Science.gov

Sample records for aerial systems suas

  1. Hyperspatial Thermal Imaging of Surface Hydrothermal Features at Pilgrim Hot Springs, Alaska using a small Unmanned Aerial System (sUAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haselwimmer, C. E.; Wilson, R.; Upton, C.; Prakash, A.; Holdmann, G.; Walker, G.

    2013-12-01

    Thermal remote sensing provides a valuable tool for mapping and monitoring surface hydrothermal features associated with geothermal activity. The increasing availability of low-cost, small Unmanned Aerial Systems (sUAS) with integrated thermal imaging sensors offers a means to undertake very high spatial resolution (hyperspatial), quantitative thermal remote sensing of surface geothermal features in support of exploration and long-term monitoring efforts. Results from the deployment of a quadcopter sUAS equipped with a thermal camera over Pilgrim Hot Springs, Alaska for detailed mapping and heat flux estimation for hot springs, seeps, and thermal pools are presented. Hyperspatial thermal infrared imagery (4 cm pixels) was acquired over Pilgrim Hot Springs in July 2013 using a FLIR TAU 640 camera operating from an Aeryon Scout sUAS flying at an altitude of 40m. The registered and mosaicked thermal imagery is calibrated to surface temperature values using in-situ measurements of uniform blackbody tarps and the temperatures of geothermal and other surface pools acquired with a series of water temperature loggers. Interpretation of the pre-processed thermal imagery enables the delineation of hot springs, the extents of thermal pools, and the flow and mixing of individual geothermal outflow plumes with an unprecedented level of detail. Using the surface temperatures of thermal waters derived from the FLIR data and measured in-situ meteorological parameters the hot spring heat flux and outflow rate is calculated using a heat budget model for a subset of the thermal drainage. The heat flux/outflow rate estimates derived from the FLIR data are compared against in-situ measurements of the hot spring outflow rate recorded at the time of the thermal survey.

  2. Aerial Image Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, Robert E.

    1987-09-01

    Aerial images produce the best stereoscopic images of the viewed world. Despite the fact that every optic in existence produces an aerial image, few persons are aware of their existence and possible uses. Constant reference to the eye and other optical systems have produced a psychosis of design that only considers "focal planes" in the design and analysis of optical systems. All objects in the field of view of the optical device are imaged by the device as an aerial image. Use of aerial images in vision and visual display systems can provide a true stereoscopic representation of the viewed world. This paper discusses aerial image systems - their applications and designs and presents designs and design concepts that utilize aerial images to obtain superior visual displays, particularly with application to visual simulation.

  3. Aerial Photography Summary Record System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1998-01-01

    The Aerial Photography Summary Record System (APSRS) describes aerial photography projects that meet specified criteria over a given geographic area of the United States and its territories. Aerial photographs are an important tool in cartography and a number of other professions. Land use planners, real estate developers, lawyers, environmental specialists, and many other professionals rely on detailed and timely aerial photographs. Until 1975, there was no systematic approach to locate an aerial photograph, or series of photographs, quickly and easily. In that year, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) inaugurated the APSRS, which has become a standard reference for users of aerial photographs.

  4. Supporting Remote Sensing Research with Small Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. C.; Shanks, P. C.; Kritis, L. A.; Trani, M. G.

    2014-11-01

    We describe several remote sensing research projects supported with small Unmanned Aerial Systems (sUAS) operated by the NGA Basic and Applied Research Office. These sUAS collections provide data supporting Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR), NGA University Research Initiative (NURI), and Cooperative Research And Development Agreements (CRADA) efforts in addition to inhouse research. Some preliminary results related to 3D electro-optical point clouds are presented, and some research goals discussed. Additional details related to the autonomous operational mode of both our multi-rotor and fixed wing small Unmanned Aerial System (sUAS) platforms are presented.

  5. AERIAL MEASURING SYSTEM IN JAPAN

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, Craig; Colton, David

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Agency’s Aerial Measuring System deployed personnel and equipment to partner with the U.S. Air Force in Japan to conduct multiple aerial radiological surveys. These were the first and most comprehensive sources of actionable information for U.S. interests in Japan and provided early confirmation to the government of Japan as to the extent of the release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Generation Station. Many challenges were overcome quickly during the first 48 hours; including installation and operation of Aerial Measuring System equipment on multiple U.S. Air Force Japan aircraft, flying over difficult terrain, and flying with talented pilots who were unfamiliar with the Aerial Measuring System flight patterns. These all combined to make for a dynamic and non-textbook situation. In addition, the data challenges of the multiple and on-going releases, and integration with the Japanese government to provide valid aerial radiological survey products that both military and civilian customers could use to make informed decisions, was extremely complicated. The Aerial Measuring System Fukushima response provided insight in addressing these challenges and gave way to an opportunity for the expansion of the Aerial Measuring System’s mission beyond the borders of the US.

  6. Aerial camera auto focusing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuan; Lan, Gongpu; Gao, Xiaodong; Liang, Wei

    2012-10-01

    Before the aerial photographic task, the cameras focusing work should be performed at first to compensate the defocus caused by the changes of the temperature, pressure etc. A new method of aerial camera auto focusing is proposed through traditional photoelectric self-collimation combined with image processing method. Firstly, the basic principles of optical self-collimation and image processing are introduced. Secondly, the limitations of the two are illustrated and the benefits of the new method are detailed. Then the basic principle, the system composition and the implementation of this new method are presented. Finally, the data collection platform is set up reasonably and the focus evaluation function curve is draw. The results showed that: the method can be used in the Aerial camera focusing field, adapt to the aviation equipment trends of miniaturization and lightweight .This paper is helpful to the further work of accurate and automatic focusing.

  7. Aerial robotic data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Hayes, D.W.; Pendergast, M.M.; Corban, J.E.

    1993-12-31

    A small, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), equipped with sensors for physical and chemical measurements of remote environments, is described. A miniature helicopter airframe is used as a platform for sensor testing and development. The sensor output is integrated with the flight control system for real-time, interactive, data acquisition and analysis. Pre-programmed flight missions will be flown with several sensors to demonstrate the cost-effective surveillance capabilities of this new technology.

  8. Developing Collective Training for Small Unmanned Aerial Systems Employment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durlach, Paula J.; Priest, Heather; Martin, Glenn A.; Saffold, Jay

    2010-01-01

    The projected use of small unmanned aerial systems (SUAS) in military operations will produce training requirements which go beyond current capabilities. The paper describes the development of prototype training procedures and accompanying research simulations to address this need. We initially constructed a testbed to develop simulation-based training for an SUAS operator equipped with a simulated vertical-lift and land SUAS. However, the required training will go beyond merely training an operator how to pilot an SUAS. In addition to tactics, techniques, and procedures for employment of SUASs, collective training methods must be trained. Moreover, the leader of a unit equipped with SUAS will need to learn how to plan missions which incorporate the SUAS, and take into account air space and frequency management considerations. The demands of the task require the leader to allocate personnel to the SUAS mission, communicate and coordinate with those personnel during the mission, and make use of the information provided. To help address these training issues, we expanded our research testbed to include a command and control node (C2 node), to enable communications between a leader and the SUAS operator. In addition, we added a virtual environment in which dismounted infantry missions can be conducted. This virtual environment provides the opportunity for interactions among human-controlled avatars and non-player characters (NPCs), plus authoring tools to construct scenarios. Using these NPCs, a collective exercise involving friendly, enemy, and civilian personnel can be conducted without the need for a human role-player for every entity. We will describe the results of our first experiment, which examined the ability of players to negotiate use of the C2 node and the virtual environment at the same time, in order to see if this is a feasible combination of tools for training development.

  9. Endurance bounds of aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Aaron M.; Kroninger, Christopher M.

    2014-06-01

    Within the past few years micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) have received much more attention and are starting to proliferate into military as well as civilian roles. However, one of the major drawbacks for this technology currently, has been their poor endurance, usually below 10 minutes. This is a direct result of the inefficiencies inherent in their design. Often times, designers do not consider the various components in the vehicle design and match their performance to the desired mission for the vehicle. These vehicles lack a prescribed set of design guidelines or empirically derived design equations which often limits their design to selection of commercial off-the-shelf components without proper consideration of their affect on vehicle performance. In the current study, the design space for different vehicle configurations has been examined including insect flapping, avian flapping, rotary wing, and fixed wing, and their performance bounds are established. The propulsion system typical of a rotary wing vehicle is analyzed to establish current baselines for efficiency of vehicles at this scale. The power draw from communications is analyzed to determine its impact on vehicle performance. Finally, a representative fixed wing MAV is examined and the effects of adaptive structures as a means for increasing vehicle endurance and range are examined. This paper seeks to establish the performance bounds for micro air vehicles and establish a path forward for future designs so that efficiency may be maximized.

  10. MicroProbe Small Unmanned Aerial System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland, Geoffrey; Miles, Ted

    2012-01-01

    The MicroProbe unmanned aerial system (UAS) concept incorporates twin electric motors mounted on the vehicle wing, thus enabling an aerodynamically and environmentally clean nose area for atmospheric sensors. A payload bay is also incorporated in the fuselage to accommodate remote sensing instruments. A key feature of this concept is lightweight construction combined with low flying speeds to minimize kinetic energy and associated hazards, as well as maximizing spatial resolution. This type of aerial platform is needed for Earth science research and environmental monitoring. There were no vehicles of this type known to exist previously.

  11. Sea Ice Mapping using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solbø, S.; Storvold, R.

    2011-12-01

    Mapping of sea ice extent and sea ice features is an important task in climate research. Since the arctic coastal and oceanic areas have a high probability of cloud coverage, aerial platforms are superior to satellite measurements for high-resolution optical measurements. However, routine observations of sea ice conditions present a variety of problems using conventional piloted aircrafts. Specially, the availability of suitable aircrafts for lease does not cover the demand in major parts of the arctic. With the recent advances in unmanned aerial systems (UAS), there is a high possibility of establishing routine, cost effective aerial observations of sea ice conditions in the near future. Unmanned aerial systems can carry a wide variety of sensors useful for characterizing sea-ice features. For instance, the CryoWing UAS, a system initially designed for measurements of the cryosphere, can be equipped with digital cameras, surface thermometers and laser altimeters for measuring freeboard of ice flows. In this work we will present results from recent CryoWing sea ice flights on Svalbard, Norway. The emphasis will be on data processing for stitching together images acquired with the non-stabilized camera payload, to form high-resolution mosaics covering large spatial areas. These data are being employed to map ice conditions; including ice and lead features and melt ponds. These high-resolution mosaics are also well suited for sea-ice mechanics, classification studies and for validation of satellite sea-ice products.

  12. Inertial instrument system for aerial surveying

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, R.H.; Chapman, W.H.; Hanna, W.F.; Mongan, C.E.; Hursh, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    An inertial guidance system for aerial surveying has been developed under contract to the U.S. Geological Survey. This prototype system, known as the aerial profiling of terrain (APT) system, is designed to determine continuously the positions of points along an aircraft flight path, or the underlying terrain profile, to an accuracy of + or - 0.5 ft (15 cm) vertically and + or - 2 ft (61 cm) horizontally. The system 's objective thus is to accomplish, from a fixed-wing aircraft, what would traditionally be accomplished from ground-based topographic surveys combined with aerial photography and photogrammetry. The two-part strategy for measuring the terrain profile entails: (1) use of an inertial navigator for continuous determination of the three-coordinate position of the aircraft, and (2) use of an eye-safe pulsed laser profiler for continuous measurement of the vertical distance from aircraft to land surface, so that the desired terrain profile can then be directly computed. The APT system, installed in a DeHavilland Twin Otter aircraft, is typically flown at a speed of 115 mph (105 knots) at an altitude of 2,000 ft (610 m) above the terrain. Performance-evaluation flights have shown that the vertical and horizontal accuracy specifications are met. (USGS)

  13. The Development and Flight Testing of an Aerially Deployed Unmanned Aerial System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Andrew

    An investigation into the feasibility of aerial deployed unmanned aerial vehicles was completed. The investigation included the development and flight testing of multiple unmanned aerial systems to investigate the different components of potential aerial deployment missions. The project consisted of two main objectives; the first objective dealt with the development of an airframe capable of surviving aerial deployment from a rocket and then self assembling from its stowed configuration into its flight configuration. The second objective focused on the development of an autopilot capable of performing basic guidance, navigation, and control following aerial deployment. To accomplish these two objectives multiple airframes were developed to verify their completion experimentally. The first portion of the project, investigating the feasibility of surviving an aerial deployment, was completed using a fixed wing glider that following a successful deployment had 52 seconds of controlled flight. Before developing the autopilot in the second phase of the project, the glider was significantly upgraded to fix faults discovered in the glider flight testing and to enhance the system capabilities. Unfortunately to conform to outdoor flight restrictions imposed by the university and the Federal Aviation Administration it was required to switch airframes before flight testing of the new fixed wing platform could begin. As a result, an autopilot was developed for a quadrotor and verified experimentally completely indoors to remain within the limits of governing policies.

  14. Analysis of cyberattacks on unmanned aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shull, Andrew M.

    With the increasing power and convenience offered by the use of embedded systems in control applications, such systems will undoubtedly continue to be developed and deployed. Recently, however, a focus on data-centric systems and developing network-enabled control systems has emerged, allowing for greater performance, safety, and resource allocation in systems such as smart power grids and unmanned military aircraft. However, this increase in connectivity also introduces vulnerabilities into these systems, potentially providing access to malicious parties seeking to disrupt the operation of those systems or to cause damage. Given the high potential cost of a failure in these systems in terms of property, sensitive information, and human safety, steps need to be taken to secure these systems. In order to analyze the vulnerabilities of unmanned aerial systems (UASs) specifically, a simulation testbed is developed to perform high-fidelity simulations of UAS operations using both software models and the actual vehicle hardware. Then, potential attacks against the control system and their corresponding intents are identified and introduced into these simulations. Failure conditions are defined, and extensive simulation of attacks in different combinations and magnitudes are performed in both software and hardware in order to identify particularly successful attacks, including attacks that are difficult to detect. From these results, vulnerabilities of the system can be determined so that appropriate remedies can be designed. Additionally, stealthy false data injection attacks against linear feedback systems are considered. The identification of these attacks is formed as an optimization problem constrained by the ability of monitoring systems to detect the attack. The optimal attack input is then determined for an example application so that the worst case system performance can be identified and, if needed, improved.

  15. DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM CABLE COUNTERWEIGHT SYSTEM, LOOKING DOWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM CABLE COUNTERWEIGHT SYSTEM, LOOKING DOWN THROUGH THE LOWER TERMINAL FLOOR. TWO SUSPENDED ROCK FILLED WOODEN BOXES CAN BE SEEN AT BOTTOM. THE METAL FRAMEWORK WAS INSTALLED BY THE PARK SERVICE DURING THE AERIAL TRAM'S STABILIZATION IN THE 1983. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  16. AERICOMP: an aerial photo comparison system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grewe, Lynne L.; Rowe, Neil; Baer, Wolfgang

    2000-08-01

    This paper describes a system, which compares aerial photographs of the same terrain taken at different times and tires to recognize straight-edged cultural features that have changed. This work is intended to be highly robust, handling very different lighting conditions, weather, times of year, camera, and film between the images to be compared. Our system AERICOMP is designed to facilitate battlefield terrain modeling by permitting automatic updates form new images. AERICOMP does coarse registration, image correction, feature detection, automatic refined registration, feature difference detection and reduction, feature difference presentation and operator acceptance, difference identification, and database update. It emphasizes line segments for comparisons because differences in them are more robust for photometric changes between terrain images. In addition, line segment comparisons require less computation than pixel comparisons and are more compatible with identification tasks. For our intended application of battlefield terrain modeling, detecting changes in man-made structures is of much greater importance than changes in vegetation, and line segments are the key to identifying such structures. We show results involving change analysis between color IR and black/white USGS photographs of the same area six years apart. Even a mostly automatic system benefits form user interacting at key points. AERICOMP exploits user judgements at the beginning and end of its processing to assist in coarse registration and to approve the significance of any differences found. AERICOMP is currently under development at the Naval Postgraduate School, and is supported by the TENCAPS project under the US Navy.

  17. 1. AERIAL VIEW OF THE PATH TRANSIT SYSTEM BRIDGE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW OF THE PATH TRANSIT SYSTEM BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE CONRAIL BRIDGE (HAER No. NJ-43) AND THE NEWARK TURNPIKE ARE VISIBLE IN THE BACKGROUND - Path Transit System Bridge, Spanning Hackensack River, Kearny, Hudson County, NJ

  18. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems for Disaster Relief: Tornado Alley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeBusk, Wesley M.

    2009-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle systems are currently in limited use for public service missions worldwide. Development of civil unmanned technology in the United States currently lags behind military unmanned technology development in part because of unresolved regulatory and technological issues. Civil unmanned aerial vehicle systems have potential to augment disaster relief and emergency response efforts. Optimal design of aerial systems for such applications will lead to unmanned vehicles which provide maximum potentiality for relief and emergency response while accounting for public safety concerns and regulatory requirements. A case study is presented that demonstrates application of a civil unmanned system to a disaster relief mission with the intent on saving lives. The concept utilizes unmanned aircraft to obtain advanced warning and damage assessments for tornados and severe thunderstorms. Overview of a tornado watch mission architecture as well as commentary on risk, cost, need for, and design tradeoffs for unmanned aerial systems are provided.

  19. Aerial photography summary record system - five years later.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lauterborn, T.J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the APSRS, an automated information system for conventional aerial photography projects, established after the formation of the National Cartographic Information Center in the US Geological Survey in 1974. -after Author

  20. Unmanned Aerial Systems for scientific research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanutti, Leopoldo; MacKenzie, A. Robert; di Donfrancesco, Guido; Amici, Stefania

    2010-05-01

    In the last decade a very wide spectrum of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) has been developed, essentially for military purposes. They range from very small aircraft, weighing a few kg, to stratospheric aeroplanes with total weight of many tonnes. Endurance also varies very markedly, from a few hours to ≤ 60 hours, and possibly more in the next future. Environmental Research and Services (ERS) Srl., Florence, has carried out a scoping study for the UK Natural Environmental Research Council, to identify key Earth and Environmental Science issues which can best be tackled by means of unmanned aerial platforms. The study focused on issues which could not easily be solved using other platforms, as manned aircraft, airships and satellites. Topics included: · glaciology (including both continental ice-sheets and sea-ice) · volcanology · coastal and ocean observation · Exchange processes between sea and atmosphere · atmospheric turbulence, transport, and chemistry in the planetary boundary layer, in the free troposphere and in the upper troposphere - lower stratosphere (UTLS). Different platforms are best suited to each of these tasks. Platforms range from mini UAS, to Middle Altitude and Long Endurance (MALE) and High Altitude and Long Endurance (HALE) platforms, from electric aircraft to diesel-turbocharged platforms, from solar to turbofan aircraft. Generally long endurance and the capability to fly beyond line of sight are required for most scientific missions. An example is the application of UAS to the measurement of the extension and depth of sea and continental ice. Such measurements are of primary importance in the evaluation of climatic change. While with satellites it is possible to measure the extent of ice, measuring the depth can only be accomplished by using radar operating at relatively low altitudes. A tactical or a MALE UAS could be equipped with VHL radar which can penetrate ice and hence used to measure the depth of ice sheets. A platform which

  1. Development of an airborne remote sensing system for aerial applicators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An airborne remote sensing system was developed and tested for recording aerial images of field crops, which were analyzed for variations of crop health or pest infestation. The multicomponent system consists of a multi-spectral camera system, a camera control system, and a radiometer for normalizi...

  2. Greenhouse Gas Sensing Using Small Unmanned Aerial Systems - Field Experiment Results and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrey, A. D.; Christensen, L. E.; Brockers, R.; Thompson, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Requirements for greenhouse gas point source detection and quantification often require high spatial resolution on the order of meters. These applications, which help close the gap in emissions estimate uncertainties, also demand sensing with high sensitivity and in a fashion that accounts for spatiotemporal variability on the order of seconds to minutes. Low-cost vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) provide a means to detect and identify the location of point source gas emissions while offering ease of deployment and high maneuverability. Our current fielded gas sensing sUAS platforms are able to provide instantaneous in situ concentration measurements at locations within line of sight of the operator. Recent results from field experiments demonstrating methane detection and plume characterization will be discussed here, including performance assessment conducted via a controlled release experiment in 2013. The logical extension of sUAS gas concentration measurement is quantification of flux rate. We will discuss the preliminary strategy for quantitative flux determination, including intrinsic challenges and heritage from airborne science campaigns, associated with this point source flux quantification. This system approach forms the basis for intelligent autonomous quantitative characterization of gas plumes, which holds great value for applications in commercial, regulatory, and safety environments.

  3. An automated aerial-photographic information-search system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuchenko, A. G.; Morozova, L. A.; Petrov, V. Ia.

    1980-08-01

    The paper describes an automated system for the extraction of geological information from aerial photographs; the system used is an information-search language of descriptor type, represented in the form of classifiers. A block diagram of the system is presented.

  4. Unlocking the potential of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) for Earth observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugenholtz, C.; Riddell, K.; Barchyn, T. E.

    2012-12-01

    Small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS, < 25 kg) are emerging as a viable alternative to conventional remote sensing platforms for Earth observation (EO). sUAS technology affords greater control, lower cost, and flexibility for scientists, and provides new opportunities to match the scale of sUAS data to the scale of the geophysical phenomenon under investigation. Although a mechanism is in place to make sUAS available to researchers and other non-military users through the US Federal Aviation Administration's Modernization and Reform Act of 2012 (FAAMRA), there are many regulatory hurdles before they are fully accepted and integrated into the National Airspace System. In this talk we will provide a brief overview of the regulatory landscape for sUAS, both in the USA and in Canada, where sUAS regulations are more flexible. We critically outline potential advantages and disadvantages of sUAS for EO applications under current and potential regulations. We find advantages: relatively low cost, potentially high temporal resolution, rapidly improving technology, and operational flexibility. We also find disadvantages: limited temporal and spatial extent, limited accuracy assessment and methodological development, and an immature regulatory landscape. From a case study we show an example of the accuracy of a photogrammetrically-derived digital terrain map (DTM) from sUAS imagery. We also compare the sUAS DTM to a LiDAR DTM. Our results suggest that sUAS-acquired imagery may provide a low-cost, rapid, and flexible alternative to airborne LiDAR. Overall, we are encouraged about the potential of sUAS for geophysical measurements; however, understanding and compliance with regulations is paramount to ensure that research is conducted legally and responsibly. Because UAS are new outside of military operations, we hope researchers will proceed carefully to ensure this great scientific opportunity remains a long term tool.

  5. Digital aerial-triangulation system on personal computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Yi-Hsing; Chang, Shau-Yen

    1994-08-01

    This paper demonstrates a prototype of a PC-based digital aerial-triangulation system (PC- DATS). The system takes all of the procedures of aerial triangulation and is constructed by five working modules: preparation, interior orientation, tie point measurement, target point measurement, and bundle adjustment. All of the modules are integrated on the platform Microsoft-Windows. A test block containing 15 photos was processed by using the system. The operation was quite smooth, and the adjustment result shows an accuracy of about 0.3 pixel in average. The success of this proto-DATS was quite encouraging.

  6. International-Aerial Measuring System (I-AMS) Training Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wasiolek, Piotre T.; Malchor, Russell L.; Maurer, Richard J.; Adams, Henry L.

    2015-10-01

    Since the Fukushima reactor accident in 2011, there has been an increased interest worldwide in developing national capabilities to rapidly map and assess ground contamination resulting from nuclear reactor accidents. The capability to rapidly measure the size of the contaminated area, determine the activity level, and identify the radionuclides can aid emergency managers and decision makers in providing timely protective action recommendations to the public and first responders. The development of an aerial detection capability requires interagency coordination to assemble the radiation experts, detection system operators, and aviation aircrews to conduct the aerial measurements, analyze and interpret the data, and provide technical assessments. The Office of International Emergency Management and Cooperation (IEMC) at the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) sponsors an International - Aerial Measuring System (I-AMS) training program for partner nations to develop and enhance their response to radiological emergencies. An initial series of courses can be conducted in the host country to assist in developing an aerial detection capability. As the capability develops and expands, additional experience can be gained through advanced courses with the opportunity to conduct aerial missions over a broad range of radiation environments.

  7. Towards aerial natural gas leak detection system based on TDLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuyang; Zhou, Tao; Jia, Xiaodong

    2014-11-01

    Pipeline leakage is a complex scenario for sensing system due to the traditional high cost, low efficient and labor intensive detection scheme. TDLAS has been widely accepted as industrial trace gas detection method and, thanks to its high accuracy and reasonable size, it has the potential to meet pipeline gas leakage detection requirements if it combines with the aerial platform. Based on literature study, this paper discussed the possibility of applying aerial TDLAS principle in pipeline gas leak detection and the key technical foundation of implementing it. Such system is able to result in a high efficiency and accuracy measurement which will provide sufficient data in time for the pipeline leakage detection.

  8. 4. AERIAL 'BARREL' SHOT OF THE PATH TRANSIT SYSTEM BRIDGE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. AERIAL 'BARREL' SHOT OF THE PATH TRANSIT SYSTEM BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST TOWARDS JERSEY CITY. TO THE RIGHT ARE THE NEWARK TURNPIKE AND THE CONRAIL BRIDGE (HAER No. NJ-43). THE PULASKI SKYWAY (HAER No. NJ-34) IS IN THE BACKGROUND TO THE RIGHT - Path Transit System Bridge, Spanning Hackensack River, Kearny, Hudson County, NJ

  9. 6. AERIAL VIEW OF THE PATH TRANSIT SYSTEM BRIDGE LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. AERIAL VIEW OF THE PATH TRANSIT SYSTEM BRIDGE LOOKING SOUTHEAST. TO THE RIGHT ARE THE NEWARK TURNPIKE AND THE CONRAIL BRIDGE (HAER No. NJ-43). THE PULASKI SKYWAY (HAER No. NJ-34) IS IN THE BACKGROUND - Path Transit System Bridge, Spanning Hackensack River, Kearny, Hudson County, NJ

  10. 5. AERIAL VIEW OF THE PATH TRANSIT SYSTEM BRIDGE LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. AERIAL VIEW OF THE PATH TRANSIT SYSTEM BRIDGE LOOKING SOUTHEAST. TO THE RIGHT ARE THE NEWARK TURNPIKE AND THE CONRAIL BRIDGE (HAER No. NJ-43). THE PULASKI SKYWAY (HAER No. NJ-34) IS IN THE BACKGROUND - Path Transit System Bridge, Spanning Hackensack River, Kearny, Hudson County, NJ

  11. A Low-Cost Imaging System for Aerial Applicators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural aircraft provide a readily available and versatile platform for airborne remote sensing. Although various airborne imaging systems are being used for research and commercial applications, most of these systems are either too expensive or too complex to be of practical use for aerial app...

  12. U. S. Department of Energy Aerial Measuring Systems

    SciTech Connect

    J. J. Lease

    1998-10-01

    The Aerial Measuring Systems (AMS) is an aerial surveillance system. This system consists of remote sensing equipment to include radiation detectors; multispectral, thermal, radar, and laser scanners; precision cameras; and electronic imaging and still video systems. This equipment, in varying combinations, is mounted in an airplane or helicopter and flown at different heights in specific patterns to gather various types of data. This system is a key element in the US Department of Energy's (DOE) national emergency response assets. The mission of the AMS program is twofold--first, to respond to emergencies involving radioactive materials by conducting aerial surveys to rapidly track and map the contamination that may exist over a large ground area and second, to conduct routinely scheduled, aerial surveys for environmental monitoring and compliance purposes through the use of credible science and technology. The AMS program evolved from an early program, begun by a predecessor to the DOE--the Atomic Energy Commission--to map the radiation that may have existed within and around the terrestrial environments of DOE facilities, which produced, used, or stored radioactive materials.

  13. Flexible vision-based navigation system for unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik P.

    1995-01-01

    A critical component of unmanned aerial vehicles in the navigation system which provides position and velocity feedback for autonomous control. The Georgia Tech Aerial Robotics navigational system (NavSys) consists of four DVTStinger70C Integrated Vision Units (IVUs) with CCD-based panning platforms, software, and a fiducial onboard the vehicle. The IVUs independently scan for the retro-reflective bar-code fiducial while the NavSys image processing software performs a gradient threshold followed by a image search localization of three vertical bar-code lines. Using the (x,y) image coordinate and CCD angle, the NavSys triangulates the fiducial's (x,y) position, differentiates for velocity, and relays the information to the helicopter controller, which independently determines the z direction with an onboard altimeter. System flexibility is demonstrated by recognition of different fiducial shapes, night and day time operation, and is being extended to on-board and off-board navigation of aerial and ground vehicles. The navigation design provides a real-time, inexpensive, and effective system for determining the (x,y) position of the aerial vehicle with updates generated every 51 ms (19.6 Hz) at an accuracy of approximately +/- 2.8 in.

  14. A scheduling model for the aerial relay system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ausrotas, R. A.; Liu, E. W.

    1980-01-01

    The ability of the Aerial Relay System to handle the U.S. transcontinental large hub passenger flow was analyzed with a flexible, interactive computer model. The model incorporated city pair time of day demand and a demand allocation function which assigned passengers to their preferred flights.

  15. Field Assessment of A Variable-rate Aerial Application System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several experiments were conducted to evaluate the system response of a variable-rate aerial application controller to changing flow rates. The research is collaboration between the USDA, ARS, APTRU and Houma Avionics, USA, manufacturer of a widely used flow controller designed for agricultural airc...

  16. The Ground Control Room as an Enabling Technology in the Unmanned Aerial System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gear, Gary; Mace, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the development of the ground control room as an required technology for the use of an Unmanned Aerial system. The Unmanned Aerial system is a strategic component of the Global Observing System, which will serve global science needs. The unmanned aerial system will use the same airspace as manned aircraft, therefore there will be unique telemetry needs.

  17. The Role of Unmanned Aerial Systems-Sensors in Air Quality Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of unmanned aerial systems (UASs) and miniaturized sensors for a variety of scientific and security purposes has rapidly increased. UASs include aerostats (tethered balloons) and remotely controlled, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) including lighter-than-air vessels, fix...

  18. Synthesis of the unmanned aerial vehicle remote control augmentation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczyk, Andrzej

    2014-12-01

    Medium size Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) usually flies as an autonomous aircraft including automatic take-off and landing phases. However in the case of the on-board control system failure, the remote steering is using as an emergency procedure. In this reason, remote manual control of unmanned aerial vehicle is used more often during take-of and landing phases. Depends on UAV take-off mass and speed (total energy) the potential crash can be very danger for airplane and environment. So, handling qualities of UAV is important from pilot-operator point of view. In many cases the dynamic properties of remote controlling UAV are not suitable for obtaining the desired properties of the handling qualities. In this case the control augmentation system (CAS) should be applied. Because the potential failure of the on-board control system, the better solution is that the CAS algorithms are placed on the ground station computers. The method of UAV handling qualities shaping in the case of basic control system failure is presented in this paper. The main idea of this method is that UAV reaction on the operator steering signals should be similar - almost the same - as reaction of the "ideal" remote control aircraft. The model following method was used for controller parameters calculations. The numerical example concerns the medium size MP-02A UAV applied as an aerial observer system.

  19. Synthesis of the unmanned aerial vehicle remote control augmentation system

    SciTech Connect

    Tomczyk, Andrzej

    2014-12-10

    Medium size Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) usually flies as an autonomous aircraft including automatic take-off and landing phases. However in the case of the on-board control system failure, the remote steering is using as an emergency procedure. In this reason, remote manual control of unmanned aerial vehicle is used more often during take-of and landing phases. Depends on UAV take-off mass and speed (total energy) the potential crash can be very danger for airplane and environment. So, handling qualities of UAV is important from pilot-operator point of view. In many cases the dynamic properties of remote controlling UAV are not suitable for obtaining the desired properties of the handling qualities. In this case the control augmentation system (CAS) should be applied. Because the potential failure of the on-board control system, the better solution is that the CAS algorithms are placed on the ground station computers. The method of UAV handling qualities shaping in the case of basic control system failure is presented in this paper. The main idea of this method is that UAV reaction on the operator steering signals should be similar - almost the same - as reaction of the 'ideal' remote control aircraft. The model following method was used for controller parameters calculations. The numerical example concerns the medium size MP-02A UAV applied as an aerial observer system.

  20. Region Three Aerial Measurement System Flight Planning Tool - 12006

    SciTech Connect

    Messick, Chuck; Pham, Minh; Smith, Ron; Isiminger, Dave

    2012-07-01

    The Region 3 Aerial Measurement System Flight Planning Tool is used by the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA), United States Department of Energy, Radiological Assistance Program, Region 3, to respond to emergency radiological situations. The tool automates the flight planning package process while decreasing Aerial Measuring System response times and decreases the potential for human error. Deployment of the Region Three Aerial Measurement System Flight Planning Tool has resulted in an immediate improvement to the flight planning process in that time required for mission planning has been reduced from 1.5 hours to 15 minutes. Anecdotally, the RAP team reports that the rate of usable data acquired during surveys has improved from 40-60 percent to over 90 percent since they began using the tool. Though the primary product of the flight planning tool is a pdf format document for use by the aircraft flight crew, the RAP team has begun carrying their laptop computer on the aircraft during missions. By connecting a Global Positioning System (GPS) device to the laptop and using ESRI ArcMap's GPS tool bar to overlay the aircraft position directly on the flight plan in real time, the RAP team can evaluate and correct the aircraft position as the mission is executed. (authors)

  1. Cadastral Audit and Assessments Using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, K.; Walker, G.; Stahlke, E.; Wilson, R.

    2011-09-01

    Ground surveys and remote sensing are integral to establishing fair and equitable property valuations necessary for real property taxation. The International Association of Assessing Officers (IAAO) has embraced aerial and street-view imaging as part of its standards related to property tax assessments and audits. New technologies, including unmanned aerial systems (UAS) paired with imaging sensors, will become more common as local governments work to ensure their cadastre and tax rolls are both accurate and complete. Trends in mapping technology have seen an evolution in platforms from large, expensive manned aircraft to very small, inexpensive UAS. Traditional methods of photogrammetry have also given way to new equipment and sensors: digital cameras, infrared imagers, light detection and ranging (LiDAR) laser scanners, and now synthetic aperture radar (SAR). At the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF), we work extensively with unmanned aerial systems equipped with each of these newer sensors. UAF has significant experience flying unmanned systems in the US National Airspace, having begun in 1969 with scientific rockets and expanded to unmanned aircraft in 2003. Ongoing field experience allows UAF to partner effectively with outside organizations to test and develop leading-edge research in UAS and remote sensing. This presentation will discuss our research related to various sensors and payloads for mapping. We will also share our experience with UAS and optical systems for creating some of the first cadastral surveys in rural Alaska.

  2. Landscape-scale geospatial research utilizing low elevation aerial photography generated with commercial unmanned aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipo, C. P.; Lee, C.; Wechsler, S.

    2012-12-01

    With the ability to generate on demand high-resolution imagery across landscapes, unmanned aerial systems (UAS) are increasingly become the tools of choice for geospatial researchers. At CSULB, we have implemented a number of aerial systems in order to conduct archaeological, vegetation and terrain analyses. The platforms include the commercially available X100 by Gatewing, a hobby based aircraft, kites, and tethered blimps. From our experience, each platform has advantages and disadvantages n applicability int eh field and derived imagery. The X100, though comparatively more costly, produces images with excellent coverage of areas of interest and can fly in a wide range of weather conditions. The hobby plane solutions are low-cost and flexible in their configuration but their relative lightweight makes them difficult to fly in windy conditions and the sets of images produced can widely vary. The tethered blimp has a large payload and can fly under many conditions but its ability to systematically cover large areas is very limited. Kites are extremely low-cost but have similar limitations to blimps for area coverage and limited payload capabilities. Overall, we have found the greatest return for our investment from the Gatewing X100, despite its relatively higher cost, due to the quality of the images produced. Developments in autopilots, however, may improve the hobby aircraft solution and allow X100 like products to be produced in the near future. Results of imagery and derived products from these UAS missions will be presented and evaluated. Assessment of the viability of these UAS-products will inform the research community of their applicability to a range of applications, and if viable, could provide a lower cost alternative to other image acquisition methods.

  3. INERTIAL INSTRUMENT SYSTEM FOR AERIAL SURVEYING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Russell H.; Chapman, William H.; Hanna, William F.; Mongan, Charles E.; Hursh, John W.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe an inertial guidance or navigation system that will enable use of relatively light aircraft for efficient data-gathering in geologgy, hydrology, terrain mapping, and gravity-field mapping. The instrument system capitalizes not only on virtual state-of-the-art inertial guidance technology but also on similarly advanced technology for measuring distance with electromagnetic radiating devices. The distance measurement can be made with a transceiver beamed at either a cooperative taget, with a specially designed reflecting surface, or a noncooperative target, such as the Earth's surface. The instrument system features components that use both techniques. Thus, a laser tracker device, which updates the inertial guidance unit or navigator in flight, makes distance measurements to a retroreflector target mounted at a ground-control point; a laser profiler device, beamed vertically downward, makes distance measurements to the Earth's surface along a path that roughly mirrors the aircraft flight path.

  4. Unmanned aerial systems for photogrammetry and remote sensing: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colomina, I.; Molina, P.

    2014-06-01

    We discuss the evolution and state-of-the-art of the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) in the field of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (PaRS). UAS, Remotely-Piloted Aerial Systems, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles or simply, drones are a hot topic comprising a diverse array of aspects including technology, privacy rights, safety and regulations, and even war and peace. Modern photogrammetry and remote sensing identified the potential of UAS-sourced imagery more than thirty years ago. In the last five years, these two sister disciplines have developed technology and methods that challenge the current aeronautical regulatory framework and their own traditional acquisition and processing methods. Navety and ingenuity have combined off-the-shelf, low-cost equipment with sophisticated computer vision, robotics and geomatic engineering. The results are cm-level resolution and accuracy products that can be generated even with cameras costing a few-hundred euros. In this review article, following a brief historic background and regulatory status analysis, we review the recent unmanned aircraft, sensing, navigation, orientation and general data processing developments for UAS photogrammetry and remote sensing with emphasis on the nano-micro-mini UAS segment.

  5. Advanced aerial film processing system for long range reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryman, I. G.

    1980-01-01

    An introduction is given to the system features and development histories of continuous aerial film processing equipment. The advantages and disadvantages of (1) deep tank, full immersion processing, (2) spray processing, and (3) viscous processing are enumerated, with respect to load end, supply accumulator, spray cabinet, squeegee section, dryer, film take-up section and film transport system functions. Future research efforts are recommended toward the incorporation of water regeneration, pollution control, and pH monitoring and control systems, and the greater use of computer technology to prevent operator errors and permit the handling of thinner, advanced films.

  6. Development of Flight-Test Performance Estimation Techniques for Small Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCrink, Matthew Henry

    This dissertation provides a flight-testing framework for assessing the performance of fixed-wing, small-scale unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) by leveraging sub-system models of components unique to these vehicles. The development of the sub-system models, and their links to broader impacts on sUAS performance, is the key contribution of this work. The sub-system modeling and analysis focuses on the vehicle's propulsion, navigation and guidance, and airframe components. Quantification of the uncertainty in the vehicle's power available and control states is essential for assessing the validity of both the methods and results obtained from flight-tests. Therefore, detailed propulsion and navigation system analyses are presented to validate the flight testing methodology. Propulsion system analysis required the development of an analytic model of the propeller in order to predict the power available over a range of flight conditions. The model is based on the blade element momentum (BEM) method. Additional corrections are added to the basic model in order to capture the Reynolds-dependent scale effects unique to sUAS. The model was experimentally validated using a ground based testing apparatus. The BEM predictions and experimental analysis allow for a parameterized model relating the electrical power, measurable during flight, to the power available required for vehicle performance analysis. Navigation system details are presented with a specific focus on the sensors used for state estimation, and the resulting uncertainty in vehicle state. Uncertainty quantification is provided by detailed calibration techniques validated using quasi-static and hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) ground based testing. The HIL methods introduced use a soft real-time flight simulator to provide inertial quality data for assessing overall system performance. Using this tool, the uncertainty in vehicle state estimation based on a range of sensors, and vehicle operational environments is

  7. Aerial applications dispersal systems control requirements study. [agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauchspies, J. S.; Cleary, W. L.; Rogers, W. F.; Simpson, W.; Sanders, G. S.

    1980-01-01

    Performance deficiencies in aerial liquid and dry dispersal systems are identified. Five control system concepts are explored: (1) end of field on/off control; (2) manual control of particle size and application rate from the aircraft; (3) manual control of deposit rate on the field; (4) automatic alarm and shut-off control; and (5) fully automatic control. Operational aspects of the concepts and specifications for improved control configurations are discussed in detail. A research plan to provide the technology needed to develop the proposed improvements is presented along with a flight program to verify the benefits achieved.

  8. Galvanometer control system design of aerial camera motion compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Mingrui; Cao, Jianzhong; Wang, Huawei; Guo, Yunzeng; Hu, Changchang; Tang, Hong; Niu, Yuefeng

    2015-10-01

    Aerial cameras exist the image motion on the flight. The image motion has seriously affected the image quality, making the image edge blurred and gray scale loss. According to the actual application situation, when high quality and high precision are required, the image motion compensation (IMC) should be adopted. This paper designs galvanometer control system of IMC. The voice coil motor as the actuator has a simple structure, fast dynamic response and high positioning accuracy. Double-loop feedback is also used. PI arithmetic and Hall sensors are used at the current feedback. Fuzzy-PID arithmetic and optical encoder are used at the speed feedback. Compared to conventional PID control arithmetic, the simulation results show that the control system has fast response and high control accuracy.

  9. Using Small Unmanned Aerial Systems to Advance Hydrological Models in Coastal Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorhead, R.; Hathcock, L.; Coffey, J. J.; Hood, R. E.; van Cooten, S.; Choate, K.; Rawson, H.; Kosturock, A.

    2014-12-01

    Small unmanned aerial systems (sUASs) have the potential to provide highly useful information for models of earth systems that vary over time intervals of days and for which sub-meter resolution is crucial. In particular, the state of coastal watershed plains are highly dependent on vegetation type and cover, soil type, weather, river flooding, and coastal inundation. The vegetation type and cover affect the drying potential, as well as the watershed's resistance to flood water movement. The soil type, soil moisture, and pond depths affect the ability of the watershed to absorb river flood waters and inundation from the sea. In this presentation we will describe a data collection campaign and model modification effort for hydrological models in a coastal watershed. The data collection campaign is obtaining data bimonthly using multiple UASs to capture the state of the watershed quicker. In particular, the vegetation cover and the extent of the water surface expression are captured at approximately a 1 inch spatial resolution over a few days with sUASs that can image 1-2 square miles per hour. The vegetation data provides a time-varying input to improve the estimation of the roughness coefficient and the dry potential from the traditionally static datasets. By correlating the high spatio-temporal resolution surface water expression with data from approximately ten river gauges, models can be improved and validated under more conditions. The presentation will also discuss the requisite sUAS capabilities and our experience in using them.

  10. 75 FR 52713 - Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest System Lands

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... Forest Service Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest System Lands AGENCY... aerial application of fire retardant on National Forest System lands. The responsible official for this.... Comments may also be sent via e- mail to FireRetardantEIS@fs.fed.us . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  11. Decentralized robust nonlinear model predictive controller for unmanned aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Garreton, Gonzalo A.

    The nonlinear and unsteady nature of aircraft aerodynamics together with limited practical range of controls and state variables make the use of the linear control theory inadequate especially in the presence of external disturbances, such as wind. In the classical approach, aircraft are controlled by multiple inner and outer loops, designed separately and sequentially. For unmanned aerial systems in particular, control technology must evolve to a point where autonomy is extended to the entire mission flight envelope. This requires advanced controllers that have sufficient robustness, track complex trajectories, and use all the vehicles control capabilities at higher levels of accuracy. In this work, a robust nonlinear model predictive controller is designed to command and control an unmanned aerial system to track complex tight trajectories in the presence of internal and external perturbance. The Flight System developed in this work achieves the above performance by using: 1. A nonlinear guidance algorithm that enables the vehicle to follow an arbitrary trajectory shaped by moving points; 2. A formulation that embeds the guidance logic and trajectory information in the aircraft model, avoiding cross coupling and control degradation; 3. An artificial neural network, designed to adaptively estimate and provide aerodynamic and propulsive forces in real-time; and 4. A mixed sensitivity approach that enhances the robustness for a nonlinear model predictive controller overcoming the effect of un-modeled dynamics, external disturbances such as wind, and measurement additive perturbations, such as noise and biases. These elements have been integrated and tested in simulation and with previously stored flight test data and shown to be feasible.

  12. Aerial Explorers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg; Ippolito, Corey

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents recent results from a mission architecture study of planetary aerial explorers. In this study, several mission scenarios were developed in simulation and evaluated on success in meeting mission goals. This aerial explorer mission architecture study is unique in comparison with previous Mars airplane research activities. The study examines how aerial vehicles can find and gain access to otherwise inaccessible terrain features of interest. The aerial explorer also engages in a high-level of (indirect) surface interaction, despite not typically being able to takeoff and land or to engage in multiple flights/sorties. To achieve this goal, a new mission paradigm is proposed: aerial explorers should be considered as an additional element in the overall Entry, Descent, Landing System (EDLS) process. Further, aerial vehicles should be considered primarily as carrier/utility platforms whose purpose is to deliver air-deployed sensors and robotic devices, or symbiotes, to those high-value terrain features of interest.

  13. Unmanned aerial optical systems for spatial monitoring of Antarctic mosses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucieer, Arko; Turner, Darren; Veness, Tony; Malenovsky, Zbynek; Harwin, Stephen; Wallace, Luke; Kelcey, Josh; Robinson, Sharon

    2013-04-01

    The Antarctic continent has experienced major changes in temperature, wind speed and stratospheric ozone levels during the last 50 years. In a manner similar to tree rings, old growth shoots of Antarctic mosses, the only plants on the continent, also preserve a climate record of their surrounding environment. This makes them an ideal bio-indicator of the Antarctic climate change. Spatially extensive ground sampling of mosses is laborious and time limited due to the short Antarctic growing season. Obviously, there is a need for an efficient method to monitor spatially climate change induced stress of the Antarctic moss flora. Cloudy weather and high spatial fragmentation of the moss turfs makes satellite imagery unsuitable for this task. Unmanned aerial systems (UAS), flying at low altitudes and collecting image data even under a full overcast, can, however, overcome the insufficiency of satellite remote sensing. We, therefore, developed scientific UAS, consisting of a remote-controlled micro-copter carrying on-board different remote sensing optical sensors, tailored to perform fast and cost-effective mapping of Antarctic flora at ultra-high spatial resolution (1-10 cm depending on flight altitude). A single lens reflex (SLR) camera carried by UAS acquires multi-view aerial photography, which processed by the Structure from Motion computer vision algorithm provides an accurate three-dimensional digital surface model (DSM) at ultra-high spatial resolution. DSM is the key input parameter for modelling a local seasonal snowmelt run-off, which provides mosses with the vital water supply. A lightweight multispectral camera on-board of UVS is collecting images of six selected spectral wavebands with the full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) of 10 nm. The spectral bands can be used to compute various vegetation optical indices, e.g. Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) or Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI), assessing the actual physiological state of polar vegetation. Recently

  14. APPLICATION OF THE AERIAL PROFILING OF TERRAIN SYSTEM.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cyran, Edward J.

    1985-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey has completed the performance evaluation flight tests of the Aerial Profiling of Terrain System (APTS) and is now performing a series of application tests to determine its effectiveness and efficiency as an earth-science data collection tool. These tests are designed to evaluate the APTS at such tasks as positioning water wells, testing reliability of older maps, measuring elevations of kettle ponds, and profiling stream valleys for flood studies. The results of three application tests in Massachusetts are discussed: positioning water wells and measuring elevations along the Charles River; testing four older 1:24,000-scale quadrangle maps in the Plymouth area; and measuring elevations of several hundred kettle ponds near the Cape Cod Canal.

  15. Canopy Measurements with a Small Unmanned Aerial System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peschel, J.

    2015-12-01

    This work discusses the use of a small unmanned aerial system (UAS) for the remote placement of wireless environmental sensors in tree canopies. Remote presence applications occur when one or more humans use a robot to project themselves into an environment in order to complete an inaccessible or time-critical mission. The more difficult problem of physical object manipulation goes one step further by incorporating physical-based interaction, in additional to visualization. Forested environments present especially unique challenges for small UAS versus similar domains (e.g., disaster response, inspection of critical infrastructure) due to the navigation and interaction required with dense tree canopies. This work describes two field investigations that inform: i) the type of physical object manipulation and visualization necessary for sensor placement (ventral, frontal, dorsal), ii) the necessary display form (hybrid) for piloting and sensor placement, and iii) visual feedback mechanisms useful for handling human-robot team role conflicts.

  16. DOE/NNSA Aerial Measuring System (AMS): Flying the 'Real' Thing

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Lyons

    2011-06-24

    This slide show documents aerial radiation surveys over Japan. Map product is a compilation of daily aerial measuring system missions from the Fukushima Daiichi power plant to 80 km radius. In addition, other flights were conducted over US military bases and the US embassy.

  17. The Role of Unmanned Aerial Systems/Sensors in Air Quality Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of unmanned aerial systems (UASs) for a variety of scientific and security purposes has rapidly increased. UASs include aerostats (tethered balloons) and remotely controlled, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) including lighter-than-air vessels, fixed wing airplanes, and he...

  18. Development of an aerial counting system in oil palm plantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulyma Miserque Castillo, Jhany; Laverde Diaz, Rubbermaid; Rueda Guzmán, Claudia Leonor

    2016-07-01

    This paper proposes the development of a counting aerial system capable of capturing, process and analyzing images of an oil palm plantation to register the number of cultivated palms. It begins with a study of the available UAV technologies to define the most appropriate model according to the project needs. As result, a DJI Phantom 2 Vision+ is used to capture pictures that are processed by a photogrammetry software to create orthomosaics from the areas of interest, which are handled by the developed software to calculate the number of palms contained in them. The implemented algorithm uses a sliding window technique in image pyramids to generate candidate windows, an LBP descriptor to model the texture of the picture, a logistic regression model to classify the windows and a non-maximum suppression algorithm to refine the decision. The system was tested in different images than the ones used for training and for establishing the set point. As result, the system showed a 95.34% detection rate with a 97.83% precision in mature palms and a 79.26% detection rate with a 97.53% precision in young palms giving an FI score of 0.97 for mature palms and 0.87 for the small ones. The results are satisfactory getting the census and high-quality images from which is possible to get more information from the area of interest. All this, achieved through a low-cost system capable of work even in cloudy conditions.

  19. Close range ISR (PRISTA) and close quarters combat (CQC) with unmanned aerial systems (UAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynell, Jon

    2010-04-01

    Ironically, the final frontiers for the UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) are the closest spaces at hand. There is an urgent operational capability gap in the area of proximate reconnaissance, intelligence, surveillance, and target acquisition (PRISTA) as well as close quarters combats (CQC). Needs for extremely close range functionality in land, sea and urban theaters remain unfilled, largely due to the challenges presented by the maneuverability and silent operating floor required to address these missions. The evolution of small, nimble and inexpensive VTOL UAV assets holds much promise in terms of filling this gap. Just as UAVs have evolved from large manned aircraft, so have MAVs (Micro Aerial Vehicles) evolved from UAVs. As unmanned aviation evolves into aerial robotics, NAV (Nano Aerial Vehicle) research will become the next hotbed of unmanned aerial systems development as these systems continue to mature in response to the need to find robotic replacements for humans in PRISTA, CQC, and many other hazardous duties.

  20. A Low Cost Rokkaku Kite Setup for Aerial Photogrammetric System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, A. F.; Khurshid, K.; Saleh, N.; Yousuf, A. A.

    2015-03-01

    Orthogonally Projected Area (OPA) of a geographical feature has primarily been studied utilizing rather time consuming field based sampling techniques. Remote sensing on the contrary provides the ability to acquire large scale data at a snapshot of time and lets the OPA to be calculated conveniently and with reasonable accuracy. Unfortunately satellite based remote sensing provides data at high cost and limited spatial resolution for scientific studies focused at small areas such as micro lakes micro ecosystems, etc. More importantly, recent satellite data may not be readily available for a particular location. This paper describes a low cost photogrammetric system to measure the OPA of a small scale geographic feature such as a plot of land, micro lake or an archaeological site, etc. Fitted with a consumer grade digital imaging system, a Rokkaku kite aerial platform with stable flight characteristics is designed and fabricated for image acquisition. The data processing procedure involves automatic Ground Control Point (GCP) detection, intelligent target area shape determination with minimal human input. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) is built from scratch in MATLAB to allow the user to conveniently process the acquired data, archive and retrieve the results. Extensive on-field experimentation consists of multiple geographic features including flat land surfaces, buildings, undulating rural areas, and an irregular shaped micro lake, etc. Our results show that the proposed system is not only low cost, but provides a framework that is easy and fast to setup while maintaining the required constraints on the accuracy.

  1. National aerial photography program as a geographic information system resource

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Light, Donald L.

    1991-01-01

    The National Aerial Photography Program (NAPP) is jointly funded by Federal agencies and States that choose to participate in a 50-50 cost sharing cooperative arrangement. The NAPP is designed to acquire black-and-white (B&W) or color infrared (CIR) photography at a scale of 1:40,000. The status of NAPP flying, now going into the first year of its second 5-year cycle, is reviewed to inform the user community of NAPP's coverage. The resolution, geometric quality and flight parameters are used to estimate the system's cartographic potential to produce orthophotoquads, digital elevation models, topographic maps and digital information to meet national map accuracy standards at 1:12,000 and 1:24,000-scale and serve as a geographic information system resource. Also, a technique is presented to compute the optimum scanning spot size (15 ??m) and storage required for converting the B&W or CIR photography to digital, machine-readable pixel form. The resulting digital NAPP data are suitable for a wide variety of new applications, including use in geographic information systems.

  2. Vision-Based SLAM System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Munguía, Rodrigo; Urzua, Sarquis; Bolea, Yolanda; Grau, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    The present paper describes a vision-based simultaneous localization and mapping system to be applied to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The main contribution of this work is to propose a novel estimator relying on an Extended Kalman Filter. The estimator is designed in order to fuse the measurements obtained from: (i) an orientation sensor (AHRS); (ii) a position sensor (GPS); and (iii) a monocular camera. The estimated state consists of the full state of the vehicle: position and orientation and their first derivatives, as well as the location of the landmarks observed by the camera. The position sensor will be used only during the initialization period in order to recover the metric scale of the world. Afterwards, the estimated map of landmarks will be used to perform a fully vision-based navigation when the position sensor is not available. Experimental results obtained with simulations and real data show the benefits of the inclusion of camera measurements into the system. In this sense the estimation of the trajectory of the vehicle is considerably improved, compared with the estimates obtained using only the measurements from the position sensor, which are commonly low-rated and highly noisy. PMID:26999131

  3. Vision-Based SLAM System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Munguía, Rodrigo; Urzua, Sarquis; Bolea, Yolanda; Grau, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    The present paper describes a vision-based simultaneous localization and mapping system to be applied to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The main contribution of this work is to propose a novel estimator relying on an Extended Kalman Filter. The estimator is designed in order to fuse the measurements obtained from: (i) an orientation sensor (AHRS); (ii) a position sensor (GPS); and (iii) a monocular camera. The estimated state consists of the full state of the vehicle: position and orientation and their first derivatives, as well as the location of the landmarks observed by the camera. The position sensor will be used only during the initialization period in order to recover the metric scale of the world. Afterwards, the estimated map of landmarks will be used to perform a fully vision-based navigation when the position sensor is not available. Experimental results obtained with simulations and real data show the benefits of the inclusion of camera measurements into the system. In this sense the estimation of the trajectory of the vehicle is considerably improved, compared with the estimates obtained using only the measurements from the position sensor, which are commonly low-rated and highly noisy. PMID:26999131

  4. Meteorological and Aerosol Sensing with small Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Born, J.; Möhler, O.; Haunold, W.; Schrod, J.; Brooks, I.; Norris, S.; Brooks, B.; Hill, M.; Leisner, T.

    2012-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) facilitate the monitoring of several meteorological and aerosol parameters with high resolution in space and time. They are small, easy to operate, cost efficient and allow for flexible application during field campaigns. We present two experimental payloads for measurement of relative humidity, temperature, aerosol size distribution and the collection of aerosol samples on board the small UAS SIRIUS II. The payload modules are light weight (<1kg) and can be easily switched between two flights. All sensors can be controlled from the ground and the measured data is recorded by the autopilot together with the position data. The first module contains a sensor package for measurement of relative humidity and temperature and the Compact Lightweight Aerosol Spectrometer Prope (CLASP) for acquisition of aerosol size distributions. CLASP measures aerosol particles with diameters from 0.12μm to 9.25μm in up to 32 channels at a frequency of 10 Hz. The second module also contains a humidity and temperature sensor package and the aerosol sample collection device. The aerosol sampler collects air samples at 2 l/min onto a sample holder. After the flight the ice nuclei on the sample holder are activated in the lab and counted. In August 2012 the complete setup will be used during a measurement campaign at mount "Kleiner Feldberg" close to Frankfurt. Until then we will perform test flights and additional laboratory tests.

  5. Aerial Measuring System Technical Integration Annual Report 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada Remote Sensing Laboratory

    2003-06-01

    Fiscal Year 2002 is the second year of a five-year commitment by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to invest in development of new and state-of-the-art technologies for the Aerial Measuring Systems (AMS) project. In 2000, NNSA committed to two million dollars for AMS Technical Integration (TI) for each of five years. The tragedy of September 11, 2001, profoundly influenced the program. NNSA redirected people and funding resources at the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) to more immediate needs. Funds intended for AMS TI were redirected to NNSA's new posture of leaning further forward throughout. AMS TI was brought to a complete halt on December 10, 2001. Then on April 30, 2002, NNSA Headquarters allowed the restart of AMS TI at the reduced level of $840,000. The year's events resulted in a slow beginning of several projects, some of which were resumed only a few weeks before the AMS TI Symposium held at RSL on July 30.

  6. The NASA Dryden AAR Project: A Flight Test Approach to an Aerial Refueling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Jennifer L.; Murray, James E.; Campos, Norma V.

    2004-01-01

    The integration of uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAVs) into controlled airspace has generated a new era of autonomous technologies and challenges. Autonomous aerial refueling would enable UAVs to travel further distances and loiter for extended periods over time-critical targets. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center recently has completed a flight research project directed at developing a dynamic hose and drogue system model to support the development of an automated aerial refueling system. A systematic dynamic model of the hose and drogue system would include the effects of various influences on the system, such as flight condition, hose and drogue type, tanker type and weight, receiver type, and tanker and receiver maneuvering. Using two NASA F/A-18 aircraft and a conventional hose and drogue aerial refueling store from the Navy, NASA has obtained flight research data that document the response of the hose and drogue system to these effects. Preliminary results, salient trends, and important lessons are presented.

  7. The NASA Dryden Flight Test Approach to an Aerial Refueling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Jennifer L.; Murray, James E.; Campos, Norma V.

