Science.gov

Sample records for aerial take-off posture

  1. Behaviour of coconut mites preceding take-off to passive aerial dispersal.

    PubMed

    Melo, J W S; Lima, D B; Sabelis, M W; Pallini, A; Gondim, M G C

    2014-12-01

    For more than three decades the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis Keifer is one of the most important pests of coconut palms and has recently spread to many coconut production areas worldwide. Colonization of coconut palms is thought to arise from mites dispersing aerially after take-off from other plants within the same plantation or other plantations. The underlying dispersal behaviour of the mite at take-off, in the airborne state and after landing is largely unknown and this is essential to understand how they spread from tree to tree. In this article we studied whether take-off to aerial dispersal of coconut mites is preceded by characteristic behaviour, whether there is a correlation between the body position preceding aerial dispersal and the direction of the wind, and whether the substrate (outer surface of coconut bracts or epidermis) and the wind speed matter to the decision to take-off. We found that take-off can sometimes be preceded by a raised body stance, but more frequently take-off occurs while the mite is walking or resting on its substrate. Coconut mites that become airborne assumed a body stance that had no relation to the wind direction. Take-off was suppressed on a substrate providing food to coconut mites, but occurred significantly more frequently on the outer surface of coconut bracts than on the surface of the fruit. For both substrates, take-off frequency increased with wind speed. We conclude that coconut mites have at least some degree of control over take-off for aerial dispersal and that there is as yet no reason to infer that a raised body stance is necessary to become airborne.

  2. Effect of posture on the aerodynamic characteristics during take-off in ski jumping.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Keizo; Tsubokura, Makoto; Ikeda, Jun; Onishi, Keiji; Baleriola, Sophie

    2016-11-07

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of posture of a ski jumper on aerodynamic characteristics during the take-off using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The CFD method adopted for this study was based on Large-Eddy Simulation. Body surface data were obtained by 3-D laser scanning of an active ski jumper. Based on video analysis of the actual take-off movement, two sets of motion data were generated (world-class jumper A and less-experienced jumper B). The inlet flow velocity that corresponds to the in-run velocity in actual ski jumping was set to 23.23m/s in the CFD. The aerodynamic force, flow velocity, and vortexes for each model were compared between models. The total drag force acting upon jumper A was lower than that acting upon jumper B through the whole movement. Regarding the total lift force, although jumper A׳s total lift force was less in the in-run posture, it became greater than that of jumper B at the end of the movement. In the latter half of the movement, low air-speed domain expansion was observed at the model׳s back. This domain of jumper B was larger. There were two symmetric vortexes in the wake of jumper A, but the disordered vortexes were observed behind the jumper B. In the case of jumper A, these two distinct vortexes generated by the arms produced a downwash flow in the wake. It is considered that the positioning of the arms in a very low position strongly influences the flow structure.

  3. Lightweight Vertical Take-Off & Landing Unmanned Aerial Systems For Local-Scale Forestry and Agriculture Remote Sensing Data Collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putman, E.; Sheridan, R.; Popescu, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    The evolution of lightweight Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) rotary Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and remote sensor technologies have provided researchers with the ability to integrate compact remote sensing systems with UAVs to create Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) capable of collecting high-resolution airborne remote sensing data. UASs offer a myriad of benefits. Some of the most notable include: (1) reduced operational cost; (2) reduced lead-time for mission planning; (3) high-resolution and high-density data collection; and (4) customization of data collection intervals to fit the needs of a specific project (i.e. acquiring data at hourly, daily, or weekly intervals). Such benefits allow researchers and natural resource managers to acquire airborne remote sensing data on local-scale phenomenon in ways that were previously cost-prohibitive. VTOL UASs also offer a stable platform capable of low speed low altitude flight over small spatial scales that do not require a dedicated runway. Such flight characteristics allow VTOL UASs to collect high-resolution data at very high densities, enabling the use of structure from motion (SFM) techniques to generate three-dimensional datasets from photographs. When combined, these characteristics make VTOL UASs ideal for collecting data over agricultural or forested research areas. The goal of this study is to provide an overview of several lightweight eight-rotor VTOL UASs designed for small-scale forest remote sensing data collection. Specific objectives include: (1) the independent integration of a lightweight multispectral camera, a lightweight scanning lidar sensor, with required components (i.e. IMU, GPS, data logger) and the UAV; (2) comparison of UAS-collected data to terrestrial lidar data and airborne multispectral and lidar data; (3) comparison of UAS SFM techniques to terrestrial lidar data; and (4) multi-temporal assessment of tree decay using terrestrial lidar and UAS SfM techniques.

  4. SR-71 Taking Off

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    One of three U.S. Air Force SR-71 reconnaissance aircraft originally retired from operational service and loaned to NASA for a high-speed research program retracts its landing gear after taking off from NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, on a 1990 research flight. One of the SR-71As was later returned to the Air Force for active duty in 1995. Data from the SR-71 high-speed research program will be used to aid designers of future supersonic/hypersonic aircraft and propulsion systems. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of

  5. Apollo - Lunar Take Off Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    Lunar Take Off Simulator: This simulator is used by scientists at the Langley Research Center ... to help determine human ability to control a lunar launch vehicle in vertical alignment during takeoff from the moon for rendezvous with a lunar satellite vehicle on the return trip to earth. The three-axis chair, a concept which allows the pilot to sit upright during launch, gives the navigator angular motion (pitch, role, and yaw) cues as he operates the vehicle through a sidearm control system. The sight apparatus in front of the pilot's face enables him to align the vehicle on a course toward a chosen star, which will be followed as a guidance reference during the lunar launch. The pilot's right hand controls angular motions, while his left hand manipulates the thrust lever. The simulator is designed for operation inside an artificial planetarium, where a star field will be projected against the ceiling during 'flights'. The tests are part of an extensive NASA program at Langley in the study of problems relating to a manned lunar mission. (From a NASA Langley, photo release caption.)

  6. Aerodynamics of a beetle in take-off flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Boogeon; Park, Hyungmin; Kim, Sun-Tae

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, we investigate the aerodynamics of a beetle in its take-off flights based on the three-dimensional kinematics of inner (hindwing) and outer (elytron) wings, and body postures, which are measured with three high-speed cameras at 2000 fps. To track the highly deformable wing motions, we distribute 21 morphological markers and use the modified direct linear transform algorithm for the reconstruction of measured wing motions. To realize different take-off conditions, we consider two types of take-off flights; that is, one is the take-off from a flat ground and the other is from a vertical rod mimicking a branch of a tree. It is first found that the elytron which is flapped passively due to the motion of hindwing also has non-negligible wing-kinematic parameters. With the ground, the flapping amplitude of elytron is reduced and the hindwing changes its flapping angular velocity during up and downstrokes. On the other hand, the angle of attack on the elytron and hindwing increases and decreases, respectively, due to the ground. These changes in the wing motion are critically related to the aerodynamic force generation, which will be discussed in detail. Supported by the grant to Bio-Mimetic Robot Research Center funded by Defense Acquisition Program Administration (UD130070ID).

  7. The stimuli evoking the aerial-righting posture of falling pea aphids.

    PubMed

    Meresman, Yonatan; Ribak, Gal; Weihs, Daniel; Inbar, Moshe

    2014-10-01

    Some wingless insects possess aerial righting reflexes, suggesting that adaptation for controlling body orientation while falling through air could have preceded flight. When threatened by natural enemies, wingless pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) may drop off their host plant and assume a stereotypic posture that rotates them in midair to land on their feet. The sensory information triggering aphids to assume this posture has so far been unknown. We subjected aphids to a series of tests, isolating the sensory cues experienced during free-fall. Falling aphids assumed the righting posture and landed upright irrespective of whether the experiments were carried out in the light or in complete darkness. Detachment of the tarsi from the substrate triggered the aphids to assume the posture rapidly, but only for a brief period. Rotation (mainly roll and yaw) of the body in air, in the light, caused aphids to assume the posture and remain in it throughout rotation. In contrast, aphids rotated in the dark did not respond. Acceleration associated with falling or airflow over the body per se did not trigger the posture. However, sensing motion relative to air heightened the aphids' responsiveness to rotation in the light. These results suggest that the righting posture of aphids is triggered by a tarsal reflex, but, once the aphid is airborne, vision and a sense of motion relative to air can augment the response. Hence, aerial righting in a wingless insect could have emerged as a basic tarsal response and developed further to include secondary sensory cues typical of falling.

  8. Take-off mechanics in hummingbirds (Trochilidae).

    PubMed

    Tobalske, Bret W; Altshuler, Douglas L; Powers, Donald R

    2004-03-01

    Initiating flight is challenging, and considerable effort has focused on understanding the energetics and aerodynamics of take-off for both machines and animals. For animal flight, the available evidence suggests that birds maximize their initial flight velocity using leg thrust rather than wing flapping. The smallest birds, hummingbirds (Order Apodiformes), are unique in their ability to perform sustained hovering but have proportionally small hindlimbs that could hinder generation of high leg thrust. Understanding the take-off flight of hummingbirds can provide novel insight into the take-off mechanics that will be required for micro-air vehicles. During take-off by hummingbirds, we measured hindlimb forces on a perch mounted with strain gauges and filmed wingbeat kinematics with high-speed video. Whereas other birds obtain 80-90% of their initial flight velocity using leg thrust, the leg contribution in hummingbirds was 59% during autonomous take-off. Unlike other species, hummingbirds beat their wings several times as they thrust using their hindlimbs. In a phylogenetic context, our results show that reduced body and hindlimb size in hummingbirds limits their peak acceleration during leg thrust and, ultimately, their take-off velocity. Previously, the influence of motivational state on take-off flight performance has not been investigated for any one organism. We studied the full range of motivational states by testing performance as the birds took off: (1) to initiate flight autonomously, (2) to escape a startling stimulus or (3) to aggressively chase a conspecific away from a feeder. Motivation affected performance. Escape and aggressive take-off featured decreased hindlimb contribution (46% and 47%, respectively) and increased flight velocity. When escaping, hummingbirds foreshortened their body movement prior to onset of leg thrust and began beating their wings earlier and at higher frequency. Thus, hummingbirds are capable of modulating their leg and

  9. The calculation of take-off run

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, Walter S

    1934-01-01

    A comparatively simple method of calculating length of take-off run is developed from the assumption of a linear variation in net accelerating force with air speed and it is shown that the error involved is negligible.

  10. Take-off and propeller thrust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrenk, Martin

    1933-01-01

    As a result of previous reports, it was endeavored to obtain, along with the truest possible comprehension of the course of thrust, a complete, simple and clear formula for the whole take-off distance up to a certain altitude, which shall give the correct relative weight to all the factors.

  11. Optimum take-off angle in the long jump.

    PubMed

    Linthorne, Nicholas P; Guzman, Maurice S; Bridgett, Lisa A

    2005-07-01

    In this study, we found that the optimum take-off angle for a long jumper may be predicted by combining the equation for the range of a projectile in free flight with the measured relations between take-off speed, take-off height and take-off angle for the athlete. The prediction method was evaluated using video measurements of three experienced male long jumpers who performed maximum-effort jumps over a wide range of take-off angles. To produce low take-off angles the athletes used a long and fast run-up, whereas higher take-off angles were produced using a progressively shorter and slower run-up. For all three athletes, the take-off speed decreased and the take-off height increased as the athlete jumped with a higher take-off angle. The calculated optimum take-off angles were in good agreement with the athletes' competition take-off angles.

  12. Development of new antibiotics: taking off finally?

    PubMed

    Bettiol, Esther; Harbarth, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Since 2010, awareness of the global threat caused by antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has risen considerably and multiple policy and research initiatives have been implemented. Research and development (R&D) of much-needed new antibiotics active against multiresistant pathogens is a key component of all programmes aiming at fighting AMR, but it has been lagging behind owing to scientific, regulatory and economic challenges. Although a few new antibiotics might be available in Switzerland in the next 5 years, these new agents are not based on new mechanisms of action and are not necessarily active against resistant pathogens for which there is the highest unmet medical need, i.e. multiresistant Gram-negative bacteria. Of the three new antibiotics with pending authorisation in Switzerland for systemic treatment of severe infections, oritavancin and tedizolid target Gram-positive pathogens, while only ceftolozane+tazobactam partially covers multiresistant Gram-negative pathogens. Among six antibiotics currently in phase III of clinical development, delafloxacin and solithromycin will also be useful mostly for Gram-positive infections. Importantly, the four other compounds are active against multiresistant Gram-negative pathogens: ceftazidime+avibactam, meropenem+RPX7009, eravacycline and plazomicin. The three last compounds are also active against carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). A few compounds active against such pathogens are currently in earlier clinical development, but their number may decrease, considering the risk of failure over the course of clinical development. At last, through public and political awareness of pathogens with high public health impact and unmet medical need, development of innovative economic incentives and updated regulatory guidance, R&D of new antibiotics is slowly taking off again.

  13. Pathfinder aircraft taking off from ground - side view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This 27-second video clip shows the Pathfinder taking off from Rogers Dry Lakebed near the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center on Edwards Air Force Base. Shown from the lakebed side, the video shows Edwards and Dryden in the background.

  14. Analysis and Model Tests of Autogiro Jump Take-off

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheatley, John B; Bioletti, Carlton

    1936-01-01

    An analysis is made of the autogiro jump take-off, in which the kinetic energy of the rotor turning at excess speed is used to effect a vertical take-off. By the use of suitable approximations, the differential equation of motion of the rotor during this maneuver is reduced to a form that can be solved. Only the vertical jump was studied; the effect of a forward motion during the jump is discussed briefly. The results of model tests of the jump take-off have been incorporated in the paper and used to establish the relative accuracy of the results predicted from the analysis. Good agreement between calculation and experiment was obtained by making justifiable allowances.

  15. Take-off Distances of a Supersonic Transport Configuration as Affected by Airplane Rotation During the Take-off Run

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Albert W.

    1961-01-01

    The take-off distances over a 35-foot obstacle have been determined for a supersonic transport configuration characterized by a low maximum lift coefficient at a high angle of attack and by high drag due to lift. These distances were determined analytically by means of an electronic digital computer. The effects of rotation speed, rotation angle, and rotation time were determined. A few configuration changes were made to determine the effects of thrust-weight ratio, wing loading, maximum lift coefficient, and induced drag on the take-off distance. The required runway lengths based on Special Civil Air Regulation No. SR-422B were determined for various values of rotation speed and compared with those based on full engine power. Increasing or decreasing the rotation speed as much as 5 knots from the value at which the minimum take-off distance occurred increased the distance only slightly more than 1 percent for the configuration studied. Under-rotation by 1 deg to 1.5 deg increased the take-off distance by 9 to 15 percent. Increasing the time required for rotation from 3 to 5 seconds had a rather small effect on the take-off distance when the values of rotation speed were near the values which result in the shortest take-off distance. When the runway length is based on full engine power rather than on SR-422B, the rotation speed which results in the shortest required runway length is 10 knots lower and the runway length is 4.3 percent less.

  16. Tick off to Take off: The Pre-Departure Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Erica

    2009-01-01

    "Tick Off to Take Off (TOTTO)" is an online pre-departure guide for UK undergraduates intending to study abroad. It aims to simplify the application process, centralise information, increase efficiency and improve retention rates. TOTTO responds to the changing climate surrounding study abroad in UK universities and offers one way to…

  17. Power take-off analysis for diagonally connected MHD channels

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Y C; Doss, E D

    1980-01-01

    The electrical loading of the power take-off region of diagonally connected MHD channels is investigated by a two-dimensional model. The study examines the loading schemes typical of those proposed for the U-25 and U-25 Bypass channels. The model is applicable for the following four cases: (1) connection with diodes only, (2) connection with diodes and equal resistors, (3) connection with diodes and variable resistances to obtain a given current distribution, and (4) connection with diodes and variable resistors under changing load. The analysis is applicable for the power take-off regions of single or multiple-output systems. The general behaviors of the current and the potential distributions in all four cases are discussed. The analytical results are in good agreement with the experimental data. It is found possible to design the electrical circuit of the channel in the take-off region so as to achieve a fairly even load current output under changing total load current.

  18. Touchdown to take-off: at the interface of flight and surface locomotion.

    PubMed

    Roderick, William R T; Cutkosky, Mark R; Lentink, David

    2017-02-06

    Small aerial robots are limited to short mission times because aerodynamic and energy conversion efficiency diminish with scale. One way to extend mission times is to perch, as biological flyers do. Beyond perching, small robot flyers benefit from manoeuvring on surfaces for a diverse set of tasks, including exploration, inspection and collection of samples. These opportunities have prompted an interest in bimodal aerial and surface locomotion on both engineered and natural surfaces. To accomplish such novel robot behaviours, recent efforts have included advancing our understanding of the aerodynamics of surface approach and take-off, the contact dynamics of perching and attachment and making surface locomotion more efficient and robust. While current aerial robots show promise, flying animals, including insects, bats and birds, far surpass them in versatility, reliability and robustness. The maximal size of both perching animals and robots is limited by scaling laws for both adhesion and claw-based surface attachment. Biomechanists can use the current variety of specialized robots as inspiration for probing unknown aspects of bimodal animal locomotion. Similarly, the pitch-up landing manoeuvres and surface attachment techniques of animals can offer an evolutionary design guide for developing robots that perch on more diverse and complex surfaces.

  19. Biomechanical and dynamic mechanism of locust take-off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dian-Sheng; Yin, Jun-Mao; Chen, Ke-Wei; Li, Zhen

    2014-10-01

    The biomimetic locust robot hopping vehicle has promising applications in planet exploration and reconnaissance. This paper explores the bionic dynamics model of locust jumping by using high-speed video and force analysis. This paper applies hybrid rigid-flexible mechanisms to bionic locust hopping and studies its dynamics with emphasis laid on the relationship between force and jumping performance. The hybrid rigid-flexible model is introduced in the analysis of locust mechanism to address the principles of dynamics that govern locust joints and mechanisms during energy storage and take-off. The dynamic response of the biomimetic mechanism is studied by considering the flexibility according to the locust jumping dynamics mechanism. A multi-rigid-body dynamics model of locust jumping is established and analyzed based on Lagrange method; elastic knee and tarsus mechanisms that were proposed in previous works are analyzed alongside the original bionic joint configurations and their machinery principles. This work offers primary theories for take-off dynamics and establishes a theoretical basis for future studies and engineering applications.

  20. Whiteflies stabilize their take-off with closed wings.

    PubMed

    Ribak, Gal; Dafni, Eyal; Gerling, Dan

    2016-06-01

    The transition from ground to air in flying animals is often assisted by the legs pushing against the ground as the wings start to flap. Here, we show that when tiny whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci, body length ca. 1 mm) perform take-off jumps with closed wings, the abrupt push against the ground sends the insect into the air rotating forward in the sagittal (pitch) plane. However, in the air, B. tabaci can recover from this rotation remarkably fast (less than 11 ms), even before spreading its wings and flapping. The timing of body rotation in air, a simplified biomechanical model and take-off in insects with removed wings all suggest that the wings, resting backwards alongside the body, stabilize motion through air to prevent somersaulting. The increased aerodynamic force at the posterior tip of the body results in a pitching moment that stops body rotation. Wing deployment increases the pitching moment further, returning the body to a suitable angle for flight. This inherent stabilizing mechanism is made possible by the wing shape and size, in which half of the wing area is located behind the posterior tip of the abdomen.

  1. Take Off! Aeronautics and Aviation Science: Careers and Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Funded by National Aeronautic and Space Administration's High Performance Computing and Communications/ Learning Technologies Project (HPCC/LTP) Cooperative Agreement, Aeronautics and aviation Science: Careers and Opportunities was operative from July 1995 through July 1998. This project operated as a collaboration with Massachusetts Corporation for Educational Telecommunications, the Federal Aviation Administration, Bridgewater State College and four targeted "core sites" in the greater Boston area: Dorchester, Malden, East Boston and Randolph. In its first and second years, a video series with a participatory website on aeronautics and aviation science was developed and broadcast via "live, interactive" satellite feed. Accompanying teacher and student supplementary instructional materials for grades 6-12 were produced and disseminated by the Massachusetts Corporation for Educational Telecommunications (MCET). In year three, the project team redesigned the website, edited 14 videos to a five part thematic unit, and developed a teacher's guide to the video and web materials supplement for MAC and PC platforms, aligned with national standards. In the MCET grant application it states that project Take Off! in its initial phase would recruit and train teachers at "core" sites in the greater Boston area, as well as opening participation to other on-line users of MCET's satellite feeds. "Core site" classrooms would become equipped so that teachers and students might become engaged in an interactive format which aimed at not only involving the students during the "live" broadcast of the instructional video series, but which would encourage participation in electronic information gathering and sharing among participants. As a Take Off! project goal, four schools with a higher than average proportion of minority and underrepresented youth were invited to become involved with the project to give these students the opportunity to consider career exploration and development

  2. Altus I aircraft taking off from lakebed runway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The remotely-piloted Altus I aircraft takes off from Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. The short series of test flights sponsored by the Naval Postgraduate School in early August, 1997, were designed to demonstrate the ability of the experimental craft to cruise at altitudes above 40,000 feet for sustained durations. On its final flight Aug. 15, the Altus I reached an altitude of 43,500 feet. The Altus I and its sister ship, the Altus II, are variants of the Predator surveillance drone built by General Atomics/Aeronautical Systems, Inc. They are designed for high-altitude, long-duration scientific sampling missions, and are powered by turbocharged piston engines. The Altus I incorporates a single-stage turbocharger, while the Altus II, built for NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology program, sports a two-stage turbocharger to enable the craft to fly at altitudes above 55,000 feet.

  3. Theseus on Take-off for First Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Theseus prototype research aircraft takes off for its first test flight from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on May 24, 1996. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite-based global environmental change measurements. Dryden

  4. Rans S-12 RPV Takes off with Spacewedge #2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A Rans S-12 remotely piloted 'mothership' takes off from a lakebed runway carrying a Spacewedge research model during 1992 flight tests. The Spacewedge was lauched in flight from the Rans S-12 aircraft and then glided back to a landing under a steerable parafoil. Technology tested in the Spacewedge program was used in developing the X-38 research vehicle. From October 1991 to December 1996, NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (after 1994, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California) conducted a research program know as the Spacecraft Autoland Project. This Project was designed to determine the feasibility of the autonomous recovery of a spacecraft using a ram-air parafoil system for the final stages of flight, including a precision landing. The Johnson Space Center and the U.S. Army participated in various phases of the program. The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory developed the software for Wedge 3 under contract to the Army. Four generic spacecraft (each called a Spacewedge or simply a Wedge) were built; the last one was built to test the feasibility of a parafoil for delivering Army cargoes. Technology developed during this program has applications for future spacecraft recovery systems, such as the X-38 Crew Return Vehicle demonstrator. The Spacewedge program demonstrated precision flare and landing into the wind at a predetermined location. The program showed that a flexible, deployable system using autonomous navigation and landing was a viable and practical way to recover spacecraft. NASA researchers conducted flight tests of the Spacewedge at three sites near Dryden, a hillside near Tehachapi, the Rogers Dry Lakebed at Edwards Air Force Base, and the California City Airport Drop Zone. During the first phase of testing 36 flights were made. Phase II consisted of 45 flights using a smaller parafoil. A third Phase of 34 flights was conducted primarily by the Army and resulted in the development of an Army guidance system for precision offset

  5. Effect of Accessory Power Take-off Variation on a Turbofan Engine Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-26

    EFFECT OF ACCESSORY POWER TAKE-OFF VARIATION ON A TURBOFAN ENGINE PERFORMANCE THESIS...ACCESSORY POWER TAKE-OFF VARIATIONS ON A TURBOFAN ENGINE PERFORMANCE DISSERTATION Presented to the Faculty Department of Aeronautics and...TURBOFAN ENGINE PERFORMANCE Anis Faidi, BS 1st Lieutenant, TUNAF Approved

  6. The Transition Phase in the Take-Off of an Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetmore, J W

    1938-01-01

    Report presents the results of an investigation to determine the character and importance of the transition phase between the ground run and steady climb in the take-off of an airplane and the effects of various factors on this phase and on the air-borne part of the take-off as a whole. The information was obtained from a series of step-by-step integrations, which defined the motion of the airplane during the transition and which were based on data derived from actual take-off tests of a Verville AT airplane. Both normal and zoom take-offs under several loading and take-off speed conditions were considered. The effects of a moderate wind with a corresponding wind gradient and the effect of proximity of the ground were also investigated.

  7. Ground Effect on the Take-off and Landing of Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Sueur, Maurice

    1935-01-01

    Theories of ground effect and interference are explored as well as experimental methods to record the phenomenon. The consequences of the phenomenon on the airplane at take-off and landing are discussed.

  8. ROCKETS OR JATO JET ASSISTED TAKE OFF UNITS AT THE HIGH PRESSURE COMBUSTION FACILITY - STATIC FIRING

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1946-01-01

    ROCKETS OR JATO JET ASSISTED TAKE OFF UNITS AT THE HIGH PRESSURE COMBUSTION FACILITY - STATIC FIRING OF NITRIC ACID ANILINE ROCKET - PERMANGANATE PER OXIDE ROCKET SETUP INCLUDING TWO VIEWS THROUGH CONTROL ROOM SAFETY WINDOW

  9. 40 CFR 1037.525 - Special procedures for testing hybrid vehicles with power take-off.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and Modeling Procedures § 1037.525 Special procedures for testing hybrid vehicles with power take-off... additional restrictions, instrument the vehicle with pressure transducers at the outlet of the hydraulic...

  10. Hybrid vehicle powertrain system with power take-off driven vehicle accessory

    DOEpatents

    Beaty, Kevin D.; Bockelmann, Thomas R.; Zou, Zhanijang; Hope, Mark E.; Kang, Xiaosong; Carpenter, Jeffrey L.

    2006-09-12

    A hybrid vehicle powertrain system includes a first prime mover, a first prime mover driven power transmission mechanism having a power take-off adapted to drive a vehicle accessory, and a second prime mover. The second prime mover is operable to drive the power transmission mechanism alone or in combination with the first prime mover to provide power to the power take-off through the power transmission mechanism. The invention further includes methods for operating a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  11. Wing and body motion and aerodynamic and leg forces during take-off in droneflies

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mao Wei; Zhang, Yan Lai; Sun, Mao

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present a detailed analysis of the take-off mechanics in droneflies performing voluntary take-offs. Wing and body kinematics of the insects during take-off were measured using high-speed video techniques. Based on the measured data, the inertia force acting on the insect was computed and the aerodynamic force of the wings was calculated by the method of computational fluid dynamics. Subtracting the aerodynamic force and the weight from the inertia force gave the leg force. In take-off, a dronefly increases its stroke amplitude gradually in the first 10–14 wingbeats and becomes airborne at about the 12th wingbeat. The aerodynamic force increases monotonously from zero to a value a little larger than its weight, and the leg force decreases monotonously from a value equal to its weight to zero, showing that the droneflies do not jump and only use aerodynamic force of flapping wings to lift themselves into the air. Compared with take-offs in insects in previous studies, in which a very large force (5–10 times of the weight) generated either by jumping legs (locusts, milkweed bugs and fruit flies) or by the ‘fling’ mechanism of the wing pair (butterflies) is used in a short time, the take-off in the droneflies is relatively slow but smoother. PMID:24132205

  12. Wing and body motion and aerodynamic and leg forces during take-off in droneflies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mao Wei; Zhang, Yan Lai; Sun, Mao

    2013-12-06

    Here, we present a detailed analysis of the take-off mechanics in droneflies performing voluntary take-offs. Wing and body kinematics of the insects during take-off were measured using high-speed video techniques. Based on the measured data, the inertia force acting on the insect was computed and the aerodynamic force of the wings was calculated by the method of computational fluid dynamics. Subtracting the aerodynamic force and the weight from the inertia force gave the leg force. In take-off, a dronefly increases its stroke amplitude gradually in the first 10-14 wingbeats and becomes airborne at about the 12th wingbeat. The aerodynamic force increases monotonously from zero to a value a little larger than its weight, and the leg force decreases monotonously from a value equal to its weight to zero, showing that the droneflies do not jump and only use aerodynamic force of flapping wings to lift themselves into the air. Compared with take-offs in insects in previous studies, in which a very large force (5-10 times of the weight) generated either by jumping legs (locusts, milkweed bugs and fruit flies) or by the 'fling' mechanism of the wing pair (butterflies) is used in a short time, the take-off in the droneflies is relatively slow but smoother.

  13. Calculated effect of various types of flap on take-off over obstacles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetmore, J W

    1936-01-01

    In order to determine whether or not flaps could be expected to have any beneficial effect on take-off performance, the distances required to take off and climb to an altitude of 50 feet were calculated for hypothetical airplanes, corresponding to relatively high-speed types and equipped with several types of flap. The types considered are the Fowler wing, the Hall wing, the split flap, the balanced split flap, the plain flap, and the external-airfoil flap. The results indicate that substantial reductions in take-off distance are possible through the use of flaps, provided that the proper flap angle corresponding to a given set of conditions is used. The best flap angle for taking off varies inversely as power loading and, to a much smaller extent, varies inversely with wing loading. Apparently, the best take-off characteristics are provided by the type of device in which the flap forms an extension to the main wing as in the case of the Fowler wing and the external-airfoil flap.

  14. Functional evolution of jumping in frogs: Interspecific differences in take-off and landing.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Stephen M; Montuelle, Stephane J; Schmidt, André; Krause, Cornelia; Naylor, Emily; Essner, Richard L

    2016-03-01

    Ancestral frogs underwent anatomical shifts including elongation of the hindlimbs and pelvis and reduction of the tail and vertebral column that heralded the transition to jumping as a primary mode of locomotion. Jumping has been hypothesized to have evolved in a step-wise fashion with basal frogs taking-off with synchronous hindlimb extension and crash-landing on their bodies, and then their limbs move forward. Subsequently, frogs began to recycle the forelimbs forward earlier in the jump to control landing. Frogs with forelimb landing radiated into many forms, locomotor modes, habitats, and niches with controlled landing thought to improve escape behavior. While the biology of take-off behavior has seen considerable study, interspecific comparisons of take-off and landing behavior are limited. In order to understand the evolution of jumping and controlled landing in frogs, data are needed on the movements of the limbs and body across an array of taxa. Here, we present the first description and comparison of kinematics of the hindlimbs, forelimbs and body during take-off and landing in relation to ground reaction forces in four frog species spanning the frog phylogeny. The goal of this study is to understand what interspecific differences reveal about the evolution of take-off and controlled landing in frogs. We provide the first comparative description of the entire process of jumping in frogs. Statistical comparisons identify both homologous behaviors and significant differences among species that are used to map patterns of trait evolution and generate hypotheses regarding the functional evolution of take-off and landing in frogs.

  15. Neutral start circuit for a vehicle including a power take-off assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, R.A. Jr.

    1987-03-17

    This patent describes a starting circuit adapted for use in a tractor having a transmission shiftable among Neutral and various GEAR conditions and a power take-off including a mechanically engaged, electrically held clutch. The circuit comprises: an ignition switch having separate first and second outputs and switching element movable among an OFF position, a START position for energizing both outputs and a RUN position for energizing only the first output; a start relay including a grounded start coil, a first relay input, a second relay input, a relay output and a relay switch element normally connecting the second relay input to the relay output and being responsive to energization of the relay coil for connecting the first relay input to the relay output; a power take-off switch connected between the first ignition switch output and the start coil and adapted for being closed only when the power take-off clutch is disengaged; a transmission switch connected between the second ignition switch output and the first start relay input and adapted to be closed only when the tractor transmission is in its Neutral condition; the output of the start relay being adapted for connection to a starter solenoid; and a power take-off engagement indicator lamp coupled directly to the first output of the ignition switch and the second input of the start relay and effecting, when lit, a drop in voltage sufficient to prevent energization of a starter embodying the starter solenoid adapted for connection to the start relay output. The start relay is operable to ensure that the relay output will receive sufficient voltage for effecting starting only if the power take-off and transmission switches are both closed while at the same time establishing a current path for energizing the lamp at all times when the power take-off switch is open.

  16. Measurement of Required Power with Human-Powered Aircraft in Take-off Ground Running

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Toshiaki; Sakamoto, Shinsuke; Hori, Kotono; Kusumoto, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Yasushi; Hattori, Takashi; Sata, Kouta

    In this paper, we propose the method for the measurement of required power and the adjustment of optimum gear ratio in take-off ground running. To get the values of required power and speed, we measured torque of the left side and the right side of pedals, RPM of pedals, and speed of the cockpit frame. In order to improve the take-off speed, some drums were applied, and the optimum gear ratio of the front drum to the rear drum was determined.

  17. A Short Take-Off/Vertical Landing (STOVL) Aircraft Carrier (S-CVX).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-01

    and operation of the modem aircraft carrier, assuming availability of short take-off and vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft, employing gas turbine ship ... propulsion and providing significant capability to support humanitarian operations. In the design study reported here, the authors take a systems

  18. Feasibility study on linear-motor-assisted take-off (LMATO) of winged launch vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatomo, Makoto; Kyotani, Yoshihiro

    1987-11-01

    Application of technology of magnetically levitated transportation to horizontal take-off of an experimental space vehicle has been studied. An experimental system of linear-motor-assisted take-off (LMATO) consists of the HIMES space vehicle and a magnetically levitated and propelled sled which is a modified MLU model developed by the JNR. The original MLU model is a train of three cars which weighs 30 tons and is driven by a thrust of 15 tons. The maximum speed is 400 km/h. The highest speed of 517 km/h has been obtained by the first JNR linear motor car. Since the take-off speed of the HIMES vehicle with the initial mass of 14 tons is 470 km/h, the existing technology can be used for the LMATO of the vehicle. The concept of the HIMES/LMATO is to use the MLU vehicles to accelerate the HIMES vehicle at 0.33 g on a 5 km guide track until the speed reaches 300 km/h, when the rocket engines of the space vehicle are started to increase the acceleration up to 1 g. The total system will take the final checkout for take-off during the acceleration phase and the speed exceeds 470 km/h which is large enough to aerodynamically lift the space vehicle, then the fastening mechanism is unlocked to separate the vehicles. The experimental system can be applied for initial acceleration of a vehicle with air-breathing propulsion.

  19. The calculated effect of various hydrodynamic and aerodynamic factors on the take-off of a large flying boat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, R E; Allison, J M

    1940-01-01

    Report presents the results of an investigation made to determine the influence of various factors on the take-off performance of a hypothetical large flying boat by means of take-off calculations. The factors varied in the calculations were size of hull (load coefficient), wing setting, trim, deflection of flap, wing loading, aspect ratio, and parasite drag. The take-off times and distances were calculated to the stalling speeds and the performance above these speeds was separately studied to determine piloting technique for optimum take-off.

  20. The effect of trim angle on the take-off performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoemaker, James M; Dawson, John R

    1934-01-01

    Data obtained at the N.A.C.A. tank from tests on the models of three flying-boat hulls - N.A.C.A. models 11-A, 16, and 22 - are used to demonstrate the effect of trim angle on water resistance. A specific example is taken, and data from Model 11-A are used to show that the trim angle giving the minimum water resistance will give minimum total air-plus-water resistance. Total-resistance curves for best trimmed angles and other angles are compared for the same example. The effect of wind on best trim angles and upon the take-off and run is shown by the working of an example. The possibility of using tank data on trim angles as aid in piloting is discussed, and an instrument for use in determining the trim angle of seaplanes is described. The importance of maintaining the best trim angle throughout the take-off is indicated.

