographic coverage of the United States and its Territories, based on reports from other Federal agencies as well as State governmental agencies and commercial companies. From these records, the Center furnishes data to prospective purchasers on available photography and the agency holding the aerial film.

  5. Design of a Mars Airplane Propulsion System for the Aerial Regional-Scale Environmental Survey (ARES) Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhl, Christopher A.

    2008-01-01

    The Aerial Regional-Scale Environmental Survey (ARES) is a Mars exploration mission concept that utilizes a rocket propelled airplane to take scientific measurements of atmospheric, surface, and subsurface phenomena. The liquid rocket propulsion system design has matured through several design cycles and trade studies since the inception of the ARES concept in 2002. This paper describes the process of selecting a bipropellant system over other propulsion system options, and provides details on the rocket system design, thrusters, propellant tank and PMD design, propellant isolation, and flow control hardware. The paper also summarizes computer model results of thruster plume interactions and simulated flight performance. The airplane has a 6.25 m wingspan with a total wet mass of 185 kg and has to ability to fly over 600 km through the atmosphere of Mars with 45 kg of MMH / MON3 propellant.

  6. Aerial radiometric and magnetic reconnaissance survey of portions of Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia: Cumberland quadrangle. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    The results of a high-sensitivity, aerial, gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey of the Cumberland Quadrangle, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia, are presented. Instrumentation and methods are described in Volume 1 of this final report. This work was done as part of the US Department of Energy National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program. Statisical and geological analysis of the radiometric data revealed 38 anomalies worthy of field checking as possible prospects. Seventeen anomalies coincide with cultural features that may be major contributors to their anomalous values. The Elwood Formation of Cambrian age has the greatest concentration of anomalies, followed by the Monongahela Formation of Pennsylvanian age and Hampshire/Catskill formations of Devonian age.

  7. Aerial Photography Summary Record System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1998-01-01

    The Aerial Photography Summary Record System (APSRS) describes aerial photography projects that meet specified criteria over a given geographic area of the United States and its territories. Aerial photographs are an important tool in cartography and a number of other professions. Land use planners, real estate developers, lawyers, environmental specialists, and many other professionals rely on detailed and timely aerial photographs. Until 1975, there was no systematic approach to locate an aerial photograph, or series of photographs, quickly and easily. In that year, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) inaugurated the APSRS, which has become a standard reference for users of aerial photographs.

  8. Age Determination by Back Length for African Savanna Elephants: Extending Age Assessment Techniques for Aerial-Based Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Trimble, Morgan J.; van Aarde, Rudi J.; Ferreira, Sam M.; Nørgaard, Camilla F.; Fourie, Johan; Lee, Phyllis C.; Moss, Cynthia J.

    2011-01-01

    Determining the age of individuals in a population can lead to a better understanding of population dynamics through age structure analysis and estimation of age-specific fecundity and survival rates. Shoulder height has been used to accurately assign age to free-ranging African savanna elephants. However, back length may provide an analog measurable in aerial-based surveys. We assessed the relationship between back length and age for known-age elephants in Amboseli National Park, Kenya, and Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa. We also compared age- and sex-specific back lengths between these populations and compared adult female back lengths across 11 widely dispersed populations in five African countries. Sex-specific Von Bertalanffy growth curves provided a good fit to the back length data of known-age individuals. Based on back length, accurate ages could be assigned relatively precisely for females up to 23 years of age and males up to 17. The female back length curve allowed more precise age assignment to older females than the curve for shoulder height does, probably because of divergence between the respective growth curves. However, this did not appear to be the case for males, but the sample of known-age males was limited to ≤27 years. Age- and sex-specific back lengths were similar in Amboseli National Park and Addo Elephant National Park. Furthermore, while adult female back lengths in the three Zambian populations were generally shorter than in other populations, back lengths in the remaining eight populations did not differ significantly, in support of claims that growth patterns of African savanna elephants are similar over wide geographic regions. Thus, the growth curves presented here should allow researchers to use aerial-based surveys to assign ages to elephants with greater precision than previously possible and, therefore, to estimate population variables. PMID:22028925

  9. DOE/NNSA Aerial Measuring System (AMS): Flying the 'Real' Thing

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Lyons

    2011-06-24

    This slide show documents aerial radiation surveys over Japan. Map product is a compilation of daily aerial measuring system missions from the Fukushima Daiichi power plant to 80 km radius. In addition, other flights were conducted over US military bases and the US embassy.

  10. Stream Morphologic Measurements from Airborne Laser Swath Mapping: Comparisons with Field Surveys, Traditional DEMs, and Aerial Photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, N. P.; Schultz, L. L.

    2005-12-01

    Precise measurement of stream morphology over entire watersheds is one of the great research opportunities provided by airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM). ALSM surveys allow for rapid quantification of factors, such as channel width and gradient, that control stream hydraulic and ecologic properties. We compare measurements from digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from ALSM data collected by the National Center for Airborne Laser Mapping (NCALM) to field surveys, traditional DEMs (rasterized from topographic maps), and aerial photographs. The field site is in the northern Black Mountains in arid Death Valley National Park (California). The area is unvegetated, and therefore is excellent for testing DEM analysis methods because the ALSM data required minimal filtering, and the resulting DEM contains relatively few unphysical sinks. Algorithms contained in geographic information systems (GIS) software used to extract stream networks from DEMs yield best results where streams are steep enough for resolvable pixel-to-pixel elevation change, and channel width is on the order of pixel resolution. This presents a new challenge with ALSM-derived DEMs because the pixel size (1 m) is often an order of magnitude or more smaller than channel width. We find the longitudinal profile of Gower Gulch in the northern Black Mountains (~4 km total length) extracted using the ALSM DEM and a flow accumulation algorithm is 14% longer than a traditional 10-m DEM, and 13% longer than a field survey. These differences in length (and therefore gradient) are due to the computed channel path following small-scale topographic variations within the channel bottom that are not relevant during high flows. However, visual analysis of shaded-relief images created from high-resolution ALSM data is an excellent method for digitizing channel banks and thalweg paths. We used these lines to measure distance, elevation, and width. In Gower Gulch, the algorithm-derived profile is 10% longer than that

  11. Assessment of benthic disturbance associated with stingray foraging for ghost shrimp by aerial survey over an intertidal sandflat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Seiji; Tamaki, Akio

    2014-08-01

    One notable type of bioturbation in marine soft sediments involves the excavation of large pits and displacement of sediment associated with predator foraging for infaunal benthos. Batoids are among the most powerful excavators, yet their impact on sediment has been poorly studied. For expansive tidal flats, only relatively small proportions of the habitat can be sampled due to physical and logistical constraints. The knowledge of the dynamics of these habitats, including the spatial and temporal distribution of ray bioturbation, thus remains limited. We combined the use of aerial photogrammetry and in situ benthic sampling to quantify stingray feeding pits in Tomioka Bay, Amakusa, Japan. Specifically, we mapped newly-formed pits over an 11-ha section of an intertidal sandflat over two consecutive daytime low tides. Pit size and distribution patterns were assumed to scale with fish size and reflect size-specific feeding behaviors, respectively. In situ benthic surveys were conducted for sandflat-surface elevation and prey density (callianassid shrimp). The volume versus area relationship was established as a logistic function for pits of varying sizes by photographing and refilling them with sediment. This relationship was applied to the area of every pit detected by air to estimate volume, in which special attention was paid to ray ontogenetic change in space utilization patterns. In total, 18,103 new pits were formed per day, with a mean individual area of 1060 cm2. The pits were divided into six groups (G1 to G6 in increasing areas), with abundances of G1, G2+G3, and G4-G6 being medium, high, and low, respectively. Statistical analyses using generalized linear models revealed a marked preference for the higher prey-density areas in G1 and the restriction of feeding grounds of G4-G6 to the lower shore, with G2+G3 being generalists for prey density and sandflat elevation. The lower degrees of overall bioturbation by G1 and G4-G6 were spatially structured for the

  12. Recovering Complex Conductivity from Frequency and Time Domain Geophysical Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KANG, S.; Marchant, D.; Oldenburg, D.

    2013-12-01

    The electrical conductivity of earth materials can be frequency dependent. The bulk conductivity decreases with decreasing frequency because of the build-up of electric charges that occur under the application of an electric field. Effectively, the rock is electrically polarized. Finding the polarization response (often referred to as IP, Induced Polarization) can lead to economic benefits, as in the case of discovering sulphide minerals, but there is applicability in environmental problems, groundwater flow, and site characterization. We have the ability to model Maxwell's equations in 3D for complex conductivity in either the time or frequency domain. The challenge therefore is to invert the EM (electromagnetic) data to recover a four-dimensional conductivity (σ (ω, x, y, z)) using limited EM data generally acquired on, or above, the surface of the earth. At late times (or low frequencies) the static Maxwell's equation are valid and, if a background conductivity is known, then chargeability can be extracted. Unfortunately the static assumption is often violated and EM induction processes contaminate the sought signal. For example, signals in the time domain have three parts: a static on-time, an early-time inductive portion, and a late-time IP signal. Information about conductivity using the appropriate Maxwell's equations is available from each of these segments. The potential contamination of the IP from EM induction (often referred to as EM coupling) and the potential contamination of the EM signal from the IP data (IP coupling) can cause deleterious effects and must be addressed. The goal of this talk is to address such issues and outline a practical procedure for extracting IP information from existing time and frequency domain surveys.

  13. Planialtimetric Accuracy Evaluation of Digital Surface Model (dsm) and Digital Terrain Model (dtm) Obtained from Aerial Survey with LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, C. B. M.; Barros, R. S.; Rabaco, L. M. L.

    2012-07-01

    It's noticed a significant increase in the development of orbital and airborne sensors that enable the extraction of three-dimensional data. Consequently, it's important the increment of studies about the quality of altimetric values derived from these sensors to verify if the improvements implemented in the acquisition of data may influence the results. In this context, as part of a larger project that aims to evaluate the accuracy of various sensors, this work aims to analysis the planialtimetric accuracy of DSM and DTM generated from an aerial survey with LIDAR, using as reference for the planimetric analysis of the orthophotos obtained. The project was developed for an area of São Sebastião city, located in the basin of the North Coast of São Paulo state. The area's relief is very steep, with a predominance of dense forest vegetation, typical of the Atlantic Forest. All points have been established in the field, with the use of GNSS of one frequency (L1) through static relative positioning, acquiring a minimum of 1,500 epochs, for a distance less than 20 km to the base. In this work it's considered the Brazilian standard specifications for classification of cartographic bases (PEC). The Brazilian company responsible for the aerial survey (LACTEC) gave the following products for analysis: point clouds in raw format (x, y, z) using orthometric heights; point clouds (first and last pulse) for each range of flight to verify systematic errors; DTM uniformly spaced, filtering small natural obstacles, buildings and vegetation, in Geotiff format; DSM also uniformly spaced, in Geotiff format; and the mosaic of georeferenced digital images. The analysis realized on products from the LIDAR indicated their adoption to the scales 1:2,000 (Class A for the orthophotos and Class B for the DTM) and 1:5,000 (class C for the DSM). There were no indications of trends in the results. The average error was 0.01 m. It's important that new areas with different topographic

  14. U.S. Geological Survey Aids Federal Agencies in ObtainingCommercial Satellite and Aerial Imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is a leading U.S. Federal civil agency in the implementation of the civil aspects of the Commercial Remote Sensing Space Policy (CRSSP). The USGS is responsible for collecting inter-agency near-term requirements, establishing an operational infrastructure, and supporting the policy and other Federal agencies.

  15. NOAA's National Geodetic Survey Utilization of Aerial Sensors for Emergency Response Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Remote Sensing Division has a Coastal Mapping program and a Airport Survey program and research and development that support both programs. NOAA/NGS/RSD plans to acquire remotely sensed data to support the agency's homeland security and emergency response requirements.

  16. Aerial Surveys of Waterfowl Production in North America, 1955-71

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Anderson, D.R.; Pospahala, R.S.

    1972-01-01

    Basic information obtained from the July Waterfowl Production Survey is presented in 32 Appendix tables for the period 1955-71. The discussion of the data is minimized because the report is designed primarily to make the data available to waterfowl biologists and other interested individuals. Data presented include: (1) the number of July ponds, (2) the brood index, (3) the average size forClass II and Cia s s !II broods, and (4) the late nesting index. These statistics are presented for each stratum surveyed. A few of the obvious correlations are discussed, although more refined analyses of the data will be presented in the Mallard Study reports. Furthermore, additional supporting information will be available for the mallard reports.

  17. NURE aerial gamma ray and magnetic detail survey of portions of northeast Washington. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    The Northeast Washington Survey was performed under the United States Department of Energy's National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program, which is designed to provide radioelement distribution information to assist in assessing the uraniferous material potential of the United States. The radiometric and ancilliary data were digitally recorded and processed. The results are presented in the form of stacked profiles, contour maps, flight path maps, statistical tables and frequency distribution histograms. These graphical outputs are presented at a scale of 1:62,500 and are contained in the individual Volume 2 reports.

  18. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Hobbs National Topographic Map, New Mexico/Texas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Hobbs National Topographic Map NI13-12 are presented in this report. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also.

  19. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey, San Angelo National Topographic Map: Texas, West Texas Project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the San Angelo National Topographic Map NH14-1 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium, and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included.

  20. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: San Antonio National Topographic Map, Texas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the San Antonio National Topographic Map NH14-8 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium, and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also.

  1. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Burlington National Topographic Map, Illinois/Iowa/Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Burlington National Topographic Map NK15-12 is presented in this report. The airborne data gathered is reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also.

  2. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey: Tallahassee and Apalachicola quadrangles, Florida, Georgia and Alabama. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    The combined Tallahassee and Apalachicola quadrangles cover 8800 square miles of area in southwestern Georgia and the eastern panhandle of Florida. The area includes thick sections of Cenozoic and Mesozoic platform deposits of the Southwestern Georgia Basin. Surficial exposures are comprised of Eocene to Recent deposits. A search of the available literature revealed no economically feasible uranium deposits within the area. A total of 45 uranium anomalies were detected by the survey and are discussed briefly in this report. All anomalies are extremely low in equivalent ppM values and a large number correlate well with cultural features. The magnetic data appear to be in general agreement with present structural interpretation. The data does suggest that some lithologic and/or structural complexities may be present in the Paleozoic and older basement material.

  3. Aerial Surveys of Elevated Hydrocarbon Emissions from Oil and Gas Production Sites.

    PubMed

    Lyon, David R; Alvarez, Ramón A; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Brandt, Adam R; Jackson, Robert B; Hamburg, Steven P

    2016-05-01

    Oil and gas (O&G) well pads with high hydrocarbon emission rates may disproportionally contribute to total methane and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from the production sector. In turn, these emissions may be missing from most bottom-up emission inventories. We performed helicopter-based infrared camera surveys of more than 8000 O&G well pads in seven U.S. basins to assess the prevalence and distribution of high-emitting hydrocarbon sources (detection threshold ∼ 1-3 g s(-1)). The proportion of sites with such high-emitting sources was 4% nationally but ranged from 1% in the Powder River (Wyoming) to 14% in the Bakken (North Dakota). Emissions were observed three times more frequently at sites in the oil-producing Bakken and oil-producing regions of mixed basins (p < 0.0001, χ(2) test). However, statistical models using basin and well pad characteristics explained 14% or less of the variance in observed emission patterns, indicating that stochastic processes dominate the occurrence of high emissions at individual sites. Over 90% of almost 500 detected sources were from tank vents and hatches. Although tank emissions may be partially attributable to flash gas, observed frequencies in most basins exceed those expected if emissions were effectively captured and controlled, demonstrating that tank emission control systems commonly underperform. Tanks represent a key mitigation opportunity for reducing methane and VOC emissions. PMID:27045743

  4. Aeromagnetic Survey by Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with Magneto-Resistant Magnetometer at the northern Kalgoorlie area, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funaki, M.; Group, A.; Milligan, P.

    2006-12-01

    We have developed the technology of small drones (unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV)) and an onboard magnetometer focussed on the aeromagnetic surveys under the Ant-Plane project. We succeeded long distant flight to 500km with agnetometer by Ant-Plene4 drone collaborated with Geoscience, Australia, in March 2006. The survey was carried out in the area 10kmx10km around Mt. Vetters Station, Kalgoorlie, West Australian. The magnetic data are obtained from 41 courses (250m in interval) of EW dierction. The altitude of the flight was 900m from sea level and 500m from the runway. The Ant-Plane #4 consists of 2.6m span and 2.0m length with 2-cycles and 2-cylinder 85cc gasoline engine, GPS navigation system by microcomputer and radio telemeter system. The total weight is 25kg including 12.4 litter fuels and the coursing speed is 130. The magnetometer system consists of a 3-component magneto- resistant magnetometer (MR) sensor (Honeywell HMR2300), GPS and data logger. Three components of magnetic field, latitude, longitude, altitude, the number of satellite and time can be recorded in every second during 6 hours. The sensitivity of the magnetometer is 7 nT and we use a total magnetic field intensity for magnetic analysis due to unknown direction of heading of the plane. MR-magnetometer sensor was installed at the tip of a FRP pipe of 1m length, and the pipe was fixed to the head of the plane in order to reduce the plane magnetization. After 4 hours 14 minutes from the takeoff, the 500km flight was accomplished and the magnetic data were obtained from the data logger. The straight flight course was almost consistent with the way point course, but the course was drastically disturbed when the plane was turning. The magnetic noise level during the flight increased to 30nT, when the plane was flight in the tail wind. However, it is much higher when the plane flew in the head wind. The anomaly pattern obtained from Ant-Plane 4 was compared with the magnetic anomaly map published by

  5. Aerial Surveys of the Beaufort Sea Seasonal Ice Zone in 2012-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewey, S.; Morison, J.; Andersen, R.; Zhang, J.

    2014-12-01

    Seasonal Ice Zone Reconnaissance Surveys (SIZRS) of the Beaufort Sea aboard U.S. Coast Guard Arctic Domain Awareness flights were made monthly from May 2012 to October 2012, June 2013 to August 2013, and June 2014 to October 2014. In 2012 sea ice extent reached a record minimum and the SIZRS sampling ranged from complete ice cover to open water; in addition to its large spatial coverage, the SIZRS program extends temporal coverage of the seasonal ice zone (SIZ) beyond the traditional season for ship-based observations, and is a good set of measurements for model validation and climatological comparison. The SIZ, where ice melts and reforms annually, encompasses the marginal ice zone (MIZ). Thus SIZRS tracks interannual MIZ conditions, providing a regional context for smaller-scale MIZ processes. Observations with Air eXpendable CTDs (AXCTDs) reveal two near-surface warm layers: a locally-formed surface seasonal mixed layer and a layer of Pacific origin at 50-60m. Temperatures in the latter differ from the freezing point by up to 2°C more than climatologies. To distinguish vertical processes of mixed layer formation from Pacific advection, vertical heat and salt fluxes are quantified using a 1-D Price-Weller-Pinkel (PWP) model adapted for ice-covered seas. This PWP simulates mixing processes in the top 100m of the ocean. Surface forcing fluxes are taken from the Marginal Ice Zone Modeling and Assimilation System MIZMAS. Comparison of SIZRS observations with PWP output shows that the ocean behaves one-dimensionally above the Pacific layer of the Beaufort Gyre. Despite agreement with the MIZMAS-forced PWP, SIZRS observations remain fresher to 100m than do outputs from MIZMAS and ECCO.2. The shapes of seasonal cycles in SIZRS salinity and temperature agree with MIZMAS and ECCO.2 model outputs despite differences in the values of each. However, the seasonal change of surface albedo is not high enough resolution to accurately drive the PWP. Use of ice albedo

  6. 5 CFR 532.235 - Conduct of full-scale wage survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conduct of full-scale wage survey. 532... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.235 Conduct of full-scale wage survey. (a) Wage... collection for a full-scale wage survey shall be accomplished by personal visit to the establishment....

  7. 5 CFR 532.235 - Conduct of full-scale wage survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conduct of full-scale wage survey. 532... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.235 Conduct of full-scale wage survey. (a) Wage... collection for a full-scale wage survey shall be accomplished by personal visit to the establishment....

  8. 5 CFR 532.235 - Conduct of full-scale wage survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conduct of full-scale wage survey. 532... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.235 Conduct of full-scale wage survey. (a) Wage... collection for a full-scale wage survey shall be accomplished by personal visit to the establishment....

  9. 5 CFR 532.235 - Conduct of full-scale wage survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conduct of full-scale wage survey. 532... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.235 Conduct of full-scale wage survey. (a) Wage... collection for a full-scale wage survey shall be accomplished by personal visit to the establishment....

  10. 5 CFR 532.235 - Conduct of full-scale wage survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conduct of full-scale wage survey. 532... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.235 Conduct of full-scale wage survey. (a) Wage... collection for a full-scale wage survey shall be accomplished by personal visit to the establishment....

  11. Conducting a Graduate Employer Survey: A Monash University Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nair, Chenicheri Sid; Mertova, Patricie

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a framework that can be utilized in the design of graduate employer surveys carried out by tertiary institutions as a form of monitoring their graduate attributes. It further aims to identify the potential issues and challenges that may be involved in undertaking such a survey.…

  12. Methods development and applications evaluations of NURE aerial reconnaissance survey data for uranium resource evaluation: Beeville/Bay City and Crystal City quadrangles, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.A.S.; Harrill, S.F.; Oddo, J.E.

    1981-04-01

    The area studied covers some 50,000 square kilometers of land area in south Texas and is designated the Beeville/Bay City and Crystal City quadrangles, which are bounded by north latitude lines 28/sup 0/ and 29/sup 0/ and west longitude lines 94/sup 0/ and 100/sup 0/. The NURE open-file reports on the aerial gamma spectrometric, hydrologic, and stream-sediment surveys of this area were studied in regard to their utility in identifying regions of high or higher favorability for uranium deposits. The investigation concentrated on six formations, three of which were assumed to be favorable and three unfavorable. Traversing a few stationary ground gamma spectrometric determinations were made in connection with the present work. In addition to the 35 new ground determinations on the Beaumont formation, 1500 spectra previously obtained by a helicopter survey from an altitude of 15 meters around the South Texas Nuclear Power Plant Site near Bay City were used in the present study. There is substantial agreement between the NURE aerial data and the ground and helicopter data as regards the general radioelement distributions in the stratigraphic units described above. The vehicle-mounted gamma-ray spectrometer used in this work systematically gave some 30 percent higher thorium concentration estimates when compared with those from the NURE aerial data. The NURE aerial data are adequate in number to characterize the major stratigraphic units, but they may not be quantitative enough for detailed comparisons from one quadrangle to another, and the optimum sampling area for each formation is not known.The development or refinement of a unique geochemical model for the formation of south Texas-type sandstone uranium deposits was not achieved starting with the NURE open-file data and the published literature.

  13. Aerial Explorers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg; Ippolito, Corey

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents recent results from a mission architecture study of planetary aerial explorers. In this study, several mission scenarios were developed in simulation and evaluated on success in meeting mission goals. This aerial explorer mission architecture study is unique in comparison with previous Mars airplane research activities. The study examines how aerial vehicles can find and gain access to otherwise inaccessible terrain features of interest. The aerial explorer also engages in a high-level of (indirect) surface interaction, despite not typically being able to takeoff and land or to engage in multiple flights/sorties. To achieve this goal, a new mission paradigm is proposed: aerial explorers should be considered as an additional element in the overall Entry, Descent, Landing System (EDLS) process. Further, aerial vehicles should be considered primarily as carrier/utility platforms whose purpose is to deliver air-deployed sensors and robotic devices, or symbiotes, to those high-value terrain features of interest.

  14. 30 CFR 250.1153 - When must I conduct a static bottomhole pressure survey?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When must I conduct a static bottomhole... static bottomhole pressure survey? (a) You must conduct a static bottomhole pressure survey under the following conditions: If you have . . . Then you must conduct . . . (1) A new producing reservoir A...

  15. Integration of historical aerial and satellite photos, recent satellite images and geophysical surveys for the knowledge of the ancient Dyrrachium (Durres, Albania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malfitana, Daniele; Shehi, Eduard; Masini, Nicola; Scardozzi, Giuseppe

    2010-05-01

    The paper presents the preliminary results of an integrated multidiscipliary research project concerning the urban area of the modern Durres (ancient Dyrrachium). Here a joint Italian and Albanian researcher are starting preliminary investigations on the place of an ancient roman villa placed in the urban centre of the modern town. In a initial phase are offering interesting results the use of a rich multitemporal remote sensing data-set, historical aerial photos of 1920s and 1930s, photos of USA spy satellites of 1960s and 1970s (Corona KH-4A and KH-4B), and very high resolution satellite imagery. The historical aerial documentation is very rich and includes aerial photogrammetrich flights of two Italian Institutions: the private company SARA - Società Anonima Rilevamenti Aerofotogrammetrici in Rome (1928) and the IGM - Istituto Geografico Militare (1936, 1937 e 1941), which flew on Durres for purposes of cartographic production and military. These photos offer an image of the city before the urban expansion after the Second World War and in recent decades, progressively documented by satellite images of the 1960s-1970s and recent years. They enable a reconstruction of the ancient topography of the urban area, even with the possibility of detailed analysis, as in the case of the the Roman villa, nowadays buried under a modern garden, but also investigated with a GPR survey, in order to rebuild its plan and contextualize the villa in relation to the urban area of the ancient Dyrrachium.

  16. Composite Digital Terrain Models: Synthesizing Aerial and Terrestrial LiDAR with Conventional Survey Data to Monitor Sediment Transport Through the Sunol Dam Removal Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storesund, R.; Minear, T.; Saleh, R.

    2007-12-01

    In 2006, the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission removed Sunol dam, located on Alameda Creek, near San Francisco California. The primary goals of the project were to improve fish passage, restore a self- sustaining population of steelhead to the watershed, and eliminate an existing public safety hazard. Approximately 28,300 cubic meters of sand and gravel-sized sediment had accumulated upstream of the dam and was left in place to move downstream naturally over a period of several decades. To create a baseline for future monitoring of sediment transport through the dam area, a combination of Aerial LiDAR, Terrestrial LiDAR, and conventional survey data was compiled and synthesized to generate a three dimensional digital model of the study area both upstream and downstream of the damsite. The primary survey method for characterization of above ground topography was Terrestrial LiDAR, with an approximate point spacing of centimeters. In submerged areas conventional survey techniques were used to augment the Aerial and Terrestrial LiDAR data sets. We found this approach to be effective in developing a high accuracy-high detail sediment volume model from which sediment transport can be monitored and modeled.

  17. Building a Case for Conducting Technology Surveys On-Line.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Jon J.; Strader, Arlen

    A Technology in Texas Public Schools 1998 Survey instrument was integrated into a Web-based response system enabling the instrument to be accessed, completed, submitted, and instantaneously analyzed over the Internet. A mark-sense or optical scan paper version of the instrument was also developed for mail-out distribution to each school district…

  18. Conducting Sanitary Surveys of Water Supply Systems. Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1976

    This workbook is utilized in connection with a 40-hour course on sanitary surveys of water supply systems for biologists, chemists, and engineers with experience as a water supply evaluator. Practical training is provided in each of the 21 self-contained modules. Each module outlines the purpose, objectives and content for that section. The course…

  19. Using Web-Based Surveys to Conduct Counseling Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granello, Darcy Haag; Wheaton, Joe E.

    In spite of the increased use of the Internet for data collection, there is little published research about the process of data collection online. That is, discipline specific studies publish the results of their web-based surveys in discipline-specific journals, but little information is available on the process of Internet-based data collection.…

  20. Conducting Market Rate Surveys and Establishing Rate Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolak, Eric; Collins, Ray; Stoney, Louise

    Market rate surveys and the rate-setting policies and reimbursement rules informed by them are at the core of the market-based approach to child care and are central to the delicate balancing act of ensuring access to subsidized care while at the same time promoting the quality of child care. This report provides an overview of the market-based…

  1. Satellite and Aerial Remote Sensing in Support of Disaster Response Operations Conducted by the Texas Division of Emergency Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, G. L.; Tapley, B. D.; Bettadpur, S. V.; Howard, T.; Porter, B.; Smith, S.; Teng, L.; Tapley, C.

    2014-12-01

    The effective use of remote sensing products as guidance to emergency managers and first responders during field operations requires close coordination and communication with state-level decision makers, incident commanders and the leaders of individual strike teams. Information must be tailored to meet the needs of different emergency support functions and must contain current (ideally near real-time) data delivered in standard formats in time to influence decisions made under rapidly changing conditions. Since 2003, a representative of the University of Texas Center for Space Research (CSR) has served as a member of the Governor's Emergency Management Council and has directed the flow of information from remote sensing observations and high performance computing modeling and simulations to the Texas Division of Emergency Management in the State Operations Center. The CSR team has supported response and recovery missions resulting from hurricanes, tornadoes, flash floods, wildfires, oil spills and other natural and man-made disasters in Texas and surrounding states. Through web mapping services, state emergency managers and field teams have received threat model forecasts, real-time vehicle tracking displays and imagery to support search-and-clear operations before hurricane landfall, search-and-rescue missions following floods, tactical wildfire suppression, pollution monitoring and hazardous materials detection. Data servers provide near real-time satellite imagery collected by CSR's direct broadcast receiving system and post data products delivered during activations of the United Nations International Charter on Space and Major Disasters. In the aftermath of large-scale events, CSR is charged with tasking state aviation resources, including the Air National Guard and Texas Civil Air Patrol, to acquire geolocated aerial photography of the affected region for wide area damage assessment. A data archive for each disaster is available online for years following

  2. Aerial photographic reproductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1971-01-01

    Geological Survey vertical aerial photography is obtained primarily for topographic and geologic mapping. Reproductions from this photography are usually satisfactory for general use. Because reproductions are not stocked, but are custom processed for each order, they cannot be returned for credit or refund.

  3. How to Conduct Surveys: A Step-by-Step Guide. Sixth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Arlene

    2016-01-01

    Packed with new topics that reflect today's challenges, the Sixth Edition of the bestselling "How to Conduct Surveys" guides readers through the process of developing their own rigorous surveys and evaluating the credibility and transparency of surveys created by others. Offering practical, step-by-step advice and written in the same…

  4. Salary Surveys: How to Conduct One in Your Community and Child Care Staff Salary and Working Conditions Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellm, Dan; Whitebook, Marcy

    Intended for use by child care advocates, this booklet describes ways to gather local information about existing salaries, benefits, and working conditions among child care workers for the purpose of coordinating efforts to upgrade the field. The booklet begins by presenting the rationale behind conducting salary surveys, noting that surveys can…

  5. Seismic reflection survey conducted in Benton County, Washinton

    SciTech Connect

    Beggs, H.G.; Heineck, R.L. )

    1980-01-01

    The massive Columbia River Basalt group that underlies the Hanford Site is being considered as a potential geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel. As part of the effort to ascertain and better understand the physical and geological properties of these basalt flows, a multiphased seismic reflection program has been undertaken. This phase was designed to more thoroughly define geologic features and structural attitudes in an areas in the central part of the Hanford Site. The specific feature of interest is known as the Cold Creek Syncline. This seismic survey, utilized the VIBROSEIS'' energy source and multifold common depth point recording. 2 figs.

  6. Extraction of Point Source Gamma Signals from Aerial Survey Data Taken over a Las Vegas Nevada Residential Area

    SciTech Connect

    Thane J. Hendricks

    2007-05-01

    Detection of point-source gamma signals from aerial measurements is complicated by widely varying terrestrial gamma backgrounds, since these variations frequently resemble signals from point-sources. Spectral stripping techniques have been very useful in separating man-made and natural radiation contributions which exist on Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) plant sites and other like facilities. However, these facilities are generally situated in desert areas or otherwise flat terrain with few man-made structures to disturb the natural background. It is of great interest to determine if the stripping technique can be successfully applied in populated areas where numerous man-made disturbances (houses, streets, yards, vehicles, etc.) exist.

  7. Error correction for vertical surveys conducted over a subsiding longwall mining panel

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, A.

    1996-12-31

    The difference between a conventional land survey and a survey of subsiding ground is discussed and a correction method was formulated for surveys conducted on subsiding ground. The area over the longwall mining panel subsided detectable amounts during the time required to conduct the survey when subsidence was at its highest rate, which introduces error into the survey. When the ground subsides before the survey is completed, the survey no longer represents the locations of all points at a common point in time, which is a basic assumption of conventional land surveying. Conventional methods of correction average movement of subsiding points and apply those amounts of movement to points which were unaffected by subsidence, a different correction method was needed. A correction method was used which uses multiple surveys to calculate rates of subsidence for each point in the survey. Subsidence rates were used to estimate the location of each point at a common time, Results are presented using the correction for subsiding ground and using no correction. Different results of the same surveys are shown in terms of elevations and curvatures. The significance of the different types of corrections is discussed and the compounding of error is demonstrated when calculating curvatures.

  8. 30 CFR 250.1153 - When must I conduct a static bottomhole pressure survey?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Production Requirements Well Tests and Surveys § 250.1153 When must I conduct a static bottomhole pressure survey? (a) You... days after the date of first continuous production. (2) A reservoir with three or more...

  9. Community Survey, Sacramento, California, Conducted for KVIE-TV, February 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzman, Natan

    Contained in this report are the results of a telephone survey conducted in February 1974 among households in the metropolitan television market for Sacramento-Stockton, California. During evening hours, paid interviewers dialed 1775 telephone numbers selected randomly from telephone books. The purpose of the survey was to determine the nature of…

  10. Aerial thermography for energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Thermal infrared scanning from an aircraft is a convenient and commercially available means for determining relative rates of energy loss from building roofs. The need to conserve energy as fuel costs makes the mass survey capability of aerial thermography an attractive adjunct to community energy awareness programs. Background information on principles of aerial thermography is presented. Thermal infrared scanning systems, flight and environmental requirements for data acquisition, preparation of thermographs for display, major users and suppliers of thermography, and suggested specifications for obtaining aerial scanning services were reviewed.

  11. Can reliable sage-grouse lek counts be obtained using aerial infrared technology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillette, Gifford L.; Coates, Peter S.; Petersen, Steven; Romero, John P.

    2013-01-01

    More effective methods for counting greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are needed to better assess population trends through enumeration or location of new leks. We describe an aerial infrared technique for conducting sage-grouse lek counts and compare this method with conventional ground-based lek count methods. During the breeding period in 2010 and 2011, we surveyed leks from fixed-winged aircraft using cryogenically cooled mid-wave infrared cameras and surveyed the same leks on the same day from the ground following a standard lek count protocol. We did not detect significant differences in lek counts between surveying techniques. These findings suggest that using a cryogenically cooled mid-wave infrared camera from an aerial platform to conduct lek surveys is an effective alternative technique to conventional ground-based methods, but further research is needed. We discuss multiple advantages to aerial infrared surveys, including counting in remote areas, representing greater spatial variation, and increasing the number of counted leks per season. Aerial infrared lek counts may be a valuable wildlife management tool that releases time and resources for other conservation efforts. Opportunities exist for wildlife professionals to refine and apply aerial infrared techniques to wildlife monitoring programs because of the increasing reliability and affordability of this technology.

  12. Assessing responses of humpback whales to North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory (NPAL) transmissions: results of 2001--2003 aerial surveys north of Kauai.

    PubMed

    Mobley, Joseph R

    2005-03-01

    Eight aerial surveys were flown north of the Hawaiian island of Kauai during 2001 when the North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory (NPAL) source was not transmitting, and during 2002 and 2003 when it was. All surveys were performed during the period of peak residency of humpback whales (Feb-Mar). During 2002 and 2003, surveys commenced immediately upon cessation of a 24-h cycle of transmissions. Numbers and distribution of whales observed within 40 km of the NPAL source during 2001 (source off) were compared with those observed during 2002 and 2003 (source on). A total of 75 sightings was noted during 2001, as compared with 81 and 55 during 2002 and 2003, respectively. Differences in sighting rates (sightings/km) across years were not statistically significant. Assessment of distributional changes relied upon comparisons of three measures: (a) location depths; (b) distance from the NPAL source; and (c) distance offshore. None of the distributional comparisons revealed statistically significant differences across years. Several possible interpretations are examined: (a) whales have habituated to the NPAL signal; (b) insufficient statistical power exists in the present design to detect any effects; and (c) the effects are short-lived and become undetectable shortly after the cessation of transmissions. PMID:15810697

  13. Pacific Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment (PaCSEA): aerial seabird and marine mammal surveys off northern California, Oregon, and Washington, 2011-2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Josh; Felis, Jonathan J.; Mason, John W.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2014-01-01

    Marine birds and mammals comprise an important community of meso- and upper-trophic-level predators within the northern California Current System (NCCS). The NCCS is located within one of the world’s four major eastern boundary currents and is characterized by an abundant and diverse marine ecosystem fuelled seasonally by wind-driven upwelling which supplies nutrient-rich water to abundant phytoplankton inhabiting the surface euphotic zone. The oceanographic conditions throughout the NCCS fluctuate according to well-described seasonal, inter-annual, and decadal cycles. Such oceanographic variability can influence patterns in the distribution, abundance, and habitat use among marine birds and mammals. Although there are an increasing number of studies documenting distributions and abundances among birds and mammals in various portions of the NCCS, there have been no comprehensive, large-scale, multi-seasonal surveys completed throughout this region since the early 1980s (off northern California; Briggs et al. 1987) and early 1990s (off Oregon and Washington; Bonnell et al. 1992, Briggs et al. 1992, Green et al. 1992). During 2011 and 2012, we completed the Pacific Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment (PaCSEA) which included replicated surveys over the continental shelfslope from shore to the 2000-meter (m) isobath along 32 broad-scale transects from Fort Bragg, California (39° N) through Grays Harbor, Washington (47° N). Additionally, surveys at a finer scale were conducted over the continental shelf within six designated Focal Areas: Fort Bragg, CA; Eureka, CA; Siltcoos Bank, OR; Newport, OR; Nehalem Bank, OR; and Grays Harbor, WA. We completed a total of 26,752 km of standardized, low-elevation aerial survey effort across three bathymetric domains: inner-shelf waters ( Overall, we recorded 15,403 sightings of 59,466 individual marine birds (12 families, 54 species). During winter, seven species groupings comprised >90% of the total number of birds

  14. U. S. Department of Energy Aerial Measuring Systems

    SciTech Connect

    J. J. Lease

    1998-10-01

    The Aerial Measuring Systems (AMS) is an aerial surveillance system. This system consists of remote sensing equipment to include radiation detectors; multispectral, thermal, radar, and laser scanners; precision cameras; and electronic imaging and still video systems. This equipment, in varying combinations, is mounted in an airplane or helicopter and flown at different heights in specific patterns to gather various types of data. This system is a key element in the US Department of Energy's (DOE) national emergency response assets. The mission of the AMS program is twofold--first, to respond to emergencies involving radioactive materials by conducting aerial surveys to rapidly track and map the contamination that may exist over a large ground area and second, to conduct routinely scheduled, aerial surveys for environmental monitoring and compliance purposes through the use of credible science and technology. The AMS program evolved from an early program, begun by a predecessor to the DOE--the Atomic Energy Commission--to map the radiation that may have existed within and around the terrestrial environments of DOE facilities, which produced, used, or stored radioactive materials.

  15. Aerial thermography in archaeological prospection: Applications & processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cool, Autumn Chrysantha

    Aerial thermography is one of the least utilized archaeological prospection methods, yet it has great potential for detecting anthropogenic anomalies. Thermal infrared radiation is absorbed and reemitted at varying rates by all objects on and within the ground depending upon their density, composition, and moisture content. If an area containing archaeological features is recorded at the moment when their thermal signatures most strongly contrast with that of the surrounding matrix, they can be visually identified in thermal images. Research conducted in the 1960s and 1970s established a few basic rules for conducting thermal survey, but the expense associated with the method deterred most archaeologists from using this technology. Subsequent research was infrequent and almost exclusively appeared in the form of case studies. However, as the current proliferation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and compact thermal cameras draws renewed attention to aerial thermography as an attractive and exciting form of survey, it is appropriate and necessary to reevaluate our approach. In this thesis I have taken a two-pronged approach. First, I built upon the groundwork of earlier researchers and created an experiment to explore the impact that different environmental and climatic conditions have on the success or failure of thermal imaging. I constructed a test site designed to mimic a range of archaeological features and imaged it under a variety of conditions to compare and contrast the results. Second, I explored a new method for processing thermal data that I hope will lead to a means of reducing noise and increasing the clarity of thermal images. This step was done as part of a case study so that the effectiveness of the processing method could be evaluated by comparison with the results of other geophysical surveys.

  16. 30 CFR 550.1153 - When must I conduct a static bottomhole pressure survey?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: If you have . . . Then you must conduct . . . (1) A new producing reservoir, A static bottomhole pressure survey within 90 days after the date of first continuous production. (2) A reservoir with three or... wells to establish an average reservoir pressure. The Regional Supervisor may require that...

  17. 30 CFR 550.1153 - When must I conduct a static bottomhole pressure survey?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: If you have . . . Then you must conduct . . . (1) A new producing reservoir, A static bottomhole pressure survey within 90 days after the date of first continuous production. (2) A reservoir with three or... wells to establish an average reservoir pressure. The Regional Supervisor may require that...

  18. 30 CFR 550.1153 - When must I conduct a static bottomhole pressure survey?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: If you have . . . Then you must conduct . . . (1) A new producing reservoir, A static bottomhole pressure survey within 90 days after the date of first continuous production. (2) A reservoir with three or... wells to establish an average reservoir pressure. The Regional Supervisor may require that...