    2005-01-01

    The integration of uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAVs) into controlled airspace has generated a new era of autonomous technologies and challenges. Autonomous aerial refueling would enable UAVs to travel further distances and loiter for extended periods over time-critical targets. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center recently has completed a flight research project directed at developing a dynamic hose and drogue system model to support the development of an automated aerial refueling system. A systematic dynamic model of the hose and drogue system would include the effects of various influences on the system, such as flight condition, hose and drogue type, tanker type and weight, receiver type, and tanker and receiver maneuvering. Using two NASA F/A-18 aircraft and a conventional hose and drogue aerial refueling store from the Navy, NASA has obtained flight research data that document the response of the hose and drogue system to these effects. Preliminary results, salient trends, and important lessons are presented

  8. High Altitude Aerial Natural Gas Leak Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Richard T. Wainner; Mickey B. Frish; B. David Green; Matthew C. Laderer; Mark G. Allen; Joseph R. Morency

    2006-12-31

    The objective of this program was to develop and demonstrate a cost-effective and power-efficient advanced standoff sensing technology able to detect and quantify, from a high-altitude (> 10,000 ft) aircraft, natural gas leaking from a high-pressure pipeline. The advanced technology is based on an enhanced version of the Remote Methane Leak Detector (RMLD) platform developed previously by Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI). The RMLD combines a telecommunications-style diode laser, fiber-optic components, and low-cost DSP electronics with the well-understood principles of Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy (WMS), to indicate the presence of natural gas located between the operator and a topographic target. The transceiver transmits a laser beam onto a topographic target and receives some of the laser light reflected by the target. The controller processes the received light signal to deduce the amount of methane in the laser's path. For use in the airborne platform, we modified three aspects of the RMLD, by: (1) inserting an Erbium-doped optical fiber laser amplifier to increase the transmitted laser power from 10 mW to 5W; (2) increasing the optical receiver diameter from 10 cm to 25 cm; and (3) altering the laser wavelength from 1653 nm to 1618 nm. The modified RMLD system provides a path-integrated methane concentration sensitivity {approx}5000 ppm-m, sufficient to detect the presence of a leak from a high capacity transmission line while discriminating against attenuation by ambient methane. In ground-based simulations of the aerial leak detection scenario, we demonstrated the ability to measure methane leaks within the laser beam path when it illuminates a topographic target 2000 m away. We also demonstrated simulated leak detection from ranges of 200 m using the 25 cm optical receiver without the fiber amplifier.

  9. Holarchical Systems and Emotional Holons : Biologically-Inspired System Designs for Control of Autonomous Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ippolito, Corey; Plice, Laura; Pisanich, Greg

    2003-01-01

    The BEES (Bio-inspired Engineering for Exploration Systems) for Mars project at NASA Ames Research Center has the goal of developing bio-inspired flight control strategies to enable aerial explorers for Mars scientific investigations. This paper presents a summary of our ongoing research into biologically inspired system designs for control of unmanned autonomous aerial vehicle communities for Mars exploration. First, we present cooperative design considerations for robotic explorers based on the holarchical nature of biological systems and communities. Second, an outline of an architecture for cognitive decision making and control of individual robotic explorers is presented, modeled after the emotional nervous system of cognitive biological systems. Keywords: Holarchy, Biologically Inspired, Emotional UAV Flight Control

  10. Marginal Ice Zone Processes Observed from Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappa, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Recent years have seen extreme changes in the Arctic. Marginal ice zones (MIZ), or areas where the "ice-albedo feedback" driven by solar warming is highest and ice melt is extensive, may provide insights into the extent of these changes. Furthermore, MIZ play a central role in setting the air-sea CO2 balance making them a critical component of the global carbon cycle. Incomplete understanding of how the sea-ice modulates gas fluxes renders it difficult to estimate the carbon budget in MIZ. Here, we investigate the turbulent mechanisms driving mixing and gas exchange in leads, polynyas and in the presence of ice floes using both field and laboratory measurements. Measurements from unmanned aerial systems (UAS) in the marginal ice zone were made during 2 experiments: 1) North of Oliktok Point AK in the Beaufort Sea were made during the Marginal Ice Zone Ocean and Ice Observations and Processes EXperiment (MIZOPEX) in July-August 2013 and 2) Fram Strait and Greenland Sea northwest of Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, Norway during the Air-Sea-Ice Physics and Biogeochemistry Experiment (ASIPBEX) April - May 2015. We developed a number of new payloads that include: i) hyperspectral imaging spectrometers to measure VNIR (400-1000 nm) and NIR (900-1700 nm) spectral radiance; ii) net longwave and net shortwave radiation for ice-ocean albedo studies; iii) air-sea-ice turbulent fluxes as well as wave height, ice freeboard, and surface roughness with a LIDAR; and iv) drone-deployed micro-drifters (DDµD) deployed from the UAS that telemeter temperature, pressure, and RH as it descends through the atmosphere and temperature and salinity of the upper meter of the ocean once it lands on the ocean's surface. Visible and IR imagery of melting ice floes clearly defines the scale of the ice floes. The IR imagery show distinct cooling of the skin sea surface temperature (SST) as well as an intricate circulation and mixing pattern that depends on the surface current, wind speed, and near

  11. Aerial Measuring System (AMS) Baseline Surveys for Emergency Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, C

    2012-06-04

    Originally established in the 1960s to support the Nuclear Test Program, the AMS mission is to provide a rapid and comprehensive worldwide aerial measurement, analysis, and interpretation capability in response to a nuclear/radiological emergency. AMS provides a responsive team of individuals whose processes allow for a mission to be conducted and completed with results available within hours. This presentation slide-show reviews some of the history of the AMS, summarizes present capabilities and methods, and addresses the value of the surveys.

  12. UAV using the open-source flight-control-system in the application of aerial survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ji-chen; Ru, Chen

    2015-12-01

    The aerial survey as one of the branches of the Space Information Technology system, has an important application in data acquisition of the earth's surface. In recent years, the trend of UVA (unmanned aerial vehicle) to replace traditional survey aircraft has become increasingly obvious with the progress of science and technology. At present, the price of the commercial UAV Flight Control System is higher, limiting the application of UVA. This paper mainly discusses the possibility that the open-source's flight-control-system take the place of the commercial one. Result is that the costs of UVA are reduced, and make the application more widely.

  13. Design and realization of an image mosaic system on the CCD aerial camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hai ying; Wang, Peng; Zhu, Hai bin; Li, Yan; Zhang, Shao jun

    2015-08-01

    It has long been difficulties in aerial photograph to stitch multi-route images into a panoramic image in real time for multi-route flight framing CCD camera with very large amount of data, and high accuracy requirements. An automatic aerial image mosaic system based on GPU development platform is described in this paper. Parallel computing of SIFT feature extraction and matching algorithm module is achieved by using CUDA technology for motion model parameter estimation on the platform, which makes it's possible to stitch multiple CCD images in real-time. Aerial tests proved that the mosaic system meets the user's requirements with 99% accuracy and 30 to 50 times' speed improvement of the normal mosaic system.

  14. Hardware Implementation of COTS Avionics System on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Yoo-Hsiu; Kumar, Parth; Ishihara, Abraham; Ippolito, Corey

    2010-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can serve as low cost and low risk platforms for flight testing in Aeronautics research. The NASA Exploration Aerial Vehicle (EAV) and Experimental Sensor-Controlled Aerial Vehicle (X-SCAV) UAVs were developed in support of control systems research at NASA Ames Research Center. The avionics hardware for both systems has been redesigned and updated, and the structure of the EAV has been further strengthened. Preliminary tests show the avionics operate properly in the new configuration. A linear model for the EAV also was estimated from flight data, and was verified in simulation. These modifications and results prepare the EAV and X-SCAV to be used in a wide variety of flight research projects.

  15. Aerial image simulation for partial coherent system with programming development in MATLAB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Md. Nazmul; Rahman, Md. Momtazur; Udoy, Ariful Banna

    2014-10-01

    Aerial image can be calculated by either Abbe's method or sum of coherent system decomposition (SOCS) method for partial coherent system. This paper introduces a programming with Matlab code that changes the analytical representation of Abbe's method to the matrix form, which has advantages for both Abbe's method and SOCS since matrix calculation is easier than double integration over object plane or pupil plane. First a singular matrix P is derived from a pupil function and effective light source in the spatial frequency domain. By applying Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) to the matrix P, eigenvalues and eigenfunctions are obtained. The aerial image can then be computed by the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions without calculation of Transmission Cross Coefficient (TCC). The aerial final image is almost identical as an original cross mask and the intensity distribution on image plane shows that it is almost uniform across the linewidth of the mask.

  16. A two-camera imaging system for pest detection and aerial application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation reports on the design and testing of an airborne two-camera imaging system for pest detection and aerial application assessment. The system consists of two digital cameras with 5616 x 3744 effective pixels. One camera captures normal color images with blue, green and red bands, whi...

  17. Evaluation of Application Accuracy and Performance of a Hydraulically Operated Variable-Rate Aerial Application System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An aerial variable-rate application system consisting of a DGPS-based guidance system, automatic flow controller, and hydraulically controlled pump/valve was evaluated for response time to rapidly changing flow requirements and accuracy of application. Spray deposition position error was evaluated ...

  18. Improving Flow Response of a Variable-rate Aerial Application System by Interactive Refinement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate response of a variable-rate aerial application controller to changing flow rates and to improve its response at correspondingly varying system pressures. System improvements have been made by refinement of the control algorithms over time in collaboration with ...

  19. Rangeland remote sensing applications with unmanned aerial systems (UAS) in the national airspace: challenges and experiences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, civilian applications of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) have increased considerably due to their greater availability and the miniaturization of sensors, GPS, inertial measurement units, and other hardware. UAS are well suited for rangeland remote sensing applications, because of the...

  20. Airborne Wireless Optical Communication System in Low Altitude Using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Meiwei; Tong, Zheng; Yu, Xiangyu; Song, Yuhang; Lin, Aobo; Xu, Jing

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the feasibility of airborne wireless optical communication system using an unmanned aerial vehicle and LEDs. Monte Carlo simulation method is used to evaluate the performance of the communication channel. Considering OOK modulation, we illustrate how the BER performance is affected by the link distance, the divergence angel and the deflection angel of the light source.

  1. Field scale evaluation of spray drift reduction technologies from ground and aerial application systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this work is to evaluate a proposed Test Plan for the validation testing of pesticide spray drift reduction technologies for row and field crops, focusing on the testing of ground and aerial application systems under full-scale field evaluations. The measure of performance for a gi...

  2. Progress and Field Evaluation of Aerial Variable-Rate Systems for Liquid Application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flow control systems for aerial spraying have been evaluated at the USDA, ARS, CPSRU over the past 12 years. Early experiments were designed to evaluate the ability of flow controllers to provide a desired application rate regardless of changes in ground speed. More recent testing has focused on var...

  3. Crop Status Monitoring using Multispectral and Thermal Imaging systems for Accessible Aerial Platforms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural aircraft and unmanned aerial systems (UAS) are easily scheduled and accessible remote sensing platforms. Canopy temperature data were taken with an Electrophysics PV-320T thermal imaging camera mounted in agricultural aircraft. Weather data and soil water potential were monitored and th...

  4. A low-cost dual-camera imaging system for aerial applicators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural aircraft provide a readily available remote sensing platform as low-cost and easy-to-use consumer-grade cameras are being increasingly used for aerial imaging. In this article, we report on a dual-camera imaging system we recently assembled that can capture RGB and near-infrared (NIR) i...

  5. Development of a new modular aerial spray system and night application capability for the U.S. Air Force

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. Air Force maintains a capability with the C130 aircraft to conduct aerial spray operations over large areas for controlling insects of medical importance. The current modular aerial spray system (MASS) is custom designed to support a variety of configurations from ultralow volume space spra...

  6. Design and realization of an AEC&AGC system for the CCD aerial camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hai ying; Feng, Bing; Wang, Peng; Li, Yan; Wei, Hao yun

    2015-08-01

    An AEC and AGC(Automatic Exposure Control and Automatic Gain Control) system was designed for a CCD aerial camera with fixed aperture and electronic shutter. The normal AEC and AGE algorithm is not suitable to the aerial camera since the camera always takes high-resolution photographs in high-speed moving. The AEC and AGE system adjusts electronic shutter and camera gain automatically according to the target brightness and the moving speed of the aircraft. An automatic Gamma correction is used before the image is output so that the image is better for watching and analyzing by human eyes. The AEC and AGC system could avoid underexposure, overexposure, or image blurring caused by fast moving or environment vibration. A series of tests proved that the system meet the requirements of the camera system with its fast adjusting speed, high adaptability, high reliability in severe complex environment.

  7. The Proposed Use of Unmanned Aerial System Surrogate Research Aircraft for National Airspace System Integration Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Charles T., III

    2011-01-01

    Research is needed to determine what procedures, aircraft sensors and other systems will be required to allow Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to safely operate with manned aircraft in the National Airspace System (NAS). This paper explores the use of Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Surrogate research aircraft to serve as platforms for UAS systems research, development, and flight testing. These aircraft would be manned with safety pilots and researchers that would allow for flight operations almost anywhere in the NAS without the need for a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Certificate of Authorization (COA). With pilot override capability, these UAS Surrogate aircraft would be controlled from ground stations like true UAS s. It would be possible to file and fly these UAS Surrogate aircraft in the NAS with normal traffic and they would be better platforms for real world UAS research and development over existing vehicles flying in restricted ranges or other sterilized airspace. These UAS surrogate aircraft could be outfitted with research systems as required such as computers, state sensors, video recording, data acquisition, data link, telemetry, instrumentation, and Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B). These surrogate aircraft could also be linked to onboard or ground based simulation facilities to further extend UAS research capabilities. Potential areas for UAS Surrogate research include the development, flight test and evaluation of sensors to aide in the process of air traffic "see-and-avoid". These and other sensors could be evaluated in real-time and compared with onboard human evaluation pilots. This paper examines the feasibility of using UAS Surrogate research aircraft as test platforms for a variety of UAS related research.

  8. Implementation of AN Unmanned Aerial Vehicle System for Large Scale Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mah, S. B.; Cryderman, C. S.

    2015-08-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), digital cameras, powerful personal computers, and software have made it possible for geomatics professionals to capture aerial photographs and generate digital terrain models and orthophotographs without using full scale aircraft or hiring mapping professionals. This has been made possible by the availability of miniaturized computers and sensors, and software which has been driven, in part, by the demand for this technology in consumer items such as smartphones. The other force that is in play is the increasing number of Do-It-Yourself (DIY) people who are building UAVs as a hobby or for professional use. Building a UAV system for mapping is an alternative to purchasing a turnkey system. This paper describes factors to be considered when building a UAV mapping system, the choices made, and the test results of a project using this completed system.

  9. Methodological preliminaries to the development of an expert system for aerial photo interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, R. R.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes an investigation of the psychological aspects that affect the reasoning of expert aerial photo interpreters. The purpose of the study is to help develop an artificial intelligence expert system to aid terrain analysis. Artificial intelligence offers tools for studying and representing expert knowledge and reasoning. This study examines four methods for extracting the expert's knowledge: the Standard Terrain Analysis Method, the Structured Interview Method, the Limited Information Task, and the Method of Tough Cases. Criteria are presented for analyzing the four methods, and criteria that must pertain to aerial photo interpretation in order for expert systems tools to be applicable are described. This report discusses the structure of expert systems in general and the structure of an expert system for photo interpretation in particular.

  10. Unmanned Aerial Systems and Spectroscopy for Remote Sensing Applications in Archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Themistocleous, K.; Agapiou, A.; Cuca, B.; Hadjimitsis, D. G.

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing has open up new dimensions in archaeological research. Although there has been significant progress in increasing the resolution of space/aerial sensors and image processing, the detection of the crop (and soil marks) formations, which relate to buried archaeological remains, are difficult to detect since these marks may not be visible in the images if observed over different period or at different spatial/spectral resolution. In order to support the improvement of earth observation remote sensing technologies specifically targeting archaeological research, a better understanding of the crop/soil marks formation needs to be studied in detail. In this paper the contribution of both Unmanned Aerial Systems as well ground spectroradiometers is discussed in a variety of examples applied in the eastern Mediterranean region (Cyprus and Greece) as well in Central Europe (Hungary). In- situ spectroradiometric campaigns can be applied for the removal of atmospheric impact to simultaneous satellite overpass images. In addition, as shown in this paper, the systematic collection of ground truth data prior to the satellite/aerial acquisition can be used to detect the optimum temporal and spectral resolution for the detection of stress vegetation related to buried archaeological remains. Moreover, phenological studies of the crops from the area of interest can be simulated to the potential sensors based on their Relative Response Filters and therefore prepare better the satellite-aerial campaigns. Ground data and the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) can provide an increased insight for studying the formation of crop and soil marks. New algorithms such as vegetation indices and linear orthogonal equations for the enhancement of crop marks can be developed based on the specific spectral characteristics of the area. As well, UAS can be used for remote sensing applications in order to document, survey and model cultural heritage and archaeological sites.

  11. The Smart Aerial Release Machine, a Universal System for Applying the Sterile Insect Technique

    PubMed Central

    Mubarqui, Ruben Leal; Perez, Rene Cano; Kladt, Roberto Angulo; Lopez, Jose Luis Zavala; Parker, Andrew; Seck, Momar Talla; Sall, Baba; Bouyer, Jérémy

    2014-01-01

    Background Beyond insecticides, alternative methods to control insect pests for agriculture and vectors of diseases are needed. Management strategies involving the mass-release of living control agents have been developed, including genetic control with sterile insects and biological control with parasitoids, for which aerial release of insects is often required. Aerial release in genetic control programmes often involves the use of chilled sterile insects, which can improve dispersal, survival and competitiveness of sterile males. Currently available means of aerially releasing chilled fruit flies are however insufficiently precise to ensure homogeneous distribution at low release rates and no device is available for tsetse. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we present the smart aerial release machine, a new design by the Mubarqui Company, based on the use of vibrating conveyors. The machine is controlled through Bluetooth by a tablet with Android Operating System including a completely automatic guidance and navigation system (MaxNav software). The tablet is also connected to an online relational database facilitating the preparation of flight schedules and automatic storage of flight reports. The new machine was compared with a conveyor release machine in Mexico using two fruit flies species (Anastrepha ludens and Ceratitis capitata) and we obtained better dispersal homogeneity (% of positive traps, p<0.001) for both species and better recapture rates for Anastrepha ludens (p<0.001), especially at low release densities (<1500 per ha). We also demonstrated that the machine can replace paper boxes for aerial release of tsetse in Senegal. Conclusions/Significance This technology limits damages to insects and allows a large range of release rates from 10 flies/km2 for tsetse flies up to 600 000 flies/km2 for fruit flies. The potential of this machine to release other species like mosquitoes is discussed. Plans and operating of the machine are provided to allow its

  12. The U.S. Department of Energy's Aerial Measuring System (AMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Marianno

    2008-03-01

    For nearly 40 years, aerial radiological search and survey missions have been performed by the United States Department of Energy's (USDOE) Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL). Originally created in 1967 as Aerial Measurement Operations (AMO), the AMS mission has expanded to include acquiring baseline measurements, performing periodic area monitoring, and responding to radiological emergencies. In an accident scenario, AMS fixed-wing and/or rotary-wing systems can be deployed to map radiological deposition. A fixed-wing system is on standby twenty-fours per day, seven days per week and can be deployed within four hours of notification. It can quickly evaluate high levels of radiation which may constitute immediate health risks. To accomplish its mission the fixed-wing aircraft utilizes the Spectral Aerial Radiological Computer System (SPARCS) which records gross count and spectral information. Data from SPARCS is telemetered to ground stations and secure websites where it can be viewed and evaluated in near-real time. The rotary-wing system deploys following the critical phase of an accident and supports the DOE's Consequence Management Response Team (CMRT) in determining long term consequences of the accident. The rotary wing aircraft utilizes the Radiation and Environmental Data Acquisition and Recording System (REDAR). A 25-liter sodium iodide (NaI) spectral system and precise positioning allow distributed man-made activity of less than 1 {micro}R/hr at ground level to be precisely mapped. This talk will discuss history of the USDOE's AMS program and its current efforts to conduct baseline aerial surveys of some US cities.

  13. Mapping of a river using close range photogrammetry technique and unmanned aerial vehicle system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Room, M. H. M.; Ahmad, A.

    2014-02-01

    Photogrammetry is a technique that can be used to record the information of any feature without direct contact. Nowadays, a combination of photogrammetry and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) systems is widely used for various applications, especially for large scale mapping. UAV systems offer several advantages in terms of cost and image resolution compared to terrestrial photogrammetry and remote sensing system. Therefore, a combination of photogrammetry and UAV created a new term which is UAV photogrammetry. The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of a UAV system to map a river at very close distance. A digital camera is attached to the Hexacopter UAV and it is flown at 2 m above the ground surface to produce aerial photos. Then, the aerial photos are processed to create two photogrammetric products as output. These are mosaicked orthophoto and digital image. Both products are assessed (RSME). The RSME of X and Y coordinates are ±0.009 m and ±0.033 m respectively. As a conclusion, photogrammetry and the UAV system offer a reliable accuracy for mapping a river model and advantages in term of cost-efficient, high ground resolution and rapid data acquisition.

  14. Crop pest management with an aerial imaging system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology has been developed, which scientists can implement to help farmers maximize the economic and environmental benefits of crop pest management through precision agriculture. Airborne remo...

  15. Accuracy Comparison of Digital Surface Models Created by Unmanned Aerial Systems Imagery and Terrestrial Laser Scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumann, M.; Geist, M.; Bill, R.; Niemeyer, F.; Grenzdörffer, G.

    2013-08-01

    The main focus of the paper is a comparative study in which we have investigated, whether automatically generated digital surface models (DSM) obtained from unmanned aerial systems (UAS) imagery are comparable with DSM obtained from terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). The research is conducted at a pilot dike for coastal engineering. The effort and the achievable accuracy of both DSMs are compared. The error budgets of these two methods are investigated and the models obtained in each case compared against each other.

  16. Human Systems Integration and Automation Issues in Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCauley, Michael E.; Matsangas, Panagiotis

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this report is to identify Human System Integration (HSI) and automation issues that contribute to improved effectiveness and efficiency in the operation of U.S. military Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (SUAVs). HSI issues relevant to SUAV operations are reviewed and observations from field trials are summarized. Short-term improvements are suggested research issues are identified and an overview is provided of automation technologies applicable to future SUAV design.

  17. The aerial relay system: An energy-efficient solution to the airport congestion problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyser, A. C.

    1980-01-01

    The ability to transfer airline passengers between aircraft in flight, if adequately developed and integrated into the national air transportation system, could provide significant improvements in transportation-system performance, in terms of airport congestion, fuel consumption, and passenger service. The proposed Aerial Relay System concept, which was developed as a means of exploiting inflight transfer, makes use of large 'cruise liner' aircraft which fly continuously along their routes, docking periodically with short-haul feeder aircraft for exchange of payloads. Preliminary vehicle designs for a representative system are described and the operational feasibility of the concept for the United States in the 1990's is discussed.

  18. On Board Data Acquisition System with Intelligent Transducers for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochala, Zdzisław

    2012-02-01

    This report presents conclusions from research project no. ON50900363 conducted at the Mechatronics Department, Military University of Technology in the years 2007-2010. As the main object of the study involved the preparation of a concept and the implementation of an avionics data acquisition system intended for research during flight of unmanned aerial vehicles of the mini class, this article presents a design of an avionics system and describes equipment solutions of a distributed measurement system intended for data acquisition consisting of intelligent transducers. The data collected during a flight controlled by an operator confirmed proper operation of the individual components of the data acquisition system.

  19. Modeling and optimization of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles system architecture alternatives.

    PubMed

    Qin, Dongliang; Li, Zhifei; Yang, Feng; Wang, Weiping; He, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) systems have already been used in civilian activities, although very limitedly. Confronted different types of tasks, multi UAVs usually need to be coordinated. This can be extracted as a multi UAVs system architecture problem. Based on the general system architecture problem, a specific description of the multi UAVs system architecture problem is presented. Then the corresponding optimization problem and an efficient genetic algorithm with a refined crossover operator (GA-RX) is proposed to accomplish the architecting process iteratively in the rest of this paper. The availability and effectiveness of overall method is validated using 2 simulations based on 2 different scenarios. PMID:25140328

  20. Modeling and Optimization of Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles System Architecture Alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weiping; He, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) systems have already been used in civilian activities, although very limitedly. Confronted different types of tasks, multi UAVs usually need to be coordinated. This can be extracted as a multi UAVs system architecture problem. Based on the general system architecture problem, a specific description of the multi UAVs system architecture problem is presented. Then the corresponding optimization problem and an efficient genetic algorithm with a refined crossover operator (GA-RX) is proposed to accomplish the architecting process iteratively in the rest of this paper. The availability and effectiveness of overall method is validated using 2 simulations based on 2 different scenarios. PMID:25140328

  1. A system for simulating aerial or orbital TV observations of geographic patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latham, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    A system which simulates observation of the earth surface by aerial or orbiting television devices has been developed. By projecting color slides of photographs taken by aircraft and orbiting sensors upon a rear screen system, and altering scale of projected image, screen position, or TV camera position, it is possible to simulate alternatives of altitude, or optical systems. By altering scan line patterns in COHU 3200 series camera from 525 to 945 scan lines, it is possible to study implications of scan line resolution upon the detection and analysis of geographic patterns observed by orbiting TV systems.

  2. Mobile Aerial Tracking and Imaging System (MATRIS) for Aeronautical Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Daniel W.; Blanchard, R. C.; Miller, G. M.

    2004-01-01

    A mobile, rapidly deployable ground-based system to track and image targets of aeronautical interest has been developed. Targets include reentering reusable launch vehicles (RLVs) as well as atmospheric and transatmospheric vehicles. The optics were designed to image targets in the visible and infrared wavelengths. To minimize acquisition cost and development time, the system uses commercially available hardware and software where possible. The conception and initial funding of this system originated with a study of ground-based imaging of global aerothermal characteristics of RLV configurations. During that study NASA teamed with the Missile Defense Agency/Innovative Science and Technology Experimentation Facility (MDA/ISTEF) to test techniques and analysis on two Space Shuttle flights.

  3. Semi-auto assessment system on building damage caused by landslide disaster with high-resolution satellite and aerial images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Bo; Xu, Qihua; He, Jun; Ge, Fengxiang; Wang, Ying

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, earthquake and heavy rain have triggered more and more landslides, which have caused serious economic losses. The timely detection of the disaster area and the assessment of the hazard are necessary and primary for disaster mitigation and relief. As high-resolution satellite and aerial images have been widely used in the field of environmental monitoring and disaster management, the damage assessment by processing satellite and aerial images has become a hot spot of research work. The rapid assessment of building damage caused by landslides with high-resolution satellite or aerial images is the focus of this article. In this paper, after analyzing the morphological characteristics of the landslide disaster, we proposed a set of criteria for rating building damage, and designed a semi-automatic evaluation system. The system is applied to the satellite and aerial images processing. The performance of the experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of our system.

  4. CONTINGENCY PLANNING WITH AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The incident at the 3 Mile Island Nuclear Plant has led to many changes in the operation and employee training in U.S. Nuclear Power Industry. This paper presents an approach to the preparation of a comprehensive geographic information system that would meet the needs for monitor...

  5. Aerial EM Survey Reveals Groundwater Systems Beneath Taylor Valley, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugan, H.; Mikucki, J.; Auken, E.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Virginia, R. A.; Schamper, C.; Sørensen, K.; Doran, P. T.; Foley, N.

    2014-12-01

    The extent of groundwater and its potential habitability in the ice-free regions and along the coastal margins of Antarctica is poorly understood. Here we report on an airborne transient electromagnetic survey in Antarctica, which for the first time produced extensive imagery of subsurface resistivity in Taylor Valley, an ice-free margin of the Ross Sea. Wide zones of low subsurface resistivity were detected that are inconsistent with the typical high resistivity of glacier ice or dry permafrost. These results are interpreted as an indication that water, with sufficiently high solute content to remain unfrozen well below 0°C, temperatures considered within the range suitable for microbial life. The inferred subsurface brines are widespread and form two isolated groundwater systems: a near shore system, which extends from the ocean 18 km inland; and a sub-/proglacial system, which emanates from beneath Taylor Glacier into Lake Bonney and is associated with the discharge from Blood Falls. The brine networks in Taylor Valley challenge the notion that groundwater is negligible in regions of continuous permafrost, and signify the potential for a deep biosphere that is hydrologically and geochemically connected to the marine system and subglacial environments.

  6. Condor TAC: EO/IR tactical aerial reconnaissance photography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrushevsky, Vladimir; Tsur, David

    2012-06-01

    Based on the experience gained with the Condor2 long-range oblique photography (LOROP) camera, ELOP is expanding its airborne reconnaissance product line with the Condor TAC tactical photography system. The latter was designed for overflight imaging of extended areas from a fighter or special mission aircraft, at day and night. The Condor TAC is mounted in an aerodynamically shaped pod and can operate in wide envelope of flight altitude and speed. Besides the camera, the pod contains mission management and video processing unit (MVU), solid state recorder (SSR), wide-band data link (DL) for real-time imagery transmission, and two environmental control units (ECU). Complex multi-segment optical windows were successfully developed for the system. The camera system design is modular and highly flexible. Two independent imaging payload modules are mounted inside a gimbal system. Each of the modules is equipped with a strap-down IMU, and may carry a cluster of cameras or a single large camera with gross weight up to 35 kg. The payload modules are interchangeable, with an identical interface to the gimbal. The modularity and open architecture of the system facilitate its adaptation to various operational requirements, as well as allow easy and relatively non-expensive upgrades and configuration changes. In the current configuration, both EO and IR payload modules are equipped with a combination of longer focal length cameras for bi-directional panoramic scan at medium and high flight altitudes, and shorter focal length cameras for fixed wide angle coverage at low altitudes. All the camera types are equipped with standard format, off-the-shelf area detector arrays. Precise motion compensation is achieved by calibrated back-scan mirrors.

  7. USE OF THE AERIAL MEASUREMENT SYSTEM HELICOPTER EMERGENCY RESPONSE ACQUISITION SYSTEMS WITH GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR RADIOACTIVE SOIL REMEDIATION - [11504

    SciTech Connect

    BROCK CT

    2011-02-15

    The Aerial Measurement System (AMS) Helicopter Emergency Response Acquisition System provides a thorough and economical means to identify and characterize the contaminants for large area radiological surveys. The helicopter system can provide a 100-percent survey of an area that qualifies as a scoping survey under the Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM) methodology. If the sensitivity is adequate when compared to the clean up values, it may also be used for the characterization survey. The data from the helicopter survey can be displayed and manipulated to provide invaluable data during remediation activities.

  8. Accuracy Potential and Applications of MIDAS Aerial Oblique Camera System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madani, M.

    2012-07-01

    Airborne oblique cameras such as Fairchild T-3A were initially used for military reconnaissance in 30s. A modern professional digital oblique camera such as MIDAS (Multi-camera Integrated Digital Acquisition System) is used to generate lifelike three dimensional to the users for visualizations, GIS applications, architectural modeling, city modeling, games, simulators, etc. Oblique imagery provide the best vantage for accessing and reviewing changes to the local government tax base, property valuation assessment, buying & selling of residential/commercial for better decisions in a more timely manner. Oblique imagery is also used for infrastructure monitoring making sure safe operations of transportation, utilities, and facilities. Sanborn Mapping Company acquired one MIDAS from TrackAir in 2011. This system consists of four tilted (45 degrees) cameras and one vertical camera connected to a dedicated data acquisition computer system. The 5 digital cameras are based on the Canon EOS 1DS Mark3 with Zeiss lenses. The CCD size is 5,616 by 3,744 (21 MPixels) with the pixel size of 6.4 microns. Multiple flights using different camera configurations (nadir/oblique (28 mm/50 mm) and (50 mm/50 mm)) were flown over downtown Colorado Springs, Colorado. Boresight fights for 28 mm nadir camera were flown at 600 m and 1,200 m and for 50 mm nadir camera at 750 m and 1500 m. Cameras were calibrated by using a 3D cage and multiple convergent images utilizing Australis model. In this paper, the MIDAS system is described, a number of real data sets collected during the aforementioned flights are presented together with their associated flight configurations, data processing workflow, system calibration and quality control workflows are highlighted and the achievable accuracy is presented in some detail. This study revealed that the expected accuracy of about 1 to 1.5 GSD (Ground Sample Distance) for planimetry and about 2 to 2.5 GSD for vertical can be achieved. Remaining systematic

  9. A computer vision system for the recognition of trees in aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinz, Axel J.

    1991-01-01

    Increasing problems of forest damage in Central Europe set the demand for an appropriate forest damage assessment tool. The Vision Expert System (VES) is presented which is capable of finding trees in color infrared aerial photographs. Concept and architecture of VES are discussed briefly. The system is applied to a multisource test data set. The processing of this multisource data set leads to a multiple interpretation result for one scene. An integration of these results will provide a better scene description by the vision system. This is achieved by an implementation of Steven's correlation algorithm.

  10. Safely Enabling Civilian Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace by Unmanned Aerial System Traffic Management (UTM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal Hemchandra

    2015-01-01

    Many UAS will operate at lower altitude (Class G, below 2000 feet). There is an urgent need for a system for civilian low-altitude airspace and UAS operations. Stakeholders want to work with NASA to enable safe operations.

  11. Safely Enabling Civilian Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Operations In Low-Altitude Airspace By Unmanned Aerial System Traffic Management (UTM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2015-01-01

    Many UAS will operate at lower altitude (Class G, below 2000 feet)There is urgent need for a system for civilian low-altitude airspace and UAS operations. Stakeholders want to work with NASA to enable safe operations.

  12. Aerial Deployment and Inflation System for Mars Helium Balloons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lachenmeler, Tim; Fairbrother, Debora; Shreves, Chris; Hall, Jeffery, L.; Kerzhanovich, Viktor V.; Pauken, Michael T.; Walsh, Gerald J.; White, Christopher V.

    2009-01-01

    A method is examined for safely deploying and inflating helium balloons for missions at Mars. The key for making it possible to deploy balloons that are light enough to be buoyant in the thin, Martian atmosphere is to mitigate the transient forces on the balloon that might tear it. A fully inflated Mars balloon has a diameter of 10 m, so it must be folded up for the trip to Mars, unfolded upon arrival, and then inflated with helium gas in the atmosphere. Safe entry into the Martian atmosphere requires the use of an aeroshell vehicle, which protects against severe heating and pressure loads associated with the hypersonic entry flight. Drag decelerates the aeroshell to supersonic speeds, then two parachutes deploy to slow the vehicle down to the needed safe speed of 25 to 35 m/s for balloon deployment. The parachute system descent dynamic pressure must be approximately 5 Pa or lower at an altitude of 4 km or more above the surface.

  13. Aerial multi-camera systems: Accuracy and block triangulation issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupnik, Ewelina; Nex, Francesco; Toschi, Isabella; Remondino, Fabio

    2015-03-01

    Oblique photography has reached its maturity and has now been adopted for several applications. The number and variety of multi-camera oblique platforms available on the market is continuously growing. So far, few attempts have been made to study the influence of the additional cameras on the behaviour of the image block and comprehensive revisions to existing flight patterns are yet to be formulated. This paper looks into the precision and accuracy of 3D points triangulated from diverse multi-camera oblique platforms. Its coverage is divided into simulated and real case studies. Within the simulations, different imaging platform parameters and flight patterns are varied, reflecting both current market offerings and common flight practices. Attention is paid to the aspect of completeness in terms of dense matching algorithms and 3D city modelling - the most promising application of such systems. The experimental part demonstrates the behaviour of two oblique imaging platforms in real-world conditions. A number of Ground Control Point (GCP) configurations are adopted in order to point out the sensitivity of tested imaging networks and arising block deformations. To stress the contribution of slanted views, all scenarios are compared against a scenario in which exclusively nadir images are used for evaluation.

  14. Diagnostic Reasoning using Prognostic Information for Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann; Roychoudhury, Indranil; Kulkarni, Chetan

    2015-01-01

    With increasing popularity of unmanned aircraft, continuous monitoring of their systems, software, and health status is becoming more and more important to ensure safe, correct, and efficient operation and fulfillment of missions. The paper presents integration of prognosis models and prognostic information with the R2U2 (REALIZABLE, RESPONSIVE, and UNOBTRUSIVE Unit) monitoring and diagnosis framework. This integration makes available statistically reliable health information predictions of the future at a much earlier time to enable autonomous decision making. The prognostic information can be used in the R2U2 model to improve diagnostic accuracy and enable decisions to be made at the present time to deal with events in the future. This will be an advancement over the current state of the art, where temporal logic observers can only do such valuation at the end of the time interval. Usefulness and effectiveness of this integrated diagnostics and prognostics framework was demonstrated using simulation experiments with the NASA Dragon Eye electric unmanned aircraft.

  15. Reducing Size, Weight, and Power (SWaP) of Perception Systems in Small Autonomous Aerial Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Kennie H.; Gross, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The objectives are to examine recent trends in the reduction of size, weight, and power (SWaP) requirements of sensor systems for environmental perception and to explore new technology that may overcome limitations in current systems. Improving perception systems to facilitate situation awareness is critical in the move to introduce increasing autonomy in aerial systems. Whether the autonomy is in the current state-of-the-art of increasing automation or is enabling cognitive decisions that facilitate adaptive behavior, collection of environmental information and fusion of that information into knowledge that can direct actuation is imperative to decisions resulting in appropriate behavior. Artificial sensory systems such as cameras, radar, LIDAR, and acoustic sensors have been in use on aircraft for many years but, due to the large size and weight of the airplane and electrical power made available through powerful engines, the SWaP requirements of these sensors was inconsequential. With the proliferation of Remote Piloted Vehicles (RPV), the trend is in significant reduction in SWaP of the vehicles. This requires at least an equivalent reduction in SWaP for the sensory systems. A survey of some currently available sensor systems and changing technology will reveal the trend toward reduction of SWaP of these systems and will predict future reductions. A new technology will be introduced that provides an example of a desirable new trend. A new device replaces multiple conventional sensory devices facilitating synchronization, localization, altimetry, collision avoidance, terrain mapping, and data communication in a single integrated, small form-factor, extremely lightweight, and low power device that it is practical for integration into small autonomous vehicles and can facilitate cooperative behavior. The technology is based on Ultra WideBand (UWB) radio using short pulses of energy rather than continuous sine waves. The characteristics of UWB yield several

  16. a Uav Based Close-Range Rapid Aerial Monitoring System for Emergency Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, K.; Lee, I.

    2011-09-01

    As the occurrences and scales of disasters and accidents have been increased due to the global warming, the terrorists' attacks, and many other reasons, the demand for rapid responses for the emergent situations also has been thus ever-increasing. These emergency responses are required to be customized to each individual site for more effective management of the emergent situations. These requirements can be satisfied with the decisions based on the spatial changes on the target area, which should be detected immediately or in real-time. Aerial monitoring without human operators is an appropriate means because the emergency areas are usually inaccessible. Therefore, a UAV is a strong candidate as the platform for the aerial monitoring. In addition, the sensory data from the UAV system usually have higher resolution than other system because the system can operate at a lower altitude. If the transmission and processing of the data could be performed in real-time, the spatial changes of the target area can be detected with high spatial and temporal resolution by the UAV rapid mapping systems. As a result, we aim to develop a rapid aerial mapping system based on a UAV, whose key features are the effective acquisition of the sensory data, real-time transmission and processing of the data. In this paper, we will introduce the general concept of our system, including the main features, intermediate results, and explain our real-time sensory data georeferencing algorithm which is a core for prompt generation of the spatial information from the sensory data.

  17. Automatic Forest-Fire Measuring Using Ground Stations and Unmanned Aerial Systems

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-de Dios, José Ramiro; Merino, Luis; Caballero, Fernando; Ollero, Anibal

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel system for automatic forest-fire measurement using cameras distributed at ground stations and mounted on Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). It can obtain geometrical measurements of forest fires in real-time such as the location and shape of the fire front, flame height and rate of spread, among others. Measurement of forest fires is a challenging problem that is affected by numerous potential sources of error. The proposed system addresses them by exploiting the complementarities between infrared and visual cameras located at different ground locations together with others onboard Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). The system applies image processing and geo-location techniques to obtain forest-fire measurements individually from each camera and then integrates the results from all the cameras using statistical data fusion techniques. The proposed system has been extensively tested and validated in close-to-operational conditions in field fire experiments with controlled safety conditions carried out in Portugal and Spain from 2001 to 2006. PMID:22163958

  18. Automatic forest-fire measuring using ground stations and Unmanned Aerial Systems.

    PubMed

    Martínez-de Dios, José Ramiro; Merino, Luis; Caballero, Fernando; Ollero, Anibal

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel system for automatic forest-fire measurement using cameras distributed at ground stations and mounted on Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). It can obtain geometrical measurements of forest fires in real-time such as the location and shape of the fire front, flame height and rate of spread, among others. Measurement of forest fires is a challenging problem that is affected by numerous potential sources of error. The proposed system addresses them by exploiting the complementarities between infrared and visual cameras located at different ground locations together with others onboard Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). The system applies image processing and geo-location techniques to obtain forest-fire measurements individually from each camera and then integrates the results from all the cameras using statistical data fusion techniques. The proposed system has been extensively tested and validated in close-to-operational conditions in field fire experiments with controlled safety conditions carried out in Portugal and Spain from 2001 to 2006. PMID:22163958

  19. Semi-active magnetorheological refueling probe systems for aerial refueling events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Young-Tai; Wereley, Norman M.

    2013-09-01

    This study analyzes the feasibility of applying a semi-active magnetorheological (MR) damper to a naval hose-drogue based aerial refueling system to minimize undesirable hose-drogue vibrations. The semi-active smart aerial refueling probe system consists of a probe, a coil spring, and a MR damper. The dynamics of the smart refueling probe system were derived and incorporated into an analysis of the coupled hose-drogue dynamics, so as to evaluate the load reduction of the refueling hose at the drogue position effected by the MR damper. The simulated responses of the smart refueling probe system using a MR damper were conducted at different maximum closure velocities of 1.56 and 5 ft s-1 and different tanker flight speeds of 185 and 220 knots. The simulations demonstrate that the smart refueling probe system using a MR damper enables large reductions in probe-and-drogue motions, as well as preventing the onset of large and undesirable hose-drogue motions resulting from tension loads during engagement of the probe.

  20. Quality of DEMs derived from Kite Aerial Photogrammety System: a case study of Dutch coastal environments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paron, Paolo; Smith, Mike J.; Anders, Niels; Meesuk, Vorawit

    2014-05-01

    Coastal protection is one of the main challenges for the Netherlands, where a large proportion of anthropogenic activity is located below sea level (both residential and economic). The Dutch government is implementing an innovative method of coastal replenishment using natural waves and winds to relocate sand from one side to the other of the country. This requires close monitoring of the spatio-temporal evolution of beaches in order to correctly model the future direction and amount of sand movement. To do so -on the onshore beach- we tested a Kite-Aerial Photography System for monitoring the beach dynamics at Zandmotor (http://www.dezandmotor.nl/en-GB/). The equipment used for data collection were a commercial DSLR camera (Nikon D7000 with a 20mm lens), gyro-levelled rig, Sutton Flowform 16 kite and Leica GNSS Viva GS10, with GSM connection to the Dutch geodetic network. We flew using a 115 m line with an average inclination of 40 to 45°; this gave a camera vertical distance of ~80 m and pixel size of ~20 mm. The methodology follows that of Smith et al. (2009), and of Paron & Smith (2013), applied to a highly dynamic environment with low texture and small relief conditions. Here we present a comparison of the quality of the digital elevation model (DEM) generated from the same dataset using two different systems: Structure from Motion (SfM) using Agisoft Photoscan Pro and traditional photogrammetry using Leica Photograpmmetry Suite. In addition the outputs from the two data processing methods are presented, including both an image mosaic and DEM, and highlighting pros and cons of both methods. References Smith, M. J. et al. 2009. High spatial resolution data acquisition for the geosciences: kite aerial photography. ESPL, 34(1), 155-161. Paron, P., Smith, M.J. 2013. Kite aerial photogrammetry system for monitoring coastal change in the Netherlands. 8th IAG International Conference on Geomorphology, Paris, August.

  1. Unmanned aerial vehicles for rangeland mapping and monitoring: a comparison of two systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerial photography from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) bridges the gap between ground-based observations and remotely sensed imagery from aerial and satellite platforms. UAVs can be deployed quickly and repeatedly, are less costly and safer than piloted aircraft, and can obtain very high-resolution...

  2. The application of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) in geophysical investigations of geothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glen, J. M.; Egger, A. E.; Ippolito, C.; Phelps, G. A.; Berthold, R.; Lee, R.; Spritzer, J. M.; Tchernychev, M.

    2012-12-01

    Investigations of geothermal systems typically involve ground-based geological and geophysical studies in order to map structures that control and facilitate fluid flow. The spatial extent of ground-based investigations can be limited, however, by surficial hot springs, dense foliage, and roadless or private lands. This can result in data gaps in key areas, particularly around active hydrothermal springs. Manned aircraft can provide access to these areas and can yield broad and uniform data coverage, but high-resolution surveys are costly and relatively inflexible to changes in the survey specifications that may arise as data are collected. Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) are well suited for conducting these surveys, but until recently, various factors (scientific instrumentation requirements, platform limitations, and size of the survey area) have required the use of large UAS platforms, rendering unmanned aerial surveys unsuitable for most investigations. We have developed and tested a new cesium magnetometer system to collect magnetic data using two different small-platform UAS that overcomes many of the challenges described above. We are deploying this new system in Surprise Valley, CA, to study the area's active geothermal field. Surprise Valley is ideally suited to testing UAS due to its low population density, accessible airspace, and broad playa that provides ample opportunity to safely land the aircraft. In combination with gravity and topographic data, magnetic data are particularly useful for identifying buried, intra-basin structures, especially in areas such as Surprise Valley where highly magnetic, dense mafic volcanic rocks are interbedded with and faulted against less magnetic, less dense sedimentary rock. While high-resolution gravity data must be collected at point locations on the ground, high-resolution magnetic data can be obtained by UAS that provide continuous coverage. Once acquired, the magnetic data obtained by the UAS will be combined with

  3. In situ Volcanic Plume Monitoring with small Unmanned Aerial Systems for Cal/Val of Satellite Remote Sensing Data: CARTA-UAV 2013 Mission (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, J. A.; Pieri, D. C.; Bland, G.; Fladeland, M. M.

    2013-12-01

    The development of small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) with a variety of sensor packages, enables in situ and proximal remote sensing measurements of volcanic plumes. Using Costa Rican volcanoes as a Natural Laboratory, the University of Costa Rica as host institution, in collaboration with four NASA centers, have started an initiative to develop low-cost, field-deployable airborne platforms to perform volcanic gas & ash plume research, and in-situ volcanic monitoring in general, in conjunction with orbital assets and state-of-the-art models of plume transport and composition. Several gas sensors have been deployed into the active plume of Turrialba Volcano including a miniature mass spectrometer, and an electrochemical SO2 sensor system with temperature, pressure, relative humidity, and GPS sensors. Several different airborne platforms such as manned research aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, tethered balloons, as well as man-portable in-situ ground truth systems are being used for this research. Remote sensing data is also collected from the ASTER and OMI spaceborne instruments and compared with in situ data. The CARTA-UAV 2013 Mission deployment and follow up measurements successfully demonstrated a path to study and visualize gaseous volcanic emissions using mass spectrometer and gas sensor based instrumentation in harsh environment conditions to correlate in situ ground/airborne data with remote sensing satellite data for calibration and validation purposes. The deployment of such technology improves on our current capabilities to detect, analyze, monitor, model, and predict hazards presented to aircraft by volcanogenic ash clouds from active and impending volcanic eruptions.

  4. Monocular Vision System for Fixed Altitude Flight of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuo-Lung; Chiu, Chung-Cheng; Chiu, Sheng-Yi; Teng, Yao-Jen; Hao, Shu-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    The fastest and most economical method of acquiring terrain images is aerial photography. The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has been investigated for this task. However, UAVs present a range of challenges such as flight altitude maintenance. This paper reports a method that combines skyline detection with a stereo vision algorithm to enable the flight altitude of UAVs to be maintained. A monocular camera is mounted on the downside of the aircraft's nose to collect continuous ground images, and the relative altitude is obtained via a stereo vision algorithm from the velocity of the UAV. Image detection is used to obtain terrain images, and to measure the relative altitude from the ground to the UAV. The UAV flight system can be set to fly at a fixed and relatively low altitude to obtain the same resolution of ground images. A forward-looking camera is mounted on the upside of the aircraft's nose. In combination with the skyline detection algorithm, this helps the aircraft to maintain a stable flight pattern. Experimental results show that the proposed system enables UAVs to obtain terrain images at constant resolution, and to detect the relative altitude along the flight path. PMID:26184213

  5. Monocular Vision System for Fixed Altitude Flight of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Kuo-Lung; Chiu, Chung-Cheng; Chiu, Sheng-Yi; Teng, Yao-Jen; Hao, Shu-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    The fastest and most economical method of acquiring terrain images is aerial photography. The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has been investigated for this task. However, UAVs present a range of challenges such as flight altitude maintenance. This paper reports a method that combines skyline detection with a stereo vision algorithm to enable the flight altitude of UAVs to be maintained. A monocular camera is mounted on the downside of the aircraft’s nose to collect continuous ground images, and the relative altitude is obtained via a stereo vision algorithm from the velocity of the UAV. Image detection is used to obtain terrain images, and to measure the relative altitude from the ground to the UAV. The UAV flight system can be set to fly at a fixed and relatively low altitude to obtain the same resolution of ground images. A forward-looking camera is mounted on the upside of the aircraft’s nose. In combination with the skyline detection algorithm, this helps the aircraft to maintain a stable flight pattern. Experimental results show that the proposed system enables UAVs to obtain terrain images at constant resolution, and to detect the relative altitude along the flight path. PMID:26184213

  6. Aerial Explorers and Robotic Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg

    2004-01-01

    A unique bio-inspired approach to autonomous aerial vehicle, a.k.a. aerial explorer technology is discussed. The work is focused on defining and studying aerial explorer mission concepts, both as an individual robotic system and as a member of a small robotic "ecosystem." Members of this robotic ecosystem include the aerial explorer, air-deployed sensors and robotic symbiotes, and other assets such as rovers, landers, and orbiters.

  7. Approach warning system for snowplow using aerial-high-power ultrasonic wave with radio wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manabu, Aoyagi; Yuta, Amagi; Hiroaki, Miura; Okeya, Ryota; Hideki, Tamura; Takehiro, Takano

    2012-05-01

    An approach warning system for a snowplow and guide was developed by using aerial-high-power ultrasonic transducer. To be robust against some serious factors in winter, ultrasonic signal and radio one were combined on the system, and the flat face side of stepped circular vibrating plate was utilized as a radiation plate. The ultrasonic wave radiated from the flat face side still had a better directivity, and the flat face had advantage to prevent bad influences from water, snow or ice. From experiment results, when double transducers were set on both sides of roof of snowplow, this system was able to be measure distance between a guide and snowplow in whole of controlled area.

  8. Computational inspection applied to a mask inspection system with advanced aerial imaging capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Linyong; Peng, Danping; He, Lin; Chen, Dongxue; Dam, Thuc; Tolani, Vikram; Tam, Aviram; Staud, Wolf

    2010-03-01

    At the most advanced technology nodes, such as 32nm and 22nm, aggressive OPC and Sub-Resolution Assist Features (SRAFs) are required. However, their use results in significantly increased mask complexity, challenging mask defect dispositioning more than ever. To address these challenges in mask inspection and defect dispositioning, new mask inspection technologies have been developed that not only provide high resolution masks imaged at the same wavelength as the scanner, but that also provide aerial images by using both: software simulation and hardware emulation. The original mask patterns stored by the optics of mask inspection systems can be recovered using a patented algorithm based on the Level Set Method. More accurate lithography simulation models can be used to further evaluate defects on simulated resist patterns using the recovered mask pattern in high resolution and aerial mode. An automated defect classification based on lithography significance and local CD changes is also developed to disposition tens of thousands of potential defects in minutes, so that inspection throughput is not impacted.

  9. Auto-measurement system of aerial camera lens' resolution based on orthogonal linear CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yu-liang; Zhang, Yu-ye; Ding, Hong-yi

    2010-10-01

    The resolution of aerial camera lens is one of the most important camera's performance indexes. The measurement and calibration of resolution are important test items in in maintenance of camera. The traditional method that is observing resolution panel of collimator rely on human's eyes using microscope and doing some computing. The method is of low efficiency and susceptible to artificial factors. The measurement results are unstable, too. An auto-measurement system of aerial camera lens' resolution, which uses orthogonal linear CCD sensor as the detector to replace reading microscope, is introduced. The system can measure automatically and show result real-timely. In order to measure the smallest diameter of resolution panel which could be identified, two orthogonal linear CCD is laid on the imaging plane of measured lens and four intersection points are formed on the orthogonal linear CCD. A coordinate system is determined by origin point of the linear CCD. And a circle is determined by four intersection points. In order to obtain the circle's radius, firstly, the image of resolution panel is transformed to pulse width of electric signal which is send to computer through amplifying circuit and threshold comparator and counter. Secondly, the smallest circle would be extracted to do measurement. The circle extraction made using of wavelet transform which has character of localization in the domain of time and frequency and has capability of multi-scale analysis. Lastly, according to the solution formula of lens' resolution, we could obtain the resolution of measured lens. The measuring precision on practical measurement is analyzed, and the result indicated that the precision will be improved when using linear CCD instead of reading microscope. Moreover, the improvement of system error is determined by the pixel's size of CCD. With the technique of CCD developed, the pixel's size will smaller, the system error will be reduced greatly too. So the auto

  10. Methods for Evaluating the Temperature Structure-Function Parameter Using Unmanned Aerial Systems and Large-Eddy Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainwright, Charlotte E.; Bonin, Timothy A.; Chilson, Phillip B.; Gibbs, Jeremy A.; Fedorovich, Evgeni; Palmer, Robert D.

    2015-05-01

    Small-scale turbulent fluctuations of temperature are known to affect the propagation of both electromagnetic and acoustic waves. Within the inertial-subrange scale, where the turbulence is locally homogeneous and isotropic, these temperature perturbations can be described, in a statistical sense, using the structure-function parameter for temperature, . Here we investigate different methods of evaluating , using data from a numerical large-eddy simulation together with atmospheric observations collected by an unmanned aerial system and a sodar. An example case using data from a late afternoon unmanned aerial system flight on April 24 2013 and corresponding large-eddy simulation data is presented and discussed.

  11. Development of an unmanned aerial vehicle-based remote sensing system for site-specific management in precision agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) can be remotely controlled or fly autonomously based on pre-programmed flight plans or more complex dynamic automation systems. In agriculture, UAVs have been used for pest control and remote sensing. The objective of this research was to develop a UAV system to en...

  12. Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor/Systems for In-Flight Wing Shape Monitoring of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Allen; Richards, Lance; Ko, William; Piazza, Anthony; Tran, Van

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing an in-flight wing shape measurement system based on fiber bragg grating sensors for use in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) is shown. The topics include: 1) MOtivation; 2) Objective; 3) Background; 4) System Design; 5) Ground Testing; 6) Future Work; and 7) Conclusions

  13. Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM): Enabling Low-Altitude Airspace and UAS Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2014-01-01

    Many civilian applications of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) have been imagined ranging from remote to congested urban areas, including goods delivery, infrastructure surveillance, agricultural support, and medical services delivery. Further, these UAS will have different equipage and capabilities based on considerations such as affordability, and mission needs applications. Such heterogeneous UAS mix, along with operations such as general aviation, helicopters, gliders must be safely accommodated at lower altitudes. However, key infrastructure to enable and safely manage widespread use of low-altitude airspace and UAS operations therein does not exist. Therefore, NASA is exploring functional design, concept and technology development, and a prototype UAS Traffic Management (UTM) system. UTM will support safe and efficient UAS operations for the delivery of goods and services

  14. Comparative analyses of olfactory systems in terrestrial crabs (Brachyura): evidence for aerial olfaction?

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Jakob; Braun, Philipp; Rivera, Nicole T.; Schubart, Christoph D.; Müller, Carsten H.G.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptations to a terrestrial lifestyle occurred convergently multiple times during the evolution of the arthropods. This holds also true for the “true crabs” (Brachyura), a taxon that includes several lineages that invaded land independently. During an evolutionary transition from sea to land, animals have to develop a variety of physiological and anatomical adaptations to a terrestrial life style related to respiration, reproduction, development, circulation, ion and water balance. In addition, sensory systems that function in air instead of in water are essential for an animal’s life on land. Besides vision and mechanosensory systems, on land, the chemical senses have to be modified substantially in comparison to their function in water. Among arthropods, insects are the most successful ones to evolve aerial olfaction. Various aspects of terrestrial adaptation have also been analyzed in those crustacean lineages that evolved terrestrial representatives including the taxa Anomala, Brachyura, Amphipoda, and Isopoda. We are interested in how the chemical senses of terrestrial crustaceans are modified to function in air. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed the brains and more specifically the structure of the olfactory system of representatives of brachyuran crabs that display different degrees of terrestriality, from exclusively marine to mainly terrestrial. The methods we used included immunohistochemistry, detection of autofluorescence- and confocal microscopy, as well as three-dimensional reconstruction and morphometry. Our comparative approach shows that both the peripheral and central olfactory pathways are reduced in terrestrial members in comparison to their marine relatives, suggesting a limited function of their olfactory system on land. We conclude that for arthropod lineages that invaded land, evolving aerial olfaction is no trivial task. PMID:26713228

  15. Comparative analyses of olfactory systems in terrestrial crabs (Brachyura): evidence for aerial olfaction?

    PubMed

    Krieger, Jakob; Braun, Philipp; Rivera, Nicole T; Schubart, Christoph D; Müller, Carsten H G; Harzsch, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Adaptations to a terrestrial lifestyle occurred convergently multiple times during the evolution of the arthropods. This holds also true for the "true crabs" (Brachyura), a taxon that includes several lineages that invaded land independently. During an evolutionary transition from sea to land, animals have to develop a variety of physiological and anatomical adaptations to a terrestrial life style related to respiration, reproduction, development, circulation, ion and water balance. In addition, sensory systems that function in air instead of in water are essential for an animal's life on land. Besides vision and mechanosensory systems, on land, the chemical senses have to be modified substantially in comparison to their function in water. Among arthropods, insects are the most successful ones to evolve aerial olfaction. Various aspects of terrestrial adaptation have also been analyzed in those crustacean lineages that evolved terrestrial representatives including the taxa Anomala, Brachyura, Amphipoda, and Isopoda. We are interested in how the chemical senses of terrestrial crustaceans are modified to function in air. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed the brains and more specifically the structure of the olfactory system of representatives of brachyuran crabs that display different degrees of terrestriality, from exclusively marine to mainly terrestrial. The methods we used included immunohistochemistry, detection of autofluorescence- and confocal microscopy, as well as three-dimensional reconstruction and morphometry. Our comparative approach shows that both the peripheral and central olfactory pathways are reduced in terrestrial members in comparison to their marine relatives, suggesting a limited function of their olfactory system on land. We conclude that for arthropod lineages that invaded land, evolving aerial olfaction is no trivial task. PMID:26713228

  16. An autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle sensing system for structural health monitoring of bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reagan, Daniel; Sabato, Alessandro; Niezrecki, Christopher; Yu, Tzuyang; Wilson, Richard

    2016-04-01

    As civil infrastructure (i.e. bridges, railways, and tunnels) continues to age; the frequency and need to perform inspection more quickly on a broader scale increases. Traditional inspection and monitoring techniques (e.g., visual inspection, mechanical sounding, rebound hammer, cover meter, electrical potential measurements, ultrasound, and ground penetrating radar) may produce inconsistent results, require lane closure, are labor intensive and time-consuming. Therefore, new structural health monitoring systems must be developed that are automated, highly accurate, minimally invasive, and cost effective. Three-dimensional (3D) digital image correlation (DIC) systems have the merits of extracting full-field strain, deformation, and geometry profiles. These profiles can then be stitched together to generate a complete integrity map of the area of interest. Concurrently, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have emerged as valuable resources for positioning sensing equipment where it is either difficult to measure or poses a risk to human safety. UAVs have the capability to expedite the optical-based measurement process, offer increased accessibility, and reduce interference with local traffic. Within this work, an autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle in conjunction with 3D DIC was developed for monitoring bridges. The capabilities of the proposed system are demonstrated in both laboratory measurements and data collected from bridges currently in service. Potential measurement influences from platform instability, rotor vibration and positioning inaccuracy are also studied in a controlled environment. The results of these experiments show that the combination of autonomous flight with 3D DIC and other non-contact measurement systems provides a valuable and effective civil inspection platform.