  1. Use of Internal Coolant as a Means of Permitting Increase in Engine Take-Off Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, Addison M

    1944-01-01

    Engine tests, together with estimates made at Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory, indicate that a 25-percent increase in take-off power can be obtained with present-day aircraft engines without increasing either the knock limit of the fuel or the external cooling requirements of the engine. This increase in power with present fuels and present external cooling is made possible through the use of an internal coolant inducted through the inlet manifold. Estimates on aircraft indicate that this 25-percent increase in power will permit an approximate usable increase of 8.5 percent in the take-off load of existing military airplanes. This increase in load is equivalent to an increase in the weight of gasoline normally carried of between 30 and 65 percent.

  2. Microphysical Properties of Warm Clouds During The Aircraft Take-Off and Landing Over Bucharest, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefan, Sabina; Nicolae Vajaiac, Sorin; Boscornea, Andreea

    2016-06-01

    This paper is focused on airborne measurements of microphysical parameters into warm clouds when the aircraft penetrates the cloud, both during take-off and landing. The experiment was conducted during the aircraft flight between Bucharest and Craiova, in the southern part of Romania. The duration of the experimental flight was 2 hours and 35 minutes in October 7th, 2014, but the present study is dealing solely with the analysis of cloud microphysical properties at the beginning of the experiment (during the aircraft take-off) and at the end, when it got finalized by the aircraft landing procedure. The processing and interpretation of the measurements showed the differences between microphysical parameters, emphasizing that the type of cloud over Bucharest changed, as it was expected. In addition, the results showed that it is important to take into account both the synoptic context and the cloud perturbation due to the velocity of the aircraft, in such cases.

  3. Wave-actuated power take-off device for electricity generation

    SciTech Connect

    Chertok, Allan

    2013-01-31

    Since 2008, Resolute Marine Energy, Inc. (RME) has been engaged in the development of a rigidly moored shallow-water point absorber wave energy converter, the "3D-WEC". RME anticipated that the 3D-WEC configuration with a fully buoyant point absorber buoy coupled to three power take off (PTO) units by a tripod array of tethers would achieve higher power capture than a more conventional 1-D configuration with a single tether and PTO. The investigation conducted under this program and documented herein addressed the following principal research question regarding RME's power take off (PTO) concept for its 3D-WEC: Is RME's winch-driven generator PTO concept, previously implemented at sub-scale and tested at the Ohmsett wave tank facility, scalable in a cost-effective manner to significant power levels e.g., 10 to 100kW?

  4. The take-off of seaplanes, based on a new hydrodynamic reduction theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroder, Paul

    1931-01-01

    The interpretation of the take-off resistance of seaplane floats by model test involves a problem in mechanics, the solution of which forms the basis of this report. The comparison of three float forms is confined to an angle = 5 degree trim run in order to preserve the clearness of the arrangement. But for complete comparison the corresponding curves for several trim runs should be included.

  5. Leg stiffness during phases of countermovement and take-off in vertical jump.

    PubMed

    Struzik, Artur; Zawadzki, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    With respect to cyclic movements such as human gait, running or hopping, leg stiffness is a little variable parameter. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in leg stiffness during the phase of countermovement and take-off when performing a single maximum counter-movement jump. Kistler force plates and a BTS SMART system for comprehensive motion analysis were employed in the study. The study covered a group of 12 athletes from university basketball teams. Leg stiffness was calculated in those parts of countermovement and take-off phases where its level is relatively constant and the relationship F(Δl) is similar to linear one. Mean total stiffness (±SD) in both legs in the countermovement phase amounted to 6.5 ± 1.5 kN/m, whereas during the take-off phase this value was 6.9 ± 1 kN/m. No statistically significant differences were found between leg stiffness during the countermovement phase and takeoff phase in the study group at the level of significance set at α = 0.05. This suggests that the leg stiffness in phase of countermovement and phase of take-off are much similar to each other, despite different function of both phases. Similar to cyclic movements, leg stiffness turned out relatively constant when performing a single vertical jump. There are also reported statistically significant correlations between body mass, body height, length of lower limbs and leg stiffness. The stiffness analysed by the authors should be understood as quasi-stiffness because the measurements of ΔF(Δl) were made during transient states where inertia and dumping forces are likely to affect the final result.

  6. High Take Off Left Main and Abnormal Origin of Right Coronary Artery: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Negar; Abdi, Seyfollah; Pouraliakba, Hamid Reza; Vakili-Zarch, Anoushiravan

    2013-01-01

    Coronary anomalies are rare congenital disorders with mostly benign course. We report a case of 54-year-old white male who was with stable angina scheduled for coronary angiography. Due to the difficulty of catheterization, patient underwent CT angiography and high take off left main and right coronary arteries were revealed. We conclude that anomalous coronary arteries are important and coronary interventions may be difficult in their presence.

  7. Requirements report for SSTO vertical take-off and horizontal landing vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, H. S.

    1994-01-01

    This document describes the detailed design requirements and design criteria to support Structures/TPS Technology development for SSTO winged vehicle configurations that use vertical take-off and horizontal landing and delivers 25,000 lb payloads to a 220 nm circular orbit at an inclination of 51.6 degrees or 40,000 lb payloads to a 150 nm circular orbit at a 28.5 degree inclination.

  8. a Graphical Optimization of Take-Off Noise Abatement Procedures for Subsonic Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norgia, L.

    1999-05-01

    This paper describes a numerical approach to the simulation of noise contours generated during aircraft operations. Common features of many existing noise-contour programs make these procedures unsuitable for on-line piloted-simulator use. In fact, they usually require large computational tools and exhibit complex structure, so that they generally run quite slowly. The method proposed here is an attempt to overcome some of the above drawbacks. It works for arbitrarily complex take-off and landing paths, and reveals the influence of several quantitites on the shape and size of the contours. Besides, the calculations are simple enough to be implemented on a handheld programmable calculator. The method runs fast, and quickly provides contour shape, evaluates area and analyzes main characteristics of the end. The method has been used to optimize noise abatement procedures for subsonic aircraft; for every take-off procedure the model can generate an isofootprint on the ground which helps the operator to choose the best take-off solution.

  9. Airport take-off noise assessment aimed at identify responsible aircraft classes.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Perez, Luis A; Sanchez-Fernandez, Luis P; Shaout, Adnan; Suarez-Guerra, Sergio

    2016-01-15

    Assessment of aircraft noise is an important task of nowadays airports in order to fight environmental noise pollution given the recent discoveries on the exposure negative effects on human health. Noise monitoring and estimation around airports mostly use aircraft noise signals only for computing statistical indicators and depends on additional data sources so as to determine required inputs such as the aircraft class responsible for noise pollution. In this sense, the noise monitoring and estimation systems have been tried to improve by creating methods for obtaining more information from aircraft noise signals, especially real-time aircraft class recognition. Consequently, this paper proposes a multilayer neural-fuzzy model for aircraft class recognition based on take-off noise signal segmentation. It uses a fuzzy inference system to build a final response for each class p based on the aggregation of K parallel neural networks outputs Op(k) with respect to Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) features extracted from K adjacent signal segments. Based on extensive experiments over two databases with real-time take-off noise measurements, the proposed model performs better than other methods in literature, particularly when aircraft classes are strongly correlated to each other. A new strictly cross-checked database is introduced including more complex classes and real-time take-off noise measurements from modern aircrafts. The new model is at least 5% more accurate with respect to previous database and successfully classifies 87% of measurements in the new database.

  10. Fuel and Emissions Reduction in Electric Power Take-Off Equipped Utility Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Konan, Arnaud; Ragatz, Adam; Prohaska, Robert; Duran, Adam; Kelly, Kenneth

    2016-06-22

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) evaluated the performance of Pacific Gas and Electric plug-in hybrid electric power take off (ePTO) utility trucks equipped with Altec, Inc.'s Jobsite Energy Management System. NREL collected on-road performance data from Class 5 utility 'trouble trucks' and Class 8 material handlers and developed representative drive cycles for chassis dynamometer testing. The drive cycles were analyzed and jobsite energy use was quantified for impacts and potential further hybridization for the utility truck vocation.

  11. Low Noise Cruise Efficient Short Take-Off and Landing Transport Vehicle Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyun D.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Jones, Scott M.

    2007-01-01

    The saturation of the airspace around current airports combined with increasingly stringent community noise limits represents a serious impediment to growth in world aviation travel. Breakthrough concepts that both increase throughput and reduce noise impacts are required to enable growth in aviation markets. Concepts with a 25 year horizon must facilitate a 4x increase in air travel while simultaneously meeting community noise constraints. Attacking these horizon issues holistically is the concept study of a Cruise Efficient Short Take-Off and Landing (CESTOL) high subsonic transport under the NASA's Revolutionary Systems Concepts for Aeronautics (RSCA) project. The concept is a high-lift capable airframe with a partially embedded distributed propulsion system that takes a synergistic approach in propulsion-airframe-integration (PAI) by fully integrating the airframe and propulsion systems to achieve the benefits of both low-noise short take-off and landing (STOL) operations and efficient high speed cruise. This paper presents a summary of the recent study of a distributed propulsion/airframe configuration that provides low-noise STOL operation to enable 24-hour use of the untapped regional and city center airports to increase the capacity of the overall airspace while still maintaining efficient high subsonic cruise flight capability.

  12. Magnetic levitation assisted aircraft take-off and landing (feasibility study - GABRIEL concept)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohacs, Daniel; Rohacs, Jozsef

    2016-08-01

    The Technology Roadmap 2013 developed by the International Air Transport Association envisions the option of flying without an undercarriage to be in operation by 2032. Preliminary investigations clearly indicate that magnetic levitation technology (MagLev) might be an appealing solution to assist the aircraft take-off and landing. The EU supported research project, abbreviated as GABRIEL, was dealing with (i) the concept development, (ii) the identification, evaluation and selection of the deployable magnetic levitation technology, (iii) the definition of the core system elements (including the required aircraft modifications, the ground-based system and airport elements, and the rendezvous control system), (iv) the analysis of the safety and security aspects, (v) the concept validation and (vi) the estimation of the proposed concept impact in terms of aircraft weight, noise, emission, cost-benefit). All results introduced here are compared to a medium size hypothetic passenger aircraft (identical with an Airbus A320). This paper gives a systematic overview of (i) the applied methods, (ii) the investigation of the possible use of magnetic levitation technology to assist the commercial aircraft take-off and landing processes and (iii) the demonstrations, validations showing the feasibility of the radically new concept. All major results are outlined.

  13. Taxiing, Take-Off, and Landing Simulation of the High Speed Civil Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reaves, Mercedes C.; Horta, Lucas G.

    1999-01-01

    The aircraft industry jointly with NASA is studying enabling technologies for higher speed, longer range aircraft configurations. Higher speeds, higher temperatures, and aerodynamics are driving these newer aircraft configurations towards long, slender, flexible fuselages. Aircraft response during ground operations, although often overlooked, is a concern due to the increased fuselage flexibility. This paper discusses modeling and simulation of the High Speed Civil Transport aircraft during taxiing, take-off, and landing. Finite element models of the airframe for various configurations are used and combined with nonlinear landing gear models to provide a simulation tool to study responses to different ground input conditions. A commercial computer simulation program is used to numerically integrate the equations of motion and to compute estimates of the responses using an existing runway profile. Results show aircraft responses exceeding safe acceptable human response levels.

  14. Validation of an Active Gear, Flexible Aircraft Take-off and Landing analysis (AGFATL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgehee, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    The results of an analytical investigation using a computer program for active gear, flexible aircraft take off and landing analysis (AGFATL) are compared with experimental data from shaker tests, drop tests, and simulated landing tests to validate the AGFATL computer program. Comparison of experimental and analytical responses for both passive and active gears indicates good agreement for shaker tests and drop tests. For the simulated landing tests, the passive and active gears were influenced by large strut binding friction forces. The inclusion of these undefined forces in the analytical simulations was difficult, and consequently only fair to good agreement was obtained. An assessment of the results from the investigation indicates that the AGFATL computer program is a valid tool for the study and initial design of series hydraulic active control landing gear systems.

  15. Validation of a Flexible Aircraft Take-Off and Landing Analysis (FATOLA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, H. D.; Mcgehee, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Modifications to improve the analytical simulation capabilities of a multi-degree-of-freedom flexible aircraft take-off and landing analysis (FATOLA) computer program are discussed. The FATOLA program was used to simulate the landing behavior of a stiff body X-24B reentry research vehicle and of a flexible body supersonic cruise YF-12A research airplane. The analytical results were compared with flight test data, and correlations of vehicle motions, attitudes, forces, and accelerations during the landing impact and rollout were good. For the YF-12A airplane, airframe flexibility was found to be important for nose gear loading. Based upon the correlation study presented, the versatility and validity of the FATOLA program for the study of landing dynamics of aircraft are confirmed.

  16. Optimal control of wave energy devices with various power-take-off mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, N.K.; Crossley, A.

    1996-12-31

    The aims of this research are to develop and test methods for analyzing and computing optimal control strategies for maximizing the useful power generated from wave energy converters incorporating realistic power-take-off and control mechanisms. Previously, strategies for maximizing energy absorbed by wave devices have been investigated, but these studies have assumed an ideal conversion rate using perfectly efficient turbomachinery with no constraints imposed by the generator capacity. In this paper various turbine characteristics and control mechanisms incorporating nonlinear losses are modelled, the qualitative properties of the optimal control strategy for maximizing average power delivered at the turbine shaft are analyzed, computational techniques for determining numerical solutions to the optimal control problem are established and the results are tested on a fully developed hydrodynamic model of a wave energy device.

  17. The aerodynamics of avian take-off from direct pressure measurements in Canada geese (Branta canadensis).

    PubMed

    Usherwood, James R; Hedrick, Tyson L; Biewener, Andrew A

    2003-11-01

    Direct pressure measurements using electronic differential pressure transducers along bird wings provide insight into the aerodynamics of these dynamically varying aerofoils. Acceleration-compensated pressures were measured at five sites distributed proximally to distally from the tertials to the primaries along the wings of Canada geese. During take-off flight, ventral-to-dorsal pressure is maintained at the proximal wing section throughout the wingstroke cycle, whereas pressure sense is reversed at the primaries during upstroke. The distal sites experience double pressure peaks during the downstroke. These observations suggest that tertials provide weight-support throughout the wingbeat, that the wingtip provides thrust during upstroke and that the kinetic energy of the rapidly flapping wings may be dissipated via retarding aerodynamic forces (resulting in aerodynamic work) at the end of downstroke.

  18. Adaptive Data-based Predictive Control for Short Take-off and Landing (STOL) Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, Jonathan Spencer; Acosta, Diana Michelle; Phan, Minh Q.

    2010-01-01

    Data-based Predictive Control is an emerging control method that stems from Model Predictive Control (MPC). MPC computes current control action based on a prediction of the system output a number of time steps into the future and is generally derived from a known model of the system. Data-based predictive control has the advantage of deriving predictive models and controller gains from input-output data. Thus, a controller can be designed from the outputs of complex simulation code or a physical system where no explicit model exists. If the output data happens to be corrupted by periodic disturbances, the designed controller will also have the built-in ability to reject these disturbances without the need to know them. When data-based predictive control is implemented online, it becomes a version of adaptive control. The characteristics of adaptive data-based predictive control are particularly appropriate for the control of nonlinear and time-varying systems, such as Short Take-off and Landing (STOL) aircraft. STOL is a capability of interest to NASA because conceptual Cruise Efficient Short Take-off and Landing (CESTOL) transport aircraft offer the ability to reduce congestion in the terminal area by utilizing existing shorter runways at airports, as well as to lower community noise by flying steep approach and climb-out patterns that reduce the noise footprint of the aircraft. In this study, adaptive data-based predictive control is implemented as an integrated flight-propulsion controller for the outer-loop control of a CESTOL-type aircraft. Results show that the controller successfully tracks velocity while attempting to maintain a constant flight path angle, using longitudinal command, thrust and flap setting as the control inputs.

  19. A new 3D Eikonal solver for accurate traveltimes, take-off angles and amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, Mark; Gesret, Alexandrine

    2013-04-01

    The finite-difference approximation to the eikonal equation was first introduced by J.Vidale in 1988 to propagate first-arrival times throughout a 2D or 3D gridded velocity model. Even today this method is still very attractive from a computational point of view when dealing with large datasets. Among many domains of application, the eikonal solver may be used for 2-D or 3-D depth migration, tomography or microseismicity data analysis. The original 3D method proposed by Vidale in 1990 did exhibit some degree of travel time error that may lead to poor image focusing in migration or inaccurate velocities estimated via tomographic inversion. The method even failed when large and sharp velocity contrasts were encountered. To try and overcome these limitations many authors proposed alternative algorithms, incorporating new finite-difference operators and/or new schemes of implementing the operators to propagate the travel times through the velocity model. If many recently published algorithms for resolving the 3D eikonal equation do yield fairly accurate travel times for most applications, the spatial derivatives of travel times remain very approximate and prevent reliable computation of auxiliary quantities such as take-off angle and amplitude. This limitation is due to the fact that the finite-difference operators locally assume that the wavefront is flat (plane wave). This assumption is in particularly wrong when close to the source where a spherical approximation would be more suitable. To overcome this singularity at the source, some authors proposed an adaptive method that reduces inaccuracies, however, the cost is more algorithmic complexity. The objective of this study is to develop an efficient simple 3D eikonal solver that is able to: overcome the problem of the source singularity, handle velocity models that exhibit strong vertical and horizontal velocity variations, use different grid spacing in x, y and z axis of model. The final goal is of course to

  20. Quiet Cruise Efficient Short Take-off and Landing Subsonic Transport System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawai, Ron

    2008-01-01

    This NASA funded study conceived a revolutionary airplane concept to enable future traffic growth by using regional air space. This requires a very quiet airplane with STOL capability. Starting with a Blended Wing Body that is cruise efficient with inherent low noise characteristics from forward noise shielding and void of aft downward noise reflections, integration of embedded distributed propulsion enables incorporation of the revolutionary concept for jet noise shielding. Embedded distributed propulsion also enables incorporation of a fan bleed internally blown flap for quiet powered lift. The powered lift provides STOL capability for operation at regional airports with rapid take-off and descent to further reduce flyover noise. This study focused on configuring the total engine noise shielding STOL concept with a BWB airplane using the Boeing Phantom Works WingMOD multidisciplinary optimization code to define a planform that is pitch controllable. The configuration was then sized and mission data developed to enable NASA to assess the flyover and sideline noise. The foundational technologies needed are identified including military dual use benefits.

  1. Dependence of ski jump length on the skier's body pose at the beginning of take-off.

    PubMed

    Zanevskyy, Ihor; Banakh, Volodymyr

    2010-01-01

    A kinematical model of the ski jumper's body pose at the beginning of take-off was proposed. A method of measuring skier's body coordinates based on the results of video recordings and office information technologies was created. Kinematical parameters of the skier's body pose at the beginning of take-off were determined using sport competition results of 33 ski jumpers. Five parameters of the pose which show statistically significant correlation (р < 0.03) with the jump length were determined. A part of variation of the model parameters in the total variation of the jump length is almost equal to 53%, and relative correlation is strong and significant (p < 0.005). Recommendations regarding optimization of the body pose at the beginning of take-off were formulated.

  2. Investigation of the Characteristics of an Acceleration-Type Take-Off Indicator in a Large Jet Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolnick, Joseph J.; Rind, Emanuel

    1959-01-01

    The characteristics of a proposed acceleration-type take-off indicator were observed during take-off runs of a large jet airplane. The instrument performed its function satisfactorily. It showed an essentially constant reading, which agreed closely with the predicted value, throughout the take-off except for about the first 135 feet of the ground roll during which the starting windup of the indicator pointer occurred. Although oscillating longitudinal accelerations at the instrument location were as much as +/- 50 percent of the steady-state acceleration, the instrument showed only small excursions from the mean reading equivalent to not more than +/- 5 percent of the mean reading and was considered to be satisfactorily readable.

  3. Measurement of the Errors of Service Altimeter Installations During Landing-Approach and Take-Off Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gracey, William; Jewel, Joseph W., Jr.; Carpenter, Gene T.

    1960-01-01

    The overall errors of the service altimeter installations of a variety of civil transport, military, and general-aviation airplanes have been experimentally determined during normal landing-approach and take-off operations. The average height above the runway at which the data were obtained was about 280 feet for the landings and about 440 feet for the take-offs. An analysis of the data obtained from 196 airplanes during 415 landing approaches and from 70 airplanes during 152 take-offs showed that: 1. The overall error of the altimeter installations in the landing- approach condition had a probable value (50 percent probability) of +/- 36 feet and a maximum probable value (99.7 percent probability) of +/- 159 feet with a bias of +10 feet. 2. The overall error in the take-off condition had a probable value of +/- 47 feet and a maximum probable value of +/- 207 feet with a bias of -33 feet. 3. The overall errors of the military airplanes were generally larger than those of the civil transports in both the landing-approach and take-off conditions. In the landing-approach condition the probable error and the maximum probable error of the military airplanes were +/- 43 and +/- 189 feet, respectively, with a bias of +15 feet, whereas those for the civil transports were +/- 22 and +/- 96 feet, respectively, with a bias of +1 foot. 4. The bias values of the error distributions (+10 feet for the landings and -33 feet for the take-offs) appear to represent a measure of the hysteresis characteristics (after effect and recovery) and friction of the instrument and the pressure lag of the tubing-instrument system.

  4. Research and application of a new kind of measurement technology of take-off and landing performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chunbao, Yang

    A video-based take-off and landing performance measurement system has been developed to aid in certification of the Y-12 aircraft. The system has high accuracy and is adaptable to computer analysis. Employing dual channel audio inputs, and the video system is capable of coordinating such synchronous signals as IRIG B time code and voice with flight data obtained using an airborne data acquisition system. Applications of the system include searching for the best take-off and landing flight path, the establishment of helicopter hovering capacity, and fly-over noise evaluation.

  5. The Investigation of Take-off and Landing Characteristics of Jet Shortened Take-off and Landing Aircraft (STOL) (K Voprosu Issledovaniya Vzletno-Posadochnykh Kharakteristik Reaktivnykh Samoletov Ukorochennogo Vzleta i Posadki (SUVP)),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-07-25

    including an analysis made from the viewpoint of take-off and landing and flight characteristics , as well as safety and economy is vital for this purpose...No. 16, l96~ . 8. A Manual on VTOL Aircraft. Trudy TsAGI , 1965. 9. W. Seibold. Untersuchungen uber die von Hubstrahlen an Senkrechstartern Erzeugen

  6. Wind as an abiotic factor of Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) flight take-off activity under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Boiteau, G; Mccarthy, P C; MacKinley, P D

    2010-10-01

    The flight take-off activity of Colorado potato beetles, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), was significantly higher at a landscape-protected than at semiexposed and exposed sites in a 2-yr field study. In both years, mean daylight temperature, solar radiation, and relative humidity were generally similar at all sites, but wind speed was lower at the protected site than at the exposed sites. Results suggest that wind was the limiting abiotic factor for flight take-off at the exposed site. Caged beetles exposed to constant wind speeds of 3.4, 4.7, and 7.0 m/s showed a significant corresponding decrease in number of flight take-off. There was no cumulative effect of wind exposure on the readiness of the beetles to fly, suggesting that wind acts as a physical barrier to flight take-off. It should be possible to reduce Colorado potato beetle flight dispersal by selecting fields most exposed to wind over landscape-protected fields when rotating potato, Solanum tuberosum L., crops.

  7. Effects of an inclined board as a training tool on the take-off motion of the long jump.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Hiroyuki; Muraki, Yuya; Ae, Michiyoshi

    2005-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of inclined and raised flat boards on the take-off motion of the long jump to determine the effectiveness of these boards as training tools. Eight male long jumpers were videotaped with two high-speed video cameras (250 Hz) set perpendicular to the runway. Four different jumps were performed with in four conditions, all with their medium length run-up: a long jump with their normal technique, long jumps on upward inclined boards of two different inclinations (2.5 and 5.0 degrees), and a long jump on a raised flat board (0 degrees, 50 mm). The raised flat board enhanced the pivot of the body over the take-off foot, and reduced flexion of the take-off leg knee. However, the inclined boards did not produce the same effects as the raised flat board. The use of the inclined boards increased the vertical velocity of the centre of mass of the body at toe-off, resulting in increased airborne time. These results suggest that the raised flat board and inclined boards would be effective in improving long jumpers' techniques during the take-off and airborne phases.

  8. Hunting archer fish match their take-off speed to distance from the future point of catch.

    PubMed

    Wöhl, Saskia; Schuster, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Archer fish can shoot down insect prey with a sharp jet of water. Fish usually fire from positions that are not directly below their target so that a dislodged insect falls ballistically with a horizontal velocity component. Only 100 ms after the insect is on its path both the shooter and other school members can initiate a rapid turn and then head straight in the direction of the later point of impact of their falling prey. The quick turn and subsequent take-off are performed ;open-loop', based on the initial values of the falling insect's motion. We report here that archer fish can not only take off in the direction of the later point of impact but also predict its distance. Distance information allows the fish to adjust their take-off speed so that they would arrive within a narrow time slot slightly (about 50 ms) after their prey's impact, despite large differences in the size of the aligning turn and in the distance to be covered. Selecting a constant speed program with matched speed and catching the insect on the move minimizes frictional losses. The initial speed of starting fish is slightly but systematically too slow and is increased later so that the fish arrive 20 ms earlier than expected and often make the catch on a higher than take-off speed. The variability of later speed changes suggests a systematic ;error' in the take-off, as if the fish underestimated distance. However, this apparent deficiency seems well adapted to the fish catching their prey at a high speed: if later the fish had no possibility to correct an initial error then it is better to start slightly too slow in order to minimize the risk of overshooting the point of catch.

  9. Final Scientific/Technical Report: ADVANCED INTEGRATION OF POWER TAKE-OFF IN VIVACE

    SciTech Connect

    Simiao, Gustavo

    2014-03-21

    Vortex Hydro Energy is commercializing a University of Michigan patented MHK device, the VIVACE converter (Vortex Induced Vibration Aquatic Clean Energy). Unlike water turbines, it does not use propeller blades. Rather, river or ocean currents flow around cylinders causing them to move up and down in Flow Induced Motions (FIM). This kinetic energy of the cylinder is then converted to electricity. Importantly, the VIVACE converter is simpler in design and more cost effective than water turbines. This project accelerated the development of the VIVACE technology. Funding from the DOE enabled VHE to accelerate the development in three ways. One was to increase the efficiency of the hydrodynamics of the system. This aided in maximizing the power output for a wide range of water speeds. The second was to design, build, and test an efficient power take-off (PTO) that converted the most power from the VIVACE cylinders into electricity. This effort was necessary because of the nature of power generated using this technology. Although the PTO uses off-the-shelf components, it is specifically tuned to the specific water flow characteristics. The third way the development was accelerated was by testing the improved Beta 1B prototype over a longer period of time in a river. The greatest benefit from the longer open-water testing-period is a better understand of the power generation characteristics of the system as well as the maintenance lifespan of the device. Renewable energy generation is one of today’s most challenging global dilemmas. The energy crisis requires tapping into every source of energy and developing every technology that can generate energy at a competitive cost within the next 50 years. Development of VIVACE will bolster domestic energy security and mitigate global climate change. There are numerous commercial and military applications for a fully developed system, which could generate clean/renewable energy from small scale (1-5kW) to medium scale (500k

  10. How is the brain working?: Research on brain oscillations and connectivities in a new "Take-Off" state.

    PubMed

    Başar, Erol; Düzgün, Aysel

    2016-05-01

    The present report is a trial to survey analysis and applications of brain oscillations in cognitive impairment for opening the way to a new take off in research on brain oscillation. Although the number of papers related to brain oscillations rapidly increases, it is important to indicate the common principles governing the functioning of brain oscillations in the brain and body. Research scientists need a global view on the types of analysis, applications and existing oscillations. Further, scientists dealing with brain oscillations must have some knowledge from theoretical physics, system theory, and also general philosophy. The neuroscientists working on brain oscillations can mentally integrate several papers in the present report, and try to discover new avenues to augment knowledge on brain functions. A new take off in the search of brain oscillations indicates the strong need to survey this brunch of neuroscience in a broad panoply of science.

  11. Feasibility study of air-breathing turbo-engines for horizontal take-off and landing space plane

    SciTech Connect

    Minoda, M.; Sakata, K.; Tamaki, T.; Saitoh, T.; Yasuda, A.

    1989-01-01

    Various concepts of air-breathing engines (ABEs) that could be used for a horizontal take-off and landing SSTO vehicle are investigated. The performances (with respect to thrust and the specific fuel consumption) of turboengines based on various technologies, including a turbojet with and without afterburner (TJ), turboramjet, and air-turbo-ram jet engines are compared. The mission capabilities of these ABEs for SSTO and TSTO vehicles is examined in terms of the ratio of the effective remaining weight (i.e., the weight on the orbit) to the take-off gross weight, using two-dimensional flight analysis. It was found that the dry TJ with the turbine inlet temperature 2000 C is one of the most promising candidates for the propulsion system of the SSTO vehicle, because of its small weight and high specific impulse. 6 refs.

  12. Experimental results of the UTSI coal-fired MHD generator and investigations of various power take-off schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galanga, F. L.; Lineberry, J. T.; Wu, Y. C. L.; Scott, M. H.; Baucum, W. E.; Clemons, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    Tests were conducted at the University of Tennessee Space Institute, Energy Conversion Division, in support of technology development of coal-fired MHD generator systems. The primary objectives of the test series were to evaluate the overall electrical performance of the 60 deg DCW generator with vitiation heated oxidizer, to study the thermal behavior of capped versus solid frame electrodes, and to investigate various power take-off schemes. Results from the above-mentioned areas of investigation are presented and discussed.

  13. Probabilistic model, analysis and computer code for take-off and landing related aircraft crashes into a structure

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, R.

    1996-02-06

    A methodology is presented that allows the calculation of the probability that any of a particular collection of structures will be hit by an aircraft in a take-off or landing related accident during a specified window of time with a velocity exceeding a given critical value. A probabilistic model is developed that incorporates the location of each structure relative to airport runways in the vicinity; the size of the structure; the sizes, types, and frequency of use of commercial, military, and general aviation aircraft which take-off and land at these runways; the relative frequency of take-off and landing related accidents by aircraft type; the stochastic properties of off-runway crashes, namely impact location, impact angle, impact velocity, and the heading, deceleration, and skid distance after impact; and the stochastic properties of runway overruns and runoffs, namely the position at which the aircraft exits the runway, its exit velocity, and the heading and deceleration after exiting. Relevant probability distributions are fitted from extensive commercial, military, and general aviation accident report data bases. The computer source code for implementation of the calculation is provided.

  14. Performance of arrays of direct-driven wave energy converters under optimal power take-off damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liguo; Engström, Jens; Leijon, Mats; Isberg, Jan

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that the total power converted by a wave energy farm is influenced by the hydrodynamic interactions between wave energy converters, especially when they are close to each other. Therefore, to improve the performance of a wave energy farm, the hydrodynamic interaction between converters must be considered, which can be influenced by the power take-off damping of individual converters. In this paper, the performance of arrays of wave energy converters under optimal hydrodynamic interaction and power take-off damping is investigated. This is achieved by coordinating the power take-off damping of individual converters, resulting in optimal hydrodynamic interaction as well as higher production of time-averaged power converted by the farm. Physical constraints on motion amplitudes are considered in the solution, which is required for the practical implementation of wave energy converters. Results indicate that the natural frequency of a wave energy converter under optimal damping will not vary with sea states, but the production performance of a wave energy farm can be improved significantly while satisfying the motion constraints.

  15. Aerial Robotic System for Transportation and Logistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Kakuya; Hashimoto, Naohisa; Komoriya, Kiyoshi

    The status quo of a research on a novel aerial robotic system for transportation and logistics is presented. Under a new concept for an aerial robotic transportation system, three-Dimensional Transportation Robots (3DTR) were constructed with twin turbojet engines equipped by high performance noise reduction system and a flexibly jointed delta wing controlled by 2-axis actuators. This vehicle is also stable in the air due to its pendulum structure. The first flight was successfully conducted on November 22, 2005. Flight examination of 3DTR indicates its short take-off and landing (STOL) capability.

  16. Take-off speed in jumping mantises depends on body size and a power-limited mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sutton, G P; Doroshenko, M; Cullen, D A; Burrows, M

    2016-07-15

    Many insects such as fleas, froghoppers and grasshoppers use a catapult mechanism to jump, and a direct consequence of this is that their take-off velocities are independent of their mass. In contrast, insects such as mantises, caddis flies and bush crickets propel their jumps by direct muscle contractions. What constrains the jumping performance of insects that use this second mechanism? To answer this question, the jumping performance of the mantis Stagmomantis theophila was measured through all its developmental stages, from 5 mg first instar nymphs to 1200 mg adults. Older and heavier mantises have longer hind and middle legs and higher take-off velocities than younger and lighter mantises. The length of the propulsive hind and middle legs scaled approximately isometrically with body mass (exponent=0.29 and 0.32, respectively). The front legs, which do not contribute to propulsion, scaled with an exponent of 0.37. Take-off velocity increased with increasing body mass (exponent=0.12). Time to accelerate increased and maximum acceleration decreased, but the measured power that a given mass of jumping muscle produced remained constant throughout all stages. Mathematical models were used to distinguish between three possible limitations to the scaling relationships: first, an energy-limited model (which explains catapult jumpers); second, a power-limited model; and third, an acceleration -: limited model. Only the model limited by muscle power explained the experimental data. Therefore, the two biomechanical mechanisms impose different limitations on jumping: those involving direct muscle contractions (mantises) are constrained by muscle power, whereas those involving catapult mechanisms are constrained by muscle energy.

  17. Maximizing Height, Distance or Rotation from Real-Time Analysis Visualisation of Take-Off Angles and Speed

    PubMed Central

    Green, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Studies to optimise take off angles for height or distance have usually involved either a time-consuming invasive approach of placing markers on the body in a laboratory setting or using even less efficient manual frame-by-frame joint angle calculations with one of the many sport science video analysis software tools available. This research introduces a computer-vision based, marker-free, real-time biomechanical analysis approach to optimise take-off angles based on speed, base of support and dynamically calculated joint angles and mass of body segments. The goal of a jump is usually for height, distance or rotation with consequent dependencies on speed and phase of joint angles, centre of mass COM) and base of support. First and second derivatives of joint angles and body part COMs are derived from a Continuous Human Movement Recognition (CHMR) system for kinematical and what-if calculations. Motion is automatically segmented using hierarchical Hidden Markov Models and 3D tracking is further stabilized by estimating the joint angles for the next frame using a forward smoothing Particle filter. The results from a study of jumps, leaps and summersaults supporting regular knowledge of results feedback during training sessions indicate that this approach is useful for optimising the height, distance or rotation of skills. Key Points Computer-vision based marker-free tracking. Real-time biomechanical analysis. Improve tracking using a forward smoothing Particle filter. Automatically segment using hierarchical Hidden Markov Models. Recognize skills using segmented motion. Optimize take-off angles using speed, base of support, joint angles and mass of body segments. Optimize height, distance or rotation of skills. PMID:24357954

  18. Take-off speed in jumping mantises depends on body size and a power-limited mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Doroshenko, M.; Cullen, D. A.; Burrows, M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many insects such as fleas, froghoppers and grasshoppers use a catapult mechanism to jump, and a direct consequence of this is that their take-off velocities are independent of their mass. In contrast, insects such as mantises, caddis flies and bush crickets propel their jumps by direct muscle contractions. What constrains the jumping performance of insects that use this second mechanism? To answer this question, the jumping performance of the mantis Stagmomantis theophila was measured through all its developmental stages, from 5 mg first instar nymphs to 1200 mg adults. Older and heavier mantises have longer hind and middle legs and higher take-off velocities than younger and lighter mantises. The length of the propulsive hind and middle legs scaled approximately isometrically with body mass (exponent=0.29 and 0.32, respectively). The front legs, which do not contribute to propulsion, scaled with an exponent of 0.37. Take-off velocity increased with increasing body mass (exponent=0.12). Time to accelerate increased and maximum acceleration decreased, but the measured power that a given mass of jumping muscle produced remained constant throughout all stages. Mathematical models were used to distinguish between three possible limitations to the scaling relationships: first, an energy-limited model (which explains catapult jumpers); second, a power-limited model; and third, an acceleration-limited model. Only the model limited by muscle power explained the experimental data. Therefore, the two biomechanical mechanisms impose different limitations on jumping: those involving direct muscle contractions (mantises) are constrained by muscle power, whereas those involving catapult mechanisms are constrained by muscle energy. PMID:27284067

  19. Reconfigurable Flight Control System for a STOL (Short Take-Off and Landing) Aircraft Using Quantitative Feedback Theory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    AD-R163 939 RECONFIGURANLE FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM FOR R STOt. (SHORT 1/03~TAKE-OFF AND LANDI.. (U) AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON RFD OH...QUANTITATIVE FEEDBACK THEORY THESIS AFIT/GE/ENG/85D-8 Bruce T. Clough 1Lt USAF C fAPPtoved foi ptub~ ~a.. Ie DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR ...UNIVERSITY It AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio AFIT/GE/ENG/85D-8 .-. ..: DI FEB 12’NO RECONFIGURABLE FLIGHT CONTROL

  20. The Rolling Friction of Several Airplane Wheels and Tires and the Effect of Rolling Friction on Take-Off

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetmore, J W

    1937-01-01

    This report presents the results of test made to determine the rolling friction of airplane wheels and tires under various conditions of wheel loading, tire inflation pressure, and ground surface. The effect of wheel-bearing type was also investigated. Six pairs of wheels and tires were tested including two sizes of each of the types designated as standard (high pressure), low pressure, and extra low pressure. The results of calculations intended to show the effect of variations in rolling friction on take-off are also presented.