  19. A Community Assessment Survey Conducted Throughout the Central Florida Community College Service District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pealer, Casius H., Jr.

    During fall 1977, Central Florida Community College conducted a community assessment survey throughout its three-county service district in order to access residents' knowledge, perceptions, and opinions about the college. Seven objectives were identified: what information the community already has about the college; how people learn about the…

  20. Survey of Processing Methods for High Strength High Conductivity Wires for High Field Magnet Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Han, K.; Embury, J.D.

    1998-10-01

    This paper will deal with the basic concepts of attaining combination of high strength and high conductivity in pure materials, in-situ composites and macrocomposites. It will survey current attainments, and outline where some future developments may lie in developing wire products that are close to the theoretical strength of future magnet applications.

  1. Estimating topsoil water content of clay soils with data from time-lapse electrical conductivity surveys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spatial estimation of soil water content (') at the field, hillslope, or catchment scale is required in numerous applications. Time-lapse electrical resistivity and electrical conductivity surveys were recognized as the useful source of information about both spatial variations in soil water conten...

  2. Statistical models for the prediction of field scale, spatial salinity patterns from soil conductivity survey data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A practical linear regression based methodology for the prediction of field scale, spatial salinity patterns from soil conductivity survey data is presented in this chapter. The connection between an ordinary linear regression model and the geostatistical mixed linear model is reviewed, along with ...

  3. Findings from the Condition Surveys Conducted by the University of Kansas Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Brian J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes results of two collection condition surveys conducted at the University of Kansas libraries, one of which examined materials returning from circulation and the other which examined the general collection. Paper condition, text block condition, binding, and mutilation are discussed, and the impact on long-term preservation planning is…

  4. Aerial surveys of endangered whales in the Alaskan Chukchi and western Beaufort Seas, 1990. Final report, Oct-Nov 90

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.E.; Clarke, J.T.

    1991-06-01

    In keeping with the National Environmental Policy Act (1969), the Marine Mammal Protection Act (1972) and the Endangered Species Act (1973), the OCS Lands Act Amendments (1978) established a management policy that included studies in OCS lease sale areas to ascertain potential environmental impacts of oil and gas development on OCS marine coastal environments. The Minerals Management Service (MMS) is the agency responsible for these studies and for the leasing of submerged Federal lands. The report summarizes the 1990 investigations of the distribution, abundance, migration, behavior and habitat relationships of endangered whales in the Alaskan Chukchi and western Beaufort Seas (hereafter, study area); 1990 was the second of a three year (1989-91) study. The Bering Sea stock of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) was the principal species studied, with incidental sightings of all other marine mammals routinely recorded. The 1990 season was compromised by circumstances that restricted the availability of the survey aircraft (Grumman Goose, model G21G) to the period 26 October - 7 November; opportunistic surveys were flown in the study area from 3-25 October. In 1990, there were 14 sightings of 19 bowheads from 9-29 October; 5 whales, including 2 calves, were seen north of the study area. One gray whale, 110 belukhas and 53 polar bears were also seen. Over nine survey seasons (1982-90), there were 240 sightings of 520 bowhead whales and 148 sightings of 398 gray whales.

  5. Sea otter studies in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve: Aerial surveys, foraging observations, and intertidal clam sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, J.L.; Kloecker, K.A.; Esslinger, G.G.; Monson, D.H.; DeGroot, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    Following translocations to the outer coast of Southeast Alaska in 1965, sea otters have been expanding their range and increasing in abundance. We began conducting surveys for sea otters in Cross Sound, Icy Strait and Glacier Bay, Alaska in 1994, following initial reports of their presence in Glacier Bay in 1993. Since 1995, the number of sea otters in Glacier Bay proper has increased from about 5 to more than 500. Between 1993 and 1997 sea otters were apparently only occasional visitors to Glacier Bay, but in 1998 long-term residence was established as indicated by the presence of adult females and their dependent pups. Sea otter distribution is limited to the Lower Bay, south of Sandy Cove, and is not continuous within that area. Concentration occur in the vicinity of Sita Reef and Boulder Island and between Pt. Carolus and Rush Pt. on the west side of the Bay (Figure 1). We describe the diet of sea otters in Glacier Bay and south Icy Strait through visual observations of prey during >4,000 successful forage dives. In 2,399 successful foraging dives observed in Glacier Bay proper, diet consisted of 40% clam, 21% urchins, 18% mussel, 4% crab, 5% other and 12% unidentified. Most prey recovered by sea otters are commercially, socially, or ecological important species. Species of clam are primarily Saxidomus gigantea, Protothaca staminea, and Serripes groenlandicus. Urchins are primarily Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis while both mussles, Modiolus modiolus and Mytilus trossulus, are taken. Crabs include species of Cancer, Chinoecetes, Paralithodes, and Telmessus. Although we characterize diet at broad geographic scales, we found diet to vary between sites separated by as little as several hundred meters. Dietary variation among and within sites can reflect differences in prey availability and individual choice. We estimated species composition, density, biomass, and sizes of intertidal clams at 59 sites in Glacier Bay, 14 sites in Idaho Inlet, 12 sites in Port

  6. [Nutrition survey in the Republic of the Congo: results from a national survey conducted in 1987].

    PubMed

    Cornu, A; Delpeuch, F; Simondon, F; Goma, I; Massamba, J P; Tchibindat, F; Bailey, K V

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the nutritional status of preschool children in the rural areas in order to establish a baseline for the measurement of the impact of a Government Nutrition Education Project (NUTED) in forthcoming years. The household cross-sectional survey was carried out on a representative sample of the rural population. The sample was stratified in order to portray the nutritional status of the children in the northern regions (more thinly populated) and in the southern regions: one stratum for small towns (between 2000 and 30,000 inhabitants) and 4 strata for rural localities. The sampling method used was by clusters of 30 children, distributed randomly in 20 zones per stratum. The nutritional indices of 2429 children were calculated and analysed according to WHO recommendations. The prevalence of the different types of malnutrition was 27.5% (95% confidence interval (CI), 24.2-30.8) for stunting (height-for-age retardation) and 5.5% (CI = 4.2-6.8) for wasting (weight-for-height retardation). Both types coexisted among 1.9% of the children; 23% of children were underweight for their age (CI = 21.6-26.2), and 15.8% (CI = 14.7-16.9) aged greater than 12 months had a mid-arm circumference below 135 mm. No sex difference was observed in the results. Stunting seems to appear in the second trimester of life (3-5 months), and wasting appeared between 9 and 23 months (highest rate between 12 and 17 months: 14.0% (CI = 9.3-18.8], which presents a real public health problem. The stratification did not show any significant differences in nutritional status among the children living in rural zones and those living in the small towns. However, the prevalence of malnutrition in the rural zones was 2 or 3 times higher than that observed in 1986 in Brazzaville. The division of the country into five main ecological zones allows some useful comparisons, e.g., the prevalence of stunting ranges from 15.5% (CI = 12.8-18.2) in the northern inundated forest zone to 38

  7. Aerial photographic surveys analyzed to deduce oil spill movement during the decay and breakup of fast ice, Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lissauer, I.M.; Baird, D.A.

    1982-09-01

    During the summers of 1979 and 1980 aerial photographs of the land fast ice north of Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, were taken. These photographs, covering two-week periods, highlight the decay and break-up of the land fast ice sheet. During the period of photography, wind speed, wind direction, barometric pressure, and tidal height measurements were recorded continuously. Several larger ice floes were 'tagged' with colored plywood markers during 1979. Both these marked flows and other distinctively shaped floes were tracked on the photographic surveys to determine the effect the wind had on their movement. Within the barrier islands, average ice floe velocities as a percentage of wind speed exceeded the 3.5% figure 'normally' found in the literature. North of these islands average ice floe velocities as a percentage of wind speed were less than the 3.5% value. In addition to the flow drift calculations the photographs provide information on melt pool formation and a comparison of the decay and breakup processes between the 1979 and 1980 seasons. The decay and breakup process appears to be triggered by strong wind events in early July.

  8. Retrospective farm scale spatial analysis of viticultural terroir fertility using a 70 y-aerial photograph time series, soil survey and very high resolution Pléiades and EM38 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaudour, Emmanuelle; Leclercq, Léa; Gilliot, Jean-Marc; Chaignon, Benoît

    2016-04-01

    In order to elaborate adequate and sustainable practices while better controlling harvest composition at farm scale, the detailed spatial assessment of terroir units is needed. Although such assessment is made in the present time, it reflects vine behaviour and soil quality according to cumulated past choices in vineyard management. in addition to demarcate homogeneous within-vineyard zones, there is a need, in cases where the winegrower starts up its activities, to retrace the behaviour of these zones in the past, so as to consolidate the diagnosis of vine fertility, and determine further adoption of new soil and vineyard management practices that are likely to favour a long-term preservation of quality production together with soil ecosystem functions. In this study we aimed at performing such historical and spatial tracing using a long term time-series of aerial survey images, in combination with a set of very high resolution data: resistivity EM38 measurements and very high resolution Pléiades satellite images. This study was conducted over a 6 ha-farm mainly planted with rainfed black Grenache and Syrah varieties in the Southern Rhone Valley. In a previous study carried out at regional scale, soil landscape and potential terroir units had been characterized. A new field survey carried out in January 2015 considered a total of 98 topsoil sampling sites in addition to 14 soil pits, the horizons of which were described and sampled. Physico-chemical analyses were made for all soil samples, and for those horizons having the highest root development, additional analytical parameters such as copper, active lime and mineral nutrients contents were determined. Along with soil parameters, soil surface condition, vine biological parameters including vigour, presence of diseases, stock-unearthing were collected. A total of 25 aerial photographs in digitized format from the French National Institute of Geographic and Forest Information (IGN) were examined over the 1947

  9. National Uranium Resource Evaluation. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey, Tawas City and Flint quadrangles, Michigan. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    The Tawas City and Flint quadrangles of Michigan cover a land area of 6500 square miles, and an additional water surface area of 7200 square miles. Extremely thick Paleozoic deposits overlie a regional downwarp of the Precambrian basement called the Michigan Basin. These Paleozoic deposits shoal to only 1500 feet in the northeast corner. The entire survey area is covered by a mantle of Quaternary glacial material. A search of available literature revealed no economically feasible uranium deposits. Thirty-five uranium anomalies were detected and are discussed briefly. All appear to have cultural, and/or locally unsaturated associations, and none appear to contain significant measured quantities of uranium. Magnetic data appear to be in good agreement with existing structural interpretations of the area.

  10. Preparation of magnetic anomaly profile and contour maps from DOE-NURE aerial survey data. Volume I. Processing procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Tinnel, E.P.; Hinze, W.J.

    1981-09-01

    Total intensity magnetic anomaly data acquired as a supplement to radiometric data in the DOE National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program are useful in preparing regional profile and contour maps. Survey-contractor-supplied magnetic anomaly data are subjected to a multiprocess, computer-based procedure which prepares these data for presentation. This procedure is used to produce the following machine plotted maps of National Topographic Map Series quadrangle units at a 1:250,000 scale: (1) profile map of contractor-supplied magnetic anomaly data, (2) profile map of high-cut filtered data with contour levels of each profile marked and annotated on the associated flight track, (3) profile map of critical-point data with contour levels indicated, and (4) contour map of filtered and selected data. These quadrangle maps are supplemented with a range of statistical measures of the data which are useful in quality evaluation.

  11. Botanical studies in the vicinity of Cumberland Steam Plant: results of surveys conducted in 1978 and a review of surveys conducted in previous years. [Trees, shrubs, weeds, grasses

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.R.; Cunningham, J.R.

    1980-04-01

    No foliar effects attributable to SO/sub 2/ emissions from Cumberland Steam Plant were observed in 1978. Foliar injury was observed on vegetation during only one of the five growing seasons that surveys have been conducted in the Cumberland area. In 1974, effects were observed on one weed species, giant ragweed, in one 50-acre area. During the 1978 growing season, the sulfur content of coal fired was the lowest since the plant became operational (3.5 vs 3.7 to 3.8 percent); however, average daily SO/sub 2/ emissions were the highest since the plant became operational (due to the steam plant's operational level). After the steam plant is in compliance, December 1982, the SO/sub 2/ emission rate will be almost one-third less than during the 1978 growing season. The level of the National Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standard (3-h avg of 0.50 ppM) has never been exceeded at any SO/sub 2/ monitor in the Cumberland area during daylight hours of a growing season (time period when most vegetation is sensitive to SO/sub 2/ exposure). Previous operational and SO/sub 2/ monitoring data, botanical survey results, and projected SO/sub 2/ emission rates indicate that it is unlikely that emissions from the steam plant will injure vegetation as long as the emission rate does not exceed the interim or final compliance level.

  12. Innovative Gamma Ray Spectrometer Detection Systems for Conducting Scanning Surveys on Challenging Terrain - 13583

    SciTech Connect

    Palladino, Carl; Mason, Bryan; Engle, Matt; LeVangie, James; Dempsey, Gregg; Klemovich, Ron

    2013-07-01

    The Santa Susana Field Laboratory located near Simi Valley, California was investigated to determine the nature and extent of gamma radiation anomalies. The primary objective was to conduct gamma scanning surveys over 100 percent of the approximately 1,906,000 square meters (471 acre) project site with the most sensitive detection system possible. The site had challenging topography that was not conducive to traditional gamma scanning detection systems. Terrain slope varied from horizontal to 48 degrees and the ground surface ranged from flat, grassy meadows to steep, rocky hillsides. In addition, the site was home to many protected endangered plant and animal species, and archaeologically significant sites that required minimal to no disturbance of the ground surface. Therefore, four innovative and unique gamma ray spectrometer detection systems were designed and constructed to successfully conduct gamma scanning surveys of approximately 1,076,000 square meters (266 acres) of the site. (authors)

  13. Aerial videotape mapping of coastal geomorphic changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Debusschere, Karolien; Penland, Shea; Westphal, Karen A.; Reimer, P. Douglas; McBride, Randolph A.

    1991-01-01

    An aerial geomorphic mapping system was developed to examine the spatial and temporal variability in the coastal geomorphology of Louisiana. Between 1984 and 1990 eleven sequential annual and post-hurricane aerial videotape surveys were flown covering periods of prolonged fair weather, hurricane impacts and subsequent post-storm recoveries. A coastal geomorphic classification system was developed to map the spatial and temporal geomorphic changes between these surveys. The classification system is based on 10 years of shoreline monitoring, analysis of aerial photography for 1940-1989, and numerous field surveys. The classification system divides shorelines into two broad classes: natural and altered. Each class consists of several genetically linked categories of shorelines. Each category is further subdivided into morphologic types on the basis of landform relief, elevation, habitat type, vegetation density and type, and sediment characteristics. The classification is used with imagery from the low-altitude, high-resolution aerial videotape surveys to describe and quantify the longshore and cross-shore geomorphic, sedimentologic, and vegetative character of Louisiana's shoreline systems. The mapping system makes it possible to delineate and map detailed geomorphic habitat changes at a resolution higher than that of conventional vertical aerial photography. Morphologic units are mapped parallel to the regional shoreline from the aerial videotape imagery onto the base maps at a scale of 1:24,000. The base maps were constructed from vertical aerial photography concurrent with the data of the video imagery.

  14. Key Findings from a National Internet Survey of 400 Teachers and 95 Principals Conducted November 12-21, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCleskey, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the key findings from a national Internet survey of 400 teachers and 95 principals. This survey was conducted November 12-21, 2008. The sample was based on a list provided by EMI Surveys, a custom online research sample provider with an extensive portfolio of projects. The margin of error for a sample of 495 interviews is [plus…

  15. Reflection surveys conducted on the western side of the mid-continental gravity high

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.W.; Fromm, A.J. ); Okita, P. )

    1992-01-01

    The few spatially isolated deeper drill holes available on the western side of the mid-continental gravity high have established elevation changes in the Sioux quartzite that exceed 500m within a few hundred kilometers. Thirteen, 12-fold, CMP, reflection surveys were conducted within this area to supplement the limited drilling data. These surveys used an elastic wave generator as the energy source and a digital 24 channel IFP system for recording. The survey locations were selected to best supplement the existing drill hole data. Phone spacings and near offsets were selected on the basis of walk-out surveys conducted at each reflection site. No velocity control was available and the stacking velocities were selected based on graded velocity stacks. Interval velocities, constrained by general stratigraphic considerations, were calculated from the stacking velocities. For the near surface, interval velocities were extracted from the first arrivals. The lack of velocity control did not appear to seriously degrade the interpretation of gross structural features. Both the Sioux quartzite and a deeper interface, assumed to be the top of igneous basement, were reliably mapped. The two-way times of the basement reflector varied from 400m sec to 200m sec, approximately 500m to 300m respectively. The two-way times to the top of the quartzite varied from 300 m secs to 135m secs, approximately 350m to 160m respectively. The results suggest a major northeast, southwest trending basement fault with displacements exceeding 100m. The structure of both the basement and the quartzite appear to be a faulted anticline or dome. The reflection surveys provided a cost effective method for reconnaissance studies required to establish gross structural features.

  16. Post-precipitation bias in band-tailed pigeon surveys conducted at mineral sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Overton, C.T.; Schmitz, R.A.; Casazza, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Many animal surveys to estimate populations or index trends include protocol prohibiting counts during rain but fail to address effects of rainfall preceding the count. Prior research on Pacific Coast band-tailed pigeons (Patagioenas fasciata monilis) documented declines in use of mineral sites during rainfall. We hypothesized that prior precipitation was associated with a short-term increase in use of mineral sites following rain. We conducted weekly counts of band-tailed pigeons at 19 Pacific Northwest mineral sites in 2001 and 20 sites in 2002. Results from regression analysis indicated higher counts ???2 days after rain (11.31??5.00% [x????SE]) compared to ???3 days. Individual index counts conducted ???2 days after rain were biased high, resulting in reduced ability to accurately estimate population trends. Models of band-tailed pigeon visitation rates throughout the summer showed increased mineral-site counts during both June and August migration periods, relative to the July breeding period. Our research supported previous studies recommending that mineral-site counts used to index the band-tailed pigeon population be conducted during July. We further recommend conducting counts >3 days after rain to avoid weather-related bias in index estimation. The design of other population sampling strategies that rely on annual counts should consider the influence of aberrant weather not only coincident with but also preceding surveys if weather patterns are thought to influence behavior or detection probability of target species.

  17. Verification of Potency of Aerial Digital Oblique Cameras for Aerial Photogrammetry in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakada, Ryuji; Takigawa, Masanori; Ohga, Tomowo; Fujii, Noritsuna

    2016-06-01

    Digital oblique aerial camera (hereinafter called "oblique cameras") is an assembly of medium format digital cameras capable of shooting digital aerial photographs in five directions i.e. nadir view and oblique views (forward and backward, left and right views) simultaneously and it is used for shooting digital aerial photographs efficiently for generating 3D models in a wide area. For aerial photogrammetry of public survey in Japan, it is required to use large format cameras, like DMC and UltraCam series, to ensure aerial photogrammetric accuracy. Although oblique cameras are intended to generate 3D models, digital aerial photographs in 5 directions taken with them should not be limited to 3D model production but they may also be allowed for digital mapping and photomaps of required public survey accuracy in Japan. In order to verify the potency of using oblique cameras for aerial photogrammetry (simultaneous adjustment, digital mapping and photomaps), (1) a viewer was developed to interpret digital aerial photographs taken with oblique cameras, (2) digital aerial photographs were shot with an oblique camera owned by us, a Penta DigiCAM of IGI mbH, and (3) accuracy of 3D measurements was verified.

  18. Concept of a digital aerial platform for conducting observation flights under the open skies treaty. (Polish Title: Koncepcja cyfrowej platformy lotniczej do realizacji misji obserwacyjnych w ramach traktatu o otwartych przestworzach)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczykowski, P.; Orych, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Treaty on Open Skies, to which Poland is a signatory from the very beginning, was signed in 1992 in Helsinki. The main principle of the Treaty is increasing the openness of military activities conducted by the States-Parties and control over respecting disarmament agreements. Responsibilities given by the Treaty are fulfilled by conducting and receiving a given number of observation flights over the territories of the Treaty signatories. Among the 34 countries currently actively taking part in this Treaty only some own certified airplanes and observation sensors. Poland is within the group of countries who do not own their own platform and therefore fulfills Treaty requirements using the Ukrainian An-30b. Primarily, the Treaty only enabled the use of analogue sensors for the acquisition of imagery data. Together with the development of digital techniques, a rise in the need for digital imagery products had been noted. Currently digital photography is being used in almost ass fields of studies and everyday life. This has lead to very rapid developments in digital sensor technologies, employing the newest and most innovative solutions. Digital imagery products have many advantages and have now almost fully replaced traditional film sensors. Digital technologies have given rise to a new era in Open Skies. The Open Skies Consultative Commission, having conducted many series of tests, signed a new Decision to the Treaty, which allows for digital aerial sensors to be used during observation flights. The main aim of this article is to design a concept of choosing digital sensors and selecting an airplane, therefore a digital aerial platform, which could be used by Poland for Open Skies purposes. A thorough analysis of airplanes currently used by the Polish Air force was conducted in terms of their specifications and the possibility of their employment for Open Skies Treaty missions. Next, an analysis was conducted of the latest aerial digital sensors offered by

  19. Post-market clinical research conducted by medical device manufacturers: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Joseph S; Blount, Katrina L; Ritchie, Jessica D; Hodshon, Beth; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2015-01-01

    Background In the US, once a medical device is made available for use, several requirements have been established by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to ensure ongoing post-market surveillance of device safety and effectiveness. Our objective was to determine how commonly medical device manufacturers initiate post-market clinical studies or augment FDA post-market surveillance requirements for higher-risk devices that are most often approved via the FDA’s pre-market approval (PMA) pathway. Methods and results We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 47 manufacturers with operations in California, Minnesota, and Massachusetts who market devices approved via the PMA pathway. Among 22 respondents (response rate =47%), nearly all self-reported conducting post-market clinical research studies, commonly between 1 and 5; only 1 respondent reported never conducting post-market clinical research studies. While manufacturers most often engaged in these studies to satisfy FDA requirements, other reasons were reported, including performance monitoring and surveillance and market acceptance initiatives. Risks of conducting and not conducting post-market clinical research studies were described through open-ended response to questions. Conclusion Medical device manufacturers commonly initiate post-market clinical studies at the request of the FDA. Clinical data from these studies should be integrated into national post-market surveillance initiatives. PMID:26060416

  20. Conductive heat flow at the TAG Active Hydrothermal Mound: Results from 1993-1995 submersible surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, K.; Von Herzen, R.; Kirklin, J.; Evans, R.; Kadko, D.; Kinoshita, M.; Matsubayashi, O.; Mills, R.; Schultz, A.; Rona, P.

    We report 70 measurements of conductive heat flow at the 50-m-high, 200-m-diameter TAG active hydrothermal mound, made during submersible surveys with Alvin in 1993 and 1995 and Shinkai 6500 in 1994. The stations were all measured with 5-thermistor, 0.6- or 1-m-long Alvin heat flow probes, which are capable of determining both gradient and thermal conductivity, and were transponder-navigated to an estimated accuracy of ±5-10 m relative to the 10-m-diameter central complex of black smokers. Within 20 m of this complex, conductive heat flow values are extremely variable (0.1- > 100 W/m²), which can only be due to local spatial and possible temporal variability in the immediate vicinity of the vigorous discharge sites. A similar local variability is suggested in the “Kremlin” area of white smokers to the southeast of the black smoker complex. On the south and southeast side of the mound, there is very high heat flow (3.7- > 25 W/m²) on the sedimented terraces that slope down from the Kremlin area. Heat flow is also high (0.3-3 W/m²) in the pelagic carbonate sediments on the surrounding seafloor within a few tens of meters of the southwest, northwest, and northeast sides of the mound. On the west side of the sulfide rubble plateau that surrounds the central black smoker peak, there is a coherent belt of very low heat flow (<20 mW/m²) 20-50 m west of the smokers, suggestive of local, shallow recharge of bottom water. The three submersible surveys spanned nearly two years, but showed no indication of any temporal variability in conductive heat flow over this time scale, whether natural or induced by ODP drilling in 1994.

  1. The Spatial and Temporal Variability of a High-Energy Beach: Insight Gained From Over 50 High-Resolution Sub-aerial Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. E.; Barnard, P. L.

    2008-12-01

    Since April 2004 a monitoring program of 7 km-long Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA, has led to the completion of 55 Global Positioning System topographic surveys of the sub-aerial beach. The four-year timeseries contains over 1 million beach elevation measurements and documents detailed changes of the beach over a variety of spatial, temporal, and physical forcing scales. The goal of this ongoing data collection is to understand the variability in beach response as a function of wave forcing and offshore morphology which will ultimately aid in sediment management and erosion mitigation efforts. Several statistical methods are used to describe and account for the observed beach change, including empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) and linear regression. Results from the EOF analysis show that the first mode, and approximately 50% of the observed variance of either the mean high water (MHW) or mean sea level (MSL) position, is explained by the seasonal movement of sediment on and offshore. The second mode, and approximately 15% of the variance, is dominated by alongshore variability, possibly corresponding to the position of cusps and embayments. Higher level modes become increasingly variable in the alongshore direction and each explain little of the observed variance. In both cases the first temporal mode is well correlated (R2~=0.7) with offshore significant wave height averaged over the previous 80 to 110 days, suggesting that seasonal wave height variations are the primary driver of intra-annual shoreline position. No other modes exhibit good correlation with offshore wave parameters regardless of the averaging time. The observed seasonal change is superimposed on a longer term trend of net annual accretion at the north end of Ocean Beach and erosion at the south end. Areas at the northern end have seen as much as 60 m of cumulative shoreline progradation since 2004, while some areas of the southern portion have retrograded nearly as much. This pattern shows an

  2. Daytime multispectral scanner aerial surveys of the Oak Ridge Reservation, 1992--1994: Overview of data processing and analysis by the Environmental Restoration Remote Sensing Program, Fiscal year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Smyre, J.L.; Hodgson, M.E.; Moll, B.W.; King, A.L.; Cheng, Yang

    1995-11-01

    Environmental Restoration (ER) Remote Sensing and Special Surveys Program was in 1992 to apply the benefits of remote sensing technologies to Environmental Restoration Management (ERWM) programs at all of the five United States Department of Energy facilities operated and managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (now Lockheed Martin Energy Systems)-the three Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) facilities, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS)-and adjacent off-site areas. The Remote Sensing Program includes the management of routine and special surveys at these sites, application of state-of-the-art remote sensing and geophysical technologies, and data transformation, integration, and analyses required to make the information valuable to ER. Remotely-sensed data collected of the ORR include natural color and color infrared (IR) aerial photography, 12-band multispectral scanner imagery, predawn thermal IR sensor imagery, magnetic and electromagnetic geophysical surveys, and gamma radiological data.

  3. NURE aerial gamma-ray and magnetic reconnaissance survey of portions of New Mexico, Arizona and Texas. Volume II. New Mexico-Roswell NI 13-8 quadrangle. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    The results of a high-sensitivity, aerial gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey of the Roswell two degree quadrangle, New Mexico are presented. Instrumentation and methods are described in Volume I of this final report. The work was done by Carson Helicopters, Inc., and Carson Helicopters was assisted in the interpretation by International Exploration, Inc. The work was performed for the US Department of Energy - National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. Analysis of this radiometric data yielded 238 statistically significant eU anomalies. Of this number, seventy-four were considered to be sufficient strength to warrant further investigation.

  4. NURE aerial gamma-ray and magnetic reconnaissance survey of portions of New Mexico, Arizona and Texas. Volume II. New Mexico-Las Cruces NI 13-10 Quadrangle. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    The results of a high-sensitivity, aerial gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey of the Las Cruces two degree quadrangle, New Mexico, are presented. Instrumentation and methods are described in Volume 1 of this final report. The work was done by Carson Helicopters, Inc., and International Exploration, Inc. The work was performed for the US Department of Energy - National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. Analysis of this radiometric data yielded 192 statistically significant eU anomalies. Of this number, thirty-nine were considered to be of sufficient strength to warrant further investigation.

  5. Off-the-Wall Project Brings Aerial Mapping down to Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidhazy, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The technology of aerial photography, photogrametry, has widespread applications in mapping and aerial surveying. A multi-billion-dollar industry, aerial surveying and mapping is "big business" in both civilian and military sectors. While the industry has grown increasingly automated, employment opportunities still exist for people with a basic…

  6. A method for conducting dark sky surveys and light pollution monitoring with the contribution of amateur astronomers and students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papalambrou, A.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a methodology for conducting dark sky surveys using easily available and inexpensive equipment in place of sophisticated instruments for photometry and spectrometry which can be expensive and not always mobile. The instrument is a portable photometer called Sky Quality Meter. It is endorsed by the International Dark sky Association and has been used in similar surveys around the world. Small scale dark sky surveys were conducted by the author in the region of Achaia and mount Hymettus in Attica using the Sky Quality Meter in order to test its efficiency and usability. It was concluded that this instrument is suitable for dark sky surveys and accurate enough for serious work in light pollution monitoring. Moreover, based on the measured data and gathered experience, a model is proposed on how this instrument can be used to conduct a country-wide dark sky survey with the participation of Tertiary and Secondary education institutes as well as amateur astronomers.

  7. Learning lessons from field surveys in humanitarian contexts: a case study of field surveys conducted in North Kivu, DRC 2006-2008

    PubMed Central

    Grais, Rebecca F; Luquero, Francisco J; Grellety, Emmanuel; Pham, Heloise; Coghlan, Benjamin; Salignon, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Survey estimates of mortality and malnutrition are commonly used to guide humanitarian decision-making. Currently, different methods of conducting field surveys are the subject of debate among epidemiologists. Beyond the technical arguments, decision makers may find it difficult to conceptualize what the estimates actually mean. For instance, what makes this particular situation an emergency? And how should the operational response be adapted accordingly. This brings into question not only the quality of the survey methodology, but also the difficulties epidemiologists face in interpreting results and selecting the most important information to guide operations. As a case study, we reviewed mortality and nutritional surveys conducted in North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) published from January 2006 to January 2009. We performed a PubMed/Medline search for published articles and scanned publicly available humanitarian databases and clearinghouses for grey literature. To evaluate the surveys, we developed minimum reporting criteria based on available guidelines and selected peer-review articles. We identified 38 reports through our search strategy; three surveys met our inclusion criteria. The surveys varied in methodological quality. Reporting against minimum criteria was generally good, but presentation of ethical procedures, raw data and survey limitations were missed in all surveys. All surveys also failed to consider contextual factors important for data interpretation. From this review, we conclude that mechanisms to ensure sound survey design and conduct must be implemented by operational organisations to improve data quality and reporting. Training in data interpretation would also be useful. Novel survey methods should be trialled and prospective data gathering (surveillance) employed wherever feasible. PMID:19744319

  8. Conducting Large-Scale Surveys in Secondary Schools: The Case of the Youth On Religion (YOR) Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madge, Nicola; Hemming, Peter J.; Goodman, Anthony; Goodman, Sue; Kingston, Sarah; Stenson, Kevin; Webster, Colin

    2012-01-01

    There are few published articles on conducting large-scale surveys in secondary schools, and this paper seeks to fill this gap. Drawing on the experiences of the Youth On Religion project, it discusses the politics of gaining access to these schools and the considerations leading to the adoption and administration of an online survey. It is…

  9. The use of chemical weapons. Conducting an investigation using survey epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Hu, H; Cook-Deegan, R; Shukri, A

    1989-08-01

    The use of chemical weapons in conflict represents a breach of international law as well as a grave violation of human rights. Investigating allegations of their use often is difficult. A basic tool is the survey interview. Experience has shown that a rigorous epidemiologic approach should be taken. A primary emphasis should be designing the study so that consistency of responses can be analyzed to judge the validity of the testimony. Only when the testimony can withstand this scrutiny is it possible to surmise the possible identity of agents employed. Securing samples of the putative agent is of obvious importance. Two recent investigations are discussed herein, one conducted by US Army medical researchers on allegations of chemical weapons use against the Hmong in Laos and another mounted by us on allegations of poison-gas attack against the Iraqi Kurds. PMID:2746816

  10. Archive of post-Hurricane Isabel coastal oblique aerial photographs collected during U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 03CCH01 from Ocean City, Maryland, to Fort Caswell, North Carolina and Inland from Waynesboro to Redwood, Virginia, September 21 - 23, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Subino, Janice A.; Morgan, Karen L.M.; Krohn, M. Dennis; Dadisman, Shawn V.

    2013-01-01

    On September 21 - 23, 2003, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey along the Atlantic coast from Ocean City, Md., to Fort Caswell, N.C., and inland oblique aerial photographic survey from Waynesboro to Redwood, Va., aboard a Navajo Piper twin-engine airplane. The coastal survey was conducted at an altitude of 500 feet (ft) and approximately 1,000 ft offshore. For the inland photos, the aircraft tried to stay approximately 500 ft above the terrain. These coastal photos were used to document coastal changes like beach erosion and overwash caused by Hurricane Isabel, while the inland photos looked for potential landslides caused by heavy rains. The photos may also be used as baseline data for future coastal change analysis. The USGS and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) surveyed the impact zone of Hurricane Isabel to better understand the changes in vulnerability of the Nation’s coasts to extreme storms (Morgan, 2009). This report serves as an archive of photographs collected during the September 21 - 23, 2003, post-Hurricane Isabel coastal and inland oblique aerial survey along with associated survey maps, KML files, navigation files, digital Field Activity Collection System (FACS) logs, and Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata. Refer to the Acronyms page for expansions of all acronyms and abbreviations used in this report. The USGS St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center (SPCMSC) assigns a unique identifier to each cruise or field activity. For example, 03CCH01 tells us the data were collected in 2003 for the Coastal Change Hazards (CCH) study and the data were collected during the first field activity for that project in that calendar year. Refer to http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/infobank/programs/html/definition/activity.html for a detailed description of the method used to assign the ID number. The photographs provided here are Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG

  11. Observation of coral reefs on Ishigaki Island, Japan, using Landsat TM images and aerial photographs

    SciTech Connect

    Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Kayanne, Hajime

    1997-06-01

    Ishigaki Island is located at the southwestern end of Japanese Islands and famous for its fringing coral reefs. More than twenty LANDSAT TM images in twelve years and aerial photographs taken on 1977 and 1994 were used to survey two shallow reefs on this island, Shiraho and Kabira. Intensive field surveys were also conducted in 1995. All satellite images of Shiraho were geometrically corrected and overlaid to construct a multi-date satellite data set. The effects of solar elevation and tide on satellite imagery were studied with this data set. The comparison of aerial and satellite images indicated that significant changes occurred between 1977 and 1984 in Kabira: rapid formation in the western part and decrease in the eastern part of dark patches. The field surveys revealed that newly formed dark patches in the west contain young corals. These results suggest that remote sensing is useful for not only mapping but also monitoring of shallow coral reefs.

  12. Prevalence, Subtypes, and Correlates of DSM-IV Conduct Disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication

    PubMed Central

    Nock, Matthew K.; Kazdin, Alan E.; Hiripi, Eva; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2007-01-01

    Background Prior research indicates that conduct disorder (CD) is associated with a range of comorbid mental disorders. However, the actual prevalence, subtypes, and patterns of comorbidity of DSM-IV defined CD in the general U.S. population remains unknown. Method Retrospective assessment of CD and other DSM-IV disorders was conducted using fully structured diagnostic interviews among a nationally representative sample of respondents (n = 3,199) in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Results The estimated lifetime prevalence of CD in the U.S. is 9.5% (males = 12.0%, females = 7.1%), with a median age-of-onset of 11.6 (0.2) years. Latent class analysis identified five CD subtypes characterized by rule violations, deceit/theft, aggression, severe covert behaviors, and pervasive CD symptoms. A dose-response relationship was revealed between CD subtype severity and risk of subsequent disorders. Results also indicated that CD typically precedes mood and substance use disorders, but most often occurs after impulse control and anxiety disorders. Although both active and remitted CD is associated with increased risk of the subsequent first onset of other mental disorders, remitted CD is associated with significantly lower risk of subsequent disorders. Conclusions CD is prevalent and heterogeneous in the U.S. population, and more severe subtypes and the presence of active CD are associated with higher risk of comorbid disorders. Future prospective studies using general population samples will further inform the nature and course of this disorder. PMID:16438742

  13. Development of a Survey Instrument to Measure TEFL Academics' Perceptions about, Individual and Workplace Characteristics for Conducting Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Li; Hudson, Peter; Millwater, Jan; Tones, Megan

    2013-01-01

    A 30-item survey was devised to determine Chinese TEFL (Teaching English as a Foreign Language) academics' potential for conducting research. A five-part Likert scale was used to gather data from 182 academics on four factors: (1) perceptions on teaching-research nexus, (2) personal perspectives for conducting research, (3) predispositions for…

  14. Conducting the deepest all-sky radio pulsar survey ever: The All-Sky High Time Resolution Universe Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Cherry

    The extreme conditions found in and around pulsars make them fantastic natural laboratories, providing insights to a rich variety of aspects of fundamental physics and astronomy. To discover more pulsars we have begun the High Time Resolution Universe (HTRU) survey; a blind survey of the northern sky with the 100-m Effelsberg radio telescope in Germany and a twin survey of the southern sky with the 64-m Parkes radio telescope in Australia. The HTRU survey uses multi-beam receivers and backends constructed with new advancements in technology, providing unprecedentedly high time and frequency resolution to probe deeper into the Galaxy than ever before. Observations from Parkes have recently been completed and it is thus a suitable moment to review the success of the survey. In my talk I will discuss the discovery highlights such as the magnetar, two “planet-pulsar” binaries and the Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) from cosmological distances. The HTRU low-latitude data promises to provide the deepest large-scale search ever for the Galactic plane region. I will present an innovative segmented search technique which aims to increase our chances of discoveries of highly accelerated relativistic binary systems, including the potential pulsar-black-hole binaries. I will also provide an update on the survey status for the Northern survey with Effelsberg, which has led to the recent discovery of a highly eccentric binary millisecond pulsar.

  15. Aerial Photographs and Satellite Images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1997-01-01

    Photographs and other images of the Earth taken from the air and from space show a great deal about the planet's landforms, vegetation, and resources. Aerial and satellite images, known as remotely sensed images, permit accurate mapping of land cover and make landscape features understandable on regional, continental, and even global scales. Transient phenomena, such as seasonal vegetation vigor and contaminant discharges, can be studied by comparing images acquired at different times. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), which began using aerial photographs for mapping in the 1930's, archives photographs from its mapping projects and from those of some other Federal agencies. In addition, many images from such space programs as Landsat, begun in 1972, are held by the USGS. Most satellite scenes can be obtained only in digital form for use in computer-based image processing and geographic information systems, but in some cases are also available as photographic products.

  16. Aerial Image Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, Robert E.

    1987-09-01

    Aerial images produce the best stereoscopic images of the viewed world. Despite the fact that every optic in existence produces an aerial image, few persons are aware of their existence and possible uses. Constant reference to the eye and other optical systems have produced a psychosis of design that only considers "focal planes" in the design and analysis of optical systems. All objects in the field of view of the optical device are imaged by the device as an aerial image. Use of aerial images in vision and visual display systems can provide a true stereoscopic representation of the viewed world. This paper discusses aerial image systems - their applications and designs and presents designs and design concepts that utilize aerial images to obtain superior visual displays, particularly with application to visual simulation.

  17. Kite Aerial Photography (KAP) as a Tool for Field Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    Kite aerial photography (KAP) is proposed as a creative tool for geography field teaching and as a medium to approach the complexity of readily available geodata. The method can be integrated as field experiment, surveying technique or group activity. The acquired aerial images can instantaneously be integrated in geographic information systems…

  18. Automatic Sea Bird Detection from High Resolution Aerial Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, S.; Grenzdörffer, G. J.

    2016-06-01

    Great efforts are presently taken in the scientific community to develop computerized and (fully) automated image processing methods allowing for an efficient and automatic monitoring of sea birds and marine mammals in ever-growing amounts of aerial imagery. Currently the major part of the processing, however, is still conducted by especially trained professionals, visually examining the images and detecting and classifying the requested subjects. This is a very tedious task, particularly when the rate of void images regularly exceeds the mark of 90%. In the content of this contribution we will present our work aiming to support the processing of aerial images by modern methods from the field of image processing. We will especially focus on the combination of local, region-based feature detection and piecewise global image segmentation for automatic detection of different sea bird species. Large image dimensions resulting from the use of medium and large-format digital cameras in aerial surveys inhibit the applicability of image processing methods based on global operations. In order to efficiently handle those image sizes and to nevertheless take advantage of globally operating segmentation algorithms, we will describe the combined usage of a simple performant feature detector based on local operations on the original image with a complex global segmentation algorithm operating on extracted sub-images. The resulting exact segmentation of possible candidates then serves as a basis for the determination of feature vectors for subsequent elimination of false candidates and for classification tasks.