  17. A temporal and ecological analysis of the Huntington Beach Wetlands through an unmanned aerial system remote sensing perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafiq, Talha

    Wetland monitoring and preservation efforts have the potential to be enhanced with advanced remote sensing acquisition and digital image analysis approaches. Progress in the development and utilization of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) as remote sensing platforms has offered significant spatial and temporal advantages over traditional aerial and orbital remote sensing platforms. Photogrammetric approaches to generate high spatial resolution orthophotos of UAV acquired imagery along with the UAV's low-cost and temporally flexible characteristics are explored. A comparative analysis of different spectral based land cover maps derived from imagery captured using UAV, satellite, and airplane platforms provide an assessment of the Huntington Beach Wetlands. This research presents a UAS remote sensing methodology encompassing data collection, image processing, and analysis in constructing spectral based land cover maps to augment the efforts of the Huntington Beach Wetlands Conservancy by assessing ecological and temporal changes at the Huntington Beach Wetlands.

  18. Measurements of atmospheric aerosol vertical distributions above Svalbard, Norway, using unmanned aerial systems (UAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, T. S.; Quinn, P. K.; Johnson, J. E.; Corless, A.; Brechtel, F. J.; Stalin, S. E.; Meinig, C.; Burkhart, J. F.

    2013-08-01

    Atmospheric aerosol vertical distributions were measured above Svalbard, Norway, in April 2011 during the Cooperative Investigation of Climate-Cryosphere Interactions campaign (CICCI). Measurements were made of the particle number concentration and the aerosol light absorption coefficient at three wavelengths. A filter sample was collected on each flight at the altitude of maximum particle number concentration. The filters were analyzed for major anions and cations. The aerosol payload was flown in a NOAA/PMEL MANTA Unmanned Aerial System (UAS). A total of 18 flights were flown during the campaign totaling 38 flight hours. The data show frequent aerosol layers aloft with high particle number concentration (1000 cm-3) and enhanced aerosol light absorption (1 Mm-1). Air mass histories of these aerosol layers were assessed using FLEXPART particle dispersion modeling. The data contribute to an assessment of sources of BC to the Arctic and potential climate impacts.

  19. Measurements of atmospheric aerosol vertical distributions above Svalbard, Norway using unmanned aerial systems (UAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, T. S.; Quinn, P. K.; Johnson, J. E.; Corless, A.; Brechtel, F. J.; Stalin, S. E.; Meinig, C.; Burkhart, J. F.

    2013-03-01

    Atmospheric aerosol vertical distributions were measured above Svalbard, Norway in April 2011 during the Cooperative Investigation of Climate-Cryosphere Interactions campaign (CICCI). Measurements were made of the particle number concentration and the aerosol light absorption coefficient at three wavelengths. A filter sample was collected on each flight at the altitude of maximum particle number concentration. The filters were analyzed for major anions and cations. The aerosol payload was flown in a NOAA/PMEL MANTA Unmanned Aerial System (UAS). A total of 18 flights were flown during the campaign totaling 38 flight hours. The data show frequent aerosol layers aloft with high particle number concentration (1000 cm-3 and enhanced aerosol light absorption (1 Mm-1). Air mass histories of these aerosol layers were assessed using FLEXPART particle dispersion modeling. The data contribute to an assessment of sources of BC to the Arctic and potential climate impacts.

  20. Flight validation of an embedded structural health monitoring system for an unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kressel, I.; Dorfman, B.; Botsev, Y.; Handelman, A.; Balter, J.; Pillai, A. C. R.; Prasad, M. H.; Gupta, N.; Joseph, A. M.; Sundaram, R.; Tur, M.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents the design and flight validation of an embedded fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) based structural health monitoring (SHM) system for the Indian unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), Nishant. The embedding of the sensors was integrated with the manufacturing process, taking into account the trimming of parts and assembly considerations. Reliable flight data were recorded on board the vehicle and analyzed so that deviations from normal structural behaviors could be identified, evaluated and tracked. Based on the data obtained, it was possible to track both the loads and vibration signatures by direct sensors’ cross correlation using principal component analysis (PCA) and artificial neural networks (ANNs). Sensor placement combined with proper ground calibration, enabled the distinction between strain and temperature readings. The start of a minor local structural temporary instability was identified during landing, proving the value of such continuous structural airworthy assessment for UAV structures.

  1. The use of unmanned aerial systems for the mapping of legacy uranium mines.

    PubMed

    Martin, P G; Payton, O D; Fardoulis, J S; Richards, D A; Scott, T B

    2015-05-01

    Historical mining of uranium mineral veins within Cornwall, England, has resulted in a significant amount of legacy radiological contamination spread across numerous long disused mining sites. Factors including the poorly documented and aged condition of these sites as well as the highly localised nature of radioactivity limit the success of traditional survey methods. A newly developed terrain-independent unmanned aerial system [UAS] carrying an integrated gamma radiation mapping unit was used for the radiological characterisation of a single legacy mining site. Using this instrument to produce high-spatial-resolution maps, it was possible to determine the radiologically contaminated land areas and to rapidly identify and quantify the degree of contamination and its isotopic nature. The instrument was demonstrated to be a viable tool for the characterisation of similar sites worldwide. PMID:25771221

  2. Development of an autonomous unmanned aerial system for atmospheric data collection and research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Andrew; Hanlon, David; Sakai, Ricardo; Morris, Vernon; Demoz, Belay; Gadsden, S. Andrew

    2016-05-01

    This paper addresses the use of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) to carry out atmospheric data collection and studies. An important area of research is the study of the chemistry and physics of Earth's planetary boundary layer (PBL). The PBL, also known as the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), is the lowest part of the atmosphere and its behavior is directly influenced by its contact with the planetary surface. Sampling of the PBL is performed in a timely and periodic manner. Currently, sensors and uncontrollable balloons are used to obtain relevant data and information. This method is cumbersome and can be ineffective in obtaining consistent environmental data. This paper proposes the use of autonomous UAS' to study the atmosphere in an effort to improve the efficiency and accuracy of the sampling process. The UAS setup and design is provided, and preliminary data collection information is shared.

  3. Demonstration of a multimode longwave infrared imaging system on an unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Terry L.; Romanski, John G.; Buckley, John J.; Girata, Anthony J.

    1999-07-01

    The RISTA II sensor was integrated into the Altus Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and flown over Camp Roberts and Ft. Hunter Ligget, CA in July 1998. The RISTA II demonstration system consisted of a long-wave IR imager, a digital data link, and a ground processing facility (GPF) containing an aided target recognizer, data storage devices, and operator workstations. Imagery was compressed on the UAV and sent on the GPF over a 10.71 Mbit per second digital data link. Selected image frames from the GPF were sent near real-time over a T1 link to observers in Rosslyn, VA. The sensor operated in a variety of scanning and framing modes. Both manual and automatic sensor pointing were demonstrated. Seven flights were performed at altitudes up to 7500m and range sup to 60 km from the GPF. Applicability to numerous military and civilian scenarios was demonstrated.

  4. R2U2: Monitoring and Diagnosis of Security Threats for Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann; Moosbruger, Patrick; Rozier, Kristin Y.

    2015-01-01

    We present R2U2, a novel framework for runtime monitoring of security properties and diagnosing of security threats on-board Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). R2U2, implemented in FPGA hardware, is a real-time, REALIZABLE, RESPONSIVE, UNOBTRUSIVE Unit for security threat detection. R2U2 is designed to continuously monitor inputs from the GPS and the ground control station, sensor readings, actuator outputs, and flight software status. By simultaneously monitoring and performing statistical reasoning, attack patterns and post-attack discrepancies in the UAS behavior can be detected. R2U2 uses runtime observer pairs for linear and metric temporal logics for property monitoring and Bayesian networks for diagnosis of security threats. We discuss the design and implementation that now enables R2U2 to handle security threats and present simulation results of several attack scenarios on the NASA DragonEye UAS.

  5. Mars Aerial Regional-Scale Environmental Survey (ARES) Coordinate Systems Definitions and Transformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhl, Christoper A.

    2009-01-01

    The Aerial Regional-Scale Environmental Survey (ARES) is a Mars exploration mission concept with the goal of taking scientific measurements of the atmosphere, surface, and subsurface of Mars by using an airplane as the payload platform. ARES team first conducted a Phase-A study for a 2007 launch opportunity, which was completed in May 2003. Following this study, significant efforts were undertaken to reduce the risk of the atmospheric flight system, under the NASA Langley Planetary Airplane Risk Reduction Project. The concept was then proposed to the Mars Scout program in 2006 for a 2011 launch opportunity. This paper summarizes the design and development of the ARES airplane propulsion subsystem beginning with the inception of the ARES project in 2002 through the submittal of the Mars Scout proposal in July 2006.

  6. Unmanned Aerial Mass Spectrometer Systems for In-Situ Volcanic Plume Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Jorge Andres; Pieri, David; Wright, Kenneth; Sorensen, Paul; Kline-Shoder, Robert; Arkin, C. Richard; Fladeland, Matthew; Bland, Geoff; Buongiorno, Maria Fabrizia; Ramirez, Carlos; Corrales, Ernesto; Alan, Alfredo; Alegria, Oscar; Diaz, David; Linick, Justin

    2015-02-01

    Technology advances in the field of small, unmanned aerial vehicles and their integration with a variety of sensor packages and instruments, such as miniature mass spectrometers, have enhanced the possibilities and applications of what are now called unmanned aerial systems (UAS). With such technology, in situ and proximal remote sensing measurements of volcanic plumes are now possible without risking the lives of scientists and personnel in charge of close monitoring of volcanic activity. These methods provide unprecedented, and otherwise unobtainable, data very close in space and time to eruptions, to better understand the role of gas volatiles in magma and subsequent eruption products. Small mass spectrometers, together with the world's smallest turbo molecular pump, have being integrated into NASA and University of Costa Rica UAS platforms to be field-tested for in situ volcanic plume analysis, and in support of the calibration and validation of satellite-based remote sensing data. These new UAS-MS systems are combined with existing UAS flight-tested payloads and assets, such as temperature, pressure, relative humidity, SO2, H2S, CO2, GPS sensors, on-board data storage, and telemetry. Such payloads are capable of generating real time 3D concentration maps of the Turrialba volcano active plume in Costa Rica, while remote sensing data are simultaneously collected from the ASTER and OMI space-borne instruments for comparison. The primary goal is to improve the understanding of the chemical and physical properties of emissions for mitigation of local volcanic hazards, for the validation of species detection and abundance of retrievals based on remote sensing, and to validate transport models.

  7. Unmanned aerial mass spectrometer systems for in-situ volcanic plume analysis.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Jorge Andres; Pieri, David; Wright, Kenneth; Sorensen, Paul; Kline-Shoder, Robert; Arkin, C Richard; Fladeland, Matthew; Bland, Geoff; Buongiorno, Maria Fabrizia; Ramirez, Carlos; Corrales, Ernesto; Alan, Alfredo; Alegria, Oscar; Diaz, David; Linick, Justin

    2015-02-01

    Technology advances in the field of small, unmanned aerial vehicles and their integration with a variety of sensor packages and instruments, such as miniature mass spectrometers, have enhanced the possibilities and applications of what are now called unmanned aerial systems (UAS). With such technology, in situ and proximal remote sensing measurements of volcanic plumes are now possible without risking the lives of scientists and personnel in charge of close monitoring of volcanic activity. These methods provide unprecedented, and otherwise unobtainable, data very close in space and time to eruptions, to better understand the role of gas volatiles in magma and subsequent eruption products. Small mass spectrometers, together with the world's smallest turbo molecular pump, have being integrated into NASA and University of Costa Rica UAS platforms to be field-tested for in situ volcanic plume analysis, and in support of the calibration and validation of satellite-based remote sensing data. These new UAS-MS systems are combined with existing UAS flight-tested payloads and assets, such as temperature, pressure, relative humidity, SO2, H2S, CO2, GPS sensors, on-board data storage, and telemetry. Such payloads are capable of generating real time 3D concentration maps of the Turrialba volcano active plume in Costa Rica, while remote sensing data are simultaneously collected from the ASTER and OMI space-borne instruments for comparison. The primary goal is to improve the understanding of the chemical and physical properties of emissions for mitigation of local volcanic hazards, for the validation of species detection and abundance of retrievals based on remote sensing, and to validate transport models. PMID:25588720

  8. Theoretical study of network design methodologies for the aerial relay system. [energy consumption and air traffic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivera, J. M.; Simpson, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    The aerial relay system network design problem is discussed. A generalized branch and bound based algorithm is developed which can consider a variety of optimization criteria, such as minimum passenger travel time and minimum liner and feeder operating costs. The algorithm, although efficient, is basically useful for small size networks, due to its nature of exponentially increasing computation time with the number of variables.

  9. Evaluating effective swath width and droplet distribution of aerial spraying systems on M-18B and Thrush 510G airplanes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerial spraying plays an important role in promoting agricultural production and protecting the biological environment due to its flexibility, high effectiveness, and large operational area per unit of time. In order to evaluate the performance parameters of the spraying systems on two fixed wing ai...

  10. 77 FR 55195 - Notice of Public Meetings for the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Naval Weapons Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... Federal Register on October 5, 2010 (75 FR 61452). A separate and additional scoping effort was conducted... SUA activities for Department of Defense (DoD) contractors for unmanned aerial system testing...

  11. Factors influencing efficiency of laser wireless power transmission system for micro unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoguang; Hua, Wenshen; Liu, Xun

    2014-12-01

    Micro unmanned aerial vehicle, mostly powered by electricity, plays an important role in many military and civil applications, e.g. military detection, communication relay et al. But restricted endurance ability severely limits its applications. To solve the problem, laser wireless power transmission system is proposed. However, overall efficiency of the system is quite low. This paper describes basic structure of laser wireless power transmission system and its working process. The system consists of two major modules: a high power laser source transmitting energy and a photovoltaic receiver converting optical energy into electricity. Then factors influencing efficiency of the system are analyzed. It suggests that electro-optical efficiency of laser, atmospheric impact on laser beam and photo-electric efficiency of photovoltaic receiver play significant role in overall efficiency of the system. Atmospheric impact on laser beam mostly derived from refraction, absorption, scattering and turbulence effects, leads to drop in energy and quality of laser beam. Efficiency of photovoltaic receiver is affected by photovoltaic materials. In addition, matching degree between intensity distribution of laser beam and layout of photovoltaic receiver also obviously influence efficiency of photovoltaic receiver. Experiment results suggest that under non-uniform laser beam illumination, efficiency of photovoltaic receiver mostly depends on layout of photovoltaic receiver. Through optimizing the layout of photovoltaic receiver based on intensity distribution of laser beam, output power is significantly improved. The analysis may help to take corresponding measures to alleviate negative effects of these factors and improve performance of laser wireless power transmission system.

  12. Overland Flow Analysis Using Time Series of Suas-Derived Elevation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeziorska, J.; Mitasova, H.; Petrasova, A.; Petras, V.; Divakaran, D.; Zajkowski, T.

    2016-06-01

    With the advent of the innovative techniques for generating high temporal and spatial resolution terrain models from Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) imagery, it has become possible to precisely map overland flow patterns. Furthermore, the process has become more affordable and efficient through the coupling of small UAS (sUAS) that are easily deployed with Structure from Motion (SfM) algorithms that can efficiently derive 3D data from RGB imagery captured with consumer grade cameras. We propose applying the robust overland flow algorithm based on the path sampling technique for mapping flow paths in the arable land on a small test site in Raleigh, North Carolina. By comparing a time series of five flights in 2015 with the results of a simulation based on the most recent lidar derived DEM (2013), we show that the sUAS based data is suitable for overland flow predictions and has several advantages over the lidar data. The sUAS based data captures preferential flow along tillage and more accurately represents gullies. Furthermore the simulated water flow patterns over the sUAS based terrain models are consistent throughout the year. When terrain models are reconstructed only from sUAS captured RGB imagery, however, water flow modeling is only appropriate in areas with sparse or no vegetation cover.

  13. Monitoring agricultural crops using a light-weight hyperspectral mapping system for unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooistra, Lammert; Suomalainen, Juha; Franke, Jappe; Bartholomeus, Harm; Mücher, Sander; Becker, Rolf

    2014-05-01

    Remote sensing has been identified as a key technology to allow near real-time detection and diagnosis of crop status at the field level. Although satellite based remote sensing techniques have already proven to be relevant for many requirements of crop inventory and monitoring, they might lack flexibility to support anomaly detection at specific moments over the growing season. Imagery taken from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are shown to be an effective alternative platform for crop monitoring, given their potential of high spatial and temporal resolution, and their high flexibility in image acquisition programming. In addition, several studies have shown that an increased spectral resolution as available from hyperspectral systems provide the opportunity to estimate biophysical properties like leaf-area-index (LAI), chlorophyll and leaf water content with improved accuracies. To investigate the opportunities of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) in operational crop monitoring, we have developed a light-weight hyperspectral mapping system (< 2 kg) suitable to be mounted on small UAVs. Its composed of an octocopter UAV-platform with a pushbroom spectrometer consisting of a spectrograph, an industrial camera functioning as frame grabber, storage device, and computer, a separate INS and finally a photogrammetric camera. The system is able to produce georeferenced and georectified hyperspectral data cubes in the 400-1000 nm spectral range at 10-50 cm resolution. The system is tested in a fertilization experiment for a potato crop on a 12 ha experimental field in the South of the Netherlands. In the experiment UAV-based hyperspectral images were acquired on a weekly basis together with field data on chlorophyll as indicator for the nitrogen situation of the crop and leaf area index (LAI) as indicator for biomass status. Initially, the quality aspects of the developed light-weight hyperspectral mapping system will presented with regard to its radiometric and geometric

  14. Aerial Measuring System (AMS)/Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC) Joint Comparison Study Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wasiolek, P.; Halevy, I.

    2013-12-23

    Under the 13th Bilateral Meeting to Combat Nuclear Terrorism conducted on January 8–9, 2013, the committee approved the development of a cost-effective proposal to conduct a Comparison Study of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC). The study was to be held at the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL), Nellis Air Force Base, Las Vegas, Nevada, with measurements at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The goal of the AMS and the IAEC joint survey was to compare the responses of the two agencies’ aerial radiation detection systems to varied radioactive surface contamination levels and isotopic composition experienced at the NNSS, and the differing data processing techniques utilized by the respective teams. Considering that for the comparison both teams were using custom designed and built systems, the main focus of the short campaign was to investigate the impact of the detector size and data analysis techniques used by both teams. The AMS system, SPectral Advanced Radiological Computer System, Model A (SPARCS-A), designed and built by RSL, incorporates four different size sodium iodide (NaI) crystals: 1" × 1", 2" × 4" × 4", 2" × 4" ×16", and an “up-looking” 2" × 4" × 4". The Israel AMS System, Air RAM 2000, was designed by the IAEC Nuclear Research Center – Negev (NRCN) and built commercially by ROTEM Industries (Israel) and incorporates two 2" diameter × 2" long NaI crystals. The operational comparison was conducted at RSL-Nellis in Las Vegas, Nevada, during week of June 24–27, 2013. The Israeli system, Air RAM 2000, was shipped to RSL-Nellis and mounted together with the DOE SPARCS on a DOE Bell-412 helicopter for a series of aerial comparison measurements at local test ranges, including the Desert Rock Airport and Area 3 at the NNSS. A 4-person Israeli team from the IAEC NRCN supported the activity together with 11

  15. Proposed tethered unmanned aerial system for the detection of pollution entering the Chesapeake Bay area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, J.; McKay, J.; Evans, W.; Gadsden, S. Andrew

    2016-05-01

    This paper is based on a proposed unmanned aerial system platform that is to be outfitted with high-resolution sensors. The proposed system is to be tethered to a moveable ground station, which may be a research vessel or some form of ground vehicle (e.g., car, truck, or rover). The sensors include, at a minimum: camera, infrared sensor, thermal, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) camera, global positioning system (GPS), and a light-based radar (LIDAR). The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of existing methods for pollution detection of failing septic systems, and to introduce the proposed system. Future work will look at the high-resolution data from the sensors and integrating the data through a process called information fusion. Typically, this process is done using the popular and well-published Kalman filter (or its nonlinear formulations, such as the extended Kalman filter). However, future work will look at using a new type of strategy based on variable structure estimation for the information fusion portion of the data processing. It is hypothesized that fusing data from the thermal and NDVI sensors will be more accurate and reliable for a multitude of applications, including the detection of pollution entering the Chesapeake Bay area.

  16. Concept and realization of unmanned aerial system with different modes of operation

    SciTech Connect

    Czyba, Roman; Szafrański, Grzegorz; Janusz, Wojciech; Niezabitowski, Michał; Czornik, Adam; Błachuta, Marian

    2014-12-10

    In this paper we describe the development process of unmanned aerial system, its mechanical components, electronics and software solutions. During the stage of design, we have formulated some necessary requirements for the multirotor vehicle and ground control station in order to build an optimal system which can be used for the reconnaissance missions. Platform is controlled by use of the ground control station (GCS) and has possibility of accomplishing video based observation tasks. In order to fulfill this requirement the on-board payload consists of mechanically stabilized camera augmented with machine vision algorithms to enable object tracking tasks. Novelty of the system are four modes of flight, which give full functionality of the developed UAV system. Designed ground control station is consisted not only of the application itself, but also a built-in dedicated components located inside the chassis, which together creates an advanced UAV system supporting the control and management of the flight. Mechanical part of quadrotor is designed to ensure its robustness while meeting objectives of minimizing weight of the platform. Finally the designed electronics allows for implementation of control and estimation algorithms without the needs for their excessive computational optimization.

  17. Concept and realization of unmanned aerial system with different modes of operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czyba, Roman; Szafrański, Grzegorz; Janusz, Wojciech; Niezabitowski, Michał; Czornik, Adam; Błachuta, Marian

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we describe the development process of unmanned aerial system, its mechanical components, electronics and software solutions. During the stage of design, we have formulated some necessary requirements for the multirotor vehicle and ground control station in order to build an optimal system which can be used for the reconnaissance missions. Platform is controlled by use of the ground control station (GCS) and has possibility of accomplishing video based observation tasks. In order to fulfill this requirement the on-board payload consists of mechanically stabilized camera augmented with machine vision algorithms to enable object tracking tasks. Novelty of the system are four modes of flight, which give full functionality of the developed UAV system. Designed ground control station is consisted not only of the application itself, but also a built-in dedicated components located inside the chassis, which together creates an advanced UAV system supporting the control and management of the flight. Mechanical part of quadrotor is designed to ensure its robustness while meeting objectives of minimizing weight of the platform. Finally the designed electronics allows for implementation of control and estimation algorithms without the needs for their excessive computational optimization.

  18. Number of lightning discharges causing damage to lightning arrester cables for aerial transmission lines in power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nikiforov, E. P.

    2009-07-15

    Damage by lightning discharges to lightning arrester cables for 110-175 kV aerial transmission lines is analyzed using data from power systems on incidents with aerial transmission lines over a ten year operating period (1997-2006). It is found that failures of lightning arrester cables occur when a tensile force acts on a cable heated to the melting point by a lightning current. The lightning currents required to heat a cable to this extent are greater for larger cable cross sections. The probability that a lightning discharge will develop decreases as the amplitude of the lightning current increases, which greatly reduces the number of lightning discharges which damage TK-70 cables compared to TK-50 cables. In order to increase the reliability of lightning arrester cables for 110 kV aerial transmission lines, TK-70 cables should be used in place of TK-50 cables. The number of lightning discharges per year which damage lightning arrester cables is lowered when the density of aerial transmission lines is reduced within the territory of electrical power systems. An approximate relationship between these two parameters is obtained.

  19. Hierarchical flight control system synthesis for rotorcraft-based unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Hyunchul

    The Berkeley Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) research aims to design, implement, and analyze a group of autonomous intelligent UAVs and UGVs (Unmanned Ground Vehicles). The goal of this dissertation is to provide a comprehensive procedural methodology to design, implement, and test rotorcraft-based unmanned aerial vehicles (RUAVs). We choose the rotorcraft as the base platform for our aerial agents because it offers ideal maneuverability for our target scenarios such as the pursuit-evasion game. Aided by many enabling technologies such as lightweight and powerful computers, high-accuracy navigation sensors and communication devices, it is now possible to construct RUAVs capable of precise navigation and intelligent behavior by the decentralized onboard control system. Building a fully functioning RUAV requires a deep understanding of aeronautics, control theory and computer science as well as a tremendous effort for implementation. These two aspects are often inseparable and therefore equally highlighted throughout this research. The problem of multiple vehicle coordination is approached through the notion of a hierarchical system. The idea behind the proposed architecture is to build a hierarchical multiple-layer system that gradually decomposes the abstract mission objectives into the physical quantities of control input. Each RUAV incorporated into this system performs the given tasks and reports the results through the hierarchical communication channel back to the higher-level coordinator. In our research, we provide a theoretical and practical approach to build a number of RUAVs based on commercially available navigation sensors, computer systems, and radio-controlled helicopters. For the controller design, the dynamic model of the helicopter is first built. The helicopter exhibits a very complicated multi-input multi-output, nonlinear, time-varying and coupled dynamics, which is exposed to severe exogenous disturbances. This poses considerable difficulties for

  20. Fuel cell powered small unmanned aerial systems (UASs) for extended endurance flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Deryn; Jiang, R.; Dunbar, Z.; Grew, Kyle; McClure, J.

    2015-05-01

    Small unmanned aerial systems (UASs) have been used for military applications and have additional potential for commercial applications [1-4]. For the military, these systems provide valuable intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance and target acquisition (ISRTA) capabilities for units at the infantry, battalion, and company levels. The small UASs are light-weight, manportable, can be hand-launched, and are capable of carrying payloads. Currently, most small UASs are powered by lithium-ion or lithium polymer batteries; however, the flight endurance is usually limited less than two hours and requires frequent battery replacement. Long endurance small UAS flights have been demonstrated through the implementation of a fuel cell system. For instance, a propane fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack has been used to power a small UAS and shown to extend mission flight time. The research and development efforts presented here not only apply to small UASs, but also provide merit to the viability of extending mission operations for other unmanned systems applications.

  1. Real-Time Monitoring System Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Integrated with Sensor Observation Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witayangkurn, A.; Nagai, M.; Honda, K.; Dailey, M.; Shibasaki, R.

    2011-09-01

    The Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is an emerging technology being adapted for a wide range of applications. Real-time monitoring is essential to enhance the effectiveness of UAV applications. Sensor networks are networks constructed from various sensor nodes. International standard such as OGC's SOS (Sensor Observation Service) makes it possible to share sensor data with other systems as well as to provide accessibility to globally distributed users. In this paper, we propose a system combining UAV technology and sensor network technology to use an UAV as a mobile node of sensor network so that the sensor data from UAV is published and shared real-time. A UAV can extend the observation range of a sensor network to remote areas where it is usually difficult to access such as disaster area. We constructed a UAV system using remote-controlled helicopter and various sensors such as GPS, gyrocompass, laser range finder, Digital camera and Thermometer. Furthermore, we extended the Sensor Observation Service (SOS) and Sensor Service Grid (SSG) to support mobile sensor nodes. Then, we conducted experiments of flying the helicopter over an area of the interest. During the flight, the system measured environmental data using its sensors and captured images of the ground. The data was sent to a SOS node as the ground station via Wi-Fi which was published using SSG to give real- time access to globally distributed users.

  2. Data Acquisition (DAQ) system dedicated for remote sensing applications on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keleshis, C.; Ioannou, S.; Vrekoussis, M.; Levin, Z.; Lange, M. A.

    2014-08-01

    Continuous advances in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and the increased complexity of their applications raise the demand for improved data acquisition systems (DAQ). These improvements may comprise low power consumption, low volume and weight, robustness, modularity and capability to interface with various sensors and peripherals while maintaining the high sampling rates and processing speeds. Such a system has been designed and developed and is currently integrated on the Autonomous Flying Platforms for Atmospheric and Earth Surface Observations (APAESO/NEA-YΠOΔOMH/NEKΠ/0308/09) however, it can be easily adapted to any UAV or any other mobile vehicle. The system consists of a single-board computer with a dual-core processor, rugged surface-mount memory and storage device, analog and digital input-output ports and many other peripherals that enhance its connectivity with various sensors, imagers and on-board devices. The system is powered by a high efficiency power supply board. Additional boards such as frame-grabbers, differential global positioning system (DGPS) satellite receivers, general packet radio service (3G-4G-GPRS) modems for communication redundancy have been interfaced to the core system and are used whenever there is a mission need. The onboard DAQ system can be preprogrammed for automatic data acquisition or it can be remotely operated during the flight from the ground control station (GCS) using a graphical user interface (GUI) which has been developed and will also be presented in this paper. The unique design of the GUI and the DAQ system enables the synchronized acquisition of a variety of scientific and UAV flight data in a single core location. The new DAQ system and the GUI have been successfully utilized in several scientific UAV missions. In conclusion, the novel DAQ system provides the UAV and the remote-sensing community with a new tool capable of reliably acquiring, processing, storing and transmitting data from any sensor integrated

  3. 3D geometrical description of landslides using photogrammetric data acquired by Remotely Piloted Aerial System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubbini, Marco; Benedetti, Gianluca; Lucente, Corrado Claudio

    2015-04-01

    The need to have three-dimensional digital products of high accuracy and high resolution is now increasingly important for the study of the hydrogeological instability phenomena both from a geomorphological point of view and a geotechnical-geomechanical one. What until now was considered the prerogative of the laser scanner (both air-transported and terrestrial) for data acquisition, in many contexts is to be integrated and often replaced by photogrammetric techniques. The integration of the typical photogrammetry algorithms (Aerial Triangulation, bundle adjustment, collinearity equations, etc.) with Structure from Motion (SFM) algorithms derived from Computer Vision (CV) allows to get products "dense points cloud" of high quality and high resolution with almost complete automation of processes. The use of Remotely Piloted Aerial System (RPAS) equipped with high resolution photogrammetric and positioning sensors, allows to obtain, in a very short time and with low costs, all necessary data for the purpose. Through all stages of the photogrammetric processing, is obtained, as a base product, a dense cloud of points. Subsequently, after the phase of cleaning and classification of data, it will be possible to obtained all the necessary products for studing the geomorphological characterization and, in specific cases, also geotechnical-geomechanical characterization. The high repeatability of surveys, due to the insertion of data always in the same reference system without introducing transformations between coordinate systems, and the high accuracy in the determination of Ground Control Point (GCP) measured and processed with geodetic techniques, mainly by GNSS instrumentation, allows to compare data and models over time. The possibility of the RPAS to carry on board the double frequency satellite positioning systems, so as to define the spatial coordinates of the perspective center with centimetric accuracy, it also allows to obtain repeatability of the data in

  4. Modeling and control for heave dynamics of a flexible wing micro aerial vehicle distributed parameter system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Lisa M.

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, much research has been motivated by the idea of biologically-inspired flight. It is a conjecture of the United States Air Force that incorporating characteristics of biological flight into air vehicles will significantly improve the maneuverability and performance of modern aircraft. Although there are studies which involve the aerodynamics, structural dynamics, modeling, and control of flexible wing micro aerial vehicles (MAVs), issues of control and vehicular modeling as a whole are largely unexplored. Modeling with such dynamics lends itself to systems of partial differential equations (PDEs) with nonlinearities, and limited control theory is available for such systems. In this work, a multiple component structure consisting of two Euler-Bernoulli beams connected to a rigid mass is used to model the heave dynamics of an aeroelastic wing MAV, which is acted upon by a nonlinear aerodynamic lift force. We seek to employ tools from distributed parameter modeling and linear control theory in an effort to achieve agile flight potential of flexible, morphable wing MAV airframes. Theoretical analysis of the model is conducted, which includes generating solutions to the eigenvalue problem for the system and determining well-posedness and the attainment of a C 0-semigroup for the linearly approximated model. In order to test the model's ability to track to a desired state and to gain insight into optimal morphing trajectories, two control objectives are employed on the model: target state tracking and morphing trajectory over time.

  5. Mass image data storage system for high resolution aerial photographic survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zen, Luan; Tan, Jiubin; Zhao, Zhongwen

    2008-10-01

    In order to make it possible for an image data acquisition and storage system used for aerial photographic survey to have a continuous storage speed of 144 MB/s and data storage capacity of 260GB, three main problems have been solved in this paper. First, with multi-channel synchronous DMA transfer, parallel data storage of four SCSI hard disks is realized. It solved the problem of the data transfer rate too high for direct storage. Then, to increase the data transfer rate, a high speed BUS based on LVDS and a SCSI control circuit based on FAS368M were designed. It solved the problem of PCI BUS limiting the storage speed. Finally, the problem of the SCSI hard disk continuous storage speed declining led by much time interval between two DMA transfers is solved by optimizing DMA channel. The practical system test shows that the acquisition and storage system has a continuous storage speed of 150 MB/s and a data storage capacity of 280GB. Therefore, it is a new storage method for high speed and mass image data.

  6. Control and navigation system for a fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Ruiyong; Zhou, Zhaoying; Zhang, Wendong; Sang, Shengbo; Li, Pengwei

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a flight control and navigation system for a fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with low-cost micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) sensors. The system is designed under the inner loop and outer loop strategy. The trajectory tracking navigation loop is the outer loop of the attitude loop, while the attitude control loop is the outer loop of the stabilization loop. The proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control was adopted for stabilization and attitude control. The three-dimensional (3D) trajectory tracking control of a UAV could be approximately divided into lateral control and longitudinal control. The longitudinal control employs traditional linear PID feedback to achieve the desired altitude of the UAV, while the lateral control uses a non-linear control method to complete the desired trajectory. The non-linear controller can automatically adapt to ground velocity change, which is usually caused by gust disturbance, thus the UAV has good wind resistance characteristics. Flight tests and survey missions were carried out with our self-developed delta fixed-wing UAV and MEMS-based autopilot to confirm the effectiveness and practicality of the proposed navigation method.

  7. Efficient Forest Fire Detection Index for Application in Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs)

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Henry; Eckert, Martina; Meneses, Juan; Martínez, José-Fernán

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes a novel method for detecting forest fires, through the use of a new color index, called the Forest Fire Detection Index (FFDI), developed by the authors. The index is based on methods for vegetation classification and has been adapted to detect the tonalities of flames and smoke; the latter could be included adaptively into the Regions of Interest (RoIs) with the help of a variable factor. Multiple tests have been performed upon database imagery and present promising results: a detection precision of 96.82% has been achieved for image sizes of 960 × 540 pixels at a processing time of 0.0447 seconds. This achievement would lead to a performance of 22 f/s, for smaller images, while up to 54 f/s could be reached by maintaining a similar detection precision. Additional tests have been performed on fires in their early stages, achieving a precision rate of p = 96.62%. The method could be used in real-time in Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs), with the aim of monitoring a wider area than through fixed surveillance systems. Thus, it would result in more cost-effective outcomes than conventional systems implemented in helicopters or satellites. UASs could also reach inaccessible locations without jeopardizing people’s safety. On-going work includes implementation into a commercially available drone. PMID:27322264

  8. Efficient Forest Fire Detection Index for Application in Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs).

    PubMed

    Cruz, Henry; Eckert, Martina; Meneses, Juan; Martínez, José-Fernán

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes a novel method for detecting forest fires, through the use of a new color index, called the Forest Fire Detection Index (FFDI), developed by the authors. The index is based on methods for vegetation classification and has been adapted to detect the tonalities of flames and smoke; the latter could be included adaptively into the Regions of Interest (RoIs) with the help of a variable factor. Multiple tests have been performed upon database imagery and present promising results: a detection precision of 96.82% has been achieved for image sizes of 960 × 540 pixels at a processing time of 0.0447 seconds. This achievement would lead to a performance of 22 f/s, for smaller images, while up to 54 f/s could be reached by maintaining a similar detection precision. Additional tests have been performed on fires in their early stages, achieving a precision rate of p = 96.62%. The method could be used in real-time in Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs), with the aim of monitoring a wider area than through fixed surveillance systems. Thus, it would result in more cost-effective outcomes than conventional systems implemented in helicopters or satellites. UASs could also reach inaccessible locations without jeopardizing people's safety. On-going work includes implementation into a commercially available drone. PMID:27322264

  9. Self-Contained Avionics Sensing and Flight Control System for Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Logan, Michael J. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Fox, legal representative, Christopher L. (Inventor); Fox, legal representative, Melanie L. (Inventor); Ingham, John C. (Inventor); Laughter, Sean A. (Inventor); Kuhn, III, Theodore R. (Inventor); Adams, James K. (Inventor); Babel, III, Walter C. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A self-contained avionics sensing and flight control system is provided for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The system includes sensors for sensing flight control parameters and surveillance parameters, and a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. Flight control parameters and location signals are processed to generate flight control signals. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is configured to provide a look-up table storing sets of values with each set being associated with a servo mechanism mounted on the UAV and with each value in each set indicating a unique duty cycle for the servo mechanism associated therewith. Each value in each set is further indexed to a bit position indicative of a unique percentage of a maximum duty cycle for the servo mechanism associated therewith. The FPGA is further configured to provide a plurality of pulse width modulation (PWM) generators coupled to the look-up table. Each PWM generator is associated with and adapted to be coupled to one of the servo mechanisms.

  10. Thermal Analysis on Cryogenic Liquid Hydrogen Tank on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen; Harpster, George; Hunter, James

    2007-01-01

    Thermal analyses are performed on the liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank designed for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) powered by solar arrays and a regenerative proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. A 14-day cruise mission at a 65,000 ft altitude is considered. Thermal analysis provides the thermal loads on the tank system and the boiling-off rates of LH2. Different approaches are being considered to minimize the boiling-off rates of the LH2. It includes an evacuated multilayer insulation (MLI) versus aerogel insulation on the LH2 tank and aluminum versus stainless steel spacer rings between the inner and outer tank. The resulting boil-off rates of LH2 provided by the one-dimensional model and three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) on the tank system are presented and compared to validate the results of the three-dimensional FEA. It concludes that heat flux through penetrations by conduction is as significant as that through insulation around the tank. The tank system with MLI insulation and stainless steel spacer rings result in the lowest boiling-off rate of LH2.

  11. The Generation of Building Floor Plans Using Portable and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Mapping Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, G. J.; Chen, Y. L.; Chiang, K. W.; Lai, Y. C.

    2016-06-01

    Indoor navigation or positioning systems have been widely developed for Location-Based Services (LBS) applications and they come along with a keen demand of indoor floor plans for displaying results even improving the positioning performance. Generally, the floor plans produced by robot mapping focus on perceiving the environment to avoid obstacles and using the feature landmarks to update the robot position in the relative coordinate frame. These maps are not accurate enough to incorporate to the indoor positioning system. This study aims at developing Indoor Mobile Mapping System (Indoor MMS) and concentrates on generating the highly accurate floor plans based on the robot mapping technique using the portable, robot and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) platform. The proposed portable mapping system prototype can be used in the chest package and the handheld approach. In order to evaluate and correct the generated floor plans from robot mapping techniques, this study builds the testing and calibration field using the outdoor control survey method implemented in the indoor environments. Based on control points and check points from control survey, this study presents the map rectification method that uses the affine transformation to solve the scale and deformation problems and also transfer the local coordinate system into world standard coordinate system. The preliminary results illustrate that the final version of the building floor plan reach 1 meter absolute positioning accuracy using the proposed mapping systems that combines with the novel map rectification approach proposed. These maps are well geo-referenced with world coordinate system thus it can be applied for future seamless navigation applications including indoor and outdoor scenarios.

  12. Atmospheric Mining in the Outer Solar System:. [Aerial Vehicle Reconnaissance and Exploration Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric mining in the outer solar system has been investigated as a means of fuel production for high energy propulsion and power. Fusion fuels such as Helium 3 (3He) and hydrogen can be wrested from the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune and either returned to Earth or used in-situ for energy production. Helium 3 and hydrogen (deuterium, etc.) were the primary gases of interest with hydrogen being the primary propellant for nuclear thermal solid core and gas core rocket-based atmospheric flight. A series of analyses were undertaken to investigate resource capturing aspects of atmospheric mining in the outer solar system. This included the gas capturing rate, storage options, and different methods of direct use of the captured gases. Additional supporting analyses were conducted to illuminate vehicle sizing and orbital transportation issues. While capturing 3He, large amounts of hydrogen and 4He are produced. With these two additional gases, the potential for fueling small and large fleets of additional exploration and exploitation vehicles exists. Additional aerospacecraft or other aerial vehicles (UAVs, balloons, rockets, etc.) could fly through the outer planet atmospheres, for global weather observations, localized storm or other disturbance investigations, wind speed measurements, polar observations, etc. Deep-diving aircraft (built with the strength to withstand many atmospheres of pressure) powered by the excess hydrogen or helium 4 may be designed to probe the higher density regions of the gas giants. Outer planet atmospheric properties, atmospheric storm data, and mission planning for future outer planet UAVs are presented.

  13. AKSED: adaptive knowledge-based system for event detection using collaborative unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. Sean; Lee, Byung Suk; Sadjadi, Firooz

    2006-05-01

    Advances in sensor technology and image processing have made it possible to equip unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) with economical, high-resolution, energy-efficient sensors. Despite the improvements, current UAVs lack autonomous and collaborative operation capabilities, due to limited bandwidth and limited on-board image processing abilities. The situation, however, is changing. In the next generation of UAVs, much image processing can be carried out onboard and communication bandwidth problem will improve. More importantly, with more processing power, collaborative operations among a team of autonomous UAVs can provide more intelligent event detection capabilities. In this paper, we present ideas for developing a system enabling target recognitions by collaborative operations of autonomous UAVs. UAVs are configured in three stages: manufacturing, mission planning, and deployment. Different sets of information are needed at different stages, and the resulting outcome is an optimized event detection code deployed onto a UAV. The envisioned system architecture and the contemplated methodology, together with problems to be addressed, are presented.

  14. Low altitude aerial photogrammetry application to braided river systems. Example of the Buech River, Alps, France.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jules Fleury, Thomas; Pothin, Virginie; Vella, Claude; Dussouillez, Philippe; Izem, Abdelkoddouss

    2015-04-01

    Low-altitude aerial photogrammetry offers new opportunities for geomorphology and other fields requiring very high-resolution topographic data. It combines the advantages of the reproducibility of GPS topographic surveys with the high accuracy of LIDAR, but at relatively low-cost, easy-to-deploy and with the synaptic advantage of remote sensing. In order to evaluate the potential of photogrammetry on river systems and to assess river-bed changes and erosion-accretion processes, we conducted several surveys over the period of one year on the Buech river, a gravel-bed braided river located in the French Southern Alps. The study area is located directly upstream of a gravel pit and there is an interest in evaluating its effects on the riverbed. Our field protocol was comprised of vertical aerial photographs taken from a microlight aircraft flying approximately 300 ft above the ground. The equipment used was a full-frame DSLR with a wide angle lense, synchronised with a DGPS onboard. Fourty 40cm wide targets were placed on the ground and georeferenced by RTK DGPS with an accuracy of 2cm. In addition, close to one thousand Ground Control Points (GCPs) were measured within the different types of ground surfaces (vegetated, water, gravels) in order to assess the Digital Terrain Model (DTM) accuracy. We operated the production of the 3D model and its derived products: Digital Surface Model (DSM) and orthophotography, with user-friendly Agisoft (c) Photoscan Professional software. The processing of several hundred pictures with 2.5 cm ground resolution resulted in a DSM with a resolution of 10 cm and a vertical accuracy within 5 cm. As is expected, accuracy was best on bare bars and decreased with increasing vegetation density. To complement the DSM in the wetted channels, we used the orthophotos to establish a relationship between water color and flow depth using statistical multivariate regressions. Merging the bathymetric model and the DSM produced a DTM with a vertical

  15. Unmanned Aerial Systems in Occupational Hygiene-Learning from Allied Disciplines.

    PubMed

    Eninger, Robert M; Johnson, Robert L

    2015-10-01

    Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) technologies are rapidly developing, lowering cost, and technology barriers for their use in numerous applications. This review and commentary summarizes relevant literature in allied fields and evaluates potential application and utility of UAS technology in the discipline of occupational hygiene. Disciplines closely related to occupational hygiene are moving to investigate potential uses--and in some cases--already employing this technology for research or commercial purposes. The literature was reviewed to formulate a cross-sectional picture of how UAS technology is being used in these closely allied disciplines which could inform or guide potential use in occupational hygiene. Discussed are UAS applications in environmental monitoring, emergency response, epidemiology, safety, and process optimization. A rapidly developing state of the art indicates that there is potential utility for this technology in occupational hygiene. Benefits may include cost savings, time savings, and averting hazardous environments via remote sensing. The occupational hygiene community can look to allied fields to garner lessons and possible applications to their own practice. PMID:26180263

  16. Comparison and application of wind retrieval algorithms for small unmanned aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonin, T. A.; Chilson, P. B.; Zielke, B. S.; Klein, P. M.; Leeman, J. R.

    2013-07-01

    Recently, there has been an increase in use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) as platforms for conducting fundamental and applied research in the lower atmosphere due to their relatively low cost and ability to collect samples with high spatial and temporal resolution. Concurrent with this development comes the need for accurate instrumentation and measurement methods suitable for small meteorological UASs. Moreover, the instrumentation to be integrated into such platforms must be small and lightweight. Whereas thermodynamic variables can be easily measured using well-aspirated sensors onboard, it is much more challenging to accurately measure the wind with a UAS. Several algorithms have been developed that incorporate GPS observations as a means of estimating the horizontal wind vector, with each algorithm exhibiting its own particular strengths and weaknesses. In the present study, the performance of three such GPS-based wind-retrieval algorithms has been investigated and compared with wind estimates from rawinsonde and sodar observations. Each of the algorithms considered agreed well with the wind measurements from sounding and sodar data. Through the integration of UAS-retrieved profiles of thermodynamic and kinematic parameters, one can investigate the static and dynamic stability of the atmosphere and relate them to the state of the boundary layer across a variety of times and locations, which might be difficult to access using conventional instrumentation.

  17. Miniaturization of sub-meter resolution hyperspectral imagers on unmanned aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Samuel L.; Clemens, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Traditional airborne environmental monitoring has frequently deployed hyperspectral imaging as a leading tool for characterizing and analyzing a scene's critical spectrum-based signatures for applications in agriculture genomics and crop health, vegetation and mineral monitoring, and hazardous material detection. As the acceptance of hyperspectral evaluation grows in the airborne community, there has been a dramatic trend in moving the technology from use on midsize aircraft to Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). The use of UAS accomplishes a number of goals including the reduction in cost to run multiple seasonal evaluations over smaller but highly valuable land-areas, the ability to use frequent data collections to make rapid decisions on land management, and the improvement of spatial resolution by flying at lower altitudes (< 150 m). Despite this trend, there are several key parameters affecting the use of traditional hyperspectral instruments in UAS with payloads less than 0.5 kg (~1lb) where size, weight and power (SWaP) are critical to how high and how far a given UAS can fly. Additionally, on many of the light-weight UAS, users are frequently trying to capture data from one or more instruments to augment the hyperspectral data collection, thus reducing the amount of SWaP available to the hyperspectral instrumentation. The following manuscript will provide an analysis on a newly-developed miniaturized hyperspectral imaging platform that provides full hyperspectral resolution and traditional hyperspectral capabilities without sacrificing performance to accommodate the decreasing SWaP of smaller and smaller UAS platforms.

  18. Construction of an unmanned aerial vehicle remote sensing system for crop monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Seungtaek; Ko, Jonghan; Kim, Mijeong; Kim, Jongkwon

    2016-04-01

    We constructed a lightweight unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) remote sensing system and determined the ideal method for equipment setup, image acquisition, and image processing. Fields of rice paddy (Oryza sativa cv. Unkwang) grown under three different nitrogen (N) treatments of 0, 50, or 115 kg/ha were monitored at Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Republic of Korea, in 2013. A multispectral camera was used to acquire UAV images from the study site. Atmospheric correction of these images was completed using the empirical line method, and three-point (black, gray, and white) calibration boards were used as pseudo references. Evaluation of our corrected UAV-based remote sensing data revealed that correction efficiency and root mean square errors ranged from 0.77 to 0.95 and 0.01 to 0.05, respectively. The time series maps of simulated normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) produced using the UAV images reproduced field variations of NDVI reasonably well, both within and between the different N treatments. We concluded that the UAV-based remote sensing technology utilized in this study is potentially an easy and simple way to quantitatively obtain reliable two-dimensional remote sensing information on crop growth.

  19. High-Resolution Debris Flow Volume Mapping with Unmanned Aerial Systems (uas) and Photogrammetric Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, M. S.; Fromm, R.; Lechner, V.

    2016-06-01

    Debris flows cause an average € 30 million damages and 1-2 fatalities every year in Austria. Detailed documentation of their extent and magnitude is essential for understanding, preventing and mitigating these natural hazard events. The recent development of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) has provided a new possibility for on-demand high-resolution monitoring and mapping. Here, we present a study, where the spatial extent and volume of a large debris flow event were mapped with different UAS, fitted with commercial off-the-shelf sensors. Orthophotos and digital terrain models (DTM) were calculated using structure-from-motion photogrammetry software. Terrain height differences caused by the debris flow in the catchment and valley floor were derived by subtracting the pre-event airborne laser scanning (ALS) DTM from a post-event UAS-DTM. The analysis of the volumetric sediment budget showed, that approximately 265,000 m³ material was mobilised in the catchment, of which 45,000 m³ settled there; of the material, which reached the valley floor, 120,000 m³ was deposited, while another 10,000 m³ was eroded from there. The UAS-results were validated against ALS data and imagery from a traditional manned-aircraft photogrammetry campaign. In conclusion, the UAS-data can reach an accuracy and precision comparable to manned aircraft data, but with the added benefits of higher flexibility, easier repeatability, less operational constraints and higher spatial resolution.

  20. Measurements of Atmospheric Aerosol Vertical Distributions above Svalbard, Norway using Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, T. S.; Johnson, J. E.; Stalin, S.; Telg, H.; Murphy, D. M.; Burkhart, J. F.; Quinn, P.; Storvold, R.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosol vertical distributions were measured above Svalbard, Norway in April 2015 to investigate the processes controlling aerosol concentrations and radiative effects. The aerosol payload was flown in a NOAA/PMEL MANTA Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) on 9 flights totaling 19 flight hours. Measurements were made of particle number concentration and aerosol light absorption at three wavelengths, similar to those conducted in April 2011 (Bates et al., Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2115-2120, 2013). A filter sample was collected on each flight for analyses of trace elements. Additional measurements in the aerosol payload in 2015 included aerosol size distributions obtained using a Printed Optical Particle Spectrometer (POPS) and aerosol optical depth obtained using a four wavelength miniature Scanning Aerosol Sun Photometer (miniSASP). The data show most of the column aerosol mass and resulting optical depth in the boundary layer but frequent aerosol layers aloft with high particle number concentration (2000 cm-3) and enhanced aerosol light absorption (1 Mm-1). Transport of these aerosol layers was assessed using FLEXPART particle dispersion models. The data contribute to an assessment of sources of BC to the Arctic and potential climate impacts.

  1. Discrimination of Deciduous Tree Species from Time Series of Unmanned Aerial System Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Lisein, Jonathan; Michez, Adrien; Claessens, Hugues; Lejeune, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Technology advances can revolutionize Precision Forestry by providing accurate and fine forest information at tree level. This paper addresses the question of how and particularly when Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) should be used in order to efficiently discriminate deciduous tree species. The goal of this research is to determine when is the best time window to achieve an optimal species discrimination. A time series of high resolution UAS imagery was collected to cover the growing season from leaf flush to leaf fall. Full benefit was taken of the temporal resolution of UAS acquisition, one of the most promising features of small drones. The disparity in forest tree phenology is at the maximum during early spring and late autumn. But the phenology state that optimized the classification result is the one that minimizes the spectral variation within tree species groups and, at the same time, maximizes the phenologic differences between species. Sunlit tree crowns (5 deciduous species groups) were classified using a Random Forest approach for monotemporal, two-date and three-date combinations. The end of leaf flushing was the most efficient single-date time window. Multitemporal datasets definitely improve the overall classification accuracy. But single-date high resolution orthophotomosaics, acquired on optimal time-windows, result in a very good classification accuracy (overall out of bag error of 16%). PMID:26600422

  2. Discrimination of Deciduous Tree Species from Time Series of Unmanned Aerial System Imagery.

    PubMed

    Lisein, Jonathan; Michez, Adrien; Claessens, Hugues; Lejeune, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Technology advances can revolutionize Precision Forestry by providing accurate and fine forest information at tree level. This paper addresses the question of how and particularly when Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) should be used in order to efficiently discriminate deciduous tree species. The goal of this research is to determine when is the best time window to achieve an optimal species discrimination. A time series of high resolution UAS imagery was collected to cover the growing season from leaf flush to leaf fall. Full benefit was taken of the temporal resolution of UAS acquisition, one of the most promising features of small drones. The disparity in forest tree phenology is at the maximum during early spring and late autumn. But the phenology state that optimized the classification result is the one that minimizes the spectral variation within tree species groups and, at the same time, maximizes the phenologic differences between species. Sunlit tree crowns (5 deciduous species groups) were classified using a Random Forest approach for monotemporal, two-date and three-date combinations. The end of leaf flushing was the most efficient single-date time window. Multitemporal datasets definitely improve the overall classification accuracy. But single-date high resolution orthophotomosaics, acquired on optimal time-windows, result in a very good classification accuracy (overall out of bag error of 16%). PMID:26600422

  3. The NASA Langley Research Center's Unmanned Aerial System Surrogate Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Charles T., III; Jessup, Artie; Jones, Frank; Joyce, Claude; Sugden, Paul; Verstynen, Harry; Mielnik, John

    2010-01-01

    Research is needed to determine what procedures, aircraft sensors and other systems will be required to allow Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to safely operate with manned aircraft in the National Airspace System (NAS). The NASA Langley Research Center has transformed a Cirrus Design SR22 general aviation (GA) aircraft into a UAS Surrogate research aircraft to serve as a platform for UAS systems research, development, flight testing and evaluation. The aircraft is manned with a Safety Pilot and systems operator that allows for flight operations almost anywhere in the NAS without the need for a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Certificate of Authorization (COA). The UAS Surrogate can be controlled from a modular, transportable ground station like a true UAS. The UAS Surrogate is able to file and fly in the NAS with normal traffic and is a better platform for real world UAS research and development than existing vehicles flying in restricted ranges or other sterilized airspace. The Cirrus Design SR22 aircraft is a small, singleengine, four-place, composite-construction aircraft that NASA Langley acquired to support NASA flight-research programs like the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Project. Systems were installed to support flight test research and data gathering. These systems include: separate research power; multi-function flat-panel displays; research computers; research air data and inertial state sensors; video recording; data acquisition; data-link; S-band video and data telemetry; Common Airborne Instrumentation System (CAIS); Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B); instrumented surfaces and controls; and a systems operator work station. The transformation of the SR22 to a UAS Surrogate was accomplished in phases. The first phase was to modify the existing autopilot to accept external commands from a research computer that was connected by redundant data-link radios to a ground control station. An electro-mechanical auto

  4. Design, testing and demonstration of a small unmanned aircraft system (sUAS) and payload for measuring wind speed and particulate matter in the atmospheric boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddell, Kevin Donald Alexander

    The atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is the layer of air directly influenced by the Earth's surface and is the layer of the atmosphere most important to humans as this is the air we live in. Methods for measuring the properties of the ABL include three general approaches: satellite based, ground based and airborne. A major research challenge is that many contemporary methods provide a restricted spatial resolution or coverage of variations of ABL properties such as how wind speed varies across a landscape with complex topography. To enhance our capacity to measure the properties of the ABL, this thesis presents a new technique that involves a small unmanned aircraft system (sUAS) equipped with a customized payload for measuring wind speed and particulate matter. The research presented herein outlines two key phases in establishing the proof of concept of the payload and its integration on the sUAS: (1) design and testing and (2) field demonstration. The first project focuses on measuring wind speed, which has been measured with fixed wing sUASs in previous research. but not with a helicopter sUAS. The second project focuses on the measurement of particulate matter, which is a major air pollutant typically measured with ground-based sensors. Results from both proof of concept projects suggest that ABL research could benefit from the proposed techniques. .

  5. The Hydromorphic Character of Developing Anastomosed Systems Determined from Metre Scale Resolution Aerial LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Entwistle, N. S.; Heritage, G. L.; Bentley, S.

    2012-12-01

    Anastomosing channels are rare in the UK primarily due to inappropriate channel and floodplain engineering and management. This study examines the character of developing anastomosed channels on the River Wear and the River Irthing in northern England using metre scale resolution aerial LIDAR data. The LIDAR data are used to create a detailed digital surface and terrain models (DSM & DTM) of the study reaches. The data accurately records vegetation character and sub-channel planform and morphology. Topographic metrics reveal a well-developed vegetation community and a diverse terrain, dominated by an interlinked channel network split by variable length, generally low elevation interfluves. Utilisation of the LIDAR DEM in the JFLOW+ 2D hydrodynamic model has generated local hydraulic variable estimates through the anastomosed reaches across a range of flows. These data demonstrate clearly how elevated flows are transferred out of the primary channel and distributed along the interconnected secondary channel network, creating a diverse set of hydraulic environments. Interfluve areas become quickly inundated further dissipating flow energy. Shear stress estimates across the study sites reveal a generally reduced ability to mobilise sediments and erode channel margins. It would appear that the topographic character of these developing anastomosing sites efficiently manages flood flow energy, activating secondary channels and low elevation interfluves to distribute flood flows, creating a dynamically stable river environment. These findings are contrasted against data from wandering channel systems, characterised by a poorly developed riparian vegetation community, where bar deposition and bank erosion dominate. A model of channel evolution linking wandering and anastomosed channel types is proposed, demonstrating from the topographic data how wandering systems may develop into anastomosed systems with appropriate riparian vegetation management.

  6. Aerial Images from AN Uav System: 3d Modeling and Tree Species Classification in a Park Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gini, R.; Passoni, D.; Pinto, L.; Sona, G.