  1. Preliminary Investigation of a Translating Cowl Technique for Improving Take-off Performance of a Sharp-lip Supersonic Diffuser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cortright, Edgar M , Jr

    1951-01-01

    A preliminary investigation was conducted in quiescent air on a translating cowl technique for improving the take-off performance of a sharp-lip supersonic diffuser. The technique consists of cutting the cowling in a plane normal to its axis and then translating the forepart of the cowling in the forward direction. The leading edge of the fixed portion of the cowling is rounded. Appreciable improved inlet performance was obtained with a cowling translation corresponding to a gap of only 1/4 inlet radius.

  2. F-16XL ship #1 (#849) takes off for first flight of the Digital Flight Control System (DFCS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The F-16XL #1 (NASA 849) takes off for the first flight of the Digital Flight Control System (DFCS) on December 16, 1997. Like most first flight, the DFCS required months of preparations. During July 1997, crews worked on the engine, cockpit, canopy, seat, and instrumentation. By late August, the aircraft began combined systems tests and a flight readiness review. Although the Air Force Safety Review Board (AFSRB)- a group that provided double checks on all flight operations - approved the program in late November 1997, a problem with the aircraft flight computer delayed the functional check flight until mid-December.

  3. Interaction of the elytra and hind wing of a rhinoceros beetle (Trypoxylus dichotomus) during a take-off mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Seungyoung; Oh, Sehyeong; Choi, Haecheon; Lee, Boogeon; Park, Hyungmin; Kim, Sun-Tae

    2015-11-01

    The elytra are a pair of hardened wings that cover the abdomen of a beetle to protect beetle's hind wings. During the take-off, these elytra open and flap in phase with the hind wings. We investigate the effect of the elytra flapping on beetle's aerodynamic performance. Numerical simulations are performed at Re=10,000 (based on the wingtip mean velocity and mean chord length of the hind wing) using an immersed boundary method. The simulations are focused on a take-off, and the wing kinematics used is directly obtained from the experimental observations using high speed cameras. The simulation result shows three-dimensional vortical structures generated by the hind wing of the beetle and their interaction with the elytra. The presence of elytra has a negative effect on the lift generation by the hind wings, but the lift force on the elytra themselves is negligible. Further discussions on the elytra - hind wing interaction will be provided during the presentation. Supported by UD130070ID.

  4. The Effect of Compressibility on Eight Full-Scale Propellers Operating in the Take-Off and Climbing Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biermann, David; Hartman, Edwin P

    1938-01-01

    Tests were made of eight full-scale propellers of different shape at various tip speeds up to about 1,000 feet per second. The range of blade-angle settings investigated was from 10 degrees to 30 degrees at the 0.75 radius. The results indicate that a loss in propulsive efficiency occurred at tip speeds from 0.5 to 0.7 the velocity of sound for the take-off and climbing conditions. As the tip speed increased beyond these critical values, the loss rapidly increased and amounted, in some instances, to more than 20 percent of the thrust power for tip-speed values of 0.8 the speed of sound. In general, as the blade-angle setting was increased, the loss started to occur at lower tip speeds. The maximum loss for a given tip speed occurred at a blade-angle setting of about 20 degrees for the take-off and 25 degrees for the climbing condition. A simplified method for correcting propellers for the effect of compressibility is given in an appendix.

  5. Take-off activity and orientation of triatomines (Heteroptera: Reduviidae) in relation to the presence of artificial lights.

    PubMed

    Minoli, Sebastián A; Lazzari, Claudio R

    2006-03-01

    We analysed the flying activity of Triatoma infestans and Rhodnius prolixus when confronted to artificial lights of different spectral quality. We found that the presence of light sources (white or ultraviolet) did not affect their spontaneous take-off rate. The comparison between species showed that R. prolixus was more prone to fly than T. infestans. Females of T. infestans initiated flight more frequently than males of the same species. Although the same tendency was observed in R. prolixus, no significant differences were assessed between sexes. Concerning the orienting behaviour of triatomines at take-off in relation to the position of the light source, T. infestans showed a significant tendency to fly towards white light, but a non-oriented response when confronted to UV light or in the absence of a light source. R. prolixus also preferred to fly towards a source of white light and exhibited a non-oriented response with no light. However, when the UV light was presented, these bugs exhibited a bimodal attraction/repellence-behaviour. Our results support true attraction by white light rather than menotaxis or arrival by chance. These findings are discussed in relation to the colonization of human dwellings by Chagas disease vectors.

  6. Male moths optimally balance take-off thoracic temperature and warm-up duration to reach a pheromone source quickly.

    PubMed

    Crespo, José G; Vickers, Neil J; Goller, Franz

    2014-12-01

    Animal activities, such as foraging and reproduction, are constrained by decisions about how to allocate energy and time efficiently. Overall, male moths invest less in reproduction than females, but they are thought to engage in a scramble competition for access to females that advertise readiness to mate by releasing sexual pheromones. However, before male moths can follow the pheromone, they often need to heat their flight muscles by shivering to produce sufficient power for sustained flight. Here, we show that Helicoverpa zea males that sense the female pheromone at high ambient temperatures take off with higher thoracic temperature, shiver for less time and warm up faster than males tested at lower ambient temperatures. These higher take-off temperatures translate into higher airspeeds, underscoring the importance of thoracic temperature for flight performance. Furthermore, shorter combined duration for warm-up and pheromone-mediated optomotor anemotaxis is consistent with the idea that males engage in scramble competition for access to females in nature. Our results strongly suggest that male moths minimize the time between perceiving the female's pheromone signal and arriving at the source by optimizing thermoregulatory behaviour and temperature-dependent flight performance in accordance with ambient temperature conditions. Our finding that moths engage in a trade-off between rapid flight initiation and suboptimal flight performance suggests a sensorimotor control mechanism that involves a complex interaction with the thermal environment.

  7. Take-off Stability Characteristics of a 1/13-scale Model of the Consolidated Vultee Skate 7 Seaplane (TED No. NACA DE 338)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKann, Robert; Coffee, Claude W.; Abrabian, Donald D.

    1949-01-01

    The take-off stability characteristics of a Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corporation Skate 7 seaplane were determined in the Langley tank no. 2. Trim limits of stability, trim tracks, and elevator limits of stability are presented.

  8. Marine Hydrokinetic Turbine Power-Take-Off Design for Optimal Performance and Low Impact on Cost-of-Energy: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Beam, M.; Kline, B.; Elbing, B.; Straka, W.; Fontaine, A.; Lawson, M.; Li, Y.; Thresher, R.; Previsic, M.

    2013-02-01

    Marine hydrokinetic devices are becoming a popular method for generating marine renewable energy worldwide. These devices generate electricity by converting the kinetic energy of moving water, wave motion or currents, into electrical energy through the use of a power-take-off (PTO) system. Most PTO systems incorporate a mechanical or hydraulic drivetrain, power generator, and electric control/conditioning system to deliver the generated electric power to the grid at the required state. Like wind turbine applications, the PTO system must be designed for high reliability, good efficiency, and long service life with reasonable maintenance requirements, low cost, and an appropriate mechanical design for anticipated applied steady and unsteady loads. The ultimate goal of a PTO design is high efficiency and low maintenance and cost, with a low impact on the device cost-of-energy (CoE).

  9. Marine Hydrokinetic Turbine Power-Take-Off Design for Optimal Performance and Low Impact on Cost-of-Energy: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Beam, M.; Kline, B.; Elbing, B.; Straka, W.; Fontaine, A.; Lawson, M.; Li, Y.; Thresher, R.; Previsic, M.

    2012-04-01

    Marine hydrokinetic devices are becoming a popular method for generating marine renewable energy worldwide. These devices generate electricity by converting the kinetic energy of moving water, wave motion or currents, into electrical energy through the use of a Power-Take-Off (PTO) system. Most PTO systems incorporate a mechanical or hydraulic drive train, power generator and electric control/conditioning system to deliver the generated electric power to the grid at the required state. Like wind turbine applications, the PTO system must be designed for high reliability, good efficiency, and long service life with reasonable maintenance requirements, low cost and an appropriate mechanical design for anticipated applied steady and unsteady loads. The ultimate goal of a PTO design is high efficiency, low maintenance and cost with a low impact on the device Cost-of-Energy (CoE).

  10. The Effect of Spray Strips on the Take-off Performance of a Model of a Flying-Boat Hull

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truscott, Starr

    1935-01-01

    The effect on the take-off performance of a model of the hull of a typical flying boat, Navy PH-1, of fitting spray strips of four different widths, each at three different angles, was determined by model tests in the NACA Tank. Spray strips of widths up to 3 percent of the beam improve the general performance at speeds near the hump and reduce the spray thrown. A downward angle of 30 degrees to 45 degrees in the neighborhood of the step seems most favorable for the reduction of the spray. The spray strips have a large effect in reducing the trimming moments at speeds near the hump speed, but have little effect on them at high speeds.

  11. Validation of a Flexible Aircraft TakeOff and Landing Analysis /FATOLA/ computer program using flight landing data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, H. D.; Mcgehee, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    A multiple-degree-of-freedom takeoff and landing analysis, Flexible Aircraft TakeOff and Landing Analysis computer program (FATOLA), was used to predict the landing behavior of a rigid-body X-24B reentry research vehicle and of a flexible-body modified-delta-wing supersonic YF-12 research aircraft. The analytical predictions were compared with flight test data for both research vehicles. Predicted time histories of vehicle motion and attitude, landing-gear strut stroke, and axial force transmitted from the landing gear to the airframe during the landing impact and rollout compared well with the actual time histories. Based on the comparisons presented, the versatility and validity of the FATOLA program for predicting landing dynamics of aircraft has been demonstrated.

  12. Plasma jet takes off.

    PubMed Central

    Frazer, L

    1999-01-01

    Thanks to a series of joint research projects by Los Alamos National Laboratory, Beta Squared of Allen, Texas, and the University of California at Los Angeles, there is now a more environmentally sound method for cleaning semiconductor chips that may also be effective in cleaning up chemical, bacterial, and nuclear contaminants. The Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet uses a type of ionized gas called plasma to clean up contaminants by binding to them and lifting them away. In contrast to the corrosive acids and chemical solvents traditionally used to clean semiconductor chips, the jet oxidizes contaminants, producing only benign gaseous by-products such as oxygen and carbon dioxide. The new technology is also easy to transport, cleans thoroughly and quickly, and presents no hazards to its operators. PMID:10417375

  13. Globalization Takes Off.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Tibor

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) database determined the growth of frequency of use of the term globalization during 1989-1995. Lists globalized items during 1989-1995: business, industry, production, and technology. Notes that science has not become globalized because it is still supported and managed by national governments.…

  14. ACSN Takes Off.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballangee, Judith K.

    1981-01-01

    Features the Appalachian Community Services Network (ACSN) which uses satellite transmission, cable systems, and individual satellite receive sites to deliver community service, college and continuing education credit, teleconferences, workshops, and public telecommunications services to 13 Appalachian states and coast to coast. Includes…

  15. Project: Taking Off

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Karen

    1975-01-01

    The project's objectives include helping obese students understand their problem in ways that are relevant, interesting, creative, yet academic, and wiping out the pathetic prophecies and painful experiences concerned with obesity in children and teenagers. Concise objectives of the program's educational component and definition of areas of…

  16. GPM Takes Off

    NASA Video Gallery

    An international satellite that will set a new standard for global precipitation measurements from space has completed a 7,300-mile journey from the United States to Japan, where it now will underg...

  17. Effect of Ground Proximity on Aerodynamic Characteristics of Two Horizontal-Attitude Jet Vertical-Take-Off-and-Landing Airplane Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, William A., Jr.

    1960-01-01

    An investigation has been made to study the effect of ground proximity on the aerodynamic characteristics of two jet vertical-take-off-and-landing airplane models in which the fuselage remains in a horizontal attitude for the take-off and landing. The first model (called the tilt-wing model) had a tilting wing-engine assembly which was set at 90 deg incidence for the take-off and landing. The second model, called the deflected-jet model) had a cascade of retractable turning vanes to deflect the exhaust of the horizontally mounted jet engines downward for vertical take-off and landing while the entire model remained in a horizontal attitude. With the models at various heights above the ground in the take-off and landing configuration, the lift, drag, and pitching moment were measured and tuft surveys were made to determine the flow field caused by the jet exhaust. The tilt-wing model experienced a loss of lift of less than 3 percent near the ground. The deflected-jet model, however, suffered losses in lift as high as 45 percent near the ground because of a low pressure region under the model caused by the entrainment of air by the jet exhaust as it spread out along the ground. This loss in lift for the deflected-jet configuration could probably be reduced to less than 5 percent by the use of a longer landing gear and a high wing location.

  18. Take-off and landing kinetics of a free-ranging gliding mammal, the Malayan colugo (Galeopterus variegatus)

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, Greg; Lim, Norman T.-L; Spence, Andrew J

    2008-01-01

    Arboreal animals negotiate a highly three-dimensional world that is discontinuous on many spatial scales. As the scale of substrate discontinuity increases, many arboreal animals rely on leaping or gliding locomotion between distant supports. In order to successfully move through their habitat, gliding animals must actively modulate both propulsive and aerodynamic forces. Here we examined the take-off and landing kinetics of a free-ranging gliding mammal, the Malayan colugo (Galeopterus variegatus) using a custom-designed three-dimensional accelerometry system. We found that colugos increase the propulsive impulse to affect longer glides. However, we also found that landing forces are negatively associated with glide distance. Landing forces decrease rapidly as glide distance increases from the shortest glides, then level off, suggesting that the ability to reorient the aerodynamic forces prior to landing is an important mechanism to reduce velocity and thus landing forces. This ability to substantially alter the aerodynamic forces acting on the patagial wing in order to reorient the body is a key to the transition between leaping and gliding and allows gliding mammals to travel long distances between trees with reduced risk of injury. Longer glides may increase the access to distributed resources and reduce the exposure to predators in the canopy or on the forest floor. PMID:18252673

  19. Aerial Explorers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg; Ippolito, Corey

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents recent results from a mission architecture study of planetary aerial explorers. In this study, several mission scenarios were developed in simulation and evaluated on success in meeting mission goals. This aerial explorer mission architecture study is unique in comparison with previous Mars airplane research activities. The study examines how aerial vehicles can find and gain access to otherwise inaccessible terrain features of interest. The aerial explorer also engages in a high-level of (indirect) surface interaction, despite not typically being able to takeoff and land or to engage in multiple flights/sorties. To achieve this goal, a new mission paradigm is proposed: aerial explorers should be considered as an additional element in the overall Entry, Descent, Landing System (EDLS) process. Further, aerial vehicles should be considered primarily as carrier/utility platforms whose purpose is to deliver air-deployed sensors and robotic devices, or symbiotes, to those high-value terrain features of interest.

  20. An oscillating wave energy converter with nonlinear snap-through Power-Take-Off systems in regular waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xian-tao; Yang, Jian-min; Xiao, Long-fei

    2016-07-01

    Floating oscillating bodies constitute a large class of wave energy converters, especially for offshore deployment. Usually the Power-Take-Off (PTO) system is a directly linear electric generator or a hydraulic motor that drives an electric generator. The PTO system is simplified as a linear spring and a linear damper. However the conversion is less powerful with wave periods off resonance. Thus, a nonlinear snap-through mechanism with two symmetrically oblique springs and a linear damper is applied in the PTO system. The nonlinear snap-through mechanism is characteristics of negative stiffness and double-well potential. An important nonlinear parameter γ is defined as the ratio of half of the horizontal distance between the two springs to the original length of both springs. Time domain method is applied to the dynamics of wave energy converter in regular waves. And the state space model is used to replace the convolution terms in the time domain equation. The results show that the energy harvested by the nonlinear PTO system is larger than that by linear system for low frequency input. While the power captured by nonlinear converters is slightly smaller than that by linear converters for high frequency input. The wave amplitude, damping coefficient of PTO systems and the nonlinear parameter γ affect power capture performance of nonlinear converters. The oscillation of nonlinear wave energy converters may be local or periodically inter well for certain values of the incident wave frequency and the nonlinear parameter γ, which is different from linear converters characteristics of sinusoidal response in regular waves.

  1. Studies on an aerial propellant transfer space plane (APTSP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayan, N.; Biju Kumar, K. S.; Gupta, Anish Kumar; Kashyap, Akhilesh Kumar; Venkatraman, Kartik; Mathew, Joseph; Mukunda, H. S.

    2004-04-01

    This paper presents a study of a fully reusable earth-to-orbit launch vehicle concept with horizontal take-off and landing, employing a turbojet engine for low speed, and a rocket for high-speed acceleration and space operations. This concept uses existing technology to the maximum possible extent, thereby reducing development time, cost and effort. It uses the experience in aerial filling of military aircrafts for propellant filling at an altitude of 13 km at a flight speed of M=0.85. Aerial filling of propellant reduces the take-off weight significantly thereby minimizing the structural weight of the vehicle. The vehicle takes off horizontally and uses turbojet engines till the end of the propellant filling operation. The rocket engines provide thrust for the next phase till the injection of a satellite at LEO. A sensitivity analysis of the mission with respect to rocket engine specific impulse and overall vehicle structural factor is also presented in this paper. A conceptual design of space plane with a payload capability of 10 ton to LEO is carried out. The study shows that the realization of an aerial propellant transfer space plane is possible with limited development of new technology thus reducing the demands on the finances required for achieving the objectives.

  2. Vertical Jump Height is more Strongly Associated with Velocity and Work Performed Prior to Take-off

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentley, J. R.; Loehr, J. A.; DeWitt, J. K.; Lee, S. M. C.; English, K. L.; Nash, R. E.; Leach, M. A.; Hagan, R. D.

    2008-01-01

    Vertical jump (VJ) height is commonly used as a measure of athletic capability in strength and power sports. Although VJ has been shown to be a predictor of athletic performance, it is not clear which kinetic ground reaction force (GRF) variables, such as peak force (PF), peak power (PP), peak velocity (PV), total work (TW) or impulse (Imp) are the best correlates. To determine which kinetic variables (PF, PP, PV, TW, and Imp) best correlate with VJ height. Twenty subjects (14 males, 6 females) performed three maximal countermovement VJs on a force platform (Advanced Mechanical Technology, Inc., Watertown, MA, USA). VJ jump height was calculated as the difference between standing reach and the highest reach point measured using a Vertec. PF, PP, PV, TW, and Imp were calculated using the vertical GRF data sampled at 1000 Hz from the lowest point in the countermovement through the concentric portion until take-off. GRF data were normalized to body mass measured using a standard scale (Detecto, Webb City, MO, USA). Correlation coefficients were computed between each GRF variable and VJ height using a Pearson correlation. VJ height (43.4 plus or minus 9.1 cm) was significantly correlated (p less than 0.001) with PF (998 plus or minus 321 N; r=0.51), PP (1997 plus or minus 772 W; r=0.69), PV (2.66 plus or minus 0.40 m (raised dot) s(sup -1); r=0.85), TW (259 plus or minus 93.0 kJ; r=0.82), and Imp (204 plus or minus 51.1 N(raised dot)s; r=0.67). Although all variables were correlated to VJ height, PV and TW were more strongly correlated to VJ height than PF, PP, and Imp. Therefore, since TW is equal to force times displacement, the relative displacement of the center of mass along with the forces applied during the upward movement of the jump are critical determinants of VJ height. PV and TW are key determinants of VJ height, and therefore successful training programs to increase VJ height should focus on rapid movement (PV) and TW by increasing power over time rather

  3. Intra-specific variation in wing morphology and its impact on take-off performance in blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) during escape flights.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Laura; Altringham, John D; Askew, Graham N

    2016-05-01

    Diurnal and seasonal increases in body mass and seasonal reductions in wing area may compromise a bird's ability to escape, as less of the power available from the flight muscles can be used to accelerate and elevate the animal's centre of mass. Here, we investigated the effects of intra-specific variation in wing morphology on escape take-off performance in blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus). Flights were recorded using synchronised high-speed video cameras and take-off performance was quantified as the sum of the rates of change of the kinetic and potential energies of the centre of mass. Individuals with a lower wing loading, WL (WL=body weight/wing area) had higher escape take-off performance, consistent with the increase in lift production expected from relatively larger wings. Unexpectedly, it was found that the total power available from the flight muscles (estimated using an aerodynamic analysis) was inversely related to WL. This could simply be because birds with a higher WL have relatively smaller flight muscles. Alternatively or additionally, variation in the aerodynamic load on the wing resulting from differences in wing morphology will affect the mechanical performance of the flight muscles via effects on the muscle's length trajectory. Consistent with this hypothesis is the observation that wing beat frequency and relative downstroke duration increase with decreasing WL; both are factors that are expected to increase muscle power output. Understanding how wing morphology influences take-off performance gives insight into the potential risks associated with feather loss and seasonal and diurnal fluctuations in body mass.

  4. Intra-specific variation in wing morphology and its impact on take-off performance in blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) during escape flights

    PubMed Central

    McFarlane, Laura; Altringham, John D.; Askew, Graham N.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Diurnal and seasonal increases in body mass and seasonal reductions in wing area may compromise a bird's ability to escape, as less of the power available from the flight muscles can be used to accelerate and elevate the animal's centre of mass. Here, we investigated the effects of intra-specific variation in wing morphology on escape take-off performance in blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus). Flights were recorded using synchronised high-speed video cameras and take-off performance was quantified as the sum of the rates of change of the kinetic and potential energies of the centre of mass. Individuals with a lower wing loading, WL (WL=body weight/wing area) had higher escape take-off performance, consistent with the increase in lift production expected from relatively larger wings. Unexpectedly, it was found that the total power available from the flight muscles (estimated using an aerodynamic analysis) was inversely related to WL. This could simply be because birds with a higher WL have relatively smaller flight muscles. Alternatively or additionally, variation in the aerodynamic load on the wing resulting from differences in wing morphology will affect the mechanical performance of the flight muscles via effects on the muscle's length trajectory. Consistent with this hypothesis is the observation that wing beat frequency and relative downstroke duration increase with decreasing WL; both are factors that are expected to increase muscle power output. Understanding how wing morphology influences take-off performance gives insight into the potential risks associated with feather loss and seasonal and diurnal fluctuations in body mass. PMID:26994175

  5. Analysis of the effects of boundary-layer control in the take-off and power-off landing performance characteristics of a liaison type of airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, Elmer A; Loftin, Laurence K; Racisz, Stanley F; Quinn, John

    1951-01-01

    A performance analysis has been made to determine whether boundary-layer control by suction might reduce the minimum take-off and landing distances of a four-place or five-place airplane or a liaison type of airplane below those obtainable with conventional high-lift devices. The airplane was assumed to have a cruise duration of 5 hours at 60-percent power and to be operating from airstrips having a ground friction coefficient of 0.2 or a combined ground and braking coefficient of 0.4. The payload was fixed at 1500 pounds, the wing span was varied from 25 to 100 feet, the aspect ratio was varied from 5 to 15, and the power was varied from 300 to 1300 horsepower. Maximum lift coefficients of 5.0 and 2.8 were assumed for the airplanes with and without boundary-layer-control --equipment weight was included. The effects of the boundary-layer control on total take-off distance, total power-off landing distance, landing and take-off ground run, stalling speed, sinking speed, and gliding speed were determined.

  6. Force balance in the take-off of a pierid butterfly: relative importance and timing of leg impulsion and aerodynamic forces.

    PubMed

    Bimbard, Gaëlle; Kolomenskiy, Dmitry; Bouteleux, Olivier; Casas, Jérôme; Godoy-Diana, Ramiro

    2013-09-15

    Up to now, the take-off stage has remained an elusive phase of insect flight that was relatively poorly explored compared with other maneuvers. An overall assessment of the different mechanisms involved in force production during take-off has never been explored. Focusing on the first downstroke, we have addressed this problem from a force balance perspective in butterflies taking off from the ground. In order to determine whether the sole aerodynamic wing force could explain the observed motion of the insect, we have firstly compared a simple analytical model of the wing force with the acceleration of the insect's center of mass estimated from video tracking of the wing and body motions. Secondly, wing kinematics were also used for numerical simulations of the aerodynamic flow field. Similar wing aerodynamic forces were obtained by the two methods. However, neither are sufficient, nor is the inclusion of the ground effect, to predict faithfully the body acceleration. We have to resort to the leg forces to obtain a model that best fits the data. We show that the median and hind legs display an active extension responsible for the initiation of the upward motion of the insect's body, occurring before the onset of the wing downstroke. We estimate that legs generate, at various times, an upward force that can be much larger than all other forces applied to the insect's body. The relative timing of leg and wing forces explains the large variability of trajectories observed during the maneuvers.

  7. Take-Off Time of the First Generation of the Overwintering Small Brown Planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus in the Temperate Zone in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Sanada-Morimura, Sachiyo; Otuka, Akira; Matsumura, Masaya; Etoh, Tomoki; Zhu, Yeqin; Zhou, Yijun; Zhang, Gufeng

    2015-01-01

    Overseas migration of the small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén), occurs during the winter wheat harvest season in East Asia. Knowing the take-off time of emigrating L. striatellus is crucial for predicting such migrations with a simulation technique because winds, carriers of migratory insects, change continuously. Several methods were used in China and Japan from late May to early June 2012 and again in 2013 to identify the precise timing of take-off. These methods included: a tow net trap mounted to a pole at 10 m above the ground, a helicopter-towed net trap, and a canopy trap (which also had video monitoring) set over wheat plants. Laodelphax striatellus emigrated from wheat fields mainly in the early evening, before dusk. The insects also emigrated during the daytime but rarely emigrated at dawn, showing a pattern that is unlike the bimodal emigration at dusk and dawn of two other rice planthoppers, the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), and the white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horváth). There was no significant difference in the temporal pattern of take-off behavior between females and males of Japanese L. striatellus populations. PMID:25780936

  8. Flight Investigation of the Stability and Control Characteristics of a 1/4-Scale Model of a Tilt-Wing Vertical-Take-Off-and-Landing Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tosti, Louis P.

    1959-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been conducted to determine the dynamic stability and control characteristics of a tilt-wing vertical-take-off-and-landing aircraft with the use of a remotely controlled 1/4-scale free-flight model. The model had two propellers with hinged (flapping) blades mounted on the wing which could be tilted up to an incidence angle of nearly 90 deg for vertical take-off and landing. The investigation consisted of hovering flights in still air, vertical take-offs and landings, and slow constant-altitude transitions from hovering to forward flight. The stability and control characteristics of the model were generally satisfactory except for the following characteristics. In hovering flight, the model had an unstable pitching oscillation of relatively long period which the pilots were able to control without artificial stabilization but which could not be considered entirely satisfactory. At very low speeds and angles of wing incidence on the order of 70 deg, the model experienced large nose-up pitching moments which severely limited the allowable center-of-gravity range.

  9. Determining postural stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieberman, Erez (Inventor); Forth, Katharine E. (Inventor); Paloski, William H. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method for determining postural stability of a person can include acquiring a plurality of pressure data points over a period of time from at least one pressure sensor. The method can also include the step of identifying a postural state for each pressure data point to generate a plurality of postural states. The method can include the step of determining a postural state of the person at a point in time based on at least the plurality of postural states.

  10. Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    John Hill, a pilot and commercial aerial photographer, needed an information base. He consulted NERAC and requested a search of the latest developments in camera optics. NERAC provided information; Hill contacted the manufacturers of camera equipment and reduced his photographic costs significantly.

  11. A new family of mathematical models describing the human growth curve-Erratum: direct calculation of peak height velocity, age at take-off and associated quantities.

    PubMed

    Sayers, Adrian; Baines, Mike; Tilling, Kate

    2013-05-01

    A new family of mathematical functions to fit longitudinal growth data was described in 1978. The ability of researchers to directly use parameters as estimates of age at peak height velocity resulted in them overlooking the possibility of directly calculating these quantities after model estimation. This erratum has corrected three mistakes in the original manuscript in the direct calculation of peak height velocity and age at take-off and has implemented the solutions in a STATA program which directly calculates the estimates, standard errors and confidence intervals for age, height and velocity at peak height velocity.

  12. Estimation of joint forces and moments for the in-run and take-off in ski jumping based on measurements with wearable inertial sensors.

    PubMed

    Logar, Grega; Munih, Marko

    2015-05-13

    This study uses inertial sensors to measure ski jumper kinematics and joint dynamics, which was until now only a part of simulation studies. For subsequent calculation of dynamics in the joints, a link-segment model was developed. The model relies on the recursive Newton-Euler inverse dynamics. This approach allowed the calculation of the ground reaction force at take-off. For the model validation, four ski jumpers from the National Nordic center performed a simulated jump in a laboratory environment on a force platform; in total, 20 jumps were recorded. The results fit well to the reference system, presenting small errors in the mean and standard deviation and small root-mean-square errors. The error is under 12% of the reference value. For field tests, six jumpers participated in the study; in total, 28 jumps were recorded. All of the measured forces and moments were within the range of prior simulated studies. The proposed system was able to indirectly provide the values of forces and moments in the joints of the ski-jumpers' body segments, as well as the ground reaction force during the in-run and take-off phases in comparison to the force platform installed on the table. Kinematics assessment and estimation of dynamics parameters can be applied to jumps from any ski jumping hill.

  13. The course correction implementation of the inertial navigation system based on the information from the aircraft satellite navigation system before take-off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markelov, V.; Shukalov, A.; Zharinov, I.; Kostishin, M.; Kniga, I.

    2016-04-01

    The use of the correction course option before aircraft take-off after inertial navigation system (INS) inaccurate alignment based on the platform attitude-and-heading reference system in azimuth is considered in the paper. A course correction is performed based on the track angle defined by the information received from the satellite navigation system (SNS). The course correction includes a calculated track error definition during ground taxiing along straight sections before take-off with its input in the onboard digital computational system like amendment for using in the current flight. The track error calculation is performed by the statistical evaluation of the track angle comparison defined by the SNS information with the current course measured by INS for a given number of measurements on the realizable time interval. The course correction testing results and recommendation application are given in the paper. The course correction based on the information from SNS can be used for improving accuracy characteristics for determining an aircraft path after making accelerated INS preparation concerning inaccurate initial azimuth alignment.

  14. Real-time Coupled Ensemble Kalman Filter Forecasting & Nonlinear Model Predictive Control Approach for Optimal Power Take-off of a Wave Energy Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavaglieri, Daniele; Bewley, Thomas; Previsic, Mirko

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in renewable energy. Among all the available possibilities, wave energy conversion, due to the huge availability of energy that the ocean could provide, represents nowadays one of the most promising solutions. However, the efficiency of a wave energy converter for ocean wave energy harvesting is still far from making it competitive with more mature fields of renewable energy, such as solar and wind energy. One of the main problems is related to the difficulty to increase the power take-off through the implementation of an active controller without a precise knowledge of the oncoming wavefield. This work represents the first attempt at defining a realistic control framework for optimal power take-off of a wave energy converter where the ocean wavefield is predicted through a nonlinear Ensemble Kalman filter which assimilates data from a wave measurement device, such as a Doppler radar or a measurement buoy. Knowledge of the future wave profile is then leveraged in a nonlinear direct multiple shooting model predictive control framework allowing the online optimization of the energy absorption under motion and machinery constraints of the device.

  15. Synthesis of the unmanned aerial vehicle remote control augmentation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczyk, Andrzej

    2014-12-01

    Medium size Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) usually flies as an autonomous aircraft including automatic take-off and landing phases. However in the case of the on-board control system failure, the remote steering is using as an emergency procedure. In this reason, remote manual control of unmanned aerial vehicle is used more often during take-of and landing phases. Depends on UAV take-off mass and speed (total energy) the potential crash can be very danger for airplane and environment. So, handling qualities of UAV is important from pilot-operator point of view. In many cases the dynamic properties of remote controlling UAV are not suitable for obtaining the desired properties of the handling qualities. In this case the control augmentation system (CAS) should be applied. Because the potential failure of the on-board control system, the better solution is that the CAS algorithms are placed on the ground station computers. The method of UAV handling qualities shaping in the case of basic control system failure is presented in this paper. The main idea of this method is that UAV reaction on the operator steering signals should be similar - almost the same - as reaction of the "ideal" remote control aircraft. The model following method was used for controller parameters calculations. The numerical example concerns the medium size MP-02A UAV applied as an aerial observer system.

  16. Synthesis of the unmanned aerial vehicle remote control augmentation system

    SciTech Connect

    Tomczyk, Andrzej

    2014-12-10

    Medium size Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) usually flies as an autonomous aircraft including automatic take-off and landing phases. However in the case of the on-board control system failure, the remote steering is using as an emergency procedure. In this reason, remote manual control of unmanned aerial vehicle is used more often during take-of and landing phases. Depends on UAV take-off mass and speed (total energy) the potential crash can be very danger for airplane and environment. So, handling qualities of UAV is important from pilot-operator point of view. In many cases the dynamic properties of remote controlling UAV are not suitable for obtaining the desired properties of the handling qualities. In this case the control augmentation system (CAS) should be applied. Because the potential failure of the on-board control system, the better solution is that the CAS algorithms are placed on the ground station computers. The method of UAV handling qualities shaping in the case of basic control system failure is presented in this paper. The main idea of this method is that UAV reaction on the operator steering signals should be similar - almost the same - as reaction of the 'ideal' remote control aircraft. The model following method was used for controller parameters calculations. The numerical example concerns the medium size MP-02A UAV applied as an aerial observer system.

  17. [Risks of awkward posture].