  19. Conducting the deepest all-sky pulsar survey ever: the all-sky High Time Resolution Universe survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Cherry; HTRU Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    The extreme conditions found in and around pulsars make them fantastic natural laboratories, providing insights to a rich variety of fundamental physics and astronomy. To discover more pulsars we have begun the High Time Resolution Universe (HTRU) survey: a blind survey of the northern sky with the 100-m Effelsberg radio telescope in Germany and a twin survey of the southern sky with the 64-m Parkes radio telescope in Australia. The HTRU is an international collaboration with expertise shared among the MPIfR in Germany, ATNF/CASS and Swinburne University of Technology in Australia, University of Manchester in the UK and INAF in Italy. The HTRU survey uses multi-beam receivers and backends constructed with recent advancements in technology, providing unprecedentedly high time and frequency resolution, allowing us to probe deeper into the Galaxy than ever before. While a general overview of HTRU has been given by Keith at this conference, here we focus on three further aspects of HTRU discoveries and highlights. These include the `Diamond-planet pulsar' binary J1719-1438 and a second similar system recently discovered. In addition, we provide specifications of the HTRU-North survey and an update of its status. In the last section we give an overview of the search for highly-accelerated binaries in the Galactic plane region. We discuss the computational challenges arising from the processing of the petabyte-sized HTRU survey data. We present an innovative segmented search technique which aims to increase our chances of discovering highly accelerated relativistic binary systems, potentially including pulsar-black-hole binaries.

  20. Effects of small incentives on survey response fractions: randomised comparisons in national alcohol surveys conducted in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Kypri, Kypros; Maclennan, Brett; Connor, Jennie L

    2016-06-01

    We experimentally evaluate inexpensive interventions to increase response fractions in two alcohol surveys. Residents on the New Zealand General and Māori electoral rolls were randomized to receive a survey pack with or without an offer of entry to a $500 prize draw. Subsequent randomization of sample members who did not initially respond allowed estimation of effects of offering a $5 donation to charity as an incentive to respond. Offering prize draw entry did not significantly increase responses in either population. Contrary to expectation, promising a $5 donation to non-respondents reduced subsequent responding in the group previously offered the prize draw incentive. PMID:27013546

  1. Estimating spatial variations in soil water content from electrical conductivity surveys across semiarid Mediterranean agrosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekki, Insaf; Jaiez, Zeineb; Jacob, Frédéric

    2014-05-01

    Soil water content (SWC) is an important driver for number of soil, water and energy fluxes at different temporal and spatial scales. The non-invasive electromagnetic induction sensor, such as EM38, that measures the soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa), has been widely used to infer spatial and temporal patterns of soil properties. The objective of this study has been to explore the opportunity for estimating and mapping the soil water content (SWC) based on in-situ data collected in different fields and during dry and wet soil conditions in a hilly landscape. The experiment was carried out during two campaigns under dry and wet conditions to represent the major soil association, land use and topographic attributes at the cultivated semiarid Mediterranean Lebna catchment, northeastern Tunisia. The temporal evolution of SWC is a dry-wet-dry pattern. Gravimetric soil water content sampling and ECa measured with EM38 (Geonics Ltd., Ontario, Canada) surveys have been performed simultaneously. ECa measurements, geo-referenced with GPS, were collected raising the EM38 to sample at various depths of the soil. The EM38 was placed in both horizontal and vertical dipole modes on a PVC stand 150 cm above the soil surface. The number of investigated points varied between n=70 in February to n=38 in October 2012. Results showed that different SWC related to the soil spatial variability and lead to differences in ECa averaged values and a substantial changes in the ECa as SWC changed. The relationship between SWC an ECa in a separate vertical and horizontal mode using all possible sets of surveys was tested with linear regression. The correlation coefficient between ECa and SWC for the horizontal mode was lower than the vertical mode. Coefficients of determination of linear regressions between SWC in 0-100 cm soil depth and ECa in the vertical mode were, r²=0.74, in February 2013, r²=0.52 in October 2012. The lowest correlations were found in horizontal mode when SWC

  2. NURE aerial gamma-ray and magnetic reconnaissance survey of portions of New Mexico, Arizona and Texas. Volume II. Texas-New Mexico-El Paso NH 13-1 Quadrangle. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    The results of a high-sensitivity, aerial gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey of the El Paso, two degree quadrangle, New Mexico, are presented. Instrumentation and methods are described in Volume I of this final report. The work was done by Carson Helicopters Inc., and Carson Helicopters was assisted in the interpretation by International Exploration, Inc. The work was performed for the US Department of Energy - National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. A total of 72 statistically significant eU anomalies were identified in this quadrangle. Of this number 20 were considered to be of sufficient intensity to warrant field investigations, however, many of these anomalies appear to be wholly, or in part, associated with various unconsolidated Quaternary deposits. Only three of the 20 can, with certainty be identified with bedrock; one with a Quaternary flow, one with Cambrian sandstone and one with a Precambrian granite.

  3. NURE aerial gamma-ray and magnetic reconnaissance survey of portions of New Mexico, Arizona and Texas. Volume II. Arizona-Holbrook NI 12-5 Quadrangle. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    The results of a high-sensitivity, aerial gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey of the Holbrook two degree quadrangle, Arizona are presented. Instrumentation and methods are described in Volume 1 of this final report. The work was done by Carson Helicopters, Inc., and Carson Helicopters was assisted in the interpretation by International Exploration, Inc. The work was performed for the US Department of Energy - National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. Analysis of this radiometric data yielded 260 statistically significant eU anomalies. Of this number, forty-four were considered to be of sufficient strength to warrant further investigation. These preferred anomalies are separated into groups having some geologic aspect in common.

  4. High resolution channel geometry from repeat aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, T.; Neilson, B. T.; Jensen, A.; Torres-Rua, A. F.; Winkelaar, M.; Rasmussen, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    River channel cross sectional geometry is a key attribute for controlling the river energy balances where surface heat fluxes dominate and discharge varies significantly over short time periods throughout the open water season. These dynamics are seen in higher gradient portions of Arctic rivers where surface heat fluxes can dominates river energy balances and low hillslope storage produce rapidly varying hydrographs. Additionally, arctic river geometry can be highly dynamic in the face of thermal erosion of permafrost landscape. While direct in-situ measurements of channel cross sectional geometry are accurate, they are limited in spatial resolution and coverage, and can be access limited in remote areas. Remote sensing can help gather data at high spatial resolutions and large areas, however techniques for extracting channel geometry is often limited to the banks and flood plains adjacent to river, as the water column inhibits sensing of the river bed itself. Green light LiDAR can be used to map bathymetry, however this is expensive, difficult to obtain at large spatial scales, and dependent on water quality. Alternatively, 3D photogrammetry from aerial imagery can be used to analyze the non-wetted portion of the river channel, but extracting full cross sections requires extrapolation into the wetted portion of the river. To bridge these gaps, an approach for using repeat aerial imagery surveys with visual (RGB) and near infrared (NIR) to extract high resolution channel geometry for the Kuparuk River in the Alaskan Arctic was developed. Aerial imagery surveys were conducted under multiple flow conditions and water surface geometry (elevation and width) were extracted through photogrammetry. Channel geometry was extracted by combining water surface widths and elevations from multiple flights. The accuracy of these results were compared against field surveyed cross sections at many locations throughout the study reach and a digital elevation model created under

  5. Guiding the Search for Surface Rupture and Paleoseismic Sites using Low-Level Aerial Surveys, Geodetic Imaging, Remote Sensing and Field Mapping (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudnut, K. W.; Fletcher, J. M.; Teran, O.; Gonzalez-Garcia, J. J.; Hinojosa, A.; Rockwell, T. K.; Akciz, S. O.; Leprince, S.; Fielding, E. J.; Briggs, R. W.; Crone, A. J.; Gold, R. D.; Prentice, C. S.; Stock, J.; Avouac, J.; Simons, M.; Galetzka, J. E.; Lynch, D. K.; Cowgill, E.; Oskin, M. E.; Morelan, A.; Aslaksen, M.; Sellars, J.; Woolard, J.

    2010-12-01

    The significant earthquakes of 2010 produced surficial expressions ranging from blind faulting and coastal uplift in Leogane, Haiti and Maule, Chile to surface faulting in Baja California, Mexico and Yushu, China. In Haiti and Baja California geodetic imaging methods strongly guided field reconnaissance and surface rupture mapping efforts, yet in quite different ways. In these challenging examples, InSAR, UAVSAR and optical image differencing, as well as SAR pixel tracking methods, were used to locate and quantify ground deformation and ruptures. In Baja California prominent rupture occurred in parts of the Cucapah mountains, yet along an 11 km-long stepover section, the zone of faulting was discontinuous and obscured by rockfalls. Optical image differencing helped identify surface rupture, especially through this stepover. SAR pixel tracking confirmed that rupture occurred along the newly identified Indiviso fault in Baja California, though masked by ground failure in the Colorado River Delta. Also in Baja California (and extending north of the US-MX border), a complex set of NE-SW cross-faults and N-S breaks were imaged with UAVSAR, InSAR, and aerial photography allowing the intricate pattern of faulting to be scrutinized. In Haiti, surface rupture along the inferred source fault was not observed during initial reconnaissance. This led to extensive imagery- and field-based searches for surface deformation, aided by InSAR, which revealed that surface deformation was caused primarily by off-fault blind thrusting. In Baja California, high resolution (up to 3-5 cm GSD) aerial imaging by low-altitude aerial stereo photography was then used to identify promising locations for measuring slip vectors on the fault, and to aid in mapping the surface rupture in detail (at 1:500 scale). Digital aerial photography with 0.1 m GSD by NOAA using their DSS 439 camera was rapidly reduced to orthomosaics (at 0.25 m GSD) and then used as uniform base imagery for rupture mapping. In

  6. A Portrait of the Audience for Instruction in Web Searching: Results of a Survey Conducted at Two Canadian Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillotson, Joy

    2003-01-01

    Describes a survey that was conducted involving participants in the library instruction program at two Canadian universities in order to describe the characteristics of students receiving instruction in Web searching. Examines criteria for evaluating Web sites, search strategies, use of search engines, and frequency of use. Questionnaire is…

  7. Americans and the Arts: A 1984 Survey of Public Opinion Conducted for Philip Morris, Inc. Study No. 831011.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris (Louis) and Associates, Inc., New York, NY.

    A national telephone survey of 1,504 adult Americans was conducted to determine the role that the arts play in their lives. Overall, results show that the arts are an indispensable part of the mainstream of American life. A shortage of leisure time causes people to be selective about their leisure time commitments. Despite this, arts attendance…

  8. Aerial photography summary record system - five years later.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lauterborn, T.J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the APSRS, an automated information system for conventional aerial photography projects, established after the formation of the National Cartographic Information Center in the US Geological Survey in 1974. -after Author

  9. Comparison and assessment of aerial and ground estimates of waterbird colonies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, M.C.; Luent, M.C.; Michot, T.C.; Jeske, C.W.; Leberg, P.L.

    2008-01-01

    Aerial surveys are often used to quantify sizes of waterbird colonies; however, these surveys would benefit from a better understanding of associated biases. We compared estimates of breeding pairs of waterbirds, in colonies across southern Louisiana, USA, made from the ground, fixed-wing aircraft, and a helicopter. We used a marked-subsample method for ground-counting colonies to obtain estimates of error and visibility bias. We made comparisons over 2 sampling periods: 1) surveys conducted on the same colonies using all 3 methods during 3-11 May 2005 and 2) an expanded fixed-wing and ground-survey comparison conducted over 4 periods (May and Jun, 2004-2005). Estimates from fixed-wing aircraft were approximately 65% higher than those from ground counts for overall estimated number of breeding pairs and for both dark and white-plumaged species. The coefficient of determination between estimates based on ground and fixed-wing aircraft was ???0.40 for most species, and based on the assumption that estimates from the ground were closer to the true count, fixed-wing aerial surveys appeared to overestimate numbers of nesting birds of some species; this bias often increased with the size of the colony. Unlike estimates from fixed-wing aircraft, numbers of nesting pairs made from ground and helicopter surveys were very similar for all species we observed. Ground counts by one observer resulted in underestimated number of breeding pairs by 20% on average. The marked-subsample method provided an estimate of the number of missed nests as well as an estimate of precision. These estimates represent a major advantage of marked-subsample ground counts over aerial methods; however, ground counts are difficult in large or remote colonies. Helicopter surveys and ground counts provide less biased, more precise estimates of breeding pairs than do surveys made from fixed-wing aircraft. We recommend managers employ ground counts using double observers for surveying waterbird colonies

  10. [Assessment of interventions conducted in the program Southern Poland Epidemiological Survey in adults with high hypercholesterolemia].

    PubMed

    Pawłowski, Tomasz; Kozakiewicz, Krystyna; Tendera, Michał

    2003-05-01

    In 1997 the Southern Poland Epidemiological Survey trial was conducted, the largest primary prevention action in Poland, which comprised 50,111 subjects. In this trial subjects with total cholesterol over 300 mg% were identified. After two years period these subjects were contacted to assess the kind and effectiveness of their action to reduce hypercholesterolemia and other CAD risk factors. The role of general practitioner was also addressed. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of primary prevention on the following parameters: intensity and frequency of risk factors occurrence, rate of individual risk of coronary heart disease in the study group and the assessment of influence of primary care physician action on risk factors reduction in the study population. 1090 persons were invited into the study. 293 (27%) of them came to the hospital for further investigation. After exclusion of patients in whom CAD was already present in 1997, a group of 263 patients was analyzed. The study group was divided in three parts: non-compliant to the primary prophylaxis recommend alians (52 pers.), performing the primary prophylaxis recommendations on their own (113 pers.), and performing the recommendations under supervision of the general practitioner (89 pers.). Blood pressure, smoking, weight reduction, physical activity improvement and lowering of the total cholesterol were analyzed. The risk of CAD in 1997 in 1999 was evaluated according to the risk score. In the group following the recommendations unders medical supervision significant CAD risk reduction, lowest CAD risk in 1999, highest ratio of smoking quitting, tendency to physical activity improvement, highest weight reduction (especially in people with visceral obesity), and the lowering of total cholesterol level were observed. In the group following the recommendations without medical supervision significant level of smoking quitting and weight reduction were observed. In this group total

  11. Airborne geophysical surveys conducted in western Nebraska, 2010: contractor reports and data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S.Geological Survey Crustal Geophysical and Geochemical Science Center

    2014-01-01

    This report contains three contractor reports and data files for an airborne electromagnetic survey flown from June 28 to July 7, 2010. The first report; “SkyTEM Survey: Nebraska, USA, Data” describes data aquisition and processing from a time-domain electromagnetic and magnetic survey performed by SkyTEM Canada, Inc. (the North American SkyTEM subsidiary), in western Nebraska, USA. Digital data for this report are given in Appendix 1. The airborne geophysical data from the SkyTEM survey subsequently were processed and inverted by Aarhus Geophysics ApS, Aarhus, Denmark, to produce resistivity depth sections along each flight line. The result of that processing is described in two reports presented in Appendix 2, “Processing and inversion of SkyTEM data from USGS Area UTM–13” and “Processing and inversion of SkyTEM data from USGS Area UTM–14.” Funding for these surveys was provided by the North Platte Natural Resources District, the South Platte Natural Resources District, and the Twin Platte Natural Resources District, in Scottsbluff, Sidney, and North Platte, Nebraska, respectively. Any additional information concerning the geophysical data may be obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Crustal Geophysics and Geochemistry Science Center, Denver Colorado.

  12. Metrically preserving the USGS aerial film archive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moe, Donald; Longhenry, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Since 1972, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, has provided fi lm-based products to the public. EROS is home to an archive of 12 million frames of analog photography ranging from 1937 to the present. The archive contains collections from both aerial and satellite platforms including programs such as the National High Altitude Program (NHAP), National Aerial Photography Program (NAPP), U.S. Antarctic Resource Center (USARC), Declass 1(CORONA, ARGON, and LANYARD), Declass 2 (KH-7 and KH-9), and Landsat (1972 – 1992, Landsat 1–5).

  13. Precision agriculture in dry land: spatial variability of crop yield and roles of soil surveys, aerial photos, and digital elevation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachabe, Mahmood; Ahuja, Laj; Shaffer, Mary Lou; Ascough, J.; Flynn, Brian; Cipra, J.

    1998-12-01

    In dryland, yield of crop varies substantially in space, often changing by an order of magnitude within few meters. Precision agriculture aims at exploiting this variability by changing agriculture management practices in space according to site specific conditions. Thus instead of managing a field (typical area 50 to 100 hectares) as a single unit using average conditions, the field is partitioned into small pieces of land known as management units. The size of management units can be in the order of 100 to 1,000 m2 to capture the patterns of variation of yield in the field. Agricultural practices like seeding rate, type of crop, and tillage and fertilizers are applied at the scale of the management unit to suit local agronomic conditions in unit. If successfully practiced, precision agriculture has the potential of increasing income and minimizing environmental impacts by reducing over application of crop production inputs. In the 90s, the implementation of precision agriculture was facilitated tremendously due to the wide availability and use of three technologies: (1) the Global Positioning System (GPS), (2) the Geographic Information System (GIS), and (3) remote sensing. The introduction of the GPS allowed the farmer to determine his coordinate location as equipments are moved in the field. Thus, any piece of equipment can be easily programmed to vary agricultural practices according to coordinate location over the field. The GIS allowed the storage and manipulation of large sets of data and the production of yield maps. Yield maps can be correlated with soil attributes from soil survey, and/or topographical attributes from a Digital Elevation Model (DEM). This helps predicting variation of potential yield over the landscape based on the spatial distribution of soil and topographical attributes. Soil attributes may include soil PH, Organic Matter, porosity, and hydraulic conductivity, whereas topographical attributes involve the estimations of elevation, slope

  14. [Acute head injuries in primary health care--internet survey conducted with general practitioners].

    PubMed

    Luoto, Teemu M; Artsola, Minna; Helminen, Mika; Liimatainen, Suvi; Kosunen, Elise; Ohman, Juha

    2013-01-01

    Patients with head injury constitute a large population treated in primary health care. It is essential to recognize patients with traumatic brain injury among this notable population to determine the need for more specific evaluation. General practitioners (n=331) in Pirkanmaa hospital district in Finland received an email link to answer the survey. The response rate was 54.1% (n=179). Mean survey score was 20.5 points (max. 25). Only acquaintance with the national traumatic brain injury practice guidelines was associated with greater survey scores. The general practitioners' level of knowledge in managing head injuries was good. Deficiencies were found in the questions dealt with post-traumatic amnesia and the definition of traumatic brain injury. PMID:23786110

  15. An in situ survey of Clean Slate 1, 2, and 3, Tonopah Test Range, Central Nevada. Date of survey: September--November 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    A ground-based in situ radiological survey was conducted downwind of the Clean Slate 1, 2, and 3 nuclear safety test sites at the Tonopah Test Range in central Nevada from September through November 1993. The purpose of the study was to corroborate the americium-241 ({sup 241}Am) soil concentrations that were derived from the aerial radiological survey of the Clean Slate areas, which was conducted from August through October 1993. The presence of {sup 241}Am was detected at 140 of the 190 locations, with unrecoverable or lost data accounting for fifteen (15) of the sampling points. Good agreement was obtained between the aerial and in situ results.

  16. Detection of contaminant plumes in ground water of Long Island, New York, by electromagnetic terrain-conductivity surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Thomas J.; Maus, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    Electromagnetic terrain conductivity surveys were conducted at four landfills in Suffolk county and at an artificial recharge site in Nassau County to assess the feasibility of this technique for detecting contaminant plumes. The technique was successful at three of the landfills; results compared closely with those indicated by specific conductance of water from observation wells on the sites. Data from the three sites for which the technique was successful--the Horseblock Road landfill , the Manorville scavenger waste disposal facility, and the Riverhead landfill--revealed pronounced terrain conductivity anomalies that reflect known contaminant plumes. Plumes at the other two sites--Blydenburgh landfill and the East Meadow artificial recharge site--could not be detected because cultural interferences were too great and, at the Blydenburgh site, depth to water was too great. The interferences included pipelines, utility cables, and traffic. Given favorable conditions, such as high plume conductivity, lack of cultural interferences, and a depth of less than 100 ft to the plume, electromagnetic surveying can provide a rapid means of locating contaminant plumes. (Author 's abstract)

  17. Assessing crop injury caused by aerially applied glyphosate drift using spray sampling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop injury caused by off-target drift of aerially applied glyphosate is of great concern to farmers and aerial applicators. An experiment was conducted in 2009 to determine the extent of injury due to near-field glyphosate drift from aerial application to glyphosate-sensitive cotton, corn and soybe...

  18. A robotic system to conduct radiation and contamination surveys on nuclear waste transport casks

    SciTech Connect

    Harrigan, R.W.; Sanders, T.L.

    1990-06-01

    The feasibility of performing, numerous spent fuel cask operations using fully integrated robotic systems is under evaluation. Using existing technology, operational and descriptive software and hardware in the form of robotic end effectors are being designed in conjunction with interfacing cask components. A robotic radiation and contamination survey system has been developed and used on mock-up cask hardware to evaluate the impact of such fully automated operations on cask design features and productivity. Based on experience gained from the survey system, numerous health physics operations can be reliably performed with little human intervention using a fully automated system. Such operations can also significantly reduce time requirements for cask-receiving operations. 7 refs., 51 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. NURE aerial gamma-ray and magnetic-reconnaissance survey portions of New Mexico, Arizona, and Texas. Volume I. Instrumentation and data reduction. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program, a rotary-wing high sensitivity radiometric and magnetic survey was flown covering portions of the State of New Mexico, Arizona and Texas. The survey encompassed six 1:250,000 scale quadrangles, Holbrook, El Paso, Las Cruces, Carlsbad, Fort Sumner and Roswell. The survey was flown with a Sikorsky S58T helicopter equipped with a high sensitivity gamma ray spectrometer which was calibrated at the DOE calibration facilities at Walker Field in Grand Junction, Colorado, and the Dynamic Test Range at Lake Mead, Arizona. The radiometric data were processed to compensate for Compton scattering effects and altitude variations. The data were normalized to 400 feet terrain clearance. The reduced data is presented in the form of stacked profiles, standard deviation anomaly plots, histogram plots and microfiche listings. The results of the geologic interpretation of the radiometric data together with the profiles, anomaly maps and histograms are presented in the individual quadrangle reports. The survey was awarded to LKB Resources, Inc. which completed the data acquisition. In April, 1980 Carson Helicopters, Inc. and Carson Geoscience Company agreed to manage the project and complete delivery of this final report.

  20. MAPPING NON-INDIGENOUS EELGRASS ZOSTERA JAPONICA, ASSOCIATED MACROALGAE AND EMERGENT AQUATIC VEGETARIAN HABITATS IN A PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARY USING NEAR-INFRARED COLOR AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY AND A HYBRID IMAGE CLASSIFICATION TECHNIQUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted aerial photographic surveys of Oregon's Yaquina Bay estuary during consecutive summers from 1997 through 2001. Imagery was obtained during low tide exposures of intertidal mudflats, allowing use of near-infrared color film to detect and discriminate plant communitie...

  1. Laser Doppler velocimeter aerial spray measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalay, A. D.; Eberle, W. R.; Howle, R. E.; Shrider, K. R.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental research program for measuring the location, spatial extent, and relative concentration of airborne spray clouds generated by agricultural aircraft is described. The measurements were conducted with a ground-based laser Doppler velocimeter. The remote sensing instrumentation, experimental tests, and the results of the flight tests are discussed. The cross section of the aerial spray cloud and the observed location, extent, and relative concentration of the airborne particulates are presented. It is feasible to use a mobile laser Doppler velocimeter to track and monitor the transport and dispersion of aerial spray generated by an agricultural aircraft.

  2. Results of the 2008/2009 Knowledge and Opinions Surveys Conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program

    SciTech Connect

    Schmoyer, R. L.; Truett, Tykey; Cooper, Christy; Chew, Andrea

    2010-04-01

    This report presents results of a 2008/2009 survey of hydrogen and fuel cell awareness conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The 2008/2009 survey follows up on a similar DOE survey conducted in 2004, measuring levels of awareness and understanding of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in four populations: (1) the general public, (2) students, (3) personnel in state and local governments, and (4) potential end users of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in business and industry. The 2008/2009 survey includes these four groups and adds a fifth group, safety and code officials. The same survey methods were used for both surveys; the 2008/2009 survey report includes a comparison of 2004 and 2008/2009 findings. Information from these surveys will be used to enhance hydrogen and fuel cell education strategies.

  3. 50 CFR 86.114 - Do I need to conduct a survey if I already have a plan for installing tie-up facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Do I need to conduct a survey if I already have a plan for installing tie-up facilities? 86.114 Section 86.114 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED... Access Needs Surveys § 86.114 Do I need to conduct a survey if I already have a plan for installing...

  4. Quantifying heat losses using aerial thermography

    SciTech Connect

    Haigh, G.A.; Pritchard, S.E.

    1980-01-01

    A theoretical model is described for calculating flat roof total heat losses and thermal conductances from aerial infrared data. Three empirical methods for estimating convective losses are described. The disagreement between the methods shows that they are prone to large (20%) errors, and that the survey should be carried out in low wind speeds, in order to minimize the effect of these errors on the calculation of total heat loss. The errors associated with knowledge of ground truth data are discussed for a high emissivity roof and three sets of environmental conditions. It is shown that the error in the net radiative loss is strongly dependent on the error in measuring the broad-band radiation incident on the roof. This is minimized for clear skies, but should be measured. Accurate knowledge of roof emissivity and the radiation reflected from the roof is shown to be less important. Simple techniques are described for measuring all three factors. Using these techniques in good conditions it should be possible to measure total heat losses to within 15%.

  5. Estimating spatial variations in water content of clay soils from time-lapse electrical conductivity surveys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil water content (theta) is one of the most important drivers for many biogeochemical fluxes at different temporal and spatial scales. Hydrogeophysical non-invasive sensors that measure the soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) have been widely used to infer spatial and temporal patterns of...

  6. Locating chimpanzee nests and identifying fruiting trees with an unmanned aerial vehicle.

    PubMed

    van Andel, Alexander C; Wich, Serge A; Boesch, Christophe; Koh, Lian Pin; Robbins, Martha M; Kelly, Joseph; Kuehl, Hjalmar S

    2015-10-01

    Monitoring of animal populations is essential for conservation management. Various techniques are available to assess spatiotemporal patterns of species distribution and abundance. Nest surveys are often used for monitoring great apes. Quickly developing technologies, including unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can be used to complement these ground-based surveys, especially for covering large areas rapidly. Aerial surveys have been used successfully to detect the nests of orang-utans. It is unknown if such an approach is practical for African apes, which usually build their nests at lower heights, where they might be obscured by forest canopy. In this 2-month study, UAV-derived aerial imagery was used for two distinct purposes: testing the detectability of chimpanzee nests and identifying fruiting trees used by chimpanzees in Loango National Park (Gabon). Chimpanzee nest data were collected through two approaches: we located nests on the ground and then tried to detect them in UAV photos and vice versa. Ground surveys were conducted using line transects, reconnaissance trails, and opportunistic sampling during which we detected 116 individual nests in 28 nest groups. In complementary UAV images we detected 48% of the individual nests (68% of nest groups) in open coastal forests and 8% of individual nests (33% of nest groups) in closed canopy inland forests. The key factor for nest detectability in UAV imagery was canopy openness. Data on fruiting trees were collected from five line transects. In 122 UAV images 14 species of trees (N = 433) were identified, alongside 37 tree species (N = 205) in complementary ground surveys. Relative abundance of common tree species correlated between ground and UAV surveys. We conclude that UAVs have great potential as a rapid assessment tool for detecting chimpanzee presence in forest with open canopy and assessing fruit tree availability. UAVs may have limited applicability for nest detection in closed canopy forest. PMID

  7. Profiles of gamma-ray and magnetic data for aerial surveys over parts of the Western United States from longitude 108 to 126 degrees W. and from latitude 34 to 49 degrees N.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duval, Joseph S.

    1995-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains images generated from geophysical data, software for displaying and analyzing the images and software for displaying and examining profile data from aerial surveys flown as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The images included are of gamma-ray data (uranium, thorium, and potassium channels), Bouguer gravity data, isostatic residual gravity data, aeromagnetic anomalies, topography, and topography with bathymetry. This publication contains image data for the conterminous United States and profile data for the conterminous United States within the area longitude 108 to 126 degrees W. and latitude 34 to 49 degrees N. The profile data include apparent surface concentrations of potassium, uranium, and thorium, the residual magnetic field, and the height above the ground. The images on this CD-ROM include graytone and color images of each data set, color shaded-relief images of the potential-field and topographic data, and color composite images of the gamma-ray data. The image display and analysis software can register images with geographic and geologic overlays. The profile display software permits the user to view the profiles as well as obtain data listings and export ASCII versions of data for selected flight lines.

  8. Exploration of Titan using Vertical Lift Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. A.

    2001-01-01

    Autonomous vertical lift aerial vehicles (such as rotorcraft or powered-lift vehicles) hold considerable potential for supporting planetary science and exploration missions. Vertical lift aerial vehicles would have the following advantages/attributes for planetary exploration: low-speed and low-altitude detailed aerial surveys; remote-site sample return to lander platforms; precision placement of scientific probes; soft landing capability for vehicle reuse (multiple flights) and remote-site monitoring; greater range, speed, and access to hazardous terrain than a surface rover; greater resolution of surface details than an orbiter or balloons. Exploration of Titan presents an excellent opportunity for the development and usage of such vehicles.

  9. Patients with protracted pain: A survey conducted at The London Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Jennifer M; Stollar, Thelma D; Littlejohns, David W; Twycross, Robert G; Vere, Duncan W

    1977-01-01

    Physical pain has always been part of human experience, and throughout history it is recorded that doctors and wise men and women have sought to ease pain. The attitudes of those suffering pain, however, have varied from stoical acceptance to sullen endurance. Today, most people consciously seek to avoid pain or to have their pain eased, although they do not always expect what in fact appears to be possible. This study of 13 patients with protracted pain was carried out at The London Hospital by a professional group to see how patients regarded their own pain and the efforts of doctors and nurses to relieve it. The attitudes of the doctors and nurses were also studied, and the results, despite the limitations of the survey, suggest that: [List: see text] PMID:874980

  10. User guide for the USGS aerial camera Report of Calibration.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tayman, W.P.

    1984-01-01

    Calibration and testing of aerial mapping cameras includes the measurement of optical constants and the check for proper functioning of a number of complicated mechanical and electrical parts. For this purpose the US Geological Survey performs an operational type photographic calibration. This paper is not strictly a scientific paper but rather a 'user guide' to the USGS Report of Calibration of an aerial mapping camera for compliance with both Federal and State mapping specifications. -Author

  11. A multispectral scanner survey of the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. Date of survey: August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Brewster, S.B. Jr.; Howard, M.E.; Shines, J.E.

    1994-08-01

    The Multispectral Remote Sensing Department of the Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted an airborne multispectral scanner survey of a portion of the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. The survey was conducted on August 21 and 22, 1993, using a Daedalus AADS1268 scanner and coincident aerial color photography. Flight altitudes were 5,000 feet (1,524 meters) above ground level for systematic coverage and 1,000 feet (304 meters) for selected areas of special interest. The multispectral scanner survey was initiated as part of an interim and limited investigation conducted to gather preliminary information regarding historical hazardous material release sites which could have environmental impacts. The overall investigation also includes an inventory of environmental restoration sites, a ground-based geophysical survey, and an aerial radiological survey. The multispectral scanner imagery and coincident aerial photography were analyzed for the detection, identification, and mapping of man-made soil disturbances. Several standard image enhancement techniques were applied to the data to assist image interpretation. A geologic ratio enhancement and a color composite consisting of AADS1268 channels 10, 7, and 9 (mid-infrared, red, and near-infrared spectral bands) proved most useful for detecting soil disturbances. A total of 358 disturbance sites were identified on the imagery and mapped using a geographic information system. Of these sites, 326 were located within the Tonopah Test Range while the remaining sites were present on the imagery but outside the site boundary. The mapped site locations are being used to support ongoing field investigations.

  12. Aerial Explorers and Robotic Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg

    2004-01-01

    A unique bio-inspired approach to autonomous aerial vehicle, a.k.a. aerial explorer technology is discussed. The work is focused on defining and studying aerial explorer mission concepts, both as an individual robotic system and as a member of a small robotic "ecosystem." Members of this robotic ecosystem include the aerial explorer, air-deployed sensors and robotic symbiotes, and other assets such as rovers, landers, and orbiters.

  13. GESE: A Small UV Space Telescope to Conduct a Large Spectroscopic Survey of Z-1 Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara R.; Gong, Qian; Hull, Tony; Kruk, Jeffrey; Purves, Lloyd

    2013-01-01

    One of the key goals of NASA's astrophysics program is to answer the question: How did galaxies evolve into the spirals and elliptical galaxies that we see today? We describe a space mission concept called Galaxy Evolution Spectroscopic Explorer (GESE) to address this question by making a large spectroscopic survey of galaxies at a redshift, z is approximately 1 (look-back time of approximately 8 billion years). GESE is a 1.5-meter space telescope with an ultraviolet (UV) multi-object slit spectrograph that can obtain spectra of hundreds of galaxies per exposure. The spectrograph covers the spectral range, 0.2-0.4 micrometers at a spectral resolving power, R approximately 500. This observed spectral range corresponds to 0.1-0.2 micrometers as emitted by a galaxy at a redshift, z=1. The mission concept takes advantage of two new technological advances: (1) light-weighted, wide-field telescope mirrors, and (2) the Next- Generation MicroShutter Array (NG-MSA) to be used as a slit generator in the multi-object slit spectrograph.

  14. Preparation of magnetic anomaly profile and contour maps from DOE-NURE aerial survey data. Volume I: processing procedures. [National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Tinnel, E.P.; Hinze, W.J.

    1981-09-01

    Total intensity magnetic anomaly data acquired as a supplement to radiometric data in the DOE National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program are useful in preparing regional profile and contour maps. Survey-contractor-supplied magnetic anomaly data are subjected to a multiprocess, computer-based procedure which prepares these data for presentation. This procedure is used to produce the following machine plotted maps of National Topographic Map Series quadrangle units at a 1:250,000 scale: (1) profile map of contractor-supplied magnetic anomaly data, (2) profile map of high-cut filtered data with contour levels of each profile marked and annotated on the associated flight track, (3) profile map of critical-point data with contour levels indicated, and (4) contour map of filtered and selected data. These quadrangle maps are supplemented with a range of statistical measures of the data which are useful in quality evaluation.

  15. 1:500 Scale Aerial Triangulation Test with Unmanned Airship in Hubei Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feifei, Xie; Zongjian, Lin; Dezhu, Gui

    2014-03-01

    A new UAVS (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle System) for low altitude aerial photogrammetry is introduced for fine surveying and mapping, including the platform airship, sensor system four-combined wide-angle camera and photogrammetry software MAP-AT. It is demonstrated that this low-altitude aerial photogrammetric system meets the precision requirements of 1:500 scale aerial triangulation based on the test of this system in Hubei province, including the working condition of the airship, the quality of image data and the data processing report. This work provides a possibility for fine surveying and mapping.

  16. Aerial of the VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Even in this aerial view at KSC, the Vehicle Assembly Building is imposing. In front of it is the Launch Control Center. In the background is the Rotation/Processing Facility, next to the Banana Creek. In the foreground is the Saturn Causeway that leads to Launch Pads 39A and 39B.

  17. Aerial Perspective Artistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a lesson centering on aerial perspective artistry of students and offers suggestions on how art teachers should carry this project out. This project serves to develop students' visual perception by studying reproductions by famous artists. This lesson allows one to imagine being lured into a landscape capable of captivating…

  18. Amorphous transparent conducting oxides in context: Work function survey, trends, and facile modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, T. C.; Zhu, Q.; Buchholz, D. B.; Martinson, A. B.; Chang, R. P. H.; Mason, T. O.

    2015-03-01

    The work functions of various amorphous and crystalline transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) were measured using Kelvin probe. The films, made by pulsed laser deposition, exhibited varying work functions dependent on the composition and deposition parameters. Tin oxide showed the largest work functions of the oxides measured, while zinc oxide showed the lowest. Binary and ternary combinations of the basis TCOs showed intermediate work functions dependent on the endpoint components. Amorphous TCOs, important in OPV and other technological applications, exhibited similar work functions to their crystalline counterparts. UV/ozone treatment of TCOs temporarily increased the work function, consistent with proposed defect mechanisms associated with near-surface changes in carrier content and Fermi level. Finally, a method for facile adjustment of the work function of commercial TCOs by atomic layer deposition (ALD) capping layers was presented, illustrated by the growth of zinc oxide layers on commercial crystalline ITO films.

  19. Trials and tribulations of conducting bio-behavioral surveys in prisons: implementation science and lessons from Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Azbel, Lyuba; Grishaev, Yevgeny; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Chernova, Olena; Dvoryak, Sergey; Polonsky, Maxim; Altice, Frederick L

    2016-06-13

    Purpose - Ukraine is home to Europe's worst HIV epidemic, overwhelmingly fueled by people who inject drugs who face harsh prison sentences. In Ukraine, HIV and other infectious diseases are concentrated in prisons, yet the magnitude of this problem had not been quantified. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the systematic health survey of prisoners in the former Soviet Union (FSU). Design/methodology/approach - Qualitative interviews were carried out with research and prison administrative staff to assess the barriers and facilitators to conducting a bio-behavioral survey in Ukrainian prisons. Findings - Crucial barriers at the institutional, staff, and participant level require addressing by: first, ensuring Prison Department involvement at every stage; second, tackling pre-conceived attitudes about drug addiction and treatment among staff; and third, guaranteeing confidentiality for participants. Originality/value - The burden of many diseases is higher than expected and much higher than in the community. Notwithstanding the challenges, scientifically rigorous bio-behavioral surveys are attainable in criminal justice systems in the FSU with collaboration and careful consideration of this specific context. PMID:27219905

  20. Specific Conductivity Synoptic Surveys to Map Groundwater-Surface Water Discharges in a Lowland River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, H.; Villamizar, S. R.; Harmon, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    Quantifying distributed groundwater-surface water (GW-SW) discharges at the watershed scale is a challenging but important aspect of tracking nonpoint-source pollutants and their potential impacts on riverine water quality. This work analyzes high spatiotemporal longitudinal river sampling along a 38 km reach of the lower Merced River (LMR) in California's San Joaquin River (SJR) watershed and estimates GW-SW discharges using a simple discretized mixing model. The LMR flow is dam-controlled upstream and has several distributed surface discharges from SW diversions, SW canal inputs, and potential GW discharges influenced by the surrounding agricultural and municipal landscapes. We collected longitudinal datasets covering a wide range of flows (1.3 to 150 m3/s), sampling georeferenced water specific conductance (SC) at intervals of less than 1 minute. Whole-reach gradients of SW specific conductance (SC), representing GW-SW salinity loading (mS/cm/river km), decreased in proportion to the flow and stage, indicating either (1) a simple dilution effect or (2) reduced GW-SW discharges due to a reduced GW-SW hydraulic gradient at higher stages. With respect to distributed discharges, local gradients were significant (p < 0.05), with estimated local salinity loads varying from -0.4 to 8.9 mS/cm/river km for the LMR conditions. Using local groundwater salinity estimates, we inverted a discretized mixing model to estimate distributed groundwater fluxes. Summation of the fluxes agreed well with stream gage estimates. However, local flux estimates were nonuniform, with mid-reach values consistently increasing to a maximum value at intermediate stream flows, then decreasing for greater flows. Causes for this behavior remain uncertain but may be due to one or more of the following: (1) uncertainty in the groundwater salinity data, (2) salinity reduction in the hyporheic zone (e.g., denitrification), and (3) access to preferential GW-SW flowpaths at intermediate flows and stages

  1. Prescription antibiotics for outpatients in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional health survey conducted in three cities

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Antibiotics prescribing by physicians have gained due importance across the globe, mainly because of an increase in antibiotic usage, prevalence of infections and drug resistances. The present study is aimed to evaluate the physicians prescribing pattern of antibiotics, their usages by outpatients and disease conditions for which the antibiotics are prescribed in three cities of Bangladesh. Methods This cross sectional health survey was carried out with a self designed standard questionnaire by manual data collection over a three months period (20.03.2013 to 20.06.2013) at three adjacent cities Jessore Sadar, Monirampur and Keshabpur upazila respectively. The data were collected from the patient’s prescription and by directly interviewing the patients who were prescribed at least one antibiotic during the study period. WHO Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classifications for antibiotics was used and descriptive statistics were applied to the collected data and analyzed using Microsoft Excel software. Modified Wald method was applied to calculate 95% CI. Results A total of 900 prescriptions were analyzed during the study period. It was found that the prescriber prescribed antibiotics to the patients who were suffering mainly from cold and fever, infections, diarrhea and gonorrhea. The highest prescribed antibiotic groups were cephalosporins (31.78%), macrolides (27.33%), quinolones (16.33%), penicillins (7.11%), and metronidazoles (6.78%) respectively. Two or more antibiotics were prescribed in 25.44% of prescriptions. A total of 66.89% prescriptions had complete information on dosage form, 57% had complete direction for antibiotics use and 64.22% patients completed full course of antibiotics. Although 83% prescriptions have no clinical test for using antibiotics, even though the percentages of patients’ disease recovery were 61.78% and incompliance were 38.22%. Conclusion From this research, it is observed that physicians prescribed antibiotics

  2. Body Mass Index of Young Men in China: Results From Four National Surveys Conducted Between 1955 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Yi; Jiang, Xun; He, Yanan; Zhang, Yuhai; Liang, Ying; Pan, Feng; Xu, Yongyong; Shang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To analyze the characteristics and trends of body mass index (BMI) among young men in China using data from a series of national surveys conducted between 1955 and 2012, and to provide evidence for policy making and disease control and prevention. BMI-related data were collected by routine medical examination from young men, most aged 18 to 20 years, in 4 national surveys (1955, 1974, 2001, and 2012) using a stratified cluster sampling method in 31 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China. The characteristics and trends of BMI during this period were analyzed by region, year, age, and economic level. Totals of 266,791, 118,092, 69,776, and 57,969 participants were included in the 4 national surveys, respectively. Between 1955 and 2012, height, weight, and BMI showed increasing trends in men aged 18 to 20 years at the national level and in each of the 6 areas of China. BMI also differed among geographical regions. Data from the 2012 national survey showed that age (17–22 years) was correlated positively with the prevalence of overweight and negatively with the prevalence of underweight (both P < 0.05). Gross domestic product was correlated negatively with the prevalence of underweight (r = –0.25) and positively with the prevalence of overweight and obesity (r = 0.45 and 0.240, respectively; all P < 0.001). BMI increased with economic development among young men from 1955 to 2012, with distinct variation among geographic areas in China. Although underweight remains prevalent in young men, especially in urban and northern regions, overweight and obesity are increasingly prevalent and warrant public health attention. PMID:26871856

  3. Aerial views of the San Andreas Fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, M.

    1988-01-01

    These aerial photographs of the San Andreas fault were taken in 1965 by Robert E. Wallace of the U.S Geological Survey. The pictures were taken with a Rolliflex camera on 20 format black and white flim; Wallace was aboard a light, fixed-wing aircraft, flying mostly at low altitudes. He photographed the fault from San Francisco near its north end where it enters by the Salton Sea. These images represent only a sampling of the more than 300 images prodcued during this project. All the photographs reside in the U.S Geological Survey Library in Menlo Park, California. 