    2012-07-01

    The use of aerial imagery acquired by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is scheduled within the FoGLIE project (Fruition of Goods Landscape in Interactive Environment): it starts from the need to enhance the natural, artistic and cultural heritage, to produce a better usability of it by employing audiovisual movable systems of 3D reconstruction and to improve monitoring procedures, by using new media for integrating the fruition phase with the preservation ones. The pilot project focus on a test area, Parco Adda Nord, which encloses various goods' types (small buildings, agricultural fields and different tree species and bushes). Multispectral high resolution images were taken by two digital compact cameras: a Pentax Optio A40 for RGB photos and a Sigma DP1 modified to acquire the NIR band. Then, some tests were performed in order to analyze the UAV images' quality with both photogrammetric and photo-interpretation purposes, to validate the vector-sensor system, the image block geometry and to study the feasibility of tree species classification. Many pre-signalized Control Points were surveyed through GPS to allow accuracy analysis. Aerial Triangulations (ATs) were carried out with photogrammetric commercial software, Leica Photogrammetry Suite (LPS) and PhotoModeler, with manual or automatic selection of Tie Points, to pick out pros and cons of each package in managing non conventional aerial imagery as well as the differences in the modeling approach. Further analysis were done on the differences between the EO parameters and the corresponding data coming from the on board UAV navigation system.

  7. Improving Rangeland Monitoring and Assessment: Integrating Remote Sensing, GIS, and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Paul Breckenridge

    2007-05-01

    Creeping environmental changes are impacting some of the largest remaining intact parcels of sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the western United States, creating major problems for land managers. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), located in southeastern Idaho, is part of the sagebrush steppe ecosystem, one of the largest ecosystems on the continent. Scientists at the INL and the University of Idaho have integrated existing field and remotely sensed data with geographic information systems technology to analyze how recent fires on the INL have influenced the current distribution of terrestrial vegetation. Three vegetation mapping and classification systems were used to evaluate the changes in vegetation caused by fires between 1994 and 2003. Approximately 24% of the sagebrush steppe community on the INL was altered by fire, mostly over a 5-year period. There were notable differences between methods, especially for juniper woodland and grasslands. The Anderson system (Anderson et al. 1996) was superior for representing the landscape because it includes playa/bare ground/disturbed area and sagebrush steppe on lava as vegetation categories. This study found that assessing existing data sets is useful for quantifying fire impacts and should be helpful in future fire and land use planning. The evaluation identified that data from remote sensing technologies is not currently of sufficient quality to assess the percentage of cover. To fill this need, an approach was designed using both helicopter and fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and image processing software to evaluate six cover types on field plots located on the INL. The helicopter UAV provided the best system compared against field sampling, but is more dangerous and has spatial coverage limitations. It was reasonably accurate for dead shrubs and was very good in assessing percentage of bare ground, litter and grasses; accuracy for litter and shrubs is questionable. The fixed wing system proved to be

  8. Evaluation of Meteorological and Aerosol Sensing with small Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claussen, Johanna; Möhler, Ottmar; Leisner, Thomas; Brooks, Ian; Norris, Sarah; Brooks, Barbara; Hill, Martin; Haunold, Werner; Schrod, Jann; Danielczok, Anja

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosols have a large impact on the climate system due to their influence on the global radiation budget. Local aerosol sources such as vegetation, (bare) soil or industrial sites have to be quantified with high resolution data to validate aerosol transport models and improve the input for high resolution weather models. Our goal is to evaluate the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) as a method for acquisition of high resolution meteorological and aerosol data. During the INUIT measurement campaign in August 2012 at mount Großer Feldberg near Frankfurt, Germany, several flights with different sensor packages were carried out. We measured basic meteorological parameters such as temperature, relative humidity and air pressure with miniaturized onboard sensors. In addition, the Compact Lightweight Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (CLASP) for aerosol size distribution measurement or the Electrostatic Aerosol Collector (EAC) for aerosol sample collection was installed on board. CLASP measures aerosol particles with diameters from 0.17 μm to 9.5 μm in up to 32 channels at a frequency of 10 Hz. The EAC collects air samples at 2 l/min onto a sample holder. After the flight the ice nuclei on the sample holder are activated and counted in the isothermal static diffusion chamber FRIDGE. The results from the INUIT campaign and additional calibration laboratory measurements show that UAS are a valuable platform for miniaturized sensors. The number of ice nuclei was determined with the EAC at 200m above ground level and compared to the reference measurement on the ground.

  9. A Precise Position and Attitude Determination System for Lightweight Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eling, C.; Klingbeil, L.; Wieland, M.; Kuhlmann, H.

    2013-08-01

    In many unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) applications a direct georeferencing is required. The reason can be that the UAV flies autonomous and must be navigated precisely, or that the UAV performs a remote sensing operation, where the position of the camera has to be known at the moment of the recording. In our application, a project called Mapping on Demand, we are motivated by both of these reasons. The goal of this project is to develop a lightweight autonomously flying UAV that is able to identify and measure inaccessible three-dimensional objects by use of visual information. Due to payload and space limitations, precise position and attitude determination of micro- and mini-sized UAVs is very challenging. The limitations do not only affect the onboard computing capacity, but they are also noticeable when choosing the georeferencing sensors. In this article, we will present a new developed onboard direct georeferencing system which is real-time capable, applicable for lightweight UAVs and provides very precise results (position accuracy σ < 5 cm and attitude accuracy σ < 0.5 deg). In this system GPS, inertial sensors, magnetic field sensors, a barometer as well as stereo video cameras are used as georeferencing sensors. We will describe the hardware development and will go into details of the implemented software. In this context especially the RTK-GPS software and the concept of the attitude determination by use of inertial sensors, magnetic field sensors as well as an onboard GPS baseline will be highlighted. Finally, results of first field tests as well as an outlook on further developments will conclude this contribution.

  10. Miniaturization of high spectral spatial resolution hyperspectral imagers on unmanned aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Samuel L.; Clemens, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Traditional airborne environmental monitoring has frequently deployed hyperspectral imaging as a leading tool for characterizing and analyzing a scene's critical spectrum-based signatures for applications in agriculture genomics and crop health, vegetation and mineral monitoring, and hazardous material detection. As the acceptance of hyperspectral evaluation grows in the airborne community, there has been a dramatic trend in moving the technology from use on midsize aircraft to Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). The use of UAS accomplishes a number of goals including the reduction in cost to run multiple seasonal evaluations over smaller but highly valuable land-areas, the ability to use frequent data collections to make rapid decisions on land management, and the improvement of spatial resolution by flying at lower altitudes (<500 ft.). Despite this trend, there are several key parameters affecting the use of traditional hyperspectral instruments in UAS with payloads less than 10 lbs. where size, weight and power (SWAP) are critical to how high and how far a given UAS can fly. Additionally, on many of the light-weight UAS, users are frequently trying to capture data from one or more instruments to augment the hyperspectral data collection, thus reducing the amount of SWAP available to the hyperspectral instrumentation. The following manuscript will provide an analysis on a newly-developed miniaturized hyperspectral imaging platform, the Nano-Hyperspec®, which provides full hyperspectral resolution and traditional hyperspectral capabilities without sacrificing performance to accommodate the decreasing SWAP of smaller and smaller UAS platforms. The analysis will examine the Nano-Hyperspec flown in several UAS airborne environments and the correlation of the systems data with LiDAR and other GIS datasets.

  11. Ecological risk assessment of aerial insectivores of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek system

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, L.A.; Sample, B.E.

    1995-12-31

    Risks to aerial insectivores (species that consume flying insects; rough-winged swallows, little brown bats, and endangered gray bats) were assessed for the CERCLA remedial investigation of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek system. Adult mayflies and sediment were collected from four locations and analyzed for contaminants. Sediment-to-mayfly contaminant transfer factors were generated from these data and used to estimate contaminant concentrations in mayflies from thirteen additional locations. Contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) were identified by comparing exposure estimates, generated using point estimates of parameter values, to NOAELS. COPCs included mercury, arsenic, and PCBs. Exposure to COPCs was re-estimated using Monte Carlo simulations. Adverse population effects were assumed likely if > 20% of the estimated exposure distribution was greater than the LOAEL. Exposure of swallows to mercury was a significant risk at two locations. Exposure of bats to mercury was a significant risk at only one location. While consideration of movement and foraging territory did not reduce estimated risks to swallows, when exposures for gray and little brown bats were re-estimated, population-level risks from mercury were no longer considered likely. As an endangered species however, protection is extended to individual gray bats. While less than 20% of the mercury exposure distribution for gray bats was > LOAEL, > 99% of the distribution was >NOAEL. Therefore, adverse effects may occur among maximally exposed individual gray bats. Available data indicate that contaminants in Poplar Creek are likely to present a risk to the swallow population, do not present a risk to the little brown bat population, and may present a risk to individual gray bats.

  12. Assessment of the Quality of Digital Terrain Model Produced from Unmanned Aerial System Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmatin Fras, M.; Kerin, A.; Mesarič, M.; Peterman, V.; Grigillo, D.

    2016-06-01

    Production of digital terrain model (DTM) is one of the most usual tasks when processing photogrammetric point cloud generated from Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) imagery. The quality of the DTM produced in this way depends on different factors: the quality of imagery, image orientation and camera calibration, point cloud filtering, interpolation methods etc. However, the assessment of the real quality of DTM is very important for its further use and applications. In this paper we first describe the main steps of UAS imagery acquisition and processing based on practical test field survey and data. The main focus of this paper is to present the approach to DTM quality assessment and to give a practical example on the test field data. For data processing and DTM quality assessment presented in this paper mainly the in-house developed computer programs have been used. The quality of DTM comprises its accuracy, density, and completeness. Different accuracy measures like RMSE, median, normalized median absolute deviation and their confidence interval, quantiles are computed. The completeness of the DTM is very often overlooked quality parameter, but when DTM is produced from the point cloud this should not be neglected as some areas might be very sparsely covered by points. The original density is presented with density plot or map. The completeness is presented by the map of point density and the map of distances between grid points and terrain points. The results in the test area show great potential of the DTM produced from UAS imagery, in the sense of detailed representation of the terrain as well as good height accuracy.

  13. Unmanned Aerial Systems in the Process of Juridical Verification of Cadastral Border

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijsdijk, M.; van Hinsbergh, W. H. M.; Witteveen, W.; ten Buuren, G. H. M.; Schakelaar, G. A.; Poppinga, G.; van Persie, M.; Ladiges, R.

    2013-08-01

    Quite often in the verification of cadastral borders, owners of the parcels involved are not able to make their attendance at the appointed moment in time. New appointments have to be made in order to complete the verification process, and as a result often costs and throughput times grow beyond what is considered to be acceptable. To improve the efficiency of the verification process an experiment was set up that refrains from the conventional terrestrial methods for border verification. The central research question was formulated as "How useful are Unmanned Aerial Systems in the juridical verification process of cadastral borders of ownership at het Kadaster in the Netherlands?". For the experiment, operational evaluations were executed at two different locations. The first operational evaluation took place at the Pyramid of Austerlitz, a flat area with a 30 m high pyramid built by troops of Napoleon, with low civilian attendance. Two subsequent evaluations were situated in a small neighbourhood in the city of Nunspeet, where the cadastral situation recently changed, resulting from twenty new houses that were build. Initially a mini-UAS of the KLPD was used to collect photo datasets with less than 1 cm spatial resolution. In a later stage the commercial service provider Orbit Gis was hired. During the experiment four different software packages were used for processing the photo datasets into accurate geo-referenced ortho-mosaics. In this article more details will be described on the experiments carried out. Attention will be paid to the mini-UAS platforms (AscTec Falcon 8, Microdrone MD-4), the cameras used, the photo collection plan, the usage of ground control markers and the calibration of the camera's. Furthermore the results and experiences of the different used SFM software packages (Visual SFM/Bundler, PhotoScan, PhotoModeler and the Orbit software) will be shared.

  14. Mapping of riparian invasive species with supervised classification of Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michez, Adrien; Piégay, Hervé; Jonathan, Lisein; Claessens, Hugues; Lejeune, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    Riparian zones are key landscape features, representing the interface between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Although they have been influenced by human activities for centuries, their degradation has increased during the 20th century. Concomitant with (or as consequences of) these disturbances, the invasion of exotic species has increased throughout the world's riparian zones. In our study, we propose a easily reproducible methodological framework to map three riparian invasive taxa using Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) imagery: Impatiens glandulifera Royle, Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier and Levier, and Japanese knotweed (Fallopia sachalinensis (F. Schmidt Petrop.), Fallopia japonica (Houtt.) and hybrids). Based on visible and near-infrared UAS orthophoto, we derived simple spectral and texture image metrics computed at various scales of image segmentation (10, 30, 45, 60 using eCognition software). Supervised classification based on the random forests algorithm was used to identify the most relevant variable (or combination of variables) derived from UAS imagery for mapping riparian invasive plant species. The models were built using 20% of the dataset, the rest of the dataset being used as a test set (80%). Except for H. mantegazzianum, the best results in terms of global accuracy were achieved with the finest scale of analysis (segmentation scale parameter = 10). The best values of overall accuracies reached 72%, 68%, and 97% for I. glandulifera, Japanese knotweed, and H. mantegazzianum respectively. In terms of selected metrics, simple spectral metrics (layer mean/camera brightness) were the most used. Our results also confirm the added value of texture metrics (GLCM derivatives) for mapping riparian invasive species. The results obtained for I. glandulifera and Japanese knotweed do not reach sufficient accuracies for operational applications. However, the results achieved for H. mantegazzianum are encouraging. The high accuracies values combined to

  15. Observations of the atmosphere and surface state over Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica, using unmanned aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassano, John J.; Seefeldt, Mark W.; Palo, Scott; Knuth, Shelley L.; Bradley, Alice C.; Herrman, Paul D.; Kernebone, Peter A.; Logan, Nick J.

    2016-03-01

    In September 2012 five Aerosonde unmanned aircraft were used to make measurements of the atmospheric state over the Terra Nova Bay polynya, Antarctica, to explore the details of air-sea ice-ocean coupling. A total of 14 flights were completed in September 2012. Ten of the flight missions consisted of two unmanned aerial systems (UAS) sampling the atmosphere over Terra Nova Bay on 5 different days, with one UAS focusing on the downwind evolution of the air mass and a second UAS flying transects roughly perpendicular to the low-level winds. The data from these coordinated UAS flights provide a comprehensive three-dimensional data set of the atmospheric state (air temperature, humidity, pressure, and wind) and surface skin temperature over Terra Nova Bay. The remaining UAS flights during the September 2012 field campaign included two local flights near McMurdo Station for flight testing, a single UAS flight to Terra Nova Bay, and a single UAS flight over the Ross Ice Shelf and Ross Sea polynya. A data set containing the atmospheric and surface data as well as operational aircraft data have been submitted to the United States Antarctic Program Data Coordination Center (USAP-DCC, http://www.usap-data.org/) for free access (http://gcmd.nasa.gov/getdif.htm?NSF-ANT10-43657, doi:10.15784/600125).

  16. South Carolina Maps and Aerial Photographic Systems (SC Maps) Teaching Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Peggy W.; And Others

    South Carolina has mountain chains, monadnocks, rolling hills, varying drainage patterns, rivers, a delta, barrier islands, rocks over a billion years old and land that was once part of another continent. This document contains a set of curriculum activities that have been developed from a diverse collection of aerial photographic, satellite,…

  17. Evaluation of aerial delivery systems for spray deposition and efficacy against sweet potato whitefly on cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet potato whiteflies (SWF), Bemisia argentifolii, live on the bottom surface of cotton leaves. Except crawlers, nymphal stages of the insect will not move about to contact insecticides. Aerial sprays to suppress SWF require improved application techniques designed to increase spray deposition a...

  18. Automatic construction of aerial corridor for navigation of unmanned aircraft systems in class G airspace using LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Dengchao; Yuan, Xiaohui

    2016-05-01

    According to the airspace classification by the Federal Aviation Agency, Class G airspace is the airspace at 1,200 feet or less to the ground, which is beneath class E airspace and between classes B-D cylinders around towered airstrips. However, the lack of flight supervision mechanism in this airspace, unmanned aerial system (UAS) missions pose many safety issues. Collision avoidance and route planning for UASs in class G airspace is critical for broad deployment of UASs in commercial and security applications. Yet, unlike road network, there is no stationary marker in airspace to identify corridors that are available and safe for UASs to navigate. In this paper, we present an automatic LiDAR-based airspace corridor construction method for navigation in class G airspace and a method for route planning to minimize collision and intrusion. Our idea is to combine LiDAR to automatically identify ground objects that pose navigation restrictions such as airports and high-rises. Digital terrain model (DTM) is derived from LiDAR point cloud to provide an altitude-based class G airspace description. Following the FAA Aeronautical Information Manual, the ground objects that define the restricted airspaces are used together with digital surface model derived from LiDAR data to construct the aerial corridor for navigation of UASs. Preliminary results demonstrate competitive performance and the construction of aerial corridor can be automated with much great efficiency.

  19. Application of DOAS Instruments for Trace Gas Measurements on Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horbanski, M.; Pöhler, D.; Mahr, T.; Wagner, T.; Platt, U.

    2012-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are a new powerful tool for observations in the atmospheric boundary layer. Recent developments in measuring technology allow the construction of compact and sensitive active and passive DOAS instruments which can fit the space and weight constraints on Unmanned Aircraft Systems. This opens new possibilities for trace gas measurements in the lower troposphere, especially in areas which are not accessible to manned aviation e.g. volcanic plumes or which should be monitored regularly (e.g. industrial emissions of a stack). Two DOAS instruments for the APAESO platform of the Energy, Environment and Water Research Centre (EEWRC) at the Cyprus Institute are presented. Our first system is a passive DOAS for remote sensing applications which measures scattered sunlight and light reflected by the surface. It is equipped with telescopes for observations in downward (nadir) and horizontal (limb) viewing direction. Thus it allows determining height profiles and the spatial distribution of trace gases. For this the light is analysed by a compact spectrometer which covers the UV-blue range allowing to measure a broad variety of atmospheric trace gases (e.g. NO2, SO2, BrO, IO, H2O ...) and aerosol properties via O4 absorption. Additionally, the nadir direction is equipped with a system for the observation of surface properties. It will be used to measure and analyse reflection of different types of vegetation. The spectra will serve as reference spectra for satellite measurements to create global maps. The instrumental setup and the results of first test flights are shown. The second instrument which is currently under development is a Cavity Enhanced (CE-) DOAS for in situ measurements of NO3. In contrast to the passive DOAS it is able to perform night time measurements as it uses an active LED light source. This is important for studies of NO3 since it plays an important role in night time chemistry while it is rapidly photolysed during daytime

  20. In Situ Trace Gas Measurements from the Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Altair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, D. F.; Moore, F. L.; Dutton, G. S.; Vasel, B.; Elkins, J. W.; Oltmans, S. J.; Summers, S.; Fahey, D. W.; Jennison, C. D.

    2006-12-01

    It is anticipated that Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) will soon become an integral part of the effort to monitor global atmospheric composition because they provide a unique combination of payload capacity, altitude range, and especially endurance. The NOAA UAS Demonstration Project in 2005 was designed to test the flight endurance of the Altair UAS (General Atomics Aeronautical Systems Inc.) and its suitability as an airborne platform for atmospheric measurements. Instrumentation included an ozone photometer (OZ), a 2- channel gas chromatograph (GC), an ocean color sensor, and a passive microwave vertical sounder. Altair was interactively controlled by a ground-based pilot via line-of-sight or satellite-based communications which also allowed instrument data and commands to be telemetered between the aircraft and ground. The NOAA project demonstrated that Altair was able to fly continuously for at least 18 hours and reach an altitude of 14 km with an internal payload >300 kg. The GC obtained ~2500 in situ measurements each of CFC-11, CFC-12, Halon-1211, N2O, and SF6 during 65 flight hours (10 flights) of Altair. These gases and ozone were measured at 250 m vertical resolution during two ~7 km deep spiral dive/climb maneuvers performed over the Pacific Ocean as part of the 18.4 long-endurance flight. During a different flight, GC and OZ sampled a tongue of stratospheric air that had intruded into the upper troposphere through a tropopause fold. In September 2006, GC and OZ were operated aboard Altair as part of the NASA/USDA-Forest Service Fire Mission. One GC channel (CFCs and Halon-1211) was changed to instead measure H2, CH4, and CO every 140 s, and the combined GC and OZ instrument package was expanded to include in situ measurements of water vapor (laser hygrometer) along with temperature and relative humidity (external probe). Data obtained during these two missions of the UAS Altair, including comparisons of relative humidity and water vapor measurements

  1. Mapping snow depth in alpine terrain with unmanned aerial systems (UASs): potential and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bühler, Yves; Adams, Marc S.; Bösch, Ruedi; Stoffel, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Detailed information on the spatiotemporal snow depth distribution is a crucial input for numerous applications in hydrology, climatology, ecology and avalanche research. Today, snow depth distribution is usually estimated by combining point measurements from weather stations or observers in the field with spatial interpolation algorithms. However, even a dense measurement network like the one in Switzerland, with more than one measurement station per 10 km2 on average, is not able to capture the large spatial variability of snow depth present in alpine terrain.Remote sensing methods, such as laser scanning or digital photogrammetry, have recently been successfully applied to map snow depth variability at local and regional scales. However, in most countries such data acquisition is costly if manned airplanes are involved. The effectiveness of ground-based measurements on the other hand is often hindered by occlusions, due to the complex terrain or acute viewing angles. In this paper, we investigate the application of unmanned aerial systems (UASs), in combination with structure-from-motion photogrammetry, to map snow depth distribution. Compared to manual measurements, such systems are relatively cost-effective and can be applied very flexibly to cover terrain not accessible from the ground. In this study, we map snow depth at two different locations: (a) a sheltered location at the bottom of the Flüela valley (1900 m a.s.l.) and (b) an exposed location on a peak (2500 m a.s.l.) in the ski resort Jakobshorn, both in the vicinity of Davos, Switzerland. At the first test site, we monitor the ablation on three different dates. We validate the photogrammetric snow depth maps using simultaneously acquired manual snow depth measurements. The resulting snow depth values have a root mean square error (RMSE) of less than 0.07 to 0.15 m on meadows and rocks and a RMSE of less than 0.30 m on sections covered by bushes or tall grass, compared to manual probe measurements

  2. Mission concept for the remote sensing of the cryosphere using autonomous aerial observation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Roland W.; Hilliard, Larry

    2004-12-01

    Improving the understanding of the Cryosphere and its impact on global hydrology is an important element of NASA"s Earth Science Enterprise (ESE). A Cold Land Processes Working Group (CLPWG) was formed by the NASA Terrestrial Hydrology Program to identify important science objectives necessary to address ESE priorities. These measurement objectives included Snow Water Equivalent (SWE), snow wetness, and freeze/thaw status of underlying soil. The spatial resolution requirement identified by the CLPWG was 100 m to 5000 m. Microwave sensors are well suited to measure these and other properties of interests to the study of the terrestrial cryosphere. It is well known that the EM properties of snow and soil at microwave frequencies are a strong function of the phase of water, i.e. ice/water. Further, both active and passive microwave sensors have demonstrated sensitivity to important properties of snowpack including, depth, density, wetness, crystal size, ice crust layer structure, and surface roughness. These sensors are also sensitive to the underlying soil state (frozen or thawed). Multiple microwave measurements including both active and passive sensors will likely be required to invert the effects of various snowpack characteristics, vegetation, and underlying soil properties to provide the desired characterization of the surface and meet the science needs required by the ESE. A major technology driver with respect to fully meeting these measurement needs is the 100 to 5000 m spatial resolution requirement. Meeting the threshold requirement of 5000 m at microwave frequencies from Low Earth Orbit is a technology challenge. The emerging capabilities of unmanned aircraft and particularly the system perspective of the Autonomous Aerial Observation Systems (AAOS) may provide high-fidelity/high-resolution measurements on regional scales or larger that could greatly improve our measurement capability. This paper explores a vehicle/sensor concept that could augment

  3. Unmanned Aerial Systems as Versatile Tools for Atmospheric and Environmental Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Manfred; Argyrides, Marios; Ioannou, Stelios; Keleshis, Christos; Levin, Zev

    2013-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) are increasingly recognized as versatile tools for different earth-sciences applications providing chiefly a link between in-situ ground based measurements and satellite remote sensing observations. Based on the Autonomous Flying Platforms for Atmospheric and Earth Surface Observations project (APAESO) of the Energy, Environment and Water Research Center (EEWRC) at the Cyprus Institute (APAESO is co-financed by the European Development Fund and the Republic of Cyprus through the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation: ΝΕΑ ΥΠΟΔΟΜΗ/ΝΕΚΥΠ/0308/09), we have acquired four CRUISERS (ET-Air, Slovakia) as UAS platforms and a substantial range of scientific instruments to be employed on these platforms. The APAESO platforms are aimed at the dual purpose of carrying out atmospheric and earth-surface observations in the (Eastern) Mediterranean They will enable 3D measurements for determining physical, chemical and radiative atmospheric properties, aerosol and dust concentrations and atmospheric dynamics as well as 2D investigations into land management practices, vegetation and agricultural mapping, contaminant detection and the monitoring and assessment of hydrological parameters and processes of a given region at high spatial resolution. Currently, we are building up an Unmanned Airplane Facility at CyI. In the process of reaching full operational capacity, we have initiated and carried out first test missions involving highly specialized and specifically adapted instrumentation for atmospheric investigations. The first scientific mission involves the employment of a DOAS-system (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) in cooperation with colleagues from Heidelberg and Mainz, Germany and has been successfully completed. More recently, we started work on a new collaborative project aimed at measuring vertical profiles of aerosols in the Eastern Mediterranean. The project involves colleagues from the University of Frankfurt

  4. Navigation and Remote Sensing Payloads and Methods of the Sarvant Unmanned Aerial System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, P.; Fortuny, P.; Colomina, I.; Remy, M.; Macedo, K. A. C.; Zúnigo, Y. R. C.; Vaz, E.; Luebeck, D.; Moreira, J.; Blázquez, M.

    2013-08-01

    In a large number of scenarios and missions, the technical, operational and economical advantages of UAS-based photogrammetry and remote sensing over traditional airborne and satellite platforms are apparent. Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) or combined optical/SAR operation in remote areas might be a case of a typical "dull, dirty, dangerous" mission suitable for unmanned operation - in harsh environments such as for example rain forest areas in Brazil, topographic mapping of small to medium sparsely inhabited remote areas with UAS-based photogrammetry and remote sensing seems to be a reasonable paradigm. An example of such a system is the SARVANT platform, a fixed-wing aerial vehicle with a six-meter wingspan and a maximumtake- of-weight of 140 kilograms, able to carry a fifty-kilogram payload. SARVANT includes a multi-band (X and P) interferometric SAR payload, as the P-band enables the topographic mapping of densely tree-covered areas, providing terrain profile information. Moreover, the combination of X- and P-band measurements can be used to extract biomass estimations. Finally, long-term plan entails to incorporate surveying capabilities also at optical bands and deliver real-time imagery to a control station. This paper focuses on the remote-sensing concept in SARVANT, composed by the aforementioned SAR sensor and envisioning a double optical camera configuration to cover the visible and the near-infrared spectrum. The flexibility on the optical payload election, ranging from professional, medium-format cameras to mass-market, small-format cameras, is discussed as a driver in the SARVANT development. The paper also focuses on the navigation and orientation payloads, including the sensors (IMU and GNSS), the measurement acquisition system and the proposed navigation and orientation methods. The latter includes the Fast AT procedure, which performs close to traditional Integrated Sensor Orientation (ISO) and better than Direct Sensor Orientation (Di

  5. GPS-aided inertial technology and navigation-based photogrammetry for aerial mapping the San Andreas fault system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanchez, Richard D.; Hudnut, Kenneth W.

    2004-01-01

    Aerial mapping of the San Andreas Fault System can be realized more efficiently and rapidly without ground control and conventional aerotriangulation. This is achieved by the direct geopositioning of the exterior orientation of a digital imaging sensor by use of an integrated Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver and an Inertial Navigation System (INS). A crucial issue to this particular type of aerial mapping is the accuracy, scale, consistency, and speed achievable by such a system. To address these questions, an Applanix Digital Sensor System (DSS) was used to examine its potential for near real-time mapping. Large segments of vegetation along the San Andreas and Cucamonga faults near the foothills of the San Bernardino and San Gabriel Mountains were burned to the ground in the California wildfires of October-November 2003. A 175 km corridor through what once was a thickly vegetated and hidden fault surface was chosen for this study. Both faults pose a major hazard to the greater Los Angeles metropolitan area and a near real-time mapping system could provide information vital to a post-disaster response.

  6. Observations of coastal systems using low-cost, high-resolution, balloon and kite-based aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, A.; Young, R.

    2012-04-01

    Remote-sensed aerial imagery has been one of the primary methods for tracking shoreline change, but the low availability of high-quality data that is temporally relevant to the area of interest is often too expensive for small scale studies, if the data even exist. The Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines (PSDS) at Western Carolina University has been using balloon and kite mounted cameras for two years to make observations of highly dynamic, near shore systems in the southeastern United States. Through a partnership with GrassrootsMapping.org, our program was introduced to the system of aerial photography which collects images for under 200 USD at resolutions of 5-10 cm/pixel. The system is field transportable and can collect imagery on an as-needed basis, instead of scheduling aerial over flights or waiting for Google Earth imagery to be updated. Successful research trips to Beaufort County, South Carolina have identified buildings and infrastructure that are at risk of inundation from sea-level rise. The region experiences daily tidal fluctuations in excess of 2 m, allowing imagery to be captured at a variety of tidal cycles. The method has identified wetlands adjacent to developed areas lacking a buffer area allowing them to expand as sea levels rise. Due to the high resolution of the images, changes over shorter time intervals can be observed, such as the transition from high marsh to low marsh, as sea levels rise. After the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, PSDS staff mapped the oil spill on several trips to the Gulf of Mexico. Repeated visits to the same area have yielded a time series of images with greater frequency than more expensive methods. Finally, offshore sand movements at tidal inlets have been observed in detail on beaches in southern Georgia.

  7. Evaluation of the Raven sUAS to detect and monitor greater sage-grouse leks within the Middle Park population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, Leanne; Holmquist-Johnson, Christopher L.; Cowardin, Michelle L.

    2014-01-01

    The Raven sUAS is a hand-launched reconnaissance and data-gathering tool developed for the U.S. Department of Defense by AeroVironment, Inc. Originally designed to provide aerial observation, day or night, at line-of-site ranges up to 6.2 miles (10 kilometers), the Raven sUAS has a wingspan of 4.5 feet (1.38 meters) and weighs 4.2 pounds (1.9 kilograms). A 60-minute lithium-ion rechargeable battery powers the system which also transmits live video (color or infrared imagery), compass headings, and location information to a ground control station. The Raven sUAS is typically operated by a three-person flight crew consisting of a pilot, mission operator, and a trained observer.

  8. Dynamic modeling, simulation and control design of a parafoil-payload system for ship launched aerial delivery system (SLADS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puranik, Anand S.

    The objective of this research was to develop a high-fidelity dynamic model of a parafoil-payload system with respect to its application for the Ship Launched Aerial Delivery System (SLADS). SLADS is a concept in which cargo can be transfered from ship to shore using a parafoil-payload system. It is accomplished in two phases: An initial towing phase when the glider follows the towing vessel in a passive lift mode and an autonomous gliding phase when the system is guided to the desired point. While many previous researchers have analyzed the parafoil-payload system when it is released from another airborne vehicle, limited work has been done in the area of towing up the system from ground or sea. One of the main contributions of this research was the development of a nonlinear dynamic model of a towed parafoil-payload system. After performing an extensive literature review of the existing methods of modeling a parafoil-payload system, a five degree-of-freedom model was developed. The inertial and geometric properties of the system were investigated to predict accurate results in the simulation environment. Since extensive research has been done in determining the aerodynamic characteristics of a paraglider, an existing aerodynamic model was chosen to incorporate the effects of air flow around the flexible paraglider wing. During the towing phase, it is essential that the parafoil-payload system follow the line of the towing vessel path to prevent an unstable flight condition called 'lockout'. A detailed study of the causes of lockout, its mathematical representation and the flight conditions and the parameters related to lockout, constitute another contribution of this work. A linearized model of the parafoil-payload system was developed and used to analyze the stability of the system about equilibrium conditions. The relationship between the control surface inputs and the stability was investigated. In addition to stability of flight, one more important objective

  9. System identification of a small low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle using flight data from low-cost sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffer, Nathan Von

    Remote sensing has traditionally been done with satellites and manned aircraft. While. these methods can yield useful scientificc data, satellites and manned aircraft have limitations in data frequency, process time, and real time re-tasking. Small low-cost unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) provide greater possibilities for personal scientic research than traditional remote sensing platforms. Precision aerial data requires an accurate vehicle dynamics model for controller development, robust flight characteristics, and fault tolerance. One method of developing a model is system identification (system ID). In this thesis system ID of a small low-cost fixed-wing T-tail UAV is conducted. The linerized longitudinal equations of motion are derived from first principles. Foundations of Recursive Least Squares (RLS) are presented along with RLS with an Error Filtering Online Learning scheme (EFOL). Sensors, data collection, data consistency checking, and data processing are described. Batch least squares (BLS) and BLS with EFOL are used to identify aerodynamic coecoefficients of the UAV. Results of these two methods with flight data are discussed.

  10. Modeling Aircraft Position and Conservatively Calculating Airspace Violations for an Autonomous Collision Awareness System for Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueunten, Kevin K.

    With the scheduled 30 September 2015 integration of Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) into the national airspace, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is concerned with UAS capabilities to sense and avoid conflicts. Since the operator is outside the cockpit, the proposed collision awareness plugin (CAPlugin), based on probability and error propagation, conservatively predicts potential conflicts with other aircraft and airspaces, thus increasing the operator's situational awareness. The conflict predictions are calculated using a forward state estimator (FSE) and a conflict calculator. Predicting an aircraft's position, modeled as a mixed Gaussian distribution, is the FSE's responsibility. Furthermore, the FSE supports aircraft engaged in the following three flight modes: free flight, flight path following and orbits. The conflict calculator uses the FSE result to calculate the conflict probability between an aircraft and airspace or another aircraft. Finally, the CAPlugin determines the highest conflict probability and warns the operator. In addition to discussing the FSE free flight, FSE orbit and the airspace conflict calculator, this thesis describes how each algorithm is implemented and tested. Lastly two simulations demonstrates the CAPlugin's capabilities.

  11. Design of a Mars Airplane Propulsion System for the Aerial Regional-Scale Environmental Survey (ARES) Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhl, Christopher A.

    2008-01-01

    The Aerial Regional-Scale Environmental Survey (ARES) is a Mars exploration mission concept that utilizes a rocket propelled airplane to take scientific measurements of atmospheric, surface, and subsurface phenomena. The liquid rocket propulsion system design has matured through several design cycles and trade studies since the inception of the ARES concept in 2002. This paper describes the process of selecting a bipropellant system over other propulsion system options, and provides details on the rocket system design, thrusters, propellant tank and PMD design, propellant isolation, and flow control hardware. The paper also summarizes computer model results of thruster plume interactions and simulated flight performance. The airplane has a 6.25 m wingspan with a total wet mass of 185 kg and has to ability to fly over 600 km through the atmosphere of Mars with 45 kg of MMH / MON3 propellant.

  12. Determination of Exterior Orientation Parameters Through Direct Geo-Referencing in a Real-Time Aerial Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Lee, J.; Choi, K.; Lee, I.

    2012-07-01

    Rapid responses for emergency situations such as natural disasters or accidents often require geo-spatial information describing the on-going status of the affected area. Such geo-spatial information can be promptly acquired by a manned or unmanned aerial vehicle based multi-sensor system that can monitor the emergent situations in near real-time from the air using several kinds of sensors. Thus, we are in progress of developing such a real-time aerial monitoring system (RAMS) consisting of both aerial and ground segments. The aerial segment acquires the sensory data about the target areas by a low-altitude helicopter system equipped with sensors such as a digital camera and a GPS/IMU system and transmits them to the ground segment through a RF link in real-time. The ground segment, which is a deployable ground station installed on a truck, receives the sensory data and rapidly processes them to generate ortho-images, DEMs, etc. In order to generate geo-spatial information, in this system, exterior orientation parameters (EOP) of the acquired images are obtained through direct geo-referencing because it is difficult to acquire coordinates of ground points in disaster area. The main process, since the data acquisition stage until the measurement of EOP, is discussed as follows. First, at the time of data acquisition, image acquisition time synchronized by GPS time is recorded as part of image file name. Second, the acquired data are then transmitted to the ground segment in real-time. Third, by processing software for ground segment, positions/attitudes of acquired images are calculated through a linear interpolation using the GPS time of the received position/attitude data and images. Finally, the EOPs of images are obtained from position/attitude data by deriving the relationships between a camera coordinate system and a GPS/IMU coordinate system. In this study, we evaluated the accuracy of the EOP decided by direct geo-referencing in our system. To perform this

  13. Design and Development of a Low-Cost Aerial Mobile Mapping System for Multi-Purpose Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acevedo Pardo, C.; Farjas Abadía, M.; Sternberg, H.

    2015-08-01

    The research project with the working title "Design and development of a low-cost modular Aerial Mobile Mapping System" was formed during the last year as the result from numerous discussions and considerations with colleagues from the HafenCity University Hamburg, Department Geomatics. The aim of the project is to design a sensor platform which can be embedded preferentially on an UAV, but also can be integrated on any adaptable vehicle. The system should perform a direct scanning of surfaces with a laser scanner and supported through sensors for determining the position and attitude of the platform. The modular design allows his extension with other sensors such as multispectral cameras, digital cameras or multiple cameras systems.

  14. Aerial thermography for energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Thermal infrared scanning from an aircraft is a convenient and commercially available means for determining relative rates of energy loss from building roofs. The need to conserve energy as fuel costs makes the mass survey capability of aerial thermography an attractive adjunct to community energy awareness programs. Background information on principles of aerial thermography is presented. Thermal infrared scanning systems, flight and environmental requirements for data acquisition, preparation of thermographs for display, major users and suppliers of thermography, and suggested specifications for obtaining aerial scanning services were reviewed.

  15. Towards an Autonomous Vision-Based Unmanned Aerial System against Wildlife Poachers

    PubMed Central

    Olivares-Mendez, Miguel A.; Fu, Changhong; Ludivig, Philippe; Bissyandé, Tegawendé F.; Kannan, Somasundar; Zurad, Maciej; Annaiyan, Arun; Voos, Holger; Campoy, Pascual

    2015-01-01

    Poaching is an illegal activity that remains out of control in many countries. Based on the 2014 report of the United Nations and Interpol, the illegal trade of global wildlife and natural resources amounts to nearly $213 billion every year, which is even helping to fund armed conflicts. Poaching activities around the world are further pushing many animal species on the brink of extinction. Unfortunately, the traditional methods to fight against poachers are not enough, hence the new demands for more efficient approaches. In this context, the use of new technologies on sensors and algorithms, as well as aerial platforms is crucial to face the high increase of poaching activities in the last few years. Our work is focused on the use of vision sensors on UAVs for the detection and tracking of animals and poachers, as well as the use of such sensors to control quadrotors during autonomous vehicle following and autonomous landing. PMID:26703597

  16. Towards an Autonomous Vision-Based Unmanned Aerial System against Wildlife Poachers.

    PubMed

    Olivares-Mendez, Miguel A; Fu, Changhong; Ludivig, Philippe; Bissyandé, Tegawendé F; Kannan, Somasundar; Zurad, Maciej; Annaiyan, Arun; Voos, Holger; Campoy, Pascual

    2015-01-01

    Poaching is an illegal activity that remains out of control in many countries. Based on the 2014 report of the United Nations and Interpol, the illegal trade of global wildlife and natural resources amounts to nearly $ 213 billion every year, which is even helping to fund armed conflicts. Poaching activities around the world are further pushing many animal species on the brink of extinction. Unfortunately, the traditional methods to fight against poachers are not enough, hence the new demands for more efficient approaches. In this context, the use of new technologies on sensors and algorithms, as well as aerial platforms is crucial to face the high increase of poaching activities in the last few years. Our work is focused on the use of vision sensors on UAVs for the detection and tracking of animals and poachers, as well as the use of such sensors to control quadrotors during autonomous vehicle following and autonomous landing. PMID:26703597

  17. Unmanned aerial systems for forest reclamation monitoring: throwing balloons in the air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Rita; Vaz, Eric; Panagopoulos, Thomas; Guerrero, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Wildfires are a recurrent phenomenon in Mediterranean landscapes, deteriorating environment and ecosystems, calling out for adequate land management. Monitoring burned areas enhances our abilities to reclaim them. Remote sensing has become an increasingly important tool for environmental assessment and land management. It is fast, non-intrusive, and provides continuous spatial coverage. This paper reviews remote sensing methods, based on space-borne, airborne or ground-based multispectral imagery, for monitoring the biophysical properties of forest areas for site specific management. The usage of satellite imagery for land use management has been frequent in the last decades, it is of great use to determine plants health and crop conditions, allowing a synergy between the complexity of environment, anthropogenic landscapes and multi-temporal understanding of spatial dynamics. Aerial photography increments on spatial resolution, nevertheless it is heavily dependent on airborne availability as well as cost. Both these methods are required for wide areas management and policy planning. Comprising an active and high resolution imagery source, that can be brought at a specific instance, reducing cost while maintaining locational flexibility is of utmost importance for local management. In this sense, unmanned aerial vehicles provide maximum flexibility with image collection, they can incorporate thermal and multispectral sensors, however payload and engine operation time limit flight time. Balloon remote sensing is becoming increasingly sought after for site specific management, catering rapid digital analysis, permitting greater control of the spatial resolution as well as of datasets collection in a given time. Different wavelength sensors may be used to map spectral variations in plant growth, monitor water and nutrient stress, assess yield and plant vitality during different stages of development. Proximity could be an asset when monitoring forest plants vitality

  18. Dhaksha, the Unmanned Aircraft System in its New Avatar-Automated Aerial Inspection of INDIA'S Tallest Tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, K. S.; Rasheed, A. Mohamed; Krishna Kumar, R.; Giridharan, M.; Ganesh

    2013-08-01

    DHAKSHA, the unmanned aircraft system (UAS), developed after several years of research by Division of Avionics, Department of Aerospace Engineering, MIT Campus of Anna University has recently proved its capabilities during May 2012 Technology demonstration called UAVforge organised by Defence Research Project Agency, Department of Defence, USA. Team Dhaksha with its most stable design outperformed all the other contestants competing against some of the best engineers from prestigi ous institutions across the globe like Middlesex University from UK, NTU and NUS from Singapore, Tudelft Technical University, Netherlands and other UAV industry participants in the world's toughest UAV challenge. This has opened up an opportunity for Indian UAVs making a presence in the international scenario as well. In furtherance to the above effort at Fort Stewart military base at Georgia,USA, with suitable payloads, the Dhaksha team deployed the UAV in a religious temple festival during November 2012 at Thiruvannamalai District for Tamil Nadu Police to avail the instant aerial imagery services over the crowd of 10 lakhs pilgrims and also about the investigation of the structural strength of the India's tallest structure, the 300 m RCC tower during January 2013. The developed system consists of a custom-built Rotary Wing model with on-board navigation, guidance and control systems (NGC) and ground control station (GCS), for mission planning, remote access, manual overrides and imagery related computations. The mission is to fulfill the competition requirements by using an UAS capable of providing complete solution for the stated problem. In this work the effort to produce multirotor unmanned aerial systems (UAS) for civilian applications at the MIT, Avionics Laboratory is presented

  19. A study of aerosol optical properties using a lightweight optical particle spectrometer and sun photometer from an unmanned aerial system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telg, H.; Murphy, D. M.; Bates, T. S.; Johnson, J. E.; Gao, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    A miniaturized printed optical particle spectrometer (POPS) and sun photometer (miniSASP) have been developed recently for unmanned aerial systems (UAS) and balloon applications. Here we present the first scientific data recorded by the POPS and miniSASP from a Manta UAS during a field campaign on Svalbard, Norway, in April 2015. As part of a payload composed of five different aerosol instruments (absorption photometer, condensation particle counter, filter sampler, miniSASP and POPS) we collected particle size distributions, the optical depth (OD) and the sky brightness from 0 to 3000 m altitude. The complementary measurement approaches of the miniSASP and POPS allow us to calculate aerosol optical properties such as the aerosol optical depth and the angstrom exponent or the asymmetry parameter independently. We discuss deviation between results with respect to aerosol properties, e.g. hygroscopicity and absorption, as well as instrumental limitations.

  20. Design of a Mars Airplane Propulsion System for the Aerial Regional-Scale Environmental Survey (ARES) Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhl. Christopher A.

    2009-01-01

    The Aerial Regional-Scale Environmental Survey (ARES) is a Mars exploration mission concept with the goal of taking scientific measurements of the atmosphere, surface, and subsurface of Mars by using an airplane as the payload platform. ARES team first conducted a Phase-A study for a 2007 launch opportunity, which was completed in May 2003. Following this study, significant efforts were undertaken to reduce the risk of the atmospheric flight system, under the NASA Langley Planetary Airplane Risk Reduction Project. The concept was then proposed to the Mars Scout program in 2006 for a 2011 launch opportunity. This paper summarizes the design and development of the ARES airplane propulsion subsystem beginning with the inception of the ARES project in 2002 through the submittal of the Mars Scout proposal in July 2006.

  1. Unmanned Aerial Systems, Moored Balloons, and the U.S. Department of Energy ARM Facilities in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivey, Mark; Verlinde, Johannes

    2014-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), through its scientific user facility, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, provides scientific infrastructure and data to the international Arctic research community via its research sites located on the North Slope of Alaska. Facilities and infrastructure to support operations of unmanned aerial systems for science missions in the Arctic and North Slope of Alaska were established at Oliktok Point Alaska in 2013. Tethered instrumented balloons will be used in the near future to make measurements of clouds in the boundary layer including mixed-phase clouds. The DOE ARM Program has operated an atmospheric measurement facility in Barrow, Alaska, since 1998. Major upgrades to this facility, including scanning radars, were added in 2010. Arctic Observing Networks are essential to meet growing policy, social, commercial, and scientific needs. Calibrated, high-quality arctic geophysical datasets that span ten years or longer are especially important for climate studies, climate model initializations and validations, and for related climate policy activities. For example, atmospheric data and derived atmospheric forcing estimates are critical for sea-ice simulations. International requirements for well-coordinated, long-term, and sustained Arctic Observing Networks and easily-accessible data sets collected by those networks have been recognized by many high-level workshops and reports (Arctic Council Meetings and workshops, National Research Council reports, NSF workshops and others). The recent Sustaining Arctic Observation Network (SAON) initiative sponsored a series of workshops to "develop a set of recommendations on how to achieve long-term Arctic-wide observing activities that provide free, open, and timely access to high-quality data that will realize pan-Arctic and global value-added services and provide societal benefits." This poster will present information on opportunities for members of the

  2. The biocontrol endophytic bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 induces systemic defense responses in aerial tissues upon colonization of olive roots

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Lama Cabanás, Carmen; Schilirò, Elisabetta; Valverde-Corredor, Antonio; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7, a native olive root endophyte and effective biocontrol agent (BCA) against Verticillium wilt of olive, is able to trigger a broad range of defense responses in root tissues of this woody plant. In order to elucidate whether strain PICF7 also induces systemic defense responses in above-ground organs, aerial tissues of olive plants grown under non-gnotobiotic conditions were collected at different time points after root bacterization with this endophytic BCA. A suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library, enriched in up-regulated genes, was generated. This strategy enabled the identification of 376 ESTs (99 contigs and 277 singlets), many of them related to response to different stresses. Five ESTs, involved in defense responses, were selected to carry out time-course quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) experiments aiming to: (1) validate the induction of these genes, and (2) shed light on their expression pattern along time (from 1 to 15 days). Induction of olive genes potentially coding for lipoxygenase 2, catalase, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase, and phenylananine ammonia-lyase was thus confirmed at some time points. Computational analysis also revealed that different transcription factors were up-regulated in olive aerial tissues (i.e., JERF, bHLH, WRKY), as previously reported for roots. Results confirmed that root colonization by this endophytic bacterium does not only trigger defense responses in this organ but also mounts a wide array of systemic defense responses in distant tissues (stems, leaves). This sheds light on how olive plants respond to the “non-hostile” colonization by a bacterial endophyte and how induced defense response can contribute to the biocontrol activity of strain PICF7. PMID:25250017

  3. Lightweight Vertical Take-Off & Landing Unmanned Aerial Systems For Local-Scale Forestry and Agriculture Remote Sensing Data Collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putman, E.; Sheridan, R.; Popescu, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    The evolution of lightweight Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) rotary Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and remote sensor technologies have provided researchers with the ability to integrate compact remote sensing systems with UAVs to create Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) capable of collecting high-resolution airborne remote sensing data. UASs offer a myriad of benefits. Some of the most notable include: (1) reduced operational cost; (2) reduced lead-time for mission planning; (3) high-resolution and high-density data collection; and (4) customization of data collection intervals to fit the needs of a specific project (i.e. acquiring data at hourly, daily, or weekly intervals). Such benefits allow researchers and natural resource managers to acquire airborne remote sensing data on local-scale phenomenon in ways that were previously cost-prohibitive. VTOL UASs also offer a stable platform capable of low speed low altitude flight over small spatial scales that do not require a dedicated runway. Such flight characteristics allow VTOL UASs to collect high-resolution data at very high densities, enabling the use of structure from motion (SFM) techniques to generate three-dimensional datasets from photographs. When combined, these characteristics make VTOL UASs ideal for collecting data over agricultural or forested research areas. The goal of this study is to provide an overview of several lightweight eight-rotor VTOL UASs designed for small-scale forest remote sensing data collection. Specific objectives include: (1) the independent integration of a lightweight multispectral camera, a lightweight scanning lidar sensor, with required components (i.e. IMU, GPS, data logger) and the UAV; (2) comparison of UAS-collected data to terrestrial lidar data and airborne multispectral and lidar data; (3) comparison of UAS SFM techniques to terrestrial lidar data; and (4) multi-temporal assessment of tree decay using terrestrial lidar and UAS SfM techniques.

  4. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in pest management: Progress in the development of a UAV-deployed mating disruption system for Wisconsin cranberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) hold significant promise for agriculture. Currently, UAVs are being employed for various reconnaissance purposes (“eyes in the sky”), but not as pest control delivery systems. Research in Wisconsin cranberries is taking UAVs in a new direction. The Steffan and Luck La...

  5. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in pest management: Progress in the development of a UAV-deployed mating disruption system for Wisconsin cranberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a powerful new tool for agriculture. Currently, UAVs are used almost exclusively as crop reconnaissance devices (“eyes in the sky”), not as pest control delivery systems. Research in Wisconsin cranberries is taking UAVs in a new direction. The Steffan and Lu...

  6. Fault Tolerance Analysis of L1 Adaptive Control System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamoorthy, Kiruthika

    Trajectory tracking is a critical element for the better functionality of autonomous vehicles. The main objective of this research study was to implement and analyze L1 adaptive control laws for autonomous flight under normal and upset flight conditions. The West Virginia University (WVU) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle flight simulation environment was used for this purpose. A comparison study between the L1 adaptive controller and a baseline conventional controller, which relies on position, proportional, and integral compensation, has been performed for a reduced size jet aircraft, the WVU YF-22. Special attention was given to the performance of the proposed control laws in the presence of abnormal conditions. The abnormal conditions considered are locked actuators (stabilator, aileron, and rudder) and excessive turbulence. Several levels of abnormal condition severity have been considered. The performance of the control laws was assessed over different-shape commanded trajectories. A set of comprehensive evaluation metrics was defined and used to analyze the performance of autonomous flight control laws in terms of control activity and trajectory tracking errors. The developed L1 adaptive control laws are supported by theoretical stability guarantees. The simulation results show that L1 adaptive output feedback controller achieves better trajectory tracking with lower level of control actuation as compared to the baseline linear controller under nominal and abnormal conditions.

  7. Observations of the Early Evening Boundary-Layer Transition Using a Small Unmanned Aerial System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonin, Timothy; Chilson, Phillip; Zielke, Brett; Fedorovich, Evgeni

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of the lower portion of the planetary boundary layer is investigated using the Small Multifunction Research and Teaching Sonde (SMARTSonde), an unmanned aerial vehicle developed at the University of Oklahoma. The study focuses on the lowest 200 m of the atmosphere, where the most noticeable thermodynamic changes occur during the day. Between October 2010 and February 2011, a series of flights was conducted during the evening hours on several days to examine the vertical structure of the lower boundary layer. Data from a nearby Oklahoma Mesonet tower was used to supplement the vertical profiles of temperature, humidity, and pressure, which were collected approximately every 30 min, starting 2 h before sunset and continuing until dusk. From the profiles, sensible and latent heat fluxes were estimated. These fluxes were used to diagnose the portion of the boundary layer that was most affected by the early evening transition. During the transition period, a shallow cool and moist layer near the ground was formed, and as the evening progressed the cooling affected an increasingly shallower layer just above the surface.

  8. Sitting in the Pilot's Seat; Optimizing Human-Systems Interfaces for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Queen, Steven M.; Sanner, Kurt Gregory

    2011-01-01

    One of the pilot-machine interfaces (the forward viewing camera display) for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle called the DROID (Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone) will be analyzed for optimization. The goal is to create a visual display for the pilot that as closely resembles an out-the-window view as possible. There are currently no standard guidelines for designing pilot-machine interfaces for UAVs. Typically, UAV camera views have a narrow field, which limits the situational awareness (SA) of the pilot. Also, at this time, pilot-UAV interfaces often use displays that have a diagonal length of around 20". Using a small display may result in a distorted and disproportional view for UAV pilots. Making use of a larger display and a camera lens with a wider field of view may minimize the occurrences of pilot error associated with the inability to see "out the window" as in a manned airplane. It is predicted that the pilot will have a less distorted view of the DROID s surroundings, quicker response times and more stable vehicle control. If the experimental results validate this concept, other UAV pilot-machine interfaces will be improved with this design methodology.

  9. Botswana: Ntwetwe and Sua Pans

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-15

    ... of red band imagery in which the 45-degree aft camera data are displayed in blue, 45-degree forward as green, and vertical as red. ... coat the surface and turn it bright ("sua" means salt). The mining town of Sowa is located where the Sua Spit (a finger of grassland ...

  10. L-band Soil Moisture Mapping using Small UnManned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, E.

    2015-12-01

    Soil moisture is of fundamental importance to many hydrological, biological and biogeochemical processes, plays an important role in the development and evolution of convective weather and precipitation, and impacts water resource management, agriculture, and flood runoff prediction. The launch of NASA's Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) mission in 2015 promises to provide global measurements of soil moisture and surface freeze/thaw state at fixed crossing times and spatial resolutions as low as 5 km for some products. However, there exists a need for measurements of soil moisture on smaller spatial scales and arbitrary diurnal times for SMAP validation, precision agriculture and evaporation and transpiration studies of boundary layer heat transport. The Lobe Differencing Correlation Radiometer (LDCR) provides a means of mapping soil moisture on spatial scales as small as several meters (i.e., the height of the platform) .Compared with various other proposed methods of validation based on either situ measurements [1,2] or existing airborne sensors suitable for manned aircraft deployment [3], the integrated design of the LDCR on a lightweight small UAS (sUAS) is capable of providing sub-watershed (~km scale) coverage at very high spatial resolution (~15 m) suitable for scaling scale studies, and at comparatively low operator cost. The LDCR on Tempest unit can supply the soil moisture mapping with different resolution which is of order the Tempest altitude.

  11. Neural network control of a parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system for a small unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, Frederick G.

    2005-11-01

    Parallel hybrid-electric propulsion systems would be beneficial for small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) used for military, homeland security, and disaster-monitoring missions. The benefits, due to the hybrid and electric-only modes, include increased time-on-station and greater range as compared to electric-powered UAVs and stealth modes not available with gasoline-powered UAVs. This dissertation contributes to the research fields of small unmanned aerial vehicles, hybrid-electric propulsion system control, and intelligent control. A conceptual design of a small UAV with a parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system is provided. The UAV is intended for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) missions. A conceptual design reveals the trade-offs that must be considered to take advantage of the hybrid-electric propulsion system. The resulting hybrid-electric propulsion system is a two-point design that includes an engine primarily sized for cruise speed and an electric motor and battery pack that are primarily sized for a slower endurance speed. The electric motor provides additional power for take-off, climbing, and acceleration and also serves as a generator during charge-sustaining operation or regeneration. The intelligent control of the hybrid-electric propulsion system is based on an instantaneous optimization algorithm that generates a hyper-plane from the nonlinear efficiency maps for the internal combustion engine, electric motor, and lithium-ion battery pack. The hyper-plane incorporates charge-depletion and charge-sustaining strategies. The optimization algorithm is flexible and allows the operator/user to assign relative importance between the use of gasoline, electricity, and recharging depending on the intended mission. A MATLAB/Simulink model was developed to test the control algorithms. The Cerebellar Model Arithmetic Computer (CMAC) associative memory neural network is applied to the control of the UAVs parallel hybrid

  12. An Integrated Photogrammetric and Spatial Database Management System for Producing Fully Structured Data Using Aerial and Remote Sensing Images

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Farshid Farnood; Ebadi, Hamid

    2009-01-01

    3D spatial data acquired from aerial and remote sensing images by photogrammetric techniques is one of the most accurate and economic data sources for GIS, map production, and spatial data updating. However, there are still many problems concerning storage, structuring and appropriate management of spatial data obtained using these techniques. According to the capabilities of spatial database management systems (SDBMSs); direct integration of photogrammetric and spatial database management systems can save time and cost of producing and updating digital maps. This integration is accomplished by replacing digital maps with a single spatial database. Applying spatial databases overcomes the problem of managing spatial and attributes data in a coupled approach. This management approach is one of the main problems in GISs for using map products of photogrammetric workstations. Also by the means of these integrated systems, providing structured spatial data, based on OGC (Open GIS Consortium) standards and topological relations between different feature classes, is possible at the time of feature digitizing process. In this paper, the integration of photogrammetric systems and SDBMSs is evaluated. Then, different levels of integration are described. Finally design, implementation and test of a software package called Integrated Photogrammetric and Oracle Spatial Systems (IPOSS) is presented. PMID:22574014

  13. An integrated photogrammetric and spatial database management system for producing fully structured data using aerial and remote sensing images.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Farshid Farnood; Ebadi, Hamid

    2009-01-01

    3D spatial data acquired from aerial and remote sensing images by photogrammetric techniques is one of the most accurate and economic data sources for GIS, map production, and spatial data updating. However, there are still many problems concerning storage, structuring and appropriate management of spatial data obtained using these techniques. According to the capabilities of spatial database management systems (SDBMSs); direct integration of photogrammetric and spatial database management systems can save time and cost of producing and updating digital maps. This integration is accomplished by replacing digital maps with a single spatial database. Applying spatial databases overcomes the problem of managing spatial and attributes data in a coupled approach. This management approach is one of the main problems in GISs for using map products of photogrammetric workstations. Also by the means of these integrated systems, providing structured spatial data, based on OGC (Open GIS Consortium) standards and topological relations between different feature classes, is possible at the time of feature digitizing process. In this paper, the integration of photogrammetric systems and SDBMSs is evaluated. Then, different levels of integration are described. Finally design, implementation and test of a software package called Integrated Photogrammetric and Oracle Spatial Systems (IPOSS) is presented. PMID:22574014

  14. Determining position, velocity and acceleration of free-ranging animals with a low-cost unmanned aerial system.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Richard J; Roskilly, Kyle; Buse, Chris; Evans, Hannah K; Hubel, Tatjana Y; Wilson, Alan M

    2016-09-01

    Unmanned aerial systems (UASs), frequently referred to as 'drones', have become more common and affordable and are a promising tool for collecting data on free-ranging wild animals. We used a Phantom-2 UAS equipped with a gimbal-mounted camera to estimate position, velocity and acceleration of a subject on the ground moving through a grid of GPS surveyed ground control points (area ∼1200 m(2)). We validated the accuracy of the system against a dual frequency survey grade GPS system attached to the subject. When compared with GPS survey data, the estimations of position, velocity and acceleration had a root mean square error of 0.13 m, 0.11 m s(-1) and 2.31 m s(-2), respectively. The system can be used to collect locomotion and localisation data on multiple free-ranging animals simultaneously. It does not require specialist skills to operate, is easily transported to field locations, and is rapidly and easily deployed. It is therefore a useful addition to the range of methods available for field data collection on free-ranging animal locomotion. PMID:27353230

  15. Aerial Video Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    When Michael Henry wanted to start an aerial video service, he turned to Johnson Space Center for assistance. Two NASA engineers - one had designed and developed TV systems in Apollo, Skylab, Apollo- Soyuz and Space Shuttle programs - designed a wing-mounted fiberglass camera pod. Camera head and angles are adjustable, and the pod is shaped to reduce vibration. The controls are located so a solo pilot can operate the system. A microprocessor displays latitude, longitude, and bearing, and a GPS receiver provides position data for possible legal references. The service has been successfully utilized by railroads, oil companies, real estate companies, etc.