    PubMed

    Bazzini, G; Capodaglio, E; Panigazzi, M; Prestifilippo, E; Vercesi, C

    2010-01-01

    For posture we mean the position of the body in the space and the relationship with its segments. The correct posture is determined by neurophysiological, biomechanical, emotional, psychological and relation factors, enabling us to perform daily and working activities with the lowest energy expenditure. When possible we suggest during posture variation, a preventive measure where there are prolonged fixed activities.

  18. Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Subsonic Longitudinal Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Tiltable-Wing Vertical-Take-Off-and-Landing Supersonic Bomber Configuration Including Turbojet Power Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Robert F.; Vogler, Raymond D.; Moseley, William C., Jr.

    1959-01-01

    Jet-powered model tests were made to determine the low-speed longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a vertical-take-off and-landing supersonic bomber configuration. The configuration has an unique engine-wing arrangement wherein six large turbojet engines (three on each side of the fuselage) are buried in a low-aspect-ratio wing which is tilted into the vertical plane for take-off. An essentially two-dimensional variable inlet, spanning the leading edge of each wing semispan, provides air for the engines. Jet flow conditions were simulated for a range of military (nonafterburner) and afterburner turbojet-powered flight at subsonic speeds. Three horizontal tails were tested at a station down-stream of the jet exit and at three heights above the jet axes. A semi-span model was used and test parameters covered wing-fuselage incidence angles from 0 deg to 15 deg, wing angles of attack from -4 deg to 36 deg, a variable range of horizontal-tail incidence angles, and some variations in power simulation conditions. Results show that, with all horizontal tails tested, there were large variations in static stability throughout the lift range. When the wing and fuselage were alined, the model was statically stable throughout the test range only with the largest tail tested (tail span of 1.25 wing span) and only when the tail was located in the low test position which placed the tail nearest to the undeflected jet. For transition flight conditions, none of the tail configurations provided satisfactory longitudinal stability or trim throughout the lift range. Jet flow was destabilizing for most of the test conditions, and varying the jet-exit flow conditions at a constant thrust coefficient had little effect on the stability of this model. Wing leading-edge simulation had some important effects on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics.

  19. Take-off and Landing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    I’apparition d’une alarme spedfique. Le colllmateur est egalement autosurvellie, et toute panne detectee au niveau des capteurs dont 11 utilise ...caracteristiques entratnent une vitesae de finease maximale suffiaamment dlevee pour qu’on soit amend k utiliser operationnellement l’avion au second...ameiiore peut 8tre obtenu par 1’ utilisation d’une automanette. Comma il sera vu plus loin, les vitesses au decollage sont moins dimmensionnces par la

  20. HAWK-I Takes Off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-08-01

    New Wide Field Near-Infrared Imager for ESO's Very Large Telescope Europe's flagship ground-based astronomical facility, the ESO VLT, has been equipped with a new 'eye' to study the Universe. Working in the near-infrared, the new instrument - dubbed HAWK-I - covers about 1/10th the area of the Full Moon in a single exposure. It is uniquely suited to the discovery and study of faint objects, such as distant galaxies or small stars and planets. ESO PR Photo 36a/07 ESO PR Photo 36a/07 HAWK-I on the VLT After three years of hard work, HAWK-I (High Acuity, Wide field K-band Imaging) saw First Light on Yepun, Unit Telescope number 4 of ESO's VLT, on the night of 31 July to 1 August 2007. The first images obtained impressively demonstrate its potential. "HAWK-I is a credit to the instrument team at ESO who designed, built and commissioned it," said Catherine Cesarsky, ESO's Director General. "No doubt, HAWK-I will allow rapid progress in very diverse areas of modern astronomy by filling a niche of wide-field, well-sampled near-infrared imagers on 8-m class telescopes." "It's wonderful; the instrument's performance has been terrific," declared Jeff Pirard, the HAWK-I Project Manager. "We could not have hoped for a better start, and look forward to scientifically exciting and beautiful images in the years to come." During this first commissioning period all instrument functions were checked, confirming that the instrument performance is at the level expected. Different astronomical objects were observed to test different characteristics of the instrument. For example, during one period of good atmospheric stability, images were taken towards the central bulge of our Galaxy. Many thousands of stars were visible over the field and allowed the astronomers to obtain stellar images only 3.4 pixels (0.34 arcsecond) wide, uniformly over the whole field of view, confirming the excellent optical quality of HAWK-I. ESO PR Photo 36b/07 ESO PR Photo 36c/07 Nebula in Serpens (HAWK-I/VLT) HAWK-I takes images in the 0.9 to 2.5 micron domain over a large field-of-view of 7.5 x 7.5 arcminutes. This is nine times larger than that of ISAAC, another near-infrared imager on the VLT that went into operation in late 1998. ISAAC has shown how deep near-infrared images can contribute uniquely to the discovery and study of large, distant galaxies, and to the study of discs around stars or even very low mass objects, down to a few Jupiter masses. HAWK-I will build on this experience by being able to study much larger areas with an excellent image quality. HAWK-I has four 2k x 2k array detectors, i.e. a total of 16 million 0.1 arcsecond pixels. "Until the availability of the James Webb Space Telescope in the next decade, it is clear that 8-m class telescopes will provide the best sensitivity achievable in the near-infrared below 3 microns," explained Mark Casali, the ESO scientist responsible for the instrument. Given the wide field, fine sampling and the high sensitivity of HAWK-I, the deepest scientific impact is expected in the areas of faint sources. "With its special filter set, HAWK-I will allow us to peer into the most distant Universe," said Markus Kissler-Patig, the Instrument Scientist. "In particular, with HAWK-I, we will scrutinise the very first objects that formed in the Universe." HAWK-I will also be very well suited for the search for the most massive stars and for the least massive objects in our Galaxy, such as hot Jupiters. But HAWK-I will also be a perfect instrument for the study of outer Solar System bodies, such as distant, icy asteroids and comets. HAWK-I is the eleventh instrument to be installed at ESO's VLT. It bridges the gap between the first and the second generation instruments to be installed on this unique facility.

  1. ADP-ribosylation factor arf6p may function as a molecular switch of new end take off in fission yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Atsushi

    2008-02-01

    Small GTPases act as molecular switches in a wide variety of cellular processes. In fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the directions of cell growth change from a monopolar manner to a bipolar manner, which is known as 'New End Take Off' (NETO). Here I report the identification of a gene, arf6{sup +}, encoding an ADP-ribosylation factor small GTPase, that may be essential for NETO. arf6{delta} cells completely fail to undergo NETO. arf6p localizes at both cell ends and presumptive septa in a cell-cycle dependent manner. And its polarized localization is not dependent on microtubules, actin cytoskeletons and some NETO factors (bud6p, for3p, tea1p, tea3p, and tea4p). Notably, overexpression of a fast GDP/GTP-cycling mutant of arf6p can advance the timing of NETO. These findings suggest that arf6p functions as a molecular switch for the activation of NETO in fission yeast.

  2. Social Postural Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varlet, Manuel; Marin, Ludovic; Lagarde, Julien; Bardy, Benoit G.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to investigate whether a visual coupling between two people can produce spontaneous interpersonal postural coordination and change their intrapersonal postural coordination involved in the control of stance. We examined the front-to-back head displacements of participants and the angular motion of their hip and…

  3. Reduced postural differences between phobic postural vertigo patients and healthy subjects during a postural threat.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Johan; Tjernström, Fredrik; Karlberg, Mikael; Fransson, Per Anders; Magnusson, Måns

    2009-08-01

    Phobic postural vertigo is characterized by subjective imbalance and dizziness while standing or walking, despite normal values for clinical balance tests. Patients with phobic postural vertigo exhibit an increased high-frequency sway in posturographic tests. Their postural sway, however, becomes similar to the sway of healthy subjects during difficult balance tasks. Posturographic recordings of 30 s of quiet stance was compared to recordings of 30 s of quiet stance during a postural threat, which consisted of the knowledge of forthcoming vibratory calf muscle stimulation, in 37 consecutive patients with phobic postural vertigo and 24 healthy subjects. During quiet stance without the threat of forthcoming vibratory stimulation, patients with phobic postural vertigo exhibited a postural sway containing significantly more high-frequency sway than the healthy subjects. During the quiet stance with forthcoming vibratory stimulation, i.e., anticipation of a postural threat, the significant differences between groups disappeared for all variables except sagittal high-frequency sway. During postural threat, healthy subjects seemed to adopt a postural strategy that was similar to that exhibited by phobic postural vertigo patients. The lack of additional effects facing a postural threat among phobic postural vertigo patients may be due to an already maximized postural adaptation. Deviant postural reactions among patients with phobic postural vertigo may be considered as an avoidant postural response due to a constant fear of losing postural control.

  4. Smooth-Water Landing Stability and Rough-Water Landing and Take-Off Behavior of a 1/13-Scale Model of the Consolidated Vultee Skate 7 Seaplane, TED No. NACA DE 338

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKann, Robert F.; Coffee, Claude W.; Arabian, Donald D.

    1949-01-01

    A model of the Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corporation Skate 7 seaplane was tested in Langley tank no. 2. Presented without discussion in this paper are landing stability in smooth water, maximum normal accelerations occurring during rough-water landings, and take-off behavior in waves.

  5. Aerial radiation surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Jobst, J.

    1980-01-01

    A recent aerial radiation survey of the surroundings of the Vitro mill in Salt Lake City shows that uranium mill tailings have been removed to many locations outside their original boundary. To date, 52 remote sites have been discovered within a 100 square kilometer aerial survey perimeter surrounding the mill; 9 of these were discovered with the recent aerial survey map. Five additional sites, also discovered by aerial survey, contained uranium ore, milling equipment, or radioactive slag. Because of the success of this survey, plans are being made to extend the aerial survey program to other parts of the Salt Lake valley where diversions of Vitro tailings are also known to exist.

  6. Aerial Image Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, Robert E.

    1987-09-01

    Aerial images produce the best stereoscopic images of the viewed world. Despite the fact that every optic in existence produces an aerial image, few persons are aware of their existence and possible uses. Constant reference to the eye and other optical systems have produced a psychosis of design that only considers "focal planes" in the design and analysis of optical systems. All objects in the field of view of the optical device are imaged by the device as an aerial image. Use of aerial images in vision and visual display systems can provide a true stereoscopic representation of the viewed world. This paper discusses aerial image systems - their applications and designs and presents designs and design concepts that utilize aerial images to obtain superior visual displays, particularly with application to visual simulation.

  7. A Simulator Study of the Effectiveness of a Pilot's Indicator which Combined Angle of Attack and Rate of Change of Total Pressure as Applied to the Take-Off Rotation and Climbout of a Supersonic Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Albert W.; Harris, Jack E.

    1961-01-01

    A simulator study has been made to determine the effectiveness of a single instrument presentation as an aid to the pilot in controlling both rotation and climbout path in take-off. The instrument was basically an angle-of-attack indicator, biased with a total-pressure-rate input as a means of suppressing the phugoid oscillation. Linearized six-degree-of-freedom equations of motion were utilized in simulating a hypothetical supersonic transport as the test vehicle. Each of several experienced pilots performed a number of simulated take-offs, using conventional flight instruments and either an angle-of-attack instrument or the combined angle-of-attack and total-pressure-rate instrument. The pilots were able to rotate the airplane, with satisfactory precision, to the 15 deg. angle of attack required for lift-off when using either an angle-of-attack instrument or the instrument which combined total-pressure-rate with angle of attack. At least 4 to 6 second-S appeared to be required for rotation to prevent overshoot, particularly with the latter instrument. The flight paths resulting from take-offs with simulated engine failures were relatively smooth and repeatable within a reasonably narrow band when the combined angle-of-attack and total-pressure-rate instrument presentation was used. Some of the flight paths resulting from take-offs with the same engine-failure conditions were very oscillatory when conventional instruments and an angle-of-attack instrument were used. The pilots considered the combined angle-of-attack and total- pressure-rate instrument a very effective aid. Even though they could, with sufficient practice, perform satisfactory climbouts after simulated engine failure by monitoring the conventional instruments and making correction based on their readings, it was much easier to maintain a smooth flight path with the single combined angle-of-attack and total-pressure-rate instrument.

  8. Autoimmune Basis for Postural Tachycardia Syndrome

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-14

    Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome; Postural Tachycardia Syndrome; Tachycardia; Arrhythmias, Cardiac; Autonomic Nervous System Diseases; Orthostatic Intolerance; Cardiovascular Diseases; Primary Dysautonomias

  9. Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome is a disease characterized by excessively increased heart rate during orthostatic challenge associated with symptoms of orthostatic intolerance including dizziness, exercise intolerance, headache, fatigue, memory problems, nausea, blurred vision, pallor, and sweating, which improve with recumbence. Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome patients may present with a multitude of additional symptoms that are attributable to vascular vasoconstriction. Observed signs and symptoms in a patient with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome include tachycardia at rest, exaggerated heart rate increase with upright position and exercise, crushing chest pain, tremor, syncope, loss of vision, confusion, migraines, fatigue, heat intolerance, parasthesia, dysesthesia, allodynia, altered traditional senses, and thermoregulatory abnormalities. There are a number of possible dermatological manifestations of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome easily explained by its recently discovered pathophysiology. The author reports the case of a 22-year-old woman with moderate-to-severe postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome with numerous dermatological manifestations attributable to the disease process. The cutaneous manifestations observed in this patient are diverse and most noticeable during postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome flares. The most distinct are evanescent, hyperemic, sharply demarcated, irregular patches on the chest and neck area that resolve upon diascopy. This distinct “evanescent hyperemia” disappears spontaneously after seconds to minutes and reappears unexpectedly. Other observed dermatological manifestations of this systemic disease include Raynaud’s phenomenon, koilonychia, onychodystrophy, madarosis, dysesthesia, allodynia, telogen effluvium, increased capillary refill time, and livedo reticularis. The treatment of this disease poses a great challenge. The author reports the unprecedented use of an

  10. SR-71A Taking Off with Test Fixture Mounted Atop the Aft Section of the Aircraft and F-18 Chase Airc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This photo shows a NASA's SR-71A Blackbird, followed by a NASA F/A-18 chase plane, taking off from the runway at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on a 1999 flight. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the airstream. One of Dryden's SR-71s was used for the Linear Aerospike Rocket Engine, or LASRE Experiment. Another earlier project consisted of a series of flights using the SR-71 as a science camera platform for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. An upward

  11. SR-71A Taking Off with Test Fixture Mounted Atop the Aft Section of the Aircraft and F-18 Chase Airc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This photo shows a NASA's SR-71A Blackbird, followed by a NASA F/A-18 chase plane, taking off from the runway at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on a 1999 flight. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the airstream. One of Dryden's SR-71s was used for the Linear Aerospike Rocket Engine, or LASRE Experiment. Another earlier project consisted of a series of flights using the SR-71 as a science camera platform for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. An upward

  12. Tank Tests of a 1/7-Size Dynamic Model of the Grumman XJR2F-1 Amphibian to Determine the Effect of Slotted- and Split-Type Flaps on Take-Off Stability - NACA Model 212, TED No. NACA 2378

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Land, Norman S.; Zeck, Howard

    1947-01-01

    Additional tests of a 1/7-size model of the Grumman XJR2F-1 amphibian were made in Langley tank no. 1 to compare the behavior during take-off of the model equipped with split- and slotted-type flaps. The slotted flag had a large effect on locating the forward center-of-gravity limits for stable take-offs. Stable take-offs within the normal operating range of positions of the center of gravity could be made with the split flaps deflected 45deg or with the slotted flaps deflected less than 20deg. At flap deflections required for similar take-off stability, the use of split-flaps resulted lower take-off speeds than the use of slotted flaps. An increase in forward acceleration from 1.1 to 4.8 feet per second per second moved the center-of-gravity limit forward approximately 3-percent mean aerodynamic chord.

  13. Posture and Movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Session TP3 includes short reports on: (1) Modification of Goal-Directed Arm Movements During Inflight Adaptation to Microgravity; (2) Quantitative Analysis of Motion control in Long Term Microgravity; (3) Does the Centre of Gravity Remain the Stabilised Reference during Complex Human Postural Equilibrium Tasks in Weightlessness?; and (4) Arm End-Point Trajectories Under Normal and Microgravity Environments.

  14. Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, A K; Garg, R; Ritch, A; Sarkar, P

    2007-07-01

    Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is an autonomic disturbance which has become better understood in recent years. It is now thought to encompass a group of disorders that have similar clinical features, such as orthostatic intolerance, but individual distinguishing parameters--for example, blood pressure and pulse rate. The clinical picture, diagnosis, and management of POTS are discussed.

  15. Investigation of the Effectiveness of Boundary-layer Control by Blowing over a Combination of Sliding and Plain Flaps in Deflecting a Propeller Slipstream Downward for Vertical Take-off

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spreemann, Kenneth P; Kuhn, Richard E

    1956-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in order to determine the effectiveness of blowing a jet of air over the flaps of a wing equipped with a 50-percent-chord sliding flap and a 25-percent-chord plain flap in deflecting a propeller slipstream downward for vertical take-off and the results are presented herein. The effects of a leading-edge slat, ground proximity, end plate, and propeller position were also investigated. The tests were conducted in a static-thrust facility at the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory.

  16. AERIAL METHODS OF EXPLORATION

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The development of photointerpretation techniques for identifying kimberlite pipes on aerial photographs is discussed. The geographic area considered is the Daldyn region, which lies in the zone of Northern Taiga of Yakutiya.

  17. Posture Statement 2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    dispersed, comprising formal, informal, family, and cultural associations tied by varied and sometimes near- invisible links. Th ey ex- ploit the...coordination, and communication between all levels of government. USSOCOM’s leadership, vision, and initiative in prosecuting the GWOT was validated most...Rather, the new vision expresses a need for low density, high demand SOF assets to be postured with a “presence for purpose”, to be at the “right place

  18. Postural development in rats.

    PubMed

    Lelard, T; Jamon, M; Gasc, J-P; Vidal, P-P

    2006-11-01

    Mammals adopt a limited number of postures during their day-to-day activities. These stereotyped skeletal configurations are functionally adequate and limit the number of degrees of freedom to be controlled by the central nervous system. The temporal pattern of emergence of these configurations in altricial mammals is unknown. We therefore carried out an X-ray study in unrestrained rats from birth (P0) until postnatal day 23 (P23). The X-rays showed that many of the skeletal configurations described in adult rodents were already present at birth. By contrast, limb placement changed abruptly at around P10. These skeletal configurations, observed in anesthetized pups, required the maintenance of precise motor control. On the other hand, motor control continued to mature, as shown by progressive changes in resting posture and head movements from P0 to P23. We suggest that a few innate skeletal configurations provide the necessary frames of reference for the gradual construction of an adult motor repertoire in altricial mammals, such as the rat. The apparent absence of a requirement for external sensorial cues in the maturation of this repertoire may account for the maturation of postural and motor control in utero in precocial mammals (Muir et al., 2000 for a review on the locomotor behavior of altricial and precocial animals).

  19. Posture modulates implicit hand maps.

    PubMed

    Longo, Matthew R

    2015-11-01

    Several forms of somatosensation require that afferent signals be informed by stored representations of body size and shape. Recent results have revealed that position sense relies on a highly distorted body representation. Changes of internal hand posture produce plastic alterations of processing in somatosensory cortex. This study therefore investigated how such postural changes affect implicit body representations underlying position sense. Participants localised the knuckles and tips of each finger in external space in two postures: the fingers splayed (Apart posture) or pressed together (Together posture). Comparison of the relative locations of the judgments of each landmark were used to construct implicit maps of represented hand structure. Spreading the fingers apart produced increases in the implicit representation of hand size, with no apparent effect on hand shape. Thus, changes of internal hand posture produce rapid modulation of how the hand itself is represented, paralleling the known effects on somatosensory cortical processing.

  20. Forced Changes of Combat Posture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-30

    effectiveness. Adkins’s thesi-s on modeling battlefield decision-making provided additional factors. M& Quic addressed the questien of posture change directly in...the study was to gain increased knowledge of the fac- - tors associated with forced changes in combat posture, in order to develop a model of forced...posture change model for use, with appro- priate parameter values, at the divisional and regimental levels. Principles guiding the model development may

  1. Aerial Photography Summary Record System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1998-01-01

    The Aerial Photography Summary Record System (APSRS) describes aerial photography projects that meet specified criteria over a given geographic area of the United States and its territories. Aerial photographs are an important tool in cartography and a number of other professions. Land use planners, real estate developers, lawyers, environmental specialists, and many other professionals rely on detailed and timely aerial photographs. Until 1975, there was no systematic approach to locate an aerial photograph, or series of photographs, quickly and easily. In that year, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) inaugurated the APSRS, which has become a standard reference for users of aerial photographs.

  2. Determining posture from physiological tremor.

    PubMed

    Albert, Mark V; Kording, Konrad P

    2011-12-01

    The measurement of body and limb posture is important to many clinical and research studies. Current approaches either directly measure posture (e.g., using optical or magnetic methods) or more indirectly measure it by integrating changes over time (e.g., using gyroscopes and/or accelerometers). Here, we introduce a way of estimating posture from movements without requiring integration over time and the resulting complications. We show how the almost imperceptible tremor of the hand is affected by posture in an intuitive way and therefore can be used to estimate the posture of the arm. We recorded postures and tremor of the arms of volunteers. By using only the minor axis in the covariance of hand tremor, we could estimate the angle of the forearm with a standard deviation of about 4° when the subject's elbow is resting on a table and about 10° when it is off the table. This technique can also be applied as a post hoc analysis on other hand-position data sets to extract posture. This new method allows the estimation of body posture from tremor, is complementary to other techniques, and so can become a useful tool for future research and clinical applications.

  3. Investigation of Effectiveness of a Wing Equipped with a 50-percent-chord Sliding Flap, a 30-percent-chord Slotted Flap, and a 30-percent-chord Slat in Deflecting Propeller Slipstreams Downward for Vertical Take-off

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Richard E

    1957-01-01

    Results are presented of an investigation of the effectiveness of a wing equipped with a 50-percent-chord sliding flap and a 30-percent-chord slotted flap in deflecting a propeller slipstream downward for vertical take-off. Tests were conducted at zero forward speed in a large room and included the effects of flap deflection, proximity to the ground, a leading-edge slat, and end plates. A turning angle of about 70 degrees and a resultant force of about 100 percent of the thrust were achieved near the ground. Out of the ground-effect region, the turning angle was also about 70 degrees but the resultant force was reduced to about 86 percent of the thrust.

  4. Aerial Explorers and Robotic Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg

    2004-01-01

    A unique bio-inspired approach to autonomous aerial vehicle, a.k.a. aerial explorer technology is discussed. The work is focused on defining and studying aerial explorer mission concepts, both as an individual robotic system and as a member of a small robotic "ecosystem." Members of this robotic ecosystem include the aerial explorer, air-deployed sensors and robotic symbiotes, and other assets such as rovers, landers, and orbiters.

  5. Aerial of the VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Even in this aerial view at KSC, the Vehicle Assembly Building is imposing. In front of it is the Launch Control Center. In the background is the Rotation/Processing Facility, next to the Banana Creek. In the foreground is the Saturn Causeway that leads to Launch Pads 39A and 39B.

  6. Aerial photographic reproductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1971-01-01

    Geological Survey vertical aerial photography is obtained primarily for topographic and geologic mapping. Reproductions from this photography are usually satisfactory for general use. Because reproductions are not stocked, but are custom processed for each order, they cannot be returned for credit or refund.

  7. [Menisci and posture].

    PubMed

    Sérgio, J S

    2000-01-01

    The first aim of this work is not only to review the localised perspective of meniscopathy, concerned with the consequences of meniscectomy, but to also view it in a broader dimension, in the behavioural aspect--related to postural activity. The second aim is to establish the relationship between these two dimensions. Meniscopathies invariably lead to degenerative alterations of the knee joint--not sufficiently explained by the local factors--that result in a situation of osteoarthritis. Some investigators established that the osteoarthritis process should not be confined only to the mechanical responsibility, due to some studies that also confirm the existence of biochemical alterations. However, others have also shown that the nervous system (NS) is likely to influence the inflammatory manifestations through the unmyelinated afferent fibers and sympathetic efferent fibers of the joints. These fibers can interact with non-neural elements, releasing some mediators, such as P substance (PS) and norepinephrine (NE), which, by themselves, or through other substances, contribute to the exacerbation of the inflammatory process. In order to relate the facts above, this longitudinal study comprised the following approaches clinical: anthropometric; biotechnical; and posturographic. It was characterised by five moments of data collection, the periodicity of which is related to the time of the surgery: the first moment is before surgery, followed by the remaining four, at six-week intervals, the sample being composed of--15 male caucasians, aged between 20 and 30 years, working for the Air Force. These Subjects were divided into two groups, according to the amount of meniscus removed in the longitudinal direction. Group A--meniscectomy < 1/2 the longitudinal body, composed of 7 subjects, with an average age of 21.4 years; and Group B, meniscectomy > 1/2 the longitudinal body, composed of: 8 subjects, with an average age of 24.1 years. The statistical analysis contained a

  8. The effect of asymmetry of posture on anticipatory postural adjustments.

    PubMed

    Aruin, Alexander S

    2006-06-19

    The study investigates the effect of body asymmetry on anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs). Subjects performed a task involving a standard load release induced by a shoulder abduction movement while standing symmetrically or in an asymmetrical stance with either their right or left leg in 45 degrees of external rotation. EMG activities of trunk and leg muscles were recorded during the postural perturbation and were quantified within the time intervals typical of APAs. Anticipatory postural adjustments were observed in all experimental conditions. It was found that asymmetrical body positioning was associated with significant asymmetrical patterns of APAs seen in the right and left distal muscles. These APA asymmetries were dependant upon the side in which the body asymmetry was induced: reduced APAs were observed in the leg muscles on the side of leg rotation, while increased APAs were seen in the muscles on the contralateral side. These findings stress the important role that body asymmetries play in the control of upright posture.

  9. NEW APPROACHES: High temperature superconductors take off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, Colin

    1998-01-01

    This article describes the progress made towards real engineering applications of high temperature superconductors (HTS) in the ten years following the Nobel Prize winning discovery by Bednorz and Müller in August 1986. Examples include HTS wires and tapes for more efficient and powerful electric motors and for increasing the electrical power into the heart of modern cities, HTS permanent magnets for levitation, microwave filters for cellular telephone networks, SQUIDs (superconducting quantum interference devices) to monitor foetal heart and brain signals, and a new generation of superfast logic devices based on the flux quantum.

  10. Will Smart Pricing Finally Take Off?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    less intrusive than voice), and the phenomenon shown in this table may be an indicator of a substantial opportunity in voice messaging, one that possibly...happen, as their managers (and shareholders) dream of “content” and other glamorous futures. 5 The large telecommunications revenues Measuring revenues

  11. Industrial biotechnology takes off in Europe.

    PubMed

    Lex, Maurice

    2008-01-01

    Biotechnologies have the potential to significantly impact the quality of life in a sustainable society through the understanding, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases, advances in agriculture and food production, and numerous industrial applications ranging from chemicals to materials including environmental protection and remediation. This article considers how the business sector will be modified by developments in the understanding of living organisms. Will the 21st century see the growth of a Bioeconomy based on applications of biotechnology as pervasive and as powerful as the information economy has been at the end of the 20th century?

  12. Discovery Takes Off on New Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    Space shuttle Discovery began its next mission April 17, 2012, when it took off from its operational home and headed to the Smithsonian Institution where it will be put on display to inspire the pu...

  13. A Flight Simulator Program Takes Off

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Don

    2003-01-01

    Aviation concepts, including forces acting on an airplane, navigation, correct aircraft terminology, and general aviation vocabulary, are often part of a comprehensive fifth-grade aviation curriculum. But in one school district, students also learned about flying planes and even trained in a flight simulator. This article describes how industry…

  14. NASA's Global Hawk 871 Takes Off

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Global Hawk 871 departed from a runway at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, Va. on Sept. 25, 2013 at the close of the NASA HS3 Hurricane Mission. NASA 871 was returning to home...

  15. Imaging Posture Veils Neural Signals

    PubMed Central

    Thibault, Robert T.; Raz, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Whereas modern brain imaging often demands holding body positions incongruent with everyday life, posture governs both neural activity and cognitive performance. Humans commonly perform while upright; yet, many neuroimaging methodologies require participants to remain motionless and adhere to non-ecological comportments within a confined space. This inconsistency between ecological postures and imaging constraints undermines the transferability and generalizability of many a neuroimaging assay. Here we highlight the influence of posture on brain function and behavior. Specifically, we challenge the tacit assumption that brain processes and cognitive performance are comparable across a spectrum of positions. We provide an integrative synthesis regarding the increasingly prominent influence of imaging postures on autonomic function, mental capacity, sensory thresholds, and neural activity. Arguing that neuroimagers and cognitive scientists could benefit from considering the influence posture wields on both general functioning and brain activity, we examine existing imaging technologies and the potential of portable and versatile imaging devices (e.g., functional near infrared spectroscopy). Finally, we discuss ways that accounting for posture may help unveil the complex brain processes of everyday cognition. PMID:27818629

  16. Common postural defects among music students.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Piñeiro, Patricia; Díaz-Pereira, M Pino; Martínez, Aurora

    2015-07-01

    Postural quality during musical performance affects both musculoskeletal health and the quality of the performance. In this study we examined the posture of 100 students at a Higher Conservatory of Music in Spain. By analysing video tapes and photographs of the students while performing, a panel of experts extracted values of 11 variables reflecting aspects of overall postural quality or the postural quality of various parts of the body. The most common postural defects were identified, together with the situations in which they occur. It is concluded that most students incur in unphysiological postures during performance. It is hoped that use of the results of this study will help correct these errors.

  17. Tank Tests of a 1/7-Size Powered Dynamic Model of the Grumman XJR2F-1 Amphibian: Spray Characteristics, Take-Off and Landing Stability in Smooth Water - Langley Tank Model 212, TED No. NACA 2378

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Land, Norman S.; Zeck, Howrad

    1946-01-01

    Tests of a model of the XJR2F-Y amphibian were made in Langley tank no. to determine the spray characteristics and the take-off and landing stability. At a gross load of 22,000 pounds full size, spray entered the propeller disk only at a very narrow range of speeds. The spray striking the flaps was not excessive and no appreciable wetting of the tail surfaces was noted. The trim limits of stability appeared to be satisfactory and the upper-limit porpoising was not violent. The stable range of center-of-gravity locations with flaps set 20deg was well aft of the desired operating range. However, with flaps up, the forward limit was about 18 percent mean aerodynamic chord and the aft limit about 28.5 percent mean aerodynamic chord at a load of 26,000 pounds and with elevators deflected -10deg. Under these conditions the location of the step is considered satisfactory. Tests showed that the effect of water in the nose-wheel well would be to move the forward limit aft about 2-percent mean aerodynamic chord. Without ventilation of the main step, the model skipped during landing at most trims, but this skipping was not violent. With the ventilation, the model skipped lightly only at trims where the afterbody keel was approximately parallel to the water (around 7.5 deg).

  18. Defense Science Board Study on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-02-01

    Defense Science Board Study on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicles February 2004 Office...COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defense Science Board Study on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicles 5a. CONTRACT...the Defense Science Board Task Force on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicles I am pleased to forward the final report of

  19. Motor systems and postural instability.

    PubMed

    Vassar, Rachel L; Rose, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication and chronic alcohol dependence alter the neurologic control of posture and motor function. Ethanol delays the conduction of electric signals from the central nervous system to the muscles controlling posture and impairs the integration of sensory inputs required for maintaining vertical stance. Consequently, alcohol intoxication delays the ability to detect postural changes and enact the appropriate response. Common signs of acute alcohol intoxication include spinocerebellar and vestibulocerebellar ataxia, oculomotor changes, and increased reliance on visuospatial clues. Chronic alcoholism results in postural tremors and excessive sway during quiet stance that can persist even after sobriety is achieved. Underlying neurologic changes due to chronic alcoholism have been found to be associated with these characteristic postural changes and include decreased volume of the anterior superior vermis of the cerebellum, decreased connectivity within the corpus callosum, and overall cortical atrophy. Severity of motor impairments and other symptoms from alcoholism relate to a variety of factors, including duration of alcoholism, age, sex, and other health determinants and comorbidities. Imaging studies highlight the potential for partial recovery from neurologic and motor deficits caused by alcoholism. Emerging evidence on the motor and neurologic changes caused by alcohol dependence may allow for improved treatment and prevention of the morbidities associated with alcoholism.

  20. 2. AERIAL VIEW OF MINUTEMAN SILOS. Low oblique aerial view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW OF MINUTEMAN SILOS. Low oblique aerial view (original in color) of the two launch silos, covered. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Missile Silo Type, Test Area 1-100, northeast end of Test Area 1-100 Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  1. Aerial Video Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    When Michael Henry wanted to start an aerial video service, he turned to Johnson Space Center for assistance. Two NASA engineers - one had designed and developed TV systems in Apollo, Skylab, Apollo- Soyuz and Space Shuttle programs - designed a wing-mounted fiberglass camera pod. Camera head and angles are adjustable, and the pod is shaped to reduce vibration. The controls are located so a solo pilot can operate the system. A microprocessor displays latitude, longitude, and bearing, and a GPS receiver provides position data for possible legal references. The service has been successfully utilized by railroads, oil companies, real estate companies, etc.

  2. Postural discomfort and perceived exertion in standardized box-holding postures.

    PubMed

    Olendorf, M R; Drury, C G

    2001-12-15

    To help in the design or redesign of workplaces it would be helpful to know in advance the postural stress consequences of a wide range of body postures. This experiment evaluated 168 postures chosen to represent those in the Ovako Working-posture Analysing System (OWAS) using Rated Perceived Exertion (RPE) and Body Part Discomfort (BPD) measures. The postures comprised all combinations of three arm postures, four back postures, seven leg postures and two forces (weights of held boxes). Twelve male subjects held each posture for a fixed duration (20 s) before providing RPE and BPD ratings. Analysis of the ratings gave highly significant main effects, with the major driver being the object weight. As each factor was varied, the largest effect was on the body region corresponding to that factor. A simple main-effects-only additive model explained 91% of the variance of RPE means for the postures.

  3. Age Related Decline in Postural Control Mechanisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stelmach, George E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied voluntary and reflexive mechanisms of postural control of young (N=8) and elderly (N=8) adults through measurement of reflexive reactions to large-fast and small-slow ankle rotation postural disturbances. Found reflexive mechanisms relatively intact for both groups although elderly appeared more disadvantaged when posture was under the…

  4. Postural Control in Children with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohen-Raz, Reuven; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Postural control was evaluated in 91 autistic, 166 normal, and 18 mentally retarded children using a computerized posturographic procedure. In comparison to normal children, the autistic subjects were less likely to exhibit age-related changes in postural performance, and postures were more variable and less stable. (Author/JDD)

  5. Unmanned Aerial Systems for scientific research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanutti, Leopoldo; MacKenzie, A. Robert; di Donfrancesco, Guido; Amici, Stefania

    2010-05-01

    could fly for over 20 hours over the ice pack or over the Antarctic continent could measure the horizontal and vertical extent of the ice sheet over unprecedented areas. Technical challenges, such as ensuring safe take-off and landing, appear not to be insurmountable. A second example is the study of the UTLS using a HALE platform such as the Global Hawk. Such a platform is well-suited for circumpolar flights, in which the same air masses could be encountered in a single flight, providing a quasi-lagrangian view of stratospheric ozone chemistry during the polar winter. Transects from the mid latitudes to the subtropics could also be designed, to study exchange processes across the tropopause and the age of air in the stratosphere. We will illustrate other possible scientific missions using other types of UAS platforms.