  4. The U.S. Department of Energy's Aerial Measuring System (AMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Marianno

    2008-03-01

    For nearly 40 years, aerial radiological search and survey missions have been performed by the United States Department of Energy's (USDOE) Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL). Originally created in 1967 as Aerial Measurement Operations (AMO), the AMS mission has expanded to include acquiring baseline measurements, performing periodic area monitoring, and responding to radiological emergencies. In an accident scenario, AMS fixed-wing and/or rotary-wing systems can be deployed to map radiological deposition. A fixed-wing system is on standby twenty-fours per day, seven days per week and can be deployed within four hours of notification. It can quickly evaluate high levels of radiation which may constitute immediate health risks. To accomplish its mission the fixed-wing aircraft utilizes the Spectral Aerial Radiological Computer System (SPARCS) which records gross count and spectral information. Data from SPARCS is telemetered to ground stations and secure websites where it can be viewed and evaluated in near-real time. The rotary-wing system deploys following the critical phase of an accident and supports the DOE's Consequence Management Response Team (CMRT) in determining long term consequences of the accident. The rotary wing aircraft utilizes the Radiation and Environmental Data Acquisition and Recording System (REDAR). A 25-liter sodium iodide (NaI) spectral system and precise positioning allow distributed man-made activity of less than 1 {micro}R/hr at ground level to be precisely mapped. This talk will discuss history of the USDOE's AMS program and its current efforts to conduct baseline aerial surveys of some US cities.

  5. [Conduct of survey four months after the start of EMR for home visits to promote cooperation between hospitals and clinics].

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Yumiko; Sawada, Sachiko; Tomiyama, Takashi; Ueda, Yuki; Fujii, Kou; Takeshita, Kiyotaka; Kobayashi, Mitsuru; Isono, Osamu

    2014-12-01

    Electronic medical records(EMR)for home visits were introduced in October 2013 at our institution in order to ensure smooth cooperation between the hospital and clinic by sharing the details of a patient's medical record. A system was developed for remote desktop connections to the EMR terminal server(virtual server)with the use of an SSL-VPN. Mobile terminals and mobile printers were used. Four months after the start of this system, a survey was conducted for 41 home care professionals and other staff(physicians, nurses, and office staff). Home care staff indicated that they had problems with the system, including bad connections and operating conditions, and difficulties responding to problems when they arose. Other staff indicated that they were able to acquire patient information faster than with paper-based records. Future issues include improvements to the user-friendliness of the terminals and improved responses to problems when they occur. PMID:25595077

  6. A framework for community assessment: designing and conducting a survey in a Hispanic immigrant and refugee community.

    PubMed

    Urrutia-Rojas, X; Aday, L A

    1991-03-01

    This article introduces a framework for the study of access to medical care that has been used extensively in national and local surveys, and demonstrates its application to an assessment of health and health care needs in a Hispanic immigrant and refugee community. The presentation of the framework, study design, findings, and implications for research and planning points out the utility of this framework for organizing systematic community assessment data-gathering activities; demonstrates how such an assessment could be incorporated into a public health nursing curriculum or readily adopted by public health nurse professionals in their communities; illustrates the potential for effective partnerships between public health practitioners and academics in conducting and disseminating the findings; and provides a broader conceptual, empirical, and policy-oriented context in which to view local community-assessment activities and their relevance for health policy and program development. PMID:2023852

  7. Determination of Cotton Plant Injury by Aerial Application of Glyphosate Using Remote Sensing and Spray Drift Sampling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Off-target drift of aerially applied glyphosate can cause plant injury, which is of great concern to farmers and aerial applicators. To determine the extent of crop injury due to near-field drift, an experiment was conducted from a single aerial application of glyphosate. For a larger-scoped project...

  8. The DOE ARM Aerial Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Hubbe, John M.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Mei, Fan; Chand, Duli; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Andrews, Elisabeth; Biraud, S.; McFarquhar, Greg

    2014-05-01

    The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a climate research user facility operating stationary ground sites that provide long-term measurements of climate relevant properties, mobile ground- and ship-based facilities to conduct shorter field campaigns (6-12 months), and the ARM Aerial Facility (AAF). The airborne observations acquired by the AAF enhance the surface-based ARM measurements by providing high-resolution in-situ measurements for process understanding, retrieval-algorithm development, and model evaluation that are not possible using ground- or satellite-based techniques. Several ARM aerial efforts were consolidated into the AAF in 2006. With the exception of a small aircraft used for routine measurements of aerosols and carbon cycle gases, AAF at the time had no dedicated aircraft and only a small number of instruments at its disposal. In this "virtual hangar" mode, AAF successfully carried out several missions contracting with organizations and investigators who provided their research aircraft and instrumentation. In 2009, AAF started managing operations of the Battelle-owned Gulfstream I (G-1) large twin-turboprop research aircraft. Furthermore, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided funding for the procurement of over twenty new instruments to be used aboard the G-1 and other AAF virtual-hangar aircraft. AAF now executes missions in the virtual- and real-hangar mode producing freely available datasets for studying aerosol, cloud, and radiative processes in the atmosphere. AAF is also engaged in the maturation and testing of newly developed airborne sensors to help foster the next generation of airborne instruments.

  9. INERTIAL INSTRUMENT SYSTEM FOR AERIAL SURVEYING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Russell H.; Chapman, William H.; Hanna, William F.; Mongan, Charles E.; Hursh, John W.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe an inertial guidance or navigation system that will enable use of relatively light aircraft for efficient data-gathering in geologgy, hydrology, terrain mapping, and gravity-field mapping. The instrument system capitalizes not only on virtual state-of-the-art inertial guidance technology but also on similarly advanced technology for measuring distance with electromagnetic radiating devices. The distance measurement can be made with a transceiver beamed at either a cooperative taget, with a specially designed reflecting surface, or a noncooperative target, such as the Earth's surface. The instrument system features components that use both techniques. Thus, a laser tracker device, which updates the inertial guidance unit or navigator in flight, makes distance measurements to a retroreflector target mounted at a ground-control point; a laser profiler device, beamed vertically downward, makes distance measurements to the Earth's surface along a path that roughly mirrors the aircraft flight path.

  10. Aerial Video Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    When Michael Henry wanted to start an aerial video service, he turned to Johnson Space Center for assistance. Two NASA engineers - one had designed and developed TV systems in Apollo, Skylab, Apollo- Soyuz and Space Shuttle programs - designed a wing-mounted fiberglass camera pod. Camera head and angles are adjustable, and the pod is shaped to reduce vibration. The controls are located so a solo pilot can operate the system. A microprocessor displays latitude, longitude, and bearing, and a GPS receiver provides position data for possible legal references. The service has been successfully utilized by railroads, oil companies, real estate companies, etc.

  11. Annual summary of endangered species preconstruction surveys conducted during 1985 on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1), Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, T.T.

    1986-10-01

    Preconstruction surveys were implemented as part of the US Department of Energy's compensation/mitigation plan to offset possible effects of petroleum developments on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 on endangered species and their habitats. These surveys were conducted to gather information that could be used to assess potential impacts of construction activity on these endangered species and habitats and to formulate alternatives that resulted in avoiding or minimizing the effects. During 1985 a total of 128 preconstruction surveys were conducted covering approximately 457.5 acres of which approximately 300 acres were for long-term disturbances and approximately 157.5 acres were for superficial disturbances. The area surveyed during preconstruction surveys was usually larger than the actual area disturbed. A total of 37 kit fox dens, four culverts and two erosion gullies used by kit fox, and six blunt-nosed leopard lizard habitats were found. All of the dens and culverts threatened by construction were avoided by modifications at 11 project sites. Three of the four threatened blunt-nosed leopard lizard habitats were avoided by modifications at three project sites. No new construction projects on NPR-1 were completed before a preconstruction survey was conducted. Preconstruction surveys continued to be a useful tool to eliminate or minimize potential direct effects of construction activities on endangered species, proposed endangered species, and their habitats on NPR-1. 4 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  12. Infrared film for aerial photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, William H.

    1979-01-01

    Considerable interest has developed recently in the use of aerial photographs for agricultural management. Even the simplest hand-held aerial photographs, especially those taken with color infrared film, often provide information not ordinarily available through routine ground observation. When fields are viewed from above, patterns and variations become more apparent, often allowing problems to be spotted which otherwise may go undetected.

  13. AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY AND LEGAL APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aerial photographic interpretation is the process of examining objects on aerial photographs and determining their significance. t is often defined as both art and science because the process, and the quality of the derived information, is often a qualitative nature and much depe...

  14. Aerial Photography as a Tool to Document Coastal Change Along Eroding Shorelines in Northern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, A.; Richmond, B. M.; Nolan, M.

    2014-12-01

    Chronic and widespread coastal erosion along the northern coast of Alaska is threatening traditional lifestyles, sensitive ecosystems, energy and defense related infrastructure, and large tracts of Native Alaskan, State, and Federally managed land. Recent USGS historical shoreline position studies have documented shoreline change rates along most of northern Alaska for the period from 1947 to circa 2000. Rates vary from an erosional high of -18.6 m/yr along vulnerable bluffed coasts, to accretion up to +10.9 m/yr along prograding sand-rich coasts (average rate for entire study area is -1.4 m/yr). The historical analysis gives valuable information regarding long-term rates of change but does not provide details on the timing and processes driving the change. Oblique and vertical aerial photography contains valuable coastal information on such things as bluff failure mechanisms, presence or absence of shorefast ice, beach characteristics including erosional scarps and ice-push ridges, wrack lines produced during storm surge events, and habitat identification. Recent advances in digital photogrammetry applied to oblique aerial photography can be used to construct high quality DEMs at a relatively low cost. Repeat aerial surveys and resultant DEM construction serve as a potential monitoring tool that can be used to quantify volumetric change, and, if conducted frequently enough, provide insights into the mechanisms responsible for coastal change in the Arctic. We provide examples from a few selected sites in northern Alaska where oblique aerial photography has been used to better understand coastal change in remote and threatened areas.

  15. Data processing programs for aerial gamma-ray data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duval1, Joseph S.

    1985-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) uses computer programs to process aerial gamma-ray data; some do editing and data manipulation to allow for corrections. Programs to convert flight-line data to latitude-longitude coordinates are included. Plotting programs include contour plotting, profile plots, and photographic raster plots.

  16. 7 CFR 611.21 - Availability of aerial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SOIL SURVEYS Cartographic...

  17. 7 CFR 611.21 - Availability of aerial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SOIL SURVEYS Cartographic...

  18. 7 CFR 611.21 - Availability of aerial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SOIL SURVEYS Cartographic...

  19. 7 CFR 611.21 - Availability of aerial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SOIL SURVEYS Cartographic...

  20. 7 CFR 611.21 - Availability of aerial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SOIL SURVEYS Cartographic...

  1. Using Detection Dogs to Conduct Simultaneous Surveys of Northern Spotted (Strix occidentalis caurina) and Barred Owls (Strix varia)

    PubMed Central

    Wasser, Samuel K.; Hayward, Lisa S.; Hartman, Jennifer; Booth, Rebecca K.; Broms, Kristin; Berg, Jodi; Seely, Elizabeth; Lewis, Lyle; Smith, Heath

    2012-01-01

    State and federal actions to conserve northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) habitat are largely initiated by establishing habitat occupancy. Northern spotted owl occupancy is typically assessed by eliciting their response to simulated conspecific vocalizations. However, proximity of barred owls (Strix varia)–a significant threat to northern spotted owls–can suppress northern spotted owl responsiveness to vocalization surveys and hence their probability of detection. We developed a survey method to simultaneously detect both species that does not require vocalization. Detection dogs (Canis familiaris) located owl pellets accumulated under roost sites, within search areas selected using habitat association maps. We compared success of detection dog surveys to vocalization surveys slightly modified from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Draft 2010 Survey Protocol. Seventeen 2 km ×2 km polygons were each surveyed multiple times in an area where northern spotted owls were known to nest prior to 1997 and barred owl density was thought to be low. Mitochondrial DNA was used to confirm species from pellets detected by dogs. Spotted owl and barred owl detection probabilities were significantly higher for dog than vocalization surveys. For spotted owls, this difference increased with number of site visits. Cumulative detection probabilities of northern spotted owls were 29% after session 1, 62% after session 2, and 87% after session 3 for dog surveys, compared to 25% after session 1, increasing to 59% by session 6 for vocalization surveys. Mean detection probability for barred owls was 20.1% for dog surveys and 7.3% for vocal surveys. Results suggest that detection dog surveys can complement vocalization surveys by providing a reliable method for establishing occupancy of both northern spotted and barred owl without requiring owl vocalization. This helps meet objectives of Recovery Actions 24 and 25 of the Revised Recovery Plan for the Northern Spotted

  2. Aerial Photogrammetric Analysis of a Scree Slope and Cliff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, Greg; Galland, Olivier; Mair, Karen

    2014-05-01

    Mapping the physical features of landslide tracks provides information about factors controlling landslide movement. The increasing availability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) provides the opportunity to efficiently and cost effectively map terrain. The main goal of this field study is to create a streamlined work-flow from acquisition to interpretation for the photogrammetric analysis of landslide tracks. Here an open source software package MicMac is used for ortho-image and point-cloud creation. A series of two flights were conducted over a scree (rockfall) slope in Kolsas, Norway. The slope runs roughly 500 m north-south with a maximum width of 60 m. A cliff to the west is the source area for the scree. The cliff consists of conglomerate, basalt, and porphyry from bottom to top respectively. The grain size of boulders in the scree slope apparently varies due to lateral differences in the cliff composition. The flights were completed under cloud cover and consisted of multiple lengthwise passes over the scree field. There was a minimum of 75% overlap between images. During the first flight the altitude was roughly 100 m, the camera was positioned normal to the scree (60 degrees from horizontal), and the resolution was 2.7 cm per pixel. The second flight had an altitude of 200 m, the camera orientation was 30 degrees from horizontal, and the resolution was 4.0 cm per pixel. Using the Micmac engine, Ortho-photos and Digital Elevation Models (DEM) were created for both the scree and the cliff. This data will allow for analysis of grain-size, surface roughness, grain-shape, fracture plane orientation, as well as geological mapping. Further work will focus the quantitative assessment of the significance different camera altitudes and angles have on the results. The work-flow used in this study provides a repeatable method for aerial photogrammetric surveys of scree slopes.

  3. Assessing the Incidence of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning with Two Surveys Conducted in Culebra, Puerto Rico, during 2005 and 2006

    PubMed Central

    Luber, George; Conklin, Laura; Tosteson, Thomas R.; Granade, Hudson R.; Dickey, Robert W.; Backer, Lorraine C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is the most common seafood intoxication worldwide, its burden has been difficult to establish because there are no biomarkers to diagnose human exposure. Objective: We explored the incidence of CFP, percentage of CFP case-patients with laboratory-confirmed ciguatoxic meal remnants, cost of CFP illness, and potential risk factors for CFP. Methods: During 2005 and again during 2006, we conducted a census of all occupied households on the island of Culebra, Puerto Rico, where locally caught fish are a staple food. We defined CFP case-patients as persons with gastrointestinal symptoms (abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, or nausea) and neurological symptoms (extremity paresthesia, arthralgia, myalgia, malaise, pruritus, headache, dizziness, metallic taste, visual disturbance, circumoral paresthesia, temperature reversal, or toothache) or systemic symptoms (e.g., bradycardia) within 72 hr of eating fish during the previous year. Participants were asked to save fish remnants eaten by case-patients for ciguatoxin analysis at the Food and Drug Administration laboratory in Dauphin Island, Alabama (USA). Results: We surveyed 340 households during 2005 and 335 households during 2006. The estimated annual incidence of possible CFP was 4.0 per 1,000 person-years, and that of probable CFP was 7.5 per 1,000 person-years. One of three fish samples submitted by probable case-patients was positive for ciguatoxins. None of the case-patients required respiratory support. Households that typically consumed barracuda were more likely to report CFP (p = 0.02). Conclusions: Our estimates, which are consistent with previous studies using similar case findings, contribute to the overall information available to support public health decision making about CFP prevention. PMID:22275728

  4. Localization of aerial broadband noise by pinnipeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Marla M.; Schusterman, Ronald J.; Southall, Brandon L.; Kastak, David

    2004-05-01

    Although many pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses) emit broadband calls on land as part of their communication system, few studies have addressed these animals' ability to localize aerial broadband sounds. In this study, the aerial sound localization acuities of a female northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), a male harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and a female California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) were measured in the horizontal plane. The stimulus was broadband white noise that was band pass filtered between 1.2 and 15 kHz. Testing was conducted in a hemi-anechoic chamber using a left/right forced choice procedure to measure the minimum audible angle (MAA) for each subject. MAAs were defined as half the angular separation of two sound sources bisected by a subject's midline that corresponded to 75% correct discrimination. MAAs were 4.7°, 3.6°, and 4.2° for the northern elephant seal, harbor seal, and California sea lion, respectively. These results demonstrate that individuals of these pinniped species have sound localization abilities comparable to the domestic cat and rhesus macaque. The acuity differences between our subjects were small and not predicted by head size. These results likely reflect the relatively acute general abilities of pinnipeds to localize aerial broadband signals.

  5. Mask degradation monitoring with aerial mask inspector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Wen-Jui; Fu, Yung-Ying; Lu, Shih-Ping; Jiang, Ming-Sian; Lin, Jeffrey; Wu, Clare; Lifschitz, Sivan; Tam, Aviram

    2013-06-01

    As design rule continues to shrink, microlithography is becoming more challenging and the photomasks need to comply with high scanner laser energy, low CDU, and ever more aggressive RETs. This give rise to numerous challenges in the semiconductor wafer fabrication plants. Some of these challenges being contamination (mainly haze and particles), mask pattern degradation (MoSi oxidation, chrome migration, etc.) and pellicle degradation. Fabs are constantly working to establish an efficient methodology to manage these challenges mainly using mask inspection, wafer inspection, SEM review and CD SEMs. Aerial technology offers a unique opportunity to address the above mask related challenges using one tool. The Applied Materials Aera3TM system has the inherent ability to inspect for defects (haze, particles, etc.), and track mask degradation (e.g. CDU). This paper focuses on haze monitoring, which is still a significant challenge in semiconductor manufacturing, and mask degradation effects that are starting to emerge as the next challenge for high volume semiconductor manufacturers. The paper describes Aerial inspector (Aera3) early haze methodology and mask degradation tracking related to high volume manufacturing. These will be demonstrated on memory products. At the end of the paper we take a brief look on subsequent work currently conducted on the more general issue of photo mask degradation monitoring by means of an Aerial inspector.

  6. International-Aerial Measuring System (I-AMS) Training Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wasiolek, Piotre T.; Malchor, Russell L.; Maurer, Richard J.; Adams, Henry L.

    2015-10-01

    Since the Fukushima reactor accident in 2011, there has been an increased interest worldwide in developing national capabilities to rapidly map and assess ground contamination resulting from nuclear reactor accidents. The capability to rapidly measure the size of the contaminated area, determine the activity level, and identify the radionuclides can aid emergency managers and decision makers in providing timely protective action recommendations to the public and first responders. The development of an aerial detection capability requires interagency coordination to assemble the radiation experts, detection system operators, and aviation aircrews to conduct the aerial measurements, analyze and interpret the data, and provide technical assessments. The Office of International Emergency Management and Cooperation (IEMC) at the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) sponsors an International - Aerial Measuring System (I-AMS) training program for partner nations to develop and enhance their response to radiological emergencies. An initial series of courses can be conducted in the host country to assist in developing an aerial detection capability. As the capability develops and expands, additional experience can be gained through advanced courses with the opportunity to conduct aerial missions over a broad range of radiation environments.

  7. A survey of earth resources on Apollo 9 photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N.

    1969-01-01

    The types of photography obtained on the Apollo 9 mission and on concurrent flights made by supporting aircraft are described. The need for earth resource surveys and the value of aircraft and spacecraft as the platforms from which to make such surveys are considered along with the rational for using multiband photography and the means by which such photography can be enhanced. Aerial and space photographs are presented and analyzed. The feasibility of conducting earth resource surveys by means of space photography is discussed and results are summarized.

  8. New Tech High Schools: Results of the National Survey of Project Based Learning and High School Reform conducted by the Buck Institute for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravitz, Jason

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, the Buck Institute for Education (BIE) conducted a national survey of high school reform and project based learning (PBL). The study included teachers from several major high school reform networks that emphasize PBL as an instructional approach: New Tech High, High Tech High, Edvision Schools, and Envision Schools. It also…

  9. Defining Workplace Literacy Education in Massachusetts. A Survey of Workplace Literacy Education Programs in Massachusetts, Conducted in September and October 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, David J.; Kale, Cerci

    A survey of 42 Massachusetts workplace literacy programs was conducted in fall 1989 to determine whether the programs generally fit a standard definition of workplace literacy derived from "A Guide to Developing Instruction for Workforce Literacy Programs" by Jorie W. Philippi. The study's seven-item questionnaire included the definition to which…

  10. Estimation of walrus populations on sea ice with infrared imagery and aerial photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Udevitz, M.S.; Burn, D.M.; Webber, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Population sizes of ice-associated pinnipeds have often been estimated with visual or photographic aerial surveys, but these methods require relatively slow speeds and low altitudes, limiting the area they can cover. Recent developments in infrared imagery and its integration with digital photography could allow substantially larger areas to be surveyed and more accurate enumeration of individuals, thereby solving major problems with previous survey methods. We conducted a trial survey in April 2003 to estimate the number of Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) hauled out on sea ice around St. Lawrence Island, Alaska. The survey used high altitude infrared imagery to detect groups of walruses on strip transects. Low altitude digital photography was used to determine the number of walruses in a sample of detected groups and calibrate the infrared imagery for estimating the total number of walruses. We propose a survey design incorporating this approach with satellite radio telemetry to estimate the proportion of the population in the water and additional low-level flights to estimate the proportion of the hauled-out population in groups too small to be detected in the infrared imagery. We believe that this approach offers the potential for obtaining reliable population estimates for walruses and other ice-associated pinnipeds. ?? 2007 by the Society for Marine Mammalogy.

  11. Using aerial photography and image analysis to measure changes in giant reed populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted along the Rio Grande in southwest Texas to evaluate color-infrared aerial photography combined with supervised image analysis to quantify changes in giant reed (Arundo donax L.) populations over a 6-year period. Aerial photographs from 2002 and 2008 of the same seven study site...

  12. Modeling aerial refueling operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Allen B., III

    Aerial Refueling (AR) is the act of offloading fuel from one aircraft (the tanker) to another aircraft (the receiver) in mid flight. Meetings between tanker and receiver aircraft are referred to as AR events and are scheduled to: escort one or more receivers across a large body of water; refuel one or more receivers; or train receiver pilots, tanker pilots, and boom operators. In order to efficiently execute the Aerial Refueling Mission, the Air Mobility Command (AMC) of the United States Air Force (USAF) depends on computer models to help it make tanker basing decisions, plan tanker sorties, schedule aircraft, develop new organizational doctrines, and influence policy. We have worked on three projects that have helped AMC improve its modeling and decision making capabilities. Optimal Flight Planning. Currently Air Mobility simulation and optimization software packages depend on algorithms which iterate over three dimensional fuel flow tables to compute aircraft fuel consumption under changing flight conditions. When a high degree of fidelity is required, these algorithms use a large amount of memory and CPU time. We have modeled the rate of aircraft fuel consumption with respect to AC GrossWeight, Altitude and Airspeed. When implemented, this formula will decrease the amount of memory and CPU time needed to compute sortie fuel costs and cargo capacity values. We have also shown how this formula can be used in optimal control problems to find minimum costs flight plans. Tanker Basing Demand Mismatch Index. Since 1992, AMC has relied on a Tanker Basing/AR Demand Mismatch Index which aggregates tanker capacity and AR demand data into six regions. This index was criticized because there were large gradients along regional boundaries. Meanwhile tankers frequently cross regional boundaries to satisfy the demand for AR support. In response we developed continuous functions to score locations with respect to their proximity to demand for AR support as well as their

  13. Radiological Disaster Simulators for Field and Aerial Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    H. W. Clark, Jr

    2002-11-01

    Simulators have been developed to dramatically improve the fidelity of play for field monitors and aircraft participating in radiological disaster drills and exercises. Simulated radiological measurements for the current Global Positioning System (GPS) location are derived from realistic models of radiological consequences for accidents and malicious acts. The aerial version outputs analog pulses corresponding to the signal that would be produced by various NaI (Tl) detectors at that location. The field monitor version reports the reading for any make/model of survey instrument selected. Position simulation modes are included in the aerial and field versions. The aerial version can generate a flight path based on input parameters or import an externally generated sequence of latitude and longitude coordinates. The field version utilizes a map-based point and click/drag interface to generate individual or a sequence of evenly spaced instrument measurements.

  14. Exploration of Titan Using Vertical Lift Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. A.

    2001-01-01

    Autonomous vertical lift aerial vehicles (such as rotorcraft or powered-lift vehicles) hold considerable potential for supporting planetary science and exploration missions. Vertical lift aerial vehicles would have the following advantages/attributes for planetary exploration: (1) low-speed and low-altitude detailed aerial surveys; (2) remote-site sample return to lander platforms; (3) precision placement of scientific probes; (4) soft landing capability for vehicle reuse (multiple flights) and remote-site monitoring; (5) greater range, speed, and access to hazardous terrain than a surface rover; and (6) greater resolution of surface details than an orbiter or balloons. Exploration of Titan presents an excellent opportunity for the development and usage of such vehicles. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. An automatic high precision registration method between large area aerial images and aerial light detection and ranging data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Q.; Xie, D.; Sun, Y.

    2015-06-01

    The integration of digital aerial photogrammetry and Light Detetion And Ranging (LiDAR) is an inevitable trend in Surveying and Mapping field. We calculate the external orientation elements of images which identical with LiDAR coordinate to realize automatic high precision registration between aerial images and LiDAR data. There are two ways to calculate orientation elements. One is single image spatial resection using image matching 3D points that registered to LiDAR. The other one is Position and Orientation System (POS) data supported aerotriangulation. The high precision registration points are selected as Ground Control Points (GCPs) instead of measuring GCPs manually during aerotriangulation. The registration experiments indicate that the method which registering aerial images and LiDAR points has a great advantage in higher automation and precision compare with manual registration.

  16. Airborne remote sensing assessment of the damage to cotton caused by spray drift from aerially applied glyphosate through spray deposition measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Off-target drift of aerially applied glyphosate can cause plant injury, which is of great concern to farmers and aerial applicators. To determine the extent of crop injury due to near-field drift, an experiment was conducted with a single aerial application of glyphosate. For identification of the d...

  17. How to Conduct Multimethod Field Studies in the Operating Room: The iPad Combined With a Survey App as a Valid and Reliable Data Collection Tool

    PubMed Central

    Tscholl, David W; Weiss, Mona; Spahn, Donat R

    2016-01-01

    Background Tablet computers such as the Apple iPad are progressively replacing traditional paper-and-pencil-based data collection. We combined the iPad with the ready-to-use survey software, iSurvey (from Harvestyourdata), to create a straightforward tool for data collection during the Anesthesia Pre-Induction Checklist (APIC) study, a hospital-wide multimethod intervention study involving observation of team performance and team member surveys in the operating room (OR). Objective We aimed to provide an analysis of the factors that led to the use of the iPad- and iSurvey-based tool for data collection, illustrate our experiences with the use of this data collection tool, and report the results of an expert survey about user experience with this tool. Methods We used an iPad- and iSurvey-based tool to observe anesthesia inductions conducted by 205 teams (N=557 team members) in the OR. In Phase 1, expert raters used the iPad- and iSurvey-based tool to rate team performance during anesthesia inductions, and anesthesia team members were asked to indicate their perceptions after the inductions. In Phase 2, we surveyed the expert raters about their perceptions regarding the use of the iPad- and iSurvey-based tool to observe, rate, and survey teams in the ORs. Results The results of Phase 1 showed that training data collectors on the iPad- and iSurvey-based data collection tool was effortless and there were no serious problems during data collection, upload, download, and export. Interrater agreement of the combined data collection tool was found to be very high for the team observations (median Fleiss’ kappa=0.88, 95% CI 0.78-1.00). The results of the follow-up expert rater survey (Phase 2) showed that the raters did not prefer a paper-and-pencil-based data collection method they had used during other earlier studies over the iPad- and iSurvey-based tool (median response 1, IQR 1-1; 1=do not agree, 2=somewhat disagree, 3=neutral, 4=somewhat agree, 5=fully agree). They

  18. Oil persistence on beaches in Prince William Sound - a review of SCAT surveys conducted from 1989 to 2002.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Elliott; Reimer, Doug

    2008-03-01

    In 2002, 13 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), 39 selected sites in Prince William Sound (PWS) were re-surveyed following established shoreline cleanup assessment team (SCAT) field observation procedures to document surface and sub-surface oiling conditions in shoreline sediments and to compare results with those from previous Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Team (SCAT) surveys and other surveys in PWS. The selected sites are locations where EVOS oil persisted in 1992, at the time the Federal and State On-Scene Coordinators determined that the cleanup was complete and that further cleanup activities would provide no net environmental benefit. These sites had been included in a 2001 NOAA survey of shoreline oiling conditions and account for 88% of the sub-surface oil residues (SSO) oil documented by that study. The 2002 field survey found isolated occurrences of residual EVOS surface oil residues (SO) in the form of weathered asphalt pavement at 15 of the 39 sites. This residual SO typically consisted of asphalt in mixed sand/gravel substrate, located within a wave shadow effect created by boulders or bedrock in the upper intertidal to supratidal zone. Residual SO, expressed as a continuous oil cover, was less than 200 m(2) within the approximately 111,120 m(2) surveyed. A total of 1182 pits were dug at locations where SSO residues were present in 1992. Six of the 39 sites and 815 (68%) of the pits contained no residual SSO. Eighty-three percent of pits with SSO residues were found primarily in middle to upper intertidal locations. SSO residues commonly occurred in a discontinuous approximately 3 cm thick band 5-10 cm below the boulder/cobble or pebble/gravel veneer. The SO and SSO occurrences in the 2002 survey closely match the locations where they were found in 1992 and earlier surveys; however, in 2002 residual SSO patches are more discontinuous and thinner than they were in the earlier surveys. These sites are biased toward SSO persistence; those that

  19. Use of aerial thermography in Canadian energy conservation programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cihlar, J.; Brown, R. J.; Lawrence, G.; Barry, J. N.; James, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    Recent developments in the use of aerial thermography in energy conservation programs within Canada were summarized. Following a brief review of studies conducted during the last three years, methodologies of data acquisition, processing, analysis and interpretation was discussed. Examples of results from an industrial oriented project were presented and recommendations for future basic work were outlined.

  20. Biological response of soybean and cotton to aerial glyphosate drift

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An aerial application drift study was conducted in 2009 to determine biological effects of glyphosate on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Glyphosate at 866 g ae/ha was applied using an Air Tractor 402B agricultural aircraft in an 18.3 m spray swath to crops at the...

  1. Use of archive aerial photography for monitoring black mangrove populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted on the south Texas Gulf Coast to evaluate archive aerial color-infrared (CIR) photography combined with supervised image analysis techniques to quantify changes in black mangrove [Avicennia germinans (L.) L.] populations over a 26-year period. Archive CIR film from two study si...

  2. Factors affecting successful establishment of aerially seeded winter rye

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Establishing cover crops in the corn-soybean (Zea mays - Glycine max) rotation in northern climates can be difficult due to the short time between harvest and freezing temperatures. Aerial seeding into standing crops is one way to increase time for germination and growth. Field studies were conducte...

  3. Field Assessment of A Variable-rate Aerial Application System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several experiments were conducted to evaluate the system response of a variable-rate aerial application controller to changing flow rates. The research is collaboration between the USDA, ARS, APTRU and Houma Avionics, USA, manufacturer of a widely used flow controller designed for agricultural airc...

  4. Regional agriculture surveys using ERTS-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draeger, W. C.; Nichols, J. D.; Benson, A. S.; Larrabee, D. G.; Jenkus, W. M.; Hay, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    The Center for Remote Sensing Research has conducted studies designed to evaluate the potential application of ERTS data in performing agricultural inventories, and to develop efficient methods of data handling and analysis useful in the operational context for performing large area surveys. This work has resulted in the development of an integrated system utilizing both human and computer analysis of ground, aerial, and space imagery, which has been shown to be very efficient for regional crop acreage inventories. The technique involves: (1) the delineation of ERTS images into relatively homogeneous strata by human interpreters, (2) the point-by-point classification of the area within each strata on the basis of crop type using a human/machine interactive digital image processing system; and (3) a multistage sampling procedure for the collection of supporting aerial and ground data used in the adjustment and verification of the classification results.

  5. A Survey of Community College Enrollment Conducted as Part of Fee Impact Study. Second Follow-Up Measure, Spring, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field Research Corp., San Francisco, CA.

    A three-phase study was conducted in California to assess the impact of a mandatory fee imposed in 1985 on enrollments in the California community colleges as measured by changes in students' ethnicity, income, and academic load, and changes in enrollment in college non-credit education. A benchmark study conducted in spring 1984 prior to the…

  6. National Survey of American Attitudes on Substance Abuse II: Teens and Their Parents Conducted by Luntz Research Companies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    Illegal drug use by adolescents is on the rise. This alarming trend was quantified in this national survey of the attitudes of teens and their parents (1,200 teens and 1,166 parents, including 819 sets of teens and parents from the same households) towards cigarettes, alcohol, inhalants, marijuana, LSD, cocaine, heroin, and other illegal drugs.…

  7. An aerial sightability model for estimating ferruginous hawk population size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayers, L.W.; Anderson, S.H.

    1999-01-01

    Most raptor aerial survey projects have focused on numeric description of visibility bias without identifying the contributing factors or developing predictive models to account for imperfect detection rates. Our goal was to develop a sightability model for nesting ferruginous hawks (Buteo regalis) that could account for nests missed during aerial surveys and provide more accurate population estimates. Eighteen observers, all unfamiliar with nest locations in a known population, searched for nests within 300 m of flight transects via a Maule fixed-wing aircraft. Flight variables tested for their influence on nest-detection rates included aircraft speed, height, direction of travel, time of day, light condition, distance to nest, and observer experience level. Nest variables included status (active vs. inactive), condition (i.e., excellent, good, fair, poor, bad), substrate type, topography, and tree density. A multiple logistic regression model identified nest substrate type, distance to nest, and observer experience level as significant predictors of detection rates (P < 0.05). The overall model was significant (??26 = 124.4, P < 0.001, n = 255 nest observations), and the correct classification rate was 78.4%. During 2 validation surveys, observers saw 23.7% (14/59) and 36.5% (23/63) of the actual population. Sightability model predictions, with 90% confidence intervals, captured the true population in both tests. Our results indicate standardized aerial surveys, when used in conjunction with the predictive sightability model, can provide unbiased population estimates for nesting ferruginous hawks.

  8. Graduate Socialization in the Responsible Conduct of Research: A National Survey on the Research Ethics Training Experiences of Psychology Doctoral Students

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Celia B.; Fried, Adam L.; Feldman, Lindsay G.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the mechanisms by which psychology graduate programs transmit responsible conduct of research (RCR) values. A national sample of 968 current students and recent graduates of mission-diverse doctoral psychology programs, completed a web-based survey on their research ethics challenges, perceptions of RCR mentoring and department climate, their ability to conduct research responsibility, and whether they believed psychology as a discipline promotes scientific integrity. Research experience, mentor RCR instruction and modeling, and department RCR policies predicted student RCR preparedness. Mentor RCR instruction, department RCR policies, and faculty modeling of RCR behaviors predicted confidence in the RCR integrity of the discipline. Implications for training are discussed. PMID:23641128

  9. Annual summary of endangered species preconstruction surveys conducted during 1986 on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1), Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, T.T.

    1987-07-01

    Preconstruction surveys were implemented as part of the US Department of Energy's compensation/mitigation plan to offset possible effects of petroleum developments on the endangered San Joaquin kit fox and blunt-nosed leopard lizard, and the proposed endangered giant kangaroo rat. These surveys were conducted to gather information that could be used to assess potential impacts of construction activity on endangered species and their habitats, and to formulate alternatives that resulted in avoiding or minimizing the effects. During 1986 a total of 130 preconstruction surveys covering approximately 665 acres were conducted. Approximately 273.5 acres of the area surveyed were subsequently disturbed by construction or maintenance activities. A total of 45 kit fox dens, numerous giant kangaroo rat burrow systems, and 47 washes representing habitat for blunt-nosed leopard lizards were found. Three kit fox dens and one wash were not considered to be threatened by construction, but all giant kangaroo rat burrows were. Impacts to 41 kit fox dens, all of the burrows, and 46 of the washes were avoided by 27 project modifications. One den was excavated to prevent potential burial of a kit fox or other wildlife during construction. 10 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  10. Aerial camera auto focusing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuan; Lan, Gongpu; Gao, Xiaodong; Liang, Wei

    2012-10-01

    Before the aerial photographic task, the cameras focusing work should be performed at first to compensate the defocus caused by the changes of the temperature, pressure etc. A new method of aerial camera auto focusing is proposed through traditional photoelectric self-collimation combined with image processing method. Firstly, the basic principles of optical self-collimation and image processing are introduced. Secondly, the limitations of the two are illustrated and the benefits of the new method are detailed. Then the basic principle, the system composition and the implementation of this new method are presented. Finally, the data collection platform is set up reasonably and the focus evaluation function curve is draw. The results showed that: the method can be used in the Aerial camera focusing field, adapt to the aviation equipment trends of miniaturization and lightweight .This paper is helpful to the further work of accurate and automatic focusing.

  11. Dynamics of aerial target pursuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, S.

    2015-12-01

    During pursuit and predation, aerial species engage in multitasking behavior that involve simultaneous target detection, tracking, decision-making, approach and capture. The mobility of the pursuer and the target in a three dimensional environment during predation makes the capture task highly complex. Many researchers have studied and analyzed prey capture dynamics in different aerial species such as insects and bats. This article focuses on reviewing the capture strategies adopted by these species while relying on different sensory variables (vision and acoustics) for navigation. In conclusion, the neural basis of these capture strategies and some applications of these strategies in bio-inspired navigation and control of engineered systems are discussed.

  12. AERIAL OF VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING & SURROUNDING AREA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    AERIAL OF VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING & SURROUNDING AREA KSC-377C-0082.41 116-KSC-377C-82.41, P-15877, ARCHIVE-04151 Aerial view - Shuttle construction progress - VAB and Orbiter Processing Facilities - direction northwest.

  13. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  14. Precision wildlife monitoring using unmanned aerial vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Jarrod C.; Baylis, Shane M.; Mott, Rowan; Herrod, Ashley; Clarke, Rohan H.