  16. Performance Characterization of a Lithium-ion Gel Polymer Battery Power Supply System for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Logan, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are currently under development for NASA missions, earth sciences, aeronautics, the military, and commercial applications. The design of an all electric power and propulsion system for small UAVs was the focus of a detailed study. Currently, many of these small vehicles are powered by primary (nonrechargeable) lithium-based batteries. While this type of battery is capable of satisfying some of the mission needs, a secondary (rechargeable) battery power supply system that can provide the same functionality as the current system at the same or lower system mass and volume is desired. A study of commercially available secondary battery cell technologies that could provide the desired performance characteristics was performed. Due to the strict mass limitations and wide operating temperature requirements of small UAVs, the only viable cell chemistries were determined to be lithium-ion liquid electrolyte systems and lithium-ion gel polymer electrolyte systems. Two lithium-ion gel polymer cell designs were selected as candidates and were tested using potential load profiles for UAV applications. Because lithium primary batteries have a higher specific energy and energy density, for the same mass and volume allocation, the secondary batteries resulted in shorter flight times than the primary batteries typically provide. When the batteries were operated at lower ambient temperatures (0 to -20 C), flight times were even further reduced. Despite the reduced flight times demonstrated, for certain UAV applications, the secondary batteries operated within the acceptable range of flight times at room temperature and above. The results of this testing indicate that a secondary battery power supply system can provide some benefits over the primary battery power supply system. A UAV can be operated for hundreds of flights using a secondary battery power supply system that provides the combined benefits of rechargeability and an inherently safer

  17. Volcanic sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide measurements using small unmanned aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieri, D. C.; Diaz, J. A.; Fladeland, M. M.; Bland, G.; Alan, A., Jr.; Alegria, O.; Buongiorno, M. F.; Christensen, L. E.; Corrales, E.; Linick, J.; Mouginis-Mark, P. J.; Ramsey, M. S.; Realmuto, V. J.; Schwandner, F. M.

    2015-12-01

    Volcanoes emit gases continuously with significant pre-post-eruption changes, mainly H2O and CO2, plus SO2, and others. The SO2/CO2 ratio changes within volcanic life cycles making it an indicator of oncoming eruption phases: it can dip weeks to months before eruptions, then increase, and decrease back to background after eruptions. Over the last five years, we have made an effort to develop small and inexpensive lighter-than-air and fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platforms in Costa Rica at Turrialba Volcano. Turrialba is an appropriate natural laboratory to test and prove platforms and instrumentation in low-level steady state volcanogenic gas and aerosol emissions at moderate altitudes (<12Kft ASL), where good technical infrastructure exists, with good physical access to the volcano. Our program in Costa Rica includes: (1) systematic monitoring of Turrialba from orbit with the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER), with its thermal infrared (TIR) camera for SO2 retrieval, and more recently with GOSAT and OCO-2 for CO2; (2) in situ observations from aerostats and UAVs during ASTER overpasses, and (3) reconciliation of the orbital results with in situ data to validate mass retrieval and transport models. As part of the NASA HyspIRI Preparatory Airborne Activities program, we will conduct similar observations at Kilauea volcano using small UAVs and for both SO2 and CO2 in situ. One of the salient characteristics of the long lived Kilauea eruptions since 1983 has been the emission of SO2 in significant amounts, generating environmental stresses on local inhabitants due to lowered air quality, and stress on vegetation. Kilauea volcanic plumes, as with Turrialba, are mainly gases and liquid--SO2 is hydrolyzed to H2SO4 and the resulting highly acidic liquid aerosol is termed "vog," an environmental health hazard. Measurement of the diffuse CO2 emissions at Kilauea will also be of interest. Such measurements at Turrialba

  18. Towards Real-time, On-board, Hardware-Supported Sensor and Software Health Management for Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann; Rozier, Kristin Y.; Reinbacher, Thomas; Mengshoel, Ole J.; Mbaya, Timmy; Ippolito, Corey

    2013-01-01

    Unmanned aerial systems (UASs) can only be deployed if they can effectively complete their missions and respond to failures and uncertain environmental conditions while maintaining safety with respect to other aircraft as well as humans and property on the ground. In this paper, we design a real-time, on-board system health management (SHM) capability to continuously monitor sensors, software, and hardware components for detection and diagnosis of failures and violations of safety or performance rules during the flight of a UAS. Our approach to SHM is three-pronged, providing: (1) real-time monitoring of sensor and/or software signals; (2) signal analysis, preprocessing, and advanced on the- fly temporal and Bayesian probabilistic fault diagnosis; (3) an unobtrusive, lightweight, read-only, low-power realization using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) that avoids overburdening limited computing resources or costly re-certification of flight software due to instrumentation. Our implementation provides a novel approach of combining modular building blocks, integrating responsive runtime monitoring of temporal logic system safety requirements with model-based diagnosis and Bayesian network-based probabilistic analysis. We demonstrate this approach using actual data from the NASA Swift UAS, an experimental all-electric aircraft.

  19. Quantifying streambank erosion: a comparative study using an unmanned aerial system (UAS) and a terrestrial laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, D.; Hamshaw, S. D.; Dewoolkar, M.; ONeil-Dunne, J.; Frolik, J.; Bryce, T. G.; Waldron, A. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Streambank erosion is a common non-point source contributing to suspended sediment and nutrient loading of waterways, and recently has been estimated to account for 30-80% of sediment loading into receiving waters. There is interest in developing reliable methods to quantify bank erosion in watersheds, so effective management strategies can be devised. However, current methods can be either cost prohibitive or unreliable. Direct measurement approaches (surveys and erosion pins) are labor intensive and yield site-specific measurements that are limited for extrapolation to larger scales. Similar issues arise with analytical methods such as slope stability analysis, which require material parameters that are resource intensive to determine. Newer approaches such as use of aerial LiDAR data have proved effective for watershed level assessment, but come with long turnaround times and high cost. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is also effective and offers high accuracy, however collection over large areas is impractical and post-processing is labor intensive. New technology in the form of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) has the potential to significantly enhance the ability to monitor channel migration and quantify bank erosion at variable scales. In this study, 20 km of the Mad and Winooski Rivers in Vermont were flown using a senseFly eBee UAS. Flights were made in spring and fall 2015 in leaf-off conditions with selected portions also flown after large storms in the summer. Change in bank profiles between spring and fall flights provide a comprehensive estimate of bank erosion along the study reaches. Six sites with varying bank heights, erosion sensitivity, and vegetation conditions were selected for simultaneous surveying using a TLS. Point cloud data from both the TLS and UAS were compared to assess the accuracy of the UAS for capturing the bank profile. Changes in bank cross-sections and in volumes calculated from 3D digital surface models were used to compare the

  20. The evaluation of unmanned aerial system-based photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning to generate DEMs of agricultural watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouédraogo, Mohamar Moussa; Degré, Aurore; Debouche, Charles; Lisein, Jonathan

    2014-06-01

    Agricultural watersheds tend to be places of intensive farming activities that permanently modify their microtopography. The surface characteristics of the soil vary depending on the crops that are cultivated in these areas. Agricultural soil microtopography plays an important role in the quantification of runoff and sediment transport because the presence of crops, crop residues, furrows and ridges may impact the direction of water flow. To better assess such phenomena, 3-D reconstructions of high-resolution agricultural watershed topography are essential. Fine-resolution topographic data collection technologies can be used to discern highly detailed elevation variability in these areas. Knowledge of the strengths and weaknesses of existing technologies used for data collection on agricultural watersheds may be helpful in choosing an appropriate technology. This study assesses the suitability of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and unmanned aerial system (UAS) photogrammetry for collecting the fine-resolution topographic data required to generate accurate, high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) in a small watershed area (12 ha). Because of farming activity, 14 TLS scans (≈ 25 points m- 2) were collected without using high-definition surveying (HDS) targets, which are generally used to mesh adjacent scans. To evaluate the accuracy of the DEMs created from the TLS scan data, 1098 ground control points (GCPs) were surveyed using a real time kinematic global positioning system (RTK-GPS). Linear regressions were then applied to each DEM to remove vertical errors from the TLS point elevations, errors caused by the non-perpendicularity of the scanner's vertical axis to the local horizontal plane, and errors correlated with the distance to the scanner's position. The scans were then meshed to generate a DEMTLS with a 1 × 1 m spatial resolution. The Agisoft PhotoScan and MicMac software packages were used to process the aerial photographs and generate a DEMPSC

  1. A guided-wave system for monitoring the wing skin-to-spar bond in unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matt, Howard; Bartoli, Ivan; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; Marzani, Alessandro; Coccia, Stefano; Oliver, Joseph; Kosmatka, John; Rizzo, Piervincenzo; Restivo, Gaetano

    2005-05-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are being increasingly used in military as well as civil applications. A critical part of the structure is the adhesive bond between the wing skin and the supporting spar. If not detected early, bond defects originating during manufacturing or in service flight can lead to inefficient flight performance and eventual global failure. This paper will present results from a bond inspection system based on attached piezoelectric disks probing the skin-to-spar bondline with ultrasonic guided waves in the hundreds of kilohertz range. The test components were CFRP composite panels of two different fiber layups bonded to a CFRP composite tube using epoxy adhesive. Three types of bond conditions were simulated, namely regions of poor cohesive strength, regions with localized disbonds and well bonded regions. The root mean square and variance of the received time-domain signals and their discrete wavelet decompositions were computed for the dominant modes propagating through the various bond regions in two different inspection configurations. Semi-analytical finite element analysis of the bonded multilayer joint was also carried out to identify and predict the sensitivity of the predominant carrier modes to the different bond defects. Emphasis of this research is based upon designing a built-in system for monitoring the structural integrity of bonded joints in UAVs and other aerospace structures.

  2. Uniformity of environmental conditions and plant growth in a hydroponic culture system for use in a growth room with aerial CO2 control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vessey, J. K.; York, E. K.; Henry, L. T.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1988-01-01

    A portable system of hydroponic culture was developed that maintained temperature, pH, and nutrient concentrations of circulating nutrient solutions. The hydroponic system is used within a controlled-environment room (CER) for control of aerial environment. The CER was equipped with an auto-calibrating system for atmospheric CO2 control. The control systems for the hydroponic chambers were able to maintain acidity within +/- 0.2 pH units and the temperature with +/- 0.5 degree C. Mixing time for the 200-liter volume of solution within a hydroponic chamber was less than 12 min. The CO2 control system was able to maintain aerial concentrations within +/- 10 ppm CO2 during the light period. The only gradient found to occur within the hydroponic chambers or CER was a slight gradient in aerial temperature along the length of hydroponic chambers. Growth of soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] was characterized during a 3-week period of vegetative development by leaf number and area, plant dry weight, total N content of plants, and N depletion from the nutrient solution. The growth characteristics among populations for three hydroponic chambers within the CER were not significantly different, and the percent standard errors of means of the measurements within populations from each chamber were nearly all less than 10%. Thus, the uniformity of plant growth reflected the uniformity of environmental conditions.

  3. Measurements of the Temperature Structure-Function Parameters with a Small Unmanned Aerial System Compared with a Sodar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonin, Timothy A.; Goines, David C.; Scott, Aaron K.; Wainwright, Charlotte E.; Gibbs, Jeremy A.; Chilson, Phillip B.

    2015-06-01

    The structure function is often used to quantify the intensity of spatial inhomogeneities within turbulent flows. Here, the Small Multifunction Research and Teaching Sonde (SMARTSonde), an unmanned aerial system, is used to measure horizontal variations in temperature and to calculate the structure function of temperature at various heights for a range of separation distances. A method for correcting for the advection of turbulence in the calculation of the structure function is discussed. This advection correction improves the data quality, particularly when wind speeds are high. The temperature structure-function parameter can be calculated from the structure function of temperature. Two case studies from which the SMARTSonde was able to take measurements used to derive at several heights during multiple consecutive flights are discussed and compared with sodar measurements, from which is directly related to return power. Profiles of from both the sodar and SMARTSonde from an afternoon case exhibited generally good agreement. However, the profiles agreed poorly for a morning case. The discrepancies are partially attributed to different averaging times for the two instruments in a rapidly evolving environment, and the measurement errors associated with the SMARTSonde sampling within the stable boundary layer.

  4. NOAA and NASA's use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) in Tropical Cyclones: Recent successes and a future path forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cione, J. J.; Turlington, P. N.

    2008-05-01

    Since 2003, NOAA and NASA have worked together to establish low-altitude long endurance unmanned aircraft observations in tropical cyclones (TC). Due to the severe safety risks associated with manned reconnaissance missions, continuous observations within the high wind-storm environment at very low altitudes (<300m) are only possible using Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). Being able to routinely obtain these critical low level observations are likely to have immediate payoffs (e.g. a more accurate depiction of the maximum surface winds asccoicated with TCs) as well as longer term benefits (e.g. an improved physical understanding and enhanced future forecasts of TC intensity change). Over the past 2 years, NOAA and NASA have experienced two successful UAS missions into tropical storm Opheila (2005) and Hurricane Noel (2007). In both instances, the UAS obtained continuous, near-surface thermodynamic and wind observations at altitudes as low as 350m (Ophelia) and 82m (Noel). In Noel, UAS records for endurance (17.5h) and minimum altitude (82m) in a hurricane were established. Analyses incorporating UAS observations from both storms will be presented. In addition, NOAA and NASA's upcoming UAS plans for the 2008 hurricane season (and beyond) will be discussed.

  5. Aerial radiation surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Jobst, J.

    1980-01-01

    A recent aerial radiation survey of the surroundings of the Vitro mill in Salt Lake City shows that uranium mill tailings have been removed to many locations outside their original boundary. To date, 52 remote sites have been discovered within a 100 square kilometer aerial survey perimeter surrounding the mill; 9 of these were discovered with the recent aerial survey map. Five additional sites, also discovered by aerial survey, contained uranium ore, milling equipment, or radioactive slag. Because of the success of this survey, plans are being made to extend the aerial survey program to other parts of the Salt Lake valley where diversions of Vitro tailings are also known to exist.

  6. Region-Based 3d Surface Reconstruction Using Images Acquired by Low-Cost Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lari, Z.; Al-Rawabdeh, A.; He, F.; Habib, A.; El-Sheimy, N.

    2015-08-01

    Accurate 3D surface reconstruction of our environment has become essential for an unlimited number of emerging applications. In the past few years, Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are evolving as low-cost and flexible platforms for geospatial data collection that could meet the needs of aforementioned application and overcome limitations of traditional airborne and terrestrial mobile mapping systems. Due to their payload restrictions, these systems usually include consumer-grade imaging and positioning sensor which will negatively impact the quality of the collected geospatial data and reconstructed surfaces. Therefore, new surface reconstruction surfaces are needed to mitigate the impact of using low-cost sensors on the final products. To date, different approaches have been proposed to for 3D surface construction using overlapping images collected by imaging sensor mounted on moving platforms. In these approaches, 3D surfaces are mainly reconstructed based on dense matching techniques. However, generated 3D point clouds might not accurately represent the scanned surfaces due to point density variations and edge preservation problems. In order to resolve these problems, a new region-based 3D surface renostruction trchnique is introduced in this paper. This approach aims to generate a 3D photo-realistic model of individually scanned surfaces within the captured images. This approach is initiated by a Semi-Global dense Matching procedure is carried out to generate a 3D point cloud from the scanned area within the collected images. The generated point cloud is then segmented to extract individual planar surfaces. Finally, a novel region-based texturing technique is implemented for photorealistic reconstruction of the extracted planar surfaces. Experimental results using images collected by a camera mounted on a low-cost UAS demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach for photorealistic 3D surface reconstruction.

  7. A Mobile System for Measuring Water Surface Velocities Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and Large-Scale Particle Image Velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. L.

    2015-12-01

    Measurement technologies for velocity of river flow are divided into intrusive and nonintrusive methods. Intrusive method requires infield operations. The measuring process of intrusive methods are time consuming, and likely to cause damages of operator and instrument. Nonintrusive methods require fewer operators and can reduce instrument damages from directly attaching to the flow. Nonintrusive measurements may use radar or image velocimetry to measure the velocities at the surface of water flow. The image velocimetry, such as large scale particle image velocimetry (LSPIV) accesses not only the point velocity but the flow velocities in an area simultaneously. Flow properties of an area hold the promise of providing spatially information of flow fields. This study attempts to construct a mobile system UAV-LSPIV by using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with LSPIV to measure flows in fields. The mobile system consists of a six-rotor UAV helicopter, a Sony nex5T camera, a gimbal, an image transfer device, a ground station and a remote control device. The activate gimbal helps maintain the camera lens orthogonal to the water surface and reduce the extent of images being distorted. The image transfer device can monitor the captured image instantly. The operator controls the UAV by remote control device through ground station and can achieve the flying data such as flying height and GPS coordinate of UAV. The mobile system was then applied to field experiments. The deviation of velocities measured by UAV-LSPIV of field experiments and handhold Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) is under 8%. The results of the field experiments suggests that the application of UAV-LSPIV can be effectively applied to surface flow studies.

  8. Validation of Spaceborne Radar Surface Water Mapping with Optical sUAS Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li-Chee-Ming, J.; Murnaghan, K.; Sherman, D.; Poncos, V.; Brisco, B.; Armenakis, C.

    2015-08-01

    The Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) has over 40 years of experience with airborne and spaceborne sensors and is now starting to use small Unmanned Aerial Systems (sUAS) to validate products from large coverage area sensors and create new methodologies for very high resolution products. Wetlands have several functions including water storage and retention which can reduce flooding and provide continuous flow for hydroelectric generation and irrigation for agriculture. Synthetic Aperture Radar is well suited as a tool for monitoring surface water by supplying acquisitions irrespective of cloud cover or time of day. Wetlands can be subdivided into three classes: open water, flooded vegetation and upland which can vary seasonally with time and water level changes. RADARSAT-2 data from the Wide-Ultra Fine, Spotlight and Fine Quad-Pol modes has been used to map the open water in the Peace-Athabasca Delta, Alberta using intensity thresholding. We also use spotlight modes for higher resolution and the fully polarimetric mode (FQ) for polarimetric decomposition. Validation of these products will be done using a low altitude flying sUAS to generate optical georeferenced images. This project provides methodologies which could be used for flood mapping as well as ecological monitoring.

  9. Dynamics of aerial target pursuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, S.

    2015-12-01

    During pursuit and predation, aerial species engage in multitasking behavior that involve simultaneous target detection, tracking, decision-making, approach and capture. The mobility of the pursuer and the target in a three dimensional environment during predation makes the capture task highly complex. Many researchers have studied and analyzed prey capture dynamics in different aerial species such as insects and bats. This article focuses on reviewing the capture strategies adopted by these species while relying on different sensory variables (vision and acoustics) for navigation. In conclusion, the neural basis of these capture strategies and some applications of these strategies in bio-inspired navigation and control of engineered systems are discussed.

  10. Sampling system for wheat (Triticum aestivum L) area estimation using digital LANDSAT MSS data and aerial photographs. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Moreira, M. A.; Chen, S. C.; Batista, G. T.

    1984-01-01

    A procedure to estimate wheat (Triticum aestivum L) area using sampling technique based on aerial photographs and digital LANDSAT MSS data is developed. Aerial photographs covering 720 square km are visually analyzed. To estimate wheat area, a regression approach is applied using different sample sizes and various sampling units. As the size of sampling unit decreased, the percentage of sampled area required to obtain similar estimation performance also decreased. The lowest percentage of the area sampled for wheat estimation with relatively high precision and accuracy through regression estimation is 13.90% using 10 square km as the sampling unit. Wheat area estimation using only aerial photographs is less precise and accurate than those obtained by regression estimation.

  11. Development of an unmanned agricultural robotics system for measuring crop conditions for precision aerial application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An Unmanned Agricultural Robotics System (UARS) is acquired, rebuilt with desired hardware, and operated in both classrooms and field. The UARS includes crop height sensor, crop canopy analyzer, normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) sensor, multispectral camera, and hyperspectral radiometer...

  12. Feasibility study of using the RoboEarth cloud engine for rapid mapping and tracking with small unmanned aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li-Chee-Ming, J.; Armenakis, C.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the ongoing development of a small unmanned aerial mapping system (sUAMS) that in the future will track its trajectory and perform 3D mapping in near-real time. As both mapping and tracking algorithms require powerful computational capabilities and large data storage facilities, we propose to use the RoboEarth Cloud Engine (RCE) to offload heavy computation and store data to secure computing environments in the cloud. While the RCE's capabilities have been demonstrated with terrestrial robots in indoor environments, this paper explores the feasibility of using the RCE in mapping and tracking applications in outdoor environments by small UAMS. The experiments presented in this work assess the data processing strategies and evaluate the attainable tracking and mapping accuracies using the data obtained by the sUAMS. Testing was performed with an Aeryon Scout quadcopter. It flew over York University, up to approximately 40 metres above the ground. The quadcopter was equipped with a single-frequency GPS receiver providing positioning to about 3 meter accuracies, an AHRS (Attitude and Heading Reference System) estimating the attitude to about 3 degrees, and an FPV (First Person Viewing) camera. Video images captured from the onboard camera were processed using VisualSFM and SURE, which are being reformed as an Application-as-a-Service via the RCE. The 3D virtual building model of York University was used as a known environment to georeference the point cloud generated from the sUAMS' sensor data. The estimated position and orientation parameters of the video camera show increases in accuracy when compared to the sUAMS' autopilot solution, derived from the onboard GPS and AHRS. The paper presents the proposed approach and the results, along with their accuracies.

  13. Ikhana: A NASA Unmanned Aerial System Supporting Long-Duration Earth Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobleigh, Brent R.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews Ikhana's project goals: (1) Develop an airborne platform to conduct Earth observation and atmospheric sampling science missions both nationally and internationally, (2) develop and demonstrate technologies that improve the capability of UAVs to conduct science collection missions, (3) develop technologies that improve manned and unmanned aircraft systems, and (4) support important national UAV development activities. The criteria that guided the selection of the aircraft are listed. The payload areas on Ikhana are shown and the network that connects the systems are also reviewed. The data recorder is shown. Also the diagram of the Airborne Research Test System (ARTS) is reviewed. The Mobile Ground Control Station and the Mobile Ku SatCom Antenna are also shown and described.

  14. Mobile Aerial Tracking and Imaging System (MATrIS) for Aeronautical Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Daniel W.; Blanchard, Robert C.; Miller, Geoffrey M.

    2004-01-01

    A mobile, rapidly deployable ground-based system to track and image targets of aeronautical interest has been developed. Targets include reentering reusable launch vehicles as well as atmospheric and transatmospheric vehicles. The optics were designed to image targets in the visible and infrared wavelengths. To minimize acquisition cost and development time, the system uses commercially available hardware and software where possible. The conception and initial funding of this system originated with a study of ground-based imaging of global aerothermal characteristics of reusable launch vehicle configurations. During that study the National Aeronautics and Space Administration teamed with the Missile Defense Agency/Innovative Science and Technology Experimentation Facility to test techniques and analysis on two Space Shuttle flights.

  15. Staircase-scene-based nonuniformity correction in aerial point target detection systems.

    PubMed

    Huo, Lijun; Zhou, Dabiao; Wang, Dejiang; Liu, Rang; He, Bin

    2016-09-01

    Focal-plane arrays (FPAs) are often interfered by heavy fixed-pattern noise, which severely degrades the detection rate and increases the false alarms in airborne point target detection systems. Thus, high-precision nonuniformity correction is an essential preprocessing step. In this paper, a new nonuniformity correction method is proposed based on a staircase scene. This correction method can compensate for the nonlinear response of the detector and calibrate the entire optical system with computational efficiency and implementation simplicity. Then, a proof-of-concept point target detection system is established with a long-wave Sofradir FPA. Finally, the local standard deviation of the corrected image and the signal-to-clutter ratio of the Airy disk of a Boeing B738 are measured to evaluate the performance of the proposed nonuniformity correction method. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed correction method achieves high-quality corrections. PMID:27607295

  16. The development of a parachute system for aerial delivery from high speed cargo aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Behr, V.L.

    1992-12-31

    Supply of military personnel on the ground with cargo has long been accomplished with parachute delivery systems from aircraft. Structural limits of aircraft have typically limited these operations to no more than 150 KCAS. A desire for increased survivability of cargo delivery aircraft has led to the development and fielding of aircraft capable of delivering cargo at substantially higher speeds. This paper describes efforts undertaken to design develop and test a cargo delivery system for use at speeds compatible with those high speed cargo aircraft.

  17. The development of a parachute system for aerial delivery from high speed cargo aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Behr, V.L.

    1992-01-01

    Supply of military personnel on the ground with cargo has long been accomplished with parachute delivery systems from aircraft. Structural limits of aircraft have typically limited these operations to no more than 150 KCAS. A desire for increased survivability of cargo delivery aircraft has led to the development and fielding of aircraft capable of delivering cargo at substantially higher speeds. This paper describes efforts undertaken to design develop and test a cargo delivery system for use at speeds compatible with those high speed cargo aircraft.

  18. Aerial videotape mapping of coastal geomorphic changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Debusschere, Karolien; Penland, Shea; Westphal, Karen A.; Reimer, P. Douglas; McBride, Randolph A.

    1991-01-01

    An aerial geomorphic mapping system was developed to examine the spatial and temporal variability in the coastal geomorphology of Louisiana. Between 1984 and 1990 eleven sequential annual and post-hurricane aerial videotape surveys were flown covering periods of prolonged fair weather, hurricane impacts and subsequent post-storm recoveries. A coastal geomorphic classification system was developed to map the spatial and temporal geomorphic changes between these surveys. The classification system is based on 10 years of shoreline monitoring, analysis of aerial photography for 1940-1989, and numerous field surveys. The classification system divides shorelines into two broad classes: natural and altered. Each class consists of several genetically linked categories of shorelines. Each category is further subdivided into morphologic types on the basis of landform relief, elevation, habitat type, vegetation density and type, and sediment characteristics. The classification is used with imagery from the low-altitude, high-resolution aerial videotape surveys to describe and quantify the longshore and cross-shore geomorphic, sedimentologic, and vegetative character of Louisiana's shoreline systems. The mapping system makes it possible to delineate and map detailed geomorphic habitat changes at a resolution higher than that of conventional vertical aerial photography. Morphologic units are mapped parallel to the regional shoreline from the aerial videotape imagery onto the base maps at a scale of 1:24,000. The base maps were constructed from vertical aerial photography concurrent with the data of the video imagery.

  19. Two-Step System Identification and Primitive-Based Motion Planning for Control of Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grymin, David J.

    This dissertation addresses motion planning, modeling, and feedback control for autonomous vehicle systems. A hierarchical approach for motion planning and control of nonlinear systems operating in obstacle environments is presented. To reduce computation time during the motion planning process, dynamically feasible trajectories are generated in real-time through concatenation of pre-specified motion primitives. The motion planning task is posed as a search over a directed graph, and the applicability of informed graph search techniques is investigated. Specifically, a locally greedy algorithm with effective backtracking ability is developed and compared to weighted A* search. The greedy algorithm shows an advantage with respect to solution cost and computation time when larger motion primitive libraries that do not operate on a regular state lattice are utilized. Linearization of the nonlinear system equations about the motion primitive library results in a hybrid linear time-varying model, and an optimal control algorithm using the l 2-induced norm as the performance measure is applied to ensure that the system tracks the desired trajectory. The ability of the resulting controller to closely track the trajectory obtained from the motion planner, despite various disturbances and uncertainties, is demonstrated through simulation. Additionally, an approach for obtaining dynamically feasible reference trajectories and feedback controllers for a small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) based on an aerodynamic model derived from flight tests is presented. The modeling approach utilizes the two step method (TSM) with stepwise multiple regression to determine relevant explanatory terms for the aerodynamic models. Dynamically feasible trajectories are then obtained through the solution of an optimal control problem using pseudospectral optimal control software. Discretetime feedback controllers are then obtained to regulate the vehicle along the desired reference trajectory

  20. Enabling Civilian Low-Altitude Airspace and Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal

    2014-01-01

    UAS operations will be safer if a UTM system is available to support the functions associated with Airspace management and geo-fencing (reduce risk of accidents, impact to other operations, and community concerns); Weather and severe wind integration (avoid severe weather areas based on prediction); Predict and manage congestion (mission safety);Terrain and man-made objects database and avoidance; Maintain safe separation (mission safety and assurance of other assets); Allow only authenticated operations (avoid unauthorized airspace use).

  1. Advances in hardware, software, and automation for 193nm aerial image measurement systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zibold, Axel M.; Schmid, R.; Seyfarth, A.; Waechter, M.; Harnisch, W.; Doornmalen, H. v.

    2005-05-01

    A new, second generation AIMS fab 193 system has been developed which is capable of emulating lithographic imaging of any type of reticles such as binary and phase shift masks (PSM) including resolution enhancement technologies (RET) such as optical proximity correction (OPC) or scatter bars. The system emulates the imaging process by adjustment of the lithography equivalent illumination and imaging conditions of 193nm wafer steppers including circular, annular, dipole and quadrupole type illumination modes. The AIMS fab 193 allows a rapid prediction of wafer printability of critical mask features, including dense patterns and contacts, defects or repairs by acquiring through-focus image stacks by means of a CCD camera followed by quantitative image analysis. Moreover the technology can be readily applied to directly determine the process window of a given mask under stepper imaging conditions. Since data acquisition is performed electronically, AIMS in many applications replaces the need for costly and time consuming wafer prints using a wafer stepper/ scanner followed by CD SEM resist or wafer analysis. The AIMS fab 193 second generation system is designed for 193nm lithography mask printing predictability down to the 65nm node. In addition to hardware improvements a new modular AIMS software is introduced allowing for a fully automated operation mode. Multiple pre-defined points can be visited and through-focus AIMS measurements can be executed automatically in a recipe based mode. To increase the effectiveness of the automated operation mode, the throughput of the system to locate the area of interest, and to acquire the through-focus images is increased by almost a factor of two in comparison with the first generation AIMS systems. In addition a new software plug-in concept is realised for the tools. One new feature has been successfully introduced as "Global CD Map", enabling automated investigation of global mask quality based on the local determination of

  2. Assessing the accuracy and repeatability of automated photogrammetrically generated digital surface models from unmanned aerial system imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavis, Christopher

    Using commercial digital cameras in conjunction with Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to generate 3-D Digital Surface Models (DSMs) and orthomosaics is emerging as a cost-effective alternative to Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR). Powerful software applications such as Pix4D and APS can automate the generation of DSM and orthomosaic products from a handful of inputs. However, the accuracy of these models is relatively untested. The objectives of this study were to generate multiple DSM and orthomosaic pairs of the same area using Pix4D and APS from flights of imagery collected with a lightweight UAS. The accuracy of each individual DSM was assessed in addition to the consistency of the method to model one location over a period of time. Finally, this study determined if the DSMs automatically generated using lightweight UAS and commercial digital cameras could be used for detecting changes in elevation and at what scale. Accuracy was determined by comparing DSMs to a series of reference points collected with survey grade GPS. Other GPS points were also used as control points to georeference the products within Pix4D and APS. The effectiveness of the products for change detection was assessed through image differencing and observance of artificially induced, known elevation changes. The vertical accuracy with the optimal data and model is ≈ 25 cm and the highest consistency over repeat flights is a standard deviation of ≈ 5 cm. Elevation change detection based on such UAS imagery and DSM models should be viable for detecting infrastructure change in urban or suburban environments with little dense canopy vegetation.

  3. Can Unmanned Aerial Systems (Drones) Be Used for the Routine Transport of Chemistry, Hematology, and Coagulation Laboratory Specimens?

    PubMed Central

    Amukele, Timothy K.; Sokoll, Lori J.; Pepper, Daniel; Howard, Dana P.; Street, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Background Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS or drones) could potentially be used for the routine transport of small goods such as diagnostic clinical laboratory specimens. To the best of our knowledge, there is no published study of the impact of UAS transportation on laboratory tests. Methods Three paired samples were obtained from each one of 56 adult volunteers in a single phlebotomy event (336 samples total): two tubes each for chemistry, hematology, and coagulation testing respectively. 168 samples were driven to the flight field and held stationary. The other 168 samples were flown in the UAS for a range of times, from 6 to 38 minutes. After the flight, 33 of the most common chemistry, hematology, and coagulation tests were performed. Statistical methods as well as performance criteria from four distinct clinical, academic, and regulatory bodies were used to evaluate the results. Results Results from flown and stationary sample pairs were similar for all 33 analytes. Bias and intercepts were <10% and <13% respectively for all analytes. Bland-Altman comparisons showed a mean difference of 3.2% for Glucose and <1% for other analytes. Only bicarbonate did not meet the strictest (Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Program) performance criteria. This was due to poor precision rather than bias. There were no systematic differences between laboratory-derived (analytic) CV’s and the CV’s of our flown versus terrestrial sample pairs however CV’s from the sample pairs tended to be slightly higher than analytic CV’s. The overall concordance, based on clinical stratification (normal versus abnormal), was 97%. Length of flight had no impact on the results. Conclusions Transportation of laboratory specimens via small UASs does not affect the accuracy of routine chemistry, hematology, and coagulation tests results from selfsame samples. However it results in slightly poorer precision for some analytes. PMID:26222261

  4. Design and development of a compact lidar/DIAL system for aerial surveillance of urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Malizia, A.; Richetta, M.; Antonucci, A.; Ventura, P.; Murari, A.; Vega, J.

    2013-10-01

    Recently surveying large areas in an automatic way, for early detection of harmful chemical agents, has become a strategic objective of defence and public health organisations. The Lidar-Dial techniques are widely recognized as a cost-effective alternative to monitor large portions of the atmosphere but, up to now, they have been mainly deployed as ground based stations. The design reported in this paper concerns the development of a Lidar-Dial system compact enough to be carried by a small airplane and capable of detecting sudden releases in air of harmful and/or polluting substances. The proposed approach consists of continuous monitoring of the area under surveillance with a Lidar type measurement. Once a significant increase in the density of backscattering substances is revealed, it is intended to switch to the Dial technique to identify the released chemicals and to determine its concentration. In this paper, the design of the proposed system is described and the simulations carried out to determine its performances are reported. For the Lidar measurements, commercially available Nd- YAG laser sources have already been tested and their performances, in combination with avalanche photodiodes, have been experimentally verified to meet the required specifications. With regard to the DIAL measurements, new compact CO2 laser sources are being investigated. The most promising candidate presents an energy per pulse of about 50 mJ typical, sufficient for a range of at least 500m. The laser also provides the so called "agile tuning" option that allows to quickly tune the wavelength. To guarantee continuous, automatic surveying of large areas, innovative solutions are required for the data acquisition, self monitoring of the system and data analysis. The results of the design, the simulations and some preliminary tests illustrate the potential of the chosen, integrated approach.

  5. Acoustic and optical multi-sensor threat detection system for border patrol against aerial threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsawadi, Motasem S.; Ismail, Ahmad; Al-Azem, Badeea F.; El-Desouki, Munir M.; Alghamdi, Sultan; Alghamdi, Mansour

    2012-10-01

    Saudi Arabia has borders covering over 4,300 km that are shared with seven countries. Such large borders pose many challenges for security and patrol. Thermal imagers are considered the most reliable means of threat detection, however, they are quite costly, which can prevent using them over large areas. This work discusses a multi-sensor acoustic and optical implementation for threat detection as an effort to reduce system cost. The acoustic sensor provides position and direction recognition by using a four microphone setup. The data analysis of field tests will be discussed in this work.

  6. Capabilities of the DOE Remote Sensing Laboratory`s aerial measuring system

    SciTech Connect

    Riedhauser, S.R.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the capabilities of the Remote Sensing Laboratory`s aircraft for use in environmental radiation surveys, multispectral (visible, near infrared, and thermal infrared) surveys of vegetation and buildings, and photographic documentation of the areas covered by the two other surveys. The report discusses the technical capabilities of the various systems and presents examples of the data from a recent demonstration survey. To provide a view of the types of surveys the Remote Sensing Laboratory has conducted in the past, the appendices describe several of the previous area surveys and emergency search surveys.

  7. Real time corner detection for miniaturized electro-optical sensors onboard small unmanned aerial systems.

    PubMed

    Forlenza, Lidia; Carton, Patrick; Accardo, Domenico; Fasano, Giancarmine; Moccia, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the target detection algorithm for the image processor of a vision-based system that is installed onboard an unmanned helicopter. It has been developed in the framework of a project of the French national aerospace research center Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches Aérospatiales (ONERA) which aims at developing an air-to-ground target tracking mission in an unknown urban environment. In particular, the image processor must detect targets and estimate ground motion in proximity of the detected target position. Concerning the target detection function, the analysis has dealt with realizing a corner detection algorithm and selecting the best choices in terms of edge detection methods, filtering size and type and the more suitable criterion of detection of the points of interest in order to obtain a very fast algorithm which fulfills the computation load requirements. The compared criteria are the Harris-Stephen and the Shi-Tomasi, ones, which are the most widely used in literature among those based on intensity. Experimental results which illustrate the performance of the developed algorithm and demonstrate that the detection time is fully compliant with the requirements of the real-time system are discussed. PMID:22368499

  8. Atmospheric Mining in the Outer Solar System: Aerial Vehicle Mission and Design Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric mining in the outer solar system has been investigated as a means of fuel production for high energy propulsion and power. Fusion fuels such as Helium 3 (3He) and deuterium can be wrested from the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune and either returned to Earth or used in-situ for energy production. Helium 3 and deuterium were the primary gases of interest with hydrogen being the primary propellant for nuclear thermal solid core and gas core rocket-based atmospheric flight. A series of analyses were undertaken to investigate resource capturing aspects of atmospheric mining in the outer solar system. This included the gas capturing rate, storage options, and different methods of direct use of the captured gases. While capturing 3He, large amounts of hydrogen and 4He are produced. With these two additional gases, the potential for fueling small and large fleets of additional exploration and exploitation vehicles exists. The mining aerospacecraft (ASC) could fly through the outer planet atmospheres, for global weather observations, localized storm or other disturbance investigations, wind speed measurements, polar observations, etc. Analyses of orbital transfer vehicles (OTVs), landers, and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) mining factories are included. Preliminary observations are presented on near-optimal selections of moon base orbital locations, OTV power levels, and OTV and lander rendezvous points.

  9. The Unmanned Aerial System SUMO: an alternative measurement tool for polar boundary layer studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, S.; Jonassen, M. O.; Reuder, J.

    2012-04-01

    Numerical weather prediction and climate models face special challenges in particular in the commonly stable conditions in the high-latitude environment. For process studies as well as for model validation purposes in-situ observations in the atmospheric boundary layer are highly required, but difficult to retrieve. We introduce a new measurement system for corresponding observations. The Small Unmanned Meteorological Observer SUMO consists of a small and light-weight auto-piloted model aircraft, equipped with a meteorological sensor package. SUMO has been operated in polar environments, among others during IPY on Spitsbergen in the year 2009 and has proven its capabilities for atmospheric measurements with high spatial and temporal resolution even at temperatures of -30 deg C. A comparison of the SUMO data with radiosondes and tethered balloons shows that SUMO can provide atmospheric profiles with comparable quality to those well-established systems. Its high data quality allowed its utilization for evaluation purposes of high-resolution model runs performed with the Weather Research and Forecasting model WRF and for the detailed investigation of an orographically modified flow during a case study.

  10. Real Time Corner Detection for Miniaturized Electro-Optical Sensors Onboard Small Unmanned Aerial Systems

    PubMed Central

    Forlenza, Lidia; Carton, Patrick; Accardo, Domenico; Fasano, Giancarmine; Moccia, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the target detection algorithm for the image processor of a vision-based system that is installed onboard an unmanned helicopter. It has been developed in the framework of a project of the French national aerospace research center Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches Aérospatiales (ONERA) which aims at developing an air-to-ground target tracking mission in an unknown urban environment. In particular, the image processor must detect targets and estimate ground motion in proximity of the detected target position. Concerning the target detection function, the analysis has dealt with realizing a corner detection algorithm and selecting the best choices in terms of edge detection methods, filtering size and type and the more suitable criterion of detection of the points of interest in order to obtain a very fast algorithm which fulfills the computation load requirements. The compared criteria are the Harris-Stephen and the Shi-Tomasi, ones, which are the most widely used in literature among those based on intensity. Experimental results which illustrate the performance of the developed algorithm and demonstrate that the detection time is fully compliant with the requirements of the real-time system are discussed. PMID:22368499

  11. A Data System for a Rapid Evaluation Class of Subscale Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogge, Edward F.; Quach, Cuong C.; Vazquez, Sixto L.; Hill, Boyd L.

    2011-01-01

    A low cost, rapid evaluation, test aircraft is used to develop and test airframe damage diagnosis algorithms at Langley Research Center as part of NASA's Aviation Safety Program. The remotely operated subscale aircraft is instrumented with sensors to monitor structural response during flight. Data is collected for good and compromised airframe configurations to develop data driven models for diagnosing airframe state. This paper describes the data acquisition system (DAS) of the rapid evaluation test aircraft. A PC/104 form factor DAS was developed to allow use of Matlab, Simulink simulation code in Langley's existing subscale aircraft flight test infrastructure. The small scale of the test aircraft permitted laboratory testing of the actual flight article under controlled conditions. The low cost and modularity of the DAS permitted adaptation to various flight experiment requirements.

  12. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operated spectral camera system for forest and agriculture applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saari, Heikki; Pellikka, Ismo; Pesonen, Liisa; Tuominen, Sakari; Heikkilä, Jan; Holmlund, Christer; Mäkynen, Jussi; Ojala, Kai; Antila, Tapani

    2011-11-01

    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland has developed a Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) based hyperspectral imager compatible with the light weight UAV platforms. The concept of the hyperspectral imager has been published in the SPIE Proc. 7474 and 7668. In forest and agriculture applications the recording of multispectral images at a few wavelength bands is in most cases adequate. The possibility to calculate a digital elevation model of the forest area and crop fields provides means to estimate the biomass and perform forest inventory. The full UAS multispectral imaging system will consist of a high resolution false color imager and a FPI based hyperspectral imager which can be used at resolutions from VGA (480 x 640 pixels) up to 5 Mpix at wavelength range 500 - 900 nm at user selectable spectral resolutions in the range 10...40 nm @ FWHM. The resolution is determined by the order at which the Fabry- Perot interferometer is used. The overlap between successive images of the false color camera is 70...80% which makes it possible to calculate the digital elevation model of the target area. The field of view of the false color camera is typically 80 degrees and the ground pixel size at 150 m flying altitude is around 5 cm. The field of view of the hyperspectral imager is presently is 26 x 36 degrees and ground pixel size at 150 m flying altitude is around 3.5 cm. The UAS system has been tried in summer 2011 in Southern Finland for the forest and agricultural areas. During the first test campaigns the false color camera and hyperspectral imager were flown over the target areas at separate flights. The design and calibration of the hyperspectral imager will be shortly explained. The test flight campaigns on forest and crop fields and their preliminary results are also presented in this paper.

  13. Development of an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) for Scaling Terrestrial Ecosystem Traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, R.; McMahon, A. M.; Serbin, S.; Rogers, A.

    2015-12-01

    The next generation of Ecosystem and Earth System Models (EESMs) will require detailed information on ecosystem structure and function, including properties of vegetation related to carbon (C), water, and energy cycling, in order to project the future state of ecosystems. High spatial-temporal resolution measurements of terrestrial ecosystem are also important for EESMs, because they can provide critical inputs and benchmark datasets for evaluation of EESMs simulations across scales. The recent development of high-quality, low-altitude remote sensing platforms or small UAS (< 25 kg) enables measurements of terrestrial ecosystems at unprecedented temporal and spatial scales. Specifically, these new platforms can provide detailed information on patterns and processes of terrestrial ecosystems at a critical intermediate scale between point measurements and suborbital and satellite platforms. Given their potential for sub-decimeter spatial resolution, improved mission safety, high revisit frequency, and reduced operation cost, these platforms are of particular interest in the development of ecological scaling algorithms to parameterize and benchmark EESMs, particularly over complex and remote terrain. Our group is developing a small UAS platform and integrated sensor package focused on measurement needs for scaling and informing ecosystem modeling activities, as well as scaling and mapping plant functional traits. To do this we are developing an integrated software workflow and hardware package using off-the-shelf instrumentation including a high-resolution digital camera for Structure from Motion, spectroradiometer, and a thermal infrared camera. Our workflow includes platform design, measurement, image processing, data management, and information extraction. The fusion of 3D structure information, thermal-infrared imagery, and spectroscopic measurements, will provide a foundation for the development of ecological scaling and mapping algorithms. Our initial focus is

  14. Assessing the Accuracy of Ortho-image using Photogrammetric Unmanned Aerial System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, H. H.; Park, J. W.; Kim, J. S.; Choi, C. U.

    2016-06-01

    Smart-camera can not only be operated under network environment anytime and any place but also cost less than the existing photogrammetric UAV since it provides high-resolution image, 3D location and attitude data on a real-time basis from a variety of built-in sensors. This study's proposed UAV photogrammetric method, low-cost UAV and smart camera were used. The elements of interior orientation were acquired through camera calibration. The image triangulation was conducted in accordance with presence or absence of consideration of the interior orientation (IO) parameters determined by camera calibration, The Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was constructed using the image data photographed at the target area and the results of the ground control point survey. This study also analyzes the proposed method's application possibility by comparing a Ortho-image the results of the ground control point survey. Considering these study findings, it is suggested that smartphone is very feasible as a payload for UAV system. It is also expected that smartphone may be loaded onto existing UAV playing direct or indirect roles significantly.

  15. Unmanned Aerial Systems as Part of a Multi-Component Assessment Strategy to Address Climate Change and Atmospheric Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Manfred; Vrekoussis, Mihalis; Sciare, Jean; Argyrides, Marios; Ioannou, Stelios; Keleshis, Christos

    2015-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) have been established as versatile tools for different applications, providing data and observations for atmospheric and Earth-Systems research. They offer an urgently needed link between in-situ ground based measurements and satellite remote sensing observations and are distinguished by significant versatility, flexibility and moderate operational costs. UAS have the proven potential to contribute to a multi-component assessment strategy that combines remote-sensing, numerical modelling and surface measurements in order to elucidate important atmospheric processes. This includes physical and chemical transformations related to ongoing climate change as well as issues linked to aerosol-cloud interactions and air quality. The distinct advantages offered by UAS comprise, to name but a few: (i) their ability to operate from altitudes of a few meters to up to a few kilometers; (ii) their capability to perform autonomously controlled missions, which provides for repeat-measurements to be carried out at precisely defined locations; (iii) their relative ease of operation, which enables flexible employment at short-term notice and (iv) the employment of more than one platform in stacked formation, which allows for unique, quasi-3D-observations of atmospheric properties and processes. These advantages are brought to bear in combining in-situ ground based observations and numerical modeling with UAS-based remote sensing in elucidating specific research questions that require both horizontally and vertically resolved measurements at high spatial and temporal resolutions. Employing numerical atmospheric modelling, UAS can provide survey information over spatially and temporally localized, focused areas of evolving atmospheric phenomena, as they become identified by the numerical models. Conversely, UAS observations offer urgently needed data for model verification and provide boundary conditions for numerical models. In this presentation, we will

  16. Draper Laboratory small autonomous aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBitetto, Paul A.; Johnson, Eric N.; Bosse, Michael C.; Trott, Christian A.

    1997-06-01

    The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc. and students from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Boston University have cooperated to develop an autonomous aerial vehicle that won the 1996 International Aerial Robotics Competition. This paper describes the approach, system architecture and subsystem designs for the entry. This entry represents a combination of many technology areas: navigation, guidance, control, vision processing, human factors, packaging, power, real-time software, and others. The aerial vehicle, an autonomous helicopter, performs navigation and control functions using multiple sensors: differential GPS, inertial measurement unit, sonar altimeter, and a flux compass. The aerial transmits video imagery to the ground. A ground based vision processor converts the image data into target position and classification estimates. The system was designed, built, and flown in less than one year and has provided many lessons about autonomous vehicle systems, several of which are discussed. In an appendix, our current research in augmenting the navigation system with vision- based estimates is presented.

  17. Aerial photographic reproductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1975-01-01

    The National Cartographic Information Center of the U.S. Geological Survey maintains records of aerial photographic coverage of the United States and its Territories, based on reports from other Federal agencies as well as State governmental agencies and commercial companies. From these records, the Center furnishes data to prospective purchasers on available photography and the agency holding the aerial film.

  18. Bridging Estimates of Greenness in an Arid Grassland Using Field Observations, Phenocams, and Time Series Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, D. M.; Tweedie, C. E.; Rango, A.

    2013-12-01

    Spatially extensive grasslands and savannas in arid and semi-arid ecosystems (i.e., rangelands) require cost-effective, accurate, and consistent approaches for monitoring plant phenology. Remotely sensed imagery offers these capabilities; however contributions of exposed soil due to modest vegetation cover, susceptibility of vegetation to drought, and lack of robust scaling relationships challenge biophysical retrievals using moderate- and coarse-resolution satellite imagery. To evaluate methods for characterizing plant phenology of common rangeland species and to link field measurements to remotely sensed metrics of land surface phenology, we devised a hierarchical study spanning multiple spatial scales. We collect data using weekly standardized field observations on focal plants, daily phenocam estimates of vegetation greenness, and very high spatial resolution imagery from an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) throughout the growing season. Field observations of phenological condition and vegetation cover serve to verify phenocam greenness indices along with indices derived from time series UAS imagery. UAS imagery is classified using object-oriented image analysis to identify species-specific image objects for which greenness indices are derived. Species-specific image objects facilitate comparisons with phenocam greenness indices and scaling spectral responses to footprints of Landsat and MODIS pixels. Phenocam greenness curves indicated rapid canopy development for the widespread deciduous shrub Prosopis glandulosa over 14 (in April 2012) to 16 (in May 2013) days. The modest peak in greenness for the dominant perennial grass Bouteloua eriopoda occurred in October 2012 following peak summer rainfall. Weekly field estimates of canopy development closely coincided with daily patterns in initial growth and senescence for both species. Field observations improve the precision of the timing of phenophase transitions relative to inflection points calculated from phenocam

  19. Detection of morphological changes in cliff face surrounding a waterfall using terrestrial laser scanning and unmanned aerial system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, Yuichi S.; Obanawa, Hiroyuki

    2015-04-01

    Waterfall or bedrock knickpoint appears as an erosional front in bedrock rivers forming deep v-shaped valley downstream. Following the rapid fluvial erosion of waterfall, rockfalls and gravita-tional collapses often occur in surrounding steep cliffs. Although morphological changes of such steep cliffs are sometimes visually observed, quantitative and precise measurements of their spatio-temporal distribution have been limited due to the difficulties in direct access to such cliffs if with classical measurement methods. However, for the clarification of geomorphological processes oc-curring in the cliffs, multi-temporal mapping of the cliff face at a high resolution is necessary. Re-mote sensing approaches are therefore suitable for the topographic measurements and detection of changes in such inaccessible cliffs. To achieve accurate topographic mapping of cliffs around a wa-terfall, here we perform multi-temporal terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), as well as structure-from-motion multi-view stereo (SfM-MVS) photogrammetry based on unmanned aerial system (UAS). The study site is Kegon Falls in central Japan, having a vertical drop of surface water from top of its overhanging cliff, as well as groundwater outflows from its lower portions. The bedrock is composed of alternate layers of andesite lava and conglomerates. Minor rockfalls in the cliffs are often ob-served by local people. The latest major rockfall occurred in 1986, causing ca. 8-m upstream propa-gation of the waterfall lip. This provides a good opportunity to examine the changes in the surround-ing cliffs following the waterfall recession. Multi-time point clouds were obtained by TLS measure-ment over years, and the three-dimensional changes of the rock surface were detected, uncovering the locus of small rockfalls and gully developments. Erosion seems particularly frequent in relatively weak the conglomerates layer, whereas small rockfalls seems to have occurred in the andesite layers. Also, shadows in the

  20. Classification of riparian forest species and health condition using multi-temporal and hyperspatial imagery from unmanned aerial system.

    PubMed

    Michez, Adrien; Piégay, Hervé; Lisein, Jonathan; Claessens, Hugues; Lejeune, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    Riparian forests are critically endangered many anthropogenic pressures and natural hazards. The importance of riparian zones has been acknowledged by European Directives, involving multi-scale monitoring. The use of this very-high-resolution and hyperspatial imagery in a multi-temporal approach is an emerging topic. The trend is reinforced by the recent and rapid growth of the use of the unmanned aerial system (UAS), which has prompted the development of innovative methodology. Our study proposes a methodological framework to explore how a set of multi-temporal images acquired during a vegetative period can differentiate some of the deciduous riparian forest species and their health conditions. More specifically, the developed approach intends to identify, through a process of variable selection, which variables derived from UAS imagery and which scale of image analysis are the most relevant to our objectives.The methodological framework is applied to two study sites to describe the riparian forest through two fundamental characteristics: the species composition and the health condition. These characteristics were selected not only because of their use as proxies for the riparian zone ecological integrity but also because of their use for river management.The comparison of various scales of image analysis identified the smallest object-based image analysis (OBIA) objects (ca. 1 m(2)) as the most relevant scale. Variables derived from spectral information (bands ratios) were identified as the most appropriate, followed by variables related to the vertical structure of the forest. Classification results show good overall accuracies for the species composition of the riparian forest (five classes, 79.5 and 84.1% for site 1 and site 2). The classification scenario regarding the health condition of the black alders of the site 1 performed the best (90.6%).The quality of the classification models developed with a UAS-based, cost-effective, and semi-automatic approach

  1. sUAS for Rapid Pre-Storm Coastal Characterization and Vulnerability Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodie, K. L.; Slocum, R. K.; Spore, N.

    2015-12-01

    Open coast beaches and surf-zones are dynamic three-dimensional environments that can evolve rapidly on the time-scale of hours in response to changing environmental conditions. Up-to-date knowledge about the pre-storm morphology of the coast can be instrumental in making accurate predictions about coastal change and damage during large storms like Hurricanes and Nor'Easters. For example, alongshore variations in the shape of ephemeral sandbars along the coastline can focus wave energy, subjecting different stretches of coastline to significantly higher waves. Variations in beach slope and width can also alter wave runup, causing higher wave-induced water levels which can cause overwash or inlet breaching. Small Unmanned Aerial Systems (sUAS) offer a new capability to rapidly and inexpensively map vulnerable coastlines in advance of approaching storms. Here we present results from a prototype system that maps coastal topography and surf-zone morphology utilizing a multi-camera sensor. Structure-from-motion algorithms are used to generate topography and also constrain the trajectory of the sUAS. These data, in combination with mount boresight information, are used to rectify images from ocean-facing cameras. Images from all cameras are merged to generate a wide field of view allowing up to 5 minutes of continuous imagery time-series to be collected as the sUAS transits the coastline. Water imagery is then analyzed using wave-kinematics algorithms to provide information on surf-zone bathymetry. To assess this methodology, the absolute and relative accuracy of topographic data are evaluated in relation to simultaneously collected terrestrial lidar data. Ortho-rectification of water imagery is investigated using visible fixed targets installed in the surf-zone, and through comparison to stationary tower-based imagery. Future work will focus on evaluating how topographic and bathymetric data from this sUAS approach can be used to update forcing parameters in both

  2. Measuring Sunflower Nitrogen Status from AN Unmanned Aerial Vehicle-Based System and AN on the Ground Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agüera, F.; Carvajal, F.; Pérez, M.

    2011-09-01

    Precision agriculture recognizes the inherent spatial variability associated with soil characteristics, land morphology and crop growth, and uses this information to prescribe the most appropriate management strategy on a site-specific basis. To reach this task, the most important information related with crop growth is nutrient status, weed infestation, disease and pet affectation and water management. The application of fertilizer nitrogen to field crops is of critical importance because it determines plant's gro wth, vigour, colour and yield. Furthermore, nitrogen has been observed as a nutrient with high spatial variability in a single field, related to its high mobility. Some previous works have shown that is possible to measure crop nitrogen status with optical instruments. Since most leaf nitrogen is contained in chlorophyll molecules, there is a strong relationship between leaf nitrogen and leaf chlorophyll content, which is the basis for predicting crop nitrogen status by measuring leaf reflectance. So, sensors that can easily monitor crop nitrogen amount throughout the growing season at a high resolution to allow producers to reach their production goals, will give useful information to prescribe a crop management on a site-specific basis. Sunflower is a crop which is taking importance again because it can be used both for food and biofuel purposes, and it is widely cultivated in the South of Spain and other European countries.The aim of this work was to compare an index related with sunflower nitrogen status, deduced from multispectral images taken from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), with optical data collected with a ground-based platform.An ADC Lite Tetracam digital cam was mounted on a md4-200 Microdrones to take pictures of a sunflower field during the crop season. ADC Lite Tetracam is a single sensor digital camera designed for capture of visible light wavelength longer than 520 nm and near-infrared wavelength up to 920 nm. The md4

  3. Integration of historical aerial photography and a geographic information system to evaluate the impact of human activities in a cypress-tupelo swamp

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, J.R.; Burkhalter, S.; Althausen, J.D.; Narumalani, S.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1993-12-31

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a 78,000 ha Department of Energy (DOE) facility that borders the Savannah River in the south-west portion of South Carolina. It includes a 3,800 ha cypress-tupelo swamp where commercial lumbering activities took place prior to the purchase of the land by the federal government in 1951. Since then, the DOE commenced nuclear production operations which resulted in the release of thermal effluent into the streams entering the Savannah River swamp system. The thermal effluent also had an impact on the swamp through the creation of sedimentation deltas. The purpose of this research is to identify areas of anthropogenic impact on the swamp and to delineate any areas that may still be considered pristine. Large-scale historical aerial photography of the swamp for 1938, 1943, 1951, and 1973 were photo-interpreted and used to develop a geographic information system (GIS) database. Logging features such as haul lines, drag points, harvest areas and roads were identified from black-and-white aerial photographs (1938-1973) and converted into a digital format. Sediment deltas were interpreted from 1976, 1981 and 1988 color aerial photography. Geometric transformations and GIS data analysis operations were performed to delineate areas impacted by man`s activities over the 48-year time period. Only 1391 ha of swamp can still can be considered pristine. Approximately 63% of the swamp has been altered from its original state, either by logging practices or the effects of sediment loading from thermal effluent. This method of mapping the pristine areas of the swamp allows SRS environmental scientists the opportunity to have a priori knowledge about undisturbed swamp forest environments, which they may use as a baseline for restoration or wetland mitigation projects.