  6. Postural analysis of nursing work.

    PubMed

    Hignett, S

    1996-06-01

    Back pain in the nursing profession is an acknowledged wide spread occupational hazard. This study used OWAS (Ovako Working posture Analysis System) to measure the severity of the working postures adopted by nurses on Care of the Elderly wards when carrying out manual handling operations for animate and inanimate loads. Twenty-six nurses were observed on 31 occasions to obtain 4299 observations, these data were collected and processed using the OWASCO and OWASAN programs, and then analysed by grouping the results into defined patient (animate) handling and non-patient (inanimate) handling tasks. A statistical comparison was made between the two groups using the percentage of action categories two, three and four, to the total number of action categories. A significant difference (p < 0.05) was found, demonstrating that the percentage of harmful postures adopted during patient handling tasks was significantly higher than during non-patient handling tasks. This high level of postural stress and the poor track record of risk management within the Health Care Industry leads to the recommendation that an attitudinal change is needed to successfully address and reduce the manual handling burden which is currently being carried by the nursing staff.

  7. Recognizing postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pavlik, Daniel; Agnew, Donna; Stiles, Lauren; Ditoro, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    This article describes the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, diagnosis, and management of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS), a potentially debilitating autonomic disorder that can have many causes and presentations. POTS can be mistaken for panic disorder, inappropriate sinus tachycardia, and chronic fatigue syndrome. Clinician suspicion for the syndrome is key to prompt patient diagnosis and treatment.

  8. Reduce torques and stick the landing: limb posture during landing in toads.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Emanuel; Larson, Neil P; Abbott, Emily M; Danos, Nicole

    2014-10-15

    A controlled landing, where an animal does not crash or topple, requires enough stability to allow muscles to effectively dissipate mechanical energy. Toads (Rhinella marina) are exemplary models for understanding the mechanics and motor control of landing given their ability to land consistently during bouts of continuous hopping. Previous studies in anurans have shown that ground reaction forces (GRFs) during landing are significantly higher compared with takeoff and can potentially impart large torques about the center of mass (COM), destabilizing the body at impact. We predict that in order to minimize such torques, toads will align their COM with the GRF vector during the aerial phase in anticipation of impact. We combined high-speed videography and force-plate ergometry to quantify torques at the COM and relate the magnitude of torques to limb posture at impact. We show that modulation of hindlimb posture can shift the position of the COM by about 20% of snout-vent length. Rapid hindlimb flexion during the aerial phase of a hop moved the COM anteriorly and reduced torque by aligning the COM with the GRF vector. We found that the addition of extrinsic loads did not significantly alter landing behavior but did change the torques experienced at impact. We conclude that anticipatory hindlimb flexion during the aerial phase of a hop is a critical feature of a mechanically stable landing that allows toads to quickly string together multiple, continuous hops.

  9. Aerial thermography for energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Thermal infrared scanning from an aircraft is a convenient and commercially available means for determining relative rates of energy loss from building roofs. The need to conserve energy as fuel costs makes the mass survey capability of aerial thermography an attractive adjunct to community energy awareness programs. Background information on principles of aerial thermography is presented. Thermal infrared scanning systems, flight and environmental requirements for data acquisition, preparation of thermographs for display, major users and suppliers of thermography, and suggested specifications for obtaining aerial scanning services were reviewed.

  10. Modelling socio-metabolic transitions: The historical take-off, the acceleration of fossil fuel use, and the 1970s oil price shock - the first trigger of a future decline?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedenhofer, Dominik; Rovenskaya, Elena; Krausmann, Fridolin; Haas, Willi; Fischer-Kowalski, Marina

    2013-04-01

    By talking about socio-metabolic transitions, we talk about changes in the energy base of socio-economic systems, leading to fundamental changes in social and environmental relations. This refers to the historical shift from a biomass-based (agrarian) economy to a fossil fuel based (industrial) economy just as much as to a future shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy carriers. In our presentation, • We will first show that this pattern of transition can be identified for most high income industrial countries: the later the transition started, the faster it proceeded, and the turning point to stabilization of metabolic rates in all of them happened in the early 1970ies. Due to the inherent non-linearity of this process, two approaches will be aplied to estimate parameters for the starting point, transition speed and saturation level: firstly a combination of an expontential and a generalized logistic function and secondly a Gompertz function. For both an iterative test procedure is applied to find the global minimum of the residual error for the whole function and all its parameters. This theory-based approach allows us to apply a robust methodology across all cases, thereby yielding results which can be generalized. • Next, we will show that this was not just a "historical" socio-ecological transition, however. Currently, a substantial number of countries comprising more than half of the world's population are following a similar transitional pathway at an ever accelerating pace. Based on empirical data on physical resource use and the above sketched methodology, we can show that these so-called emerging economies are currently in the take-off or acceleration phase of the very same transition. • Apart from these "endogenous" processes of socio-metabolic transition, we will investigate the effect of external shocks and their impact on the dynamics of energy and materials use. The first such shock we will explore is the oil crisis of 1972 that possibly

  11. Postural risk assessment of mechanised firewood processing.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Raffaele; Aminti, Giovanni; De Francesco, Fabio

    2017-03-01

    The study assessed the postural risk of mechanised firewood processing with eight machines, representing the main technology solutions available on the market. Assessment was conducted with the Ovako Working posture Analysis System (OWAS) on 1000 still frames randomly extracted from videotaped work samples. The postural risk associated with firewood processing was variable and associated with technology type. Simple, manually operated new machines incurred a higher postural risk compared with semi- or fully automatic machines. In contrast, new semi-automatic and automatic machines were generally free from postural risk. In all cases, attention should be paid to postural risk that may occur during blockage resolution. The study did not cover the postural risk of firewood processing sites as a whole. The study provided useful information for selecting firewood processing machinery and for improving firewood machinery design, as part of a more articulate strategy aimed at enhancing the safety of firewood processing work sites. Practitioner Summary: The postural risk associated with mechanised firewood processing (eg cutting and splitting) depends on the type of equipment. Postural risk is highest (OWAS Action Category 2) with new in-line machines, designed for operation by a single worker. Fully automatic machines present minimum postural risk, except during blockage resolution.

  12. Aerial Refueling Clearance Process Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-21

    08-2014 2. REPORT TYPE Guidance Document 3. DATES COVERED 2008-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Aerial Refueling Clearance Process Guide Attachment: Aerial...ATP-3.3.4.2 covers general operational procedures for AR and national/organizational SRDs cover data and procedures specific to their AR platforms...Receptacle, Probe/Drogue, and BDA Kit. 3.1.3 The items for assessment consideration cover several areas of interface for both the tanker and the

  13. The Steps to Perfect Posture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Jon

    2007-01-01

    Many people have memories of being told to "stop slouching" while seated at the piano bench. But the reality is that good piano posture is not as simple as bolting upright on the bench when the teacher barks. According to Eric Sutz, a Chicago-area piano teacher and performer, one should see a natural curve in his/her lower lumbar area and should…

  14. Postural consistency in skilled archers.

    PubMed

    Stuart, J; Atha, J

    1990-01-01

    The consistency of an archer's postural set at the moment of loose (arrow release) is commonly perceived to be an important determinant of success. The coach seeks, among other things, to provide the archer with information about postural consistency, details of which he acquires by eye or occasionally by video-recordings. The gains that might be achieved from more precise information are examined here. Nine skilled archers, classified into either skilled or elite groups according to their officially computed handicap, were continuously monitored and measured with a three-dimensional co-ordinate analyser (Charnwood Dynamics Coda-3 Scanner) while shooting two ends (series) of three arrows each. Considerable variability was observed in the precision with which the positions of head, elbow and bow at the moment of loose were replicated by archers of similar levels of skill. These results are interpreted to suggest that precise postural consistency may not be the primary feature distinguishing between the performance of archers at the higher skill levels.

  15. Postural Stability is Altered by Blood Shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marais, M.; Denise, P.; Guincetre, J. Y.; Normand, H.

    2008-06-01

    Non-vestibular influences as shift in blood volume changed perception of body posture. Then, factors affecting blood shift may alter postural control. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of leg venous contention on postural stability. Twelve subjects were studied on a balance plate for 5 minutes with the eyes closed, in 3 conditions: with no leg venous contention or grade 1 and 3 support stockings. Standard deviation of x and y position was calculated before and after the closure of the eyes. Strong venous contention altered postural stability, after the eyes were closed, during the first 10 s of standing. As support stockings prevent blood shift induced by upright posture, this result is in line with the hypothesis that blood shifts influence the perception of body orientation and postural control among others factors as vision, vestibular inputs... This strong venous contention could induce an increase of fall.

  16. The neuropathic postural tachycardia syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, G.; Costa, F.; Shannon, J. R.; Robertson, R. M.; Wathen, M.; Stein, M.; Biaggioni, I.; Ertl, A.; Black, B.; Robertson, D.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The postural tachycardia syndrome is a common disorder that is characterized by chronic orthostatic symptoms and a dramatic increase in heart rate on standing, but that does not involve orthostatic hypotension. Several lines of evidence indicate that this disorder may result from sympathetic denervation of the legs. METHODS: We measured norepinephrine spillover (the rate of entry of norepinephrine into the venous circulation) in the arms and legs both before and in response to exposure to three stimuli (the cold pressor test, sodium nitroprusside infusion, and tyramine infusion) in 10 patients with the postural tachycardia syndrome and in 8 age- and sex-matched normal subjects. RESULTS: At base line, the mean (+/-SD) plasma norepinephrine concentration in the femoral vein was lower in the patients with the postural tachycardia syndrome than in the normal subjects (135+/-30 vs. 215+/-55 pg per milliliter [0.80+/-0.18 vs. 1.27+/-0.32 nmol per liter], P=0.001). Norepinephrine spillover in the arms increased to a similar extent in the two groups in response to each of the three stimuli, but the increases in the legs were smaller in the patients with the postural tachycardia syndrome than in the normal subjects (0.001+/-0.09 vs. 0.12+/-0.12 ng per minute per deciliter of tissue [0.006+/-0.53 vs. 0.71+/-0.71 nmol per minute per deciliter] with the cold pressor test, P=0.02; 0.02+/-0.07 vs. 0.23+/-0.17 ng per minute per deciliter [0.12+/-0.41 vs. 1.36+/-1.00 nmol per minute per deciliter] with nitroprusside infusion, P=0.01; and 0.008+/-0.09 vs. 0.19+/-0.25 ng per minute per deciliter [0.05+/-0.53 vs. 1.12+/-1.47 nmol per minute per deciliter] with tyramine infusion, P=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: The neuropathic postural tachycardia syndrome results from partial sympathetic denervation, especially in the legs.

  17. Low Cost Surveying Using AN Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, M.; Agüera, F.; Carvajal, F.

    2013-08-01

    Traditional manned airborne surveys are usually expensive and the resolution of the acquired images is often limited. The main advantage of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) system acting as a photogrammetric sensor platform over more traditional manned airborne system is the high flexibility that allows image acquisition from unconventional viewpoints, the low cost in comparison with classical aerial photogrammetry and the high resolution images obtained. Nowadays there is a necessity for surveying small areas and in these cases, it is not economical the use of normal large format aerial or metric cameras to acquire aerial photos, therefore, the use of UAV platforms can be very suitable. Also the large availability of digital cameras has strongly enhanced the capabilities of UAVs. The use of digital non metric cameras together with the UAV could be used for multiple applications such as aerial surveys, GIS, wildfire mapping, stability of landslides, crop monitoring, etc. The aim of this work was to develop a low cost and accurate methodology in the production of orthophotos and Digital Elevation Models (DEM). The study was conducted in the province of Almeria, south of Spain. The photogrammetric flight had an altitude of 50 m over ground, covering an area of 5.000 m2 approximately. The UAV used in this work was the md4-200, which is an electronic battery powered quadrocopter UAV developed by Microdrones GmbH, Germany. It had on-board a Pextax Optio A40 digital non metric camera with 12 Megapixels. It features a 3x optical zoom lens with a focal range covering angles of view equivalent to those of 37-111 mm lens in 35 mm format. The quadrocopter can be programmed to follow a route defined by several waypoints and actions and it has the ability for vertical take off and landing. Proper flight geometry during image acquisition is essential in order to minimize the number of photographs, avoid areas without a good coverage and make the overlaps homogeneous. The flight

  18. Postural behavior in children born preterm.

    PubMed

    Fallang, Bjørg; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2005-01-01

    The present paper presents clinical and neurophysiological data of postural behavior in preterm children without CP. Clinical follow-up studies of preterm infants until toddler and school age have reported that low-risk preterm infants may have atypical postural behavior in terms of reduced amount of rotation during crawling, delayed dynamic balance, delayed onset of and a poor quality of early walking behavior. At school age, dysfunctions such as problems in standing on one leg and poor hopping are reported. Neurophysiological data of postural control at early age indicated the presence of a dysfunction in the capacity to modulate postural activity, and the postural activity has been characterized by temporal disorganization of EMG responses. Postural responses to goal-directed reaching in supine lying have been recorded and analyzed in terms of the total body center of pressure. In this study, preterm infants show less mobile postural behavior compared with full-term infants. In infancy, the less mobile postural behavior seemed to be adequate as it was related to better goal-directed reaching quality, but the results indicated that the relatively immobile postural behavior during reaching in early age was related to less favorable neuromotor behavior in school-age.

  19. Correlation between rounded shoulder posture, neck disability indices, and degree of forward head posture

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Jin Seop

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study aimed to examine the correlation between rounded shoulder posture, neck disability indices and the degree of forward head posture. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects aged 19–24 years were selected for this study, and the craniovertebral angle was used to measure the degree of forward head posture in the standing and seated positions. Vernier calipers were used to measure rounded shoulder posture in the supine position, and neck pain and functional disability were assessed using neck disability indices. [Results] Angle and neck disability indices in both standing and sitting posture positions exhibited a significant inverse relationship. However, no significant correlation was detected between the craniovertebral angle and rounded shoulder posture for the standing and sitting posture positions. [Conclusion] In conclusion, it was demonstrated in the present study that, depending on the degree of forward head posture, changes were detected in the neck disability indices. However, even an increase in the forward head tilt angle did not lead to rounded shoulder posture. Therefore, maintaining proper posture may prevent postural pain syndrome, functional disability, and postural deformity. PMID:27821964

  20. Design of a nonlinear robust controller for a complete unmanned aerial vehicle mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadraey, Mohammad Hashem

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) flight control systems must be capable of delivering the required performance while handling nonlinearities and uncertainties in the vehicle model, the atmosphere, and ambient wind. These factors necessitate the development of nonlinear flight control system design methods that can handle large nonlinearities and uncertainties. Variable approaches to the linear control of UAVs have been discussed in the recent literature. However, the development of a nonlinear robust autopilot has not been addressed to any significant degree. The development of a nonlinear autopilot based on robust control methods will be discussed in this dissertation. In this design technique, the nonlinear UAV model is not linearized. The control law is designed using the Hinfinity technique. This dissertation presents the results of an exploratory study to examine robust autopilot nonlinear design methods for the UAV and compare this new approach with existing PID, LQR, and linear Hinfinity techniques. Since the method must then be verified, its flight simulation will be done using MATLAB/SIMULINK. Verification, validation and robustness tests are documented at the end of this dissertation. The airplane examined is called the Hawkeye. It was designed and built by KU students in the fall of 2004. It is a small, 14 foot wingspan, remotely controlled airplane made from composite materials with a maximum takeoff weight of 90 lbs. It will be used in the future as a small UAV for research programs at KU. The mission includes take-off, climb, cruise, a one and a half circle accomplished in a level turn, and a return back to its original airfield accomplished by cruising back, descending, and completing an approach and landing. After take-off, the airplane is required to climb to 1,000 ft altitude, and then it travels 5,000 ft over the ground into the target area. It will then take some photos of that target using its camera. The complete mission for the UAV lasts about

  1. [Postural examination in daily occlusodontology].

    PubMed

    Serviere, F

    1989-03-01

    According to the osteopathic and chiropractic concepts, facing a TMJ problem, the practitioner has to determine if the trouble observed in the stomatognatic apparatus is the cause or the effect of the structural problems present anywhere else in the body. The postural examination allows to answer this question. Tow techniques can be used. First a static and dynamic posture test proposed by Bricot. The level of the cranium, the eyes, the shoulders, the wrists, the pelvis and the ankles is analysed, from a front view; from the side, the gravity line is inspected: vertex, auditory meatus, shoulder, hip joint, anterior side of the tibia, ankle joint. The vertical posture can be studied from the front: the arms are held straight and the antero-posterior length between the fingers is measured. From the back, one notes the recoil of the buttocks on one side. An ocular convergence test is performed. Then one uses a Romberg test (oscillation of the body when the eyes are closed), and a Fukuda stepping test. The patient is then asked to bite on a compress, and the same exams are redone. If no change occurs, we are dealing with an ascending problem: the origin of the problem is not the stomatognathic system. The second technique is the Meerssemann test that needs the practice of Applied Kinesiology muscle testing. The patient is lying supine and one tests: the dental occlusion, the two TMJs, the temporal muscles, masseters, pterygoids, sterno-cleido-mastoids, upper tapezius, left and right sacro-iliac joints, psoas muscles bilaterally.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Correcting Poor Posture without Awareness or Willpower

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wernik, Uri

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a new technique for correcting poor posture is presented. Rather than intentionally increasing awareness or mobilizing willpower to correct posture, this approach offers a game using randomly drawn cards with easy daily assignments. A case using the technique is presented to emphasize the subjective experience of living with poor…

  3. Postural Variables in Girls Practicing Volleyball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabara, Malgorzata; Hadzik, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To assess body posture of young female volleyball players in relation to their untrained mates. Material and methods: A group of 42 volleyball players and another of 43 untrained girls, all aged 13-16 years were studied with respect to their body posture indices by using computer posturography. Spinal angles and curvatures were…

  4. Functional Neuroanatomy for Posture and Gait Control.

    PubMed

    Takakusaki, Kaoru

    2017-01-01

    Here we argue functional neuroanatomy for posture-gait control. Multi-sensory information such as somatosensory, visual and vestibular sensation act on various areas of the brain so that adaptable posture-gait control can be achieved. Automatic process of gait, which is steady-state stepping movements associating with postural reflexes including headeye coordination accompanied by appropriate alignment of body segments and optimal level of postural muscle tone, is mediated by the descending pathways from the brainstem to the spinal cord. Particularly, reticulospinal pathways arising from the lateral part of the mesopontine tegmentum and spinal locomotor network contribute to this process. On the other hand, walking in unfamiliar circumstance requires cognitive process of postural control, which depends on knowledges of self-body, such as body schema and body motion in space. The cognitive information is produced at the temporoparietal association cortex, and is fundamental to sustention of vertical posture and construction of motor programs. The programs in the motor cortical areas run to execute anticipatory postural adjustment that is optimal for achievement of goal-directed movements. The basal ganglia and cerebellum may affect both the automatic and cognitive processes of posturegait control through reciprocal connections with the brainstem and cerebral cortex, respectively. Consequently, impairments in cognitive function by damages in the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum may disturb posture-gait control, resulting in falling.

  5. Variations in Writing Posture and Cerebral Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Jerre; Reid, Marylou

    1976-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between hand writing posture and cerebral dominance of 48 left handed writers and 25 right handed writers. Determined that cerebral dominance is related to handedness and to whether or not the writing hand posture is normal or inverted. (SL)

  6. Neuromechanical tuning of nonlinear postural control dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Lena H.; van Antwerp, Keith W.; Scrivens, Jevin E.; McKay, J. Lucas; Welch, Torrence D. J.; Bingham, Jeffrey T.; DeWeerth, Stephen P.

    2009-06-01

    Postural control may be an ideal physiological motor task for elucidating general questions about the organization, diversity, flexibility, and variability of biological motor behaviors using nonlinear dynamical analysis techniques. Rather than presenting "problems" to the nervous system, the redundancy of biological systems and variability in their behaviors may actually be exploited to allow for the flexible achievement of multiple and concurrent task-level goals associated with movement. Such variability may reflect the constant "tuning" of neuromechanical elements and their interactions for movement control. The problem faced by researchers is that there is no one-to-one mapping between the task goal and the coordination of the underlying elements. We review recent and ongoing research in postural control with the goal of identifying common mechanisms underlying variability in postural control, coordination of multiple postural strategies, and transitions between them. We present a delayed-feedback model used to characterize the variability observed in muscle coordination patterns during postural responses to perturbation. We emphasize the significance of delays in physiological postural systems, requiring the modulation and coordination of both the instantaneous, "passive" response to perturbations as well as the delayed, "active" responses to perturbations. The challenge for future research lies in understanding the mechanisms and principles underlying neuromechanical tuning of and transitions between the diversity of postural behaviors. Here we describe some of our recent and ongoing studies aimed at understanding variability in postural control using physical robotic systems, human experiments, dimensional analysis, and computational models that could be enhanced from a nonlinear dynamics approach.

  7. Functional Neuroanatomy for Posture and Gait Control

    PubMed Central

    Takakusaki, Kaoru

    2017-01-01

    Here we argue functional neuroanatomy for posture-gait control. Multi-sensory information such as somatosensory, visual and vestibular sensation act on various areas of the brain so that adaptable posture-gait control can be achieved. Automatic process of gait, which is steady-state stepping movements associating with postural reflexes including headeye coordination accompanied by appropriate alignment of body segments and optimal level of postural muscle tone, is mediated by the descending pathways from the brainstem to the spinal cord. Particularly, reticulospinal pathways arising from the lateral part of the mesopontine tegmentum and spinal locomotor network contribute to this process. On the other hand, walking in unfamiliar circumstance requires cognitive process of postural control, which depends on knowledges of self-body, such as body schema and body motion in space. The cognitive information is produced at the temporoparietal association cortex, and is fundamental to sustention of vertical posture and construction of motor programs. The programs in the motor cortical areas run to execute anticipatory postural adjustment that is optimal for achievement of goal-directed movements. The basal ganglia and cerebellum may affect both the automatic and cognitive processes of posturegait control through reciprocal connections with the brainstem and cerebral cortex, respectively. Consequently, impairments in cognitive function by damages in the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum may disturb posture-gait control, resulting in falling. PMID:28122432

  8. Dynamics of aerial target pursuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, S.

    2015-12-01

    During pursuit and predation, aerial species engage in multitasking behavior that involve simultaneous target detection, tracking, decision-making, approach and capture. The mobility of the pursuer and the target in a three dimensional environment during predation makes the capture task highly complex. Many researchers have studied and analyzed prey capture dynamics in different aerial species such as insects and bats. This article focuses on reviewing the capture strategies adopted by these species while relying on different sensory variables (vision and acoustics) for navigation. In conclusion, the neural basis of these capture strategies and some applications of these strategies in bio-inspired navigation and control of engineered systems are discussed.

  9. Postural Coordination during Socio-motor Improvisation

    PubMed Central

    Gueugnon, Mathieu; Salesse, Robin N.; Coste, Alexandre; Zhao, Zhong; Bardy, Benoît G.; Marin, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    Human interaction often relies on socio-motor improvisation. Creating unprepared movements during social interaction is not a random process but relies on rules of synchronization. These situations do not only involve people to be coordinated, but also require the adjustment of their posture in order to maintain balance and support movements. The present study investigated posture in such a context. More precisely, we first evaluated the impact of amplitude and complexity of arm movements on posture in solo situation. Then, we assessed the impact of interpersonal coordination on posture using the mirror game in which dyads performed improvised and synchronized movements (i.e., duo situation). Posture was measured through ankle-hip coordination in medio-lateral and antero-posterior directions (ML and AP respectively). Our results revealed the spontaneous emergence of in-phase pattern in ML direction and antiphase pattern in AP direction for solo and duo situations. These two patterns respectively refer to the simultaneous flexion/extension of the ankles and the hips in the same or opposite direction. It suggests different functional roles of postural coordination patterns in each direction, with in-phase supporting task performance in ML (dynamical stability) and antiphase supporting postural control in AP (mechanical stability). Although amplitude of movement did not influence posture, movement complexity disturbed postural stability in both directions. Conversely, interpersonal coordination promoted postural stability in ML but not in AP direction. These results are discussed in terms of the difference in coupling strength between ankle-hip coordination and interpersonal coordination. PMID:27547193

  10. Aerial Refueling Clearance Initiation Request

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-14

    and receiver agencies. The AR Clearance Initiation Request document recognizes the requirement for definitive aerial refueling agreements between...include directions for the development or content of these contractual agreements. 15. –SUBJECT TERMS See Document Terms and Definitions , Page 8 16...7 Terms and Definitions

  11. Reconnaissance mapping from aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeden, H. A.; Bolling, N. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Engineering soil and geology maps were successfully made from Pennsylvania aerial photographs taken at scales from 1:4,800 to 1:60,000. The procedure involved a detailed study of a stereoscopic model while evaluating landform, drainage, erosion, color or gray tones, tone and texture patterns, vegetation, and cultural or land use patterns.

  12. Recovery of postural equilibrium control following spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, W. H.; Reschke, M. F.; Black, F. O.; Doxey, D. D.; Harm, D. L.

    1992-01-01

    Decreased postural stability is observed in most astronauts immediately following spaceflight. Because ataxia may present postflight operational hazards, it is important to determine the incidence of postural instability immediately following landing and the dynamics of recovery of normal postural equilibrium control. It is postulated that postflight postural instability results from in-flight adaptive changes in central nervous system (CNS) processing of sensory information from the visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive systems. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the magnitude and time course of postflight recovery of postural equilibrium control and, hence, readaptation of CNS processing of sensory information. Thirteen crew members from six spaceflight missions were studied pre- and postflight using a modified commercial posturography system. Postural equilibrium control was found to be seriously disrupted immediately following spaceflight in all subjects. Readaptation to the terrestrial environment began immediately upon landing, proceeded rapidly for the first 10-12 hours, and then proceeded much more slowly for the subsequent 2-4 days until preflight stability levels were reachieved. It is concluded that the overall postflight recovery of postural stability follows a predictable time course.

  13. Adaptation to transient postural perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andres, Robert O.

    1992-01-01

    This research was first proposed in May, 1986, to focus on some of the problems encountered in the analysis of postural responses gathered from crewmembers. The ultimate driving force behind this line of research was the desire to treat, predict, or explain 'Space Adaptation Syndrome' (SAS) and hence circumvent any adverse effects of space motion sickness on crewmember performance. The aim of this project was to develop an easily implemented analysis of the transient responses to platform translation that can be elicited with a protocol designed to force sensorimotor reorganization, utilizing statistically reliable criterion measures. This report will present: (1) a summary of the activity that took place in each of the three funded years of the project; (2) discussion of experimental results and their implications for future research; and (3) a list of presentations and publications resulting from this project.

  14. Reversible postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Abdulla, Aza; Rajeevan, Thirumagal

    2015-07-16

    Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a relatively rare syndrome recognised since 1940. It is a heterogenous condition with orthostatic intolerance due to dysautonomia and is characterised by rise in heart rate above 30 bpm from base line or to more than 120 bpm within 5-10 min of standing with or without change in blood pressure which returns to base line on resuming supine position. This condition present with various disabling symptoms such as light headedness, near syncope, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, tremor, palpitations and mental clouding, etc. However there are no identifiable signs on clinical examination and patients are often diagnosed to have anxiety disorder. The condition predominantly affects young female between the ages of 15-50 but is rarely described in older people. We describe an older patient who developed POTS which recovered over 12 mo. Recognising this condition is important as there are treatment options available to alleviate the disabling symptoms.

  15. Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS).

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Bharat; Obiechina, Nonyelum; Rattu, Noman; Mitra, Shanta

    2013-09-16

    Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a heterogeneous group of conditions characterised by autonomic dysfunction and an exaggerated sympathetic response to assuming an upright position. Up till recently, it was largely under-recognised as a clinical entity. There is now consensus about the definition of POTS as a greater than 30/min heart rate increase on standing from a supine position (greater than 40/min increase in 12-19-year-old patients) or an absolute heart rate of greater than 120/min within 10 min of standing from a supine position and in the absence of hypotension, arrhythmias, sympathomimetic drugs or other conditions that cause tachycardia. We present two cases of POTS, followed by a discussion of its pathogenesis, pathophysiology, epidemiology and management.

  16. Aerial Photographs and Satellite Images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    Photographs and other images of the Earth taken from the air and from space show a great deal about the planet's landforms, vegetation, and resources. Aerial and satellite images, known as remotely sensed images, permit accurate mapping of land cover and make landscape features understandable on regional, continental, and even global scales. Transient phenomena, such as seasonal vegetation vigor and contaminant discharges, can be studied by comparing images acquired at different times. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), which began using aerial photographs for mapping in the 1930's, archives photographs from its mapping projects and from those of some other Federal agencies. In addition, many images from such space programs as Landsat, begun in 1972, are held by the USGS. Most satellite scenes can be obtained only in digital form for use in computer-based image processing and geographic information systems, but in some cases are also available as photographic products.

  17. Aerial robotic data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Hayes, D.W.; Pendergast, M.M.; Corban, J.E.

    1993-12-31

    A small, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), equipped with sensors for physical and chemical measurements of remote environments, is described. A miniature helicopter airframe is used as a platform for sensor testing and development. The sensor output is integrated with the flight control system for real-time, interactive, data acquisition and analysis. Pre-programmed flight missions will be flown with several sensors to demonstrate the cost-effective surveillance capabilities of this new technology.

  18. Neuromechanical tuning of nonlinear postural control dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Lena H.; van Antwerp, Keith W.; Scrivens, Jevin E.; McKay, J. Lucas; Welch, Torrence D. J.; Bingham, Jeffrey T.; DeWeerth, Stephen P.

    2009-01-01

    Postural control may be an ideal physiological motor task for elucidating general questions about the organization, diversity, flexibility, and variability of biological motor behaviors using nonlinear dynamical analysis techniques. Rather than presenting “problems” to the nervous system, the redundancy of biological systems and variability in their behaviors may actually be exploited to allow for the flexible achievement of multiple and concurrent task-level goals associated with movement. Such variability may reflect the constant “tuning” of neuromechanical elements and their interactions for movement control. The problem faced by researchers is that there is no one-to-one mapping between the task goal and the coordination of the underlying elements. We review recent and ongoing research in postural control with the goal of identifying common mechanisms underlying variability in postural control, coordination of multiple postural strategies, and transitions between them. We present a delayed-feedback model used to characterize the variability observed in muscle coordination patterns during postural responses to perturbation. We emphasize the significance of delays in physiological postural systems, requiring the modulation and coordination of both the instantaneous, “passive” response to perturbations as well as the delayed, “active” responses to perturbations. The challenge for future research lies in understanding the mechanisms and principles underlying neuromechanical tuning of and transitions between the diversity of postural behaviors. Here we describe some of our recent and ongoing studies aimed at understanding variability in postural control using physical robotic systems, human experiments, dimensional analysis, and computational models that could be enhanced from a nonlinear dynamics approach. PMID:19566271

  19. An effect of posture on anticipatory anxiety.

    PubMed

    Lipnicki, Darren M; Byrne, Don G

    2008-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of body posture on state anxiety and psychological stress. Twenty normal adults performed a demanding mental arithmetic task in both standing and supine conditions, with subjective measures of anxiety and stress obtained before, immediately, and 10 min after the task. Participants were found to experience anticipatory anxiety when standing, although not when supine. The mechanism underlying this effect remains to be determined, although it could involve a postural difference in baroreceptor load.

  20. Microgravity effects on 'postural' muscle activity patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layne, Charles S.; Spooner, Brian S.

    1994-01-01

    Changes in neuromuscular activation patterns associated with movements made in microgravity can contribute to muscular atrophy. Using electromyography (EMG) to monitor 'postural' muscles, it was found that free floating arm flexions made in microgravity were not always preceded by neuromuscular activation patterns normally observed during movements made in unit gravity. Additionally, manipulation of foot sensory input during microgravity arm flexion impacted upon anticipatory postural muscle activation.

  1. Telemetry of Aerial Radiological Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    H. W. Clark, Jr.

    2002-10-01

    Telemetry has been added to National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA's) Aerial Measuring System (AMS) Incident Response aircraft to accelerate availability of aerial radiological mapping data. Rapid aerial radiological mapping is promptly performed by AMS Incident Response aircraft in the event of a major radiological dispersal. The AMS airplane flies the entire potentially affected area, plus a generous margin, to provide a quick look at the extent and severity of the event. The primary result of the AMS Incident Response over flight is a map of estimated exposure rate on the ground along the flight path. Formerly, it was necessary to wait for the airplane to land before the map could be seen. Now, while the flight is still in progress, data are relayed via satellite directly from the aircraft to an operations center, where they are displayed and disseminated. This permits more timely utilization of results by decision makers and redirection of the mission to optimize its value. The current telemetry capability can cover all of North America. Extension to a global capability is under consideration.

  2. Posture strategies generated by constrained optimization.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Robert; Bartonek, Åsa; Gutierrez-Farewik, Elena M

    2012-02-02

    For people with motion disorders, posture can impact fatigue, discomfort or deformities in the long term. Orthopedic treatments such as orthoses or orthopedic surgeries which change geometric properties can improve posture in these individuals. In this study, a model has been created to study posture strategies in such situations. A 3D mechanical model consisting of eight rigid segments and 30 muscle groups is used in which varying moment arms along the ranges of motion and biarticular muscles are considered. The method is based on static optimization, both to solve the load sharing in the muscle system and to choose posture strategy. The optimization computes the specific posture with minimal required effort (level of muscle activations), while fulfilling constraints containing subject specific ranges of motion, muscle strength/weakness and external support if present. Anthropometry and strength were scaled to each individual, based on reported pediatric anthropometry and strength values, combined with each individual's physical assessment. A control group of 10 able-bodied subjects as well as three subjects with motion disorders were studied, and simulated posture was compared with experimental data. The simulation showed reasonable to good agreement and ability to predict the effect of motion disorders and of external support. An example of application in parameter studies was also presented wherein ankle orthosis angles were varied. The model allows the user to study muscle activity at the muscle group level, position of center of mass and moments at joints in various situations.

  3. Postural Control in Man: The Phylogenetic Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Gramsbergen, Albert

    2005-01-01

    Erect posture in man is a recent affordance from an evolutionary perspective. About eight million years ago, the stock from which modern humans derived split off from the ape family, and from around sixty-thousand years ago, modern man developed. Upright gait and manipulations while standing pose intricate cybernetic problems for postural control. The trunk, having an older evolutionary history than the extremities, is innervated by medially descending motor systems and extremity muscles by the more recent, laterally descending systems. Movements obviously require concerted actions from both systems. Research in rats has demonstrated the interdependencies between postural control and the development of fluent walking. Only 15 days after birth, adult-like fluent locomotion emerges and is critically dependent upon postural development. Vesttibular deprivation induces a retardation in postural development and, consequently, a retarded development of adult-like locomotion. The cerebellum obviously has an important role in mutual adjustments in postural control and extremity movements, or, in coupling the phyiogenetic older and newer structures. In the human, the cerebellum develops partly after birth and therefore is vulnerable to adverse perinatal influences. Such vulnerability seems to justify focusing our scientific research efforts onto the development of this structure. PMID:16097476

  4. Simulating aerial gravitropism and posture control in plants: what has been done, what is missing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutand, Catherine; Pot, Guillaume; Bastien, R.; Badel, Eric; Moulia, Bruno

    The gravitropic response requires a process of perception of the signal and a motor process to actuate the movements. Different models have been developed, some focuses on the perception process and some focuses on the motor process. The kinematics of the gravitropic response will be first detailed to set the phenomenology of gravi- and auto-tropism. A model of perception (AC model) will be first presented to demonstrate that sensing inclination is not sufficient to control the gravitropic movement, and that proprioception is also involved. Then, “motor models” will be reviewed. In herbaceous plants, differential growth is the main motor. Modelling tropic movements with simulating elongation raises some difficulties that will be explained. In woody structures the main motor process is the differentiation of reaction wood via cambial growth. We will first present the simplest biomechanical model developed to simulate gravitropism and its limits will be pointed out. Then a more sophisticated model (TWIG) will be presented with a special focus on the importance of wood viscoelasticity and the wood maturation process and its regulation by a mechanosensing process. The presentation will end by a balance sheet of what is done and what is missing for a complete modelling of gravitropism and will present first results of a running project dedicating to get the data required to include phototropism in the actual models.