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a new frontier in environmental research. Their use has the potential to revolutionise the field if they prove capable of improving data quality or the ease with which data are collected beyond traditional methods. We apply UAV technology to wildlife monitoring in tropical and polar environments and demonstrate that UAV-derived counts of colony nesting birds are an order of magnitude more precise than traditional ground counts. The increased count precision afforded by UAVs, along with their ability to survey hard-to-reach populations and places, will likely drive many wildlife monitoring projects that rely on population counts to transition from traditional methods to UAV technology. Careful consideration will be required to ensure the coherence of historic data sets with new UAV-derived data and we propose a method for determining the number of duplicated (concurrent UAV and ground counts) sampling points needed to achieve data compatibility. PMID:26986721

  15. Precision wildlife monitoring using unmanned aerial vehicles.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Jarrod C; Baylis, Shane M; Mott, Rowan; Herrod, Ashley; Clarke, Rohan H

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a new frontier in environmental research. Their use has the potential to revolutionise the field if they prove capable of improving data quality or the ease with which data are collected beyond traditional methods. We apply UAV technology to wildlife monitoring in tropical and polar environments and demonstrate that UAV-derived counts of colony nesting birds are an order of magnitude more precise than traditional ground counts. The increased count precision afforded by UAVs, along with their ability to survey hard-to-reach populations and places, will likely drive many wildlife monitoring projects that rely on population counts to transition from traditional methods to UAV technology. Careful consideration will be required to ensure the coherence of historic data sets with new UAV-derived data and we propose a method for determining the number of duplicated (concurrent UAV and ground counts) sampling points needed to achieve data compatibility. PMID:26986721

  16. A Survey of U.S Adults’ Opinions about Conduct of a Nationwide Precision Medicine Initiative® Cohort Study of Genes and Environment

    PubMed Central

    Devaney, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Objectives A survey of a population-based sample of U.S adults was conducted to measure their attitudes about, and inform the design of the Precision Medicine Initiative’s planned national cohort study. Methods An online survey was conducted by GfK between May and June of 2015. The influence of different consent models on willingness to share data was examined by randomizing participants to one of eight consent scenarios. Results Of 4,777 people invited to take the survey, 2,706 responded and 2,601 (54% response rate) provided valid responses. Most respondents (79%) supported the proposed study, and 54% said they would definitely or probably participate if asked. Support for and willingness to participate in the study varied little among demographic groups; younger respondents, LGBT respondents, and those with more years of education were significantly more likely to take part if asked. The most important study incentive that the survey asked about was learning about one’s own health information. Willingness to share data and samples under broad, study-by-study, menu and dynamic consent models was similar when a statement about transparency was included in the consent scenarios. Respondents were generally interested in taking part in several governance functions of the cohort study. Conclusions A large majority of the U.S. adults who responded to the survey supported a large national cohort study. Levels of support for the study and willingness to participate were both consistent across most demographic groups. The opportunity to learn health information about one’s self from the study appears to be a strong motivation to participate. PMID:27532667

  17. Listening to Mothers II: Report of the Second National U.S. Survey of Women's Childbearing Experiences: Conducted January-February 2006 for Childbirth Connection by Harris Interactive(R) in partnership with Lamaze International.

    PubMed

    Declercq, Eugene R; Sakala, Carol; Corry, Maureen P; Applebaum, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    With permission from Childbirth Connection, the concise version of the Listening to Mothers II "Survey Methodology" is reprinted here. Harris Interactive(R) conducted Listening to Mothers II: Report of the Second National U.S. Survey of Women's Childbearing Experiences on behalf of Childbirth Connection. The survey consisted of 1,373 online interviews and 200 telephone interviews with women who had given birth in U.S. hospitals in 2005, with weighting of data to reflect the target population. Interviews were conducted from January 20 through February 21, 2006. The methods used to conduct the survey and analyze the data collected are described. PMID:18769522

  18. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... lift, except in case of emergency. (x) Climbers shall not be worn while performing work from an aerial... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aerial lifts. 1926.453 Section 1926.453 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Scaffolds § 1926.453 Aerial lifts. (a)...

  19. Use of phenytoin for the long-term treatment of partial seizures: Results of a survey conducted during the 2004 meeting of the American Academy of Neurology

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Brien

    2005-01-01

    Background: Epilepsy is a chronic disorder that typically requires lifelongpharmacologic treatment. The choice of an antiepileptic drug (AED), therefore, requires careful consideration of efficacy and tolerability. However, the majority of patients with new-onset seizures are initially treated by physicians in the emergency department (ED) or by non-ED physicians (primary care physicians or internists), with phenytoin being the most common AED prescribed for initial therapy, and the long-term adverse effects of AEDs are often overlooked. Objective: The aim of this survey was to examine the perspectives of neurologistsand epileptologists concerning initial therapies prescribed by ED physicians and non-ED physicians for newly diagnosed partial seizures, particularly phenytoin, and the suitability of these therapies for long-term management of the disease. Methods: A computerized survey was conducted during the 2004 AmericanAcademy of Neurology meeting. The survey consisted of 10 questions concerning the use of AEDs in the initial and long-term treatment of newly diagnosed partial seizures. Results: The responses of 268 practitioners were analyzed. Survey participants indicated that 71% of patients referred to them by ED physicians were receiving phenytoin, whereas 59% of patients referred to them by non-ED physicians were receiving phenytoin. Seventy-six percent of survey participants responded that they would switch a patient having partial seizures referred from the ED to another AED. Seventy-eight percent indicated that they did not believe that the medications being received by patients with newly diagnosed partial seizures in the ED were suitable for long-term epilepsy treatment. Conclusion: Although appropriate treatment might vary in the acute and chronic settings, and phenytoin is used as a primary agent for acute treatment of seizures presenting in the ED, the results of the present survey suggest a discrepancy between the medications that primary care and

  20. Reconnaissance mapping from aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeden, H. A.; Bolling, N. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Engineering soil and geology maps were successfully made from Pennsylvania aerial photographs taken at scales from 1:4,800 to 1:60,000. The procedure involved a detailed study of a stereoscopic model while evaluating landform, drainage, erosion, color or gray tones, tone and texture patterns, vegetation, and cultural or land use patterns.

  1. Integrating Terrestrial LIDAR with Point Clouds Created from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslar, M.

    2015-08-01

    Using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for the purposes of conducting high-accuracy aerial surveying has become a hot topic over the last year. One of the most promising means of conducting such a survey involves integrating a high-resolution non-metric digital camera with the UAV and using the principals of digital photogrammetry to produce high-density colorized point clouds. Through the use of stereo imagery, precise and accurate horizontal positioning information can be produced without the need for integration with any type of inertial navigation system (INS). Of course, some form of ground control is needed to achieve this result. Terrestrial LiDAR, either static or mobile, provides the solution. Points extracted from Terrestrial LiDAR can be used as control in the digital photogrammetry solution required by the UAV. In return, the UAV is an affordable solution for filling in the shadows and occlusions typically experienced by Terrestrial LiDAR. In this paper, the accuracies of points derived from a commercially available UAV solution will be examined and compared to the accuracies achievable by a commercially available LIDAR solution. It was found that the LiDAR system produced a point cloud that was twice as accurate as the point cloud produced by the UAV's photogrammetric solution. Both solutions gave results within a few centimetres of the control field. In addition the about of planar dispersion on the vertical wall surfaces in the UAV point cloud was found to be multiple times greater than that from the horizontal ground based UAV points or the LiDAR data.

  2. Applications of thermal infrared imagery for energy conservation and environmental surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carney, J. R.; Vogel, T. C.; Howard, G. E., Jr.; Love, E. R.

    1977-01-01

    The survey procedures, developed during the winter and summer of 1976, employ color and color infrared aerial photography, thermal infrared imagery, and a handheld infrared imaging device. The resulting imagery was used to detect building heat losses, deteriorated insulation in built-up type building roofs, and defective underground steam lines. The handheld thermal infrared device, used in conjunction with the aerial thermal infrared imagery, provided a method for detecting and locating those roof areas that were underlain with wet insulation. In addition, the handheld infrared device was employed to conduct a survey of a U.S. Army installation's electrical distribution system under full operating loads. This survey proved to be cost effective procedure for detecting faulty electrical insulators and connections that if allowed to persist could have resulted in both safety hazards and loss in production.

  3. Uas for Archaeology - New Perspectives on Aerial Documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallavollita, P.; Balsi, M.; Esposito, S.; Melis, M. G.; Milanese, M.; Zappino, L.

    2013-08-01

    In this work some Unmanned Aerial Systems applications are discussed and applied to archaeological sites survey and 3D model reconstructions. Interesting results are shown for three important and different aged sites on north Sardinia (Italy). An easy and simplified procedure has proposed permitting the adoption of multi-rotor aircrafts for daily archaeological survey during excavation and documentation, involving state of art in UAS design, flight control systems, high definition sensor cameras and innovative photogrammetric software tools. Very high quality 3D models results are shown and discussed and how they have been simplified the archaeologist work and decisions.

  4. Archaeological survey of the McGee Ranch vicinity, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Gard, H.A.; Poet, R.M.

    1992-09-01

    In response to a request for a cultural resources review from Westinghouse Hanford Company for the Action Plan for Characterization of McGee Ranch Soil, Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) conducted an archaeological survey of the McGee Ranch vicinity, located in the northwest portion of the Hanford Site. Staff members covered 8.4 km{sup 2} and recorded 42 cultural resources; 22 sites, and 20 isolated artifacts. Only 2 sites and 3 isolates were attributed to a prehistoric Native American occupation. The historic sites date from the turn of the century to the 1940s and are representative of the settlement patterns that occurred throughout the Columbia Basin. In addition to an archaeological pedestrian survey of the project area, we conducted literature and records searches and examined available aerial photographs. Records kept at HCRL were reviewed to determine if any archaeological survey had been conducted previously within the project area. Although no survey had been conducted, portions of the area adjacent to project boundaries were surveyed in 1988 and 1990. During those surveys, historic and prehistoric cultural resources were observed, increasing the possibility that similar land usage had taken place within the current project boundaries. Literature searches established a general historical sequence for this area. Aerial photographs alerted researchers to homesteads and linear features, such as roads and irrigation ditches, that might not be apparent from ground level.

  5. Archaeological survey of the McGee Ranch vicinity, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Gard, H.A.; Poet, R.M.

    1992-09-01

    In response to a request for a cultural resources review from Westinghouse Hanford Company for the Action Plan for Characterization of McGee Ranch Soil, Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) conducted an archaeological survey of the McGee Ranch vicinity, located in the northwest portion of the Hanford Site. Staff members covered 8.4 km{sup 2} and recorded 42 cultural resources; 22 sites, and 20 isolated artifacts. Only 2 sites and 3 isolates were attributed to a prehistoric Native American occupation. The historic sites date from the turn of the century to the 1940s and are representative of the settlement patterns that occurred throughout the Columbia Basin. In addition to an archaeological pedestrian survey of the project area, we conducted literature and records searches and examined available aerial photographs. Records kept at HCRL were reviewed to determine if any archaeological survey had been conducted previously within the project area. Although no survey had been conducted, portions of the area adjacent to project boundaries were surveyed in 1988 and 1990. During those surveys, historic and prehistoric cultural resources were observed, increasing the possibility that similar land usage had taken place within the current project boundaries. Literature searches established a general historical sequence for this area. Aerial photographs alerted researchers to homesteads and linear features, such as roads and irrigation ditches, that might not be apparent from ground level.

  6. Using Airborne and Ground Electromagnetic Surveys and DC Resistivity Surveys to Delineate a Plume of Conductive Water at an In-Channel Coalbed Methane Produced Water Impoundment Near the Powder River, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipinski, B. A.; Harbert, W.; Hammack, R.; Sams, J.; Veloski, G.; Smith, B. D.

    2004-12-01

    Development of coal bed methane (CBM) in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana has significantly increased since 1997. Production of CBM involves withdrawing groundwater from the coal bed to lower the hydrostatic pressure thereby allowing methane to desorb from the coal. The water co-produced with CBM is managed by storing it in impoundments until it can infiltrate to the groundwater, be used for beneficial purposes, or be discharged to surface streams. Skewed Reservoir was constructed as a research site to evaluate disposal of CBM water through infiltration ponds constructed by damming ephemeral streams. Geochemical data collected from monitoring wells placed downgradient of the reservoir detected a plume of water with total dissolved solids concentrations an order of magnitude higher than the CBM water stored in the impoundment. Infiltrating CBM water is suspected to have dissolved salts that were present in the unconsolidated materials beneath the reservoir. A geophysical investigation of the Skewed Reservoir area was conducted in July of 2004 to map the horizontal and vertical extent of the plume and to possibly identify the source of solutes to the infiltrating water. The Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory contracted Fugro Airborne Surveys to fly their RESOLVE frequency domain airborne electromagnetic (AEM) system with 50-m line spacing at the site. A ground investigation was completed at the same time as the airborne survey. Five 2-D dipole-dipole resistivity surveys and one 3-D pole-dipole survey were conducted using the AGI SuperSting R8/IP multi-channel resistivity imaging system. Additionally, ground conductivity measurements were recorded along each resistivity line using a Geophex GEM-2 multi-frequency ground conductivity meter. All geoelectrical measurements were inverted to obtain the subsurface conductivity distribution. Inversions were constrained using results of downhole borehole induction logs. Results were

  7. Development of a new modular aerial spray system and night application capability for the U.S. Air Force

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. Air Force maintains a capability with the C130 aircraft to conduct aerial spray operations over large areas for controlling insects of medical importance. The current modular aerial spray system (MASS) is custom designed to support a variety of configurations from ultralow volume space spra...

  8. Identification and extraction of the seaward edge of terrestrial vegetation using digital aerial photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Melanie; Brock, John C.; Nayegandhi, A.; Duffy, M.; Wright, C.W.

    2006-01-01

    This report is created as part of the Aerial Data Collection and Creation of Products for Park Vital Signs Monitoring within the Northeast Region Coastal and Barrier Network project, which is a joint project between the National Park Service Inventory and Monitoring Program (NPS-IM), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Observational Sciences Branch, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Coastal and Watershed Studies (CCWS). This report is one of a series that discusses methods for extracting topographic features from aerial survey data. It details step-by-step methods used to extract a spatially referenced digital line from aerial photography that represents the seaward edge of terrestrial vegetation along the coast of Assateague Island National Seashore (ASIS). One component of the NPS-IM/USGS/NASA project includes the collection of NASA aerial surveys over various NPS barrier islands and coastal parks throughout the National Park Service's Northeast Region. These aerial surveys consist of collecting optical remote sensing data from a variety of sensors, including the NASA Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), the NASA Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), and down-looking digital mapping cameras.

  9. Application of airborne thermal imagery to surveys of Pacific walrus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burn, D.M.; Webber, M.A.; Udevitz, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    We conducted tests of airborne thermal imagery of Pacific walrus to determine if this technology can be used to detect walrus groups on sea ice and estimate the number of walruses present in each group. In April 2002 we collected thermal imagery of 37 walrus groups in the Bering Sea at spatial resolutions ranging from 1-4 m. We also collected high-resolution digital aerial photographs of the same groups. Walruses were considerably warmer than the background environment of ice, snow, and seawater and were easily detected in thermal imagery. We found a significant linear relation between walrus group size and the amount of heat measured by the thermal sensor at all 4 spatial resolutions tested. This relation can be used in a double-sampling framework to estimate total walrus numbers from a thermal survey of a sample of units within an area and photographs from a subsample of the thermally detected groups. Previous methods used in visual aerial surveys of Pacific walrus have sampled only a small percentage of available habitat, resulting in population estimates with low precision. Results of this study indicate that an aerial survey using a thermal sensor can cover as much as 4 times the area per hour of flight time with greater reliability than visual observation.

  10. Perioperative Anticoagulation in Patients with Mechanical Heart Valves Undergoing Elective Surgery: Results of a Survey Conducted among Korean Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sehyun; Lim, Chang Young; Lee, Jong Seok; Park, Seonyang; Garcia, David; Crowther, Mark A.; Ageno, Walter

    2005-01-01

    The optimal perioperative anticoagulation management in patients on warfarin therapy is poorly defined due to the lack of randomized trials. Because guidelines are heterogeneous, it was hypothesized that "treatment strategies are not uniform in clinical practice". Between February 2003 and May 2003, a questionnaire with 4 different clinical scenarios was distributed to physicians by e-mail, or direct contact was made by a survey monitor. Two scenarios described the cases of patients with a mechanical heart valve (MHV) in the mitral position, with additional risk factors for a systemic embolism; one undergoing major (scenario 1) and the other minor surgery (scenario 3). Two scenarios described patients with an aortic MHV; one undergoing major (scenario 2) and the other minor (scenario 4) surgery. Different preoperative and postoperative management options were offered. The treatment options for all scenarios were the same. Of the 90 questionnaires distributed, 52 (57.8%) were returned. Hospitalization for full-dose intravenous unfractionated heparin (IV UH) was the most commonly selected strategy in the preoperative phase for scenarios 1 (59%), 2 (42%) and 3 (44%). In scenario 4, 34% chose IV UH. Outpatient, full-dose, subcutaneous UH or low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) was the most selected option in the postoperative phase for all scenarios, with the exception of number 4 (52.9% in scenario 1, 34% in scenario 2, 32%, in scenario 3 and 28% in scenario 4). Even among expert clinicians, the management of perioperative anticoagulation is heterogeneous. In particular, the definition of risk categories and the optimal intensity of antithrombotic drugs need to be defined by well-designed prospective studies. PMID:15744807

  11. Trends in quantitative aerial thermography

    SciTech Connect

    Schott, J.R.; Wilkinson, E.P.

    1983-06-01

    Recent improvements in aerial thermographic techniques, particularly in achievable spatial resolution and noise equivalent temperature variation, have enabled the use of thermography in a more objective fashion. Interpretation of the information contained in thermograms has also been improved through the use of certain techniques accounting for roof material type (emissivity), background effects, and atmospheric variables. With current methods, roof surface temperature from aerial imagery can be measured to within 1.8/sup 0/F (1.0/sup 0/C) of the actual temperature. These advances in thermogram analysis have opened the door for potential direct measurement of rooftop heat-loss levels from thermogram data. Ultimately, it is felt that this type of information would make it feasible to direct intensive energy-conservation efforts toward a smaller population, where the need and cost benefits will be the greatest.

  12. Aerial robotic data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Hayes, D.W.; Pendergast, M.M.; Corban, J.E.

    1993-12-31

    A small, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), equipped with sensors for physical and chemical measurements of remote environments, is described. A miniature helicopter airframe is used as a platform for sensor testing and development. The sensor output is integrated with the flight control system for real-time, interactive, data acquisition and analysis. Pre-programmed flight missions will be flown with several sensors to demonstrate the cost-effective surveillance capabilities of this new technology.

  13. Cadastral Audit and Assessments Using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, K.; Walker, G.; Stahlke, E.; Wilson, R.

    2011-09-01

    Ground surveys and remote sensing are integral to establishing fair and equitable property valuations necessary for real property taxation. The International Association of Assessing Officers (IAAO) has embraced aerial and street-view imaging as part of its standards related to property tax assessments and audits. New technologies, including unmanned aerial systems (UAS) paired with imaging sensors, will become more common as local governments work to ensure their cadastre and tax rolls are both accurate and complete. Trends in mapping technology have seen an evolution in platforms from large, expensive manned aircraft to very small, inexpensive UAS. Traditional methods of photogrammetry have also given way to new equipment and sensors: digital cameras, infrared imagers, light detection and ranging (LiDAR) laser scanners, and now synthetic aperture radar (SAR). At the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF), we work extensively with unmanned aerial systems equipped with each of these newer sensors. UAF has significant experience flying unmanned systems in the US National Airspace, having begun in 1969 with scientific rockets and expanded to unmanned aircraft in 2003. Ongoing field experience allows UAF to partner effectively with outside organizations to test and develop leading-edge research in UAS and remote sensing. This presentation will discuss our research related to various sensors and payloads for mapping. We will also share our experience with UAS and optical systems for creating some of the first cadastral surveys in rural Alaska.

  14. Results of the 2008/2009 Knowledge and Opinions Surveys Conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program

    SciTech Connect

    Schmoyer, Richard L; Truett, Lorena Faith; Cooper, Christy; Chew, Andrea

    2010-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Program (FCT) conducts comprehensive efforts to enable the widespread commercialization of fuel cells in diverse sectors of the economy - with emphasis on applications that will most effectively strengthen our nation's energy security and improve our stewardship of the environment. Expanding the use of fuel cells requires a sustained education effort to lay the foundation for future commercial market introduction. The FCT education subprogram seeks to facilitate fuel cell demonstrations and support future commercialization by providing technically accurate and objective information to key target audiences both directly and indirectly involved in the use of fuel cells today. These key target audiences include a public that is familiar and comfortable with using a new fuel, state and local government officials who understand the near-term realities and long-term potential of the technology, an educated business and industry component, and trained safety and codes officials. With this in mind, the DOE FCT program established an education key activity to address the training and informational needs of target audiences that have a role in the near-term transition and the long-term development of a hydrogen economy. Whether or not changes can be attributed to the program, designing and maintaining an effective education program entails measuring baseline awareness and periodically measuring what has been learned. The purpose of this report is to document the data and results of statistical surveys undertaken in 2008 and 2009 to measure and establish changes in understanding and awareness about hydrogen and fuel cell technologies since a baseline survey was conducted in 2004. This report is essentially a data book, a digest of the survey data and an exposition of changes in knowledge of and opinions about hydrogen and fuel cell technology since 2004. Many conclusions can be made from the survey data. However, the

  15. Telemetry of Aerial Radiological Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    H. W. Clark, Jr.

    2002-10-01

    Telemetry has been added to National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA's) Aerial Measuring System (AMS) Incident Response aircraft to accelerate availability of aerial radiological mapping data. Rapid aerial radiological mapping is promptly performed by AMS Incident Response aircraft in the event of a major radiological dispersal. The AMS airplane flies the entire potentially affected area, plus a generous margin, to provide a quick look at the extent and severity of the event. The primary result of the AMS Incident Response over flight is a map of estimated exposure rate on the ground along the flight path. Formerly, it was necessary to wait for the airplane to land before the map could be seen. Now, while the flight is still in progress, data are relayed via satellite directly from the aircraft to an operations center, where they are displayed and disseminated. This permits more timely utilization of results by decision makers and redirection of the mission to optimize its value. The current telemetry capability can cover all of North America. Extension to a global capability is under consideration.

  16. Effectiveness of apparent electrical conductivity surveys at varying soil water contents for assessing soil and water dynamics across a rainfed mountain olive orchard in SW Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aura, Pedrera,; De Vijver, Ellen, Van; Karl, Vanderlinden,; Sergio, Martos-Rosillo; Meirvenne, Marc, Van; Espejo-Pérez, Antonio, J.; Encarnación V., Taguas,; Giráldez, Juan, V.

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge and understanding of the spatio-temporal variability of soil physical and chemical properties at the field or micro-catchment scale are of prime importance for many agricultural and environmental applications that aim at soil, water and carbon conservation. Geophysical methods, such as electromagnetic induction (EMI), are nowadays a key tool to monitor these properties across relevant scales, as a result of their non-destructive nature and their capability to survey repeatedly large areas within a small time window. Geophysical instrument response depends on the electromagnetic properties of the subsoil and for EMI in particular moist soil conditions are generally considered as most suitable for data acquisition. In water-limited environments, such as those under Mediterranean climate, these conditions are not met during large periods of the year, apparently hampering the usefulness of the method in these regions. The aim of this study is to obtain a better understanding of the sensor response and the contribution of soil properties to the geophysical signals under varying water contents. An experimental micro-catchment in SW Spain under rainfed olive cultivation was surveyed for apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) on 11 moments in time using a Dualem-21S. In addition, ECa and soil water content (SWC) was measured at 48 locations throughout the catchment on each survey date. At each of these locations, soil profile samples were analyzed for texture, soil organic matter content (SOM), soil depth, gravel content, and bulk density. Overall, correlations between the different soil properties and ECa improved with increasing SWC, although the ECa patterns remained constant in time. Time-lapse imaging offers the most promising results under the conditions of this study, but still requires at least one survey under wet soil conditions. Despite the smaller correlations between ECa and soil properties under dry conditions, ECa patterns are still relevant for

  17. Ground-Cover Measurements: Assessing Correlation Among Aerial and Ground-Based Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, D. Terrance; Cox, Samuel E.; Meikle, Tim; Zuuring, Hans R.

    2008-12-01

    Wyoming’s Green Mountain Common Allotment is public land providing livestock forage, wildlife habitat, and unfenced solitude, amid other ecological services. It is also the center of ongoing debate over USDI Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM) adjudication of land uses. Monitoring resource use is a BLM responsibility, but conventional monitoring is inadequate for the vast areas encompassed in this and other public-land units. New monitoring methods are needed that will reduce monitoring costs. An understanding of data-set relationships among old and new methods is also needed. This study compared two conventional methods with two remote sensing methods using images captured from two meters and 100 meters above ground level from a camera stand (a ground, image-based method) and a light airplane (an aerial, image-based method). Image analysis used SamplePoint or VegMeasure software. Aerial methods allowed for increased sampling intensity at low cost relative to the time and travel required by ground methods. Costs to acquire the aerial imagery and measure ground cover on 162 aerial samples representing 9000 ha were less than 3000. The four highest correlations among data sets for bare ground—the ground-cover characteristic yielding the highest correlations (r)—ranged from 0.76 to 0.85 and included ground with ground, ground with aerial, and aerial with aerial data-set associations. We conclude that our aerial surveys are a cost-effective monitoring method, that ground with aerial data-set correlations can be equal to, or greater than those among ground-based data sets, and that bare ground should continue to be investigated and tested for use as a key indicator of rangeland health.

  18. A Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Survey Conducted Three Years after Halting Ivermectin Mass Treatment for Onchocerciasis in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Frank O.; Klein, Robert E.; de León, Oscar; Mendizábal-Cabrera, Renata; Morales, Alba Lucía; Cama, Vitaliano; Crovella, Carol G.; Díaz Espinoza, Carlos E.; Morales, Zoraida; Sauerbrey, Mauricio; Rizzo, Nidia

    2016-01-01

    Background Mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin for onchocerciasis was provided in Guatemala’s Central Endemic Zone (CEZ) over a 24 year period (1988–2011). Elimination of Onchocerca volvulus transmission was declared in 2015 after a three year post MDA surveillance period (2012–2014) showed no evidence of recrudescence. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) towards onchocerciasis and ivermectin among residents in the post endemic CEZ. A major interest in this study was to determine what community residents thought about the end of the ivermectin MDA program. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 148 interviews were conducted in November 2014 in four formerly hyperendemic communities using a standard questionnaire on smart phones. The majority (69%) of respondents knew that the MDA program had ended because the disease was no longer present in their communities, but a slight majority (53%) was personally unsure that onchocerciasis had really been eliminated. Sixty-three percent wanted to continue to receive ivermectin because of this uncertainty, or because ivermectin is effective against intestinal worms. Eighty-nine percent of respondents said that they would seek medical attention immediately if a family member had symptoms of onchocerciasis (especially the presence of a nodule), which is a finding very important for ongoing surveillance. Conclusions/Significance Many respondents wanted to continue receive ivermectin and more than half did not believe onchocerciasis had been eliminated. The ministry of health outreach services should be prepared to address ongoing concerns about onchocerciasis in the post endemic CEZ. PMID:27341104

  19. NURE aerial gamma-ray and magnetic reconnaissance survey of portions of New Mexico, Arizona and Texas. Volume II. New Mexico-Carlsbad NI 31-11 Quadrangle. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Nation Uranium Resource Evaluation Program, a rotary-wing high sensitivity radiometric and magnetic survey was flown covering the Carlsbad Quadrangle of the State of New Mexico. The area surveyed consisted of approximately 1732 line miles. The survey was flown with a Sikorsky S58T helicopter equipped with a high sensitivity gamma ray spectrometer which was calibrated at the DOE calibration facilities at Walker Field in Grand Junction, Colorado, and the Dynamic Test Range at Lake Mead, Arizona. Instrumentation and data reduction methods are presented in Volume I of this report. The reduced data is presented in the form of stacked profiles, standard deviation anomaly plots, histogram plots and microfiche listings. The results of the geologic interpretation of the radiometric data together with the profiles, anomaly maps and histograms are presented in this Volume II final report.

  20. A Spherical Aerial Terrestrial Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, Christopher J.

    This thesis focuses on the design of a novel, ultra-lightweight spherical aerial terrestrial robot (ATR). The ATR has the ability to fly through the air or roll on the ground, for applications that include search and rescue, mapping, surveillance, environmental sensing, and entertainment. The design centers around a micro-quadcopter encased in a lightweight spherical exoskeleton that can rotate about the quadcopter. The spherical exoskeleton offers agile ground locomotion while maintaining characteristics of a basic aerial robot in flying mode. A model of the system dynamics for both modes of locomotion is presented and utilized in simulations to generate potential trajectories for aerial and terrestrial locomotion. Details of the quadcopter and exoskeleton design and fabrication are discussed, including the robot's turning characteristic over ground and the spring-steel exoskeleton with carbon fiber axle. The capabilities of the ATR are experimentally tested and are in good agreement with model-simulated performance. An energy analysis is presented to validate the overall efficiency of the robot in both modes of locomotion. Experimentally-supported estimates show that the ATR can roll along the ground for over 12 minutes and cover the distance of 1.7 km, or it can fly for 4.82 minutes and travel 469 m, on a single 350 mAh battery. Compared to a traditional flying-only robot, the ATR traveling over the same distance in rolling mode is 2.63-times more efficient, and in flying mode the system is only 39 percent less efficient. Experimental results also demonstrate the ATR's transition from rolling to flying mode.

  1. Double-survey estimates of bald eagle populations in Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, R.G.; Garrett, M.G.; Isaacs, F.B.

    1999-01-01

    The literature on abundance of birds of prey is almost devoid of population estimates with statistical rigor. Therefore, we surveyed bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) populations on the Crooked and lower Columbia rivers of Oregon and used the double-survey method to estimate populations and sighting probabilities for different survey methods (aerial, boat, vehicle) and bald eagle ages (adults vs. subadults). Sighting probabilities were consistently 20%. The results revealed variable and negative bias (percent relative bias = -9 to -70%) of direct counts and emphasized the importance of estimating populations where some measure of precision and ability to conduct inference tests are available. We recommend use of the double-survey method to estimate abundance of bald eagle populations and other raptors in open habitats.

  2. Introduction and testing of a monitoring and colony-mapping method for waterbird populations that uses high-speed and ultra-detailed aerial remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Bakó, Gábor; Tolnai, Márton; Takács, Ádám

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing is a method that collects data of the Earth's surface without causing disturbances. Thus, it is worthwhile to use remote sensing methods to survey endangered ecosystems, as the studied species will behave naturally while undisturbed. The latest passive optical remote sensing solutions permit surveys from long distances. State-of-the-art highly sensitive sensor systems allow high spatial resolution image acquisition at high altitudes and at high flying speeds, even in low-visibility conditions. As the aerial imagery captured by an airplane covers the entire study area, all the animals present in that area can be recorded. A population assessment is conducted by visual interpretations of an ortho image map. The basic objective of this study is to determine whether small- and medium-sized bird species are recognizable in the ortho images by using high spatial resolution aerial cameras. The spatial resolution needed for identifying the bird species in the ortho image map was studied. The survey was adjusted to determine the number of birds in a colony at a given time. PMID:25046012

  3. Introduction and Testing of a Monitoring and Colony-Mapping Method for Waterbird Populations That Uses High-Speed and Ultra-Detailed Aerial Remote Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Bakó, Gábor; Tolnai, Márton; Takács, Ádám

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing is a method that collects data of the Earth's surface without causing disturbances. Thus, it is worthwhile to use remote sensing methods to survey endangered ecosystems, as the studied species will behave naturally while undisturbed. The latest passive optical remote sensing solutions permit surveys from long distances. State-of-the-art highly sensitive sensor systems allow high spatial resolution image acquisition at high altitudes and at high flying speeds, even in low-visibility conditions. As the aerial imagery captured by an airplane covers the entire study area, all the animals present in that area can be recorded. A population assessment is conducted by visual interpretations of an ortho image map. The basic objective of this study is to determine whether small- and medium-sized bird species are recognizable in the ortho images by using high spatial resolution aerial cameras. The spatial resolution needed for identifying the bird species in the ortho image map was studied. The survey was adjusted to determine the number of birds in a colony at a given time. PMID:25046012

  4. Archive of post-Hurricane Charley coastal oblique aerial photographs collected during U.S. Geological Survey field activity 04CCH01 from Marco Island to Fort DeSoto, Florida, August 15, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Subino, Janice A.; Morgan, Karen L.M.; Krohn, M. Dennis; Miller, Gregory K.; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Forde, Arnell S.

    2012-01-01

    To view the survey maps and navigation files, and for more information about these items, see the Navigation page. Figure 1 displays the acquisition geometry. The tables provide detailed information about the assigned location, name, data, and time the photograph was taken along with links to the photo and corresponding 5-min contact sheet. Refer to table 1 and table 2 for details of the northern and southern county photographs, respectively.

  5. Remote Sensing and Special Surveys Program annual report, January--December 1993. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Conder, S.R.; Doll, W.E.; Gabrielsen, C.A.; King, A.D.; Durfee, R.C.; Parr, P.D.

    1994-03-01

    The Remote Sensing and Special Surveys Program has been established to provide environmental characterization data, change data, and trend data to various Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) programs. The data are acquired through several different types of survey platforms. During the calendar year of 1993, a variety of surveys were conducted through the Remote Sensing and Special Surveys Program. The aerial surveys included geophysical, radiological, false color infrared (IR) photography, and natural color photography. Ground surveys were conducted to correlate data collected from the airborne platforms to data measured at ground level. Ground surveys were also conducted to determine the existence or absence of threatened and endangered plant species on the Oak Ridge Reservation. Some of the special surveys included laser induced fluorescence imaging, solar reflectance, and various remote sensing and ground control activities for the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) initiative. Data analysis, management, and storage are also conducted by the Remote Sensing and Special Surveys Program to achieve the highest level of data useability possible. The data acquired through these surveys have provided and will continue to provide much needed information to ERWM programs.

  6. Learning Scene Categories from High Resolution Satellite Image for Aerial Video Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cheriyadat, Anil M

    2011-01-01

    Automatic scene categorization can benefit various aerial video processing applications. This paper addresses the problem of predicting the scene category from aerial video frames using a prior model learned from satellite imagery. We show that local and global features in the form of line statistics and 2-D power spectrum parameters respectively can characterize the aerial scene well. The line feature statistics and spatial frequency parameters are useful cues to distinguish between different urban scene categories. We learn the scene prediction model from highresolution satellite imagery to test the model on the Columbus Surrogate Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (CSUAV) dataset ollected by high-altitude wide area UAV sensor platform. e compare the proposed features with the popular Scale nvariant Feature Transform (SIFT) features. Our experimental results show that proposed approach outperforms te SIFT model when the training and testing are conducted n disparate data sources.

  7. Measurements from an Aerial Vehicle: A New Tool for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Henry S.; Levine, Joel S.; Croom, Mark A.; Edwards, William C.; Qualls, Garry D.; Gasbarre, Joseph F.

    2004-01-01

    Aerial vehicles fill a unique planetary science measurement gap, that of regional-scale, near-surface observation, while providing a fresh perspective for potential discovery. Aerial vehicles used in planetary exploration bridge the scale and resolution measurement gaps between orbiters (global perspective with limited spatial resolution) and landers (local perspective with high spatial resolution) thus complementing and extending orbital and landed measurements. Planetary aerial vehicles can also survey scientifically interesting terrain that is inaccessible or hazardous to landed missions. The use of aerial assets for performing observations on Mars, Titan, or Venus will enable direct measurements and direct follow-ons to recent discoveries. Aerial vehicles can be used for remote sensing of the interior, surface and atmosphere of Mars, Venus and Titan. Types of aerial vehicles considered are airplane "heavier than air" and airships and balloons "lighter than air". Interdependencies between the science measurements, science goals and objectives, and platform implementation illustrate how the proper balance of science, engineering, and cost, can be achieved to allow for a successful mission. Classification of measurement types along with how those measurements resolve science questions and how these instruments are accommodated within the mission context are discussed.

  8. Region Three Aerial Measurement System Flight Planning Tool - 12006

    SciTech Connect

    Messick, Chuck; Pham, Minh; Smith, Ron; Isiminger, Dave

    2012-07-01

    The Region 3 Aerial Measurement System Flight Planning Tool is used by the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA), United States Department of Energy, Radiological Assistance Program, Region 3, to respond to emergency radiological situations. The tool automates the flight planning package process while decreasing Aerial Measuring System response times and decreases the potential for human error. Deployment of the Region Three Aerial Measurement System Flight Planning Tool has resulted in an immediate improvement to the flight planning process in that time required for mission planning has been reduced from 1.5 hours to 15 minutes. Anecdotally, the RAP team reports that the rate of usable data acquired during surveys has improved from 40-60 percent to over 90 percent since they began using the tool. Though the primary product of the flight planning tool is a pdf format document for use by the aircraft flight crew, the RAP team has begun carrying their laptop computer on the aircraft during missions. By connecting a Global Positioning System (GPS) device to the laptop and using ESRI ArcMap's GPS tool bar to overlay the aircraft position directly on the flight plan in real time, the RAP team can evaluate and correct the aircraft position as the mission is executed. (authors)

  9. Aerial monitoring in active mud volcano by UAV technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisciotta, Antonino; Capasso, Giorgio; Madonia, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    UAV photogrammetry opens various new applications in the close range domain, combining aerial and terrestrial photogrammetry, but also introduces low-cost alternatives to the classical manned aerial photogrammetry. Between 2014 and 2015 tree aerial surveys have been carried out. Using a quadrotor drone, equipped with a compact camera, it was possible to generate high resolution elevation models and orthoimages of The "Salinelle", an active mud volcanoes area, located in territory of Paternò (South Italy). The main risks are related to the damages produced by paroxysmal events. Mud volcanoes show different cyclic phases of activity, including catastrophic events and periods of relative quiescence characterized by moderate activity. Ejected materials often are a mud slurry of fine solids suspended in liquids which may include water and hydrocarbon fluids, the bulk of released gases are carbon dioxide, with some methane and nitrogen, usually pond-shaped of variable dimension (from centimeters to meters in diameter). The scope of the presented work is the performance evaluation of a UAV system that was built to rapidly and autonomously acquire mobile three-dimensional (3D) mapping data in a volcanic monitoring scenario.

  10. Astronomical Methods in Aerial Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beij, K Hilding

    1925-01-01

    The astronomical method of determining position is universally used in marine navigation and may also be of service in aerial navigation. The practical application of the method, however, must be modified and adapted to conform to the requirements of aviation. Much of this work of adaptation has already been accomplished, but being scattered through various technical journals in a number of languages, is not readily available. This report is for the purpose of collecting under one cover such previous work as appears to be of value to the aerial navigator, comparing instruments and methods, indicating the best practice, and suggesting future developments. The various methods of determining position and their application and value are outlined, and a brief resume of the theory of the astronomical method is given. Observation instruments are described in detail. A complete discussion of the reduction of observations follows, including a rapid method of finding position from the altitudes of two stars. Maps and map cases are briefly considered. A bibliography of the subject is appended.

  11. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aerial lifts. 1926.453 Section 1926.453 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Scaffolds § 1926.453 Aerial lifts. (a) General requirements. (1) Unless otherwise provided...

  12. A Classroom Simulation of Aerial Photography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Simon

    1981-01-01

    Explains how a simulation of aerial photography can help students in a college level beginning course on interpretation of aerial photography understand the interrelationships of the airplane, the camera, and the earth's surface. Procedures, objectives, equipment, and scale are discussed. (DB)

  13. BOREAS Level-0 ER-2 Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominquez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), the ER-2 and other aerial photography was collected to provide finely detailed and spatially extensive documentation of the condition of the primary study sites. The ER-2 aerial photography consists of color-IR transparencies collected during flights in 1994 and 1996 over the study areas.

  14. Acceptability of self-conducted home-based HIV testing among men who have sex with men in Brazil: data from an on-line survey

    PubMed Central

    Lippman, Sheri A.; Périssé, André R. S.; Veloso, Valdiléa G.; Sullivan, Patrick S.; Buchbinder, Susan; Sineath, R. Craig; Grinsztejn, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian HIV/AIDS epidemic is concentrated among men who have sex with men (MSM), however HIV testing rates among MSM are not commensurate with their risk. Strategies to expand early diagnosis may include use of self-conducted home-based testing kits, which are now available for purchase in the US. In April 2011 we conducted a survey with Brazilian MSM using Facebook to assess HIV testing preferences and acceptability of home-based testing. Among 356 previously tested, HIV-negative MSM, 47% reported a preference for home-based testing, 27% preferred clinic-based testing, and 26% had no preference. Less frequent testers and those who had considered testing but failed to test were more likely to prefer home-based testing. Close to 90% reported that they would use self-test kits; 62% and 54% said they would use home-based testing to make choices about unprotected sex with regular and new partners, respectively. Concerns included difficulty to understand the tests (32%) and receiving results alone (23%). Overall, home-based testing may appeal to MSM and result in increased testing frequency. Research on feasibility and utilization of self-tests in practice is needed. PMID:24896048

  15. Modeling the Seasonal Ice Zone from the Air: use of repeat aerial hydrographic surveys to constrain a regional ice-ocean model in an area of rapidly evolving ice cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewey, S.; Morison, J.; Zhang, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Seasonal Ice Zone of the Beaufort Sea is the area of ocean north of Alaska over which sea ice melts and reforms annually. It contains the more narrow, near-edge marginal ice zone (MIZ). Seasonal Ice Zone Reconnaissance Surveys (SIZRS) measure hydrography along two meridional sections using Air eXpendable CTDs (AXCTDs) and Air eXpendable Current Profilers (AXCPs). These surveys take place aboard U.S. Coast Guard Arctic Domain Awareness flights of opportunity during each melt season (June-October) starting in 2012. The Marginal Ice Zone Modeling and Assimilation System (MIZMAS) is a high-resolution regional ice-ocean model with daily, three-dimensional output encompassing the SIZRS survey area. Direct comparison of the SIZRS data with MIZMAS output as well as with several regional climatologies can constrain the ice-ocean model and help to explain recent changes in subsurface heat content and salinity. For example, observed freshening relative to climatology has been used as a reference to which MIZMAS surface salinity values can be relaxed. MIZMAS may in turn shed light on the physical mechanisms driving the observed freshening. In addition, use of MIZMAS surface fluxes to drive a one-dimensional mixed layer model gives results close to observations when the model is initialized with SIZRS profiles. Because SIZRS observations range in time from the onset of melt to the onset of Fall freeze-up, the comparison of the one-dimensional model with MIZMAS illustrates the relative roles of local and regional processes in forming near-surface temperature maxima and salinity minima. The SIZRS observations and one-dimensional model are used to constrain MIZMAS estimations of stored subsurface heat while establishing the physical drivers of these temperature and salinity changes.