  4. Aerial ropeways transport over flat and rough terrain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-06-01

    The modern aerial ropeway provides a very economic and efficient means of transporting bulk material over long distances, particularly over rough and mountainous terrain. There are currently two types of circulating aerial ropeway systems: monocable and bicable. Development of the present generation of ropeways has seen the capacity of conventional monocable increase to a maximum of 300 tons per hour, and that of bicable to 650 tons per hour. During this period of development, covering the last 30 to 40 years, reliability and efficiency of aerial systems has increased. Recent examples of aerial ropeway systems in Zimbabwe, Taiwan, and the Sudan are cited to illustrate the cost effectiveness and reliability of such systems.

  5. Object-based spatiotemporal analysis of vine canopy vigor using an inexpensive unmanned aerial vehicle remote sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathews, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Remotely sensed imagery provides a rapid assessment of spatial variability in grapevine canopy vigor that correlates with crop performance. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) provide a low-cost image acquisition platform with high spatial and temporal resolutions. Using a UAV and digital cameras, aerial images of a Texas vineyard were captured at postflowering, veraison, and harvest. Imagery was processed to generate orthophotos in units of reflectance, which were then segmented to extract per-vine estimates of canopy area (planimetric extent) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)-based canopy density. Derived canopy area and density values were compared to the harvest variables of number of clusters, cluster size, and yield to explore correlations. Planimetrically derived canopy area yielded significant, positive relationships, whereas NDVI-based canopy density exhibited no significant relationships due to sensor-related radiometric inaccuracy. A vine performance index was calculated to map spatial variation in canopy vigor for the entire growing season. Future management zones were delineated using spatial grouping analysis.

  6. Aerial Photographs and Satellite Images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1997-01-01

    Photographs and other images of the Earth taken from the air and from space show a great deal about the planet's landforms, vegetation, and resources. Aerial and satellite images, known as remotely sensed images, permit accurate mapping of land cover and make landscape features understandable on regional, continental, and even global scales. Transient phenomena, such as seasonal vegetation vigor and contaminant discharges, can be studied by comparing images acquired at different times. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), which began using aerial photographs for mapping in the 1930's, archives photographs from its mapping projects and from those of some other Federal agencies. In addition, many images from such space programs as Landsat, begun in 1972, are held by the USGS. Most satellite scenes can be obtained only in digital form for use in computer-based image processing and geographic information systems, but in some cases are also available as photographic products.

  7. Telemetry of Aerial Radiological Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    H. W. Clark, Jr.

    2002-10-01

    Telemetry has been added to National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA's) Aerial Measuring System (AMS) Incident Response aircraft to accelerate availability of aerial radiological mapping data. Rapid aerial radiological mapping is promptly performed by AMS Incident Response aircraft in the event of a major radiological dispersal. The AMS airplane flies the entire potentially affected area, plus a generous margin, to provide a quick look at the extent and severity of the event. The primary result of the AMS Incident Response over flight is a map of estimated exposure rate on the ground along the flight path. Formerly, it was necessary to wait for the airplane to land before the map could be seen. Now, while the flight is still in progress, data are relayed via satellite directly from the aircraft to an operations center, where they are displayed and disseminated. This permits more timely utilization of results by decision makers and redirection of the mission to optimize its value. The current telemetry capability can cover all of North America. Extension to a global capability is under consideration.

  8. The control of a parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system for a small unmanned aerial vehicle using a CMAC neural network.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Frederick G; Frank, Andrew A; Joshi, Sanjay S

    2005-01-01

    A Simulink model, a propulsion energy optimization algorithm, and a CMAC controller were developed for a small parallel hybrid-electric unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The hybrid-electric UAV is intended for military, homeland security, and disaster-monitoring missions involving intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR). The Simulink model is a forward-facing simulation program used to test different control strategies. The flexible energy optimization algorithm for the propulsion system allows relative importance to be assigned between the use of gasoline, electricity, and recharging. A cerebellar model arithmetic computer (CMAC) neural network approximates the energy optimization results and is used to control the parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system. The hybrid-electric UAV with the CMAC controller uses 67.3% less energy than a two-stroke gasoline-powered UAV during a 1-h ISR mission and 37.8% less energy during a longer 3-h ISR mission. PMID:16112553

  9. Mapping snow depth in alpine terrain with remotely piloted aerial systems and structure-from-motion photogrammetry - first results from a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Marc; Fromm, Reinhard; Bühler, Yves; Bösch, Ruedi; Ginzler, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Detailed information on the spatio-temporal distribution of seasonal snow in the alpine terrain plays a major role for the hydrological cycle, natural hazard management, flora and fauna, as well as tourism. Current methods are mostly only valid on a regional scale or require a trade-off between the data's availability, cost and resolution. During a one-year pilot study, we investigated the potential of remotely piloted aerial systems (RPAS) and structure-from-motion photogrammetry for snow depth mapping. We employed multi-copter and fixed-wing RPAS, equipped with different low-cost, off-the shelf sensors, at four test sites in Austria and Switzerland. Over 30 flights were performed during the winter 2014/15, where different camera settings, filters and lenses, as well as data collection routines were tested. Orthophotos and digital surface models (DSM) where calculated from the imagery using structure-from-motion photogrammetry software. Snow height was derived by subtracting snow-free from snow-covered DSMs. The RPAS-results were validated against data collected using a variety of well-established remote sensing (i.e. terrestrial laser scanning, large frame aerial sensors) and in-situ measurement techniques. The results show, that RPAS i) are able to map snow depth within accuracies of 0.07-0.15 m root mean square error (RMSE), when compared to traditional in-situ data; ii) can be operated at lower cost, easier repeatability, less operational constraints and higher GSD than large frame aerial sensors on-board manned aircraft, while achieving significantly higher accuracies; iii) are able to acquire meaningful data even under harsh environmental conditions above 2000 m a.s.l. (turbulence, low temperature and high irradiance, low air density). While providing a first prove-of-concept, the study also showed future challenges and limitations of RPAS-based snow depth mapping, including a high dependency on correct co-registration of snow-free and snow-covered height

  10. Uncooled infrared development for small unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitt, Timothy S.; Wood, Sam B.; Waddle, Caleb E.; Edwards, William D.; Yeske, Ben S.

    2010-04-01

    The US Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) is developing a micro-uncooled infrared (IR) capability for small unmanned aerial systems (SUAS). In 2007, AMRDEC procured several uncooled microbolometers for lab and field test evaluations, and static tower tests involving specific target sets confirmed initial modeling and simulation predictions. With these promising results, AMRDEC procured two captive flight test (CFT) vehicles and, in 2008, completed numerous captive flights to capture imagery with the micro-uncooled infrared sensors. Several test configurations were used to build a comprehensive data set. These configurations included variations in look-down angles, fields of view (FOV), environments, altitudes, and target scenarios. Data collected during these field tests is also being used to develop human tracking algorithms and image stabilization software by other AMRDEC personnel. Details of these ongoing efforts will be presented in this paper and will include: 1) onboard digital data recording capabilities; 2) analog data links for visual verification of imagery; 3) sensor packaging and design; which include both infrared and visible cameras; 4) field test and data collection results; 5) future plans; 6) potential applications. Finally, AMRDEC has recently acquired a 17 μm pitch detector array. The paper will include plans to test both 17 μm and 25 μm microbolometer technologies simultaneously in a side-by-side captive flight comparison.

  11. Aerial photographic reproductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1971-01-01

    Geological Survey vertical aerial photography is obtained primarily for topographic and geologic mapping. Reproductions from this photography are usually satisfactory for general use. Because reproductions are not stocked, but are custom processed for each order, they cannot be returned for credit or refund.

  12. Aerial of the VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Even in this aerial view at KSC, the Vehicle Assembly Building is imposing. In front of it is the Launch Control Center. In the background is the Rotation/Processing Facility, next to the Banana Creek. In the foreground is the Saturn Causeway that leads to Launch Pads 39A and 39B.

  13. Aerial Perspective Artistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a lesson centering on aerial perspective artistry of students and offers suggestions on how art teachers should carry this project out. This project serves to develop students' visual perception by studying reproductions by famous artists. This lesson allows one to imagine being lured into a landscape capable of captivating…

  14. A Spherical Aerial Terrestrial Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, Christopher J.

    This thesis focuses on the design of a novel, ultra-lightweight spherical aerial terrestrial robot (ATR). The ATR has the ability to fly through the air or roll on the ground, for applications that include search and rescue, mapping, surveillance, environmental sensing, and entertainment. The design centers around a micro-quadcopter encased in a lightweight spherical exoskeleton that can rotate about the quadcopter. The spherical exoskeleton offers agile ground locomotion while maintaining characteristics of a basic aerial robot in flying mode. A model of the system dynamics for both modes of locomotion is presented and utilized in simulations to generate potential trajectories for aerial and terrestrial locomotion. Details of the quadcopter and exoskeleton design and fabrication are discussed, including the robot's turning characteristic over ground and the spring-steel exoskeleton with carbon fiber axle. The capabilities of the ATR are experimentally tested and are in good agreement with model-simulated performance. An energy analysis is presented to validate the overall efficiency of the robot in both modes of locomotion. Experimentally-supported estimates show that the ATR can roll along the ground for over 12 minutes and cover the distance of 1.7 km, or it can fly for 4.82 minutes and travel 469 m, on a single 350 mAh battery. Compared to a traditional flying-only robot, the ATR traveling over the same distance in rolling mode is 2.63-times more efficient, and in flying mode the system is only 39 percent less efficient. Experimental results also demonstrate the ATR's transition from rolling to flying mode.

  15. Aerial radiation survey at a military range.

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, G. P.; Martino, L. E.; Wrobel, J.; Environmental Assessment; U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground

    2001-04-01

    Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) is currently listed on the Superfund National Priorities List because of past waste handling practices at 13 'study areas.' Concern has been expressed that anthropogenic radioisotopes may have been released at some of the study areas, with the potential of posing health risks to human or ecological receptors. This concern was addressed by thoroughly searching archival records, sampling and analyzing environmental media, and performing an aerial radiation survey. The aerial radiation survey techniques employed have been used over all U.S. Department of Energy and commercial reactor sites. Use of the Aerial Measurement System (AMS) allowed investigators to safely survey areas where surveys using hand-held instruments would be difficult to perform. In addition, the AMS delivered a full spectrum of the measured gamma radiation, thereby providing a means of determining which radioisotopes were present at the surface. As a quality check on the aerial measurements, four ground truth measurements were made at selected locations and compared with the aerial data for the same locations. The results of the survey revealed no evidence of surface radioactive contamination. The measured background radiation, including the cosmic contribution, ranged from 4 to 11 {mu}R/h.

  16. Cooperative Autonomous Observation of Volcanic Environments with sUAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravela, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Cooperative Autonomous Observing System Project (CAOS) at the MIT Earth Signals and Systems Group has developed methodology and systems for dynamically mapping coherent fluids such as plumes using small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS). In the CAOS approach, two classes of sUAS, one remote the other in-situ, implement a dynamic data-driven mapping system by closing the loop between Modeling, Estimation, Sampling, Planning and Control (MESPAC). The continually gathered measurements are assimilated to produce maps/analyses which also guide the sUAS network to adaptively resample the environment. Rather than scan the volume in fixed Eulerian or Lagrangian flight plans, the adaptive nature of the sampling process enables objectives for efficiency and resilience to be incorporated. Modeling includes realtime prediction using two types of reduced models, one based on nowcasting remote observations of plume tracer using scale-cascaded alignment, and another based on dynamically-deformable EOF/POD developed for coherent structures. Ensemble-based Information-theoretic machine learning approaches are used for the highly non-linear/non-Gaussian state/parameter estimation, and for planning. Control of the sUAS is based on model reference control coupled with hierarchical PID. MESPAC is implemented in part on a SkyCandy platform, and implements an airborne mesh that provides instantaneous situational awareness and redundant communication to an operating fleet. SkyCandy is deployed on Itzamna Aero's I9X/W UAS with low-cost sensors, and is currently being used to study the Popocatepetl volcano. Results suggest that operational communities can deploy low-cost sUAS to systematically monitor whilst optimizing for efficiency/maximizing resilience. The CAOS methodology is applicable to many other environments where coherent structures are present in the background. More information can be found at caos.mit.edu.

  17. Unmanned aerial monitoring of fluvial changes in the vicinity of selected gauges of the Local System for Flood Monitoring in Klodzko County, SW Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeziorska, Justyna; Witek, Matylda; Niedzielski, Tomasz

    2013-04-01

    Only high resolution spatial data enable precise measurements of various morphometric characteristics of river channels and ensure meaningful effects of research into fluvial changes. Using ground-based measurement tools is time-consuming and expensive. Traditional photogrammetry often does not reach a desired resolution, and the technology is cost effective only for the large-area coverage. The present research introduces potentials of UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) for monitoring fluvial changes. Observations were carried out with the ultralight UAV swinglet CAM produced by senseFly. This lightweight (0,5 kg), small (wingspan: 80 cm) aircraft allowed frequent (with approximately monthly sampling resolution) and low-cost missions. Three hydrologic gauges, the surroundings of which were the target of series of photos taken by camera placed in airplane frame, belong to the Local System for Flood Monitoring in Kłodzko County (SW Poland). The only way of obtaining reliable results is an appropriate image rectification, in order to measure morphometric characteristics of terrain, free of geometrical deformations induced by the topographical relief, the tilt of the camera axis and the distortion of the optics. Commercially available software for the production of digital orthophotos and digital surface models (DSMs) from a range of uncalibrated oblique and vertical aerial images was successfully used to achieve this aim. As a result of completing the above procedure 9 orthophotos were generated (one for each of 3 study areas during 3 missions). For extraction of terrain parameters, a DSM was produced as a result of bundle block adjustment. Both products reached ultra-high resolution of 4cm/px. Various fluvial forms were classified and recognized, and a few time series of maps from each study area were compared in order to detect potential changes within the fluvial system. We inferred on the origins of the short-term responses of fluvial systems, and such an inference

  18. Advanced Image Processing of Aerial Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodell, Glenn; Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-ur; Hines, Glenn

    2006-01-01

    Aerial imagery of the Earth is an invaluable tool for the assessment of ground features, especially during times of disaster. Researchers at the NASA Langley Research Center have developed techniques which have proven to be useful for such imagery. Aerial imagery from various sources, including Langley's Boeing 757 Aries aircraft, has been studied extensively. This paper discusses these studies and demonstrates that better-than-observer imagery can be obtained even when visibility is severely compromised. A real-time, multi-spectral experimental system will be described and numerous examples will be shown.

  19. Current status and future directions of precision agriculture for aerial application in the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision aerial application in the USA is less than a decade old since the development of the first variable-rate aerial application system. Many areas of the United States rely on readily available agricultural airplanes or helicopters for pest management. Variable-rate aerial application provides...

  20. AERIAL RADIOLOGICAL SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, A.E.

    1997-06-09

    Measuring terrestrial gamma radiation from airborne platforms has proved to be a useful method for characterizing radiation levels over large areas. Over 300 aerial radiological surveys have been carried out over the past 25 years including U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, commercial nuclear power plants, Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program/Uranium Mine Tailing Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP/UMTRAP) sites, nuclear weapons test sites, contaminated industrial areas, and nuclear accident sites. This paper describes the aerial measurement technology currently in use by the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) for routine environmental surveys and emergency response activities. Equipment, data-collection and -analysis methods, and examples of survey results are described.

  1. Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and GPS Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, B.

    1995-01-01

    It is proposed that a small fleet of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) be used over a period of years to monitor the rise of pressure surfaces caused by the hypothesized rise in average temperature of the troposphere due to global warming. Global Positioning Satellite System (GPS) receivers would be used for the precise tracking required.

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATION OF LOW ALTITUDE AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The most practical avenue for development of these goals is to continue to use the LAAPS system at field sites that require aerial imaging. For the sake of convenience, I believe that the local field sites can provide a convenient location to develop new applications and test enh...

  3. COCOA: tracking in aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Saad; Shah, Mubarak

    2006-05-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are becoming a core intelligence asset for reconnaissance, surveillance and target tracking in urban and battlefield settings. In order to achieve the goal of automated tracking of objects in UAV videos we have developed a system called COCOA. It processes the video stream through number of stages. At first stage platform motion compensation is performed. Moving object detection is performed to detect the regions of interest from which object contours are extracted by performing a level set based segmentation. Finally blob based tracking is performed for each detected object. Global tracks are generated which are used for higher level processing. COCOA is customizable to different sensor resolutions and is capable of tracking targets as small as 100 pixels. It works seamlessly for both visible and thermal imaging modes. The system is implemented in Matlab and works in a batch mode.

  4. Estimating chlorophyll with thermal and broadband multispectral high resolution imagery from an unmanned aerial system using relevance vector machines for precision agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elarab, Manal; Ticlavilca, Andres M.; Torres-Rua, Alfonso F.; Maslova, Inga; McKee, Mac

    2015-12-01

    Precision agriculture requires high-resolution information to enable greater precision in the management of inputs to production. Actionable information about crop and field status must be acquired at high spatial resolution and at a temporal frequency appropriate for timely responses. In this study, high spatial resolution imagery was obtained through the use of a small, unmanned aerial system called AggieAirTM. Simultaneously with the AggieAir flights, intensive ground sampling for plant chlorophyll was conducted at precisely determined locations. This study reports the application of a relevance vector machine coupled with cross validation and backward elimination to a dataset composed of reflectance from high-resolution multi-spectral imagery (VIS-NIR), thermal infrared imagery, and vegetative indices, in conjunction with in situ SPAD measurements from which chlorophyll concentrations were derived, to estimate chlorophyll concentration from remotely sensed data at 15-cm resolution. The results indicate that a relevance vector machine with a thin plate spline kernel type and kernel width of 5.4, having LAI, NDVI, thermal and red bands as the selected set of inputs, can be used to spatially estimate chlorophyll concentration with a root-mean-squared-error of 5.31 μg cm-2, efficiency of 0.76, and 9 relevance vectors.

  5. The Eye in the Sky: Combined Use of Unmanned Aerial Systems and GPS Data Loggers for Ecological Research and Conservation of Small Birds

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Airam; Negro, Juan J.; Mulero, Mara; Rodríguez, Carlos; Hernández-Pliego, Jesús; Bustamante, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Technological advances for wildlife monitoring have expanded our ability to study behavior and space use of many species. But biotelemetry is limited by size, weight, data memory and battery power of the attached devices, especially in animals with light body masses, such as the majority of bird species. In this study, we describe the combined use of GPS data logger information obtained from free-ranging birds, and environmental information recorded by unmanned aerial systems (UASs). As a case study, we studied habitat selection of a small raptorial bird, the lesser kestrel Falco naumanni, foraging in a highly dynamic landscape. After downloading spatio-temporal information from data loggers attached to the birds, we programmed the UASs to fly and take imagery by means of an onboard digital camera documenting the flight paths of those same birds shortly after their recorded flights. This methodology permitted us to extract environmental information at quasi-real time. We demonstrate that UASs are a useful tool for a wide variety of wildlife studies. PMID:23239979

  6. A semantic approach to the efficient integration of interactive and automatic target recognition systems for the analysis of complex infrastructure from aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, A.; Peinsipp-Byma, E.

    2008-04-01

    The analysis of complex infrastructure from aerial imagery, for instance a detailed analysis of an airfield, requires the interpreter, besides to be familiar with the sensor's imaging characteristics, to have a detailed understanding of the infrastructure domain. The required domain knowledge includes knowledge about the processes and functions involved in the operation of the infrastructure, the potential objects used to provide those functions and their spatial and functional interrelations. Since it is not possible yet to provide reliable automatic object recognition (AOR) for the analysis of such complex scenes, we developed systems to support a human interpreter with either interactive approaches, able to assist the interpreter with previously acquired expert knowledge about the domain in question, or AOR methods, capable of detecting, recognizing or analyzing certain classes of objects for certain sensors. We believe, to achieve an optimal result at the end of an interpretation process in terms of efficiency and effectivity, it is essential to integrate both interactive and automatic approaches to image interpretation. In this paper we present an approach inspired by the advancing semantic web technology to represent domain knowledge, the capabilities of available AOR modules and the image parameters in an explicit way. This enables us to seamlessly extend an interactive image interpretation environment with AOR modules in a way that we can automatically select suitable AOR methods for the current subtask, focus them on an appropriate area of interest and reintegrate their results into the environment.

  7. Determination of the effectiveness of commercial-off-the-shelf radar in the cuing of unmanned aerial vehicle pan-tilt-zoom camera systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Patrick Joseph

    This study examined the use of low-cost commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) radar in support of the cuing of pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) optical payload systems. Cancellation of the U.S. Navy's vertical take off and landing (VTOL) unmanned aerial vehicle (VTUAV) program left the Navy without a UAV with radar sensor capability. Using a UAV PTZ optical payload and a COTS radar, this study collected specific time difference measurements between PTZ optical payload searches without radar cuing and searches with radar cuing. In every test run conducted, searches with radar cuing reduced PTZ optical payload detection time. The study showed that a low-cost COTS radar mounted on a small UAV can meet some of the radar requirements lost with cancellation of the VTUAV program. The study results could have a direct impact on myriad of U.S. Navy and other U.S. government surveillance requirements, especially the monitoring of U.S. coastal waters in support of homeland security goals and objectives.

  8. High clearance phenotyping systems for season-long measurement of corn, sorghum and other row crops to complement unmanned aerial vehicle systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Seth C.; Knox, Leighton; Hartley, Brandon; Méndez-Dorado, Mario A.; Richardson, Grant; Thomasson, J. Alex; Shi, Yeyin; Rajan, Nithya; Neely, Haly; Bagavathiannan, Muthukumar; Dong, Xuejun; Rooney, William L.

    2016-05-01

    The next generation of plant breeding progress requires accurately estimating plant growth and development parameters to be made over routine intervals within large field experiments. Hand measurements are laborious and time consuming and the most promising tools under development are sensors carried by ground vehicles or unmanned aerial vehicles, with each specific vehicle having unique limitations. Previously available ground vehicles have primarily been restricted to monitoring shorter crops or early growth in corn and sorghum, since plants taller than a meter could be damaged by a tractor or spray rig passing over them. Here we have designed two and already constructed one of these self-propelled ground vehicles with adjustable heights that can clear mature corn and sorghum without damage (over three meters of clearance), which will work for shorter row crops as well. In addition to regular RGB image capture, sensor suites are incorporated to estimate plant height, vegetation indices, canopy temperature and photosynthetically active solar radiation, all referenced using RTK GPS to individual plots. These ground vehicles will be useful to validate data collected from unmanned aerial vehicles and support hand measurements taken on plots.

  9. Calculating aerial images from EUV masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pistor, Thomas V.; Neureuther, Andrew R.

    1999-06-01

    Aerial images for line/space patterns, arrays of posts and an arbitrary layout pattern are calculated for EUV masks in a 4X EUV imaging system. Both mask parameters and illumination parameters are varied to investigate their effects on the aerial image. To facilitate this study, a parallel version of TEMPEST with a Fourier transform boundary condition was developed and run on a network of 24 microprocessors. Line width variations are observed when absorber thickness or sidewall angle changes. As the line/space pattern scales to smaller dimensions, the aspect ratios of the absorber features increase, introducing geometric shadowing and reducing aerial image intensity and contrast. 100nm square posts have circular images of diameter close to 100nm, but decreasing in diameter significantly when the corner round radius at the mask becomes greater than 50 nm. Exterior mask posts image slightly smaller and with higher ellipticity than interior mask posts. The aerial image of the arbitrary test pattern gives insight into the effects of the off-axis incidence employed in EUV lithography systems.

  10. Minimizing the impact of the mosquito adulticide naled on honey bees, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae): aerial ultra-low-volume application using a high-pressure nozzle system.

    PubMed

    Zhong, He; Latham, Mark; Payne, Steve; Brock, Cate

    2004-02-01

    The impact of the mosquito adulticide naled on honey bees, Apis mellifera L., was evaluated by exposing test beehives to nighttime aerial ultra-low-volume (ULV) applications using a high-pressure nozzle system. The tests were conducted during routine mosquito control missions at Manatee County, Florida, in summer 2000. Two treatment sites were sprayed a total of four times over a 10-wk period. Honey bees, which clustered outside of the hive entrances, were subjected to naled exposure during these mosquito control sprays. The highest average naled ground deposition was 2,688 microg/m2 at the Port Manatee site, which resulted in statistically significant bee mortality (118) compared with the controls. At the Terra Ceia Road site, an intermediate level of naled deposition was found (1,435 microg/m2). For this spray mission, the range of dead bees per hive at Terra Ceia was 2 to 9 before spraying and 5 to 36 after naled application. Means of all other naled ground depositions were < 850 microl/m2. We concluded that substantial bee mortality (> 100 dead bees) resulted when naled residue levels were > 2,000 kg/m2 and honey bees were clustered outside of the hive entrances during mosquito adulticide applications. Compared with the flat-fan nozzle systems currently used by most of Florida's mosquito control programs, the high-pressure nozzle system used in this experiment substantially reduced environmental insecticide contamination and lead to decreased bee mortality. Statistical analysis also showed that average honey yield at the end of the season was not significantly reduced for those hives that were exposed to the insecticide. PMID:14998120

  11. 12. AERIAL VIEW OF STATION. Please credit: Louisville and Nashville ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. AERIAL VIEW OF STATION. Please credit: Louisville and Nashville Railroad Company/Family Lines Rail System Archives - Louisville & Nashville Railroad, Union Station, 1000 West Broadway, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  12. GENERAL AERIAL VIEW OF LAKE ALDWELL AND ELWHA DAM AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL AERIAL VIEW OF LAKE ALDWELL AND ELWHA DAM AND POWERHOUSE, WITH STRAIT OF JUAN DE FUCA TO THE NORTH. PHOTO BY JET LOWE, HAER, 1995. - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Elwha Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA

  13. AERIAL PHOTO OF ELWHA RIVER, SPILLWAYS AT GLINES DAM, POWERHOUSE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL PHOTO OF ELWHA RIVER, SPILLWAYS AT GLINES DAM, POWERHOUSE, SURGE TANK AND TRANSFORMER YARD WITH HISTORIC SHED (WAREHOUSE). PHOTO BY JET LOWE, HAER, 1995. - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Glines Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA

  14. GENERAL AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, AT GLINES DAM AND POWERHOUSE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, AT GLINES DAM AND POWERHOUSE, LAKE MILLS RESERVOIR, AND THE ELWHA RIVER. PHOTO BY JET LOWE, HAER, 1995. - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Glines Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA

  15. AERIAL PHOTO, LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING POWERHOUSE, SURGE TANK, TRANSFORMER YARD, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL PHOTO, LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING POWERHOUSE, SURGE TANK, TRANSFORMER YARD, GLINES DAM, AND LAKE MILLS RESERVOIR. PHOTO BY JET LOWE, HAER, 1995. - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Glines Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA

  16. GENERAL AERIAL VIEW OF NORTH END OF LAKE ALDWELL (RESERVOIR) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL AERIAL VIEW OF NORTH END OF LAKE ALDWELL (RESERVOIR) WITH ELWHA DAM AND POWERHOUSE. PHOTO BY JET LOWE, HAER, 1995. - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Elwha Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA

  17. GENERAL AERIAL VIEW TO SOUTH OF ELWHA DAM AND POWERHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL AERIAL VIEW TO SOUTH OF ELWHA DAM AND POWERHOUSE WITH NORTH END OF RESERVOIR. PHOTO BY JET LOWE, HAER, 1995. - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Elwha Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA

  18. DETAIL TOP VIEW OF AERIAL TRAMWAY DRIVE MECHANISM, LOOKING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL TOP VIEW OF AERIAL TRAMWAY DRIVE MECHANISM, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE FRICTION BRAKING SYSTEM CAN BE SEEN IN SHADOW ABOVE THE LARGE CABLE WHEEL BELOW. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  19. Aerial Scene Recognition using Efficient Sparse Representation

    SciTech Connect

    Cheriyadat, Anil M

    2012-01-01

    Advanced scene recognition systems for processing large volumes of high-resolution aerial image data are in great demand today. However, automated scene recognition remains a challenging problem. Efficient encoding and representation of spatial and structural patterns in the imagery are key in developing automated scene recognition algorithms. We describe an image representation approach that uses simple and computationally efficient sparse code computation to generate accurate features capable of producing excellent classification performance using linear SVM kernels. Our method exploits unlabeled low-level image feature measurements to learn a set of basis vectors. We project the low-level features onto the basis vectors and use simple soft threshold activation function to derive the sparse features. The proposed technique generates sparse features at a significantly lower computational cost than other methods~\\cite{Yang10, newsam11}, yet it produces comparable or better classification accuracy. We apply our technique to high-resolution aerial image datasets to quantify the aerial scene classification performance. We demonstrate that the dense feature extraction and representation methods are highly effective for automatic large-facility detection on wide area high-resolution aerial imagery.

  20. Building and road detection from large aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Shunta; Aoki, Yoshimitsu

    2015-02-01

    Building and road detection from aerial imagery has many applications in a wide range of areas including urban design, real-estate management, and disaster relief. The extracting buildings and roads from aerial imagery has been performed by human experts manually, so that it has been very costly and time-consuming process. Our goal is to develop a system for automatically detecting buildings and roads directly from aerial imagery. Many attempts at automatic aerial imagery interpretation have been proposed in remote sensing literature, but much of early works use local features to classify each pixel or segment to an object label, so that these kind of approach needs some prior knowledge on object appearance or class-conditional distribution of pixel values. Furthermore, some works also need a segmentation step as pre-processing. Therefore, we use Convolutional Neural Networks(CNN) to learn mapping from raw pixel values in aerial imagery to three object labels (buildings, roads, and others), in other words, we generate three-channel maps from raw aerial imagery input. We take a patch-based semantic segmentation approach, so we firstly divide large aerial imagery into small patches and then train the CNN with those patches and corresponding three-channel map patches. Finally, we evaluate our system on a large-scale road and building detection datasets that is publicly available.

  1. Infrared film for aerial photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, William H.

    1979-01-01

    Considerable interest has developed recently in the use of aerial photographs for agricultural management. Even the simplest hand-held aerial photographs, especially those taken with color infrared film, often provide information not ordinarily available through routine ground observation. When fields are viewed from above, patterns and variations become more apparent, often allowing problems to be spotted which otherwise may go undetected.

  2. AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY AND LEGAL APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aerial photographic interpretation is the process of examining objects on aerial photographs and determining their significance. t is often defined as both art and science because the process, and the quality of the derived information, is often a qualitative nature and much depe...

  3. Controller Design of Quadrotor Aerial Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yali, Yu; SunFeng; Yuanxi, Wang

    This paper deduced the nonlinear dynamic model of a quadrotor aerial robot, which was a VTOL (vertical tale-off and landing) unmanned air vehicle. Since that is a complex model with the highly nonlinear multivariable strongly coupled and under-actuated property, the controller design of it was very difficult. Aimed at attaining the excellent controller, the whole system can be divided into three interconnected parts: attitude subsystem, vertical subsystem, position subsystem. Then nonlinear control strategy of them has been described, such as SDRE and Backstepping. The controller design was presented to stabilize the whole system. Through simulation result indicates, the various models have shown that the control law stabilize a quadrotor aerial robot with good tracking performance and robotness of the system.

  4. Investigations on the Accuracy of the Navigation Data of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using the Example of the System Mikrokopter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bäumker, M.; Przybilla, H.-J.

    2011-09-01

    Bochum University of Applied Sciences (HS BO) is currently involved in an UAV project, whose fundamental developments are the result of an internet community. The MikroKopter system, being built by the laboratory, is a manually and autonomous flying platform. With regard to the implementation of an autonomous flight the MikroKopter is equipped with appropriate sensors for the flight control. The interaction of these components allows horizontal and vertical stabilized positioning of the system, as well as the return to the launch site. Using these positioning data a stabilization and orientation of the camera occurs, followed by a manual or automatically triggering of the camera to the predetermined positions. All flight data is completely recorded and can be evaluated at a later date. Investigations to the quality of navigation data are presented. Based on different flights at the Bochum test field, combined with the use of alternative navigation sensors, an evaluation of the standard components of the MikroKopter system occurs. Another focus is given by efforts to optimize the control, stabilization and orientation of the camera.

  5. Unmanned aerial survey of elephants.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Cédric; Lejeune, Philippe; Lisein, Jonathan; Sawadogo, Prosper; Bouché, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The use of a UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System) was tested to survey large mammals in the Nazinga Game Ranch in the south of Burkina Faso. The Gatewing ×100™ equipped with a Ricoh GR III camera was used to test animal reaction as the UAS passed, and visibility on the images. No reaction was recorded as the UAS passed at a height of 100 m. Observations, made on a set of more than 7000 images, revealed that only elephants (Loxodonta africana) were easily visible while medium and small sized mammals were not. The easy observation of elephants allows experts to enumerate them on images acquired at a height of 100 m. We, therefore, implemented an aerial strip sample count along transects used for the annual wildlife foot count. A total of 34 elephants were recorded on 4 transects, each overflown twice. The elephant density was estimated at 2.47 elephants/km(2) with a coefficient of variation (CV%) of 36.10%. The main drawback of our UAS was its low autonomy (45 min). Increased endurance of small UAS is required to replace manned aircraft survey of large areas (about 1000 km of transect per day vs 40 km for our UAS). The monitoring strategy should be adapted according to the sampling plan. Also, the UAS is as expensive as a second-hand light aircraft. However the logistic and flight implementation are easier, the running costs are lower and its use is safer. Technological evolution will make civil UAS more efficient, allowing them to compete with light aircraft for aerial wildlife surveys. PMID:23405088

  6. Unmanned Aerial Survey of Elephants

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Cédric; Lejeune, Philippe; Lisein, Jonathan; Sawadogo, Prosper; Bouché, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The use of a UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System) was tested to survey large mammals in the Nazinga Game Ranch in the south of Burkina Faso. The Gatewing ×100™ equipped with a Ricoh GR III camera was used to test animal reaction as the UAS passed, and visibility on the images. No reaction was recorded as the UAS passed at a height of 100 m. Observations, made on a set of more than 7000 images, revealed that only elephants (Loxodonta africana) were easily visible while medium and small sized mammals were not. The easy observation of elephants allows experts to enumerate them on images acquired at a height of 100 m. We, therefore, implemented an aerial strip sample count along transects used for the annual wildlife foot count. A total of 34 elephants were recorded on 4 transects, each overflown twice. The elephant density was estimated at 2.47 elephants/km2 with a coefficient of variation (CV%) of 36.10%. The main drawback of our UAS was its low autonomy (45 min). Increased endurance of small UAS is required to replace manned aircraft survey of large areas (about 1000 km of transect per day vs 40 km for our UAS). The monitoring strategy should be adapted according to the sampling plan. Also, the UAS is as expensive as a second-hand light aircraft. However the logistic and flight implementation are easier, the running costs are lower and its use is safer. Technological evolution will make civil UAS more efficient, allowing them to compete with light aircraft for aerial wildlife surveys. PMID:23405088

  7. Top-Down Estimates of SO2 Degassing Emissions from the Turrialba Volcano Using in Situ Measurements from Unmanned Aerial Systems and the WRF-Stilt Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, X.; Johnson, M. S.; Fladeland, M. M.; Pieri, D. C.; Diaz, J. A.; Jeong, S.; Bland, G.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the continuous volcanic degassing emissions as an important natural source of sulfur-rich gases and aerosols. To investigate the impact of volcanic degassing on atmospheric chemistry and climate forcing, chemical transport models rely on emission inventories compiled from various sources. For example, the emission database from the Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models (AEROCOM) project derives eruptive SO2 emissions from past literature, Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI), and limited observations from satellite and in situ instruments. Additionally, for all volcanoes with historic eruptions, AEROCOM simply assigns a constant SO2 degassing rate of 6.2x10-4 kt/day. This rudimentary estimate can lead to large uncertainties in model simulations of the volcanic SO2lifecycle and its impact on the atmospheric composition. In this study, we propose to apply inverse modeling techniques to estimate top-down SO2 emission rates from the Turrialba Volcano (10.025°N, 83.767°W) using in situ SO2 measurements from unmanned aerial systems (UASs) during March 2013. We predict SO2 mixing ratios along the UASs' flight paths based on the AEROCOM a priori SO2 emission dataset and the atmospheric trajectories and surface influence simulated by the WRF-STILT model. We incorporate a high-resolution (~ 30 m) terrain data into the model in order to account for the effects of the complex orography on the wind conditions near the volcano. The predicted SO2 mixing ratios are compared with measurements in a statistical procedure to minimize the model-data difference thereby yielding improved posterior estimates of volcanic SO2 degassing emission rates. A detailed uncertainty analysis will be conducted during this study taking into account all sources of error in the inverse modeling approach, such as the SO2 measurements, meteorological inputs, model configurations (e.g., spatial resolution, model physics parameterizations

  8. Well Clear: General Aviation and Commercial Pilots' Perceptioin of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    This research explored how different pilots perceived the concept of the Well Clear Boundary (WCB) and observed if that boundary changed when dealing with manned versus unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), and the effects of other variables. Pilots' WCB perceptions were collected objectively through simulator recordings and subjectively through questionnaires. Objectively, significant differences were found in WCB perception between two pilot types (general aviation [GA], and Airline Transport Pilots [ATPs]), and significant WCB differences were evident when comparing two intruder types (manned versus unmanned aircraft). Differences were dependent on other manipulated variables (intruder approach angle, ownship speed, and background traffic levels). Subjectively, there were differences in WCB perception across pilot types; GA pilots trusted UAS aircraft higher than the more experienced ATPs. Conclusions indicate pilots' WCB mental models are more easily perceived as time-based boundaries in front of ownship, and more easily perceived as distance-based boundaries to the rear of ownship.

  9. A comparison of multicopter and fixed-wing unmanned aerial systems (UAS) applied to mapping debris flows in small alpine catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotier, Bernadette; Lechner, Veronika

    2016-04-01

    The use of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) for documenting natural hazard events (e.g. debris flows) is becoming increasingly popular, as UAS allow on-demand, flexible and cost-efficient data acquisition. In this paper, we present the results of a comparison of multicopter and fixed-wing UAS. They were employed in the summer of 2015 to map two small alpine catchments located in Western Austria, where debris flows had occurred recently: The first event took place in the Seigesbach (Tyrol), the second occurred in the Plojergraben (Salzburg). For the Seigesbach mission, a fixed-wing UAS (Multiplex Mentor), equipped with a Sony NEX5 (50 mm prime lens, 14 MP sensor resolution) was employed to acquire approximately 4,000 images. In the Plojergraben an AustroDrones X18 octocopter was used, carrying a Sony ILCE-7R (35 mm prime lens, 36 MP sensor resolution) to record 1,700 images. Both sites had a size of approximately 2km². 20 ground control points (GCP) were distributed within both catchments, and their location was measured (Trimble GeoXT, expected accuracy 0.15 m). Using standard structure-from-motion photogrammetry software (AgiSoft PhotoScan Pro, v. 1.1.6), orthophotos (5 cm ground sampling distance - GSD) and digital surface models (DSM) (20 cm GSD) were calculated. Volume differences caused by the debris flow (i.e. deposition heights and erosion depths) computed by subtracting post-event from pre-event DSMs. Even though the terrain conditions in the two catchments were comparable, the challenges during the field campaign and the evaluation of the aerial images were very different. The main difference between the two campaigns was the number of flights required to cover the catchment: only four were needed by the fixed-wing UAS, while the multicopter required eleven in the Plojergraben. The fixed-wing UAS is specially designed for missions in hardly accessible regions, requiring only two people to carry the whole equipment, while in this case a car was needed for the

  10. Well clear: General aviation and commercial pilots' perception of unmanned aerial vehicles in the national airspace system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Joseph T.

    The purpose of this research was to determine how different pilot types perceived the subjective concept of the Well Clear Boundary (WCB) and to observe if that boundary changed when dealing with manned versus unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) as well as the effects of other variables. Pilots' perceptions of the WCB were collected objectively through simulator recordings and subjectively through questionnaires. Together, these metrics provided quantitative and qualitative data about pilot WCB perception. The objective results of this study showed significant differences in WCB perception between two different pilot types, as well as WCB significant differences when comparing two different intruder types (manned versus unmanned aircraft). These differences were dependent on other manipulated variables, including intruder approach angle, ownship speed, and background traffic levels. Subjectively, there were evident differences in WCB perception across pilot types; general aviation (GA) pilots appeared to trust UAS aircraft slightly more than did the more experienced Airline Transport Pilots (ATPs). Overall, it is concluded that pilots' mental models of the WCB are more easily perceived as time-based boundaries in front of ownship, while being more easily perceived as distance-based boundaries to the rear of ownship.

  11. 1:500 Scale Aerial Triangulation Test with Unmanned Airship in Hubei Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feifei, Xie; Zongjian, Lin; Dezhu, Gui

    2014-03-01

    A new UAVS (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle System) for low altitude aerial photogrammetry is introduced for fine surveying and mapping, including the platform airship, sensor system four-combined wide-angle camera and photogrammetry software MAP-AT. It is demonstrated that this low-altitude aerial photogrammetric system meets the precision requirements of 1:500 scale aerial triangulation based on the test of this system in Hubei province, including the working condition of the airship, the quality of image data and the data processing report. This work provides a possibility for fine surveying and mapping.

  12. The Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) 2002 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Fink, Mary M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents and overview of the Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL). It covers the University of Nebraska's areas of research, and its outreach to students at Native American schools as part of AERIAL. The report contains three papers: "Airborne Remote Sensing (ARS) for Agricultural Research and Commercialization Application" (White Paper), "Validated Numerical Models for the Convective Extinction of Fuel Droplets (CEFD)", and "The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS): Research Collaborations with the NASA Langley Research Center".

  13. Aerial Terrain Mapping Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahar, K. N.

    2012-08-01

    This paper looks into the latest achievement in the low-cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology in their capacity to map the semi-development areas. The objectives of this study are to establish a new methodology or a new algorithm in image registration during interior orientation process and to determine the accuracy of the photogrammetric products by using UAV images. Recently, UAV technology has been used in several applications such as mapping, agriculture and surveillance. The aim of this study is to scrutinize the usage of UAV to map the semi-development areas. The performance of the low cost UAV mapping study was established on a study area with two image processing methods so that the results could be comparable. A non-metric camera was attached at the bottom of UAV and it was used to capture images at both sites after it went through several calibration steps. Calibration processes were carried out to determine focal length, principal distance, radial lens distortion, tangential lens distortion and affinity. A new method in image registration for a non-metric camera is discussed in this paper as a part of new methodology of this study. This method used the UAV Global Positioning System (GPS) onboard to register the UAV image for interior orientation process. Check points were established randomly at both sites using rapid static Global Positioning System. Ground control points are used for exterior orientation process, and check point is used for accuracy assessment of photogrammetric product. All acquired images were processed in a photogrammetric software. Two methods of image registration were applied in this study, namely, GPS onboard registration and ground control point registration. Both registrations were processed by using photogrammetric software and the result is discussed. Two results were produced in this study, which are the digital orthophoto and the digital terrain model. These results were analyzed by using the root mean square

  14. Modeling aerial refueling operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Allen B., III

    Aerial Refueling (AR) is the act of offloading fuel from one aircraft (the tanker) to another aircraft (the receiver) in mid flight. Meetings between tanker and receiver aircraft are referred to as AR events and are scheduled to: escort one or more receivers across a large body of water; refuel one or more receivers; or train receiver pilots, tanker pilots, and boom operators. In order to efficiently execute the Aerial Refueling Mission, the Air Mobility Command (AMC) of the United States Air Force (USAF) depends on computer models to help it make tanker basing decisions, plan tanker sorties, schedule aircraft, develop new organizational doctrines, and influence policy. We have worked on three projects that have helped AMC improve its modeling and decision making capabilities. Optimal Flight Planning. Currently Air Mobility simulation and optimization software packages depend on algorithms which iterate over three dimensional fuel flow tables to compute aircraft fuel consumption under changing flight conditions. When a high degree of fidelity is required, these algorithms use a large amount of memory and CPU time. We have modeled the rate of aircraft fuel consumption with respect to AC GrossWeight, Altitude and Airspeed. When implemented, this formula will decrease the amount of memory and CPU time needed to compute sortie fuel costs and cargo capacity values. We have also shown how this formula can be used in optimal control problems to find minimum costs flight plans. Tanker Basing Demand Mismatch Index. Since 1992, AMC has relied on a Tanker Basing/AR Demand Mismatch Index which aggregates tanker capacity and AR demand data into six regions. This index was criticized because there were large gradients along regional boundaries. Meanwhile tankers frequently cross regional boundaries to satisfy the demand for AR support. In response we developed continuous functions to score locations with respect to their proximity to demand for AR support as well as their

  15. Terrestrial and unmanned aerial system imagery for deriving photogrammetric three-dimensional point clouds and volume models of mass wasting sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hämmerle, Martin; Schütt, Fabian; Höfle, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) geodata of mass wasting sites are important to model surfaces, volumes, and their changes over time. With a photogrammetric approach commonly known as structure from motion, 3-D point clouds can be derived from image collections in a straightforward way. The quality of point clouds covering a quarry dump derived from terrestrial and aerial imagery is compared and assessed. A comprehensive set of quality indicators is calculated and compared to surveyed reference data and to a terrestrial LiDAR point cloud. The examined indicators are completeness of coverage, point density, vertical accuracy, multiscale point cloud distance, scaling accuracy, and dump volume. It is found that the photogrammetric datasets generally represent the examined dump well with, for example, an area coverage of up to 90% and 100% in case of terrestrial and aerial imagery, respectively, a maximum scaling difference of 0.62%, and volume estimations reaching up to 100% of the LiDAR reference. Combining the advantages of 3-D geodata derived from terrestrial (high detail, accurate volume calculation even with a small number of input images) and aerial images (high coverage) can be a promising method to further improve the quality of 3-D geodata derived with low-cost approaches.

  16. Multi-temporal monitoring of crack formation on a mountain col with low-cost unmanned aerial systems - a case study in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stary, Ulrike; Adams, Marc

    2016-04-01

    In the Tuxer Alps of Western Austria, crack formation was observed on a col at approximately 2,500 m a.s.l., in close proximity to a highly frequented hiking trail. On an area of 0.2 ha, three several meter deep cracks were identified. Here we present the results of a 3-year monitoring of this area with low-cost, unmanned aerial systems (UAS) and photogrammetric techniques. In 2013 and 2014, a custom-built fixed-wing UAS (Multiplex Mentor, wingspan 1.6 m, gross take-off weight 2.5 kg), equipped with a Sony NEX5 (16 mm prime lens, 14 MP sensor resolution) was used to map the study site. In 2015 we employed a helicopter (Thundertiger Raptor, 0.55 m blade length, gross take-off weight 2.8 kg), fitted with a GoPro2 (60° prime lens, 5 MP sensor resolution). In all three cases we recorded 1,200-2,000 images in 10-30 minutes. To georeference the images, 8-10 ground control points (GCP) were placed at the study site and measured with a Trimble GeoXT GPS device (expected accuracy 0.15 m, precision 0.3 m). Using AgiSoft's PhotoScan (v.1.1.6), Orthophotos (OP) and digital surface models (DSM) were calculated with 5 and 20 cm ground sampling distance, respectively. The visual interpretation of the OPs gave some indication, that the size of the cracks was increasing by 0.1-0.5 m (A-axis) or 0.2-0.8 m² per year. An interpretation of the DSMs was inconclusive with regard to the depth of the cracks due to shadows in the imagery and vertical or overhanging sidewalls of the cracks. Additionally the accuracy of the GCP-measurements was found to lie below the rate of change of the cracks, thus not permitting a direct calculation of difference DSM. From an operational point-of-view, the study site proved very challenging because of its exposed, high-alpine location, with high wind speeds, gusts and poor visibility hampering the UAS-missions. The monitoring campaign will continue in 2016, where the collection of additional ground-based reference data is planned (e.g. terrestrial

  17. Mapping of invasive Acacia species in Brazilian Mussununga ecosystems using high- resolution IR remote sensing data acquired with an autonomous Unmanned Aerial System (UAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Jan Rudolf Karl; Zvara, Ondrej; Prinz, Torsten

    2015-04-01

    The biological invasion of Australian Acacia species in natural ecosystems outside Australia has often a negative impact on native and endemic plant species and the related biodiversity. In Brazil, the Atlantic rainforest of Bahia and Espirito Santo forms an associated type of ecosystem, the Mussununga. In our days this biologically diverse ecosystem is negatively affected by the invasion of Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis, both introduced to Brazil by the agroforestry to increase the production of pulp and high grade woods. In order to detect the distribution of Acacia species and to monitor the expansion of this invasion the use of high-resolution imagery data acquired with an autonomous Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) proved to be a very promising approach. In this study, two types of datasets - CIR and RGB - were collected since both types provide different information. In case of CIR imagery attention was paid on spectral signatures related to plants, whereas in case of RGB imagery the focus was on surface characteristics. Orthophoto-mosaics and DSM/DTM for both dataset were extracted. RGB/IHS transformations of the imagery's colour space were utilized, as well as NDVIblue index in case of CIR imagery to discriminate plant associations. Next, two test areas were defined in order validate OBIA rule sets using eCognition software. In case of RGB dataset, a rule set based on elevation distinction between high vegetation (including Acacia) and low vegetation (including soils) was developed. High vegetation was classified using Nearest Neighbour algorithm while working with the CIR dataset. The IHS information was used to mask shadows, soils and low vegetation. Further Nearest Neighbour classification was used for distinction between Acacia and other high vegetation types. Finally an accuracy assessment was performed using a confusion matrix. One can state that the IHS information appeared to be helpful in Acacia detection while the surface elevation

  18. Localization of aerial broadband noise by pinnipeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Marla M.; Schusterman, Ronald J.; Southall, Brandon L.; Kastak, David

    2004-05-01

    Although many pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses) emit broadband calls on land as part of their communication system, few studies have addressed these animals' ability to localize aerial broadband sounds. In this study, the aerial sound localization acuities of a female northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), a male harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and a female California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) were measured in the horizontal plane. The stimulus was broadband white noise that was band pass filtered between 1.2 and 15 kHz. Testing was conducted in a hemi-anechoic chamber using a left/right forced choice procedure to measure the minimum audible angle (MAA) for each subject. MAAs were defined as half the angular separation of two sound sources bisected by a subject's midline that corresponded to 75% correct discrimination. MAAs were 4.7°, 3.6°, and 4.2° for the northern elephant seal, harbor seal, and California sea lion, respectively. These results demonstrate that individuals of these pinniped species have sound localization abilities comparable to the domestic cat and rhesus macaque. The acuity differences between our subjects were small and not predicted by head size. These results likely reflect the relatively acute general abilities of pinnipeds to localize aerial broadband signals.

  19. Mask degradation monitoring with aerial mask inspector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Wen-Jui; Fu, Yung-Ying; Lu, Shih-Ping; Jiang, Ming-Sian; Lin, Jeffrey; Wu, Clare; Lifschitz, Sivan; Tam, Aviram

    2013-06-01

    As design rule continues to shrink, microlithography is becoming more challenging and the photomasks need to comply with high scanner laser energy, low CDU, and ever more aggressive RETs. This give rise to numerous challenges in the semiconductor wafer fabrication plants. Some of these challenges being contamination (mainly haze and particles), mask pattern degradation (MoSi oxidation, chrome migration, etc.) and pellicle degradation. Fabs are constantly working to establish an efficient methodology to manage these challenges mainly using mask inspection, wafer inspection, SEM review and CD SEMs. Aerial technology offers a unique opportunity to address the above mask related challenges using one tool. The Applied Materials Aera3TM system has the inherent ability to inspect for defects (haze, particles, etc.), and track mask degradation (e.g. CDU). This paper focuses on haze monitoring, which is still a significant challenge in semiconductor manufacturing, and mask degradation effects that are starting to emerge as the next challenge for high volume semiconductor manufacturers. The paper describes Aerial inspector (Aera3) early haze methodology and mask degradation tracking related to high volume manufacturing. These will be demonstrated on memory products. At the end of the paper we take a brief look on subsequent work currently conducted on the more general issue of photo mask degradation monitoring by means of an Aerial inspector.

  20. Calculated Drag of an Aerial Refueling Assembly Through Airplane Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vachon, Jake; Ray, Ronald; Calianno, Carl

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews NASA Dryden's work on Aerial refueling, with specific interest in calculating the drag of the refueling system. The aerodynamic drag of an aerial refueling assembly was calculated during the Automated Aerial Refueling project at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. An F/A-18A airplane was specially instrumented to obtain accurate fuel flow measurements and to determine engine thrust

  1. Initial Efforts toward Mission-Representative Imaging Surveys from Aerial Explorers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pisanich, Greg; Plice, Laura; Ippolito, Corey; Young, Larry A.; Lau, Benton; Lee, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    Numerous researchers have proposed the use of robotic aerial explorers to perform scientific investigation of planetary bodies in our solar system. One of the essential tasks for any aerial explorer is to be able to perform scientifically valuable imaging surveys. The focus of this paper is to discuss the challenges implicit in, and recent observations related to, acquiring mission-representative imaging data from a small fixed-wing UAV, acting as a surrogate planetary aerial explorer. This question of successfully performing aerial explorer surveys is also tied to other topics of technical investigation, including the development of unique bio-inspired technologies.

  2. AERIAL OF VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING & SURROUNDING AREA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    AERIAL OF VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING & SURROUNDING AREA KSC-377C-0082.41 116-KSC-377C-82.41, P-15877, ARCHIVE-04151 Aerial view - Shuttle construction progress - VAB and Orbiter Processing Facilities - direction northwest.

  3. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... lift, except in case of emergency. (x) Climbers shall not be worn while performing work from an aerial... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aerial lifts. 1926.453 Section 1926.453 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Scaffolds § 1926.453 Aerial lifts. (a)...

  4. A study of methods for lowering aerial environmental survey cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansberry, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The results are presented of a study of methods for lowering the cost of environmental aerial surveys. A wide range of low cost techniques were investigated for possible application to current pressing urban and rural problems. The objective of the study is to establish a definition of the technical problems associated with conducting aerial surveys using various low cost techniques, to conduct a survey of equipment which may be used in low cost systems, and to establish preliminary estimates of cost. A set of candidate systems were selected and described for the environmental survey tasks.

  5. Delivery of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Sullivan, Donald V.

    2011-01-01

    To support much of NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Program science, NASA has acquired two Global Hawk Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Two major missions are currently planned using the Global Hawk: the Global Hawk Pacific (GloPac) and the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) missions. This paper briefly describes GloPac and GRIP, the concept of operations and the resulting requirements and communication architectures. Also discussed are requirements for future missions that may use satellite systems and networks owned and operated by third parties.

  6. Reconnaissance mapping from aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeden, H. A.; Bolling, N. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Engineering soil and geology maps were successfully made from Pennsylvania aerial photographs taken at scales from 1:4,800 to 1:60,000. The procedure involved a detailed study of a stereoscopic model while evaluating landform, drainage, erosion, color or gray tones, tone and texture patterns, vegetation, and cultural or land use patterns.

  7. Efficient pedestrian detection from aerial vehicles with object proposals and deep convolutional neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minnehan, Breton; Savakis, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    As Unmanned Aerial Systems grow in numbers, pedestrian detection from aerial platforms is becoming a topic of increasing importance. By providing greater contextual information and a reduced potential for occlusion, the aerial vantage point provided by Unmanned Aerial Systems is highly advantageous for many surveillance applications, such as target detection, tracking, and action recognition. However, due to the greater distance between the camera and scene, targets of interest in aerial imagery are generally smaller and have less detail. Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN's) have demonstrated excellent object classification performance and in this paper we adopt them to the problem of pedestrian detection from aerial platforms. We train a CNN with five layers consisting of three convolution-pooling layers and two fully connected layers. We also address the computational inefficiencies of the sliding window method for object detection. In the sliding window configuration, a very large number of candidate patches are generated from each frame, while only a small number of them contain pedestrians. We utilize the Edge Box object proposal generation method to screen candidate patches based on an "objectness" criterion, so that only regions that are likely to contain objects are processed. This method significantly reduces the number of image patches processed by the neural network and makes our classification method very efficient. The resulting two-stage system is a good candidate for real-time implementation onboard modern aerial vehicles. Furthermore, testing on three datasets confirmed that our system offers high detection accuracy for terrestrial pedestrian detection in aerial imagery.

  8. Aerial Radiation Measurements from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Guss, P. P.

    2012-07-16

    This document is a slide show type presentation concerning DOE and Aerial Measuring System (AMS) activities and results with respect to assessing the consequences of the releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. These include ground monitoring and aerial monitoring.

  9. Analysis of vegetation indices derived from aerial multispectral and ground hyperspectral data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerial multispectral images are a good source of crop, soil, and ground coverage information. Spectral reflectance indices provide a useful tool for monitoring crop growing status. A series of aerial images were acquired by an airborne MS4100 multispectral imaging system on the cotton and soybean f...

  10. Microencapsuling aerial conidia of Trichoderma harzianum through spray drying at elevated temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichoderma conidia are mostly produced by solid fermentation systems. Inoculum is produced by liquid culturing, and then transferred to solid substrate for aerial conidial production. Aerial conidia of T. harzianum are hydrophilic in nature, and it is difficult to separate them from the solid subst...

  11. Photogrammetric mapping using unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graça, N.; Mitishita, E.; Gonçalves, J.

    2014-11-01

    Nowadays Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology has attracted attention for aerial photogrammetric mapping. The low cost and the feasibility to automatic flight along commanded waypoints can be considered as the main advantages of this technology in photogrammetric applications. Using GNSS/INS technologies the images are taken at the planned position of the exposure station and the exterior orientation parameters (position Xo, Yo, Zo and attitude ω, φ, χ) of images can be direct determined. However, common UAVs (off-the-shelf) do not replace the traditional aircraft platform. Overall, the main shortcomings are related to: difficulties to obtain the authorization to perform the flight in urban and rural areas, platform stability, safety flight, stability of the image block configuration, high number of the images and inaccuracies of the direct determination of the exterior orientation parameters of the images. In this paper are shown the obtained results from the project photogrammetric mapping using aerial images from the SIMEPAR UAV system. The PIPER J3 UAV Hydro aircraft was used. It has a micro pilot MP2128g. The system is fully integrated with 3-axis gyros/accelerometers, GPS, pressure altimeter, pressure airspeed sensors. A Sony Cyber-shot DSC-W300 was calibrated and used to get the image block. The flight height was close to 400 m, resulting GSD near to 0.10 m. The state of the art of the used technology, methodologies and the obtained results are shown and discussed. Finally advantages/shortcomings found in the study and main conclusions are presented

  12. A fast and mobile system for registration of low-altitude visual and thermal aerial images using multiple small-scale UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahyanejad, Saeed; Rinner, Bernhard

    2015-06-01

    The use of multiple small-scale UAVs to support first responders in disaster management has become popular because of their speed and low deployment costs. We exploit such UAVs to perform real-time monitoring of target areas by fusing individual images captured from heterogeneous aerial sensors. Many approaches have already been presented to register images from homogeneous sensors. These methods have demonstrated robustness against scale, rotation and illumination variations and can also cope with limited overlap among individual images. In this paper we focus on thermal and visual image registration and propose different methods to improve the quality of interspectral registration for the purpose of real-time monitoring and mobile mapping. Images captured by low-altitude UAVs represent a very challenging scenario for interspectral registration due to the strong variations in overlap, scale, rotation, point of view and structure of such scenes. Furthermore, these small-scale UAVs have limited processing and communication power. The contributions of this paper include (i) the introduction of a feature descriptor for robustly identifying corresponding regions of images in different spectrums, (ii) the registration of image mosaics, and (iii) the registration of depth maps. We evaluated the first method using a test data set consisting of 84 image pairs. In all instances our approach combined with SIFT or SURF feature-based registration was superior to the standard versions. Although we focus mainly on aerial imagery, our evaluation shows that the presented approach would also be beneficial in other scenarios such as surveillance and human detection. Furthermore, we demonstrated the advantages of the other two methods in case of multiple image pairs.