  5. Spatial Feature Evaluation for Aerial Scene Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Swearingen, Thomas S; Cheriyadat, Anil M

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution aerial images are becoming more readily available, which drives the demand for robust, intelligent and efficient systems to process increasingly large amounts of image data. However, automated image interpretation still remains a challenging problem. Robust techniques to extract and represent features to uniquely characterize various aerial scene categories is key for automated image analysis. In this paper we examined the role of spatial features to uniquely characterize various aerial scene categories. We studied low-level features such as colors, edge orientations, and textures, and examined their local spatial arrangements. We computed correlograms representing the spatial correlation of features at various distances, then measured the distance between correlograms to identify similar scenes. We evaluated the proposed technique on several aerial image databases containing challenging aerial scene categories. We report detailed evaluation of various low-level features by quantitatively measuring accuracy and parameter sensitivity. To demonstrate the feature performance, we present a simple query-based aerial scene retrieval system.

  6. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Master Plan, 1993.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    PHOTOGRAPH THIS SHEET AND RETURN To DTIC-FDAC DTIC 70A DOCUMENT PROCESSMING I~ SlEW -, mmllamm LOAN DOCUMENT DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES (UAV...11 B. Program Executive Officer for Cruise Missiles 3 and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (PEO[CU...69 I ! I I ivI -- UAV 1993 MASTER PLAN U I EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 3 A. OVERVIEW Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)* can make significant

  7. Impaired Synergic Control of Posture in Parkinson’s Patients without Postural Instability

    PubMed Central

    Falaki, Ali; Huang, Xuemei; Lewis, Mechelle M.; Latash, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Postural instability is one of most disabling motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease. Indices of multi-muscle synergies are new measurements of movement and postural stability. Objectives Multi-muscle synergies stabilizing vertical posture were studied in Parkinson’s disease patients without clinical symptoms of postural instability (Hoehn-Yahr- ≤ II) and age-matched controls. We tested the hypothesis that both synergy indices during quiet standing and synergy adjustments to self-triggered postural perturbations would be reduced in patients. Methods Eleven Parkinson’s disease patients and 11 controls performed whole-body tasks while standing. Surface electromyography was used to quantify synergy indices stabilizing center of pressure shifts in the anterior-posterior direction during a load-release task. Results Parkinson’s disease patients showed a significantly lower percentage of variance in the muscle activation space accounted for by the first four principal components, significantly reduced synergy indices during steady state, and significantly reduced anticipatory synergy adjustments (a drop in the synergy index prior to the self-triggered unloading). Conclusions The study demonstrates for the first time that impaired synergic control in Parkinson’s disease can be quantified in postural tasks, even in patients without clinical manifestations of postural instability. Synergy measurements may provide a biomarker sensitive for early problems with postural stability in Parkinson’s disease. PMID:27004660

  8. Development of Human Posture Simulation Method for Assessing Posture Angles and Spinal Loads

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ming-Lun; Waters, Thomas; Werren, Dwight

    2015-01-01

    Video-based posture analysis employing a biomechanical model is gaining a growing popularity for ergonomic assessments. A human posture simulation method of estimating multiple body postural angles and spinal loads from a video record was developed to expedite ergonomic assessments. The method was evaluated by a repeated measures study design with three trunk flexion levels, two lift asymmetry levels, three viewing angles and three trial repetitions as experimental factors. The study comprised two phases evaluating the accuracy of simulating self and other people’s lifting posture via a proxy of a computer-generated humanoid. The mean values of the accuracy of simulating self and humanoid postures were 12° and 15°, respectively. The repeatability of the method for the same lifting condition was excellent (~2°). The least simulation error was associated with side viewing angle. The estimated back compressive force and moment, calculated by a three dimensional biomechanical model, exhibited a range of 5% underestimation. The posture simulation method enables researchers to simultaneously quantify body posture angles and spinal loading variables with accuracy and precision comparable to on-screen posture matching methods. PMID:26361435

  9. Gravitational Effects upon Locomotion Posture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeWitt, John K.; Bentley, Jason R.; Edwards, W. Brent; Perusek, Gail P.; Samorezov, Sergey

    2008-01-01

    Researchers use actual microgravity (AM) during parabolic flight and simulated microgravity (SM) obtained with horizontal suspension analogs to better understand the effect of gravity upon gait. In both environments, the gravitational force is replaced by an external load (EL) that returns the subject to the treadmill. However, when compared to normal gravity (N), researchers consistently find reduced ground reaction forces (GRF) and subtle kinematic differences (Schaffner et al., 2005). On the International Space Station, the EL is applied by elastic bungees attached to a waist and shoulder harness. While bungees can provide EL approaching body weight (BW), their force-length characteristics coupled with vertical oscillations of the body during gait result in a variable load. However, during locomotion in N, the EL is consistently equal to 100% body weight. Comparisons between AM and N have shown that during running, GRF are decreased in AM (Schaffner et al, 2005). Kinematic evaluations in the past have focussed on joint range of motion rather than joint posture at specific instances of the gait cycle. The reduced GRF in microgravity may be a result of differing hip, knee, and ankle positions during contact. The purpose of this investigation was to compare joint angles of the lower extremities during walking and running in AM, SM, and N. We hypothesized that in AM and SM, joints would be more flexed at heel strike (HS), mid-stance (MS) and toe-off (TO) than in N.

  10. Postural tremor of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Henderson, J M; Yiannikas, C; Morris, J G; Einstein, R; Jackson, D; Byth, K

    1994-06-01

    Previous studies have reported the resting tremor (RT) of Parkinson's disease to occur at frequencies between 3-7 Hz and to be characterised by an alternating pattern of electromyographic (EMG) bursting activity between opposing muscles. A postural tremor (PT), of higher frequency (> 6 Hz) and with a synchronous pattern of EMG activity, has also been previously described in Parkinson's disease. We investigated the electrophysiological and pharmacological properties of both the RT and PT of 11 patients with Parkinson's disease and 10 patients with essential tremor in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of L-Dopa/benserazide and propranolol. Tremor amplitude and frequency were assessed via bidirectional accelerometry, and the pattern of activation of the antagonist muscles of the forearm was determined with use of surface EMG. In the Parkinson's disease group studied, the frequency, EMG pattern of bursts, and response to L-Dopa were similar for the two tremors (median improvement of RT by 70% and PT by 61%). Despite some overlap between the Parkinson's disease and essential tremor groups in the electrophysiology of the tremor, there was no such dramatic pharmacological response in the latter group. These results suggest that the RT and PT of Parkinson's disease share a common pathophysiology and are distinct from essential tremor.

  11. A new posture-correcting system using a vector angle model for preventing forward head posture

    PubMed Central

    Yeom, Hojun; Lim, Juhun; Yoo, Sung Hak; Lee, Woocheol

    2014-01-01

    In modern society many people are afflicted with muscle pain in the neck and shoulders mainly caused by incorrect posture. The number of patients having neck pain is increasing as usage of digital devices becomes more frequent. If patients could be notified how inappropriate their postures are in real time, the number of patients could be lower. Unfortunately, there is no digitized standard way of diagnosis for forward head posture. This study applies a concept based on a vector related to two angles which are acquired from the neck and the head, so that a device can diagnose the posture by measuring and analysing the angles. To obtain the vector, integral calculations of displacement of the head are needed. As a result, with this device, patients’ faulty posture can be easily detected. PMID:26019611

  12. Detection of MAVs (Micro Aerial Vehicles) based on millimeter wave radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noetel, Denis; Johannes, Winfried; Caris, Michael; Hommes, Alexander; Stanko, Stephan

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we present two system approaches for perimeter surveillance with radar techniques focused on the detection of Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs). The main task of such radars is to detect movements of targets such as an individual or a vehicle approaching a facility. The systems typically cover a range of several hundred meters up to several kilometers. In particular, the capability of identifying Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS), which pose a growing threat on critical infrastructure areas, is of great importance nowadays. The low costs, the ease of handling and a considerable payload make them an excellent tool for unwanted surveillance or attacks. Most platforms can be equipped with all kind of sensors or, in the worst case, with destructive devices. A typical MAV is able to take off and land vertically, to hover, and in many cases to fly forward at high speed. Thus, it can reach all kinds of places in short time while the concealed operator of the MAV resides at a remote and riskless place.

  13. Portable ammonia-borane-based H2 power-pack for unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jung-Eun; Kim, Yujong; Kim, Yongmin; Kim, Kibeom; Lee, Jin Hee; Lee, Dae Hyung; Kim, Yeongcheon; Shin, Seock Jae; Kim, Dong-Min; Kim, Sung-Yug; Kim, Taegyu; Yoon, Chang Won; Nam, Suk Woo

    2014-05-01

    An advanced ammonia borane (AB)-based H2 power-pack is designed to continually drive an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for 57 min using a 200-We polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). In a flight test with the UAV platform integrated with the developed power-pack, pure hydrogen with an average flow rate of 3.8 L(H2) min-1 is generated by autothermal H2-release from AB with tetraethylene glycol dimethylether (T4EGDE) as a promoter. During take-off, a hybridized power management system (PMS) consisting of the fuel cell and an auxiliary lithium-ion battery supplies 500 We at full power simultaneously, while the fuel cell alone provides 150-200 We and further recharges the auxiliary battery upon cruising. Gaseous byproducts identified by in situ Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy during AB dehydrogenation are sequestrated using a mixed absorbent in an H2 purification system. In addition, a real-time monitoring system is employed to determine the remaining filter capacity of the purifier at a ground control system for rapidly responding unpredictable circumstances during flight. Separate experiments are conducted to screen potential materials and methods for enhancing filter capacity in the current H2 refining system. A prospective reactor concept for long-term fuel cell applications is proposed based on the results.

  14. Conceptual Design of a Vertical Takeoff and Landing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with 24-HR Endurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredericks, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a conceptual design study for a vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that is able to carry a 25-lb science payload for 24 hr and is able to land and take off at elevations as high as 15,000 ft without human intervention. In addition to the science payload, this vehicle must be able to carry a satellite communication system, and the vehicle must be able to be transported in a standard full-size pickup truck and assembled by only two operators. This project started with a brainstorming phase to devise possible vehicle configurations that might satisfy the requirements. A down select was performed to select a near-term solution and two advanced vehicle concepts that are better suited to the intent of the mission. Sensitivity analyses were also performed on the requirements and the technology levels to obtain a better understanding of the design space. This study found that within the study assumptions the mission is feasible; the selected concepts are recommended for further development.

  15. Postural stability in children with hemiplegia estimated for three postural conditions: standing, sitting and kneeling.

    PubMed

    Szopa, Andrzej; Domagalska-Szopa, Małgorzata

    2015-04-01

    Postural control deficit is one of the most important problems in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The purpose of the presented study was to compare the effects of body posture asymmetry alone (i.e., in children with mild scoliosis) with the effects of body posture impairment (i.e., in children with hemiplegia) on postural stability. Forty-five outpatients with hemiplegia and 51 children with mild scoliosis were assessed using a posturography device. The examination comprised two parts: (1) analysis of the static load distribution; and (2) a posturographic test (CoP measurements) conducted in three postural conditions: standing, sitting and kneeling. Based on the asymmetry index of the unaffected/affected body sides while standing, the children with hemiplegia were divided into two different postural patterns: a pro-gravitational postural pattern (PGPP) and an anti-gravitational postural pattern (AGPP) (Domagalska-Szopa & Szopa (2013). BioMed Research International, 2013, 462094; (2014). Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management, 10, 113). The group of children with mild scoliosis, considered as a standard for static body weight distribution, was used as the reference group. The results of present study only partially confirmed that children with hemiplegia have increased postural instability. Strong weight distribution asymmetry was found in children with an AGPP, which induced larger lateral-medial CoP displacements compared with children with scoliosis. In children with hemiplegia, distinguishing between their postural patterns may be useful to improve the guidelines for early therapy children with an AGPP before abnormal patterns of weight-bearing asymmetry are fully established.

  16. A Spherical Aerial Terrestrial Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, Christopher J.

    This thesis focuses on the design of a novel, ultra-lightweight spherical aerial terrestrial robot (ATR). The ATR has the ability to fly through the air or roll on the ground, for applications that include search and rescue, mapping, surveillance, environmental sensing, and entertainment. The design centers around a micro-quadcopter encased in a lightweight spherical exoskeleton that can rotate about the quadcopter. The spherical exoskeleton offers agile ground locomotion while maintaining characteristics of a basic aerial robot in flying mode. A model of the system dynamics for both modes of locomotion is presented and utilized in simulations to generate potential trajectories for aerial and terrestrial locomotion. Details of the quadcopter and exoskeleton design and fabrication are discussed, including the robot's turning characteristic over ground and the spring-steel exoskeleton with carbon fiber axle. The capabilities of the ATR are experimentally tested and are in good agreement with model-simulated performance. An energy analysis is presented to validate the overall efficiency of the robot in both modes of locomotion. Experimentally-supported estimates show that the ATR can roll along the ground for over 12 minutes and cover the distance of 1.7 km, or it can fly for 4.82 minutes and travel 469 m, on a single 350 mAh battery. Compared to a traditional flying-only robot, the ATR traveling over the same distance in rolling mode is 2.63-times more efficient, and in flying mode the system is only 39 percent less efficient. Experimental results also demonstrate the ATR's transition from rolling to flying mode.

  17. Unmanned aerial vehicles in astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biondi, Federico; Magrin, Demetrio; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Farinato, Jacopo; Greggio, Davide; Dima, Marco; Gullieuszik, Marco; Bergomi, Maria; Carolo, Elena; Marafatto, Luca; Portaluri, Elisa

    2016-07-01

    In this work we discuss some options for using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for daylight alignment activities and maintenance of optical telescopes, relating them to a small numbers of parameters, and tracing which could be the schemes, requirements and benefits for employing them both at the stage of erection and maintenance. UAVs can easily reach the auto-collimation points of optical components of the next class of Extremely Large Telescopes. They can be equipped with tools for the measurement of the co-phasing, scattering, and reflectivity of segmented mirrors or environmental parameters like C2n and C2T to characterize the seeing during both the day and the night.

  18. Coupling of postural and manual tasks in expert performers.

    PubMed

    Amado, A C; Palmer, C J; Hamill, J; van Emmerik, R E A

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the integration of bimanual rhythmic movements and posture in expert marching percussionists. Participants (N=11) performed three rhythmic manual tasks [1:1, 2:3, and 2:3-F (2:3 rhythm played faster at a self-selected tempo)] in one of three postures: sitting, standing on one foot, and standing on two feet. Discrete relative phase, postural time-to-contact, and coherence analysis were used to analyze the performance of the manual task, postural control, and the integration between postural and manual performance. Across all three rhythms, discrete relative phase mean and variability results showed no effects of posture on rhythmic performance. The complexity of the manual task (1:1 vs. 2:3) had no effect on postural time-to-contact. However, increasing the tempo of the manual task (2:3 vs. 2:3-F) did result in a decreased postural time-to-contact in the two-footed posture. Coherence analysis revealed that the coupling between the postural and manual task significantly decreased as a function of postural difficulty (going from a two-footed to a one-footed posture) and rhythmic complexity (1:1 vs. 2:3). Taken together, these results demonstrate that expert marching percussionists systematically decouple postural and manual fluctuations in order to preserve the performance of the rhythmic movement task.

  19. Transfer of dynamic learning across postures.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Alaa A; Wolpert, Daniel M

    2009-11-01

    When learning a difficult motor task, we often decompose the task so that the control of individual body segments is practiced in isolation. But on re-composition, the combined movements can result in novel and possibly complex internal forces between the body segments that were not experienced (or did not need to be compensated for) during isolated practice. Here we investigate whether dynamics learned in isolation by one part of the body can be used by other parts of the body to immediately predict and compensate for novel forces between body segments. Subjects reached to targets while holding the handle of a robotic, force-generating manipulandum. One group of subjects was initially exposed to the novel robot dynamics while seated and was then tested in a standing position. A second group was tested in the reverse order: standing then sitting. Both groups adapted their arm dynamics to the novel environment, and this movement learning transferred between seated and standing postures and vice versa. Both groups also generated anticipatory postural adjustments when standing and exposed to the force field for several trials. In the group that had learned the dynamics while seated, the appropriate postural adjustments were observed on the very first reach on standing. These results suggest that the CNS can immediately anticipate the effect of learned movement dynamics on a novel whole-body posture. The results support the existence of separate mappings for posture and movement, which encode similar dynamics but can be adapted independently.

  20. Transfer of Dynamic Learning Across Postures

    PubMed Central

    Wolpert, Daniel M.

    2009-01-01

    When learning a difficult motor task, we often decompose the task so that the control of individual body segments is practiced in isolation. But on re-composition, the combined movements can result in novel and possibly complex internal forces between the body segments that were not experienced (or did not need to be compensated for) during isolated practice. Here we investigate whether dynamics learned in isolation by one part of the body can be used by other parts of the body to immediately predict and compensate for novel forces between body segments. Subjects reached to targets while holding the handle of a robotic, force-generating manipulandum. One group of subjects was initially exposed to the novel robot dynamics while seated and was then tested in a standing position. A second group was tested in the reverse order: standing then sitting. Both groups adapted their arm dynamics to the novel environment, and this movement learning transferred between seated and standing postures and vice versa. Both groups also generated anticipatory postural adjustments when standing and exposed to the force field for several trials. In the group that had learned the dynamics while seated, the appropriate postural adjustments were observed on the very first reach on standing. These results suggest that the CNS can immediately anticipate the effect of learned movement dynamics on a novel whole-body posture. The results support the existence of separate mappings for posture and movement, which encode similar dynamics but can be adapted independently. PMID:19710374

  1. Postural sway following cryotherapy in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Fukuchi, Claudiane A; Duarte, Marcos; Stefanyshyn, Darren J

    2014-01-01

    In light of the wide use of cryotherapy and its potential negative effects on postural stability, little is known about how postural sway is affected, particularly when the whole lower limb is immersed. The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of cryotherapy on postural sway in healthy males. Twenty-six subjects were randomly assigned into two intervention groups: control (tepid water at ∼26°C) or ice (cold water at ∼11°C). Postural sway was measured through the center of pressure (COP) position while they stood on a force plate during bipedal (70 s) and unipedal (40 s) conditions before and after the subjects were immersed in a water tub up to the umbilical level for 20 min. COP standard deviation (SD) and COP velocity were analyzed in the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) directions. Statistical analysis showed that in the bipedal condition cryotherapy increased the COP SD and COP velocity in the ML direction. During the unipedal condition, a higher COP velocity in the AP and ML directions was also reported. Our findings indicate that cryotherapy by immersing the whole lower limb should be used with caution before engaging in challenging postural control activities.

  2. Approximate Dynamic Programming and Aerial Refueling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    were values derived from “AFPAM 10-1403, AIR MOBILITY PLANNING FACTORS” used by the US Air Force when making gross calculations of aerial refueling...Aerial Refueling. U.S. Centennial of Flight Commision. centennialofflight.gov/essay/EvolutionofT echnology /refueling?Tech22.htm. 20003. 5 [6] DOD Needs

  3. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire. (a) This account shall include the original cost of bare line wire and other material used in...

  4. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire. (a) This account shall include the original cost of bare line wire and other material used in...

  5. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire. (a) This account shall include the original cost of bare line wire and other material used in...

  6. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire. (a) This account shall include the original cost of bare line wire and other material used in...

  7. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire. (a) This account shall include the original cost of bare line wire and other material used in...

  8. BOREAS Level-0 ER-2 Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominquez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), the ER-2 and other aerial photography was collected to provide finely detailed and spatially extensive documentation of the condition of the primary study sites. The ER-2 aerial photography consists of color-IR transparencies collected during flights in 1994 and 1996 over the study areas.

  9. Good Posture--An Aid to Learning and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marciante, Robert E.

    1983-01-01

    Emphasizes the importance of promoting children's good health and proper posture through encouragement and the efforts of parents, physical education teachers, and classroom instructors. Outlines precise roles and responsibilities of each in improving children's posture. (DMM)

  10. Correlation between Trunk Posture and Neck Reposition Sense among Subjects with Forward Head Neck Postures

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Han Suk; Chung, Hyung Kuk; Park, Sun Wook

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the correlation of abnormal trunk postures and reposition sense of subjects with forward head neck posture (FHP). Methods. In all, postures of 41 subjects were evaluated and the FHP and trunk posture including shoulder, scapular level, pelvic side, and anterior tilting degrees were analyzed. We used the head repositioning accuracy (HRA) test to evaluate neck position senses of neck flexion, neck extension, neck right and left side flexion, and neck right and left rotation and calculated the root mean square error in trials for each subject. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and regression analysis were used to assess the degree of correlation between the trunk posture and HRA value, and a significance level of α = 0.05 was considered. Results. There were significant correlations between the HRA value of right side neck flexion and pelvic side tilt angle (p < 0.05). If pelvic side tilting angle increases by 1 degree, right side neck flexion increased by 0.76 degrees (p = 0.026). However, there were no significant correlations between other neck motions and trunk postures. Conclusion. Verifying pelvic postures should be prioritized when movement is limited due to the vitiation of the proprioceptive sense of neck caused by FHP. PMID:26583125

  11. Astronomical Methods in Aerial Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beij, K Hilding

    1925-01-01

    The astronomical method of determining position is universally used in marine navigation and may also be of service in aerial navigation. The practical application of the method, however, must be modified and adapted to conform to the requirements of aviation. Much of this work of adaptation has already been accomplished, but being scattered through various technical journals in a number of languages, is not readily available. This report is for the purpose of collecting under one cover such previous work as appears to be of value to the aerial navigator, comparing instruments and methods, indicating the best practice, and suggesting future developments. The various methods of determining position and their application and value are outlined, and a brief resume of the theory of the astronomical method is given. Observation instruments are described in detail. A complete discussion of the reduction of observations follows, including a rapid method of finding position from the altitudes of two stars. Maps and map cases are briefly considered. A bibliography of the subject is appended.

  12. Smart garment to help children improve posture.

    PubMed

    Lou, E; Moreau, M J; Hill, D L; Raso, V J; Mahood, J K

    2006-01-01

    Many of the aches and pains of adults are the result not of injuries, but of the long-term effects of distortions in posture or alignment. Postural kyphosis in adolescence may be one of the effects of poor standing and sitting habits. Kyphosis is an excessive rounding of the upper spine. A smart garment that can monitor and provide vibration feedback to children has been developed to investigate an alternative treatment possibility. Laboratory tests verified that the accuracy of the system was +/-2 degrees within the full 180 degrees range. A clinical trial has been conducted and it showed that the system can aid subjects to improve by 20% the proportion of time in a more balanced posture. The long term effect is still under investigation.

  13. Falls study: Proprioception, postural stability, and slips.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Jeehoon; Kim, Sukwon

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated effects of exercise training on the proprioception sensitivity, postural stability, and the likelihood of slip-induced falls. Eighteen older adults (6 in balance, 6 in weight, and 6 in control groups) participated in this study. Three groups met three times per week over the course of eight weeks. Ankle and knee proprioception sensitivities and postural stability were measured. Slip-induced events were introduced for all participants before and after training. The results indicated that, overall, strength and postural stability were improved only in the training group, although proprioception sensitivity was improved in all groups. Training for older adults resulted in decreased likelihood of slip-induced falls. The study suggested that proprioception can be improved by simply being active, however, the results suggested that training would aid older adults in reducing the likelihood of slip-induced falls.

  14. Integrated postural analysis in children with haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Boccalandro, E; Pasta, G; Mannucci, P M; Santagostino, E; Peyvandi, F; Seuser, A; Mancuso, M E; Solimeno, L P

    2014-03-01

    The maintenance of a correct posture in haemophilic boys might contribute to prevent joint bleeds, chronic pain and dysfunction. This single-centre study was aimed at evaluating whether or not postural alterations are more common in haemophilic than in non-haemophilic boys and whether they are related to the orthopaedic status. Posture and balance were investigated in boys with severe/moderate haemophilia (cases) and in age-matched non-haemophilic peers (controls). Thirty-five cases (89% with haemophilia A: 74% with severe disease) were included in the study and compared with 57 controls. Posture was evaluated on digital pictures of anterior, lateral and posterior views of the habitual standing position. Balance was examined with a portable force platform with eyes open and closed. The trajectory of the total body centre of force (CoF) displacement over the platform was computed by multiple planes obtaining different measures: sway area, velocity, acceleration and body loads. The joint status of cases was assessed with the Haemophilia Joint Health Score. Cases were more disharmonic than controls (52% vs. 26% in controls; P = 0.04), swayed significantly less and more slowly than controls (P < 0.05 for several parameters of CoF displacement) revealing stiffness of the musculoskeletal system. However, they were able to maintain their stance within a similar sway area. Haemophilic boys have more postural disharmonies than non-haemophilic peers, hence a global evaluation of the orthopaedic status should include also balance and posture examination to identify early dysfunction and establish a tailored physical or rehabilitation programme.

  15. Aerial Measuring System Technical Integration Annual Report 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada Remote Sensing Laboratory

    2003-06-01

    Fiscal Year 2002 is the second year of a five-year commitment by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to invest in development of new and state-of-the-art technologies for the Aerial Measuring Systems (AMS) project. In 2000, NNSA committed to two million dollars for AMS Technical Integration (TI) for each of five years. The tragedy of September 11, 2001, profoundly influenced the program. NNSA redirected people and funding resources at the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) to more immediate needs. Funds intended for AMS TI were redirected to NNSA's new posture of leaning further forward throughout. AMS TI was brought to a complete halt on December 10, 2001. Then on April 30, 2002, NNSA Headquarters allowed the restart of AMS TI at the reduced level of $840,000. The year's events resulted in a slow beginning of several projects, some of which were resumed only a few weeks before the AMS TI Symposium held at RSL on July 30.

  16. An OWAS-based analysis of nurses' working postures.

    PubMed

    Engels, J A; Landeweerd, J A; Kant, Y

    1994-05-01

    The working postures of Dutch nurses (n = 18) in an orthopaedic ward and a urology ward were observed using the Ovako Working posture Analysis System (OWAS). During observation, both working postures and activities were recorded. A specially developed computer program was used for data analysis. By means of this program, it was possible to calculate the working posture load for each activity and the contribution of a specific activity to the total working posture load. This study shows that some activities of the nurses in both wards were performed with poor working postures. In the orthopaedic (resp. urology) ward two (resp. one) out of 19 observed postures of parts of the body were classified as Action Category 2. Moreover, 20% (resp. 16%) of the so-called typical working postures was classified in Action Category 2. This suggests, that in both wards working postures that are slightly harmful to the musculoskeletal system, occur during a substantial part of the working day. Differences between both wards with respect to working posture load and time expenditure were determined. Activities causing the workload to fall into OWAS higher Action Categories were identified. The data show that poor working postures in the nursing profession not only occur during patient handling activities but also during tasks like 'administration'. Focusing on patient-handling (i.e., lifting patients) in order to determine the load on the musculoskeletal system would therefore lead to an underestimation of the total working posture load of nurses.

  17. Postural Control in Children: Implications for Pediatric Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westcott, Sarah L.; Burtner, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Based on a systems theory of motor control, reactive postural control (RPA) and anticipatory postural control (APA) in children are reviewed from several perspectives in order to develop an evidence-based intervention strategy for improving postural control in children with limitations in motor function. Research on development of postural…

  18. Development of the Coordination between Posture and Manual Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Jeffrey M.; Claxton, Laura J.; Keen, Rachel; Berthier, Neil E.; Riccio, Gary E.; Hamill, Joseph; Van Emmerik, Richard E. A.

    2012-01-01

    Studies have suggested that proper postural control is essential for the development of reaching. However, little research has examined the development of the coordination between posture and manual control throughout childhood. We investigated the coordination between posture and manual control in children (7- and 10-year-olds) and adults during…

  19. MEMS Based Micro Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Niranjan; Köhler, Elof; Enoksson, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Designing a flapping wing insect robot requires understanding of insect flight mechanisms, wing kinematics and aerodynamic forces. These subsystems are interconnected and their dependence on one another affects the overall performance. Additionally it requires an artificial muscle like actuator and transmission to power the wings. Several kinds of actuators and mechanisms are candidates for this application with their own strengths and weaknesses. This article provides an overview of the insect scaled flight mechanism along with discussion of various methods to achieve the Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) flight. Ongoing projects in Chalmers is aimed at developing a low cost and low manufacturing time MAV. The MAV design considerations and design specifications are mentioned. The wings are manufactured using 3D printed carbon fiber and are under experimental study.

  20. COCOA: tracking in aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Saad; Shah, Mubarak

    2006-05-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are becoming a core intelligence asset for reconnaissance, surveillance and target tracking in urban and battlefield settings. In order to achieve the goal of automated tracking of objects in UAV videos we have developed a system called COCOA. It processes the video stream through number of stages. At first stage platform motion compensation is performed. Moving object detection is performed to detect the regions of interest from which object contours are extracted by performing a level set based segmentation. Finally blob based tracking is performed for each detected object. Global tracks are generated which are used for higher level processing. COCOA is customizable to different sensor resolutions and is capable of tracking targets as small as 100 pixels. It works seamlessly for both visible and thermal imaging modes. The system is implemented in Matlab and works in a batch mode.

  1. How To Obtain Aerial Photographs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) maintains an informational data base of aerial photographic coverage of the United States and its territories that dates back to the 1940?s. This information describes photographic projects from the USGS, other Federal, State, and local government agencies, and commercial firms. The pictures on this page show a part of a standard 9- by 9-inch photograph and the results obtained by enlarging the original photograph two and four times. Compare the size of the Qualcomm Stadium, Jack Murphy Field, in San Diego, Calif, and the adjacent parking lot and freeways shown at the different scales. USGS Earth Science Information Center (ESIC) representatives will assist you in locating and ordering photographs. Please submit the completed checklist and a marked map showing your area of interest to any ESIC.

  2. Unmanned aerial survey of elephants.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Cédric; Lejeune, Philippe; Lisein, Jonathan; Sawadogo, Prosper; Bouché, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The use of a UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System) was tested to survey large mammals in the Nazinga Game Ranch in the south of Burkina Faso. The Gatewing ×100™ equipped with a Ricoh GR III camera was used to test animal reaction as the UAS passed, and visibility on the images. No reaction was recorded as the UAS passed at a height of 100 m. Observations, made on a set of more than 7000 images, revealed that only elephants (Loxodonta africana) were easily visible while medium and small sized mammals were not. The easy observation of elephants allows experts to enumerate them on images acquired at a height of 100 m. We, therefore, implemented an aerial strip sample count along transects used for the annual wildlife foot count. A total of 34 elephants were recorded on 4 transects, each overflown twice. The elephant density was estimated at 2.47 elephants/km(2) with a coefficient of variation (CV%) of 36.10%. The main drawback of our UAS was its low autonomy (45 min). Increased endurance of small UAS is required to replace manned aircraft survey of large areas (about 1000 km of transect per day vs 40 km for our UAS). The monitoring strategy should be adapted according to the sampling plan. Also, the UAS is as expensive as a second-hand light aircraft. However the logistic and flight implementation are easier, the running costs are lower and its use is safer. Technological evolution will make civil UAS more efficient, allowing them to compete with light aircraft for aerial wildlife surveys.

  3. Unmanned Aerial Survey of Elephants

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Cédric; Lejeune, Philippe; Lisein, Jonathan; Sawadogo, Prosper; Bouché, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The use of a UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System) was tested to survey large mammals in the Nazinga Game Ranch in the south of Burkina Faso. The Gatewing ×100™ equipped with a Ricoh GR III camera was used to test animal reaction as the UAS passed, and visibility on the images. No reaction was recorded as the UAS passed at a height of 100 m. Observations, made on a set of more than 7000 images, revealed that only elephants (Loxodonta africana) were easily visible while medium and small sized mammals were not. The easy observation of elephants allows experts to enumerate them on images acquired at a height of 100 m. We, therefore, implemented an aerial strip sample count along transects used for the annual wildlife foot count. A total of 34 elephants were recorded on 4 transects, each overflown twice. The elephant density was estimated at 2.47 elephants/km2 with a coefficient of variation (CV%) of 36.10%. The main drawback of our UAS was its low autonomy (45 min). Increased endurance of small UAS is required to replace manned aircraft survey of large areas (about 1000 km of transect per day vs 40 km for our UAS). The monitoring strategy should be adapted according to the sampling plan. Also, the UAS is as expensive as a second-hand light aircraft. However the logistic and flight implementation are easier, the running costs are lower and its use is safer. Technological evolution will make civil UAS more efficient, allowing them to compete with light aircraft for aerial wildlife surveys. PMID:23405088

  4. The DOE ARM Aerial Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Hubbe, John M.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Mei, Fan; Chand, Duli; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Andrews, Elisabeth; Biraud, S.; McFarquhar, Greg

    2014-05-01

    The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a climate research user facility operating stationary ground sites that provide long-term measurements of climate relevant properties, mobile ground- and ship-based facilities to conduct shorter field campaigns (6-12 months), and the ARM Aerial Facility (AAF). The airborne observations acquired by the AAF enhance the surface-based ARM measurements by providing high-resolution in-situ measurements for process understanding, retrieval-algorithm development, and model evaluation that are not possible using ground- or satellite-based techniques. Several ARM aerial efforts were consolidated into the AAF in 2006. With the exception of a small aircraft used for routine measurements of aerosols and carbon cycle gases, AAF at the time had no dedicated aircraft and only a small number of instruments at its disposal. In this "virtual hangar" mode, AAF successfully carried out several missions contracting with organizations and investigators who provided their research aircraft and instrumentation. In 2009, AAF started managing operations of the Battelle-owned Gulfstream I (G-1) large twin-turboprop research aircraft. Furthermore, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided funding for the procurement of over twenty new instruments to be used aboard the G-1 and other AAF virtual-hangar aircraft. AAF now executes missions in the virtual- and real-hangar mode producing freely available datasets for studying aerosol, cloud, and radiative processes in the atmosphere. AAF is also engaged in the maturation and testing of newly developed airborne sensors to help foster the next generation of airborne instruments.