  16. Infrastructure Survey 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the Group of Eight (Go8) conducted a survey on the state of its buildings and infrastructure. The survey is the third Go8 Infrastructure survey, with previous surveys being conducted in 2007 and 2009. The current survey updated some of the information collected in the previous surveys. It also collated data related to aspects of the…

  17. Northern elephant seal field bioacoustics and aerial auditory masked hearing thresholds in three pinnipeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southall, Brandon Lee

    This dissertation comprises four interrelated studies on acoustic communication (including both signal production and signal reception) in pinnipeds, primarily northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). Field measurements of vocalization parameters were obtained in elephant seal breeding rookeries. Additionally, auditory masking experiments were conducted with individuals representing three pinniped species, including a northern elephant seal. This study quantified how aerial noise masks aerial hearing and provided preliminary data on auditory frequency filtering. All of these studies were conducted in air for a variety of practical and theoretical reasons. Some governmental, media, and research organizations have recently become concerned with the impacts of underwater anthropogenic noise on aquatic animals. However, little consideration has been given to the dual pressures imposed by aerial and underwater noise on amphibious marine mammals such as the pinnipeds. This dissertation sought to provide some basic data bearing on this matter by investigating aerial signals and aerial masked hearing. Data were obtained on aerial vocalization source levels, signal directivity patterns, natural aerial ambient noise, signal propagation properties, multi-modal aspects of signaling, motivation-specific signal variability, aerial critical masking ratios, and auditory filter bandwidths. The results indicate that different signal components may be more readily detectable in variable noise conditions, frequency resolution likely affects detection ranges, developmental and motivational factors affect signal parameters, and that some pinnipeds apparently detect signals over masking noise relatively well both in air and water. Using the northern elephant seal as a representative model, a model for quantifying constraints on vocal communication was developed to provide first-order predictions about detection ranges for signals in variable noise conditions.

  18. Adaptive planning of emergency aerial photogrammetric mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Fuqiang; Zhu, Qing; Zhang, Junxiao; Miao, Shuangxi; Zhou, Xingxia; Cao, Zhenyu

    2015-12-01

    Aiming at the diversity of emergency aerial photogrammetric mission requirements, complex ground and air environmental constraints make the planning mission time-consuming. This paper presents a fast adaptation for the UAV aerial photogrammetric mission planning. First, Building emergency aerial UAVs mission the unified expression of UAVs model and mechanical model of performance parameters in the semantic space make the integrated expression of mission requirements and low altitude environment. Proposed match assessment method which based on resource and mission efficiency. Made the Adaptive match of UAV aerial resources and mission. According to the emergency aerial resource properties, considering complex air-ground environment and mission requirements constraints. Made accurate design of UAV route. Experimental results show, the method scientific and efficient, greatly enhanced the emergency response rate.

  19. Quantifying post-fire ponderosa pine snags using GIS techniques on scanned aerial photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Kevin

    Snags are an important component of forest ecosystems because of their utility in forest-nutrient cycling and provision of critical wildlife habitat, as well as associated fuel management concerns relating to coarse woody debris (CWD). Knowledge of snag and CWD trajectories are needed for land managers to plan for long-term ecosystem change in post-fire regimes. This need will likely be exacerbated by increasingly warm and dry climatic conditions projected for the U.S. Southwest. One of the best prospects for studying fire-induced landscape change beyond the plot scale, but still at a resolution sufficient to resolve individual snags, is to utilize the available aerial photography record. Previous field-based studies of snag and CWD loads in the Southwest have relied on regional chronosequences to judge the recovery dynamic of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) burns. This previous research has been spatially and temporally restricted because of field survey extent limitations and uncertainty associated with the chronosequence approach (i.e., space-for-time substitution), which does not consider differences between specific site conditions and histories. This study develops highly automated methods for remotely quantifying and characterizing the spatial and temporal distribution of large snags associated with severe forest fires from very high resolution (VHR) landscape imagery I obtained from scans of aerial photos. Associated algorithms utilize the sharp edges, shape, shadow, and contrast characteristics of snags to enable feature recognition. Additionally, using snag shadow length, image acquisition time, and location information, heights were estimated for each identified snag. Furthermore, a novel solution was developed for extracting individual snags from areas of high snag density by overlaying parallel lines in the direction of the snag shadows and extracting local maxima lines contained by each snag polygon. Field survey data coincident to imagery coverage

  20. Challenges in collecting hyperspectral imagery of coastal waters using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, D. C.; Herwitz, S.; Hu, C.; Carlson, P. R., Jr.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Yates, K. K.; Ramsewak, D.

    2013-12-01

    Airborne multi-band remote sensing is an important tool for many aquatic applications; and the increased spectral information from hyperspectral sensors may increase the utility of coastal surveys. Recent technological advances allow Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to be used as alternatives or complements to manned aircraft or in situ observing platforms, and promise significant advantages for field studies. These include the ability to conduct programmed flight plans, prolonged and coordinated surveys, and agile flight operations under difficult conditions such as measurements made at low altitudes. Hyperspectral imagery collected from UAVs should allow the increased differentiation of water column or shallow benthic communities at relatively small spatial scales. However, the analysis of hyperspectral imagery from airborne platforms over shallow coastal waters differs from that used for terrestrial or oligotrophic ocean color imagery, and the operational constraints and considerations for the collection of such imagery from autonomous platforms also differ from terrestrial surveys using manned aircraft. Multispectral and hyperspectral imagery of shallow seagrass and coral environments in the Florida Keys were collected with various sensor systems mounted on manned and unmanned aircrafts in May 2012, October 2012, and May 2013. The imaging systems deployed on UAVs included NovaSol's Selectable Hyperspectral Airborne Remote-sensing Kit (SHARK), a Tetracam multispectral imaging system, and the Sunflower hyperspectal imager from Galileo Group, Inc. The UAVs carrying these systems were Xtreme Aerial Concepts' Vision-II Rotorcraft UAV, MLB Company's Bat-4 UAV, and NASA's SIERRA UAV, respectively. Additionally, the Galileo Group's manned aircraft also surveyed the areas with their AISA Eagle hyperspectral imaging system. For both manned and autonomous flights, cloud cover and sun glint (solar and viewing angles) were dominant constraints on retrieval of quantitatively

  1. Experimental Evaluation of Shark Detection Rates by Aerial Observers

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, William D.; Peddemors, Victor M.; Kennelly, Steven J.; Ives, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Aerial surveys are a recognised technique to identify the presence and abundance of marine animals. However, the capability of aerial observers to reliably sight coastal sharks has not been previously assessed, nor have differences in sighting rates between aircraft types been examined. In this study we investigated the ability of observers in fixed-wing and helicopter aircraft to sight 2.5 m artificial shark analogues placed at known depths and positions. Initial tests revealed that the shark analogues could only be detected at shallow depths, averaging only 2.5 m and 2.7 m below the water surface for observers in fixed-wing and helicopter aircraft, respectively. We then deployed analogues at shallower depths along a 5 km-long grid, and assessed their sightability to aircraft observers through a series of transects flown within 500 m. Analogues were seen infrequently from all distances, with overall sighting rates of only 12.5% and 17.1% for fixed-wing and helicopter observers, respectively. Although helicopter observers had consistently higher success rates of sighting analogues within 250 m of their flight path, neither aircraft observers sighted more than 9% of analogues deployed over 300 m from their flight paths. Modelling of sighting rates against environmental and experimental variables indicated that observations were affected by distance, aircraft type, sun glare and sea conditions, while the range of water turbidities observed had no effect. We conclude that aerial observers have limited ability to detect the presence of submerged animals such as sharks, particularly when the sharks are deeper than ∼2.6 m, or over 300 m distant from the aircraft's flight path, especially during sunny or windy days. The low rates of detections found in this study cast serious doubts on the use of aerial beach patrols as an effective early-warning system to prevent shark attacks. PMID:24498258

  2. A semi-operational agricultural inventory using small scale aerial photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draeger, W. C.; Pettinger, L. R.

    1970-01-01

    The feasibility of performing inventories of agricultural resources using very small scale aerial or space photography was studied. The results were encouraging on two counts: (1) The very practical problems of an operational survey are being faced and solutions are being found. (2) It seems that a fully operational agricultural inventory using space photography is not beyond the scope of present technology.

  3. Psychiatrists’ awareness of adherence to antipsychotic medication in patients with schizophrenia: results from a survey conducted across Europe, the Middle East, and Africa

    PubMed Central

    Olivares, José Manuel; Alptekin, Köksal; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Cañas, Fernando; Dubois, Vincent; Emsley, Robin; Gorwood, Philip; Haddad, Peter M; Naber, Dieter; Papageorgiou, George; Roca, Miquel; Thomas, Pierre; Martinez, Guadalupe; Schreiner, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Background Nonadherence is common among patients with schizophrenia, although the rates vary according to means of assessment and patient population. Failure to adhere to medication can have a major impact on the course of illness and treatment outcomes, including increasing the risk of relapse and rehospitalization. Understanding psychiatrists’ perception of the causes and consequences of nonadherence is crucial to addressing adherence problems effectively. Methods The Europe, the Middle East, and Africa (EMEA) Spanish Adherencia Terapéutica en la Esquizofrenia (ADHES) survey was conducted by questionnaire during January–March 2010 among psychiatrists treating patients with schizophrenia in 36 countries. The survey comprised 20 questions. In addition to recording the demographic details of the 4722 respondents (~12% response rate), it canvassed their preferred methods of assessing adherence, their perceptions of adherence rates, reasons for nonadherence, and strategies to improve adherence. Results Psychiatrists estimated that 53% of their patients with schizophrenia were partially/nonadherent during the previous month. They estimated only one-third of patients who deteriorated after stopping medication were able to attribute this to nonadherence. Psychiatrists assessed adherence most often by patient interview. Lack of insight was viewed as the most important cause of medication discontinuation, followed by patients feeling better and thinking their medication unnecessary, and experiencing undesirable side effects. Considerably fewer psychiatrists viewed insufficient efficacy, cognitive impairment, or drug/alcohol abuse as the most important reasons for their patients stopping medication. Conclusion Psychiatrists throughout EMEA recognize the impact of partial/nonadherence to medication, with patient enquiry being the most commonly used means of assessment. There remains a need for more proactive management of patients with schizophrenia, particularly in

  4. Employee stress status during the past decade (1982-1992) based on a nation-wide survey conducted by the Ministry of Labour in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Y; Makino, S; Takata, T

    1997-07-01

    In this paper we will report the results of nation-wide surveys on employee health conducted and published by the Ministry of Labour in 1982, 1987, and 1992. The subjects were approximately 20,000 employees in 1982, approximately 15,000 in 1987, and approximately 16,000 in 1992, from throughout Japan. Using the results of the surveys, we will show trends in the status of employee work-related stress, as well as trends in means of relaxation over the past decade. The percentage of employees with work-related stress among all subjects gradually increased as follows: 50.6% in 1982, 55.0% in 1987, and 57.3% in 1992. The percentage of employees with work-related stress increased remarkably from 1982 through 1992 among the following groups: the 50-59 age group in males; employees in the electricity, gas, heat and water-supply industries; those in the real estate industry; administrative and managerial workers; employees of large establishments with more than 5,000 employees; and employees performing shift work involving no night duty. The problem of "human relationships in the workplace" was associated with the increasing stress levels among 50-59-year-old males, 40-49-year-old females, employees of large establishments with more than 5,000 employees, those in the real estate industry, and service workers. In terms of means of relaxing to relieve fatigue and stress, employees tended to engage in active pursuits such as "eating out and shopping" and "driving and traveling" over the past decade. In 1992, on the other hand, 22.0% of males and 5.9% of females selected "smoking" as a means of relaxation. This shows the need for stress management in the workplace in order to prevent health problems related to smoking. PMID:9248229

  5. Sea floor topography and backscatter intensity of the Historic Area Remediation Site (HARS), offshore of New York, based on multibeam surveys conducted in 1996, 1998, and 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butman, Bradford; Danforth, W.W.; Knowles, S.C.; May, Brian; Serrett, Laurie

    2000-01-01

    An area offshore of Sandy Hook, New Jersey, has been used extensively for disposal of dredged and other materials, derived from the New York/New Jersey Harbor and surrounding areas, since the late 1800's (Figure 1). Between 1976 and 1995, the New York Bight Dredged Material Disposal Site, also known as the Mud Dump Site (Figure 2), received on average about 6 million cubic yards of material each year from federal and private maintenance dredging and from harbor deepening activities (Massa and others, 1996). In September 1997 the Mud Dump Site (MDS) was closed as an official ocean disposal site by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (http://www.epa.gov/), and the MDS and surrounding areas were designated as the Historic Area Remediation Site (HARS). The HARS is subdivided into a Primary Remediation Area (PRA, subdivided into 9 cells), a Buffer Zone, and a No-Discharge Zone (Figure 2). The sea floor of the HARS, approximately 9 square nautical miles in area, is being remediated by placing at least a one-meter cap of Category I (clean) dredged material on top of the existing surface sediments that exhibit varying degrees of degradation. (See http://www.nan.usace.army.mil/business/prjlinks/dmmp/benefic/hars.htm)(Category I sediments have no potential short or long-term impacts and are acceptable for unrestricted ocean disposal (EPA, 1996)). About 1.1 million cubic yards of dredged material for remediation was placed in the HARS in 1999, and 2.5 million cubic yards in 2000. Three multibeam echosounder surveys were carried out to map the topography and surficial geology of the HARS. The surveys were conducted November 23 - December 3, 1996, October 26 - November 11, 1998, and April 6 - 30, 2000. The surveys were carried out as part of a larger survey of the Hudson Shelf Valley and adjacent shelf (Butman and others, 1998, (http://pubs.usgs.gov/openfile/of98-616/). This report presents maps showing topography, shaded relief, and backscatter intensity (a measure of sea

  6. COCOA: tracking in aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Saad; Shah, Mubarak

    2006-05-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are becoming a core intelligence asset for reconnaissance, surveillance and target tracking in urban and battlefield settings. In order to achieve the goal of automated tracking of objects in UAV videos we have developed a system called COCOA. It processes the video stream through number of stages. At first stage platform motion compensation is performed. Moving object detection is performed to detect the regions of interest from which object contours are extracted by performing a level set based segmentation. Finally blob based tracking is performed for each detected object. Global tracks are generated which are used for higher level processing. COCOA is customizable to different sensor resolutions and is capable of tracking targets as small as 100 pixels. It works seamlessly for both visible and thermal imaging modes. The system is implemented in Matlab and works in a batch mode.

  7. Annual low-cost monitoring of a coastal site in Greece by an unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmeister, Dirk; Bareth, Georg

    2016-04-01

    Coastal areas are under permanent change and are also the result of past processes. These processes are for example sediment transport, accumulation and erosion by normal and extreme waves (storms or tsunamis). As about 23% of the Worl&dacute;s population lives within a 100 km distance of coasts, knowledge about coastal processes is important, in particular for possible changes in the nearby future. The past devastating tsunami events demonstrated profoundly the high vulnerability of coastal areas. In order to estimate the different effects, coastal monitoring approaches are of interest. Several different methods exist in order to determine changes in the sedimentary budget and coastline configuration. In order to estimate constant annual changes, we have applied terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in an annual monitoring approach (2009-2011). In 2014, we changed to an approach based on dense imaging and structure-from-motion, applying an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in order to conduct an annual monitoring of a coastal site in western Greece. Therefore, a GoPro Hero 3+ and a Canon PowerShot S110 mounted on a DJI-Phantom 2 were used. All surveys were conducted in a manually structured image acquisition with a huge overlap. Ground control points (GCP) were measured by tachymetric surveying. This successful approach was repeated again in 2015 with the Canon camera. The measurements of 2014 were controlled by an additional TLS survey, which revealed the high accuracy and more suitable coverage for the UAV-based data. Likewise, the large picture datasets were artificially reduced in order to estimate the most efficient number of images for dense point cloud processing. In addition, also the number of GCPs was decreased for one dataset. Overall, high-resolution digital elevation models with a ground resolution of 10 mm and an equal accuracy were achieved with this low-cost equipment. The data reveals the slight changes on this selected site.

  8. Annual low-cost monitoring of a coastal site in Greece by an unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmeister, Dirk; Bareth, Georg

    2016-04-01

    Coastal areas are under permanent change and are also the result of past processes. These processes are for example sediment transport, accumulation and erosion by normal and extreme waves (storms or tsunamis). As about 23% of the World's population lives within a 100 km distance of coasts, knowledge about coastal processes is important, in particular for possible changes in the nearby future. The past devastating tsunami events demonstrated profoundly the high vulnerability of coastal areas. In order to estimate the different effects, coastal monitoring approaches are of interest. Several different methods exist in order to determine changes in the sedimentary budget and coastline configuration. In order to estimate constant annual changes, we have applied terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in an annual monitoring approach (2009-2011). In 2014, we changed to an approach based on dense imaging and structure-from-motion, applying an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in order to conduct an annual monitoring of a coastal site in western Greece. Therefore, a GoPro Hero 3+ and a Canon PowerShot S110 mounted on a DJI-Phantom 2 were used. All surveys were conducted in a manually structured image acquisition with a huge overlap. Ground control points (GCP) were measured by tachymetric surveying. This successful approach was repeated again in 2015 with the Canon camera. The measurements of 2014 were controlled by an additional TLS survey, which revealed the high accuracy and more suitable coverage for the UAV-based data. Likewise, the large picture datasets were artificially reduced in order to estimate the most efficient number of images for dense point cloud processing. In addition, also the number of GCPs was decreased for one dataset. Overall, high-resolution digital elevation models with a ground resolution of 10 mm and an equal accuracy were achieved with this low-cost equipment. The data reveals the slight changes on this selected site.

  9. Addressing the treatment gap and societal impact of epilepsy in Rwanda--Results of a survey conducted in 2005 and subsequent actions.

    PubMed

    Sebera, Fidèle; Munyandamutsa, Naasson; Teuwen, Dirk E; Ndiaye, Ibrahim Pierre; Diop, Amadou Gallo; Tofighy, Azita; Boon, Paul; Dedeken, Peter

    2015-05-01

    This study, supported by the Rwandan Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization, was conducted in 2005 to determine the prevalence of epilepsy and its sociocultural perception in Rwanda, as well as epilepsy-related knowledge and practices of health-care professionals (HCPs). A cross-sectional, nationally representative survey was conducted throughout Rwanda by trained investigators. Participants were recruited by random cluster sampling based on the organization of administrative units in the country. Overall, 1137 individuals (62% from rural areas) were interviewed. The prevalence of epilepsy was estimated to be 49 per 1000 people or 41 per 1000 for active epilepsy. Onset of epilepsy before the age of 2years was reported in 32% of the cases. Family history of epilepsy, head trauma, and premature delivery were reported in 53%, 50%, and 68% of the cases, respectively. Most (68%) patients did not receive any medical treatment for epilepsy; 21.5% had received some form of traditional treatment. According to responses from the general population, people with epilepsy should not be entitled to schooling (according to 66%), to work (according to 72%), to the use of public places (according to 69%), or to marriage (according to 66%). Furthermore, 50% believed that epilepsy was untreatable, and 40% thought that it was transmissible. Of the 29 HCPs interviewed, the majority knew the definition of epilepsy and status epilepticus, as well as basic treatment options and side effects. However, 90% believed that treatment was only necessary in the first week after a seizure. Living with epilepsy was associated heavily with stigma, and a significant treatment gap (68%) was identified. Following this study, numerous actions have been taken by the Rwandan government, the Rwandan League Against Epilepsy, and several nongovernmental organizations to increase awareness about epilepsy and to close the treatment gap. An overview of these activities is provided. PMID:25936276

  10. Addressing the treatment gap and societal impact of epilepsy in Rwanda — Results of a survey conducted in 2005 and subsequent actions

    PubMed Central

    Sebera, Fidèle; Munyandamutsa, Naasson; Teuwen, Dirk E.; Ndiaye, Ibrahim Pierre; Diop, Amadou Gallo; Tofighy, Azita; Boon, Paul; Dedeken, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This study, supported by the Rwandan Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization, was conducted in 2005 to determine the prevalence of epilepsy and its sociocultural perception in Rwanda, as well as epilepsy-related knowledge and practices of health-care professionals (HCPs). A cross-sectional, nationally representative survey was conducted throughout Rwanda by trained investigators. Participants were recruited by random cluster sampling based on the organization of administrative units in the country. Overall, 1137 individuals (62% from rural areas) were interviewed. The prevalence of epilepsy was estimated to be 49 per 1000 people or 41 per 1000 for active epilepsy. Onset of epilepsy before the age of 2 years was reported in 32% of the cases. Family history of epilepsy, head trauma, and premature delivery were reported in 53%, 50%, and 68% of the cases, respectively. Most (68%) patients did not receive any medical treatment for epilepsy; 21.5% had received some form of traditional treatment. According to responses from the general population, people with epilepsy should not be entitled to schooling (according to 66%), to work (according to 72%), to the use of public places (according to 69%), or to marriage (according to 66%). Furthermore, 50% believed that epilepsy was untreatable, and 40% thought that it was transmissible. Of the 29 HCPs interviewed, the majority knew the definition of epilepsy and status epilepticus, as well as basic treatment options and side effects. However, 90% believed that treatment was only necessary in the first week after a seizure. Living with epilepsy was associated heavily with stigma, and a significant treatment gap (68%) was identified. Following this study, numerous actions have been taken by the Rwandan government, the Rwandan League Against Epilepsy, and several nongovernmental organizations to increase awareness about epilepsy and to close the treatment gap. An overview of these activities is provided. PMID:25936276

  11. Applicability Evaluation of Object Detection Method to Satellite and Aerial Imageries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiya, K.; Fuse, T.; Takahashi, M.

    2016-06-01

    Since satellite and aerial imageries are recently widely spread and frequently observed, combination of them are expected to complement spatial and temporal resolution each other. One of the prospective applications is traffic monitoring, where objects of interest, or vehicles, need to be recognized automatically. Techniques that employ object detection before object recognition can save a computational time and cost, and thus take a significant role. However, there is not enough knowledge whether object detection method can perform well on satellite and aerial imageries. In addition, it also has to be studied how characteristics of satellite and aerial imageries affect the object detection performance. This study employ binarized normed gradients (BING) method that runs significantly fast and is robust to rotation and noise. For our experiments, 11-bits BGR-IR satellite imageries from WorldView-3, and BGR-color aerial imageries are used respectively, and we create thousands of ground truth samples. We conducted several experiments to compare the performances with different images, to verify whether combination of different resolution images improved the performance, and to analyze the applicability of mixing satellite and aerial imageries. The results showed that infrared band had little effect on the detection rate, that 11-bit images performed less than 8-bit images and that the better spatial resolution brought the better performance. Another result might imply that mixing higher and lower resolution images for training dataset could help detection performance. Furthermore, we found that aerial images improved the detection performance on satellite images.

  12. Censorship of IMC Materials in Wisconsin Schools. Part I: Focus on Middle/Junior High Schools. Results of a Survey Conducted in May 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    Professional staff in school libraries and instructional media centers (IMCs) located in 229 Wisconsin middle and junior high schools were surveyed anonymously to collect information on censorship attempts in their schools during 1978-79 and 1979-80. A total of 212 surveys were returned. Survey participants were asked to respond to questions…

  13. Aerial Terrain Mapping Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahar, K. N.

    2012-08-01

    This paper looks into the latest achievement in the low-cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology in their capacity to map the semi-development areas. The objectives of this study are to establish a new methodology or a new algorithm in image registration during interior orientation process and to determine the accuracy of the photogrammetric products by using UAV images. Recently, UAV technology has been used in several applications such as mapping, agriculture and surveillance. The aim of this study is to scrutinize the usage of UAV to map the semi-development areas. The performance of the low cost UAV mapping study was established on a study area with two image processing methods so that the results could be comparable. A non-metric camera was attached at the bottom of UAV and it was used to capture images at both sites after it went through several calibration steps. Calibration processes were carried out to determine focal length, principal distance, radial lens distortion, tangential lens distortion and affinity. A new method in image registration for a non-metric camera is discussed in this paper as a part of new methodology of this study. This method used the UAV Global Positioning System (GPS) onboard to register the UAV image for interior orientation process. Check points were established randomly at both sites using rapid static Global Positioning System. Ground control points are used for exterior orientation process, and check point is used for accuracy assessment of photogrammetric product. All acquired images were processed in a photogrammetric software. Two methods of image registration were applied in this study, namely, GPS onboard registration and ground control point registration. Both registrations were processed by using photogrammetric software and the result is discussed. Two results were produced in this study, which are the digital orthophoto and the digital terrain model. These results were analyzed by using the root mean square

  14. Results of a flow field survey conducted using the 0.0175 scale orbiter model 29-0 in AEDC VKF tunnel B during test OH52. [atmospheric entry simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrera, B. J.

    1976-01-01

    Static pressure data and flow field surveys of the boundary layer and shock layer on the lower surface of a 0.0175 scale model of the space shuttle orbiter were obtained in a hypersonic wind tunnel. The tests were conducted at Mach number 7.9 and Reynolds number based on the model length of 1.3 x 1 million to simulate atmospheric entry. Twenty-six stations were surveyed at 30 and 35 degree angles of attack.

  15. Localization of aerial pure tones by pinnipeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Marla M.; Schusterman, Ronald J.; Kastak, David; Southall, Brandon L.

    2005-12-01

    In this study, minimum audible angles (MAAs) of aerial pure tones were measured in and compared between a northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Testing was conducted between 0.8 and 16 kHz in the elephant seal and 0.8 and 20 kHz in the harbor seal and sea lion in a hemi-anechoic chamber using a left/right psychophysical procedure. Performance for the same frequencies was also quantified for discrete speaker separation of 5° from the mid-line. For all subjects, MAAs ranged from approximately 3° to 15° and were generally equal to or larger than those previously measured in the same subjects with a broadband signal. Performance at 5° ranged from chance to 97% correct, depending on frequency and subject. Poorest performance in the sea lion and harbor seal occurred at intermediate frequencies, which is consistent with the duplex theory of sound localization. In contrast, the elephant seal's poorest performance occurred at higher frequencies. The elephant seal's result suggests an inferior ability to utilize interaural level differences and is perhaps related to best hearing sensitivity shifted toward lower frequencies in this species relative to other pinnipeds.

  16. Genotoxicity of dried Hoodia parviflora aerial parts.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Barry; Lau, Annette; Baldwin, Nigel; Hofman-Hüther, Hana; Bauter, Mark R; Marone, Palma Ann

    2013-05-01

    Hoodia parviflora is being developed commercially for use in weight loss food and dietary supplement products. Its effects are ascribed to a number of glycosides that have been shown to be present in plant extracts from several Hoodia species, the best known of which is H. gordonii. H. parviflora has been identified as an alternative to H. gordonii, and, as part of the process to develop H. parviflora, in vitro genotoxicity tests, as recommended by recent European Food Safety Authority guidance, were conducted on a dried powder preparation of H. parviflora aerial parts. The preparation was tested for reverse mutation at doses up to 5,000μg/plate in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA100, TA1535, and TA1537, and in Escherichia coli WP2 uvrA TA, both in the presence and in the absence of an exogenous source of metabolic activation (rat liver S9). In addition, the dried powder was evaluated in an in vitro cytotoxicity chromosome aberration assay using human lymphocytes. Test conditions included both a 4 (up to 2500μg/mg) and 44-h exposure period (up to 1000μg/mg) and the incorporation of an exogenous source of metabolic activation (4-h exposure only). H. parviflora dried powder was non-genotoxic in both in vitro assays. PMID:23348409

  17. Draper Laboratory small autonomous aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBitetto, Paul A.; Johnson, Eric N.; Bosse, Michael C.; Trott, Christian A.

    1997-06-01

    The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc. and students from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Boston University have cooperated to develop an autonomous aerial vehicle that won the 1996 International Aerial Robotics Competition. This paper describes the approach, system architecture and subsystem designs for the entry. This entry represents a combination of many technology areas: navigation, guidance, control, vision processing, human factors, packaging, power, real-time software, and others. The aerial vehicle, an autonomous helicopter, performs navigation and control functions using multiple sensors: differential GPS, inertial measurement unit, sonar altimeter, and a flux compass. The aerial transmits video imagery to the ground. A ground based vision processor converts the image data into target position and classification estimates. The system was designed, built, and flown in less than one year and has provided many lessons about autonomous vehicle systems, several of which are discussed. In an appendix, our current research in augmenting the navigation system with vision- based estimates is presented.

  18. Officials: Aerial Spraying Working Against Miami Mosquitoes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Officials: Aerial Spraying Working Against Miami Mosquitoes The insects are to blame for first cases of Zika ... mosquitoes in a part of Miami where the insects have been linked to 16 cases of Zika ...

  19. Rangeland monitoring with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have great potential for rangeland management applications, such as monitoring vegetation change, developing grazing strategies, determining rangeland health, and assessing remediation treatment effectiveness. UAVs have several advantages: they can be deployed quickly...

  20. Locating buildings in aerial photos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James S.

    1994-01-01

    Algorithms and techniques for use in the identification and location of large buildings in digitized copies of aerial photographs are developed and tested. The building data would be used in the simulation of objects located in the vicinity of an airport that may be detected by aircraft radar. Two distinct approaches are considered. Most building footprints are rectangular in form. The first approach studied is to search for right-angled corners that characterize rectangular objects and then to connect these corners to complete the building. This problem is difficult because many nonbuilding objects, such as street corners, parking lots, and ballparks often have well defined corners which are often difficult to distinguish from rooftops. Furthermore, rooftops come in a number of shapes, sizes, shadings, and textures which also limit the discrimination task. The strategy used linear sequences of different samples to detect straight edge segments at multiple angles and to determine when these segments meet at approximately right-angles with respect to each other. This technique is effective in locating corners. The test image used has a fairly rectangular block pattern oriented about thirty degrees clockwise from a vertical alignment, and the overall measurement data reflect this. However, this technique does not discriminate between buildings and other objects at an operationally suitable rate. In addition, since multiple paths are tested for each image pixel, this is a time consuming task. The process can be speeded up by preprocessing the image to locate the more optimal sampling paths. The second approach is to rely on a human operator to identify and select the building objects and then to have the computer determine the outline and location of the selected structures. When presented with a copy of a digitized aerial photograph, the operator uses a mouse and cursor to select a target building. After a button on the mouse is pressed, with the cursor fully within

  1. Landscape-scale geospatial research utilizing low elevation aerial photography generated with commercial unmanned aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipo, C. P.; Lee, C.; Wechsler, S.

    2012-12-01

    With the ability to generate on demand high-resolution imagery across landscapes, unmanned aerial systems (UAS) are increasingly become the tools of choice for geospatial researchers. At CSULB, we have implemented a number of aerial systems in order to conduct archaeological, vegetation and terrain analyses. The platforms include the commercially available X100 by Gatewing, a hobby based aircraft, kites, and tethered blimps. From our experience, each platform has advantages and disadvantages n applicability int eh field and derived imagery. The X100, though comparatively more costly, produces images with excellent coverage of areas of interest and can fly in a wide range of weather conditions. The hobby plane solutions are low-cost and flexible in their configuration but their relative lightweight makes them difficult to fly in windy conditions and the sets of images produced can widely vary. The tethered blimp has a large payload and can fly under many conditions but its ability to systematically cover large areas is very limited. Kites are extremely low-cost but have similar limitations to blimps for area coverage and limited payload capabilities. Overall, we have found the greatest return for our investment from the Gatewing X100, despite its relatively higher cost, due to the quality of the images produced. Developments in autopilots, however, may improve the hobby aircraft solution and allow X100 like products to be produced in the near future. Results of imagery and derived products from these UAS missions will be presented and evaluated. Assessment of the viability of these UAS-products will inform the research community of their applicability to a range of applications, and if viable, could provide a lower cost alternative to other image acquisition methods.

  2. Beach monitoring using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: results of a multi-temporal study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casella, Elisa; Rovere, Alessio; Casella, Marco; Pedroncini, Andrea; Ferrari, Marco; Vacchi, Matteo; Firpo, Marco

    2015-04-01

    The application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and photogrammetry techniques in earth sciences is flourishing. In this study, we show how we applied small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to the study of topographic changes of a beach in Italy, NW Mediterranean Sea. We surveyed the same stretch of coastline three times in 5 months, obtaining ortophotos and digital elevation models of the beach using a structure from motion approach. We then calculated the difference in beach topography between each time step, and we related topography changes to both human and natural modifications of the beach morphology that can be inferred from aerial photos or wave data. We conclude that small drones have the potential to open new possibilities for beach monitoring studies, and can be successfully employed for multi-temporal monitoring studies at relatively low cost.

  3. Critical Assessment of Object Segmentation in Aerial Image Using Geo-Hausdorff Distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, H.; Ding, Y.; Huang, Y.; Wang, G.

    2016-06-01

    Aerial Image records the large-range earth objects with the ever-improving spatial and radiometric resolution. It becomes a powerful tool for earth observation, land-coverage survey, geographical census, etc., and helps delineating the boundary of different kinds of objects on the earth both manually and automatically. In light of the geo-spatial correspondence between the pixel locations of aerial image and the spatial coordinates of ground objects, there is an increasing need of super-pixel segmentation and high-accuracy positioning of objects in aerial image. Besides the commercial software package of eCognition and ENVI, many algorithms have also been developed in the literature to segment objects of aerial images. But how to evaluate the segmentation results remains a challenge, especially in the context of the geo-spatial correspondence. The Geo-Hausdorff Distance (GHD) is proposed to measure the geo-spatial distance between the results of various object segmentation that can be done with the manual ground truth or with the automatic algorithms.Based on the early-breaking and random-sampling design, the GHD calculates the geographical Hausdorff distance with nearly-linear complexity. Segmentation results of several state-of-the-art algorithms, including those of the commercial packages, are evaluated with a diverse set of aerial images. They have different signal-to-noise ratio around the object boundaries and are hard to trace correctly even for human operators. The GHD value is analyzed to comprehensively measure the suitability of different object segmentation methods for aerial images of different spatial resolution. By critically assessing the strengths and limitations of the existing algorithms, the paper provides valuable insight and guideline for extensive research in automating object detection and classification of aerial image in the nation-wide geographic census. It is also promising for the optimal design of operational specification of remote

  4. Aerial righting reflexes in flightless animals.

    PubMed

    Jusufi, Ardian; Zeng, Yu; Full, Robert J; Dudley, Robert

    2011-12-01

    Animals that fall upside down typically engage in an aerial righting response so as to reorient dorsoventrally. This behavior can be preparatory to gliding or other controlled aerial behaviors and is ultimately necessary for a successful landing. Aerial righting reflexes have been described historically in various mammals such as cats, guinea pigs, rabbits, rats, and primates. The mechanisms whereby such righting can be accomplished depend on the size of the animal and on anatomical features associated with motion of the limbs and body. Here we apply a comparative approach to the study of aerial righting to explore the diverse strategies used for reorientation in midair. We discuss data for two species of lizards, the gecko Hemidactylus platyurus and the anole Anolis carolinensis, as well as for the first instar of the stick insect Extatosoma tiaratum, to illustrate size-dependence of this phenomenon and its relevance to subsequent aerial performance in parachuting and gliding animals. Geckos can use rotation of their large tails to reorient their bodies via conservation of angular momentum. Lizards with tails well exceeding snout-vent length, and correspondingly large tail inertia to body inertia ratios, are more effective at creating midair reorientation maneuvers. Moreover, experiments with stick insects, weighing an order of magnitude less than the lizards, suggest that aerodynamic torques acting on the limbs and body may play a dominant role in the righting process for small invertebrates. Both inertial and aerodynamic effects, therefore, can play a role in the control of aerial righting. We propose that aerial righting reflexes are widespread among arboreal vertebrates and arthropods and that they represent an important initial adaptation in the evolution of controlled aerial behavior. PMID:21930662

  5. Endurance bounds of aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Aaron M.; Kroninger, Christopher M.

    2014-06-01

    Within the past few years micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) have received much more attention and are starting to proliferate into military as well as civilian roles. However, one of the major drawbacks for this technology currently, has been their poor endurance, usually below 10 minutes. This is a direct result of the inefficiencies inherent in their design. Often times, designers do not consider the various components in the vehicle design and match their performance to the desired mission for the vehicle. These vehicles lack a prescribed set of design guidelines or empirically derived design equations which often limits their design to selection of commercial off-the-shelf components without proper consideration of their affect on vehicle performance. In the current study, the design space for different vehicle configurations has been examined including insect flapping, avian flapping, rotary wing, and fixed wing, and their performance bounds are established. The propulsion system typical of a rotary wing vehicle is analyzed to establish current baselines for efficiency of vehicles at this scale. The power draw from communications is analyzed to determine its impact on vehicle performance. Finally, a representative fixed wing MAV is examined and the effects of adaptive structures as a means for increasing vehicle endurance and range are examined. This paper seeks to establish the performance bounds for micro air vehicles and establish a path forward for future designs so that efficiency may be maximized.

  6. A survey conducted immediately after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake: evaluation of infectious risks associated with sanitary conditions in evacuation centers.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Koichi; Kunishima, Hiroyuki; Gu, Yoshiaki; Endo, Shiro; Hatta, Masumitsu; Kanamori, Hajime; Aoyagi, Tetsuji; Ishibashi, Noriomi; Inomata, Shinya; Yano, Hisakazu; Kitagawa, Miho; Kaku, Mitsuo

    2014-08-01

    In cooperation with the Miyagi prefectural government, we conducted a survey of the management of sanitation at evacuation centers and the health of the evacuees by visiting 324 evacuation centers at two weeks after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. The facilities often used as evacuation centers were community centers (36%), schools (32.7%) and Nursing homes (10.2%). It was more difficult to maintain a distance of at least 1 m between evacuees at the evacuation centers with a larger number of residents. At evacuation centers where the water supply was not restored, hygienic handling of food and the hand hygiene of the cooks were less than adequate. Among evacuation centers with ≤50 evacuees, there was a significant difference in the prevalence rate of digestive symptoms between the centers with and without persons in charge of health matters (0.3% vs. 2.1%, respectively, p < 0.001). The following three factors had an important influence on the level of sanitation at evacuation centers and the health of evacuees: 1) the size of the evacuation center, 2) the status of the water supply, and 3) the allocation of persons in charge of health matters. Given that adjusting the number of evacuees to fit the size of the evacuation center and prompt restoration of the water supply are difficult to achieve immediately after an earthquake, promptly placing persons in charge of health matters at evacuation centers is a practicable and effective measure, and allocation of at least one such person per 50 evacuees is desirable. PMID:24861538

  7. USE OF THE AERIAL MEASUREMENT SYSTEM HELICOPTER EMERGENCY RESPONSE ACQUISITION SYSTEMS WITH GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR RADIOACTIVE SOIL REMEDIATION - [11504

    SciTech Connect

    BROCK CT

    2011-02-15

    The Aerial Measurement System (AMS) Helicopter Emergency Response Acquisition System provides a thorough and economical means to identify and characterize the contaminants for large area radiological surveys. The helicopter system can provide a 100-percent survey of an area that qualifies as a scoping survey under the Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM) methodology. If the sensitivity is adequate when compared to the clean up values, it may also be used for the characterization survey. The data from the helicopter survey can be displayed and manipulated to provide invaluable data during remediation activities.

  8. Aerial Measuring System (AMS)/Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC) Joint Comparison Study Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wasiolek, P.; Halevy, I.

    2013-12-23

    Under the 13th Bilateral Meeting to Combat Nuclear Terrorism conducted on January 8–9, 2013, the committee approved the development of a cost-effective proposal to conduct a Comparison Study of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC). The study was to be held at the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL), Nellis Air Force Base, Las Vegas, Nevada, with measurements at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The goal of the AMS and the IAEC joint survey was to compare the responses of the two agencies’ aerial radiation detection systems to varied radioactive surface contamination levels and isotopic composition experienced at the NNSS, and the differing data processing techniques utilized by the respective teams. Considering that for the comparison both teams were using custom designed and built systems, the main focus of the short campaign was to investigate the impact of the detector size and data analysis techniques used by both teams. The AMS system, SPectral Advanced Radiological Computer System, Model A (SPARCS-A), designed and built by RSL, incorporates four different size sodium iodide (NaI) crystals: 1" × 1", 2" × 4" × 4", 2" × 4" ×16", and an “up-looking” 2" × 4" × 4". The Israel AMS System, Air RAM 2000, was designed by the IAEC Nuclear Research Center – Negev (NRCN) and built commercially by ROTEM Industries (Israel) and incorporates two 2" diameter × 2" long NaI crystals. The operational comparison was conducted at RSL-Nellis in Las Vegas, Nevada, during week of June 24–27, 2013. The Israeli system, Air RAM 2000, was shipped to RSL-Nellis and mounted together with the DOE SPARCS on a DOE Bell-412 helicopter for a series of aerial comparison measurements at local test ranges, including the Desert Rock Airport and Area 3 at the NNSS. A 4-person Israeli team from the IAEC NRCN supported the activity together with 11

  9. Aerial photo SBVC1962". Photo no. 360. Low oblique aerial view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial photo -SBVC-1962". Photo no. 360. Low oblique aerial view of the campus, looking southeast. Stamped on the rear: "Ron Wilhite, Sun-Telegram photo, file, 10/22/62/ - San Bernardino Valley College, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  10. Good Practices in Transfer Education: Report from a Survey Conducted by the American Association of Community and Junior Colleges and the National Center for Academic Achievement and Transfer. Transfer Working Papers, Volume 1, Number 3, October 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Transfer Working Papers, 1990

    1990-01-01

    In April 1990, the American Association of Community and Junior Colleges and the National Center for Academic Achievement and Transfer conducted a national survey of 1,366 regionally accredited, degree-granting, two-year public and private colleges to identify practices used to foster and encourage student transfer to senior institutions.…

  11. Development of Air Force aerial spray night operations: High altitude swath characterization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple trials were conducted from 2006 to 2014 in an attempt to validate aerial spray efficacy at altitudes conducive to night spray operations using night vision goggles (NVG). Higher altitude application of pesticide (>400 feet above ground level [AGL]) suggested that effective vector control mi...