  13. USGS aerial resolution targets.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Salamonowicz, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    It is necessary to measure the achievable resolution of any airborne sensor that is to be used for metric purposes. Laboratory calibration facilities may be inadequate or inappropriate for determining the resolution of non-photographic sensors such as optical-mechanical scanners, television imaging tubes, and linear arrays. However, large target arrays imaged in the field can be used in testing such systems. The USGS has constructed an array of resolution targets in order to permit field testing of a variety of airborne sensing systems. The target array permits any interested organization with an airborne sensing system to accurately determine the operational resolution of its system. -from Author

  14. The Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) 2002 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Box, Richard C.; Fink, Mary; Gogos, George; Lehrer, Henry R.; Narayanan, Ram M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.; Tarry, Scott E.; Vlasek, Karisa D.; O'Neil, Patrick D.

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium (NSGC) & EPSCoR programs at the University of Nebraska at Omaha are involved in a variety of innovative research activities. Such research is supported through the Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) and collaborative seed funds. AERIAL is a comprehensive, multi-faceted, five year NASA EPSCoR initiative that contributes substantially to the strategic research and technology priorities of NASA while intensifying Nebraska s rapidly growing aeronautics research and development endeavors. AERIAL includes three major collaborative research teams (CRTs) whose nexus is a common focus in aeronautics research. Each CRT - Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Airborne Remote Sensing for Agricultural Research and Commercialization Applications (ARS), and Numerical Simulation of the Combustion of Fuel Droplets: Finite Rate Kinetics and Flame Zone Grid Adaptation (CEFD) -has a distinct research agenda. This program provides the template for funding of new and innovative research that emphasizes aerospace technology.

  15. Radiological Disaster Simulators for Field and Aerial Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    H. W. Clark, Jr

    2002-11-01

    Simulators have been developed to dramatically improve the fidelity of play for field monitors and aircraft participating in radiological disaster drills and exercises. Simulated radiological measurements for the current Global Positioning System (GPS) location are derived from realistic models of radiological consequences for accidents and malicious acts. The aerial version outputs analog pulses corresponding to the signal that would be produced by various NaI (Tl) detectors at that location. The field monitor version reports the reading for any make/model of survey instrument selected. Position simulation modes are included in the aerial and field versions. The aerial version can generate a flight path based on input parameters or import an externally generated sequence of latitude and longitude coordinates. The field version utilizes a map-based point and click/drag interface to generate individual or a sequence of evenly spaced instrument measurements.

  16. Unplanned releases and injuries associated with aerial application of chemicals, 1995-2002.

    PubMed

    Rice, Nancy; Messing, Rita; Souther, Larry; Berkowitz, Zahava

    2005-11-01

    For this article, records of the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system were reviewed to identify and describe acute, unplanned releases of agricultural chemicals and associated injuries related to aerial application during 1995-2002. Records of aerial-application accidents from the National Transportation Safety Board were also reviewed. Of the 54,090 events in the HSEES system for 1995-2002, 91 were identified as aerial-application events. The most commonly released substance was malathion. There were 56 victims; 12 died, and 34 required treatment at a hospital. A higher percentage of HSEES aerial-applicator events involved injury and death than did other HSEES transportation events. The relatively high number of injuries and fatalities underscores the need for precautions such as monitoring and limiting pilot cumulative exposures to pesticides, and using appropriate personal protective equipment and decontamination equipment. Emergency responders should be educated about the hazards associated with chemicals at aerial-application crash sites. PMID:16334093

  17. Application of Adaptive Autopilot Designs for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Yoonghyun; Calise, Anthony J.; Motter, Mark A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes the application of two adaptive approaches to autopilot design, and presents an evaluation and comparison of the two approaches in simulation for an unmanned aerial vehicle. One approach employs two-stage dynamic inversion and the other employs feedback dynamic inversions based on a command augmentation system. Both are augmented with neural network based adaptive elements. The approaches permit adaptation to both parametric uncertainty and unmodeled dynamics, and incorporate a method that permits adaptation during periods of control saturation. Simulation results for an FQM-117B radio controlled miniature aerial vehicle are presented to illustrate the performance of the neural network based adaptation.

  18. Spectral anomaly methods for aerial detection using KUT nuisance rejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detwiler, R. S.; Pfund, D. M.; Myjak, M. J.; Kulisek, J. A.; Seifert, C. E.

    2015-06-01

    This work discusses the application and optimization of a spectral anomaly method for the real-time detection of gamma radiation sources from an aerial helicopter platform. Aerial detection presents several key challenges over ground-based detection. For one, larger and more rapid background fluctuations are typical due to higher speeds, larger field of view, and geographically induced background changes. As well, the possible large altitude or stand-off distance variations cause significant steps in background count rate as well as spectral changes due to increased gamma-ray scatter with detection at higher altitudes. The work here details the adaptation and optimization of the PNNL-developed algorithm Nuisance-Rejecting Spectral Comparison Ratios for Anomaly Detection (NSCRAD), a spectral anomaly method previously developed for ground-based applications, for an aerial platform. The algorithm has been optimized for two multi-detector systems; a NaI(Tl)-detector-based system and a CsI detector array. The optimization here details the adaptation of the spectral windows for a particular set of target sources to aerial detection and the tailoring for the specific detectors. As well, the methodology and results for background rejection methods optimized for the aerial gamma-ray detection using Potassium, Uranium and Thorium (KUT) nuisance rejection are shown. Results indicate that use of a realistic KUT nuisance rejection may eliminate metric rises due to background magnitude and spectral steps encountered in aerial detection due to altitude changes and geographically induced steps such as at land-water interfaces.

  19. Knowledge-based understanding of aerial surveillance video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hui; Butler, Darren

    2006-05-01

    Aerial surveillance has long been used by the military to locate, monitor and track the enemy. Recently, its scope has expanded to include law enforcement activities, disaster management and commercial applications. With the ever-growing amount of aerial surveillance video acquired daily, there is an urgent need for extracting actionable intelligence in a timely manner. Furthermore, to support high-level video understanding, this analysis needs to go beyond current approaches and consider the relationships, motivations and intentions of the objects in the scene. In this paper we propose a system for interpreting aerial surveillance videos that automatically generates a succinct but meaningful description of the observed regions, objects and events. For a given video, the semantics of important regions and objects, and the relationships between them, are summarised into a semantic concept graph. From this, a textual description is derived that provides new search and indexing options for aerial video and enables the fusion of aerial video with other information modalities, such as human intelligence, reports and signal intelligence. Using a Mixture-of-Experts video segmentation algorithm an aerial video is first decomposed into regions and objects with predefined semantic meanings. The objects are then tracked and coerced into a semantic concept graph and the graph is summarized spatially, temporally and semantically using ontology guided sub-graph matching and re-writing. The system exploits domain specific knowledge and uses a reasoning engine to verify and correct the classes, identities and semantic relationships between the objects. This approach is advantageous because misclassifications lead to knowledge contradictions and hence they can be easily detected and intelligently corrected. In addition, the graph representation highlights events and anomalies that a low-level analysis would overlook.

  20. An automatic high precision registration method between large area aerial images and aerial light detection and ranging data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Q.; Xie, D.; Sun, Y.

    2015-06-01

    The integration of digital aerial photogrammetry and Light Detetion And Ranging (LiDAR) is an inevitable trend in Surveying and Mapping field. We calculate the external orientation elements of images which identical with LiDAR coordinate to realize automatic high precision registration between aerial images and LiDAR data. There are two ways to calculate orientation elements. One is single image spatial resection using image matching 3D points that registered to LiDAR. The other one is Position and Orientation System (POS) data supported aerotriangulation. The high precision registration points are selected as Ground Control Points (GCPs) instead of measuring GCPs manually during aerotriangulation. The registration experiments indicate that the method which registering aerial images and LiDAR points has a great advantage in higher automation and precision compare with manual registration.

  1. Trends in quantitative aerial thermography

    SciTech Connect

    Schott, J.R.; Wilkinson, E.P.

    1983-06-01

    Recent improvements in aerial thermographic techniques, particularly in achievable spatial resolution and noise equivalent temperature variation, have enabled the use of thermography in a more objective fashion. Interpretation of the information contained in thermograms has also been improved through the use of certain techniques accounting for roof material type (emissivity), background effects, and atmospheric variables. With current methods, roof surface temperature from aerial imagery can be measured to within 1.8/sup 0/F (1.0/sup 0/C) of the actual temperature. These advances in thermogram analysis have opened the door for potential direct measurement of rooftop heat-loss levels from thermogram data. Ultimately, it is felt that this type of information would make it feasible to direct intensive energy-conservation efforts toward a smaller population, where the need and cost benefits will be the greatest.

  2. 17. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY AERIAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY AERIAL VIEW WITH PROJECT NEARING COMPLETION. VIEW SHOWS "A" FACE (LEFT) AND "B" FACE OF RADAR ARRAY SYSTEM. NOTE THAT NORTH IS GENERALLY TO RIGHT OF VIEW. - Cape Cod Air Station, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  3. 47. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY AERIAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY AERIAL VIEW OF "A" FACE (LEFT) WITH CLEANING SYSTEM INSTALLED (NOW REMOVED) AND "B" FACE (RIGHT) WITH CONSTRUCTION CRANE IN USE. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  4. 2. AERIAL VIEW OF THE VERTICAL LIFT BRIDGES SPANNING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW OF THE VERTICAL LIFT BRIDGES SPANNING THE HACKENSACK RIVER, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE PATH TRANSIT BRIDGE IS IN THE FOREGROUND, WITH THE CONRAIL (HAER No. NJ-43), NEWARK TURNPIKE, AND ERIE & LACKAWANNA RAILROAD (HAER No. NJ-42) BRIDGES BEHIND IT - Path Transit System Bridge, Spanning Hackensack River, Kearny, Hudson County, NJ

  5. GENERAL CLOSEUP AERIAL OF ELWHA DAM AND POWER HOUSE LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL CLOSE-UP AERIAL OF ELWHA DAM AND POWER- HOUSE LOOKING DOWN ON SURGE TANK, BIFURCATED PENSTOCK, SPILLWAYS, AND NORTH END OF RESERVOIR. PHOTO BY JET LOWE, HAER, 1995. - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Elwha Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA

  6. sUAS and their application in observing geomorphological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallik, Jozef; Bolešová, Lenka

    2016-07-01

    Methodologies and procedures in processing gained data vary based on possibilities and needs of scientific projects. This paper should help to get a general overview in the choice of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS - commonly known as drones) for scientific purposes, namely remote sensing of geomorphologic processes such as soil degradation in high mountainous areas that are hard to access and have unfavourable weather conditions. All high mountain areas in European countries are legislatively protected, and so various permissions and observation of strict procedures are needed in order to not have a negative influence on the environment. Nowadays, several types of UAS exist that could effectively help us in such protection, as well as in full-fledged utilization when answering scientific questions about the alpine lake genesis. We demonstrate it here with selected examples of our photo documentation.

  7. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design.

    PubMed

    Coppejans, Hugo H G; Myburgh, Herman C

    2015-01-01

    There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV), such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers. PMID:26633410

  8. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design

    PubMed Central

    Coppejans, Hugo H. G.; Myburgh, Herman C.

    2015-01-01

    There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV), such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers. PMID:26633410

  9. A study of local turbulence and anisotropy during the afternoon and evening transition with an unmanned aerial system and mesoscale simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampert, Astrid; Pätzold, Falk; Jiménez, Maria Antonia; Lobitz, Lennart; Martin, Sabrina; Lohmann, Gerald; Canut, Guylaine; Legain, Dominique; Bange, Jens; Martínez-Villagrasa, Dani; Cuxart, Joan

    2016-07-01

    Observations of turbulence are analysed for the afternoon and evening transition (AET) during the Boundary-Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST) experimental field campaign that took place in Lannemezan (foothills of the Pyrenees) in summer 2011. The case of 2 July is further studied because the turbulence properties of the lower atmosphere (up to 300 m above ground level) were sampled with the Meteorological Mini Aerial Vehicle (M2AV) from turbulently mixed to stably stratified atmospheric conditions. Additionally, data from radiosoundings, 60 m tower and UHF wind profiler were taken together with the model results from a high-resolution mesoscale simulation of this case. Weak large-scale winds and clear-sky conditions were present on the studied AET case favouring the development of slope winds and mountain-plain circulations. It is found that during the AET the anisotropy of the turbulent eddies increases as the vertical motions are damped due to the stably stratified conditions. This effect is enhanced by the formation of a low-level jet after sunset. Finally, the comparison of the anisotropy ratio computed from the different sources of observations allow us to determine the most relevant scales of the motion during the AET in such a complex terrain region.

  10. Impact of naled on honey bee Apis mellifera L. survival and productivity: aerial ULV application using a flat-fan nozzle system.

    PubMed

    Zhong, H; Latham, M; Hester, P G; Frommer, R L; Brock, C

    2003-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the impact of naled on honey bees as a result of their exposure to aerial ULV applications of this insecticide during three routine mosquito spray missions by Manatee County Mosquito Control District in Florida during the summer of 1999. Naled deposits were collected on filter paper and subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography. Mortality of adult honey bees Apis mellifera L. was estimated based on numbers from dead bee collectors placed in front of the entrance of the beehives. We found that honey bees clustering outside of the beehives were subject to naled exposure. Bee mortality increased when higher naled residues were found around the hives. The highest average naled deposit was 6,227 +/- 696 microg/m2 at the site 1 forest area following the mosquito spray mission on July 15, 1999. The range of naled deposition for this application was 2,818-7,101 microg/m2. The range of dead bees per hive was 0-39 prior to spraying and 9-200 within 24 h following this spray mission. The average yield of honey per hive was significantly lower (p < 0.05) for naled-exposed hives compared with unexposed hives. Because reduction of honey yield also may be affected by other factors, such as location of the hives relative to a food source and vigor of the queen bee, the final assessment of honey yield was complicated. PMID:14565579

  11. Airspeed and orifice size affect spray droplet spectra from an aerial electrostatic nozzle for rotary-wing applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aerial electrostatic spraying system patented by the USDA-ARS is a unique aerial application system which inductively charges spray droplets for the purpose of increasing deposition and efficacy. While this system has many potential benefits, no published data exits which describe how changes i...

  12. Airspeed and orifice size affect spray droplet spectrum from an aerial electrostatic nozzle for fixed-wing applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aerial electrostatic spraying system patented by the USDA ARS is a unique aerial application system which inductively charges spray particles for the purpose of increasing deposition and efficacy. While this system has many potential benefits, very little is known about how changes in airspeed o...

  13. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles unique cost estimating requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, P.; Apgar, H.; Stukes, S.; Sterk, S.

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also referred to as drones, are aerial platforms that fly without a human pilot onboard. UAVs are controlled autonomously by a computer in the vehicle or under the remote control of a pilot stationed at a fixed ground location. There are a wide variety of drone shapes, sizes, configurations, complexities, and characteristics. Use of these devices by the Department of Defense (DoD), NASA, civil and commercial organizations continues to grow. UAVs are commonly used for intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR). They are also use for combat operations, and civil applications, such as firefighting, non-military security work, surveillance of infrastructure (e.g. pipelines, power lines and country borders). UAVs are often preferred for missions that require sustained persistence (over 4 hours in duration), or are “ too dangerous, dull or dirty” for manned aircraft. Moreover, they can offer significant acquisition and operations cost savings over traditional manned aircraft. Because of these unique characteristics and missions, UAV estimates require some unique estimating methods. This paper describes a framework for estimating UAV systems total ownership cost including hardware components, software design, and operations. The challenge of collecting data, testing the sensitivities of cost drivers, and creating cost estimating relationships (CERs) for each key work breakdown structure (WBS) element is discussed. The autonomous operation of UAVs is especially challenging from a software perspective.

  14. Design of an integrated aerial image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Jing; Spanos, Costas J.

    2005-05-01

    The subject of this paper is a novel integrated aerial image sensor (IAIS) system suitable for integration within the surface of an autonomous test wafer. The IAIS could be used as a lithography processing monitor, affording a "wafer's eye view" of the process, and therefore facilitating advanced process control and diagnostics without integrating (and dedicating) the sensor to the processing equipment. The IAIS is composed of an aperture mask and an array of photo-detectors. In order to retrieve nanometer scale resolution of the aerial image with a practical photo-detector pixel size, we propose a design of an aperture mask involving a series of spatial phase "moving" aperture groups. We demonstrate a design example aimed at the 65nm technology node through TEMPEST simulation. The optimized, key design parameters include an aperture width in the range of 30nm, aperture thickness in the range of 70nm, and offer a spatial resolution of about 5nm, all with comfortable fabrication tolerances. Our preliminary simulation work indicates the possibility of the IAIS being applied to the immersion lithography. A bench-top far-field experiment verifies that our approach of the spatial frequency down-shift through forming large Moire patterns is feasible.

  15. Wafer weak point detection based on aerial images or WLCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Guoxiang; Philipp, Peter; Litt, Lloyd C.; Ackmann, Paul; Crell, Christian; Chen, Norman

    2015-10-01

    Aerial image measurement is a key technique for model based optical proximity correction (OPC) verification. Actual aerial images obtained by AIMS (aerial image measurement system) or WLCD (wafer level critical dimension) can detect printed wafer weak point structures in advance of wafer exposure and defect inspection. Normally, the potential wafer weak points are determined based on optical rule check (ORC) simulation in advance. However, the correlation to real wafer weak points is often not perfect due to the contribution of mask three dimension (M3D) effects, actual mask errors, and scanner lens effects. If the design weak points can accurately be detected in advance, it will reduce the wafer fab cost and improve cycle time. WLCD or AIMS tools are able to measure the aerial images CD and bossung curve through focus window. However, it is difficult to detect the wafer weak point in advance without defining selection criteria. In this study, wafer weak points sensitive to mask mean-to-nominal values are characterized for a process with very high MEEF (normally more than 4). Aerial image CD uses fixed threshold to detect the wafer weak points. By using WLCD through threshold and focus window, the efficiency of wafer weak point detection is also demonstrated. A novel method using contrast range evaluation is shown in the paper. Use of the slope of aerial images for more accurate detection of the wafer weak points using WLCD is also discussed. The contrast range can also be used to detect the wafer weak points in advance. Further, since the mean to nominal of the reticle contributes to the effective contrast range in a high MEEF area this work shows that control of the mask error is critical for high MEEF layers such as poly, active and metal layers. Wafer process based weak points that cannot be detected by wafer lithography CD or WLCD will be discussed.

  16. Aerial Radiation Detection

    SciTech Connect

    W. M. Quam

    1999-09-30

    An airborne system designed for the detection of radioactive sources on the soil surface from an aircraft normally senses gamma rays emitted by the source. Gamma rays have the longest path length (least attenuation) through the air of any of the common radioactive emissions and will thus permit source detection at large distances. A secondary benefit from gamma rays detection if that nearly all radioactive isotopes can be identified by the spectrum of gammas emitted. Major gaseous emissions from fuel processing plants emit gammas that may be detected and identified. Some types of special nuclear material also emit neutrons which are also useful for detection at a distance.

  17. Research on Virtual Simulation of the Aerial Passenger Device Based on Three-Dimensional Visualization and Virtual Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingchong; Wang, Dahu; Liu, Haiyang

    Analyzing the key design for Aerial Passenger Device, 3DMAX is applied for creating models which is the key technology and corresponding safety protection device. Combined with Quest3D engine for setting, such as roadway and safety devices are displayed in virtual. Finally Aerial Passenger Device is in the virtual scene. Then simulation results examine the Aerial Passenger Device's rationality and safety reducing the cycle of system optimization and technology improvement.

  18. Control of a Quadcopter Aerial Robot Using Optic Flow Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurd, Michael Brandon

    This thesis focuses on the motion control of a custom-built quadcopter aerial robot using optic flow sensing. Optic flow sensing is a vision-based approach that can provide a robot the ability to fly in global positioning system (GPS) denied environments, such as indoor environments. In this work, optic flow sensors are used to stabilize the motion of quadcopter robot, where an optic flow algorithm is applied to provide odometry measurements to the quadcopter's central processing unit to monitor the flight heading. The optic-flow sensor and algorithm are capable of gathering and processing the images at 250 frames/sec, and the sensor package weighs 2.5 g and has a footprint of 6 cm2 in area. The odometry value from the optic flow sensor is then used a feedback information in a simple proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller on the quadcopter. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of using optic flow for controlling the motion of the quadcopter aerial robot. The technique presented herein can be applied to different types of aerial robotic systems or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), as well as unmanned ground vehicles (UGV).

  19. Spectral properties of agricultural crops and soils measured from space, aerial, field, and laboratory sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E. (Principal Investigator); Vanderbilt, V. C.; Robinson, B. F.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

    1981-01-01

    Investigations of the multispectral reflectance characteristics of crops and soils as measured from laboratory, field, aerial, and satellite sensor systems are reviewed. The relationships of important biological and physical characteristics to the spectral properties of crops and soils are addressed.

  20. aerial and ground measurements of emissions from agricultural and forest burns

    EPA Science Inventory

    This poster describes our measurement capabilities, particularly as they relate to interests within Region 7. Aerial instrumentation systems are discussed and field measurement campaigns are described in text and photos.

  1. USE OF GPS TO DOCUMENT AERIAL OVERFLIGHT ROUTES AND POSITIONS OF CAFO FACILITIES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the targeting process for CAFO (Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation) inspections it is necessary to perform aerial overflights to document potential violators. To accurately document these flight patterns and facility locations, a system was developed and used incor...

  2. Aerial view of Launch Complex 39

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In this aerial view looking south can be seen Launch Complex (LC) 39 area, where assembly, checkout and launch of the Space Shuttle Orbiter and its External Tank and twin Solid Rocket Boosters take place. Central to the complex is the tallest building at the center, the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). To the immediate left, from top to bottom, are the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) High Bay 3 and new engine shop (north side), OPF Modular Office Building, Thermal Protection System Facility, and a crawler-transporter (to its left). In front of the VAB are OPF 1 and OPF 2. At right is the Processing Control Center. West of OPF 3 is the Mobile Launch Platform. In the upper left corner is Launch Pad B; at the far right is the turn basin, with the Press Site located just below it to the right.

  3. CMOS Imaging Sensor Technology for Aerial Mapping Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Klaus; Welzenbach, Martin; Timm, Martin

    2016-06-01

    In June 2015 Leica Geosystems launched the first large format aerial mapping camera using CMOS sensor technology, the Leica DMC III. This paper describes the motivation to change from CCD sensor technology to CMOS for the development of this new aerial mapping camera. In 2002 the DMC first generation was developed by Z/I Imaging. It was the first large format digital frame sensor designed for mapping applications. In 2009 Z/I Imaging designed the DMC II which was the first digital aerial mapping camera using a single ultra large CCD sensor to avoid stitching of smaller CCDs. The DMC III is now the third generation of large format frame sensor developed by Z/I Imaging and Leica Geosystems for the DMC camera family. It is an evolution of the DMC II using the same system design with one large monolithic PAN sensor and four multi spectral camera heads for R,G, B and NIR. For the first time a 391 Megapixel large CMOS sensor had been used as PAN chromatic sensor, which is an industry record. Along with CMOS technology goes a range of technical benefits. The dynamic range of the CMOS sensor is approx. twice the range of a comparable CCD sensor and the signal to noise ratio is significantly better than with CCDs. Finally results from the first DMC III customer installations and test flights will be presented and compared with other CCD based aerial sensors.

  4. Astronomical Methods in Aerial Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beij, K Hilding

    1925-01-01

    The astronomical method of determining position is universally used in marine navigation and may also be of service in aerial navigation. The practical application of the method, however, must be modified and adapted to conform to the requirements of aviation. Much of this work of adaptation has already been accomplished, but being scattered through various technical journals in a number of languages, is not readily available. This report is for the purpose of collecting under one cover such previous work as appears to be of value to the aerial navigator, comparing instruments and methods, indicating the best practice, and suggesting future developments. The various methods of determining position and their application and value are outlined, and a brief resume of the theory of the astronomical method is given. Observation instruments are described in detail. A complete discussion of the reduction of observations follows, including a rapid method of finding position from the altitudes of two stars. Maps and map cases are briefly considered. A bibliography of the subject is appended.

  5. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aerial lifts. 1926.453 Section 1926.453 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Scaffolds § 1926.453 Aerial lifts. (a) General requirements. (1) Unless otherwise provided...

  6. A Classroom Simulation of Aerial Photography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Simon

    1981-01-01

    Explains how a simulation of aerial photography can help students in a college level beginning course on interpretation of aerial photography understand the interrelationships of the airplane, the camera, and the earth's surface. Procedures, objectives, equipment, and scale are discussed. (DB)

  7. BOREAS Level-0 ER-2 Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominquez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), the ER-2 and other aerial photography was collected to provide finely detailed and spatially extensive documentation of the condition of the primary study sites. The ER-2 aerial photography consists of color-IR transparencies collected during flights in 1994 and 1996 over the study areas.

  8. 3. AERIAL VIEW TO THE EAST OF THE PATH TRANSIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW TO THE EAST OF THE PATH TRANSIT SYSTEM BRIDGE OVER THE HACKENSACK RIVER. IN THE BACKGROUND, FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, ARE THE ERIE & LACKAWANNA RAILROAD BRIDGE (HAER No. NJ-42), THE NEWARK TURNPIKE, AND THE CONRAIL BRIDGE (HAER No. NJ-43). THE PULASKI SKYWAY (HAER No. NJ-34) IS IN THE BACKGROUND TO THE RIGHT - Path Transit System Bridge, Spanning Hackensack River, Kearny, Hudson County, NJ

  9. Observing snow cover using unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spallek, Waldemar; Witek, Matylda; Niedzielski, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    Snow cover is a key environmental variable that influences high flow events driven by snow-melt episodes. Estimates of snow extent (SE), snow depth (SD) and snow water equivalent (SWE) allow to approximate runoff caused by snow-melt episodes. These variables are purely spatial characteristics, and hence their pointwise measurements using terrestrial monitoring systems do not offer the comprehensive and fully-spatial information on water storage in snow. Existing satellite observations of snow reveal moderate spatial resolution which, not uncommonly, is not fine enough to estimate the above-mentioned snow-related variables for small catchments. High-resolution aerial photographs and the resulting orthophotomaps and digital surface models (DSMs), obtained using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), may offer spatial resolution of 3 cm/px. The UAV-based observation of snow cover may be done using the near-infrared (NIR) cameras and visible-light cameras. Since the beginning of 2015, in frame of the research project no. LIDER/012/223/L-5/13/NCBR/2014 financed by the National Centre for Research and Development of Poland, we have performed a series of the UAV flights targeted at four sites in the Kwisa catchment in the Izerskie Mts. (part of the Sudetes, SW Poland). Observations are carried out with the ultralight UAV swinglet CAM (produced by senseFly, lightweight 0.5 kg, wingspan 80 cm) which enables on-demand sampling at low costs. The aim of the field work is to acquire aerial photographs taken using the visible-light and NIR cameras for a purpose of producing time series of DSMs and orthophotomaps with snow cover for all sites. The DSMs are used to calculate SD as difference between observational (with snow) and reference (without snow) models. In order to verify such an approach to compute SD we apply several procedures, one of which is the estimation of SE using the corresponding orthophotomaps generated on a basis of visual-light and NIR images. The objective of this

  10. Using high-resolution digital aerial imagery to map land cover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieck, J.J.; Robinson, Larry

    2014-01-01

    The Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) has used aerial photography to map land cover/land use on federally owned and managed lands for over 20 years. Until recently, that process used 23- by 23-centimeter (9- by 9-inch) analog aerial photos to classify vegetation along the Upper Mississippi River System, on National Wildlife Refuges, and in National Parks. With digital aerial cameras becoming more common and offering distinct advantages over analog film, UMESC transitioned to an entirely digital mapping process in 2009. Though not without challenges, this method has proven to be much more accurate and efficient when compared to the analog process.

  11. The Development and Industrialization Recommendation of Current Aerial Remote Sensing Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Z.

    2013-07-01

    At present, the research development and industrialization of aerial remote sensing technology in China are faced with enormous requirements and developing chance. It is the strategic selection for remote sensing technology to perfect the construction of remote sensing technology system, implement the three strategies of science and technology development, standardize and improve the producing ability of remote sensing products, and make the remote sensing technology become a kind of industries. Based on industry economics principle and the characteristics of aerial remote sensing technology, this paper put forward the suggestions on technological development, industrialization, and market competition of aerial remote sensing industrialization.

  12. Adaptive planning of emergency aerial photogrammetric mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Fuqiang; Zhu, Qing; Zhang, Junxiao; Miao, Shuangxi; Zhou, Xingxia; Cao, Zhenyu

    2015-12-01

    Aiming at the diversity of emergency aerial photogrammetric mission requirements, complex ground and air environmental constraints make the planning mission time-consuming. This paper presents a fast adaptation for the UAV aerial photogrammetric mission planning. First, Building emergency aerial UAVs mission the unified expression of UAVs model and mechanical model of performance parameters in the semantic space make the integrated expression of mission requirements and low altitude environment. Proposed match assessment method which based on resource and mission efficiency. Made the Adaptive match of UAV aerial resources and mission. According to the emergency aerial resource properties, considering complex air-ground environment and mission requirements constraints. Made accurate design of UAV route. Experimental results show, the method scientific and efficient, greatly enhanced the emergency response rate.

  13. Current status and future directions of precision aerial application for site-specific crop management in the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first variable-rate aerial application system was developed about a decade ago in the USA and since then, aerial application has benefitted from these technologies. Many areas of the United States rely on readily available agricultural airplanes or helicopters for pest management, and variable-...

  14. Assessment of Photogrammetric Mapping Accuracy Based on Variation Flying Altitude Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udin, W. S.; Ahmad, A.

    2014-02-01

    Photogrammetry is the earliest technique used to collect data for topographic mapping. The recent development in aerial photogrammetry is the used of large format digital aerial camera for producing topographic map. The aerial photograph can be in the form of metric or non-metric imagery. The cost of mapping using aerial photogrammetry is very expensive. In certain application, there is a need to map small area with limited budget. Due to the development of technology, small format aerial photogrammetry technology has been introduced and offers many advantages. Currently, digital map can be extracted from digital aerial imagery of small format camera mounted on light weight platform such as unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). This study utilizes UAV system for large scale stream mapping. The first objective of this study is to investigate the use of light weight rotary-wing UAV for stream mapping based on different flying height. Aerial photograph were acquired at 60% forward lap and 30% sidelap specifications. Ground control points and check points were established using Total Station technique. The digital camera attached to the UAV was calibrated and the recovered camera calibration parameters were then used in the digital images processing. The second objective is to determine the accuracy of the photogrammetric output. In this study, the photogrammetric output such as stereomodel in three dimensional (3D), contour lines, digital elevation model (DEM) and orthophoto were produced from a small stream of 200m long and 10m width. The research output is evaluated for planimetry and vertical accuracy using root mean square error (RMSE). Based on the finding, sub-meter accuracy is achieved and the RMSE value decreases as the flying height increases. The difference is relatively small. Finally, this study shows that UAV is very useful platform for obtaining aerial photograph and subsequently used for photogrammetric mapping and other applications.

  15. The DOE ARM Aerial Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Hubbe, John M.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Mei, Fan; Chand, Duli; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Andrews, Elisabeth; Biraud, S.; McFarquhar, Greg

    2014-05-01

    The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a climate research user facility operating stationary ground sites that provide long-term measurements of climate relevant properties, mobile ground- and ship-based facilities to conduct shorter field campaigns (6-12 months), and the ARM Aerial Facility (AAF). The airborne observations acquired by the AAF enhance the surface-based ARM measurements by providing high-resolution in-situ measurements for process understanding, retrieval-algorithm development, and model evaluation that are not possible using ground- or satellite-based techniques. Several ARM aerial efforts were consolidated into the AAF in 2006. With the exception of a small aircraft used for routine measurements of aerosols and carbon cycle gases, AAF at the time had no dedicated aircraft and only a small number of instruments at its disposal. In this "virtual hangar" mode, AAF successfully carried out several missions contracting with organizations and investigators who provided their research aircraft and instrumentation. In 2009, AAF started managing operations of the Battelle-owned Gulfstream I (G-1) large twin-turboprop research aircraft. Furthermore, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided funding for the procurement of over twenty new instruments to be used aboard the G-1 and other AAF virtual-hangar aircraft. AAF now executes missions in the virtual- and real-hangar mode producing freely available datasets for studying aerosol, cloud, and radiative processes in the atmosphere. AAF is also engaged in the maturation and testing of newly developed airborne sensors to help foster the next generation of airborne instruments.

  16. Solar-powered unmanned aerial vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhardt, K.C.; Lamp, T.R.; Geis, J.W.; Colozza, A.J.

    1996-12-31

    An analysis was performed to determine the impact of various power system components and mission requirements on the size of solar-powered high altitude long endurance (HALE)-type aircraft. The HALE unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) has good potential for use in many military and civil applications. The primary power system components considered in this study were photovoltaic (PV) modules for power generation and regenerative fuel cells for energy storage. The impact of relevant component performance on UAV size and capability were considered; including PV module efficiency and mass, power electronics efficiency, and fuel cell specific energy. Mission parameters such as time of year, flight altitude, flight latitude, and payload mass and power were also varied to determine impact on UAV size. The aircraft analysis method used determines the required aircraft wing aspect ratio, wing area, and total mass based on maximum endurance or minimum required power calculations. The results indicate that the capacity of the energy storage system employed, fuel cells in this analysis, greatly impacts aircraft size, whereas the impact of PV module efficiency and mass is much less important. It was concluded that an energy storage specific energy (total system) of 250--500 Whr/kg is required to enable most useful missions, and that PV cells with efficiencies greater than {approximately} 12% are suitable for use.

  17. An OEF/OIF study of close combat missions using small unmanned aircraft systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifschitz, Gabriel; Tierney, Richard J.; Vitali, Juan A.

    2007-04-01

    The Small Unmanned Aircraft System (SUAS) is a rucksack portable aerial observation vehicle designed to supplement reconnaissance, surveillance and target acquisition tasks of an infantry company. The Raven is an earlier version of the SUAS. Raven is an Urgent Material Release (UMR) acquisition and has been used for the past two years by selected Army units in Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF). Army Test and Evaluation Command-led surveys were used to assess the capabilities and limitations of the Raven in OEF/OIF. Results and analyses of the surveys indicate that Raven enhances situational awareness of a small unit in urban areas and in selected close combat missions. Users of the Raven state it is easy to use, although there are major issues with frequency de-confliction, airspace management, short endurance, and sensor performance. The SUAS is a program of record and completed developmental and operational testing in preparation for full rate production. This paper addresses the SUAS effectiveness, suitability, and survivability evaluation strategy based on actual testing of the system. During the Initial Operational Test (IOT), the SUAS was found to be effective with limitations in a set of 21 closed combat missions and two call for fire tests for which it was tested. Low Mean Time Between Operational Mean Failure (MTBOMF) and human factors issues make the system suitable with limitations. Acoustic (audible to the human ear) and electronic vulnerabilities make the system non-survivable in most combat scenarios. The SUAS was found to be useful as an extra asset usable in certain infantry company close combat missions where terrain and visual line of sight give the system an advantage over traditional reconnaissance patrols. Army aviation and infantry units uncover new ways every day to use this portable "eye in the sky", especially when unmanned aerial reconnaissance assets are in premium demand. A discussion on changes in doctrine with the

  18. Photographic copy of photograph, aerial view looking north at Jet ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, aerial view looking north at Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Edwards Test Station complex in 1959, shortly after completion of 'D' stand construction and installation of underground tunnel system. Test stands 'A,' 'B,' 'C,' and 'D' are in view; the Control and Recording Center (Building 4221/E-22) is still under construction. (JPL negative no. 384-1917-A, 28 May 1959) - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  19. Photographic copy of photograph, aerial view looking south at Jet ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, aerial view looking south at Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Edwards Test Station complex in 1959, shortly after completion of Test Stand 'D' construction and installation of underground tunnel system. Test Stand 'D' is in the foreground, Test Stand 'A' complex in the background. Roads are as yet unpaved. (JPL negative no. 384-1917-B, 28 May 1959) - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  20. Automated Aerial Refueling Hitches a Ride on AFF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Jennifer L.; Murray, James E.; Bever, Glenn; Campos, Norma V.; Schkolnik, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    The recent introduction of uninhabited aerial vehicles [UAVs (basically, remotely piloted or autonomous aircraft)] has spawned new developments in autonomous operation and posed new challenges. Automated aerial refueling (AAR) is a capability that will enable UAVs to travel greater distances and loiter longer over targets. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, in cooperation with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR), the Naval Air Force Pacific Fleet, and the Air Force Research Laboratory, rapidly conceived and accomplished an AAR flight research project focused on collecting a unique, high-quality database on the dynamics of the hose and drogue of an aerial refueling system. This flight-derived database would be used to validate mathematical models of the dynamics in support of design and analysis of AAR systems for future UAVs. The project involved the use of two Dryden F/A-18 airplanes and an S-3 hose-drogue refueling store on loan from the Navy. In this year-long project, which was started on October 1, 2002, 583 research maneuvers were completed during 23 flights.

  1. Verification of Potency of Aerial Digital Oblique Cameras for Aerial Photogrammetry in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakada, Ryuji; Takigawa, Masanori; Ohga, Tomowo; Fujii, Noritsuna

    2016-06-01

    Digital oblique aerial camera (hereinafter called "oblique cameras") is an assembly of medium format digital cameras capable of shooting digital aerial photographs in five directions i.e. nadir view and oblique views (forward and backward, left and right views) simultaneously and it is used for shooting digital aerial photographs efficiently for generating 3D models in a wide area. For aerial photogrammetry of public survey in Japan, it is required to use large format cameras, like DMC and UltraCam series, to ensure aerial photogrammetric accuracy. Although oblique cameras are intended to generate 3D models, digital aerial photographs in 5 directions taken with them should not be limited to 3D model production but they may also be allowed for digital mapping and photomaps of required public survey accuracy in Japan. In order to verify the potency of using oblique cameras for aerial photogrammetry (simultaneous adjustment, digital mapping and photomaps), (1) a viewer was developed to interpret digital aerial photographs taken with oblique cameras, (2) digital aerial photographs were shot with an oblique camera owned by us, a Penta DigiCAM of IGI mbH, and (3) accuracy of 3D measurements was verified.

  2. Officials: Aerial Spraying Working Against Miami Mosquitoes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Officials: Aerial Spraying Working Against Miami Mosquitoes The insects are to blame for first cases of Zika ... mosquitoes in a part of Miami where the insects have been linked to 16 cases of Zika ...

  3. Rangeland monitoring with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have great potential for rangeland management applications, such as monitoring vegetation change, developing grazing strategies, determining rangeland health, and assessing remediation treatment effectiveness. UAVs have several advantages: they can be deployed quickly...

  4. Fixed-Wing Micro Aerial Vehicle for Accurate Corridor Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehak, M.; Skaloud, J.

    2015-08-01

    In this study we present a Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) equipped with precise position and attitude sensors that together with a pre-calibrated camera enables accurate corridor mapping. The design of the platform is based on widely available model components to which we integrate an open-source autopilot, customized mass-market camera and navigation sensors. We adapt the concepts of system calibration from larger mapping platforms to MAV and evaluate them practically for their achievable accuracy. We present case studies for accurate mapping without ground control points: first for a block configuration, later for a narrow corridor. We evaluate the mapping accuracy with respect to checkpoints and digital terrain model. We show that while it is possible to achieve pixel (3-5 cm) mapping accuracy in both cases, precise aerial position control is sufficient for block configuration, the precise position and attitude control is required for corridor mapping.

  5. GIS for mapping waterfowl density and distribution from aerial surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, W.I.; Stehn, R.A.; Balogh, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    We modified standard aerial survey data collection to obtain the geographic location for each waterfowl observation on surveys in Alaska during 1987-1993. Using transect navigation with CPS (global positioning system), data recording on continuously running tapes, and a computer data input program, we located observations with an average deviation along transects of 214 m. The method provided flexibility in survey design and data analysis. Although developed for geese nesting near the coast of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, the methods are widely applicable and were used on other waterfowl surveys in Alaska to map distribution and relative abundance of waterfowl. Accurate location data with GIS analysis and display may improve precision and usefulness of data from any aerial transect survey.

  6. Locating buildings in aerial photos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James S.

    1994-01-01

    Algorithms and techniques for use in the identification and location of large buildings in digitized copies of aerial photographs are developed and tested. The building data would be used in the simulation of objects located in the vicinity of an airport that may be detected by aircraft radar. Two distinct approaches are considered. Most building footprints are rectangular in form. The first approach studied is to search for right-angled corners that characterize rectangular objects and then to connect these corners to complete the building. This problem is difficult because many nonbuilding objects, such as street corners, parking lots, and ballparks often have well defined corners which are often difficult to distinguish from rooftops. Furthermore, rooftops come in a number of shapes, sizes, shadings, and textures which also limit the discrimination task. The strategy used linear sequences of different samples to detect straight edge segments at multiple angles and to determine when these segments meet at approximately right-angles with respect to each other. This technique is effective in locating corners. The test image used has a fairly rectangular block pattern oriented about thirty degrees clockwise from a vertical alignment, and the overall measurement data reflect this. However, this technique does not discriminate between buildings and other objects at an operationally suitable rate. In addition, since multiple paths are tested for each image pixel, this is a time consuming task. The process can be speeded up by preprocessing the image to locate the more optimal sampling paths. The second approach is to rely on a human operator to identify and select the building objects and then to have the computer determine the outline and location of the selected structures. When presented with a copy of a digitized aerial photograph, the operator uses a mouse and cursor to select a target building. After a button on the mouse is pressed, with the cursor fully within

  7. Reliable aerial thermography for energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, J. R.; Bowman, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    A method for energy conservation, the aerial thermography survey, is discussed. It locates sources of energy losses and wasteful energy management practices. An operational map is presented for clear sky conditions. The map outlines the key environmental conditions conductive to obtaining reliable aerial thermography. The map is developed from defined visual and heat loss discrimination criteria which are quantized based on flat roof heat transfer calculations.

  8. Aerial righting reflexes in flightless animals.

    PubMed

    Jusufi, Ardian; Zeng, Yu; Full, Robert J; Dudley, Robert

    2011-12-01

    Animals that fall upside down typically engage in an aerial righting response so as to reorient dorsoventrally. This behavior can be preparatory to gliding or other controlled aerial behaviors and is ultimately necessary for a successful landing. Aerial righting reflexes have been described historically in various mammals such as cats, guinea pigs, rabbits, rats, and primates. The mechanisms whereby such righting can be accomplished depend on the size of the animal and on anatomical features associated with motion of the limbs and body. Here we apply a comparative approach to the study of aerial righting to explore the diverse strategies used for reorientation in midair. We discuss data for two species of lizards, the gecko Hemidactylus platyurus and the anole Anolis carolinensis, as well as for the first instar of the stick insect Extatosoma tiaratum, to illustrate size-dependence of this phenomenon and its relevance to subsequent aerial performance in parachuting and gliding animals. Geckos can use rotation of their large tails to reorient their bodies via conservation of angular momentum. Lizards with tails well exceeding snout-vent length, and correspondingly large tail inertia to body inertia ratios, are more effective at creating midair reorientation maneuvers. Moreover, experiments with stick insects, weighing an order of magnitude less than the lizards, suggest that aerodynamic torques acting on the limbs and body may play a dominant role in the righting process for small invertebrates. Both inertial and aerodynamic effects, therefore, can play a role in the control of aerial righting. We propose that aerial righting reflexes are widespread among arboreal vertebrates and arthropods and that they represent an important initial adaptation in the evolution of controlled aerial behavior. PMID:21930662

  9. Oblique Aerial Photography Tool for Building Inspection and Damage Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murtiyoso, A.; Remondino, F.; Rupnik, E.; Nex, F.; Grussenmeyer, P.

    2014-11-01

    Aerial photography has a long history of being employed for mapping purposes due to some of its main advantages, including large area imaging from above and minimization of field work. Since few years multi-camera aerial systems are becoming a practical sensor technology across a growing geospatial market, as complementary to the traditional vertical views. Multi-camera aerial systems capture not only the conventional nadir views, but also tilted images at the same time. In this paper, a particular use of such imagery in the field of building inspection as well as disaster assessment is addressed. The main idea is to inspect a building from four cardinal directions by using monoplotting functionalities. The developed application allows to measure building height and distances and to digitize man-made structures, creating 3D surfaces and building models. The realized GUI is capable of identifying a building from several oblique points of views, as well as calculates the approximate height of buildings, ground distances and basic vectorization. The geometric accuracy of the results remains a function of several parameters, namely image resolution, quality of available parameters (DEM, calibration and orientation values), user expertise and measuring capability.

  10. Robust Aerial Object Tracking in High Dynamic Flight Maneuvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussberger, A.; Grabner, H.; van Gool, L.

    2015-08-01

    Integrating drones into the civil airspace is one of the biggest challenges for civil aviation, responsible authorities and involved com- panies around the world in the upcoming years. For a full integration into non-segregated airspace such a system has to provide the capability to automatically detect and avoid other airspace users. Electro-optical cameras have proven to be an adequate sensor to detect all types of aerial objects, especially for smaller ones such as gliders or paragliders. Robust detection and tracking of approaching traffic on a potential collision course is the key component for a successful avoidance maneuver. In this paper we focus on the aerial object tracking during dynamic flight maneuvers of the own-ship where accurate attitude information corresponding to the camera images is essential. Because the 'detect and avoid' functionality typically extends existing autopilot systems the received attitude measurements have unknown delays and dynamics. We present an efficient method to calculate the angular rates from a multi camera rig which we fuse with the delayed attitude measurements. This allows for estimating accurate absolute attitude angles for every camera frame. The proposed method is further integrated into an aerial object tracking framework. A detailed evaluation of the pipeline on real collision encounter scenarios shows that the multi camera rig based attitude estimation enables the correct tracking of approaching traffic during dynamic flight, at which the tracking framework previously failed.

  11. Geometric Calibration and Validation of Ultracam Aerial Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Michael; Schachinger, Bernhard; Muick, Marc; Neuner, Christian; Tschemmernegg, Helfried

    2016-03-01

    We present details of the calibration and validation procedure of UltraCam Aerial Camera systems. Results from the laboratory calibration and from validation flights are presented for both, the large format nadir cameras and the oblique cameras as well. Thus in this contribution we show results from the UltraCam Eagle and the UltraCam Falcon, both nadir mapping cameras, and the UltraCam Osprey, our oblique camera system. This sensor offers a mapping grade nadir component together with the four oblique camera heads. The geometric processing after the flight mission is being covered by the UltraMap software product. Thus we present details about the workflow as well. The first part consists of the initial post-processing which combines image information as well as camera parameters derived from the laboratory calibration. The second part, the traditional automated aerial triangulation (AAT) is the step from single images to blocks and enables an additional optimization process. We also present some special features of our software, which are designed to better support the operator to analyze large blocks of aerial images and to judge the quality of the photogrammetric set-up.

  12. Evaluation of a GPS used in conjunction with aerial telemetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olexa, E.M.; Gogan, P.J.P.; Podruzny, K.M.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the use of a non-correctable Global Positioning System (NGPS) in association with aerial telemetry to determine animal locations. Average error was determined for 3 components of the location process: use of a NGPS receiver on the ground, use of a NGPS receiver in a aircraft while flying over a visual marker, and use of the same receiver while flying over a location determined by standard aerial telemetry. Average errors were 45.3, 88.1 and 137.4 m, respectively. A directional bias of <35 m was present for the telemetry component only. Tests indicated that use of NGPS to determine aircraft, and thereby animal, location is an efficient alternative to interpolation from topographic maps. This method was more accurate than previously reported Long-Range Navigation system, version C (LORAN-C) and Argos satellite telemetry. It has utility in areas where animal-borne GPS receivers are not practical due to a combination of topography, canopy coverage, weight or cost of animal-borne GPS units. Use of NGPS technology in conjunction with aerial telemetry will provide the location accuracy required for identification of gross movement patterns and coarse-grained habitat use.

  13. Enviropod handbook: A guide to preparation and use of the Environmental Protection Agency's light-weight aerial camera system. [Weber River, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brower, S. J.; Ridd, M. K.

    1984-01-01

    The use of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Enviropod camera system is detailed in this handbook which contains a step-by-step guide for mission planning, flights, film processing, indexing, and documentation. Information regarding Enviropod equipment and specifications is included.

  14. Intelligent mission management for uninhabited aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Don; Totah, Joseph J.; Wegener, Steve S.; Enomoto, Francis Y.; Frost, Chad R.; Kaneshige, John; Frank, Jeremy E.

    2004-12-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate, is developing Intelligent Mission Management (IMM) technology for Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles (UAV"s) under the Vehicle Systems Program"s Autonomous Robust Avionics Project. The objective of the project is to develop air vehicle and associated ground element technology to enhance mission success by increasing mission return and reducing mission risk. Unanticipated science targets, uncertain conditions and changing mission requirements can all influence a flight plan and may require human intervention during the flight; however, time delays and communications bandwidth limit opportunities for operator intervention. To meet these challenges, we will develop UAV-specific technologies enabling goal-directed autonomy, i.e. the ability to redirect the flight in response to current conditions and the current goals of the flight. Our approach divides goal-directed autonomy into two components, an on-board Intelligent Agent Architecture (IAA) and a ground based Collaborative Decision Environment (CDE). These technologies cut across all aspects of a UAV system, including the payload, inner- and outer-loop onboard control, and the operator"s ground station.

  15. Autonomous navigation with teams of aerial robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, Nathan; Kumar, Vijay

    2011-06-01

    There are many examples in nature where large groups of individuals are able to maintain three-dimensional formations while navigating in complex environments. This paper addresses the development of a framework and robot controllers that enable a group of aerial robots to maintain a formation with partial state information while avoiding collisions. The central concept is to develop a low-dimensional abstraction of the large teams of robots, facilitate planning, command, and control in a low-dimensional space, and to realize commands or plans in the abstract space by synthesizing controllers for individual robots that respect the specified abstraction. The fundamental problem that is addressed in this paper relates to coordinated control of multiple UAVs in close proximity. We develop a representation for a team of robots based on the first and second statistical moments of the system and design kinematic, exponentially stabilizing controllers for point robots. The selection of representation permits a controller design that is invariant to the number of robots in the system, requires limited global state information, and reduces the complexity of the planning problem by generating an abstract planning and control space determined by the moment parameterization. We present experimental results with a team of quadrotors and discuss considerations such as aerodynamic interactions between robots.

  16. Combining Human Computing and Machine Learning to Make Sense of Big (Aerial) Data for Disaster Response.

    PubMed

    Ofli, Ferda; Meier, Patrick; Imran, Muhammad; Castillo, Carlos; Tuia, Devis; Rey, Nicolas; Briant, Julien; Millet, Pauline; Reinhard, Friedrich; Parkan, Matthew; Joost, Stéphane

    2016-03-01

    Aerial imagery captured via unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is playing an increasingly important role in disaster response. Unlike satellite imagery, aerial imagery can be captured and processed within hours rather than days. In addition, the spatial resolution of aerial imagery is an order of magnitude higher than the imagery produced by the most sophisticated commercial satellites today. Both the United States Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the European Commission's Joint Research Center (JRC) have noted that aerial imagery will inevitably present a big data challenge. The purpose of this article is to get ahead of this future challenge by proposing a hybrid crowdsourcing and real-time machine learning solution to rapidly process large volumes of aerial data for disaster response in a time-sensitive manner. Crowdsourcing can be used to annotate features of interest in aerial images (such as damaged shelters and roads blocked by debris). These human-annotated features can then be used to train a supervised machine learning system to learn to recognize such features in new unseen images. In this article, we describe how this hybrid solution for image analysis can be implemented as a module (i.e., Aerial Clicker) to extend an existing platform called Artificial Intelligence for Disaster Response (AIDR), which has already been deployed to classify microblog messages during disasters using its Text Clicker module and in response to Cyclone Pam, a category 5 cyclone that devastated Vanuatu in March 2015. The hybrid solution we present can be applied to both aerial and satellite imagery and has applications beyond disaster response such as wildlife protection, human rights, and archeological exploration. As a proof of concept, we recently piloted this solution using very high-resolution aerial photographs of a wildlife reserve in Namibia to support rangers with their wildlife conservation efforts (SAVMAP project, http://lasig.epfl.ch/savmap ). The

  17. Toward autonomous avian-inspired grasping for micro aerial vehicles.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Justin; Loianno, Giuseppe; Polin, Joseph; Sreenath, Koushil; Kumar, Vijay

    2014-06-01

    Micro aerial vehicles, particularly quadrotors, have been used in a wide range of applications. However, the literature on aerial manipulation and grasping is limited and the work is based on quasi-static models. In this paper, we draw inspiration from agile, fast-moving birds such as raptors, that are able to capture moving prey on the ground or in water, and develop similar capabilities for quadrotors. We address dynamic grasping, an approach to prehensile grasping in which the dynamics of the robot and its gripper are significant and must be explicitly modeled and controlled for successful execution. Dynamic grasping is relevant for fast pick-and-place operations, transportation and delivery of objects, and placing or retrieving sensors. We show how this capability can be realized (a) using a motion capture system and (b) without external sensors relying only on onboard sensors. In both cases we describe the dynamic model, and trajectory planning and control algorithms. In particular, we present a methodology for flying and grasping a cylindrical object using feedback from a monocular camera and an inertial measurement unit onboard the aerial robot. This is accomplished by mapping the dynamics of the quadrotor to a level virtual image plane, which in turn enables dynamically-feasible trajectory planning for image features in the image space, and a vision-based controller with guaranteed convergence properties. We also present experimental results obtained with a quadrotor equipped with an articulated gripper to illustrate both approaches. PMID:24852023

  18. Aerial monitoring in active mud volcano by UAV technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisciotta, Antonino; Capasso, Giorgio; Madonia, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    UAV photogrammetry opens various new applications in the close range domain, combining aerial and terrestrial photogrammetry, but also introduces low-cost alternatives to the classical manned aerial photogrammetry. Between 2014 and 2015 tree aerial surveys have been carried out. Using a quadrotor drone, equipped with a compact camera, it was possible to generate high resolution elevation models and orthoimages of The "Salinelle", an active mud volcanoes area, located in territory of Paternò (South Italy). The main risks are related to the damages produced by paroxysmal events. Mud volcanoes show different cyclic phases of activity, including catastrophic events and periods of relative quiescence characterized by moderate activity. Ejected materials often are a mud slurry of fine solids suspended in liquids which may include water and hydrocarbon fluids, the bulk of released gases are carbon dioxide, with some methane and nitrogen, usually pond-shaped of variable dimension (from centimeters to meters in diameter). The scope of the presented work is the performance evaluation of a UAV system that was built to rapidly and autonomously acquire mobile three-dimensional (3D) mapping data in a volcanic monitoring scenario.

  19. Experimental Evaluation of Shark Detection Rates by Aerial Observers

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, William D.; Peddemors, Victor M.; Kennelly, Steven J.; Ives, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Aerial surveys are a recognised technique to identify the presence and abundance of marine animals. However, the capability of aerial observers to reliably sight coastal sharks has not been previously assessed, nor have differences in sighting rates between aircraft types been examined. In this study we investigated the ability of observers in fixed-wing and helicopter aircraft to sight 2.5 m artificial shark analogues placed at known depths and positions. Initial tests revealed that the shark analogues could only be detected at shallow depths, averaging only 2.5 m and 2.7 m below the water surface for observers in fixed-wing and helicopter aircraft, respectively. We then deployed analogues at shallower depths along a 5 km-long grid, and assessed their sightability to aircraft observers through a series of transects flown within 500 m. Analogues were seen infrequently from all distances, with overall sighting rates of only 12.5% and 17.1% for fixed-wing and helicopter observers, respectively. Although helicopter observers had consistently higher success rates of sighting analogues within 250 m of their flight path, neither aircraft observers sighted more than 9% of analogues deployed over 300 m from their flight paths. Modelling of sighting rates against environmental and experimental variables indicated that observations were affected by distance, aircraft type, sun glare and sea conditions, while the range of water turbidities observed had no effect. We conclude that aerial observers have limited ability to detect the presence of submerged animals such as sharks, particularly when the sharks are deeper than ∼2.6 m, or over 300 m distant from the aircraft's flight path, especially during sunny or windy days. The low rates of detections found in this study cast serious doubts on the use of aerial beach patrols as an effective early-warning system to prevent shark attacks. PMID:24498258

  20. Aerial photo SBVC1962". Photo no. 360. Low oblique aerial view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial photo -SBVC-1962". Photo no. 360. Low oblique aerial view of the campus, looking southeast. Stamped on the rear: "Ron Wilhite, Sun-Telegram photo, file, 10/22/62/ - San Bernardino Valley College, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  1. Measured Noise from Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabell, Randolph; McSwain, Robert; Grosveld, Ferdinand

    2016-01-01

    Proposed uses of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), including home package delivery, have the potential to expose large portions of communities to a new noise source. This paper discusses results of flyover noise measurements of four small UAVs, including an internal combustion-powered model airplane and three battery-powered multicopters. Basic noise characteristics of these vehicles are discussed, including spectral properties and sound level metrics such as sound pressure level, effective perceived noise level, and sound exposure level. The size and aerodynamic characteristics of the multicopters in particular make their flight path susceptible to atmospheric disturbances such as wind gusts. These gusts, coupled with a flight control system that varies rotor speed to maintain vehicle stability, create an unsteady acoustic signature. The spectral variations resulting from this unsteadiness are explored, in both hover and flyover conditions for the multicopters. The time varying noise, which differs from the relatively steady noise generated by large transport aircraft, may complicate the prediction of human annoyance using conventional sound level metrics.

  2. Utilization of Local Law Enforcement Aerial Resources in Consequence Management (CM) Response

    SciTech Connect

    Wasiolek, Piotr T.; Malchow, Russell L.