  5. Posture and Texting: Effect on Balance in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nurwulan, Nurul Retno; Jiang, Bernard C.; Iridiastadi, Hardianto

    2015-01-01

    Using a mobile phone while doing another activity is a common dual-task activity in our daily lives. This study examined the effect of texting on the postural stability of young adults. Twenty college students were asked to perform static and dynamic postural stability tasks. Traditional COP and multivariate multiscale entropy (MMSE) were used to assess the static postural stability and the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) was used to assess the dynamic postural stability. Results showed that (1) texting impaired postural stability, (2) the complexity index did not change much although the task conditions changed, and (3) performing texting is perceived to be more difficult. PMID:26230323

  6. Methods of Postural Assessment Used for Sports Persons

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Deepika

    2014-01-01

    Occurrence of postural defects has become very common now-a-days not only in general population but also in sports persons. There are various methods which can be used to assess these postural defects. These methods have evolved over a period of many years. This paper is first of its kind to summarize the methods of postural assessment which have been used and which can be used for evaluation of postural abnormalities in sports persons such as the visual observation, plumbline, goniometry, photographic, radiographic, photogrammetric, flexiruler, electromagnetic tracking device etc. We recommend more and more postural evaluation studies to be done in future based on the photogrammetric method. PMID:24959470

  7. Forearm posture and mobility in quadrupedal dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    VanBuren, Collin S; Bonnan, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Quadrupedality evolved four independent times in dinosaurs; however, the constraints associated with these transitions in limb anatomy and function remain poorly understood, in particular the evolution of forearm posture and rotational ability (i.e., active pronation and supination). Results of previous qualitative studies are inconsistent, likely due to an inability to quantitatively assess the likelihood of their conclusions. We attempt to quantify antebrachial posture and mobility using the radius bone because its morphology is distinct between extant sprawled taxa with a limited active pronation ability and parasagittal taxa that have an enhanced ability to actively pronate the manus. We used a sliding semi-landmark, outline-based geometric morphometric approach of the proximal radial head and a measurement of the angle of curvature of the radius in a sample of 189 mammals, 49 dinosaurs, 35 squamates, 16 birds, and 5 crocodilians. Our results of radial head morphology showed that quadrupedal ceratopsians, bipedal non-hadrosaurid ornithopods, and theropods had limited pronation/supination ability, and sauropodomorphs have unique radial head morphology that likely allowed limited rotational ability. However, the curvature of the radius showed that no dinosaurian clade had the ability to cross the radius about the ulna, suggesting parallel antebrachial elements for all quadrupedal dinosaurs. We conclude that the bipedal origins of all quadrupedal dinosaur clades could have allowed for greater disparity in forelimb posture than previously appreciated, and future studies on dinosaur posture should not limit their classifications to the overly simplistic extant dichotomy.

  8. Can Smartwatches Replace Smartphones for Posture Tracking?

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Bobak; Nemati, Ebrahim; VanderWall, Kristina; Flores-Rodriguez, Hector G.; Cai, Jun Yu Jacinta; Lucier, Jessica; Naeim, Arash; Sarrafzadeh, Majid

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a human posture tracking platform to identify the human postures of sitting, standing or lying down, based on a smartwatch. This work develops such a system as a proof-of-concept study to investigate a smartwatch’s ability to be used in future remote health monitoring systems and applications. This work validates the smartwatches’ ability to track the posture of users accurately in a laboratory setting while reducing the sampling rate to potentially improve battery life, the first steps in verifying that such a system would work in future clinical settings. The algorithm developed classifies the transitions between three posture states of sitting, standing and lying down, by identifying these transition movements, as well as other movements that might be mistaken for these transitions. The system is trained and developed on a Samsung Galaxy Gear smartwatch, and the algorithm was validated through a leave-one-subject-out cross-validation of 20 subjects. The system can identify the appropriate transitions at only 10 Hz with an F-score of 0.930, indicating its ability to effectively replace smart phones, if needed. PMID:26506354

  9. Evaluation of postural mechanisms under dynamic conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    A stimulus delivery and data acquisition system for assessment of human posture was developed based on a digital computer and a translating platform. The movement of the platform acts to displace the subject's base of support while the computer tracks the corrections which are made by the subject to maintain balance. Various stimuli are used ranging from fast transients to sine waves.

  10. Body Posture Facilitates Retrieval of Autobiographical Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Katinka; Kaschak, Michael P.; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2007-01-01

    We assessed potential facilitation of congruent body posture on access to and retention of autobiographical memories in younger and older adults. Response times were shorter when body positions during prompted retrieval of autobiographical events were similar to the body positions in the original events than when body position was incongruent.…

  11. Forearm Posture and Mobility in Quadrupedal Dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    VanBuren, Collin S.; Bonnan, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Quadrupedality evolved four independent times in dinosaurs; however, the constraints associated with these transitions in limb anatomy and function remain poorly understood, in particular the evolution of forearm posture and rotational ability (i.e., active pronation and supination). Results of previous qualitative studies are inconsistent, likely due to an inability to quantitatively assess the likelihood of their conclusions. We attempt to quantify antebrachial posture and mobility using the radius bone because its morphology is distinct between extant sprawled taxa with a limited active pronation ability and parasagittal taxa that have an enhanced ability to actively pronate the manus. We used a sliding semi-landmark, outline-based geometric morphometric approach of the proximal radial head and a measurement of the angle of curvature of the radius in a sample of 189 mammals, 49 dinosaurs, 35 squamates, 16 birds, and 5 crocodilians. Our results of radial head morphology showed that quadrupedal ceratopsians, bipedal non-hadrosaurid ornithopods, and theropods had limited pronation/supination ability, and sauropodomorphs have unique radial head morphology that likely allowed limited rotational ability. However, the curvature of the radius showed that no dinosaurian clade had the ability to cross the radius about the ulna, suggesting parallel antebrachial elements for all quadrupedal dinosaurs. We conclude that the bipedal origins of all quadrupedal dinosaur clades could have allowed for greater disparity in forelimb posture than previously appreciated, and future studies on dinosaur posture should not limit their classifications to the overly simplistic extant dichotomy. PMID:24058633

  12. Effect of absence of vision on posture

    PubMed Central

    Alotaibi, Abdullah Z.; Alghadir, Ahmad; Iqbal, Zaheen A.; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The visual system is one of the sensory systems that enables the body to assess and process information about the external environment. In the absence of vision, a blind person loses contact with the outside world and develops faulty motor patterns, which results in postural deficiencies. However, literature regarding the development of such deficiencies is limited. The aim of this study was to discuss the effect of absence of vision on posture, the possible biomechanics behind the resulting postural deficiencies, and strategies to correct and prevent them. [Subjects and Methods] Various electronic databases including PubMed, Medline, and Google scholar were examined using the words “body”, “posture”, “blind” and “absence of vision”. References in the retrieved articles were also examined for cross-references. The search was limited to articles in the English language. [Results] A total of 74 papers were shortlisted for this review, most of which dated back to the 1950s and 60s. [Conclusion] Blind people exhibit consistent musculoskeletal deformities. Absence of vision leads to numerous abnormal sensory and motor interactions that often limit blind people in isolation. Rehabilitation of the blind is a multidisciplinary task. Specialists from different fields need to diagnose and treat the deficiencies of the blind together as a team. Before restoring the normal mechanics of posture and gait, the missing link with the external world should be reestablished. PMID:27190486

  13. Postural Determinants in the Blind. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Irwin M.; Murphy, Thomas J.

    The problem of malposture in the blind and its affect on orientation and travel skills was explored. A group of 45 students were enrolled in a standard 3-month mobility training program. Each student suffered a postural problem, some compounded by severe orthopedic and/or neurological deficit. All subjects were given complete orthopedic and…

  14. Posture and the circulation: the age effect.

    PubMed

    Smith, J J; Porth, C J

    1991-01-01

    The primary instigator of circulatory response to the upright posture is the rapid displacement of about 10% of blood volume from the thorax to the lower body. The resultant hemodynamic deficit induces postural intolerance, especially orthostatic hypotension, in elderly over 70 years of age and in some young subjects after exposure to weightlessness. In this review, our objectives have been: 1) to describe in the normal subject the hemodynamic consequences of the headup posture, as well as lower body negative pressure, the compensatory responses intended to cope with these stresses, and their mechanisms; 2) to outline the effect of age on the circulatory responses to these stresses; and (3) to analyze and compare the tests currently used to assess circulatory tolerance. Our ability to design effective countermeasures to orthostatic circulatory intolerance is severely handicapped by our inadequate knowledge of the basic hemodynamic events incident to normal and abnormal orthostatic tolerance. We believe that better understanding and standardization of the postural tests, better experimental design to include greater emphasis on inter and intra-individual variability, and wider application of currently available noninvasive circulatory techniques would greatly improve the prospects for success in this research area.

  15. Posture Training for Special Needs Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Terrance N.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Educable mentally handicapped adolescents with and without additional health problems (N=24) participated in a three-month fitness intervention program. Pre- and post-measures revealed a high incidence of poor posture in both groups. Related topics discussed include subsequent biomechanical interventions, subjective symptomatology, and the need…

  16. Can smartwatches replace smartphones for posture tracking?

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, Bobak; Nemati, Ebrahim; VanderWall, Kristina; Flores-Rodriguez, Hector G; Cai, Jun Yu Jacinta; Lucier, Jessica; Naeim, Arash; Sarrafzadeh, Majid

    2015-10-22

    This paper introduces a human posture tracking platform to identify the human postures of sitting, standing or lying down, based on a smartwatch. This work develops such a system as a proof-of-concept study to investigate a smartwatch's ability to be used in future remote health monitoring systems and applications. This work validates the smartwatches' ability to track the posture of users accurately in a laboratory setting while reducing the sampling rate to potentially improve battery life, the first steps in verifying that such a system would work in future clinical settings. The algorithm developed classifies the transitions between three posture states of sitting, standing and lying down, by identifying these transition movements, as well as other movements that might be mistaken for these transitions. The system is trained and developed on a Samsung Galaxy Gear smartwatch, and the algorithm was validated through a leave-one-subject-out cross-validation of 20 subjects. The system can identify the appropriate transitions at only 10 Hz with an F-score of 0.930, indicating its ability to effectively replace smart phones, if needed.

  17. Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jonathan N; Mack, Kenneth J; Kuntz, Nancy L; Brands, Chad K; Porter, Coburn J; Fischer, Philip R

    2010-02-01

    Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome was defined in adult patients as an increase >30 beats per minute in heart rate of a symptomatic patient when moving from supine to upright position. Clinical signs may include postural tachycardia, headache, abdominal discomfort, dizziness/presyncope, nausea, and fatigue. The most common adolescent presentation involves teenagers within 1-3 years of their growth spurt who, after a period of inactivity from illness or injury, cannot return to normal activity levels because of symptoms induced by upright posture. Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome is complex and likely has numerous, concurrent pathophysiologic etiologies, presenting along a wide spectrum of potential symptoms. Nonpharmacologic treatment includes (1) increasing aerobic exercise, (2) lower-extremity strengthening, (3) increasing fluid/salt intake, (4) psychophysiologic training for management of pain/anxiety, and (5) family education. Pharmacologic treatment is recommended on a case-by-case basis, and can include beta-blocking agents to blunt orthostatic increases in heart rate, alpha-adrenergic agents to increase peripheral vascular resistance, mineralocorticoid agents to increase blood volume, and serotonin reuptake inhibitors. An interdisciplinary research approach may determine mechanistic root causes of symptoms, and is investigating novel management plans for affected patients.

  18. Control of posture during tasks representing common work-related postures - a reliability study.

    PubMed

    Mani, Ramakrishnan; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Sullivan, S John

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of control of posture using a task battery that represents work-related postural conditions is highly recommended for providing a comprehensive understanding of collective postural demands. However, dearth of evidence exists on the reliability of a task battery, thus precluding its use as an outcome measure in field research. This study investigated the intrasession reliability and systematic variation of force plate derived centre of pressure (COP) measures obtained during repeated performance of a task battery (lifting task, limits of stability and bipedal and unipedal stance). COP signals obtained during each task performance were processed to derive various time-domain COP measures. Statistical analyses revealed that 13 of the 19 COP measures displayed excellent relative (ICC(2,3) ≥ 0.75) and acceptable absolute reliability (SEM%: ≤ 10). Although COP measures displayed systematic variation, the differences were less or equal to the measurement error, except COP measures of unipedal stance and limits of stability. The chosen task battery is reliable and can be used for comprehensive evaluation of control of posture, in both field and laboratory research. Practitioner Summary: Repeated evaluation of multiple tasks together sequentially could introduce measurement variability. This study investigated intrasession reliability of a task battery representing common work-related postures. The chosen task battery was found to be reliable with acceptable measurement error and can be used in field research settings for evaluation of control of posture.

  19. Overview of NASA aerial applications research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, B. J.

    1978-01-01

    Aerial applications research conducted by NASA seeks improvements in environmental safety, fuel efficiency, and aircraft productivity and safety. From 1976 to 1978, NASA studied the technology needs of the aerial applications industry and developed in-house research capabilities for meeting those needs. This paper presents the research plans developed by NASA. High potential appears to exist for near term contributions to the industry from existing NASA research capabilities in drift reduction, stall departure safety, and dry materials dispersal system technology. A brief, annotated bibliography is included listing documents recently produced as a result of NASA aerial applications research efforts.

  20. 7 CFR 611.21 - Availability of aerial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611... § 611.21 Availability of aerial photography. The National Cartography and Geospatial Center obtains necessary clearance for all aerial photography for NRCS. New aerial photography of designated areas in...

  1. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Replacing the Army’s Comanche Helicopter?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This strategic research project explores the possibility of unmanned aerial vehicles replacing the Comanche Helicopter in its doctrinal missions...capabilities of unmanned aerial vehicles , and analyzes unmanned aerial vehicles capabilities against those aviation critical tasks. This research will...Army’s current helicopters, this analysis reveals that unmanned aerial vehicles can only perform 67% of the reconnaissance critical tasks, 50% of the

  2. Normative values for the Foot Posture Index

    PubMed Central

    Redmond, Anthony C; Crane, Yvonne Z; Menz, Hylton B

    2008-01-01

    Background The Foot Posture Index (FPI) is a validated method for quantifying standing foot posture, and is being used in a variety of clinical settings. There have however, been no normative data available to date for comparison and reference. This study aimed to establish normative FPI reference values. Methods Studies reporting FPI data were identified by searching online databases. Nine authors contributed anonymised versions of their original datasets comprising 1648 individual observations. The datasets included information relating to centre, age, gender, pathology (if relevant), FPI scores and body mass index (BMI) where available. FPI total scores were transformed to interval logit scores as per the Rasch model and normal ranges were defined. Comparisons between groups employed t-tests or ANOVA models as appropriate and data were explored descriptively and graphically. Results The main analysis based on a normal healthy population (n = 619) confirmed that a slightly pronated foot posture is the normal position at rest (mean back transformed FPI raw score = +4). A 'U' shaped relationship existed for age, with minors and older adults exhibiting significantly higher FPI scores than the general adult population (F = 51.07, p < 0.001). There was no difference between the FPI scores of males and females (2.3 versus 2.5; t = -1.44, p = 0.149). No relationship was found between the FPI and BMI. Systematic differences from the adult normals were confirmed in patients with neurogenic and idiopathic cavus (F = 216.981, p < 0.001), indicating some sensitivity of the instrument to detect a posturally pathological population. Conclusion A set of population norms for children, adults and older people have been derived from a large sample. Foot posture is related to age and the presence of pathology, but not influenced by gender or BMI. The normative values identified may assist in classifying foot type for the purpose of research and clinical decision making. PMID

  3. Postural control in women with breast hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Alessandra Ferreira; Raggi, Gabriela Cristina; dos Santos Cardoso Sá, Cristina; Costa, Márcio Paulino; de Lima, Jonas Eraldo; Tanaka, Clarice

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The consequences of breast hypertrophy have been described based on the alteration of body mass distribution, leading to an impact on psychological and physical aspects. The principles of motor control suggest that breast hypertrophy can lead to sensorimotor alterations and the impairment of body balance due to postural misalignment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the postural control of women with breast hypertrophy under different sensory information conditions. METHOD: This cross-sectional study included 14 women with breast hypertrophy and 14 without breast hypertrophy, and the mean ages of the groups were 39±15 years and 39±16 years, respectively. A force platform was used to assess the sensory systems that contribute to postural control: somatosensory, visual and vestibular. Four postural conditions were sequentially tested: eyes open and fixed platform, eyes closed and fixed platform, eyes open and mobile platform, and eyes closed and mobile platform. The data were processed, and variables related to the center of pressure were analyzed for each condition. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the conditions between the groups for the area of center of pressure displacement and the velocity of center of pressure displacement in the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions. The alpha level error was set at 0.05. RESULTS: Women with breast hypertrophy presented an area that was significantly higher for three out of four conditions and a higher velocity of center of pressure displacement in the anterior-posterior direction under two conditions: eyes open and mobile platform and eyes closed and mobile platform. CONCLUSIONS: Women with breast hypertrophy have altered postural control, which was demonstrated by the higher area and velocity of center of pressure displacement. PMID:22892919

  4. Pathfinder-Plus takes off on flight in Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Pathfinder-Plus on a flight over Hawaii in 1998. Pathfinder was a remotely controlled, solar-powered flying wing, designed and built as a proof-of-concept vehicle for a much larger aircraft capable of flying at extremely high altitudes for weeks at a time. It was built by AeroVironment, Inc., a California company that developed the human-powered Gossamer Condor and Gossamer Albatross lightweight aircraft during the 1970s, and later made the solar-electric powered Gossamer Penguin and Solar Challenger. The basic configuration and concepts for Pathfinder were first realized with the HALSOL (High Altitude Solar) aircraft, built in 1983 by AeroVironment and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Pathfinder was constructed of advanced composites, plastics, and foam, and despite a wingspan of nearly 100 feet, it weighed only about 600 pounds. Pathfinder was one of several unpiloted prototypes under study by NASA's ERAST (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology) program, a NASA-industry alliance which is helping develop advanced technologies that will enable aircraft to study the earth's environment during extremely long flights at altitudes in excess of 100,000 feet. (See project description below for Pathfinder's conversion to Pathfinder Plus.) In 1998, the Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing (see its photographs and project description) was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration and on Aug. 6, 1998, Pathfinder Plus set an altitude record (for propeller-driven aircraft) of approximately 80,285 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. The goal of the Pathfinder Plus flights was to validate new solar, aerodynamic, propulsion, and systems technology developed for its successor, the Centurion, which was designed to reach and sustain altitudes in the 100,000-foot range. The Centurion was succeeded by the Helios Prototype with a goal of reaching and sustaining flight at an altitude of 100,000 feet and flying non-stop for at least 4 days above 50,000 feet. Major activities of Pathfinder Plus' Hawaiian flights included detection of forest nutrient status, forest regrowth after damage caused by Hurricane Iniki in 1992, sediment/algal concentrations in coastal waters, and assessment of coral reef health. Pathfinder science activities were coordinated by NASA's Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California, and included researchers from the University of Hawaii and the University of California. Pathfinder is part of NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program managed by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Pathfinder and Pathfinder Plus were designed, built, and operated by AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California. Pathfinder had a 98.4-foot wing span and weighed 560 pounds. Pathfinder Plus has a 121-foot wing span and weighs about 700 pounds. Pathfinder was powered by six electric motors while Pathfinder Plus has eight. Pathfinder's solar arrays produced approximately 8,000 watts of power while Pathfinder Plus' solar arrays produce about 12,500 watts of power. Both Pathfinder aircraft were built primarily of composites, plastic, and foam.

  5. Aeronautics Study Takes Off! Glider Design for Beginners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazaros, Edward J.; Carlson, Katie

    2008-01-01

    Study of aeronautics is an interesting and motivating subject for students and educators alike. The activity described in this article--appropriate for upper elementary or middle school students--provides an excellent introduction to airplane design and the science of aerodynamics. It also gives students good experience applying knowledge from a…

  6. A Soft Take-Off in the Direction of "Bologna"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casaravilla Gil, Ana; Cava, Maria Victoria Cuevas; del Rio Merino, Mercedes; Arrebola, Carmen Vinas

    2011-01-01

    In the 2009-2010 academic year, ten new degrees have begun to be taught at the UPM (Universidad Politecnica Madrid), which is the first group of degrees that this university will offer within the framework of the EHEA (European Higher Education Area). One of these new degrees is the Building Engineering Degree, which was implemented in September…

  7. India's pharmaceutical industry: hype or high tech take-off?

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Prabodh; Lofgren, Hans

    2004-11-08

    India has built a large pharmaceutical industry through an array of measures in support of domestic firms. The absence of product patents enabled Indian companies to become world leading producers of generic versions of patented drugs. Low costs and a strong engineering tradition continue to sustain competitive strength. The implementation of the World Trade Organization patent regime in 2005 is driving a transformation of the industry. Key elements of the present shake-up include the return of 'big pharma' companies on a large scale and the emergence of several Indian firms that aim to become fully-fledged research-based multinationals. This article provides a description of the development and structure of the Indian pharmaceutical industry and explores questions and challenges arising from its integration into global markets.

  8. CFC alternatives fail to take off in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Chynoweth, E.

    1993-02-17

    Huge differences are emerging in U.S. and European demand for chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) alternatives. European refrigeration system makers have made virtually no progress in replacing ozone-depleting CFCs with alternatives, according to ICI Klea (Runcorn, U.K.) - the newly named CFC-alternatives business of ICI (London). Meanwhile, U.S. tax incentives are spurring demand for CFC alternatives. Under European Community regulation, production and consumption of CFCs should be 50% lower as of Jan. 1, 1993, compared with the base year of 1986, and 85% lower by Jan. 1, 1994. CFC producers say the first target has been reached, but virtually all the reduction has been achieved through cuts in aerosol use.

  9. How to Properly Put On, Take Off a Disposable Respirator

    MedlinePlus

    ... from both hands at the top of the metal nose clip (if present). Slide fingertips down both sides of the metal strip to mold the nose area to the ... HANDS! Employers must comply with the OSHA Respiratory Protection Standard, 29 CFR 1910.134 if respirators are ...

  10. Multimedia Encyclopedias Take Off: Warp Speed through the Reference Universe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kister, Ken

    1995-01-01

    Examines the development of multimedia encyclopedias. Discusses print versus electronic materials; technological advances; interactivity; costs; content and costs of particular multimedia encyclopedias; and a future perspective. A sidebar compares cultural icons in encyclopedias. (AEF)

  11. Future Role of Aerial Platforms at Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutts, J. A.; Pauken, M.; Hall, J. L.; Baines, K. H.; Grimm, R.

    2017-02-01

    This paper reviews the brief experience with deploying aerial platforms at Venus, the various mission concepts that have been proposed over the last three decades, and a vision for their application through 2050.

  12. Rangeland monitoring with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have great potential for rangeland management applications, such as monitoring vegetation change, developing grazing strategies, determining rangeland health, and assessing remediation treatment effectiveness. UAVs have several advantages: they can be deployed quickly...

  13. Neuroanatomy of flying reptiles and implications for flight, posture and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Witmer, Lawrence M; Chatterjee, Sankar; Franzosa, Jonathan; Rowe, Timothy

    2003-10-30

    Comparison of birds and pterosaurs, the two archosaurian flyers, sheds light on adaptation to an aerial lifestyle. The neurological basis of control holds particular interest in that flight demands on sensory integration, equilibrium, and muscular coordination are acute. Here we compare the brain and vestibular apparatus in two pterosaurs based on high-resolution computed tomographic (CT) scans from which we constructed digital endocasts. Although general neural organization resembles birds, pterosaurs had smaller brains relative to body mass than do birds. This difference probably has more to do with phylogeny than flight, in that birds evolved from nonavian theropods that had already established trends for greater encephalization. Orientation of the osseous labyrinth relative to the long axis of the skull was different in these two pterosaur species, suggesting very different head postures and reflecting differing behaviours. Their enlarged semicircular canals reflect a highly refined organ of equilibrium, which is concordant with pterosaurs being visually based, aerial predators. Their enormous cerebellar floccular lobes may suggest neural integration of extensive sensory information from the wing, further enhancing eye- and neck-based reflex mechanisms for stabilizing gaze.

  14. Reliable aerial thermography for energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, J. R.; Bowman, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    A method for energy conservation, the aerial thermography survey, is discussed. It locates sources of energy losses and wasteful energy management practices. An operational map is presented for clear sky conditions. The map outlines the key environmental conditions conductive to obtaining reliable aerial thermography. The map is developed from defined visual and heat loss discrimination criteria which are quantized based on flat roof heat transfer calculations.

  15. Locating buildings in aerial photos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James S.

    1994-01-01

    Algorithms and techniques for use in the identification and location of large buildings in digitized copies of aerial photographs are developed and tested. The building data would be used in the simulation of objects located in the vicinity of an airport that may be detected by aircraft radar. Two distinct approaches are considered. Most building footprints are rectangular in form. The first approach studied is to search for right-angled corners that characterize rectangular objects and then to connect these corners to complete the building. This problem is difficult because many nonbuilding objects, such as street corners, parking lots, and ballparks often have well defined corners which are often difficult to distinguish from rooftops. Furthermore, rooftops come in a number of shapes, sizes, shadings, and textures which also limit the discrimination task. The strategy used linear sequences of different samples to detect straight edge segments at multiple angles and to determine when these segments meet at approximately right-angles with respect to each other. This technique is effective in locating corners. The test image used has a fairly rectangular block pattern oriented about thirty degrees clockwise from a vertical alignment, and the overall measurement data reflect this. However, this technique does not discriminate between buildings and other objects at an operationally suitable rate. In addition, since multiple paths are tested for each image pixel, this is a time consuming task. The process can be speeded up by preprocessing the image to locate the more optimal sampling paths. The second approach is to rely on a human operator to identify and select the building objects and then to have the computer determine the outline and location of the selected structures. When presented with a copy of a digitized aerial photograph, the operator uses a mouse and cursor to select a target building. After a button on the mouse is pressed, with the cursor fully within

  16. CFD Simulation of Aerial Crop Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Zamri; Qiang, Kua Yong; Mohd, Sofian; Rosly, Nurhayati

    2016-11-01

    Aerial crop spraying, also known as crop dusting, is made for aerial application of pesticides or fertilizer. An agricultural aircraft which is converted from an aircraft has been built to combine with the aerial crop spraying for the purpose. In recent years, many studies on the aerial crop spraying were conducted because aerial application is the most economical, large and rapid treatment for the crops. The main objective of this research is to study the airflow of aerial crop spraying system using Computational Fluid Dynamics. This paper is focus on the effect of aircraft speed and nozzle orientation on the distribution of spray droplet at a certain height. Successful and accurate of CFD simulation will improve the quality of spray during the real situation and reduce the spray drift. The spray characteristics and efficiency are determined from the calculated results of CFD. Turbulence Model (k-ɛ Model) is used for the airflow in the fluid domain to achieve a more accurate simulation. Furthermore, spray simulation is done by setting the Flat-fan Atomizer Model of Discrete Phase Model (DPM) at the nozzle exit. The interaction of spray from each flat-fan atomizer can also be observed from the simulation. The evaluation of this study is validation and grid dependency study using field data from industry.

  17. Relationship between Postural Sway and Dynamic Balance in Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kihun; Lee, Kyoungsuk; Lee, Byungjoon; Lee, Hwangjae; Lee, Wanhee

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between postural sway and dynamic balance in post stroke patients. [Subjects] Thirty-one stroke patients (20 men and 11 women; age 64.25 years; stroke duration 12.70 months; MMSE-K score 26.35) participated in this study. [Methods] This study applied a cross-sectional design. A Good Balance system was used for measurement of the postural sway velocity (anteroposterior and mediolateral) and velocity moment of subjects under the eyes open and eyes closed conditions in a standing posture. The postural sway of subjects was measured under two surface conditions (stable and unstable surfaces). [Results] On the unstable surface (foam), no significant correlation was observed between postural sway and dynamic balance except for the berg balance scale (BBS) score and anteroposterior postural sway velocity under the eyes open condition, anteroposterior postural sway velocity under the eyes closed condition, and postural sway velocity moment. In addition, in the stable condition, no significant correlation was observed between postural sway and dynamic balance. [Conclusion] Our results indicate that a decrease in postural sway does not necessarily reflect improvement of dynamic balance ability. We believe that this finding may be useful in balance rehabilitation for prevention of falls after a stroke.

  18. Obesity Impact on the Attentional Cost for Controlling Posture

    PubMed Central

    Mignardot, Jean-Baptiste; Olivier, Isabelle; Promayon, Emmanuel; Nougier, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Background This study investigated the effects of obesity on attentional resources allocated to postural control in seating and unipedal standing. Methods Ten non obese adults (BMI = 22.4±1.3, age = 42.4±15.1) and 10 obese adult patients (BMI = 35.2±2.8, age = 46.2±19.6) maintained postural stability on a force platform in two postural tasks (seated and unipedal). The two postural tasks were performed (1) alone and (2) in a dual-task paradigm in combination with an auditory reaction time task (RT). Performing the RT task together with the postural one was supposed to require some attentional resources that allowed estimating the attentional cost of postural control. 4 trials were performed in each condition for a total of 16 trials. Findings (1) Whereas seated non obese and obese patients exhibited similar centre of foot pressure oscillations (CoP), in the unipedal stance only obese patients strongly increased their CoP sway in comparison to controls. (2) Whatever the postural task, the additional RT task did not affect postural stability. (3) Seated, RT did not differ between the two groups. (4) RT strongly increased between the two postural conditions in the obese patients only, suggesting that body schema and the use of internal models was altered with obesity. Interpretation Obese patients needed more attentional resources to control postural stability during unipedal stance than non obese participants. This was not the case in a more simple posture such as seating. To reduce the risk of fall as indicated by the critical values of CoP displacement, obese patients must dedicate a strong large part of their attentional resources to postural control, to the detriment of non-postural events. Obese patients were not able to easily perform multitasking as healthy adults do, reflecting weakened psycho-motor abilities. PMID:21187914

  19. Postural development in school children: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Lafond, Danik; Descarreaux, Martin; Normand, Martin C; Harrison, Deed E

    2007-01-01

    Background Little information on quantitative sagittal plane postural alignment and evolution in children exists. The objectives of this study are to document the evolution of upright, static, sagittal posture in children and to identify possible critical phases of postural evolution (maturation). Methods A total of 1084 children (aged 4–12 years) received a sagittal postural evaluation with the Biotonix postural analysis system. Data were retrieved from the Biotonix internet database. Children were stratified and analyzed by years of age with n = 36 in the youngest age group (4 years) and n = 184 in the oldest age group (12 years). Children were analyzed in the neutral upright posture. Variables measured were sagittal translation distances in millimeters of: the knee relative to the tarsal joint, pelvis relative to the tarsal joint, shoulder relative to the tarsal joint, and head relative to the tarsal joint. A two-way factorial ANOVA was used to test for age and gender effects on posture, while polynomial trend analyses were used to test for increased postural displacements with years of age. Results Two-way ANOVA yielded a significant main effect of age for all 4 sagittal postural variables and gender for all variables except head translation. No age × gender interaction was found. Polynomial trend analyses showed a significant linear association between child age and all four postural variables: anterior head translation (p < 0.001), anterior shoulder translation (p < 0.001), anterior pelvic translation (p < 0.001), anterior knee translation (p < 0.001). Between the ages of 11 and 12 years, for anterior knee translation, T-test post hoc analysis revealed only one significant rough break in the continuity of the age related trend. Conclusion A significant linear trend for increasing sagittal plane postural translations of the head, thorax, pelvis, and knee was found as children age from 4 years to 12 years. These postural translations provide preliminary

  20. Endurance bounds of aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Aaron M.; Kroninger, Christopher M.

    2014-06-01

    Within the past few years micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) have received much more attention and are starting to proliferate into military as well as civilian roles. However, one of the major drawbacks for this technology currently, has been their poor endurance, usually below 10 minutes. This is a direct result of the inefficiencies inherent in their design. Often times, designers do not consider the various components in the vehicle design and match their performance to the desired mission for the vehicle. These vehicles lack a prescribed set of design guidelines or empirically derived design equations which often limits their design to selection of commercial off-the-shelf components without proper consideration of their affect on vehicle performance. In the current study, the design space for different vehicle configurations has been examined including insect flapping, avian flapping, rotary wing, and fixed wing, and their performance bounds are established. The propulsion system typical of a rotary wing vehicle is analyzed to establish current baselines for efficiency of vehicles at this scale. The power draw from communications is analyzed to determine its impact on vehicle performance. Finally, a representative fixed wing MAV is examined and the effects of adaptive structures as a means for increasing vehicle endurance and range are examined. This paper seeks to establish the performance bounds for micro air vehicles and establish a path forward for future designs so that efficiency may be maximized.

  1. Measuring postural control during mini-squat posture in men with early knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Petrella, M; Gramani-Say, K; Serrão, P R M S; Lessi, G C; Barela, J A; Carvalho, R P; Mattiello, S M

    2017-02-06

    Studies have suggested a compromised postural control in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA) evidenced by larger and faster displacement of center of pressure (COP). However, quantification of postural control in the mini-squat posture performed by patients with early knee OA and its relation to muscle strength and self-reported symptoms have not been investigated. The main aim of this cross-sectional, observational, controlled study was to determine whether postural control in the mini-squat posture differs between individuals with early knee OA and a control group (CG) and verify the relation among knee extensor torque (KET) and self-reported physical function, stiffness and pain. Twenty four individuals with knee OA grades I and II (OAG) (mean age: 52.35±5.00) and twenty subjects without knee injuries (CG) (mean age: 51.40±8.07) participated in this study. Participants were assessed in postural control through a force plate (Bertec Mod. USA), which provided information about the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) COP displacement during the mini-squat, in isometric, concentric and eccentric knee extensor torque (KET) (90°/s) through an isokinetic dynamometer (BiodexMulti-Joint System3, Biodex Medical Incorporation, New York, NY, USA), and in self-reported symptoms through the WOMAC questionnaire. The main outcomes measured were the AP and ML COP amplitude and velocity of displacement; isometric, concentric, and eccentric KET and self-reported physical function, stiffness and pain. No significant differences were found between groups for postural control (p>0.05). Significant lower eccentric KET (p=0.01) and higher scores for the WOMAC subscales of pain (p=<0.001), stiffness (p=0.001) and physical function (p<0.001) were found for the OAG. Moderate and negative correlations were found between the AP COP amplitude of displacement and physical function (ρ=-0.40, p=0.02). Moderate and negative correlations were observed between the AP COP

  2. The role of anticipatory postural adjustments in compensatory control of posture: 1. Electromyographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Santos, Marcio J; Kanekar, Neeta; Aruin, Alexander S

    2010-06-01

    Anticipatory (APAs) and compensatory (CPAs) postural adjustments are the two principal mechanisms that the central nervous system uses to maintain equilibrium while standing. We studied the role of APAs in compensatory postural adjustments. Eight subjects were exposed to external predictable and unpredictable perturbations induced at the shoulder level, while standing with eyes open and closed. Electrical activity of leg and trunk muscles was recorded and analyzed during four epochs representing the time duration typical for anticipatory and compensatory postural control. No anticipatory activity of the trunk and leg muscles was seen in the case of unpredictable perturbations; instead, significant compensatory activation of muscles was observed. When the perturbations were predictable, strong anticipatory activation was seen in all the muscles: such APAs were associated with significantly smaller compensatory activity of muscles and COP displacements after the perturbations. The outcome of the study highlights the importance of APAs in control of posture and points out the existence of a relationship between the anticipatory and the compensatory components of postural control. It also suggests a possibility to enhance balance control by improving the APAs responses during external perturbations.

  3. Smart Rehabilitation Garment for posture monitoring.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Chen, W; Timmermans, A A A; Karachristos, C; Martens, J B; Markopoulos, P

    2015-08-01

    Posture monitoring and correction technologies can support prevention and treatment of spinal pain or can help detect and avoid compensatory movements during the neurological rehabilitation of upper extremities, which can be very important to ensure their effectiveness. We describe the design and development of Smart Rehabilitation Garment (SRG) a wearable system designed to support posture correction. The SRG combines a number of inertial measurement units (IMUs), controlled by an Arduino processor. It provides feedback with vibration on the garment, audible alarm signals and visual instruction through a Bluetooth connected smartphone. We discuss the placement of sensing modules, the garment design, the feedback design and the integration of smart textiles and wearable electronics which aimed at achieving wearability and ease of use. We report on the system's accuracy as compared to optical tracker method.