  12. VOC SURVEILLANCE USING EPA'S TRACE ATMOSPHERIC GAS ANALYZER (TAGA) AND ASPECT AERIAL PLATFORM FTIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a heavily industrialized area in Southeast Texas, EPA atmospheric scientists recently conducted an inter-comparison study of the EPA mobile Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer (TAGA) and the ASPECT Aerial Platform FTIR. The TAGA is a mobile air sampling device that is capable of d...

  13. Studies on Training Ground Observers to Estimate Range to Aerial Targets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCluskey, Michael R.; And Others

    Six pilot studies were conducted to determine the effects of training on range estimation performance for aerial targets, and to identify some of the relevant variables. Observers were trained to estimate ranges of 350, 400, 800, 1,500, or 2,500 meters. Several variations of range estimation training methods were used, including immediate…

  14. Very large scale aerial (VLSA) imagery for assessing postfire bitterbrush recovery.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Very large scale aerial (VLSA) imagery is an efficient tool for monitoring bare ground and cover on extensive rangelands. This study was conducted to determine whether VLSA images could be used to detect differences in antelope bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata Pursh DC) cover and density among simila...

  15. Improving Flow Response of a Variable-rate Aerial Application System by Interactive Refinement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate response of a variable-rate aerial application controller to changing flow rates and to improve its response at correspondingly varying system pressures. System improvements have been made by refinement of the control algorithms over time in collaboration with ...

  16. “Comprehensive emission measurements from prescribed burning in Florida: field and laboratory, aerial and ground”

    EPA Science Inventory

    Simultaneous aerial- and ground-based emission sampling was conducted during prescribed burns at Eglin Air Force Base in November 2012 on a short grass/shrub field and a pine forest. Cumulative emission samples for volatile organic comounds, elemental carbon, organic carbon, ch...

  17. Comprehensive emission measurements from prescribed burning in Florida: field and laboratory, aerial and ground

    EPA Science Inventory

    Simultaneous aerial- and ground-based emission sampling was conducted during prescribed burns at Eglin Air Force Base in November 2012 on a short grass/shrub field and a pine forest. Cumulative emission samples for volatile organic compounds, elemental carbon, organic carbon, c...

  18. Aerial ULV application of Dibrom against Aedes aegypti in simulated urban and rural residences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reaching endophilic Aedes aegypti mosquito vectors of dengue located in human residences with aerial ULV pesticide applications is a prominent complication in operational wide area public health mosquito control activities. We conducted separate trials with a military C-130 fixed wing aircraft fitte...

  19. Is violence associated with increased risk behavior among MSM? Evidence from a population-based survey conducted across nine cities in Central America

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Jennifer; Anfinson, Katherine; Valvert, Dennis; Lungo, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objective There is a dearth of research examining the linkages between violence and HIV risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM), including those who identify as transgender women (TW), particularly in Central America where violence is widespread. In this paper, we use population-based survey results to independently examine the correlations between physical, emotional and sexual violence and HIV risk behavior among MSM populations in five countries in Central America. Design As part of USAID's Combination Prevention for HIV program in Central America, PASMO conducted population based surveys using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in nine cities in Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. Initial seeds were recruited using the following criteria: individuals who represented subgroups of MSM by self-identification (homosexual vs. heterosexual or bisexual vs. transgender), social economic strata, and by sex work practices. This study examines the association between violence and 1) HIV risk behaviors relevant to the study populations; 2) protective behaviors; and 3) reported STIs. Individualized RDS estimator weights for each outcome variable were calculated using RDSAT software, and logistic regression analysis was used to determine associations between different forms of violence and the outcome variables. Results MSM who experienced physical violence were more likely to be engaged in transactional sex (OR: 1.76 [1.42–2.18]), have multiple partners in the past 30 days (OR: 1.37 [1.09–1.71]), and have engaged in sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs (OR: 1.51 [1.24–1.83]). Both physical violence and psychological/verbal violence were also associated with reporting STI symptoms or diagnosis within the past 12 months (OR: 1.72 [1.34–2.21] and 1.80 [1.45–2.23]). The effects of violence on the outcomes were observed after controlling for other risk factors. Transgender women were 3.9 times more likely to report

  20. Use of low-altitude aerial photography to identify submersed aquatic macrophytes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Donald W.; Manny, Bruce A.; Brown, Charles L.; Jaworski, Eugene

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of using low-altitude aerial photography to identify beds of submersed macrophytes is demonstrated. True color aerial photos and collateral ground survey information for submersed aquatic macrophyte beds at 10 sites in the St.Clair-Detroit River system were obtained in September 1978. Using the photos and collateral ground survey information, a dichotomous key was developed for the identification of six classes - beds of five genera of macrophytes and one substrate type. A test was prepared to determine how accurately photo interpreters could identify the six classes. The test required an interpreter to examine an unlabeled, outlined area on photographs and identify it using the key. Six interpreters were tested. One pair of interpreters was trained in the interpretation of a variety of aerial photos, a second pair had field experience in the collection and identification of submersed macrophytes in the river system, and a third pair had neither training in the interpretation of aerial photos nor field experience. The criteria that we developed were applied equally well by the interpretors, regardless of their training or experience. Overall accuracy (i.e., omission errors) of all six classes combined was 68% correct, whereas, overall accuracy of individual classes ranged from 50 to 100% correct. Mapping accuracy (i.e. omission and commission errors) of individual classes ranged from 36 to 75%. Although the key developed for this study has only limited application outside the context of the data and sites examined in this study, it is concluded that low-altitude aerial photography, together with limited amounts of collateral ground survey information, can be used to economically identify beds of submersed macrophytes in the St. Clair-Detroit River system and other similar water bodies.

  1. Pasadena, California Anaglyph with Aerial Photo Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This anaglyph shows NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California. Red-blue glasses are required to see the 3-D effect. The surrounding residential areas of La Canada-Flintridge (to the left) and Altadena/Pasadena (to the right) are also shown. JPL is located at the base of the San Gabriel Mountains, an actively growing mountain range, seen towards the top of the image. The large canyon coming out of the mountains (top to bottom of image) is the Arroyo Seco, which is a major drainage channel for the mountains. Sand and gravel removal operations in the lower part of the arroyo (bottom of image) are removing debris brought down by flood and mudflow events. Old landslide scars (lobe-shaped features) are seen in the arroyo, evidence that living near steep canyon slopes in tectonically active areas can be hazardous. The data can also be utilized by recreational users such as hikers enjoying the natural beauty of these rugged mountains.

    This anaglyph was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. The detailed aerial image was provided by U. S. Geological Survey digital orthophotography. Each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna

  2. Low altitude aerial photogrammetry application to braided river systems. Example of the Buech River, Alps, France.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jules Fleury, Thomas; Pothin, Virginie; Vella, Claude; Dussouillez, Philippe; Izem, Abdelkoddouss

    2015-04-01

    Low-altitude aerial photogrammetry offers new opportunities for geomorphology and other fields requiring very high-resolution topographic data. It combines the advantages of the reproducibility of GPS topographic surveys with the high accuracy of LIDAR, but at relatively low-cost, easy-to-deploy and with the synaptic advantage of remote sensing. In order to evaluate the potential of photogrammetry on river systems and to assess river-bed changes and erosion-accretion processes, we conducted several surveys over the period of one year on the Buech river, a gravel-bed braided river located in the French Southern Alps. The study area is located directly upstream of a gravel pit and there is an interest in evaluating its effects on the riverbed. Our field protocol was comprised of vertical aerial photographs taken from a microlight aircraft flying approximately 300 ft above the ground. The equipment used was a full-frame DSLR with a wide angle lense, synchronised with a DGPS onboard. Fourty 40cm wide targets were placed on the ground and georeferenced by RTK DGPS with an accuracy of 2cm. In addition, close to one thousand Ground Control Points (GCPs) were measured within the different types of ground surfaces (vegetated, water, gravels) in order to assess the Digital Terrain Model (DTM) accuracy. We operated the production of the 3D model and its derived products: Digital Surface Model (DSM) and orthophotography, with user-friendly Agisoft (c) Photoscan Professional software. The processing of several hundred pictures with 2.5 cm ground resolution resulted in a DSM with a resolution of 10 cm and a vertical accuracy within 5 cm. As is expected, accuracy was best on bare bars and decreased with increasing vegetation density. To complement the DSM in the wetted channels, we used the orthophotos to establish a relationship between water color and flow depth using statistical multivariate regressions. Merging the bathymetric model and the DSM produced a DTM with a vertical

  3. Environmental applications utilizing digital aerial imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Monday, H.M.

    1995-06-01

    This paper discusses the use of satellite imagery, aerial photography, and computerized airborne imagery as applied to environmental mapping, analysis, and monitoring. A project conducted by the City of Irving, Texas involves compliance with national pollutant discharge elimination system (NPDES) requirements stipulated by the Environmental Protection Agency. The purpose of the project was the development and maintenance of a stormwater drainage utility. Digital imagery was collected for a portion of the city to map the City`s porous and impervious surfaces which will then be overlaid with property boundaries in the City`s existing Geographic information System (GIS). This information will allow the City to determine an equitable tax for each land parcel according to the amount of water each parcel is contributing to the stormwater system. Another project involves environmental compliance for warm water discharges created by utility companies. Environmental consultants are using digital airborne imagery to analyze thermal plume affects as well as monitoring power generation facilities. A third project involves wetland restoration. Due to freeway and other forms of construction, plus a major reduction of fresh water supplies, the Southern California coastal wetlands are being seriously threatened. These wetlands, rich spawning grounds for plant and animal life, are home to thousands of waterfowl and shore birds who use this habitat for nesting and feeding grounds. Under the leadership of Southern California Edison (SCE) and CALTRANS (California Department of Transportation), several wetland areas such as the San Dieguito Lagoon (Del Mar, California), the Sweetwater Marsh (San Diego, California), and the Tijuana Estuary (San Diego, California) are being restored and closely monitored using digital airborne imagery.

  4. Attitudes and practices of patients and physicians towards patient autonomy: a survey conducted prior to the enactment of the Patients' Rights Bill in Israel.

    PubMed

    Sadan, B; Chejk-Saul, T

    2000-07-01

    On the surface, it would appear that patients would welcome the opportunity to relinquish their traditional subordination to doctors in therapeutic decision making, and that doctors would be pleased to have partners with whom to share the burden involved in making such fateful decisions. We investigated the attitudes and practices of patients and physicians towards "patient autonomy" in an outpatient clinic of an internal medicine department prior to the enactment of the Patient's Rights Bill in Israel. There were 81 patients randomly chosen from those attending the study clinic and 21 physicians randomly selected from among the physicians treating them. They were all administered the Krantz, the Abramson Health Index, and the Christie Ethical Decision Making pre-tested questionnaires. They were also queried on demographic and background material. The results indicated that the patient sample was neither particularly interested in participating in medical decision making (average score of 3 out of 9 in the Krantz behavioral involvement sub-scale) nor in receiving medical information (average score of 4 out of 7 in the Krantz preference of information sub-scale). The physicians exhibited a willingness to establish equal relations with their patients, and claimed to prefer their taking an active role in decision making. However, when presented with ethical dilemmas, the physicians were not consistent in their attitude in terms of respecting "patient autonomy." The findings of an Israeli survey conducted three years after the bill's passage showed that only one-third of the studied physicians had read the Israel Medical Association booklet's explaining the new law and most of them claimed that the new law had no affect on their daily encounter with patients, meaning that the law did not affect any change in these physicians' pattern of behavior. We concluded that if the Patient's Rights Bill is to achieve its goals, it will have to be accompanied by a widespread

  5. Aerial photographs and satellite images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1995-01-01

    Because photographs and images taken from the air or from space are acquired without direct contact with the ground, they are referred to as remotely sensed images. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has used remote sensing from the early years of the 20th century to support earth science studies and for mapping purposes.

  6. Open Skies aerial photography of selected areas in Central America affected by Hurricane Mitch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Molnia, Bruce; Hallam, Cheryl A.

    1999-01-01

    Between October 27 and November 1, 1998, Central America was devastated by Hurricane Mitch. Following a humanitarian relief effort, one of the first informational needs was complete aerial photographic coverage of the storm ravaged areas so that the governments of the affected countries, the U.S. agencies planning to provide assistance, and the international relief community could come to the aid of the residents of the devastated area. Between December 4 and 19, 1998 an Open Skies aircraft conducted five successful missions and obtained more than 5,000 high-resolution aerial photographs and more than 15,000 video images. The aerial data are being used by the Reconstruction Task Force and many others who are working to begin rebuilding and to help reduce the risk of future destruction.

  7. Interpretation of multispectral and infrared thermal surveys of the Suez Canal Zone, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elshazly, E. M.; Hady, M. A. A. H.; Hafez, M. A. A.; Salman, A. B.; Morsy, M. A.; Elrakaiby, M. M.; Alaassy, I. E. E.; Kamel, A. F.

    1977-01-01

    Remote sensing airborne surveys were conducted, as part of the plan of rehabilitation, of the Suez Canal Zone using I2S multispectral camera and Bendix LN-3 infrared passive scanner. The multispectral camera gives four separate photographs for the same scene in the blue, green, red, and near infrared bands. The scanner was operated in the microwave bands of 8 to 14 microns and the thermal surveying was carried out both at night and in the day time. The surveys, coupled with intensive ground investigations, were utilized in the construction of new geological, structural lineation and drainage maps for the Suez Canal Zone on a scale of approximately 1:20,000, which are superior to the maps made by normal aerial photography. A considerable number of anomalies belonging to various types were revealed through the interpretation of the executed multispectral and infrared thermal surveys.

  8. The application of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) in geophysical investigations of geothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glen, J. M.; Egger, A. E.; Ippolito, C.; Phelps, G. A.; Berthold, R.; Lee, R.; Spritzer, J. M.; Tchernychev, M.

    2012-12-01

    Investigations of geothermal systems typically involve ground-based geological and geophysical studies in order to map structures that control and facilitate fluid flow. The spatial extent of ground-based investigations can be limited, however, by surficial hot springs, dense foliage, and roadless or private lands. This can result in data gaps in key areas, particularly around active hydrothermal springs. Manned aircraft can provide access to these areas and can yield broad and uniform data coverage, but high-resolution surveys are costly and relatively inflexible to changes in the survey specifications that may arise as data are collected. Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) are well suited for conducting these surveys, but until recently, various factors (scientific instrumentation requirements, platform limitations, and size of the survey area) have required the use of large UAS platforms, rendering unmanned aerial surveys unsuitable for most investigations. We have developed and tested a new cesium magnetometer system to collect magnetic data using two different small-platform UAS that overcomes many of the challenges described above. We are deploying this new system in Surprise Valley, CA, to study the area's active geothermal field. Surprise Valley is ideally suited to testing UAS due to its low population density, accessible airspace, and broad playa that provides ample opportunity to safely land the aircraft. In combination with gravity and topographic data, magnetic data are particularly useful for identifying buried, intra-basin structures, especially in areas such as Surprise Valley where highly magnetic, dense mafic volcanic rocks are interbedded with and faulted against less magnetic, less dense sedimentary rock. While high-resolution gravity data must be collected at point locations on the ground, high-resolution magnetic data can be obtained by UAS that provide continuous coverage. Once acquired, the magnetic data obtained by the UAS will be combined with

  9. Autonomous Rover for Polar GPR Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, L.; Lever, J. H.; Courville, Z.; Walker, B.; Arcone, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    We deployed Yeti, an 80-kg, 4WD battery-powered rover to conduct ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys over crevasse-ridden ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland. The rover navigated using GPS waypoint following and had 3 - 4 hr endurance at 5 km/hr while towing 60 - 70 kg of GPR equipment. Yeti's low ground pressure allowed it to cross thinly bridged crevasses without interrupting a survey. In Feb - Mar 2014, Yeti executed 23 autonomous GPR surveys covering 94 km of terrain on the ice transition to the main ice sheet in northwest Greenland. This was the first robotic effort directly to support manual crevasse surveys to map a safe route for vehicle travel, in this case a resupply traverse to Summit Station. Yeti towed a radar controller, 400 MHz antenna, GPS receiver and battery pack. Radar scan rate was 16 scans/m and pulse timing allowed good spatial resolution to about 20-m depth. The resulting data allowed us to map hundreds of subsurface crevasses and provide the results nightly to the manual survey team to compliment its efforts. We met our objectives: (a) to enhance operational efficiency of the concurrent manual surveys, and (b) to create a geo-referenced database of crevasse signatures to validate aerial- and satellite-based crevasse-mapping platforms. In Oct - Nov 2014, we deployed Yeti in Antarctica to conduct systematic GPR surveys across a crevasse-ridden section of the shear margin between the Ross and McMurdo ice shelves and thereby gain insight into its state of fracture and long-term stability. Yeti flawlessly executed a total of 613 km of autonomous GPR surveys at temperatures as low as - 33ºC. The rover towed a a radar controlling a 400 MHz and a 200 MHz antenna, the latter added to profile 160 m through the ice sheet. The main survey grid covered 5.7 km x 5.0 km, with survey lines at 50-m spacing oriented west-east across the Shear Zone (575 km total length). Yeti's tracks normally deviated only 1 - 2 m from a straight line between the two

  10. The Development and Flight Testing of an Aerially Deployed Unmanned Aerial System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Andrew

    An investigation into the feasibility of aerial deployed unmanned aerial vehicles was completed. The investigation included the development and flight testing of multiple unmanned aerial systems to investigate the different components of potential aerial deployment missions. The project consisted of two main objectives; the first objective dealt with the development of an airframe capable of surviving aerial deployment from a rocket and then self assembling from its stowed configuration into its flight configuration. The second objective focused on the development of an autopilot capable of performing basic guidance, navigation, and control following aerial deployment. To accomplish these two objectives multiple airframes were developed to verify their completion experimentally. The first portion of the project, investigating the feasibility of surviving an aerial deployment, was completed using a fixed wing glider that following a successful deployment had 52 seconds of controlled flight. Before developing the autopilot in the second phase of the project, the glider was significantly upgraded to fix faults discovered in the glider flight testing and to enhance the system capabilities. Unfortunately to conform to outdoor flight restrictions imposed by the university and the Federal Aviation Administration it was required to switch airframes before flight testing of the new fixed wing platform could begin. As a result, an autopilot was developed for a quadrotor and verified experimentally completely indoors to remain within the limits of governing policies.

  11. The Potential of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Large Scale Mapping of Coastal Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darwin, N.; Ahmad, A.; Zainon, O.

    2014-02-01

    Many countries in the tropical region are covered with cloud for most of the time, hence, it is difficult to get clear images especially from high resolution satellite imagery. Aerial photogrammetry can be used but most of the time the cloud problem still exists. Today, this problem could be solved using a system known as unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) where the aerial images can be acquired at low altitude and the system can fly under the cloud. The UAV system could be used in various applications including mapping coastal area. The UAV system is equipped with an autopilot system and automatic method known as autonomous flying that can be utilized for data acquisition. To achieve high resolution imagery, a compact digital camera of high resolution was used to acquire the aerial images at an altitude. In this study, the UAV system was employed to acquire aerial images of a coastal simulation model at low altitude. From the aerial images, photogrammetric image processing was executed to produce photogrammetric outputs such a digital elevation model (DEM), contour line and orthophoto. In this study, ground control point (GCP) and check point (CP) were established using conventional ground surveying method (i.e total station). The GCP is used for exterior orientation in photogrammetric processes and CP for accuracy assessment based on Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). From this study, it was found that the UAV system can be used for large scale mapping of coastal simulation model with accuracy at millimeter level. It is anticipated that the same system could be used for large scale mapping of real coastal area and produces good accuracy. Finally, the UAV system has great potential to be used for various applications that require accurate results or products at limited time and less man power.

  12. Ground cover estimated from aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerbermann, A. H.; Cuellar, J. A.; Wiegand, C. L.

    1976-01-01

    Estimates of per cent ground cover made by ground observers were compared with independent estimates made on the basis of low-altitude (640-1219 m) aerial photographs of the same fields. Standard statistical simple correlation and linear regression analyses revealed a high correlation between the two estimation methods. In crops such as grain, sorghum, corn, and forage sorghum, in which the broadest part of the leaf canopy is near the top of the plant, there was a tendency to overestimate the per cent ground cover from aerial photographs.

  13. Noise from aerial bursts of fireworks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maglieri, D. J.; Henderson, H. R.

    1973-01-01

    A study was made recording the pressure time histories of the aerial bursts of mortars of various sizes launched during an actual fireworks display. The peak overpressure and duration of blast noise as well as the energy spectral density are compared with the characteristics of a blasting cap and of an F-104 aircraft at a Mach number of 1.4 and an altitude of 42,000 ft. Noise levels of the fireworks aerial bursts peaked 15 decibels below levels deemed damaging to hearing.

  14. Advanced Image Processing of Aerial Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodell, Glenn; Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-ur; Hines, Glenn

    2006-01-01

    Aerial imagery of the Earth is an invaluable tool for the assessment of ground features, especially during times of disaster. Researchers at the NASA Langley Research Center have developed techniques which have proven to be useful for such imagery. Aerial imagery from various sources, including Langley's Boeing 757 Aries aircraft, has been studied extensively. This paper discusses these studies and demonstrates that better-than-observer imagery can be obtained even when visibility is severely compromised. A real-time, multi-spectral experimental system will be described and numerous examples will be shown.

  15. MicroProbe Small Unmanned Aerial System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland, Geoffrey; Miles, Ted

    2012-01-01

    The MicroProbe unmanned aerial system (UAS) concept incorporates twin electric motors mounted on the vehicle wing, thus enabling an aerodynamically and environmentally clean nose area for atmospheric sensors. A payload bay is also incorporated in the fuselage to accommodate remote sensing instruments. A key feature of this concept is lightweight construction combined with low flying speeds to minimize kinetic energy and associated hazards, as well as maximizing spatial resolution. This type of aerial platform is needed for Earth science research and environmental monitoring. There were no vehicles of this type known to exist previously.

  16. AERIAL OF VISITORS INFORMATION CENTER [VIC] & ROCKET GARDEN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    AERIAL OF VISITORS INFORMATION CENTER [VIC] & ROCKET GARDEN KSC-373C-0556.20 116-KSC-373C-556.20, P-01622-B, ARCHIVE-04455 Aerial view of Easter crowds at Visitors Information Center, Kennedy Space Center, Florida.

  17. 15. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific Railroad Coll. After ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific Railroad Coll. After 1919 Oakland Mole -- Aerial View Looking West by South - Southern Pacific Mole & Pier, Seventh Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  18. APPLICATION OF THE AERIAL PROFILING OF TERRAIN SYSTEM.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cyran, Edward J.

    1985-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey has completed the performance evaluation flight tests of the Aerial Profiling of Terrain System (APTS) and is now performing a series of application tests to determine its effectiveness and efficiency as an earth-science data collection tool. These tests are designed to evaluate the APTS at such tasks as positioning water wells, testing reliability of older maps, measuring elevations of kettle ponds, and profiling stream valleys for flood studies. The results of three application tests in Massachusetts are discussed: positioning water wells and measuring elevations along the Charles River; testing four older 1:24,000-scale quadrangle maps in the Plymouth area; and measuring elevations of several hundred kettle ponds near the Cape Cod Canal.

  19. Monitoring Seabirds and Marine Mammals by Georeferenced Aerial Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemper, G.; Weidauer, A.; Coppack, T.

    2016-06-01

    The assessment of anthropogenic impacts on the marine environment is challenged by the accessibility, accuracy and validity of biogeographical information. Offshore wind farm projects require large-scale ecological surveys before, during and after construction, in order to assess potential effects on the distribution and abundance of protected species. The robustness of site-specific population estimates depends largely on the extent and design of spatial coverage and the accuracy of the applied census technique. Standard environmental assessment studies in Germany have so far included aerial visual surveys to evaluate potential impacts of offshore wind farms on seabirds and marine mammals. However, low flight altitudes, necessary for the visual classification of species, disturb sensitive bird species and also hold significant safety risks for the observers. Thus, aerial surveys based on high-resolution digital imagery, which can be carried out at higher (safer) flight altitudes (beyond the rotor-swept zone of the wind turbines) have become a mandatory requirement, technically solving the problem of distant-related observation bias. A purpose-assembled imagery system including medium-format cameras in conjunction with a dedicated geo-positioning platform delivers series of orthogonal digital images that meet the current technical requirements of authorities for surveying marine wildlife at a comparatively low cost. At a flight altitude of 425 m, a focal length of 110 mm, implemented forward motion compensation (FMC) and exposure times ranging between 1/1600 and 1/1000 s, the twin-camera system generates high quality 16 bit RGB images with a ground sampling distance (GSD) of 2 cm and an image footprint of 155 x 410 m. The image files are readily transferrable to a GIS environment for further editing, taking overlapping image areas and areas affected by glare into account. The imagery can be routinely screened by the human eye guided by purpose-programmed software

  20. Evaluation of DSMs generated from multi-temporal aerial photographs using emerging structure from motion-multi-view stereo technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiguro, Satoshi; Yamano, Hiroya; Oguma, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-01

    An accuracy assessment of digital surface models (DSMs) generated from archived aerial photographs using the structure from motion-multi-view stereo (SfM-MVS) technique was carried out. A four-step accuracy-assessment procedure was adopted using aerial photography from eight periods, as follows. Step 1: generate a DSM and orthophoto from digital aerial photographs taken in 2013 and ground control points (GCPs) measured by GNSS. Step 2: assess the accuracy of the DSM by comparison with altitude measured by leveling survey. Step 3: generate other historical DSMs and orthophotos from historical aerial photographs using GCPs extracted from the DSM of 2013. Step 4: assess the accuracy of all historical DSMs by comparing with the leveling survey. Then re-calculate the accuracy of historical DSMs by reducing the inherent error in the 2013 DSM. The DSM based on the aerial photographs taken in 2013 was generated with a resolution of 48.2 cm. The residual height error of the GCPs was 15.4 cm. Validation against the altitudes of 171 points revealed that this DSM has a height root-mean-square-error (RMSE) of 24.1 cm and is 9.2 cm lower than the leveling data on average. Even using US military photos with unconfirmed detailed specifications, the model can measure the altitude with an RMSE value of 121.5 cm. It appears therefore that analysis by SfM-MVS can give comparable measurement accuracy to traditional aerial photogrammetry. The low cost and high accuracy obtained with archived aerial photographs are worthy of special mention.

  1. Stereoscopic photographs, ground and aerial, of trees used in the arborization of Curitiba (PR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disperati, Attilio Antonio; Roderjan, Carlos Vellozo

    This paper deals with the acquisition of 35 mm ground stereo photographs using one camera. The usual trees in the arborization of Curitiba were photographed in two different seasons of the year. Technical and practical aspects related with the acquisition and stereo observation are discussed. The ground stereo-pairs and aerial stereo-pairs, recently acquired from a photogrammetry survey, were introduced in the practical classes of Forest Photointerpretation and Dendrology and the reactions of the students were extremely favorable.

  2. Quantitative wildlife habitat evaluation using high-altitude color infrared aerial photographs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pettinger, Lawrence R.; Farmer, Adrian; Schamberger, Mel

    1978-01-01

    The habitat value for elk and sage grouse of two proposed phosphate strip mine sites was determined using habitat parameter measurements from high-altitude color infrared aerial photographs. Habitat suitability was assessed using the Habitat Evaluation Procedures being developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Similar results were obtained from two approaches--a remote-sensing-only approach and a mix of measurements from photo interpretation and conventional field surveys.

  3. Fitting of Parametric Building Models to Oblique Aerial Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panday, U. S.; Gerke, M.

    2011-09-01

    In literature and in photogrammetric workstations many approaches and systems to automatically reconstruct buildings from remote sensing data are described and available. Those building models are being used for instance in city modeling or in cadastre context. If a roof overhang is present, the building walls cannot be estimated correctly from nadir-view aerial images or airborne laser scanning (ALS) data. This leads to inconsistent building outlines, which has a negative influence on visual impression, but more seriously also represents a wrong legal boundary in the cadaster. Oblique aerial images as opposed to nadir-view images reveal greater detail, enabling to see different views of an object taken from different directions. Building walls are visible from oblique images directly and those images are used for automated roof overhang estimation in this research. A fitting algorithm is employed to find roof parameters of simple buildings. It uses a least squares algorithm to fit projected wire frames to their corresponding edge lines extracted from the images. Self-occlusion is detected based on intersection result of viewing ray and the planes formed by the building whereas occlusion from other objects is detected using an ALS point cloud. Overhang and ground height are obtained by sweeping vertical and horizontal planes respectively. Experimental results are verified with high resolution ortho-images, field survey, and ALS data. Planimetric accuracy of 1cm mean and 5cm standard deviation was obtained, while buildings' orientation were accurate to mean of 0.23° and standard deviation of 0.96° with ortho-image. Overhang parameters were aligned to approximately 10cm with field survey. The ground and roof heights were accurate to mean of - 9cm and 8cm with standard deviations of 16cm and 8cm with ALS respectively. The developed approach reconstructs 3D building models well in cases of sufficient texture. More images should be acquired for completeness of

  4. Action cameras and low-cost aerial vehicles in archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballarin, M.; Balletti, C.; Guerra, F.

    2015-05-01

    This research is focused on the analysis of the potential of a close range aerial photogrammetry system, which is accessible both in economic terms and in terms of simplicity of use. In particular the Go Pro Hero3 Black Edition and the Parrot Ar. Drone 2.0 were studied. There are essentially two limitations to the system and they were found for both the instruments used. Indeed, the frames captured by the Go Pro are subject to great distortion and consequently pose numerous calibration problems. On the other hand, the limitation of the system lies in the difficulty of maintaining a flight configuration suitable for photogrammetric purposes in unfavourable environmental conditions. The aim of this research is to analyse how far the limitations highlighted can influence the precision of the survey and consequent quality of the results obtained. To this end, the integrated GoPro and Parrot system was used during a survey campaign on the Altilia archaeological site, in Molise. The data obtained was compared with that gathered by more traditional methods, such as the laser scanner. The system was employed in the field of archaeology because here the question of cost often has a considerable importance and the metric aspect is frequently subordinate to the qualitative and interpretative aspects. Herein one of the products of these systems; the orthophoto will be analysed, which is particularly useful in archaeology, especially in situations such as this dig in which there aren't many structures in elevation present. The system proposed has proven to be an accessible solution for producing an aerial documentation, which adds the excellent quality of the result to metric data for which the precision is known.

  5. 7 CFR 1755.507 - Aerial cable services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 1755.507 Aerial cable services. (a) Where more than six pairs are needed initially, and where an aerial service is necessary, the service shall consist of 22 AWG filled aerial cable of a pair size adequate for... from the building, the wall bracket shall be reinforced against pullout by an arrangement equivalent...

  6. 7 CFR 1755.507 - Aerial cable services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 1755.507 Aerial cable services. (a) Where more than six pairs are needed initially, and where an aerial service is necessary, the service shall consist of 22 AWG filled aerial cable of a pair size adequate for... from the building, the wall bracket shall be reinforced against pullout by an arrangement equivalent...

  7. 7 CFR 1755.507 - Aerial cable services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 1755.507 Aerial cable services. (a) Where more than six pairs are needed initially, and where an aerial service is necessary, the service shall consist of 22 AWG filled aerial cable of a pair size adequate for... from the building, the wall bracket shall be reinforced against pullout by an arrangement equivalent...

  8. 47 CFR 32.6421 - Aerial cable expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aerial cable expense. 32.6421 Section 32.6421... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6421 Aerial cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with aerial cable. (b) Subsidiary record...

  9. 47 CFR 32.6421 - Aerial cable expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aerial cable expense. 32.6421 Section 32.6421... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6421 Aerial cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with aerial cable. (b) Subsidiary record...

  10. 47 CFR 32.6421 - Aerial cable expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aerial cable expense. 32.6421 Section 32.6421... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6421 Aerial cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with aerial cable. (b) Subsidiary record...

  11. 47 CFR 32.6421 - Aerial cable expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aerial cable expense. 32.6421 Section 32.6421... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6421 Aerial cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with aerial cable. (b) Subsidiary record...

  12. Geography via Aerial Field Trips: Do It This Way, 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richason, Benjamin F., Jr.; Guell, Carl E.

    To provide guidance for geography teachers, this booklet presents information on how to plan and execute aerial field trips. The aerial field trip can be employed as an effective visual aid technique in the teaching of geography, especially for presenting earth generalizations and interrelationships. The benefits of an aerial field trip are…

  13. Stream Restoration Monitoring Utilizing an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, Teton Creek, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegman, T.

    2014-12-01

    Stream restoration is a growing field in fluvial geomorphology. As demands on water resources increase the need for sustainable and healthy waterways becomes even more essential. This research investigates how an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) can be utilized for data collection necessary in stream restoration design and evaluation. UAV's offer an inexpensive method to collect information on channel geometry and map grain size distributions of the bed material. This data is critical in hydraulic flow modeling and engineering plans needed to create a restoration design, as well as evaluate if an implemented project has met its goals. This research utilized a UAV and structure-from-motion photogrammetry to monitor a recent stream restoration project designed to reduce erosion on a 1.9 km reach of Teton Creek in Eastern Idaho. A digital elevation model of difference was created from an as-built field survey and a UAV derived terrain model to identify areas of erosion and deposition in the restoration reach. The data has shown relatively small areas of channel instability in the restoration reach, and has also identified sections which may require additional restoration activities in Teton Creek. The grain size distribution of Teton Creek was also mapped utilizing a UAV and digital photosieving techniques, for use in sediment transport equations in the restoration reach. Data collected quickly and inexpensively from a UAV is valuable to river managers to monitor restoration work. This research identifies the methods and materials needed for river managers to conduct UAV surveys of streams for use in restoration design and monitoring.

  14. Biological investigations of the Sandia National Laboratories Sol se Mete Aerial Cable Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.M.

    1994-10-01

    This report provides results of a comprehensive biological field survey performed on the Sandia National Laboratories Aerial Cable Facility, at the east end of Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB), Bernalillo County, New Mexico. This survey was conducted late September through October, 1991. ACF occupies a 440-acre tract of land withdrawn by the US Forest Service (USFS) for use by KAFB, and in turn placed under operational control of SNL by the Department of Energy (DOE). All land used by SNL for ACF is part of a 15,851-acre tract of land withdrawn by the US Forest Service. In addition, a number of different organizations use the 15,851-acre area. The project area used by SNL encompasses portions of approximately six sections (3,840 acres) of US Forest Service land located within the foothills of the west side of the Manzano Mountains (East Mesa). The biological study area is used by the KAFB, the US Department of Interior, and SNL. This area includes: (1) Sol se Mete Springs and Canyon, (2) East Anchor Access Road, (3) East Anchor Site, (4) Rocket Sled Track, (5) North Arena, (6) East Instrumentation Site and Access Road, (7) West Anchor Access Road, (8) West Anchor Site, (9) South Arena, (10) Winch Sites, (11) West Instrumentation Sites, (12) Explosive Assembly Building, (13) Control Building, (14) Lurance Canyon Road and vicinity. Although portions of approximately 960 acres of withdrawn US Forest Service land have been altered, only 700 acres have been disturbed by activities associated with ACF; approximately 2,880 acres consist of natural habitat. Absence of grazing by livestock and possibly native ungulates, and relative lack of human disturbance have allowed this area to remain in a more natural vegetative state relative to the condition of private range lands throughout New Mexico. This report evaluates threatened and endangered species found on ACF, as well as a comprehensive assessment of biological habitats.

  15. Aerial Infrared Photos for Citrus Growers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blazquez, C. H.; Horn, F. W. J.

    1982-01-01

    Handbook advises on benefits and methods of aerial photography with color infrared film. Interpretation of photographs is discussed in detail. Necessary equipment for interpretation is described--light table, magnifying lenses, and microfiche viewers, for example. Advice is given on rating tree condition; identifying effects of diseases, insects, and nematodes; and evaluating effects of soil, water, and weather.

  16. "A" Is for Aerial Maps and Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Reese H.; Delahunty, Tina

    2007-01-01

    The technology of satellite imagery and remote sensing adds a new dimension to teaching and learning about maps with elementary school children. Just a click of the mouse brings into view some images of the world that could only be imagined a generation ago. Close-up aerial pictures of the school and neighborhood quickly catch the interest of…

  17. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the American National...) Vertical towers; and (v) A combination of any such devices. Aerial equipment may be made of metal, wood... on the edge of the basket or use planks, ladders, or other devices for a work position. (v) A...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the American National...) Vertical towers; and (v) A combination of any such devices. Aerial equipment may be made of metal, wood... on the edge of the basket or use planks, ladders, or other devices for a work position. (v) A...

  19. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the American National...) Vertical towers; and (v) A combination of any such devices. Aerial equipment may be made of metal, wood... on the edge of the basket or use planks, ladders, or other devices for a work position. (v) A...

  20. Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and GPS Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, B.

    1995-01-01

    It is proposed that a small fleet of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) be used over a period of years to monitor the rise of pressure surfaces caused by the hypothesized rise in average temperature of the troposphere due to global warming. Global Positioning Satellite System (GPS) receivers would be used for the precise tracking required.

  1. Sea Ice Mapping using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solbø, S.; Storvold, R.

    2011-12-01

    Mapping of sea ice extent and sea ice features is an important task in climate research. Since the arctic coastal and oceanic areas have a high probability of cloud coverage, aerial platforms are superior to satellite measurements for high-resolution optical measurements. However, routine observations of sea ice conditions present a variety of problems using conventional piloted aircrafts. Specially, the availability of suitable aircrafts for lease does not cover the demand in major parts of the arctic. With the recent advances in unmanned aerial systems (UAS), there is a high possibility of establishing routine, cost effective aerial observations of sea ice conditions in the near future. Unmanned aerial systems can carry a wide variety of sensors useful for characterizing sea-ice features. For instance, the CryoWing UAS, a system initially designed for measurements of the cryosphere, can be equipped with digital cameras, surface thermometers and laser altimeters for measuring freeboard of ice flows. In this work we will present results from recent CryoWing sea ice flights on Svalbard, Norway. The emphasis will be on data processing for stitching together images acquired with the non-stabilized camera payload, to form high-resolution mosaics covering large spatial areas. These data are being employed to map ice conditions; including ice and lead features and melt ponds. These high-resolution mosaics are also well suited for sea-ice mechanics, classification studies and for validation of satellite sea-ice products.

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATION OF LOW ALTITUDE AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The most practical avenue for development of these goals is to continue to use the LAAPS system at field sites that require aerial imaging. For the sake of convenience, I believe that the local field sites can provide a convenient location to develop new applications and test enh...

  3. Aerial Scene Recognition using Efficient Sparse Representation

    SciTech Connect

    Cheriyadat, Anil M

    2012-01-01

    Advanced scene recognition systems for processing large volumes of high-resolution aerial image data are in great demand today. However, automated scene recognition remains a challenging problem. Efficient encoding and representation of spatial and structural patterns in the imagery are key in developing automated scene recognition algorithms. We describe an image representation approach that uses simple and computationally efficient sparse code computation to generate accurate features capable of producing excellent classification performance using linear SVM kernels. Our method exploits unlabeled low-level image feature measurements to learn a set of basis vectors. We project the low-level features onto the basis vectors and use simple soft threshold activation function to derive the sparse features. The proposed technique generates sparse features at a significantly lower computational cost than other methods~\\cite{Yang10, newsam11}, yet it produces comparable or better classification accuracy. We apply our technique to high-resolution aerial image datasets to quantify the aerial scene classification performance. We demonstrate that the dense feature extraction and representation methods are highly effective for automatic large-facility detection on wide area high-resolution aerial imagery.

  4. A TOOL FOR PLANNING AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    abstract The U.S. EPAs Pacific Coastal Ecology Branch has developed a tool in the form of an Excel. spreadsheet that facilitates planning aerial photography missions. The spreadsheet accepts various input parameters such as desired photo-scale and boundary coordinates of the stud...