    2013-03-12

    During the past decade the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) was instrumental in enhancing the nation’s ability to detect and prevent a radiological or nuclear attack in the highest risk cities. Under the DHS Securing the Cities initiative, nearly 13,000 personnel in the New York City region have been trained in preventive radiological and nuclear detection operations, and nearly 8,500 pieces of radiological detection equipment have been funded. As part of the preventive radiological/nuclear detection (PRND) mission, several cities have received funding to purchase commercial aerial radiation detection systems. In 2008, the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Aerial Measuring System (AMS) program started providing Mobile Aerial Radiological Surveillance (MARS) training to such assets, resulting in over 150 HAZMAT teams’ officers and pilots from 10 law enforcement organizations and fire departments being trained in the aerial radiation detection. From the beginning, the MARS training course covered both the PRND and consequence management (CM) missions. Even if the law enforcement main focus is PRND, their aerial assets can be utilized in the collection of initial radiation data for post-event radiological CM response. Based on over 50 years of AMS operational experience and information collected during MARS training, this presentation will focus on the concepts of CM response using aerial assets as well as utilizing law enforcement/fire department aerial assets in CM. Also discussed will be the need for establishing closer relationships between local jurisdictions’ aerial radiation detection capabilities and state and local radiation control program directors, radiological health department managers, etc. During radiological events these individuals may become primary experts/advisers to Incident Commanders for radiological emergency response, especially in the early stages of a response. The knowledge of the existence

  3. AMS/NRCan Joint Survey Report: Aerial Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Wasiolek, Piotr; Stampahar, Jez; Malchow, Rusty; Stampahar, Tom; Lukens, Mike; Seywerd, Henry; Fortin, Richard; Harvey, Brad; Sinclair, Laurel

    2014-12-31

    In January 2014 the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Aerial Measuring System (AMS) and the Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) Nuclear Emergency Response project conducted a series of joint surveys at a number of locations in Nevada including the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The goal of this project was to compare the responses of the two agencies’ aerial radiation detection systems and data analysis techniques. This test included varied radioactive surface contamination levels and isotopic composition experienced at the NNSS and the differing data processing techniques utilized by the respective teams. Because both teams used the commercial aerial radiation detection systems from Radiation Solutions, Inc., the main focus of the campaign was to investigate the data acquisition techniques, data analysis, and ground-truth verification. The NRCan system consisted of four 4" × 4" × 16" NaI(Tl) scintillator crystals of which two were externally mounted in a modified commercial cargo basket certified for the Eurocopter AS350; the NNSA AMS system consisted of twelve 2" × 4" × 16" NaI(Tl) crystals in externally mounted dedicated pods. For NRCan, the joint survey provided an opportunity to characterize their system’s response to extended sources of various fission products at the NNSS. Since both systems play an important role in their respective countries’ national framework of radiological emergency response and are subject to multiple mutual cooperation agreements, it was important for each country to obtain more thorough knowledge of how they would employ these important assets and define the roles that they would each play in an actual response.

  4. The Potential of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Large Scale Mapping of Coastal Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darwin, N.; Ahmad, A.; Zainon, O.

    2014-02-01

    Many countries in the tropical region are covered with cloud for most of the time, hence, it is difficult to get clear images especially from high resolution satellite imagery. Aerial photogrammetry can be used but most of the time the cloud problem still exists. Today, this problem could be solved using a system known as unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) where the aerial images can be acquired at low altitude and the system can fly under the cloud. The UAV system could be used in various applications including mapping coastal area. The UAV system is equipped with an autopilot system and automatic method known as autonomous flying that can be utilized for data acquisition. To achieve high resolution imagery, a compact digital camera of high resolution was used to acquire the aerial images at an altitude. In this study, the UAV system was employed to acquire aerial images of a coastal simulation model at low altitude. From the aerial images, photogrammetric image processing was executed to produce photogrammetric outputs such a digital elevation model (DEM), contour line and orthophoto. In this study, ground control point (GCP) and check point (CP) were established using conventional ground surveying method (i.e total station). The GCP is used for exterior orientation in photogrammetric processes and CP for accuracy assessment based on Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). From this study, it was found that the UAV system can be used for large scale mapping of coastal simulation model with accuracy at millimeter level. It is anticipated that the same system could be used for large scale mapping of real coastal area and produces good accuracy. Finally, the UAV system has great potential to be used for various applications that require accurate results or products at limited time and less man power.

  5. In Aspergillus nidulans the Suppressors suaA and suaC Code for Release Factors eRF1 and eRF3 and suaD Codes for a Glutamine tRNA

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wen; Mellado, Laura; Espeso, Eduardo A.; Sealy-Lewis, Heather M.

    2014-01-01

    In Aspergillus nidulans, after extensive mutagenesis, a collection of mutants was obtained and four suppressor loci were identified genetically that could suppress mutations in putative chain termination mutations in different genes. Suppressor mutations in suaB and suaD have a similar restricted spectrum of suppression and suaB111 was previously shown to be an alteration in the anticodon of a gln tRNA. We have shown that like suaB, a suaD suppressor has a mutation in the anticodon of another gln tRNA allowing suppression of UAG mutations. Mutations in suaA and suaC had a broad spectrum of suppression. Four suaA mutations result in alterations in the coding region of the eukaryotic release factor, eRF1, and another suaA mutation has a mutation in the upstream region of eRF1 that prevents splicing of the first intron within the 5′UTR. Epitope tagging of eRF1 in this mutant results in 20% of the level of eRF1 compared to the wild-type. Two mutations in suaC result in alterations in the eukaryotic release factor, eRF3. This is the first description in Aspergillus nidulans of an alteration in eRF3 leading to suppression of chain termination mutations. PMID:24727290

  6. Fuel Cells: A Real Option for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Propulsion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of implementing fuel cell technology in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) propulsion systems is considered. Potential advantages of the Proton Exchange Membrane or Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEMFC) and Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC), their fuels (hydrogen and methanol), and their storage systems are revised from technical and environmental standpoints. Some operating commercial applications are described. Main constraints for these kinds of fuel cells are analyzed in order to elucidate the viability of future developments. Since the low power density is the main problem of fuel cells, hybridization with electric batteries, necessary in most cases, is also explored. PMID:24600326

  7. Uas for Archaeology - New Perspectives on Aerial Documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallavollita, P.; Balsi, M.; Esposito, S.; Melis, M. G.; Milanese, M.; Zappino, L.

    2013-08-01

    In this work some Unmanned Aerial Systems applications are discussed and applied to archaeological sites survey and 3D model reconstructions. Interesting results are shown for three important and different aged sites on north Sardinia (Italy). An easy and simplified procedure has proposed permitting the adoption of multi-rotor aircrafts for daily archaeological survey during excavation and documentation, involving state of art in UAS design, flight control systems, high definition sensor cameras and innovative photogrammetric software tools. Very high quality 3D models results are shown and discussed and how they have been simplified the archaeologist work and decisions.

  8. Fuel cells: a real option for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles propulsion.

    PubMed

    González-Espasandín, Óscar; Leo, Teresa J; Navarro-Arévalo, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of implementing fuel cell technology in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) propulsion systems is considered. Potential advantages of the Proton Exchange Membrane or Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEMFC) and Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC), their fuels (hydrogen and methanol), and their storage systems are revised from technical and environmental standpoints. Some operating commercial applications are described. Main constraints for these kinds of fuel cells are analyzed in order to elucidate the viability of future developments. Since the low power density is the main problem of fuel cells, hybridization with electric batteries, necessary in most cases, is also explored. PMID:24600326

  9. Environmental applications utilizing digital aerial imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Monday, H.M.

    1995-06-01

    This paper discusses the use of satellite imagery, aerial photography, and computerized airborne imagery as applied to environmental mapping, analysis, and monitoring. A project conducted by the City of Irving, Texas involves compliance with national pollutant discharge elimination system (NPDES) requirements stipulated by the Environmental Protection Agency. The purpose of the project was the development and maintenance of a stormwater drainage utility. Digital imagery was collected for a portion of the city to map the City`s porous and impervious surfaces which will then be overlaid with property boundaries in the City`s existing Geographic information System (GIS). This information will allow the City to determine an equitable tax for each land parcel according to the amount of water each parcel is contributing to the stormwater system. Another project involves environmental compliance for warm water discharges created by utility companies. Environmental consultants are using digital airborne imagery to analyze thermal plume affects as well as monitoring power generation facilities. A third project involves wetland restoration. Due to freeway and other forms of construction, plus a major reduction of fresh water supplies, the Southern California coastal wetlands are being seriously threatened. These wetlands, rich spawning grounds for plant and animal life, are home to thousands of waterfowl and shore birds who use this habitat for nesting and feeding grounds. Under the leadership of Southern California Edison (SCE) and CALTRANS (California Department of Transportation), several wetland areas such as the San Dieguito Lagoon (Del Mar, California), the Sweetwater Marsh (San Diego, California), and the Tijuana Estuary (San Diego, California) are being restored and closely monitored using digital airborne imagery.

  10. Aerial-image enables diagrams and animation to be inserted in motion pictures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, S. J., Jr.; Tressel, G. W.

    1967-01-01

    Aerial-image unit makes it possible to insert diagrams and animation into live motion pictures, and also lift an element from a confusing background by suppressing general details. The unit includes a combination of two separate lens systems, the camera-projector system and the field lens system.

  11. Application of concurrent engineering methods to the design of an autonomous aerial robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingalls, Stephen A.

    1991-12-01

    This paper documents the year-long efforts of a multidisciplinary design team to design, build, and support an autonomous aerial robotics system. The system was developed to participate in the Association for Unmanned Vehicle System's (AUVS) First International Aerial Robotics Competition which was held in Atlanta, Georgia on the Georgia Tech campus on July 29th, 1991. As development time and budget were extremely limited, the team elected to attempt the design using concurrent engineering design methods. These methods were validated in an IDA study by Winner 1 in the late- 1980's to be particularly adept at handling the difficulties to design presented by these limitations.

  12. Coastal Survey Using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, G.

    2012-12-01

    Generating high-resolution 3-dimensional costal imagery from imagery collected on small-unmanned aircraft is opening many opportunities to study marine wildlife and its use of costal habitats as well as climate change effects on northern coasts where storm surges are radically altering the coastline. Additionally, the technology is being evaluated for oil spill response planning and preparation. The University of Alaska Fairbanks works extensively with small-unmanned aircraft and recently began evaluating the aircraft utility for generating survey grade mapping of topographic features. When generating 3-D maps of coastal regions however there are added challenges that the University have identified and are trying to address. Recent projects with Alaska fisheries and BP Exploration Alaska have demonstrated that small-unmanned aircraft can support the generation of map-based products that are nearly impossible to generate with other technologies.

  13. Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS): Evolving Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal

    2015-01-01

    Near-term Goal: Enable initial low-altitude airspace and UAS operations with demonstrated safety as early as possible, within 5 years; Long-term Goal: Accommodate increased UAS operations with highest safety, efficiency, and capacity as much autonomously as possible (10-15 years).

  14. Ground cover estimated from aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerbermann, A. H.; Cuellar, J. A.; Wiegand, C. L.

    1976-01-01

    Estimates of per cent ground cover made by ground observers were compared with independent estimates made on the basis of low-altitude (640-1219 m) aerial photographs of the same fields. Standard statistical simple correlation and linear regression analyses revealed a high correlation between the two estimation methods. In crops such as grain, sorghum, corn, and forage sorghum, in which the broadest part of the leaf canopy is near the top of the plant, there was a tendency to overestimate the per cent ground cover from aerial photographs.

  15. Noise from aerial bursts of fireworks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maglieri, D. J.; Henderson, H. R.

    1973-01-01

    A study was made recording the pressure time histories of the aerial bursts of mortars of various sizes launched during an actual fireworks display. The peak overpressure and duration of blast noise as well as the energy spectral density are compared with the characteristics of a blasting cap and of an F-104 aircraft at a Mach number of 1.4 and an altitude of 42,000 ft. Noise levels of the fireworks aerial bursts peaked 15 decibels below levels deemed damaging to hearing.

  16. Metrically preserving the USGS aerial film archive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moe, Donald; Longhenry, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Since 1972, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, has provided fi lm-based products to the public. EROS is home to an archive of 12 million frames of analog photography ranging from 1937 to the present. The archive contains collections from both aerial and satellite platforms including programs such as the National High Altitude Program (NHAP), National Aerial Photography Program (NAPP), U.S. Antarctic Resource Center (USARC), Declass 1(CORONA, ARGON, and LANYARD), Declass 2 (KH-7 and KH-9), and Landsat (1972 – 1992, Landsat 1–5).

  17. Laser Doppler velocimeter aerial spray measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalay, A. D.; Eberle, W. R.; Howle, R. E.; Shrider, K. R.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental research program for measuring the location, spatial extent, and relative concentration of airborne spray clouds generated by agricultural aircraft is described. The measurements were conducted with a ground-based laser Doppler velocimeter. The remote sensing instrumentation, experimental tests, and the results of the flight tests are discussed. The cross section of the aerial spray cloud and the observed location, extent, and relative concentration of the airborne particulates are presented. It is feasible to use a mobile laser Doppler velocimeter to track and monitor the transport and dispersion of aerial spray generated by an agricultural aircraft.

  18. AERIAL OF VISITORS INFORMATION CENTER [VIC] & ROCKET GARDEN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    AERIAL OF VISITORS INFORMATION CENTER [VIC] & ROCKET GARDEN KSC-373C-0556.20 116-KSC-373C-556.20, P-01622-B, ARCHIVE-04455 Aerial view of Easter crowds at Visitors Information Center, Kennedy Space Center, Florida.

  19. Aerial Vehicle Surveys of other Planetary Atmospheres and Surfaces: Imaging, Remote-sensing, and Autonomy Technology Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Gregory; Ippolito, Corey; Alena, Rick

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to review the anticipated imaging and remote-sensing technology requirements for aerial vehicle survey missions to other planetary bodies in our Solar system that can support in-atmosphere flight. In the not too distant future such planetary aerial vehicle (a.k.a. aerial explorers) exploration missions will become feasible. Imaging and remote-sensing observations will be a key objective for these missions. Accordingly, it is imperative that optimal solutions in terms of imaging acquisition and real-time autonomous analysis of image data sets be developed for such vehicles.

  20. Shake rattle and roll: the bony labyrinth and aerial descent in squamates.

    PubMed

    Boistel, Renaud; Herrel, Anthony; Lebrun, Renaud; Daghfous, Gheylen; Tafforeau, Paul; Losos, Jonathan B; Vanhooydonck, Bieke

    2011-12-01

    Controlled aerial descent has evolved many times independently in vertebrates. Squamates (lizards and snakes) are unusual in that respect due to the large number of independent origins of the evolution of this behavior. Although some squamates such as flying geckos of the genus Ptychozoon and the flying dragons of the genus Draco show obvious adaptations including skin flaps or enlarged ribs allowing them to increase their surface area and slow down their descent, many others appear unspecialized. Yet, specializations can be expected at the level of the sensory and neural systems allowing animals to maintain stability during controlled aerial descent. The vestibular system is a likely candidate given that it is an acceleration detector and is well-suited to detect changes in pitch, roll and yaw. Here we use conventional and synchrotron μCT scans to quantify the morphology of the vestibular system in squamates able to perform controlled aerial descent compared to species characterized by a terrestrial or climbing life style. Our results show the presence of a strong phylogenetic signal in the data with the vestibular system in species from the same family being morphologically similar. However, both our shape analysis and an analysis of the dimensions of the vestibular system showed clear differences among animals with different life-styles. Species able to perform a controlled aerial descent differed in the position and shape of the inner ear, especially of the posterior ampulla. Given the limited stability of squamates against roll and the fact that the posterior ampulla is tuned to changes in roll this suggests an adaptive evolution of the vestibular system in squamates using controlled aerial descent. Future studies testing for similar differences in other groups of vertebrates known to use controlled aerial descent are needed to test the generality of this observation. PMID:21700578

  1. Aerial and Terrestrial Patterns: A Novel Approach to Analyzing Human Running.

    PubMed

    Gindre, C; Lussiana, T; Hebert-Losier, K; Mourot, L

    2016-01-01

    Biomechanical parameters are often analyzed independently, although running gait is a dynamic system wherein changes in one parameter are likely to affect another. Accordingly, the Volodalen® method provides a model for classifying running patterns into 2 categories, aerial and terrestrial, using a global subjective rating scoring system. We aimed to validate the Volodalen® method by verifying whether the aerial and terrestrial patterns, defined subjectively by a running coach, were associated with distinct objectively-measured biomechanical parameters. The running patterns of 91 individuals were assessed subjectively using the Volodalen® method by an expert running coach during a 10-min running warm-up. Biomechanical parameters were measured objectively using the OptojumpNext® during a 50-m run performed at 3.3, 4.2, and 5 m·s(-1) and were compared between aerial- and terrestrial-classified subjects. Longer contact times and greater leg compression were observed in the terrestrial compared to the aerial runners. The aerial runners exhibited longer flight time, greater center of mass displacement, maximum vertical force and leg stiffness than the terrestrial ones. The subjective categorization of running patterns was associated with distinct objectively-quantified biomechanical parameters. Our results suggest that a subjective holistic assessment of running patterns provides insight into the biomechanics of running gaits of individuals. PMID:26509380

  2. Implementation strategy of wafer-plane and aerial-plane inspection for advanced mask manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Won-Sun; Chung, Dong-Hoon; Jeon, Chan-Uk; Cho, HanKu; Huang, William; Miller, John; Inderhees, Gregg; Pinto, Becky; Hur, Jiuk; Park, Kihun; Han, Jay

    2009-04-01

    Inspection of aggressive Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) designs, improvement of usable sensitivity, and reduction of cost of ownership are the three major challenges for today's mask inspection methodologies. In this paper we will discuss using aerial-plane inspection and wafer-plane inspection as novel approaches to address these challenges for advanced reticles. Wafer-plane inspection (WPI) and aerial-plane inspection (API) are two lithographic inspection modes. This suite of new inspection modes is based on high resolution reflected and transmitted light images in the reticle plane. These images together with scanner parameters are used to generate the aerial plane image using either vector or scalar models. Then information about the resist is applied to complete construction of the wafer plane image. API reports defects based on intensity differences between test and reference images at the aerial plane, whereas WPI applies a resist model to the aerial image to enhance discrimination between printable and non-printable defects at the wafer plane. The combination of WPI and API along with the industry standard Reticle Plane Inspection (RPI) is designed to handle complex OPC features, improve usable sensitivity and reduce the cost of ownership. This paper will explore the application of aerial-plane and wafer-plane die-to-die inspections on advanced reticles. Inspection sensitivity, inspectability, and comparison with Aerial Imaging Measurement System (AIMSTM[1]) or wafer-print-line will be analyzed. Most importantly, the implementation strategy of a combination of WPI and API along with RPI leading-edge mask manufacturing will be discussed.

  3. 7 CFR 1755.507 - Aerial cable services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 1755.507 Aerial cable services. (a) Where more than six pairs are needed initially, and where an aerial service is necessary, the service shall consist of 22 AWG filled aerial cable of a pair size adequate for... from the building, the wall bracket shall be reinforced against pullout by an arrangement equivalent...

  4. 7 CFR 1755.507 - Aerial cable services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 1755.507 Aerial cable services. (a) Where more than six pairs are needed initially, and where an aerial service is necessary, the service shall consist of 22 AWG filled aerial cable of a pair size adequate for... from the building, the wall bracket shall be reinforced against pullout by an arrangement equivalent...

  5. 7 CFR 1755.507 - Aerial cable services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 1755.507 Aerial cable services. (a) Where more than six pairs are needed initially, and where an aerial service is necessary, the service shall consist of 22 AWG filled aerial cable of a pair size adequate for... from the building, the wall bracket shall be reinforced against pullout by an arrangement equivalent...

  6. 47 CFR 32.6421 - Aerial cable expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aerial cable expense. 32.6421 Section 32.6421... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6421 Aerial cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with aerial cable. (b) Subsidiary record...

  7. 47 CFR 32.6421 - Aerial cable expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aerial cable expense. 32.6421 Section 32.6421... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6421 Aerial cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with aerial cable. (b) Subsidiary record...

  8. 47 CFR 32.6421 - Aerial cable expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aerial cable expense. 32.6421 Section 32.6421... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6421 Aerial cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with aerial cable. (b) Subsidiary record...

  9. 47 CFR 32.6421 - Aerial cable expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aerial cable expense. 32.6421 Section 32.6421... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6421 Aerial cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with aerial cable. (b) Subsidiary record...

  10. Geography via Aerial Field Trips: Do It This Way, 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richason, Benjamin F., Jr.; Guell, Carl E.

    To provide guidance for geography teachers, this booklet presents information on how to plan and execute aerial field trips. The aerial field trip can be employed as an effective visual aid technique in the teaching of geography, especially for presenting earth generalizations and interrelationships. The benefits of an aerial field trip are…

  11. Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) control. The project was done as part of the requirements for a class in AI at NOVA Southeastearn University and a beginning project at NASA Wallops Flight Facility for a resilient, robust, and intelligent UAV flight control system. A method is outlined which allows a base level application for applying an Artificial Intelligence method, Fuzzy Logic, to aspects of Control Logic for UAV flight. One element of UAV flight, automated altitude hold, has been implemented and preliminary results displayed.

  12. Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Uninhabitated Aerial Vehicle Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) control. The project was done as part of the requirements for a class in AI at NOVA southeastern University and a beginning project at NASA Wallops Flight Facility for a resilient, robust, and intelligent UAV flight control system. A method is outlined which allows a base level application for applying an Artificial Intelligence method, Fuzzy Logic, to aspects of Control Logic for UAV flight. One element of UAV flight, automated altitude hold, has been implemented and preliminary results displayed.

  13. Development of a wireless air pollution sensor package for aerial-sampling of emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new sensor system for mobile and aerial emission sampling was developed for open area pollutant sources, such as prescribed forest burns. The sensor system, termed “Kolibri”, consists of multiple low-cost air quality sensors measuring CO2, CO, samplers for particulate matter wi...

  14. Development of a wireless air pollution sensor package for aerial-sampling of emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new sensor system for mobile and aerial emission sampling was developed for open area pollutant sources, such as prescribed forest burns. The sensor system, termed “Kolibri”, consists of multiple low-cost air quality sensors measuring CO2, CO, samplers for particula...

  15. Aerial Infrared Photos for Citrus Growers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blazquez, C. H.; Horn, F. W. J.

    1982-01-01

    Handbook advises on benefits and methods of aerial photography with color infrared film. Interpretation of photographs is discussed in detail. Necessary equipment for interpretation is described--light table, magnifying lenses, and microfiche viewers, for example. Advice is given on rating tree condition; identifying effects of diseases, insects, and nematodes; and evaluating effects of soil, water, and weather.

  16. "A" Is for Aerial Maps and Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Reese H.; Delahunty, Tina

    2007-01-01

    The technology of satellite imagery and remote sensing adds a new dimension to teaching and learning about maps with elementary school children. Just a click of the mouse brings into view some images of the world that could only be imagined a generation ago. Close-up aerial pictures of the school and neighborhood quickly catch the interest of…

  17. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the American National...) Vertical towers; and (v) A combination of any such devices. Aerial equipment may be made of metal, wood... on the edge of the basket or use planks, ladders, or other devices for a work position. (v) A...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the American National...) Vertical towers; and (v) A combination of any such devices. Aerial equipment may be made of metal, wood... on the edge of the basket or use planks, ladders, or other devices for a work position. (v) A...

  19. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the American National...) Vertical towers; and (v) A combination of any such devices. Aerial equipment may be made of metal, wood... on the edge of the basket or use planks, ladders, or other devices for a work position. (v) A...

  20. A TOOL FOR PLANNING AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    abstract The U.S. EPAs Pacific Coastal Ecology Branch has developed a tool in the form of an Excel. spreadsheet that facilitates planning aerial photography missions. The spreadsheet accepts various input parameters such as desired photo-scale and boundary coordinates of the stud...

  1. The Art and Science of Aerial Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kegel, Susan

    2006-01-01

    The author is always looking for ways to see connections and to adapt experiences across different subjects. Combining art with other disciplines helps keep students engaged, even the really analytical and verbal learners. Aerial perspective is an art technique, a scientific principle, and a vehicle for introducing Chinese painting and…

  2. Use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for urban tree inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Brian A.

    In contrast to standard aerial imagery, unmanned aerial systems (UAS) utilize recent technological advances to provide an affordable alternative for imagery acquisition. Increased value can be realized through clarity and detail providing higher resolution (2-5 cm) over traditional products. Many natural resource disciplines such as urban forestry will benefit from UAS. Tree inventories for risk assessment, biodiversity, planning, and design can be efficiently achieved with the UAS. Recent advances in photogrammetric processing have proved automated methods for three dimensional rendering of aerial imagery. Point clouds can be generated from images providing additional benefits. Association of spatial locational information within the point cloud can be used to produce elevation models i.e. digital elevation, digital terrain and digital surface. Taking advantage of this point cloud data, additional information such as tree heights can be obtained. Several software applications have been developed for LiDAR data which can be adapted to utilize UAS point clouds. This study examines solutions to provide tree inventory and heights from UAS imagery. Imagery taken with a micro-UAS was processed to produce a seamless orthorectified image. This image provided an accurate way to obtain a tree inventory within the study boundary. Utilizing several methods, tree height models were developed with variations in spatial accuracy. Model parameters were modified to offset spatial inconsistencies providing statistical equality of means. Statistical results (p = 0.756) with a level of significance (α = 0.01) between measured and modeled tree height means resulted with 82% of tree species obtaining accurate tree heights. Within this study, the UAS has proven to be an efficient tool for urban forestry providing a cost effective and reliable system to obtain remotely sensed data.

  3. Object and activity detection from aerial video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Se, Stephen; Shi, Feng; Liu, Xin; Ghazel, Mohsen

    2015-05-01

    Aerial video surveillance has advanced significantly in recent years, as inexpensive high-quality video cameras and airborne platforms are becoming more readily available. Video has become an indispensable part of military operations and is now becoming increasingly valuable in the civil and paramilitary sectors. Such surveillance capabilities are useful for battlefield intelligence and reconnaissance as well as monitoring major events, border control and critical infrastructure. However, monitoring this growing flood of video data requires significant effort from increasingly large numbers of video analysts. We have developed a suite of aerial video exploitation tools that can alleviate mundane monitoring from the analysts, by detecting and alerting objects and activities that require analysts' attention. These tools can be used for both tactical applications and post-mission analytics so that the video data can be exploited more efficiently and timely. A feature-based approach and a pixel-based approach have been developed for Video Moving Target Indicator (VMTI) to detect moving objects at real-time in aerial video. Such moving objects can then be classified by a person detector algorithm which was trained with representative aerial data. We have also developed an activity detection tool that can detect activities of interests in aerial video, such as person-vehicle interaction. We have implemented a flexible framework so that new processing modules can be added easily. The Graphical User Interface (GUI) allows the user to configure the processing pipeline at run-time to evaluate different algorithms and parameters. Promising experimental results have been obtained using these tools and an evaluation has been carried out to characterize their performance.

  4. Robust adaptive control for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahveci, Nazli E.

    The objective of meeting higher endurance requirements remains a challenging task for any type and size of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). According to recent research studies significant energy savings can be realized through utilization of thermal currents. The navigation strategies followed across thermal regions, however, are based on rather intuitive assessments of remote pilots and lack any systematic path planning approaches. Various methods to enhance the autonomy of UAVs in soaring applications are investigated while seeking guarantees for flight performance improvements. The dynamics of the aircraft, small UAVs in particular, are affected by the environmental conditions, whereas unmodeled dynamics possibly become significant during aggressive flight maneuvers. Besides, the demanded control inputs might have a magnitude range beyond the limits dictated by the control surface actuators. The consequences of ignoring these issues can be catastrophic. Supporting this claim NASA Dryden Flight Research Center reports considerable performance degradation and even loss of stability in autonomous soaring flight tests with the subsequent risk of an aircraft crash. The existing control schemes are concluded to suffer from limited performance. Considering the aircraft dynamics and the thermal characteristics we define a vehicle-specific trajectory optimization problem to achieve increased cross-country speed and extended range of flight. In an environment with geographically dispersed set of thermals of possibly limited lifespan, we identify the similarities to the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) and provide both exact and approximate guidance algorithms for the navigation of automated UAVs. An additional stochastic approach is used to quantify the performance losses due to incorrect thermal data while dealing with random gust disturbances and onboard sensor measurement inaccuracies. One of the main contributions of this research is a novel adaptive control design with

  5. Aerial measurement of heat loss: Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    The purpose of the program described was to develop techniques to reduce or eliminate some of the variables associated with thermogram analysis in order to provide more objective interpretation of the data collected with greater potential for accuracy. A procedure is given for measuring temperature which accounts for atmospheric, background, and differential emissivity effects. The residual error was found to be 1.0/sup 0/C. A technique was then identified and developed for determining heat loss lovels from roof top surface temperature data. A thermal integrity factor was defined as a function of insulation level and thermostat setting. Comparing these thermal integrity factors with aerial thermography data indicates that aerial thermography can be used to objectively and confidently define heat loss levels from building roofs. (LEW)

  6. Aerial color infrared photography applications to citriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blazquez, C. H.; Horn, F. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Results of a one-year experimental study on the use of aerial color infrared photography in citrus grove management are presented. It is found that the spring season, when trees are in flush (have young leaves), is the best season to photograph visible differences between healthy and diseased trees. It is also shown that the best photography can be obtained with a 12-in. focal length lens. The photographic scale that allowed good photo interpretation with simple inexpensive equipment was 1 in. = 330 ft. The use of a window-overlay transparency method allowed rapid photo interpretation and data recording in computer-compatible forms. Aerial color infrared photography carried out during the spring season revealed a more accurate status of tree condition than visual inspection.

  7. The use of high altitude aerial photography to inventory wildlife habitat in Kansas: An initial evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merchant, J. W.; Waddell, B. H.

    1974-01-01

    The use of aerial photography as a method for determining the wildlife conditions of an area is discussed. Color infrared photography is investigated as the most effective type of remote sensor. The characteristics of the remote sensing systems are described. Examples of the remote sensing operation and the method for reducing the data are presented.

  8. Flow variability of an aerial variable-rate nozzle at constant pressures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variable-rate ground application systems have been in use for the past 15 years, but due to high application speeds, flow requirements, and aerodynamic considerations, variable-rate aerial nozzles have not been available until now. In 2006, Spray Target, Inc. released the VeriRate™ variable-rate aer...

  9. Rangeland resource assessment, monitoring, and management using unmanned aerial vehicle-based remote sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Civilian applications of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) have rapidly been expanding recently. Thanks to military development many civil UAVs come via the defense sector. Although numerous UAVs can perform civilian tasks, the regulations imposed by FAA in the national airspace system and military e...

  10. Action cameras and low-cost aerial vehicles in archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballarin, M.; Balletti, C.; Guerra, F.

    2015-05-01

    This research is focused on the analysis of the potential of a close range aerial photogrammetry system, which is accessible both in economic terms and in terms of simplicity of use. In particular the Go Pro Hero3 Black Edition and the Parrot Ar. Drone 2.0 were studied. There are essentially two limitations to the system and they were found for both the instruments used. Indeed, the frames captured by the Go Pro are subject to great distortion and consequently pose numerous calibration problems. On the other hand, the limitation of the system lies in the difficulty of maintaining a flight configuration suitable for photogrammetric purposes in unfavourable environmental conditions. The aim of this research is to analyse how far the limitations highlighted can influence the precision of the survey and consequent quality of the results obtained. To this end, the integrated GoPro and Parrot system was used during a survey campaign on the Altilia archaeological site, in Molise. The data obtained was compared with that gathered by more traditional methods, such as the laser scanner. The system was employed in the field of archaeology because here the question of cost often has a considerable importance and the metric aspect is frequently subordinate to the qualitative and interpretative aspects. Herein one of the products of these systems; the orthophoto will be analysed, which is particularly useful in archaeology, especially in situations such as this dig in which there aren't many structures in elevation present. The system proposed has proven to be an accessible solution for producing an aerial documentation, which adds the excellent quality of the result to metric data for which the precision is known.

  11. Ultralight photovoltaic modules for unmanned aerial vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Nowlan, M.J.; Maglitta, J.C.; Darkazalli, G.; Lamp, T.

    1997-12-31

    New lightweight photovoltaic modules are being developed for powering high altitude unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Modified low-cost terrestrial solar cell and module technologies are being applied to minimize vehicle cost. New processes were developed for assembling thin solar cells, encapsulant films, and cover films. An innovative by-pass diode mounting approach that uses a solar cell as a heat spreader was devised and tested. Materials and processes will be evaluated through accelerated environmental testing.

  12. Comparative Analysis of the Tour Jete and Aerial with Detailed Analysis of Aerial Takeoff Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierson, Mimi; Coplin, Kim

    2006-10-01

    Whether internally as muscle tension or from external sources, forces are necessary for all motion. This research focused on athletic rotations where conditions of flight are established during takeoff. By studying reaction forces that produce torques, moments of inertia, and linear and angular differences between distinct rotations around different principle axes of the body (tour jete in ballet - longitudinal axis; aerial in gymnastics - anteroposterior axis), and by looking at the values of angular momentum in the specific mechanics of aerial takeoff, we can gain insight into possible causes of injury, flaws in technique and limitations of athletes. Results showed significant differences in the horizontal and vertical components of takeoff between the tour jete and the aerial, and a realization that torque was produced in different biomechanical planes. Both rotations showed braking forces before takeoff to counteract forward momentum and increase vertical lift, but the angle of applied force varied, and the horizontal components of velocity and force and vertical velocity as well as moment of inertia throughout flight were consistently greater for the aerial. Breakdown of aerial takeoff highlighted the relative importance of the takeoff phases, showing that completion depends fundamentally upon the rotation of the rear foot and torso twisting during takeoff rather than the last foot in contact with the ground.

  13. Mission control of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles: a workload analysis.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Stephen R; Wickens, Christopher D; Chang, Dervon

    2005-01-01

    With unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), 36 licensed pilots flew both single-UAV and dual-UAV simulated military missions. Pilots were required to navigate each UAV through a series of mission legs in one of the following three conditions: a baseline condition, an auditory autoalert condition, and an autopilot condition. Pilots were responsible for (a) mission completion, (b) target search, and (c) systems monitoring. Results revealed that both the autoalert and the autopilot automation improved overall performance by reducing task interference and alleviating workload. The autoalert system benefited performance both in the automated task and mission completion task, whereas the autopilot system benefited performance in the automated task, the mission completion task, and the target search task. Practical implications for the study include the suggestion that reliable automation can help alleviate task interference and reduce workload, thereby allowing pilots to better handle concurrent tasks during single- and multiple-UAV flight control. PMID:16435690

  14. Remotely deployable aerial inspection using tactile sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeod, C. N.; Cao, J.; Pierce, S. G.; Sullivan, J. C.; Pipe, A. G.; Dobie, G.; Summan, R.

    2014-02-01

    For structural monitoring applications, the use of remotely deployable Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) inspection platforms offer many advantages, including improved accessibility, greater safety and reduced cost, when compared to traditional manual inspection techniques. The use of such platforms, previously reported by researchers at the University Strathclyde facilitates the potential for rapid scanning of large areas and volumes in hazardous locations. A common problem for both manual and remote deployment approaches lies in the intrinsic stand-off and surface coupling issues of typical NDE probes. The associated complications of these requirements are obviously significantly exacerbated when considering aerial based remote inspection and deployment, resulting in simple visual techniques being the preferred sensor payload. Researchers at Bristol Robotics Laboratory have developed biomimetic tactile sensors modelled on the facial whiskers (vibrissae) of animals such as rats and mice, with the latest sensors actively sweeping their tips across the surface in a back and forth motion. The current work reports on the design and performance of an aerial inspection platform and the suitability of tactile whisking sensors to aerial based surface monitoring applications.

  15. Remotely deployable aerial inspection using tactile sensors

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, C. N.; Cao, J.; Pierce, S. G.; Dobie, G.; Summan, R.; Sullivan, J. C.; Pipe, A. G.

    2014-02-18

    For structural monitoring applications, the use of remotely deployable Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) inspection platforms offer many advantages, including improved accessibility, greater safety and reduced cost, when compared to traditional manual inspection techniques. The use of such platforms, previously reported by researchers at the University Strathclyde facilitates the potential for rapid scanning of large areas and volumes in hazardous locations. A common problem for both manual and remote deployment approaches lies in the intrinsic stand-off and surface coupling issues of typical NDE probes. The associated complications of these requirements are obviously significantly exacerbated when considering aerial based remote inspection and deployment, resulting in simple visual techniques being the preferred sensor payload. Researchers at Bristol Robotics Laboratory have developed biomimetic tactile sensors modelled on the facial whiskers (vibrissae) of animals such as rats and mice, with the latest sensors actively sweeping their tips across the surface in a back and forth motion. The current work reports on the design and performance of an aerial inspection platform and the suitability of tactile whisking sensors to aerial based surface monitoring applications.

  16. Exterior Orientation Estimation of Oblique Aerial Imagery Using Vanishing Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verykokou, Styliani; Ioannidis, Charalabos

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a methodology for the calculation of rough exterior orientation (EO) parameters of multiple large-scale overlapping oblique aerial images, in the case that GPS/INS information is not available (e.g., for old datasets), is presented. It consists of five main steps; (a) the determination of the overlapping image pairs and the single image in which four ground control points have to be measured; (b) the computation of the transformation parameters from every image to the coordinate reference system; (c) the rough estimation of the camera interior orientation parameters; (d) the estimation of the true horizon line and the nadir point of each image; (e) the calculation of the rough EO parameters of each image. A developed software suite implementing the proposed methodology is tested using a set of UAV multi-perspective oblique aerial images. Several tests are performed for the assessment of the errors and show that the estimated EO parameters can be used either as initial approximations for a bundle adjustment procedure or as rough georeferencing information for several applications, like 3D modelling, even by non-photogrammetrists, because of the minimal user intervention needed. Finally, comparisons with a commercial software are made, in terms of automation and correctness of the computed EO parameters.

  17. Sound localization of aerial broadband noise in pinnipeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Marla M.; Schusterman, Ronald J.; Kastak, David; Southall, Brandon L.

    2003-04-01

    Pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses) emit broadband calls on land as part of their communication system in order to coordinate their reproductive activities. How well do they localize these types of signals? In this study, the aerial sound localization acuities of a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), and a northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) were measured in the horizontal plane with a broadband white noise stimulus. Testing was conducted in a hemi-anechoic chamber using a left/right forced choice procedure to measure the minimum audible angle (MAA) for each subject. MAAs were defined as half the angular separation of two sound sources relative to a subject's midline that corresponded to 75% correct discrimination. MAAs were 3.6, 4.2, and 4.7 deg for the harbor seal, California sea lion, and northern elephant seal, respectively. These results demonstrate that these pinniped species had sound localization abilities comparable to the domestic cat and rhesus macaques. The acuity differences between our subjects were small, were not predicted by head size, and therefore likely reflect the relatively acute abilities of other pinniped species to localize aerial broadband signals.

  18. Ultramap v3 - a Revolution in Aerial Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitinger, B.; Sormann, M.; Zebedin, L.; Schachinger, B.; Hoefler, M.; Tomasi, R.; Lamperter, M.; Gruber, B.; Schiester, G.; Kobald, M.; Unger, M.; Klaus, A.; Bernoegger, S.; Karner, K.; Wiechert, A.; Ponticelli, M.; Gruber, M.

    2012-07-01

    In the last years, Microsoft has driven innovation in the aerial photogrammetry community. Besides the market leading camera technology, UltraMap has grown to an outstanding photogrammetric workflow system which enables users to effectively work with large digital aerial image blocks in a highly automated way. Best example is the project-based color balancing approach which automatically balances images to a homogeneous block. UltraMap V3 continues innovation, and offers a revolution in terms of ortho processing. A fully automated dense matching module strives for high precision digital surface models (DSMs) which are calculated either on CPUs or on GPUs using a distributed processing framework. By applying constrained filtering algorithms, a digital terrain model can be derived which in turn can be used for fully automated traditional ortho texturing. By having the knowledge about the underlying geometry, seamlines can be generated automatically by applying cost functions in order to minimize visual disturbing artifacts. By exploiting the generated DSM information, a DSMOrtho is created using the balanced input images. Again, seamlines are detected automatically resulting in an automatically balanced ortho mosaic. Interactive block-based radiometric adjustments lead to a high quality ortho product based on UltraCam imagery. UltraMap v3 is the first fully integrated and interactive solution for supporting UltraCam images at best in order to deliver DSM and ortho imagery.

  19. Aerial Thermography - Cartographic Presentation Of Thermographic Data For Building Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ljungberg, Sven-Ake

    1989-03-01

    When using aerial thermography to indicate energy-related conditions of buildings in a large investigation area the question arises how to store and present the final product of classified, energy-related data. A full scale study of 7000 buildings demonstrated the need fur computerbased systems and cartographic methods to store, to arrange and to illustrate thermograpic data. A data base was created including aerial thermograpic data, technical data on the buildings and information on energy consumption of each building. The data base consisted of 100 variables. The key-code for the data base was the real estate name and number. The position of each building was given in terms of coordinates of the real estate. The main purpose of the study was to create an energy-related data base to be used for assigning a priority to measurements within the local energy conservation program. The thermographic data was collected with a longwave airborne infrared line-scanner (3-14 um). The technical data on the buildings and their energy consumption were gathered from existing data bases and from field investigations. Thermograpic data, technical data of the buildings and information on energy consumption was classified and different symbols were used to identify the classes presented on thematic maps. Results from this study implies that computerbased cartography is a favorable method to present and illustrate thermographic information on buildings in large investigation areas. The paper deals mainly with the aspect of carthography for presentation of thermographic and energy-related data.

  20. Melanogenesis inhibitory effect of aerial part of Pueraria thunbergiana in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Han, EunByeol; Chang, BoYoon; Kim, DaeSung; Cho, HyoungKwon; Kim, SungYeon

    2015-01-01

    Melanin is major factor that determines skin color as well as one of the defense systems that prevent the UV-induced damage. In case of abnormal concentration of melanin, skin diseases or problems occur such as albinism, leukoplakia, melasma, freckles, moles, and lentigo. With the lifespan of humans has been extended, importance of 'life quality' has been increased. White and clean skin is very important part of the satisfaction of appearance, especially for Asia women. The aim of this study was to find an anti-melanogenesis activity for which the aerial part of Pueraria thunbergiana can be utilized based on the increase in demands for cosmetics, particularly natural products. We demonstrated anti-pigmentation effects of aerial part of P. thunbergiana by measuring melanin content and through staining in the B16F10 melanoma cell line. The aerial part of P. thunbergiana decreased tyrosinase activity significantly in B16F10 cell cultures, while there is no direct effect on enzyme in cell-free conditions. To define the mechanisms, real-time PCR, western blot, glucosidase activity and antioxidant activity assay were implemented. As results, we demonstrated that aerial part of P. thunbergiana has anti-melanogenesis activity via two mechanisms. One is downgrading microphthalmia-associated transcription factor by activating Akt/GSK-3β. Consequently, transcription of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 1 is decreased. Another is interrupting maturation of tyrosinase through inhibiting α-glucosidase. Furthermore, aerial part of P. thunbergiana showed great efficacy on pigmentation in vivo. These results suggest that aerial part of P. thunbergiana can be used as an anti-melanogenic agent. PMID:25063049

  1. Automatic georeferencing of imagery from high-resolution, low-altitude, low-cost aerial platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geniviva, Amanda; Faulring, Jason; Salvaggio, Carl

    2014-06-01

    Existing nadir-viewing aerial image databases such as that available on Google Earth contain data from a variety of sources at varying spatial resolutions. Low-cost, low-altitude, high-resolution aerial systems such as unmanned aerial vehicles and balloon- borne systems can provide ancillary data sets providing higher resolution, oblique­ looking data to enhance the data available to the user. This imagery is difficult to georeference due to the different projective geometry present in these data. Even if this data is accompanied by metadata from global positioning system (GPS) and inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensors, the accuracy obtained from low-cost versions of these sensors is limited. Combining automatic image registration techniques with the information provided by the IMU and onboard GPS, it is possible to improve the positioning accuracy of these oblique data sets on the ground plane using existing orthorectified imagery available from sources such as Google Earth. Using both the affine scale-invariant feature transform (ASIFT) and maximally stable extremal regions (MSER), feature detectors aid in automatically detecting correspondences between the obliquely collected images and the base map. These correspondences are used to georeference the high-resolution, oblique image data collected from these low-cost aerial platforms providing the user with an enhanced visualization experience.

  2. Low Cost Surveying Using AN Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, M.; Agüera, F.; Carvajal, F.

    2013-08-01

    Traditional manned airborne surveys are usually expensive and the resolution of the acquired images is often limited. The main advantage of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) system acting as a photogrammetric sensor platform over more traditional manned airborne system is the high flexibility that allows image acquisition from unconventional viewpoints, the low cost in comparison with classical aerial photogrammetry and the high resolution images obtained. Nowadays there is a necessity for surveying small areas and in these cases, it is not economical the use of normal large format aerial or metric cameras to acquire aerial photos, therefore, the use of UAV platforms can be very suitable. Also the large availability of digital cameras has strongly enhanced the capabilities of UAVs. The use of digital non metric cameras together with the UAV could be used for multiple applications such as aerial surveys, GIS, wildfire mapping, stability of landslides, crop monitoring, etc. The aim of this work was to develop a low cost and accurate methodology in the production of orthophotos and Digital Elevation Models (DEM). The study was conducted in the province of Almeria, south of Spain. The photogrammetric flight had an altitude of 50 m over ground, covering an area of 5.000 m2 approximately. The UAV used in this work was the md4-200, which is an electronic battery powered quadrocopter UAV developed by Microdrones GmbH, Germany. It had on-board a Pextax Optio A40 digital non metric camera with 12 Megapixels. It features a 3x optical zoom lens with a focal range covering angles of view equivalent to those of 37-111 mm lens in 35 mm format. The quadrocopter can be programmed to follow a route defined by several waypoints and actions and it has the ability for vertical take off and landing. Proper flight geometry during image acquisition is essential in order to minimize the number of photographs, avoid areas without a good coverage and make the overlaps homogeneous. The flight

  3. An Energy-Aware Trajectory Optimization Layer for sUAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, William A.

    The focus of this work is the implementation of an energy-aware trajectory optimization algorithm that enables small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) to operate in unknown, dynamic severe weather environments. The software is designed as a component of an Energy-Aware Dynamic Data Driven Application System (EA-DDDAS) for sUAS. This work addresses the challenges of integrating and executing an online trajectory optimization algorithm during mission operations in the field. Using simplified aircraft kinematics, the energy-aware algorithm enables extraction of kinetic energy from measured winds to optimize thrust use and endurance during flight. The optimization layer, based upon a nonlinear program formulation, extracts energy by exploiting strong wind velocity gradients in the wind field, a process known as dynamic soaring. The trajectory optimization layer extends the energy-aware path planner developed by Wenceslao Shaw-Cortez te{Shaw-cortez2013} to include additional mission configurations, simulations with a 6-DOF model, and validation of the system with flight testing in June 2015 in Lubbock, Texas. The trajectory optimization layer interfaces with several components within the EA-DDDAS to provide an sUAS with optimal flight trajectories in real-time during severe weather. As a result, execution timing, data transfer, and scalability are considered in the design of the software. Severe weather also poses a measure of unpredictability to the system with respect to communication between systems and available data resources during mission operations. A heuristic mission tree with different cost functions and constraints is implemented to provide a level of adaptability to the optimization layer. Simulations and flight experiments are performed to assess the efficacy of the trajectory optimization layer. The results are used to assess the feasibility of flying dynamic soaring trajectories with existing controllers as well as to verify the interconnections between

  4. Autonomous charging to enable long-endurance missions for small aerial robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulgaonkar, Yash; Kumar, Vijay

    2014-06-01

    The past decade has seen an increased interest towards research involving Autonomous Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs). The predominant reason for this is their agility and ability to perform tasks too difficult or dangerous for their human counterparts and to navigate into places where ground robots cannot reach. Among MAVs, rotary wing aircraft such as quadrotors have the ability to operate in confined spaces, hover at a given point in space and perch1 or land on a flat surface. This makes the quadrotor a very attractive aerial platform giving rise to a myriad of research opportunities. The potential of these aerial platforms is severely limited by the constraints on the flight time due to limited battery capacity. This in turn arises from limits on the payload of these rotorcraft. By automating the battery recharging process, creating autonomous MAVs that can recharge their on-board batteries without any human intervention and by employing a team of such agents, the overall mission time can be greatly increased. This paper describes the development, testing, and implementation of a system of autonomous charging stations for a team of Micro Aerial Vehicles. This system was used to perform fully autonomous long-term multi-agent aerial surveillance experiments with persistent station keeping. The scalability of the algorithm used in the experiments described in this paper was also tested by simulating a persistence surveillance scenario for 10 MAVs and charging stations. Finally, this system was successfully implemented to perform a 9½ hour multi-agent persistent flight test. Preliminary implementation of this charging system in experiments involving construction of cubic structures with quadrotors showed a three-fold increase in effective mission time.

  5. Sediment Sampling in Estuarine Mudflats with an Aerial-Ground Robotic Team.

    PubMed

    Deusdado, Pedro; Guedes, Magno; Silva, André; Marques, Francisco; Pinto, Eduardo; Rodrigues, Paulo; Lourenço, André; Mendonça, Ricardo; Santana, Pedro; Corisco, José; Almeida, Susana Marta; Portugal, Luís; Caldeira, Raquel; Barata, José; Flores, Luis

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a robotic team suited for bottom sediment sampling and retrieval in mudflats, targeting environmental monitoring tasks. The robotic team encompasses a four-wheel-steering ground vehicle, equipped with a drilling tool designed to be able to retain wet soil, and a multi-rotor aerial vehicle for dynamic aerial imagery acquisition. On-demand aerial imagery, properly fused on an aerial mosaic, is used by remote human operators for specifying the robotic mission and supervising its execution. This is crucial for the success of an environmental monitoring study, as often it depends on human expertise to ensure the statistical significance and accuracy of the sampling procedures. Although the literature is rich on environmental monitoring sampling procedures, in mudflats, there is a gap as regards including robotic elements. This paper closes this gap by also proposing a preliminary experimental protocol tailored to exploit the capabilities offered by the robotic system. Field trials in the south bank of the river Tagus' estuary show the ability of the robotic system to successfully extract and transport bottom sediment samples for offline analysis. The results also show the efficiency of the extraction and the benefits when compared to (conventional) human-based sampling. PMID:27618060

  6. 20. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTH FROM ARLINGTON TOWARDS LINCOLN MEMORIAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTH FROM ARLINGTON TOWARDS LINCOLN MEMORIAL - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. 21. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST TOWARDS LINCOLN MEMORIAL AND WASHINGTON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST TOWARDS LINCOLN MEMORIAL AND WASHINGTON MONUMENT - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. 1. Aerial view, looking northeast up Newark Bay, showing entire ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Aerial view, looking northeast up Newark Bay, showing entire island Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  9. Use of Acoustic Wind Profilers for Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Flight Test Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donnohue, Casey J.; Underwood, Ken; Bellue, Dan G.

    2001-01-01

    Sonic detection and ranging (SODAR) systems provide crucial information to meteorologists for advising uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) flight crews and mission directors on historical, current, and forecasted wind and turbulence conditions. The SODAR system provided advanced warning of increasing surface winds for an X-38 flight on February 6, 1999. The SODAR system has also provided important postflight data for X-38 engineers to review the performance of the parafoil in the presence of strong wind shears near the surface at landing.

  10. Use of low-altitude aerial photography to identify submersed aquatic macrophytes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Donald W.; Manny, Bruce A.; Brown, Charles L.; Jaworski, Eugene

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of using low-altitude aerial photography to identify beds of submersed macrophytes is demonstrated. True color aerial photos and collateral ground survey information for submersed aquatic macrophyte beds at 10 sites in the St.Clair-Detroit River system were obtained in September 1978. Using the photos and collateral ground survey information, a dichotomous key was developed for the identification of six classes - beds of five genera of macrophytes and one substrate type. A test was prepared to determine how accurately photo interpreters could identify the six classes. The test required an interpreter to examine an unlabeled, outlined area on photographs and identify it using the key. Six interpreters were tested. One pair of interpreters was trained in the interpretation of a variety of aerial photos, a second pair had field experience in the collection and identification of submersed macrophytes in the river system, and a third pair had neither training in the interpretation of aerial photos nor field experience. The criteria that we developed were applied equally well by the interpretors, regardless of their training or experience. Overall accuracy (i.e., omission errors) of all six classes combined was 68% correct, whereas, overall accuracy of individual classes ranged from 50 to 100% correct. Mapping accuracy (i.e. omission and commission errors) of individual classes ranged from 36 to 75%. Although the key developed for this study has only limited application outside the context of the data and sites examined in this study, it is concluded that low-altitude aerial photography, together with limited amounts of collateral ground survey information, can be used to economically identify beds of submersed macrophytes in the St. Clair-Detroit River system and other similar water bodies.

  11. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  12. D Surface Generation from Aerial Thermal Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodaei, B.; Samadzadegan, F.; Dadras Javan, F.; Hasani, H.

    2015-12-01

    Aerial thermal imagery has been recently applied to quantitative analysis of several scenes. For the mapping purpose based on aerial thermal imagery, high accuracy photogrammetric process is necessary. However, due to low geometric resolution and low contrast of thermal imaging sensors, there are some challenges in precise 3D measurement of objects. In this paper the potential of thermal video in 3D surface generation is evaluated. In the pre-processing step, thermal camera is geometrically calibrated using a calibration grid based on emissivity differences between the background and the targets. Then, Digital Surface Model (DSM) generation from thermal video imagery is performed in four steps. Initially, frames are extracted from video, then tie points are generated by Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) algorithm. Bundle adjustment is then applied and the camera position and orientation parameters are determined. Finally, multi-resolution dense image matching algorithm is used to create 3D point cloud of the scene. Potential of the proposed method is evaluated based on thermal imaging cover an industrial area. The thermal camera has 640×480 Uncooled Focal Plane Array (UFPA) sensor, equipped with a 25 mm lens which mounted in the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The obtained results show the comparable accuracy of 3D model generated based on thermal images with respect to DSM generated from visible images, however thermal based DSM is somehow smoother with lower level of texture. Comparing the generated DSM with the 9 measured GCPs in the area shows the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) value is smaller than 5 decimetres in both X and Y directions and 1.6 meters for the Z direction.

  13. Aerial thermography in archaeological prospection: Applications & processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cool, Autumn Chrysantha

    Aerial thermography is one of the least utilized archaeological prospection methods, yet it has great potential for detecting anthropogenic anomalies. Thermal infrared radiation is absorbed and reemitted at varying rates by all objects on and within the ground depending upon their density, composition, and moisture content. If an area containing archaeological features is recorded at the moment when their thermal signatures most strongly contrast with that of the surrounding matrix, they can be visually identified in thermal images. Research conducted in the 1960s and 1970s established a few basic rules for conducting thermal survey, but the expense associated with the method deterred most archaeologists from using this technology. Subsequent research was infrequent and almost exclusively appeared in the form of case studies. However, as the current proliferation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and compact thermal cameras draws renewed attention to aerial thermography as an attractive and exciting form of survey, it is appropriate and necessary to reevaluate our approach. In this thesis I have taken a two-pronged approach. First, I built upon the groundwork of earlier researchers and created an experiment to explore the impact that different environmental and climatic conditions have on the success or failure of thermal imaging. I constructed a test site designed to mimic a range of archaeological features and imaged it under a variety of conditions to compare and contrast the results. Second, I explored a new method for processing thermal data that I hope will lead to a means of reducing noise and increasing the clarity of thermal images. This step was done as part of a case study so that the effectiveness of the processing method could be evaluated by comparison with the results of other geophysical surveys.

  14. BOREAS Level-0 C-130 Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominguez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), C-130 and other aerial photography was collected to provide finely detailed and spatially extensive documentation of the condition of the primary study sites. The NASA C-130 Earth Resources aircraft can accommodate two mapping cameras during flight, each of which can be fitted with 6- or 12-inch focal-length lenses and black-and-white, natural-color, or color-IR film, depending upon requirements. Both cameras were often in operation simultaneously, although sometimes only the lower resolution camera was deployed. When both cameras were in operation, the higher resolution camera was often used in a more limited fashion. The acquired photography covers the period of April to September 1994. The aerial photography was delivered as rolls of large format (9 x 9 inch) color transparency prints, with imagery from multiple missions (hundreds of prints) often contained within a single roll. A total of 1533 frames were collected from the C-130 platform for BOREAS in 1994. Note that the level-0 C-130 transparencies are not contained on the BOREAS CD-ROM set. An inventory file is supplied on the CD-ROM to inform users of all the data that were collected. Some photographic prints were made from the transparencies. In addition, BORIS staff digitized a subset of the tranparencies and stored the images in JPEG format. The CD-ROM set contains a small subset of the collected aerial photography that were the digitally scanned and stored as JPEG files for most tower and auxiliary sites in the NSA and SSA. See Section 15 for information about how to acquire additional imagery.

  15. Aeolic vibration of aerial electricity transmission cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, A.; Rodriguez-Vera, Ramon; Rayas, Juan A.; Barrientos, Bernardino

    2005-02-01

    A feasibility study for amplitude and frequency vibration measurement in aerial electricity transmission cable has been made. This study was carried out incorporating a fringe projection method for the experimental part and horizontal taut string model for theoretical one. However, this kind of model ignores some inherent properties such as cable sag and cable inclination. Then, this work reports advances on aeolic vibration considering real cables. Catenary and sag are considered in our theoretical model in such a way that an optical theodolite for measuring has been used. Preliminary measurements of the catenary as well as numerical simulation of a sagged cable vibration are given.

  16. Aerial view of Runway 33 at SLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This aerial view shows the approach on Runway 33 at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility. The runway is 15,000 feet long, with 1,000-foot paved overruns at each end; 300 feet wide (about length of football field), with 50-foot asphalt shoulders each side; 16 inches thick in the center, and 15 inches thick on sides. It has a slope of 24 inches from the center line to the edge for drainage. The single landing strip is considered two runways, depending on approach -- Runway 15 from northwest, Runway 33 from southeast.

  17. Aerial views of the San Andreas Fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, M.

    1988-01-01

    These aerial photographs of the San Andreas fault were taken in 1965 by Robert E. Wallace of the U.S Geological Survey. The pictures were taken with a Rolliflex camera on 20 format black and white flim; Wallace was aboard a light, fixed-wing aircraft, flying mostly at low altitudes. He photographed the fault from San Francisco near its north end where it enters by the Salton Sea. These images represent only a sampling of the more than 300 images prodcued during this project. All the photographs reside in the U.S Geological Survey Library in Menlo Park, California. 

  18. Robust crack detection strategies for aerial inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldea, Emanuel; Le Hégarat, Sylvie

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we evaluate the relevance of current state of the art algorithms widely employed in the detection of cracks, for the specific context of aerial inspection, which is characterized by image quality degradation. In this study we focus on minimal cost path and on Marked Point Process algorithms, and we test their resilience to motion blur. The results show that the current strategies for defect detection are sensitive to the quality of input images; alternatively, we suggest some improvements based on a-contrario methods that are able to cope with significant motion blur.

  19. Aerial view of the Press Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In this aerial view, The News Center sits beyond a large parking lot, on a hill at the northeastern end of the Launch Complex 39 Area , next to the turn basin (at left). From left, the grandstand faces the launch pads several miles away on the Atlantic seashore; behind it, the television studio is the site of media conferences; next, the large white-roofed building is the hub of information and activity for press representatives. Lined up on the right of the Press Site are various buildings and trailers, home to major news networks. The parking lot can accommodate the hundreds of media personnel who attend Space Shuttle launches.

  20. Development of the unmanned aerial vehicle flight recorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walendziuk, Wojciech; Kwasniewski, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    This work presents a telemetric flight recorder which can be used in unmanned aerial vehicles. The device can store GPS position and altitude, measured with the use of pressure sensor HP03M, a flying platform. The most important subassembly of the recorder is an M2M family device H24 modem developed by Telit company. The modem interface communicates with the use of UART interface and AT commands. The autonomic work is provided by a microcontroller which is master component of the recorder. The ATmega 664P-AU from AVR family microcontrollers developed by Atmel is used. The functionality of the measurement system was developed in such a way that a GSM module can send current position to the base station on demand. In the paper the general description of the device and achieved results of tests are presented.