  5. The Art and Science of Aerial Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kegel, Susan

    2006-01-01

    The author is always looking for ways to see connections and to adapt experiences across different subjects. Combining art with other disciplines helps keep students engaged, even the really analytical and verbal learners. Aerial perspective is an art technique, a scientific principle, and a vehicle for introducing Chinese painting and…

  6. Calculating aerial images from EUV masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pistor, Thomas V.; Neureuther, Andrew R.

    1999-06-01

    Aerial images for line/space patterns, arrays of posts and an arbitrary layout pattern are calculated for EUV masks in a 4X EUV imaging system. Both mask parameters and illumination parameters are varied to investigate their effects on the aerial image. To facilitate this study, a parallel version of TEMPEST with a Fourier transform boundary condition was developed and run on a network of 24 microprocessors. Line width variations are observed when absorber thickness or sidewall angle changes. As the line/space pattern scales to smaller dimensions, the aspect ratios of the absorber features increase, introducing geometric shadowing and reducing aerial image intensity and contrast. 100nm square posts have circular images of diameter close to 100nm, but decreasing in diameter significantly when the corner round radius at the mask becomes greater than 50 nm. Exterior mask posts image slightly smaller and with higher ellipticity than interior mask posts. The aerial image of the arbitrary test pattern gives insight into the effects of the off-axis incidence employed in EUV lithography systems.

  7. Integration of aerial and satellite remote sensing for archaeological investigations: a case study of the Etruscan site of San Giovenale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasaponara, R.; Masini, N.; Holmgren, R.; Backe Forsberg, Y.

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this research is to detect and extract traces of past human activities on the Etruscan site of San Giovenale (Blera) in Northern Lazio, Italy. Investigations have been conducted by integrating high-resolution satellite data with digital models derived from LiDAR survey and multisensory aerial prospection (traditional, thermal and near infrared pictures). The use of different sensor technologies is requested to cope with (i) different types of surface covers, i.e. vegetated and non-vegetated areas (trees, bushes, agricultural uses, etc), (ii) variety of archaeological marks (micro-relief, crop marks, etc) and (iii) different types of expected spatial/spectral feature patterns linked to past human activities (urban necropoleis, palaeorivers, etc). Field surveys enabled us to confirm remotely sensed features which were detected in both densely and sparsely vegetated areas, thus revealing a large variety of cultural transformations, ritual and infrastructural remains such as roads, tombs and water installations. Our findings clearly point out a connection between the Vignale plateau and the main acropolis (San Giovenale) as well as with the surrounding burial grounds. Our results suggest that the synergic use of multisensory/multisource data sets, including ancillary information, provides a comprehensive overview of new findings. This facilitates the interpretation of various results obtained from different sensors when studied in a larger prospective.

  8. Monitoring the invasion of Spartina alterniflora using very high resolution unmanned aerial vehicle imagery in Beihai, Guangxi (China).

    PubMed

    Wan, Huawei; Wang, Qiao; Jiang, Dong; Fu, Jingying; Yang, Yipeng; Liu, Xiaoman

    2014-01-01

    Spartina alterniflora was introduced to Beihai, Guangxi (China), for ecological engineering purposes in 1979. However, the exceptional adaptability and reproductive ability of this species have led to its extensive dispersal into other habitats, where it has had a negative impact on native species and threatens the local mangrove and mudflat ecosystems. To obtain the distribution and spread of Spartina alterniflora, we collected HJ-1 CCD imagery from 2009 and 2011 and very high resolution (VHR) imagery from the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The invasion area of Spartina alterniflora was 357.2 ha in 2011, which increased by 19.07% compared with the area in 2009. A field survey was conducted for verification and the total accuracy was 94.0%. The results of this paper show that VHR imagery can provide details on distribution, progress, and early detection of Spartina alterniflora invasion. OBIA, object based image analysis for remote sensing (RS) detection method, can enable control measures to be more effective, accurate, and less expensive than a field survey of the invasive population. PMID:24892066

  9. Monitoring the Invasion of Spartina alterniflora Using Very High Resolution Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Imagery in Beihai, Guangxi (China)

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Huawei; Wang, Qiao; Jiang, Dong; Yang, Yipeng; Liu, Xiaoman

    2014-01-01

    Spartina alterniflora was introduced to Beihai, Guangxi (China), for ecological engineering purposes in 1979. However, the exceptional adaptability and reproductive ability of this species have led to its extensive dispersal into other habitats, where it has had a negative impact on native species and threatens the local mangrove and mudflat ecosystems. To obtain the distribution and spread of Spartina alterniflora, we collected HJ-1 CCD imagery from 2009 and 2011 and very high resolution (VHR) imagery from the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The invasion area of Spartina alterniflora was 357.2 ha in 2011, which increased by 19.07% compared with the area in 2009. A field survey was conducted for verification and the total accuracy was 94.0%. The results of this paper show that VHR imagery can provide details on distribution, progress, and early detection of Spartina alterniflora invasion. OBIA, object based image analysis for remote sensing (RS) detection method, can enable control measures to be more effective, accurate, and less expensive than a field survey of the invasive population. PMID:24892066

  10. The application of GPS precise point positioning technology in aerial triangulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiuxiao; Fu, Jianhong; Sun, Hongxing; Toth, Charles

    In traditional GPS-supported aerotriangulation, differential GPS (DGPS) positioning technology is used to determine the 3-dimensional coordinates of the perspective centers at exposure time with an accuracy of centimeter to decimeter level. This method can significantly reduce the number of ground control points (GCPs). However, the establishment of GPS reference stations for DGPS positioning is not only labor-intensive and costly, but also increases the implementation difficulty of aerial photography. This paper proposes aerial triangulation supported with GPS precise point positioning (PPP) as a way to avoid the use of the GPS reference stations and simplify the work of aerial photography. Firstly, we present the algorithm for GPS PPP in aerial triangulation applications. Secondly, the error law of the coordinate of perspective centers determined using GPS PPP is analyzed. Thirdly, based on GPS PPP and aerial triangulation software self-developed by the authors, four sets of actual aerial images taken from surveying and mapping projects, different in both terrain and photographic scale, are given as experimental models. The four sets of actual data were taken over a flat region at a scale of 1:2500, a mountainous region at a scale of 1:3000, a high mountainous region at a scale of 1:32000 and an upland region at a scale of 1:60000 respectively. In these experiments, the GPS PPP results were compared with results obtained through DGPS positioning and traditional bundle block adjustment. In this way, the empirical positioning accuracy of GPS PPP in aerial triangulation can be estimated. Finally, the results of bundle block adjustment with airborne GPS controls from GPS PPP are analyzed in detail. The empirical results show that GPS PPP applied in aerial triangulation has a systematic error of half-meter level and a stochastic error within a few decimeters. However, if a suitable adjustment solution is adopted, the systematic error can be eliminated in GPS

  11. Sound localization of aerial broadband noise in pinnipeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Marla M.; Schusterman, Ronald J.; Kastak, David; Southall, Brandon L.

    2003-04-01

    Pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses) emit broadband calls on land as part of their communication system in order to coordinate their reproductive activities. How well do they localize these types of signals? In this study, the aerial sound localization acuities of a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), and a northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) were measured in the horizontal plane with a broadband white noise stimulus. Testing was conducted in a hemi-anechoic chamber using a left/right forced choice procedure to measure the minimum audible angle (MAA) for each subject. MAAs were defined as half the angular separation of two sound sources relative to a subject's midline that corresponded to 75% correct discrimination. MAAs were 3.6, 4.2, and 4.7 deg for the harbor seal, California sea lion, and northern elephant seal, respectively. These results demonstrate that these pinniped species had sound localization abilities comparable to the domestic cat and rhesus macaques. The acuity differences between our subjects were small, were not predicted by head size, and therefore likely reflect the relatively acute abilities of other pinniped species to localize aerial broadband signals.

  12. Object and activity detection from aerial video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Se, Stephen; Shi, Feng; Liu, Xin; Ghazel, Mohsen

    2015-05-01

    Aerial video surveillance has advanced significantly in recent years, as inexpensive high-quality video cameras and airborne platforms are becoming more readily available. Video has become an indispensable part of military operations and is now becoming increasingly valuable in the civil and paramilitary sectors. Such surveillance capabilities are useful for battlefield intelligence and reconnaissance as well as monitoring major events, border control and critical infrastructure. However, monitoring this growing flood of video data requires significant effort from increasingly large numbers of video analysts. We have developed a suite of aerial video exploitation tools that can alleviate mundane monitoring from the analysts, by detecting and alerting objects and activities that require analysts' attention. These tools can be used for both tactical applications and post-mission analytics so that the video data can be exploited more efficiently and timely. A feature-based approach and a pixel-based approach have been developed for Video Moving Target Indicator (VMTI) to detect moving objects at real-time in aerial video. Such moving objects can then be classified by a person detector algorithm which was trained with representative aerial data. We have also developed an activity detection tool that can detect activities of interests in aerial video, such as person-vehicle interaction. We have implemented a flexible framework so that new processing modules can be added easily. The Graphical User Interface (GUI) allows the user to configure the processing pipeline at run-time to evaluate different algorithms and parameters. Promising experimental results have been obtained using these tools and an evaluation has been carried out to characterize their performance.

  13. Baseline coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from Calcasieu Lake, Louisiana, to Brownsville, Texas, September 9-10, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, Karen L. M.; Karen A. Westphal

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project, conducts baseline and storm-response photography missions to document and understand the changes in vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms (Morgan, 2009). On September 9-10, 2008, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey from Calcasieu Lake, Louisiana, to Brownsville, Texas, aboard a Cessna C-210 (aircraft) at an altitude of 500 feet (ft) and approximately 1,000 ft offshore. This mission was flown to collect baseline data for assessing incremental changes of the beach and nearshore area, and the data can be used in the assessment of future coastal change.The photographs provided in this report are Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) images. ExifTool was used to add the following to the header of each photo: time of collection, Global Positioning System (GPS) latitude, GPS longitude, keywords, credit, artist (photographer), caption, copyright, and contact information. The photograph locations are an estimate of the position of the aircraft at the time the photograph was taken and do not indicate the location of any feature in the images (see the Navigation Data page). These photographs document the state of the barrier islands and other coastal features at the time of the survey. Pages containing thumbnail images of the photographs, referred to as contact sheets, were created in 5-minute segments of flight time. These segments can be found on the Photos and Maps page. Photographs can be opened directly with any JPEG-compatible image viewer by clicking on a thumbnail on the contact sheet.In addition to the photographs, a Google Earth Keyhole Markup Language (KML) file is provided and can be used to view the images by clicking on the marker and then clicking on either the thumbnail or the link above the thumbnail. The KML file was created using the photographic navigation files. The KML file can be found in the kml folder.

  14. From the air to digital landscapes: generating reach-scale topographic models from aerial photography in gravel-bed rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vericat, Damià; Narciso, Efrén; Béjar, Maria; Tena, Álvaro; Brasington, James; Gibbins, Chris; Batalla, Ramon J.

    2014-05-01

    Digital Terrain Models are fundamental to characterise landscapes, to support numerical modelling and to monitor topographic changes. Recent advances in topography, remote sensing and geomatics are providing new opportunities to obtain high density/quality and rapid topographic data. In this paper we present an integrated methodology to rapidly obtain reach scale topographic models of fluvial systems. This methodology has been tested and is being applied to develop event-scale terrain models of a 11-km river reach in the highly dynamic Upper Cinca (NE Iberian Peninsula). This research is conducted in the background of the project MorphSed. The methodology integrates (a) the acquisition of dense point clouds of the exposed floodplain (aerial photography and digital photogrammetry); (b) the registration of all observations to the same coordinate system (using RTK-GPS surveyed GCPs); (c) the acquisition of bathymetric data (using aDcp measurements integrated with RTK-GPS); (d) the intelligent decimation of survey observations (using the open source TopCat toolkit) and, finally, (e) data fusion (elaborating Digital Elevation Models). In this paper special emphasis is given to the acquisition and registration of point clouds. 3D point clouds are obtained from aerial photography and by means of automated digital photogrammetry. Aerial photographs are taken at 275 meters above the ground by means of a SLR digital camera manually operated from an autogyro. Four flight paths are defined in order to cover the 11 km long and 500 meters wide river reach. A total of 45 minutes are required to fly along these paths. Camera has been previously calibrated with the objective to ensure image resolution at around 5 cm. A total of 220 GCPs are deployed and RTK-GPS surveyed before the flight is conducted. Two people and one full workday are necessary to deploy and survey the full set of GCPs. Field data acquisition may be finalised in less than 2 days. Structure-from-Motion is

  15. Drug Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Wanda E.; And Others

    Results of a survey of student perceptions of drugs and drug use that was conducted at Bowie State College are presented. Studies that have been conducted on college students' use of alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine in the last five years are reviewed, along with additional studies relating to the general population and the following drugs:…

  16. Laser velocimeter systems analysis applied to a flow survey above a stalled wing. [conducted in Langley high-speed 7 by 10 foot tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, W. H., Jr.; Meyers, J. F.; Hepner, T. E.

    1977-01-01

    A laser velocimeter operating in the backscatter mode was used to survey the flow above a stalled wing. Polarization was used to separate the two orthogonal velocity components of the fringe-type laser velocimeter, and digital counters were used for data processing. The velocities of the kerosene seed particles were measured with less than 2 percent uncertainty. The particle velocity measurements were collected into histograms. The flow field survey was carried out above an aspect-ratio-8 stalled wing with an NACA 0012 section. The angle of attack was 19.5 deg, the Mach number was 0.49, and the Reynolds number was 1,400,000. The flow field was characterized by the periodic shedding of discrete vortices from near the crest of the airfoil.

  17. Data report for seismic refraction surveys conducted from 1980 to 1982 in the Livermore Valley and the Santa Cruz Mountains, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Angela J.; Brocher, Thomas M.; Mooney, Walter D.; Boken, Annette

    1999-01-01

    We provide documentation for two seismic refraction profiles acquired by the U.S. Geological Survey in the San Francisco Bay area between 1980 and 1982 in Livermore Valley and the Santa Cruz Mountains. We also include the waveforms and travel times from five aftershocks of the April 1980 Livermore earthquake that were recorded on temporary seismic stations and that have not been published. Although seismic refraction profiles from the 1980 Livermore study have been published, none of the other data for this experiment, including shot times and locations, receiver locations, data quality, and travel times, have been reported. Similarly, such data from the 1981 to 1982 seismic refraction survey in the Santa Cruz Mountains included here have not been published. The first-arrival travel times from these profiles are reported in the hope that they can be used for three-dimensional velocity models in the San Francisco Bay area, particularly for the Livermore Valley and Santa Cruz Mountains.

  18. Early radiation survey of Iitate village, which was heavily contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi accident, conducted on 28 and 29 March 2011.

    PubMed

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Endo, Satoru; Sugai, Masuro; Ozawa, Shoji; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Masayoshi

    2012-06-01

    Following the news that the radiation level in Iitate Village, located 25-45 km from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, was seriously increased, an urgent field survey was carried out on 28 and 29 March 2011. Radiation levels at 130 locations were measured inside a van that traveled throughout the village using a CsI pocket survey meter and an ionization chamber. Soil samples were also taken at five locations and submitted to gamma ray analysis using a Ge detector. A radiation exposure rate of more than 20 μSv h was observed in the southern part of Iitate Village. Volatile radionuclides such as iodine and cesium were found to be the main components of radioactive contamination. A trace amount of plutonium isotopes originating from the accident was also confirmed in several soil samples, the level of which was less than the global fallout. Based on the measured density of radionuclides at the highest contamination location during the present survey, an exposure rate of about 200 μGy h at 1 m above the ground was estimated at the time of the radioactive deposition on March 15. At this location, the cumulative exposure would reach 50 mGy in the middle of May 2011. PMID:22549322

  19. Preliminary Investigation of Paleochannels and Groundwater Specific Conductance using Direct-Current Resistivity and Surface-Wave Seismic Geophysical Surveys at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc., Superfund Site, Delaware City, Delaware, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Degnan, James R.; Brayton, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Region III of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the State of Delaware, is conducting an ongoing study of the water-quality and hydrogeologic properties of the Columbia and Potomac aquifers and the extent of cross-aquifer contamination with benzene; chlorobenzene; 1,2-dichlorobenzene; 1,4-dichlorobenzene; and hydrogen chloride (hydrochloric acid when dissolved in water) in the vicinity of the Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc. (SCD), Superfund Site, Delaware City, Delaware. Surface geophysical surveys and well data were used to identify and correlate low-permeability units (clays) across the site and to search for sand and gravel filled paleochannels that are potential conduits and receptors of contaminated groundwater and (or) Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (DNAPL) contaminants. The combined surveys and well data were also used to characterize areas of the site that have groundwater with elevated (greater than 1,000 microsiemens per centimeter) specific conductance (SC) as a result of contamination. The most electrically conductive features measured with direct-current (DC) resistivity at the SCD site are relatively impermeable clays and permeable sediment that are associated with elevated SC in groundwater. Many of the resistive features include paleochannel deposits consisting of coarse-grained sediments that are unsaturated, have low (less than 200 microsiemens per centimeter) SC pore water, or are cemented. Groundwater in uncontaminated parts of the Columbia aquifer and of the Potomac aquifer has a low SC. Specific-conductance data from monitoring wells at the site were used to corroborate the DC-resistivity survey results. For comparison with DC-resistivity surveys, multi-channel analysis of surface wave (MASW) surveys were used and were able to penetrate deep enough to measure the Columbia aquifer, which is known to have elevated SC in some places. MASW survey results respond to solid

  20. Factors Associated with Dog Rabies Vaccination in Bohol, Philippines: Results of a Cross-Sectional Cluster Survey Conducted Following the Island-Wide Rabies Elimination Campaign

    PubMed Central

    Davlin, S.; Lapiz, S. M.; Miranda, M. E.; Murray, K.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The Philippines has a long history of rabies control efforts in their dog populations; however, long-term success of such programmes and the goal of rabies elimination have not yet been realized. The Bohol Rabies Prevention and Elimination Program was developed as an innovative approach to canine rabies control in 2007. The objective of this study was to assess canine rabies vaccination coverage in the owned-dog population in Bohol and to describe factors associated with rabies vaccination two years after implementation of the programme. We utilized a cross-sectional cluster survey based on the World Health Organization’s Expanded Programme on Immunization coverage survey technique. We sampled 460 households and collected data on 539 dogs residing within these households. Seventy-seven percent of surveyed households reported owning at least one dog. The human to dog ratio was approximately 4 : 1, and the mean number of dogs owned per household was 1.6. Based on this ratio, we calculated an owned-dog population of almost 300 000. Overall, 71% of dogs were reported as having been vaccinated for rabies at some time in their lives; however, only 64% of dogs were reported as having been recently vaccinated. Dogs in our study were young (median age = 24 months). The odds of vaccination increased with increasing age. Dogs aged 12 – 23 months had 4.6 times the odds of vaccination compared to dogs aged 3 – 11 months (95% CI 1.8 – 12.0; P = 0.002). Confinement of the dog both day and night was also associated with increased odds of vaccination (OR = 2.1; 95% CI 0.9 – 4.9; P = 0.07), and this result approached statistical significance. While the programme is on track to meet its goal of 80% vaccination coverage, educational efforts should focus on the need to confine dogs and vaccinate young dogs. PMID:23280122

  1. Preservation potential of subtle glacial landforms based on detailed mapping of recently exposed proglacial areas: application of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and structure-from-motion (SfM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewertowski, Marek; Evans, David; Roberts, David; Tomczyk, Aleksandra; Ewertowski, Wojciech

    2016-04-01

    Ongoing glacier retreat results in the continuous exposure of proglacial areas. Such areas contain invaluable information about glacial process-form relationships manifest in specific landform assemblages. However, preservation potential of freshly exposed glacial landforms is very low, as proglacial terrains are one of the most dynamic parts of the landscape. Therefore, rapid mapping and geomorphological characterisation of such areas is important from a glaciological and geomorphological point of view for proper understanding and reconstruction of glacier-landform dynamics and chronology of glacial events. Annual patterns of recession and relatively small areas exposed every year, mean that the performing of regular aerial or satellite survey is expensive and therefore impractical. Recent advances in technology enables the development of low-cost alternatives for traditional aerial surveys. Small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) can be used to acquire high-resolution (several cm) low-altitude photographs. The UAV-based photographs can be subsequently processed through the structure-from-motion process to generate detailed orthophotomaps and digital elevation models. In this study we present case studies from the forelands of various glaciers on Iceland and Svalbard representing different types of proglacial landscapes: Fláajökull (annual push moraines); Hofellsjökul (bedrock bedforms and push moraines); Fjallsjökull (marginal drainage network); Rieperbreen (crevasse squeeze ridges and longitudinal debris stripes); Ayerbreen (transverse debris ridges); Foxfonna (longitudinal debris stripes);Hørbyebreen (geometric ridge network); Nordenskiöldbreen (fluted till surface); Ebbabreen (controlled moraine complex). UAV campaigns were conducted using a low-cost quadcopter platform. Resultant orthophotos and DEMs enabled mapping and assessment of recent glacial landscape development in different types of glacial landsystems. Results of our study indicate that

  2. Aerial optimization and canopy penetration study of Dibrom 14 Concentrate.

    PubMed

    Brown, James R; Reynolds, W H; Palmisano, C; Taylor, V

    2005-03-01

    This document describes the results of collaborative trials between St. Tammany Parish Mosquito Control, ADAPCO, Inc., and the Navy Disease Vector Ecology and Control Center, Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, FL. These tests provide data on the aerial optimization testing of Dibrom 14 Concentrate adulticide. During the week of June 17, 2002, 1 canopy penetration and 3 optimization studies were conducted in St. Tammany Parish, LA, using a Britton Norman twin turbine Islander equipped with 10-800067 flat fan nozzles. Dibrom 14 Concentrate (AMVAC Chemical Corp., Los Angeles, CA) was applied at 3.12 liter per min from a release height of 60.96 m above ground level (agl) at 140 kts indicated airspeed. This resulted in an application rate of 0.65 oz/acre. PMID:15825773

  3. Aerial detection of leaf senescence for a geobotanical study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwaller, M.; Tkach, S. J.

    1986-01-01

    A geobotanical investigation based on the detection of premature leaf senescence was conducted in an area of predominantly chalcocite mineralization of the Keweenaw Peninsula in Michigan's Upper Peninsula. Spectrophotometric measurements indicated that the region from 600 to 700 nm captures the rise in red reflectance characteristic of senescent leaves. Observations at other wavelengths do not distinguish between senescent and green leaves as clearly and unequivocably as observations at these wavelengths. Small format black and white aerial photographs filtered for the red band (600 to 700 nm) and Thematic Mapper Simulator imagery were collected during the period of fall senescence in the study area. Soil samples were collected from two areas identified by leaf senescence and from two additional sites where the leaf canopy was still green. Geochemical analysis revealed that the sites characterized by premature leaf senescence had a significantly higher median soil copper concentration than the other two areas.

  4. Monitoring beach evolution using low-altitude aerial photogrammetry and UAV drones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovere, Alessio; Casella, Elisa; Vacchi, Matteo; Mucerino, Luigi; Pedroncini, Andrea; Ferrari, Marco; Firpo, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Beach monitoring is essential in order to understand the mechanisms of evolution of soft coasts, and the rates of erosion. Traditional beach monitoring techniques involve topographic and bathymetric surveys of the beach, and/or aerial photos repeated in time and compared through geographical information systems. A major problem of this kind of approach is the high economic cost. This often leads to increase the time lag between successive monitoring campaigns to reduce survey costs, with the consequence of fragmenting the information available for coastal zone management. MIRAMar is a project funded by Regione Liguria through the PO CRO European Social Fund, and has two main objectives: i) to study and develop an innovative technique, relatively low-cost, to monitor the evolution of the shoreline using low-altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry; ii) to study the impact of different type of storm events on a vulnerable coastal tract subject to coastal erosion using also the data collected by the UAV instrument. To achieve these aims we use a drone with its hardware and software suit, traditional survey techniques (bathymetric surveys, topographic GPS surveys and GIS techniques) and we implement a numerical modeling chain (coupling hydrodynamic, wave and sand transport modules) in order to study the impact of different type of storm events on a vulnerable coastal tract subject to coastal erosion.

  5. Cooperative Lander-Surface/Aerial Microflyer Missions for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sarita; Lay, Norman; Hine, Butler; Zornetzer, Steven

    2004-01-01

    Concepts are being investigated for exploratory missions to Mars based on Bioinspired Engineering of Exploration Systems (BEES), which is a guiding principle of this effort to develop biomorphic explorers. The novelty lies in the use of a robust telecom architecture for mission data return, utilizing multiple local relays (including the lander itself as a local relay and the explorers in the dual role of a local relay) to enable ranges 10 to 1,000 km and downlink of color imagery. As illustrated in Figure 1, multiple microflyers that can be both surface or aerially launched are envisioned in shepherding, metamorphic, and imaging roles. These microflyers imbibe key bio-inspired principles in their flight control, navigation, and visual search operations. Honey-bee inspired algorithms utilizing visual cues to perform autonomous navigation operations such as terrain following will be utilized. The instrument suite will consist of a panoramic imager and polarization imager specifically optimized to detect ice and water. For microflyers, particularly at small sizes, bio-inspired solutions appear to offer better alternate solutions than conventional engineered approaches. This investigation addresses a wide range of interrelated issues, including desired scientific data, sizes, rates, and communication ranges that can be accomplished in alternative mission scenarios. The mission illustrated in Figure 1 offers the most robust telecom architecture and the longest range for exploration with two landers being available as main local relays in addition to an ephemeral aerial probe local relay. The shepherding or metamorphic plane are in their dual role as local relays and image data collection/storage nodes. Appropriate placement of the landing site for the scout lander with respect to the main mission lander can allow coverage of extremely large ranges and enable exhaustive survey of the area of interest. In particular, this mission could help with the path planning and risk

  6. Aerial measurement of heat loss: Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    The purpose of the program described was to develop techniques to reduce or eliminate some of the variables associated with thermogram analysis in order to provide more objective interpretation of the data collected with greater potential for accuracy. A procedure is given for measuring temperature which accounts for atmospheric, background, and differential emissivity effects. The residual error was found to be 1.0/sup 0/C. A technique was then identified and developed for determining heat loss lovels from roof top surface temperature data. A thermal integrity factor was defined as a function of insulation level and thermostat setting. Comparing these thermal integrity factors with aerial thermography data indicates that aerial thermography can be used to objectively and confidently define heat loss levels from building roofs. (LEW)

  7. Aerial color infrared photography applications to citriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blazquez, C. H.; Horn, F. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Results of a one-year experimental study on the use of aerial color infrared photography in citrus grove management are presented. It is found that the spring season, when trees are in flush (have young leaves), is the best season to photograph visible differences between healthy and diseased trees. It is also shown that the best photography can be obtained with a 12-in. focal length lens. The photographic scale that allowed good photo interpretation with simple inexpensive equipment was 1 in. = 330 ft. The use of a window-overlay transparency method allowed rapid photo interpretation and data recording in computer-compatible forms. Aerial color infrared photography carried out during the spring season revealed a more accurate status of tree condition than visual inspection.

  8. Controller Design of Quadrotor Aerial Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yali, Yu; SunFeng; Yuanxi, Wang

    This paper deduced the nonlinear dynamic model of a quadrotor aerial robot, which was a VTOL (vertical tale-off and landing) unmanned air vehicle. Since that is a complex model with the highly nonlinear multivariable strongly coupled and under-actuated property, the controller design of it was very difficult. Aimed at attaining the excellent controller, the whole system can be divided into three interconnected parts: attitude subsystem, vertical subsystem, position subsystem. Then nonlinear control strategy of them has been described, such as SDRE and Backstepping. The controller design was presented to stabilize the whole system. Through simulation result indicates, the various models have shown that the control law stabilize a quadrotor aerial robot with good tracking performance and robotness of the system.

  9. Technical support services to assist the Office of Environmental Audit in conducting the DOE Environmental Survey and to provide technical assistance on Environmental Compliance issues. Technical progress report, February 16, 1991--August 16, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    HALLIBURTON NUS received authorization from DOE on August 14, 1987 to provide technical support to assist the Office of Environmental Audit (OEV) in conducting the DOE Environmental Survey and to provide technical assistance on environmental compliance issues. The overall contract is to accomplish a one-time, no-fault baseline Survey of all DOE operating facilities, and to provide technical assistance and support for the resolution of environmental compliance issues. NUS has completed the Preliminary Reports and continues to support DOE on the Prioritization and Tiger Team Assessment efforts. The project requires a broad range of environmental protection expertise, necessitating senior-level personnel as the primary project staff. Many of the tasks assigned by DOE require quick startup and performance, and several tasks may be active at any one time. The objective of the DOE Environmental Survey Program is to identify and prioritize areas of existing environmental risk at 36 DOE facilities. NUS`role is to technically assist the Office of Environmental Audit in the implementation of the Surveys.

  10. Unmanned Aerial Systems and Spectroscopy for Remote Sensing Applications in Archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Themistocleous, K.; Agapiou, A.; Cuca, B.; Hadjimitsis, D. G.

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing has open up new dimensions in archaeological research. Although there has been significant progress in increasing the resolution of space/aerial sensors and image processing, the detection of the crop (and soil marks) formations, which relate to buried archaeological remains, are difficult to detect since these marks may not be visible in the images if observed over different period or at different spatial/spectral resolution. In order to support the improvement of earth observation remote sensing technologies specifically targeting archaeological research, a better understanding of the crop/soil marks formation needs to be studied in detail. In this paper the contribution of both Unmanned Aerial Systems as well ground spectroradiometers is discussed in a variety of examples applied in the eastern Mediterranean region (Cyprus and Greece) as well in Central Europe (Hungary). In- situ spectroradiometric campaigns can be applied for the removal of atmospheric impact to simultaneous satellite overpass images. In addition, as shown in this paper, the systematic collection of ground truth data prior to the satellite/aerial acquisition can be used to detect the optimum temporal and spectral resolution for the detection of stress vegetation related to buried archaeological remains. Moreover, phenological studies of the crops from the area of interest can be simulated to the potential sensors based on their Relative Response Filters and therefore prepare better the satellite-aerial campaigns. Ground data and the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) can provide an increased insight for studying the formation of crop and soil marks. New algorithms such as vegetation indices and linear orthogonal equations for the enhancement of crop marks can be developed based on the specific spectral characteristics of the area. As well, UAS can be used for remote sensing applications in order to document, survey and model cultural heritage and archaeological sites.

  11. Ultralight photovoltaic modules for unmanned aerial vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Nowlan, M.J.; Maglitta, J.C.; Darkazalli, G.; Lamp, T.

    1997-12-31

    New lightweight photovoltaic modules are being developed for powering high altitude unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Modified low-cost terrestrial solar cell and module technologies are being applied to minimize vehicle cost. New processes were developed for assembling thin solar cells, encapsulant films, and cover films. An innovative by-pass diode mounting approach that uses a solar cell as a heat spreader was devised and tested. Materials and processes will be evaluated through accelerated environmental testing.

  12. Comparative Analysis of the Tour Jete and Aerial with Detailed Analysis of Aerial Takeoff Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierson, Mimi; Coplin, Kim

    2006-10-01

    Whether internally as muscle tension or from external sources, forces are necessary for all motion. This research focused on athletic rotations where conditions of flight are established during takeoff. By studying reaction forces that produce torques, moments of inertia, and linear and angular differences between distinct rotations around different principle axes of the body (tour jete in ballet - longitudinal axis; aerial in gymnastics - anteroposterior axis), and by looking at the values of angular momentum in the specific mechanics of aerial takeoff, we can gain insight into possible causes of injury, flaws in technique and limitations of athletes. Results showed significant differences in the horizontal and vertical components of takeoff between the tour jete and the aerial, and a realization that torque was produced in different biomechanical planes. Both rotations showed braking forces before takeoff to counteract forward momentum and increase vertical lift, but the angle of applied force varied, and the horizontal components of velocity and force and vertical velocity as well as moment of inertia throughout flight were consistently greater for the aerial. Breakdown of aerial takeoff highlighted the relative importance of the takeoff phases, showing that completion depends fundamentally upon the rotation of the rear foot and torso twisting during takeoff rather than the last foot in contact with the ground.

  13. Aviation's role in earth resources surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Syvertson, C. A.; Mulholland, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    The role of satellites designed to make a wide variety of earth observations is discussed along with the renewed interest in the use of aircraft as platforms for similar and complementary earth resources surveys. Surveys covering the areas of forestry, agriculture, hydrology, oceanography, geology, and geography are included. Aerials surveys equipped for nonphotographic remote sensing and aircraft flights synchronized with satellite observations to provide correlated data are discussed. Photographs are shown to illustrate preliminary results from several of the test sites.

  14. Remotely deployable aerial inspection using tactile sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeod, C. N.; Cao, J.; Pierce, S. G.; Sullivan, J. C.; Pipe, A. G.; Dobie, G.; Summan, R.

    2014-02-01

    For structural monitoring applications, the use of remotely deployable Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) inspection platforms offer many advantages, including improved accessibility, greater safety and reduced cost, when compared to traditional manual inspection techniques. The use of such platforms, previously reported by researchers at the University Strathclyde facilitates the potential for rapid scanning of large areas and volumes in hazardous locations. A common problem for both manual and remote deployment approaches lies in the intrinsic stand-off and surface coupling issues of typical NDE probes. The associated complications of these requirements are obviously significantly exacerbated when considering aerial based remote inspection and deployment, resulting in simple visual techniques being the preferred sensor payload. Researchers at Bristol Robotics Laboratory have developed biomimetic tactile sensors modelled on the facial whiskers (vibrissae) of animals such as rats and mice, with the latest sensors actively sweeping their tips across the surface in a back and forth motion. The current work reports on the design and performance of an aerial inspection platform and the suitability of tactile whisking sensors to aerial based surface monitoring applications.

  15. Remotely deployable aerial inspection using tactile sensors

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, C. N.; Cao, J.; Pierce, S. G.; Dobie, G.; Summan, R.; Sullivan, J. C.; Pipe, A. G.

    2014-02-18

    For structural monitoring applications, the use of remotely deployable Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) inspection platforms offer many advantages, including improved accessibility, greater safety and reduced cost, when compared to traditional manual inspection techniques. The use of such platforms, previously reported by researchers at the University Strathclyde facilitates the potential for rapid scanning of large areas and volumes in hazardous locations. A common problem for both manual and remote deployment approaches lies in the intrinsic stand-off and surface coupling issues of typical NDE probes. The associated complications of these requirements are obviously significantly exacerbated when considering aerial based remote inspection and deployment, resulting in simple visual techniques being the preferred sensor payload. Researchers at Bristol Robotics Laboratory have developed biomimetic tactile sensors modelled on the facial whiskers (vibrissae) of animals such as rats and mice, with the latest sensors actively sweeping their tips across the surface in a back and forth motion. The current work reports on the design and performance of an aerial inspection platform and the suitability of tactile whisking sensors to aerial based surface monitoring applications.

  16. Current practices of mobilization, analgesia, relaxants and sedation in Indian ICUs: A survey conducted by the Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Rajesh; Myatra, Sheila Nainan; Ramakrishnan, Nagarajan; Todi, Subhash; Kansal, Sudha; Dash, Sananta Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Use of sedation, analgesia and neuromuscular blocking agents is widely practiced in Intensive Care Units (ICUs). Our aim is to study the current practice patterns related to mobilization, analgesia, relaxants and sedation (MARS) to help in standardizing best practices in these areas in the ICU. Materials and Methods: A web-based nationwide survey involving physicians of the Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine (ISCCM) and the Indian Society of Anesthesiologists (ISA) was carried out. A questionnaire included questions on demographics, assessment scales for delirium, sedation and pain, as also the pharmacological agents and the practice methods. Results: Most ICUs function in a semi-closed model. Midazolam (94.99%) and Fentanyl (47.04%) were the most common sedative and analgesic agents used, respectively. Vecuronium was the preferred neuromuscular agent. Monitoring of sedation, analgesia and delirium in the ICU. Ramsay's Sedation Scale (56.1%) and Visual Analogue Scale (48.07%) were the preferred sedation and pain scales, respectively. CAM (Confusion Assessment Method)-ICU was the most preferred method of delirium assessment. Haloperidol was the most commonly used agent for delirium. Majority of the respondents were aware of the benefit of early mobilization, but lack of support staff and safety concerns were the main obstacles to its implementation. Conclusion: The results of the survey suggest that compliance with existing guidelines is low. Benzodiazepines still remain the predominant ICU sedative. The recommended practice of giving analgesia before sedation is almost non-existent. Delirium remains an underrecognized entity. Monitoring of sedation levels, analgesia and delirium is low and validated and recommended scales for the same are rarely used. Although awareness of the benefits of early mobilization are high, the implementation is low. PMID:25249742

  17. Comparison of two blanket surveys of arsenic in tubewells conducted 12 years apart in a 25 km2 area of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    van Geen, Alexander; Sumon, Ershad B. A.; Pitcher, Lynnette; Mey, Jacob L.; Ahsan, Habibul; Graziano, Joseph H.; Ahmed, Kazi Matin

    2014-01-01

    The arsenic (As) content of groundwater pumped from all tubewells within 61 contiguous villages of Araihazar, Bangladesh, was determined a first time in 2000–01 with laboratory measurements and a second time in 2012–13 using the ITS Arsenic Econo-Quick kit. The two surveys indicate that the total number of tubewells within the area almost doubled from 5,560 to 10,879 over 12 years. The evolution of the distribution of well ages between the two surveys is consistent with a simple model that combines an annual increase of 42 wells/year in the rate of installations within the 61 villages starting in 1980 and a 7%/year rate of abandonment of wells as a function of well age. Colored placards were posted on each pumphead in 2012–2013 on the basis of the kit results relative to the WHO guideline for As and the Bangladesh standard for As in drinking water: blue for As ≤10 µg/L, green >10–50 µg/L, and red: >50 µg/L. According to quality-control samples collected from 502 tubewells for comparing the kit results with laboratory measurements, not a single well labeled blue in 2012–13 should have been labeled red and vice-versa. Field-kit testing in 2012–13 did not change the status of wells relative to the Bangladesh standard of 876 (87%) out of 1,007 wells with a placard based on laboratory measurements in 2000–01 still attached to the pumphead. The high proportion of tubewells believed by households to be unsafe (66% out of 2,041) that were still used for drinking and cooking in 2012–13 underlines the need for more widespread testing to identify low-As wells as an alternative source of drinking water. PMID:24438870

  18. Processed 1938 aerial photography for selected areas of the lower Colorado River, southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norman, Laura M.; Gishey, Michael; Gass, Leila; Yanites, Brian; Pfeifer, Edwin; Simms, Ron; Ahlbrandt, Ray

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiated a study of the Lower Colorado River to derive temporal-change characteristics from the predam period to the present. In this report, we present summary information on accomplishments under a USGS task for the Department of the Interior's Landscapes in the West project. We discuss our preliminary results in compiling a digital database of geospatial information on the Lower Colorado River and acquisition of data products, and present a geospatial digital dataset of 1938 aerial photography of the river valley. The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (BOR)'s, Resources Management Office in Boulder City, Nev., provided historical aerial photographs of the river valley from the Hoover Dam to the United States-Mexican border, with some exclusions. USGS authors scanned and mosaicked the photographs, registered the photo mosaics, and created metadata describing each mosaic series, all 15 of which are presented here.

  19. Impact of aerial infrared roof moisture scans on the U.S. Army's ROOFER program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knehans, Al; Ledford, Jim

    1993-04-01

    The ROOFER program is being used by the U.S. Army to inspect and evaluate its built-up and single-ply membrane roofs. The results of the inspection effort are used to develop an overall roof condition index. The condition of the roof insulation can greatly alter the final condition index. By using an aerial infrared (IR) roof moisture scan, all the insulated roofs at most Army installations can be effectively surveyed in a very short time. The aerial scans have detected numerous areas of wet roof insulation, which has had a profound impact on the results of the ROOFER program. The scans have also provided management personnel with more accurate analysis as to the actual condition of the installation's insulated roofs.

  20. USGS Earth Explorer Client for Co-Discovery of Aerial and Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhenry, R.; Sohre, T.; McKinney, R.; Mentele, T.

    2011-12-01

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation Science (EROS) Center is home to one of the largest civilian collections of images of the Earth's surface. These images are collected from recent satellite platforms such as the Landsat, Terra, Aqua and Earth Observer-1, historical airborne systems such as digital cameras and side-looking radar, and digitized historical aerial photography dating to the 1930's. The aircraft scanners include instruments such as the Advanced Solid State Array Spectrometer (ASAS). Also archived at EROS are specialized collections of aerial images, such as high-resolution orthoimagery, extensive collections over Antarctica, and historical airborne campaigns such as the National Aerial Photography Program (NAPP) and the National High Altitude Photography (NHAP) collections. These collections, as well as digital map data, declassified historical space-based photography, and variety of collections such as the Global Land Survey 2000 (GLS2000) and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) are accessible through the USGS Earth Explorer (EE) client. EE allows for the visual discovery and browse of diverse datasets simultaneously, permitting the co-discovery and selection refinement of both satellite and aircraft imagery. The client, in use for many years was redesigned in 2010 to support requirements for next generation Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) data access and distribution. The redesigned EE is now supported by standards-based, open source infrastructure. EE gives users the capability to search 189 datasets through one interface, including over 8.4 million frames of aerial imagery. Since April 2011, NASA datasets archived at the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) including the MODIS land data products and ASTER Level-1B data products over the U.S. and Territories were made available via the EE client enabling users to co-discover aerial data archived at the USGS EROS along with USGS