  4. Effects of caffeine on postural stability.

    PubMed

    Enriquez, Ashlee; Sklaar, Jessica; Viirre, Erik; Chase, Bradley

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a caffeine-containing "energy drink" on postural stability. Twenty-three young adult participants stood on a balance-measuring platform for two intervals of 30 seconds each, once with eyes open and once with eyes closed. Subjects performed the tasks before and 1 hour after consumption. Results showed no significant effect, either with eyes open or eyes closed, on movement of the body's center of pressure.

  5. Aerial photo SBVC1962". Photo no. 360. Low oblique aerial view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial photo -SBVC-1962". Photo no. 360. Low oblique aerial view of the campus, looking southeast. Stamped on the rear: "Ron Wilhite, Sun-Telegram photo, file, 10/22/62/ - San Bernardino Valley College, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  6. Integration of aerial imaging and variable-rate technology for site-specific aerial herbicide application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As remote sensing and variable rate technology are becoming more available for aerial applicators, practical methodologies on effective integration of these technologies are needed for site-specific aerial applications of crop production and protection materials. The objectives of this study were to...

  7. Lead effects on postural balance of children

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, A.; Shukla, R.; Bornschein, R.L.; Dietrich, K.N. ); Keith, R. )

    1990-11-01

    The postural sway responses of 63 children with a mean age of 5.74 years were quantified with a Force Platform technique. The average maximum (max) blood lead (PbB) of these children during the first 5 years of life was 20.7 {mu}g/dL (range 9.2 to 32.5). The backward stepwise regression analysis for sway area response during the eyes-closed, no-foam test with all the covariates and confounders and the PbB parameters showed a significant relationship with peak or max PbB during the second year of life. These results are consistent with their previous study with a smaller group of children. The data have been analyzed to provide some insight into the role of various afferents for the maintenance of postural balance. The results suggests a hypothesis that if the max PbB had caused some level of impairment in the functional capacities or interconnectivity of the vestibular and/or proprioception systems at 2 years of age, then it is reasonable to assume that the redundancy in the postural afferent systems would naturally adapt to rely more on the remaining intact afferent system (in this case, vision).

  8. [Primary neurogenic and myogenic disorders of posture].

    PubMed

    Schranz, C; Meinck, H-M

    2004-05-01

    Disturbance of posture may occur in a variety of neurological disorders and occasionally is the presenting or even the only sign. In the majority of cases, the head or the trunk or both are bent forward (bent spine syndrome, dropped head syndrome). A feature of these primary neurogenic or myogenic postural disturbances that is in contrast to antalgic contraction or ankylosis is that they are not fixed, but the trunk or head are easily erected by the examiner and show a characteristic sagging. Neuromuscular disorders are a frequent cause. They may be confined to the paraspinal muscles. Axial computed tomography of the spine, electromyography of the involved muscles, and muscle biopsy help to make the diagnosis. However, also central movement disorders may lead to a sagging of the head or trunk or of both due to a lessened tone of the head and trunk extensors. This is frequently seen in the various parkinsonian syndromes which may, however, occur in association with a focal myopathy of the paraspinal muscles. Occasionally, sagging of the trunk is seen as a side effect of neuropharmacologic medication. Sagging of the trunk or head should be differentiated from a pathologically increased innervation of the ventral muscles in dystonic movement disorders such as antecollis or camptocormia. Pathologic reclination of the head or trunk or both is a rare disturbance of posture. It may occur in dystonia (retrocollis) or, occasionally, as a consequence of musculotendinous contractures secondary to certain neuromuscular disorders such as the rigid spine syndrome.

  9. Ice skating promotes postural control in children.

    PubMed

    Keller, M; Röttger, K; Taube, W

    2014-12-01

    High fall rates causing injury and enormous financial costs are reported for children. However, only few studies investigated the effects of balance training in children and these studies did not find enhanced balance performance in postural (transfer) tests. Consequently, it was previously speculated that classical balance training might not be stimulating enough for children to adequately perform these exercises. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of ice skating as an alternative form of balance training. Volunteers of an intervention (n = 17; INT: 13.1 ± 0.4 years) and a control group (n = 13; CON: 13.2 ± 0.3 years) were tested before and after training in static and dynamic postural transfer tests. INT participated in eight sessions of ice skating during education lessons, whereas CON participated in normal physical education. Enhanced balance performance was observed in INT but not in CON when tested on an unstable free-swinging platform (P < 0.05) or when performing a functional reach test (P < 0.001). This is the first study showing significantly enhanced balance performance after ice skating in children. More importantly, participating children improved static and dynamic balance control in postural tasks that were not part of the training.

  10. Fingertip contact influences human postural control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeka, J. J.; Lackner, J. R.

    1994-01-01

    Touch and pressure stimulation of the body surface can strongly influence apparent body orientation, as well as the maintenance of upright posture during quiet stance. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between postural sway and contact forces at the fingertip while subjects touched a rigid metal bar. Subjects were tested in the tandem Romberg stance with eyes open or closed under three conditions of fingertip contact: no contact, touch contact (< 0.98 N of force), and force contact (as much force as desired). Touch contact was as effective as force contact or sight of the surroundings in reducing postural sway when compared to the no contact, eyes closed condition. Body sway and fingertip forces were essentially in phase with force contact, suggesting that fingertip contact forces are physically counteracting body sway. Time delays between body sway and fingertip forces were much larger with light touch contact, suggesting that the fingertip is providing information that allows anticipatory innervation of musculature to reduce body sway. The results are related to observations on precision grip as well as the somatosensory, proprioceptive, and motor mechanisms involved in the reduction of body sway.

  11. Postural dynamics and habituation to seasickness.

    PubMed

    Tal, Dror; Bar, Ronen; Nachum, Zohar; Gil, Amnon; Shupak, Avi

    2010-07-26

    The computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) test examines the response pattern to simultaneous, multimodal sensory stimulation. The purpose of this prospective, controlled study was to investigate whether postural dynamics evaluated by CDP are related to seasickness severity and the process of habituation to sea conditions. Subjects included 74 naval personnel assigned to service aboard ship and 29 controls designated for shore-based positions. Study participants performed a baseline CDP test, and subsequent follow-up examinations 6 and 12 months after completion of their training. On those occasions they also completed a seasickness severity questionnaire. Longitudinal changes in postural parameters were examined, as well as a possible correlation between baseline CDP results and final seasickness severity scores. The results indicated longitudinal habituation to seasickness. Reduced scores were found for sensory organization sub-tests 3 and 5 in the first follow-up examination, reflecting increased weighting of visual and somatosensory input in the maintenance of balance. Scores in the second follow-up examination were above baseline values, indicating increased reliance on vestibular cues. These significant bimodal changes were found only in study subjects having the highest degree of habituation to seasickness. A significant decrease in motor response strength was found in parallel with increased habituation to seasickness. Baseline CDP results and postural control dynamics were not correlated with subjects' final seasickness severity score. These results suggest a potential role for CDP in monitoring the process of habituation to unusual motion conditions.

  12. Humanlike agents with posture planning ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Moon R.; Badler, Norman I.

    1992-11-01

    Human body models are geometric structures which may be ultimately controlled by kinematically manipulating their joints, but for animation, it is desirable to control them in terms of task-level goals. We address a fundamental problem in achieving task-level postural goals: controlling massively redundant degrees of freedom. We reduce the degrees of freedom by introducing significant control points and vectors, e.g., pelvis forward vector, palm up vector, and torso up vector, etc. This reduced set of parameters are used to enumerate primitive motions and motion dependencies among them, and thus to select from a small set of alternative postures (e.g., bend versus squat to lower shoulder height). A plan for a given goal is found by incrementally constructing a goal/constraint set based on the given goal, motion dependencies, collision avoidance requirements, and discovered failures. Global postures satisfying a given goal/constraint set are determined with the help of incremental mental simulation which uses a robust inverse kinematics algorithm. The contributions of the present work are: (1) There is no need to specify beforehand the final goal configuration, which is unrealistic for the human body, and (2) the degrees of freedom problem becomes easier by representing body configurations in terms of `lumped' control parameters, that is, control points and vectors.

  13. Postural control and perceptive configuration: influence of expertise in gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Gautier, Geoffroy; Thouvarecq, Régis; Vuillerme, Nicolas

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of the present experiment was to investigate how postural adaptations to the perceptive configuration are modified by specific gymnastics experience. Two groups, one expert in gymnastics and the other non-expert, had to maintain the erected posture while optical flow was imposed as follows: 20s motionless, 30s approaching motion, and 20s motionless. The centre of pressure and head displacements were analysed. The postural adaptations were characterised by the variability of movements for the flow conditions and by the postural latencies for the flow transitions. The results showed that the gymnasts tended to minimise their body movements and were more stationary (head) but not more stable (COP) than the non-gymnasts. These results suggest that gymnastics experience develops a specific postural adaptability relative to the perceptive configuration. We conclude that a specific postural experience could be considered as an intrinsic constraint, which leads to modification in the patterns of functional adaptation in the perceptive motor space.

  14. The School of Posture as a postural training method for Paraíba Telecommunications Operators.

    PubMed

    Cardia, M C; Soares Màsculo, F

    2001-01-01

    This work proposes to show the experience of posture training accomplished in the Paraíba State Telecommunication Company, using the knowledge of the Back School. The sample was composed of 12 operators, employees of the company, representing 31% of this population. The model applied in TELPA (Paraíba Telecommunication Company, Brazil) was based on the models of Sherbrooke, Canada, and of the School of Posture of Paraìba Federal University. Fifty-eight point four percent of participants showed a reduction of column pain, 25% improved the quality of the rest and the received training was considered enough for the learning of correct postures at work in 75% of the cases. The whole population approved of the training, and 83.3% of the cases considered that this training influenced their lives very positively.

  15. Postural responses explored through classical conditioning.

    PubMed

    Campbell, A D; Dakin, C J; Carpenter, M G

    2009-12-15

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether the central nervous system (CNS) requires the sensory feedback generated by balance perturbations in order to trigger postural responses (PRs). In Experiment 1, twenty-one participants experienced toes-up support-surface tilts in two blocks. Control blocks involved unexpected balance perturbations whereas an auditory tone cued the onset of balance perturbations in Conditioning blocks. A single Cue-Only trial followed each block (Cue-Only(Control) and Cue-Only(Conditioning) trials) in the absence of balance perturbations. Cue-Only(Conditioning) trials were used to determine whether postural perturbations were required in order to trigger PRs. Counter-balancing the order of Control and Conditioning blocks allowed Cue-Only(Control) trials to examine both the audio-spinal/acoustic startle effects of the auditory cue and the carryover effects of the initial conditioning procedure. In Experiment 2, six participants first experienced five consecutive Tone-Only trials that were followed by twenty-five conditioning trials. After conditioning, five Tone-Only trials were again presented consecutively to first elicit and then extinguish the conditioned PRs. Surface electromyography (EMG) recorded muscle activity in soleus (SOL), tibialis anterior (TA) and rectus femoris (RF). EMG onset latencies and amplitudes were calculated together with the onset latency, peak and time-to-peak of shank angular accelerations. Results indicated that an auditory cue could be conditioned to initiate PRs in multiple muscles without balance-relevant sensory triggers generated by balance perturbations. Postural synergies involving excitation of TA and RF and inhibition of SOL were observed following the Cue-Only(Conditioning) trials that resulted in shank angular accelerations in the direction required to counter the expected toes-up tilt. Postural synergies were triggered in response to the auditory cue even 15 min post-conditioning. Furthermore

  16. Evaluation of unmanned aerial vehicle shape, flight path and camera type for waterfowl surveys: disturbance effects and species recognition

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Graham P.; McDonald, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for ecological research has grown rapidly in recent years, but few studies have assessed the disturbance impacts of these tools on focal subjects, particularly when observing easily disturbed species such as waterfowl. In this study we assessed the level of disturbance that a range of UAV shapes and sizes had on free-living, non-breeding waterfowl surveyed in two sites in eastern Australia between March and May 2015, as well as the capability of airborne digital imaging systems to provide adequate resolution for unambiguous species identification of these taxa. We found little or no obvious disturbance effects on wild, mixed-species flocks of waterfowl when UAVs were flown at least 60m above the water level (fixed wing models) or 40m above individuals (multirotor models). Disturbance in the form of swimming away from the UAV through to leaving the water surface and flying away from the UAV was visible at lower altitudes and when fixed-wing UAVs either approached subjects directly or rapidly changed altitude and/or direction near animals. Using tangential approach flight paths that did not cause disturbance, commercially available onboard optical equipment was able to capture images of sufficient quality to identify waterfowl and even much smaller taxa such as swallows. Our results show that with proper planning of take-off and landing sites, flight paths and careful UAV model selection, UAVs can provide an excellent tool for accurately surveying wild waterfowl populations and provide archival data with fewer logistical issues than traditional methods such as manned aerial surveys. PMID:27020132

  17. Evaluation of unmanned aerial vehicle shape, flight path and camera type for waterfowl surveys: disturbance effects and species recognition.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, John F; Hall, Graham P; McDonald, Paul G

    2016-01-01

    The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for ecological research has grown rapidly in recent years, but few studies have assessed the disturbance impacts of these tools on focal subjects, particularly when observing easily disturbed species such as waterfowl. In this study we assessed the level of disturbance that a range of UAV shapes and sizes had on free-living, non-breeding waterfowl surveyed in two sites in eastern Australia between March and May 2015, as well as the capability of airborne digital imaging systems to provide adequate resolution for unambiguous species identification of these taxa. We found little or no obvious disturbance effects on wild, mixed-species flocks of waterfowl when UAVs were flown at least 60m above the water level (fixed wing models) or 40m above individuals (multirotor models). Disturbance in the form of swimming away from the UAV through to leaving the water surface and flying away from the UAV was visible at lower altitudes and when fixed-wing UAVs either approached subjects directly or rapidly changed altitude and/or direction near animals. Using tangential approach flight paths that did not cause disturbance, commercially available onboard optical equipment was able to capture images of sufficient quality to identify waterfowl and even much smaller taxa such as swallows. Our results show that with proper planning of take-off and landing sites, flight paths and careful UAV model selection, UAVs can provide an excellent tool for accurately surveying wild waterfowl populations and provide archival data with fewer logistical issues than traditional methods such as manned aerial surveys.

  18. Effect of different insoles on postural balance: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Christovão, Thaluanna Calil Lourenço; Neto, Hugo Pasini; Grecco, Luanda André Collange; Ferreira, Luiz Alfredo Braun; Franco de Moura, Renata Calhes; Eliege de Souza, Maria; Franco de Oliveira, Luis Vicente; Oliveira, Claudia Santos

    2013-10-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to perform a systematic review of the literature on the effect of different insoles on postural balance. [Subjects and Methods] A systematic review was conducted of four databases. The papers retrieved were evaluated based on the following inclusion criteria: 1) design: controlled clinical trial; 2) intervention: insole; 3) outcome: change in static postural balance; and 4) year of publication: 2005 to 2012. [Results] Twelve controlled trials were found comparing the effects of different insoles on postural balance. The papers had methodological quality scores of 3 or 4 on the PEDro scale. [Conclusion] Insoles have benefits that favor better postural balance and control.

  19. The Effect of Training on Postural Control in Dyslexic Children.

    PubMed

    Goulème, Nathalie; Gérard, Christophe-Loïc; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether a short postural training period could affect postural stability in dyslexic children. Postural performances were evaluated using Multitest Equilibre from Framiral. Posture was recorded in three different viewing conditions (eyes open fixating a target, eyes closed and eyes open with perturbed vision) and in two different postural conditions (on stable and unstable support). Two groups of dyslexic children participated in the study, i.e. G1: 16 dyslexic participants (mean age 9.9 ± 0.3 years) who performed short postural training and G2: 16 dyslexic participants of similar ages (mean age 9.1 ± 0.3 years) who did not perform any short postural training. Findings showed that short postural training improved postural stability on unstable support surfaces with perturbed vision: indeed the surface, the mean velocity of CoP and the spectral power indices in both directions decreased significantly, and the cancelling time in the antero-posterior direction improved significantly. Such improvement could be due to brain plasticity, which allows better performance in sensory process and cerebellar integration.

  20. Transfer of postural adaptation depends on context of prior exposure.

    PubMed

    Pienciak-Siewert, Alison; Barletta, Anthony J; Ahmed, Alaa A

    2014-04-01

    Postural control is significantly affected by the postural base of support; however, the effects on postural adaptation are not well understood. Here we investigated how adaptation and transfer of anticipatory postural control are affected by stance width. Subjects made reaching movements in a novel dynamic environment while holding the handle of a force-generating robotic arm. Each subject initially adapted to the dynamics while standing in a wide stance and then switched to a narrow stance, or vice versa. Our hypothesis is that anticipatory postural control, reflected in center of pressure (COP) movement, is not affected by stance width, as long as the control remains within functional limits; therefore we predicted that subjects in either stance would show similar COP movement by the end of adaptation and immediately upon transfer to the other stance. We found that both groups showed similar adaptation of postural control, by using different muscle activation strategies to account for the differing stance widths. One group, after adapting in wide stance, transferred similar postural control to narrow stance, by modifying their muscle activity to account for the new stance. Interestingly, the other group showed an increase in postural control when transferring from narrow to wide stance, associated with no change in muscle activity. These results confirm that adaptation of anticipatory postural control is not affected by stance width, as long as the control remains within biomechanical limits. However, transfer of control between stance widths is affected by the initial context in which the task is learned.

  1. Eye Movements Affect Postural Control in Young and Older Females

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Neil M.; Bampouras, Theodoros M.; Donovan, Tim; Dewhurst, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Visual information is used for postural stabilization in humans. However, little is known about how eye movements prevalent in everyday life interact with the postural control system in older individuals. Therefore, the present study assessed the effects of stationary gaze fixations, smooth pursuits, and saccadic eye movements, with combinations of absent, fixed and oscillating large-field visual backgrounds to generate different forms of retinal flow, on postural control in healthy young and older females. Participants were presented with computer generated visual stimuli, whilst postural sway and gaze fixations were simultaneously assessed with a force platform and eye tracking equipment, respectively. The results showed that fixed backgrounds and stationary gaze fixations attenuated postural sway. In contrast, oscillating backgrounds and smooth pursuits increased postural sway. There were no differences regarding saccades. There were also no differences in postural sway or gaze errors between age groups in any visual condition. The stabilizing effect of the fixed visual stimuli show how retinal flow and extraocular factors guide postural adjustments. The destabilizing effect of oscillating visual backgrounds and smooth pursuits may be related to more challenging conditions for determining body shifts from retinal flow, and more complex extraocular signals, respectively. Because the older participants matched the young group's performance in all conditions, decreases of posture and gaze control during stance may not be a direct consequence of healthy aging. Further research examining extraocular and retinal mechanisms of balance control and the effects of eye movements, during locomotion, is needed to better inform fall prevention interventions. PMID:27695412

  2. Physical Workload Analysis Among Small Industry Activities Using Postural Data.

    PubMed

    Rabiul Ahasan, M; Väyrynen, Seppo; Kirvesoja, Heli

    1996-01-01

    Small industry workers are often involved in manual handling operations that require awkward body postures, therefore, musculoskeletal disorders and occupational injuries are a major problem. In this study, various types of tasks were recorded with a video camera to chart and analyze different postures by computerized OWAS (Ovako Working Posture Analysing System). Collected data showed that poor postures were adopted not only for lifting or hammering operation but also for other tasks; mostly with bent and twisted back. The main aim was to determine the physical workload by identifying harmful postures and to develop recommendations for improving the existing situation. Forty-eight male workers from eight different units (M age = 37 years) participated. The performed activities were then divided into 26 subtasks. Altogether, 1,534 postures were selected for analysis and then classified into different OAC (OWAS Action Categories). From all observations, unhealthy postures, for which corrective measures had to be considered immediately (i.e., 10.6% classified as OAC III, and 3.3% as OAC IV), were found. The applied method was useful in determining the physical workload by locating potential activities due to harmful postures, providing a detailed description with analysis, and suggesting successful means to reduce postural load.

  3. Eye Movements Affect Postural Control in Young and Older Females.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Neil M; Bampouras, Theodoros M; Donovan, Tim; Dewhurst, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Visual information is used for postural stabilization in humans. However, little is known about how eye movements prevalent in everyday life interact with the postural control system in older individuals. Therefore, the present study assessed the effects of stationary gaze fixations, smooth pursuits, and saccadic eye movements, with combinations of absent, fixed and oscillating large-field visual backgrounds to generate different forms of retinal flow, on postural control in healthy young and older females. Participants were presented with computer generated visual stimuli, whilst postural sway and gaze fixations were simultaneously assessed with a force platform and eye tracking equipment, respectively. The results showed that fixed backgrounds and stationary gaze fixations attenuated postural sway. In contrast, oscillating backgrounds and smooth pursuits increased postural sway. There were no differences regarding saccades. There were also no differences in postural sway or gaze errors between age groups in any visual condition. The stabilizing effect of the fixed visual stimuli show how retinal flow and extraocular factors guide postural adjustments. The destabilizing effect of oscillating visual backgrounds and smooth pursuits may be related to more challenging conditions for determining body shifts from retinal flow, and more complex extraocular signals, respectively. Because the older participants matched the young group's performance in all conditions, decreases of posture and gaze control during stance may not be a direct consequence of healthy aging. Further research examining extraocular and retinal mechanisms of balance control and the effects of eye movements, during locomotion, is needed to better inform fall prevention interventions.

  4. Effect of Posture on Hip Angles and Moments during Gait

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Cara L.; Sahrmann, Shirley A.

    2014-01-01

    Anterior hip pain is common in young, active adults. Clinically, we have noted that patients with anterior hip pain often walk in a swayback posture, and that their pain is reduced when the posture is corrected. The purpose of this study was to investigate a potential mechanism for the reduction in pain by testing the effect of posture on movement patterns and internal moments during gait in healthy subjects. Fifteen subjects were instructed to walk while maintaining three postures: 1) natural, 2) swayback, and 3) forward flexed. Kinematic and force data were collected using a motion capture system and a force plate. Walking in the swayback posture resulted in a higher peak hip extension angle, hip flexor moment and hip flexion angular impulse compared to natural posture. In contrast, walking in a forward flexed posture resulted in a decreased hip extension angle and decreased hip flexion angular impulse. Based on these results, walking in a swayback posture may result in increased forces required of the anterior hip structures, potentially contributing to anterior hip pain. This study provides a potential biomechanical mechanism for clinical observations that posture correction in patients with hip pain is beneficial. PMID:25262565

  5. Looking for an old aerial photograph

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    Attempts to photograph the surface of the Earth date from the 1800's, when photographers attached cameras to balloons, kites, and even pigeons. Today, aerial photographs and satellite images are commonplace. The rate of acquiring aerial photographs and satellite images has increased rapidly in recent years. Views of the Earth obtained from aircraft or satellites have become valuable tools to Government resource planners and managers, land-use experts, environmentalists, engineers, scientists, and a wide variety of other users. Many people want historical aerial photographs for business or personal reasons. They may want to locate the boundaries of an old farm or a piece of family property. Or they may want a photograph as a record of changes in their neighborhood, or as a gift. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) maintains the Earth Science Information Centers (ESIC?s) to sell aerial photographs, remotely sensed images from satellites, a wide array of digital geographic and cartographic data, as well as the Bureau?s wellknown maps. Declassified photographs from early spy satellites were recently added to the ESIC offerings of historical images. Using the Aerial Photography Summary Record System database, ESIC researchers can help customers find imagery in the collections of other Federal agencies and, in some cases, those of private companies that specialize in esoteric products.

  6. Observations of working postures in garages using the Ovako Working posture Analysing System (OWAS) and consequent workload reduction recommendations.

    PubMed

    Kant, I; Notermans, J H; Borm, P J

    1990-02-01

    The working postures of mechanics (n = 84) in 42 garages were observed using the Ovako Working posture Analysis System (OWAS). During observation, both working postures and work activities were recorded. A computer program was developed for the data analyses. Using this program it is possible to calculate the working posture load for each work activity and the contribution of a specific activity to the total working posture load. This is a substantial extension of the original OWAS method. Five out of 19 observed postures of the body members were classified as Action Category 2, which suggests they were slightly harmful to the musculoskeletal system and likely to cause discomfort. Of the so-called typical working postures, 31.9% was classified in Action Category 2, suggesting that during a substantial part of the working day typical working postures occur which are at least slightly harmful to the musculoskeletal system. Moreover, those work activities principally causing the workload to fall in OWAS' higher Action Categories were identified. For each of these three work activities an alternative work method was observed. The data show that in all three work activities the use of a vehicle lift reduces the number of poor working postures thereby reducing the load on the musculoskeletal system.

  7. USGS Releases New Digital Aerial Products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) has initiated distribution of digital aerial photographic products produced by scanning or digitizing film from its historical aerial photography film archive. This archive, located in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, contains thousands of rolls of film that contain more than 8 million frames of historic aerial photographs. The largest portion of this archive consists of original film acquired by Federal agencies from the 1930s through the 1970s to produce 1:24,000-scale USGS topographic quadrangle maps. Most of this photography is reasonably large scale (USGS photography ranges from 1:8,000 to 1:80,000) to support the production of the maps. Two digital products are currently available for ordering: high-resolution scanned products and medium-resolution digitized products.

  8. Detection of linear features in aerial images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Rui

    Over the past decades, considerable progress had been made to develop automatic image interpretation tools in remote sensing. However, there is still a gap between the results and the requirements for accuracy and robustness. Noisy aerial image interpretation, especially for low resolution images, is still difficult. In this thesis, we propose a fully automatic system for linear feature detection in aerial images. We present how the system works on the application of extraction and reconstruction of road and pipeline networks. The work in this thesis is divided by three parts: line detection, feature interpretation, and feature tracking. An improved Hough transform based on orientation information is introduced for the line detection. We explore the Markov random field model and Bayesian filtering for feature interpretation and tracking. Experimental results show that our proposed system is robust and effective to deal with low resolution aerial images.

  9. Shutter/aperture settings for aerial photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, H. E.; Perry, L.

    1976-01-01

    Determination of aerial camera shutter and aperture settings to produce consistently high-quality aerial photographs is a task complicated by numerous variables. Presented in this article are brief discussions of each variable and specific data which may be used for the systematic control of each. The variables discussed include sunlight, aircraft altitude, subject and season, film speed, and optical system. Data which may be used as a base reference are included, and encompass two sets of sensitometric specifications for two film-chemistry processes along with camera-aircraft parameters, which have been established and used to produce good exposures. Information contained here may be used to design and implement an exposure-determination system for aerial photography.

  10. The Development and Flight Testing of an Aerially Deployed Unmanned Aerial System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Andrew

    An investigation into the feasibility of aerial deployed unmanned aerial vehicles was completed. The investigation included the development and flight testing of multiple unmanned aerial systems to investigate the different components of potential aerial deployment missions. The project consisted of two main objectives; the first objective dealt with the development of an airframe capable of surviving aerial deployment from a rocket and then self assembling from its stowed configuration into its flight configuration. The second objective focused on the development of an autopilot capable of performing basic guidance, navigation, and control following aerial deployment. To accomplish these two objectives multiple airframes were developed to verify their completion experimentally. The first portion of the project, investigating the feasibility of surviving an aerial deployment, was completed using a fixed wing glider that following a successful deployment had 52 seconds of controlled flight. Before developing the autopilot in the second phase of the project, the glider was significantly upgraded to fix faults discovered in the glider flight testing and to enhance the system capabilities. Unfortunately to conform to outdoor flight restrictions imposed by the university and the Federal Aviation Administration it was required to switch airframes before flight testing of the new fixed wing platform could begin. As a result, an autopilot was developed for a quadrotor and verified experimentally completely indoors to remain within the limits of governing policies.

  11. AERIAL OF VISITORS INFORMATION CENTER [VIC] & ROCKET GARDEN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    AERIAL OF VISITORS INFORMATION CENTER [VIC] & ROCKET GARDEN KSC-373C-0556.20 116-KSC-373C-556.20, P-01622-B, ARCHIVE-04455 Aerial view of Easter crowds at Visitors Information Center, Kennedy Space Center, Florida.

  12. 59. AERIAL VIEW OF OWYHEE DAM SHOWING RINGGATE SPILLWAY. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. AERIAL VIEW OF OWYHEE DAM SHOWING RING-GATE SPILLWAY. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. Aerial photo by Glade Walker, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Pacific Northwest Region, September 29, 1989. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

  13. Ground cover estimated from aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerbermann, A. H.; Cuellar, J. A.; Wiegand, C. L.

    1976-01-01

    Estimates of per cent ground cover made by ground observers were compared with independent estimates made on the basis of low-altitude (640-1219 m) aerial photographs of the same fields. Standard statistical simple correlation and linear regression analyses revealed a high correlation between the two estimation methods. In crops such as grain, sorghum, corn, and forage sorghum, in which the broadest part of the leaf canopy is near the top of the plant, there was a tendency to overestimate the per cent ground cover from aerial photographs.

  14. Advanced Image Processing of Aerial Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodell, Glenn; Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-ur; Hines, Glenn

    2006-01-01

    Aerial imagery of the Earth is an invaluable tool for the assessment of ground features, especially during times of disaster. Researchers at the NASA Langley Research Center have developed techniques which have proven to be useful for such imagery. Aerial imagery from various sources, including Langley's Boeing 757 Aries aircraft, has been studied extensively. This paper discusses these studies and demonstrates that better-than-observer imagery can be obtained even when visibility is severely compromised. A real-time, multi-spectral experimental system will be described and numerous examples will be shown.

  15. MicroProbe Small Unmanned Aerial System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland, Geoffrey; Miles, Ted

    2012-01-01

    The MicroProbe unmanned aerial system (UAS) concept incorporates twin electric motors mounted on the vehicle wing, thus enabling an aerodynamically and environmentally clean nose area for atmospheric sensors. A payload bay is also incorporated in the fuselage to accommodate remote sensing instruments. A key feature of this concept is lightweight construction combined with low flying speeds to minimize kinetic energy and associated hazards, as well as maximizing spatial resolution. This type of aerial platform is needed for Earth science research and environmental monitoring. There were no vehicles of this type known to exist previously.

  16. Noise from aerial bursts of fireworks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maglieri, D. J.; Henderson, H. R.

    1973-01-01

    A study was made recording the pressure time histories of the aerial bursts of mortars of various sizes launched during an actual fireworks display. The peak overpressure and duration of blast noise as well as the energy spectral density are compared with the characteristics of a blasting cap and of an F-104 aircraft at a Mach number of 1.4 and an altitude of 42,000 ft. Noise levels of the fireworks aerial bursts peaked 15 decibels below levels deemed damaging to hearing.

  17. Metrically preserving the USGS aerial film archive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moe, Donald; Longhenry, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Since 1972, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, has provided fi lm-based products to the public. EROS is home to an archive of 12 million frames of analog photography ranging from 1937 to the present. The archive contains collections from both aerial and satellite platforms including programs such as the National High Altitude Program (NHAP), National Aerial Photography Program (NAPP), U.S. Antarctic Resource Center (USARC), Declass 1(CORONA, ARGON, and LANYARD), Declass 2 (KH-7 and KH-9), and Landsat (1972 – 1992, Landsat 1–5).

  18. Laser Doppler velocimeter aerial spray measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalay, A. D.; Eberle, W. R.; Howle, R. E.; Shrider, K. R.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental research program for measuring the location, spatial extent, and relative concentration of airborne spray clouds generated by agricultural aircraft is described. The measurements were conducted with a ground-based laser Doppler velocimeter. The remote sensing instrumentation, experimental tests, and the results of the flight tests are discussed. The cross section of the aerial spray cloud and the observed location, extent, and relative concentration of the airborne particulates are presented. It is feasible to use a mobile laser Doppler velocimeter to track and monitor the transport and dispersion of aerial spray generated by an agricultural aircraft.

  19. Both anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments are adapted while catching a ball in unstable standing posture.

    PubMed

    Scariot, Vanessa; Rios, Jaqueline L; Claudino, Renato; dos Santos, Eloá C; Angulski, Hanna B B; dos Santos, Marcio J

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze the role of balance exercises on anticipatory (APA) and compensatory (CPA) postural adjustments in different conditions of postural stability. Sixteen subjects were required to catch a ball while standing on rigid floor, trampoline and foam cushion surfaces. Electromyographic activities (EMG) of postural muscles were analyzed during time windows typical for APAs and CPAs. Overall there were a reciprocal activation of the muscles around the ankle and co-activations between ventral and dorsal muscles of the thigh and trunk during the catching a ball task. Compared to the rigid floor, the tibialis anterior activation was greater during the trampoline condition (CPA: p = 0.006) and the soleus muscle inhibition was higher during foam cushion condition (APA: p = 0.001; CPA: p = 0.007). Thigh and trunk muscle activities were similar across the conditions. These results advance the knowledge in postural control during body perturbations standing on unstable surfaces.

  20. The role of central vision in posture: Postural sway adaptations in Stargardt patients.

    PubMed

    Agostini, Valentina; Sbrollini, Agnese; Cavallini, Chanda; Busso, Alessandra; Pignata, Giulia; Knaflitz, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The role of central and peripheral vision in the maintenance of upright stance is debated in literature. Stargardt disease causes visual deficits affecting the central field, but leaving unaltered a patient's peripheral vision. Hence, the study of this rare pathology gives the opportunity to selectively investigate the role of central vision in posture. Postural sway in quiet stance was analyzed in 10 Stargardt patients and 10 control subjects, in three different conditions: (1) eyes closed, (2) eyes open, gazing at a fixed target, and (3) eyes open, tracking a moving target. Stargardt patients outperformed controls in the condition with eyes closed, showing a reduced root mean square (RMS) of the medio-lateral COP displacement, while their performance was not significantly different from controls in the antero-posterior direction. There were no significant differences between patients and controls in open eyes conditions. These results suggest that Stargardt patients adapted to a different visual-somatosensory integration, relying less on vision, especially in the medio-lateral direction. Hence, the central vision seems to affect mostly the medio-lateral direction of postural sway. This finding supports the plausibility of the "functional sensitivity hypothesis", that assigns complementary roles to central and peripheral vision in the control of posture.

  1. Postural Compensation for Unilateral Vestibular Loss

    PubMed Central

    Peterka, Robert J.; Statler, Kennyn D.; Wrisley, Diane M.; Horak, Fay B.

    2011-01-01

    Postural control of upright stance was investigated in well-compensated, unilateral vestibular loss (UVL) subjects compared to age-matched control subjects. The goal was to determine how sensory weighting for postural control in UVL subjects differed from control subjects, and how sensory weighting related to UVL subjects’ functional compensation, as assessed by standardized balance and dizziness questionnaires. Postural control mechanisms were identified using a model-based interpretation of medial–lateral center-of-mass body-sway evoked by support-surface rotational stimuli during eyes-closed stance. The surface-tilt stimuli consisted of continuous pseudorandom rotations presented at four different amplitudes. Parameters of a feedback control model were obtained that accounted for each subject’s sway response to the surface-tilt stimuli. Sensory weighting factors quantified the relative contributions to stance control of vestibular sensory information, signaling body-sway relative to earth-vertical, and proprioceptive information, signaling body-sway relative to the surface. Results showed that UVL subjects made significantly greater use of proprioceptive, and therefore less use of vestibular, orientation information on all tests. There was relatively little overlap in the distributions of sensory weights measured in UVL and control subjects, although UVL subjects varied widely in the amount they could use their remaining vestibular function. Increased reliance on proprioceptive information by UVL subjects was associated with their balance being more disturbed by the surface-tilt perturbations than control subjects, thus indicating a deficiency of balance control even in well-compensated UVL subjects. Furthermore, there was some tendency for UVL subjects who were less able to utilize remaining vestibular information to also indicate worse functional compensation on questionnaires. PMID:21922014

  2. Postural reorganization induced by torso cutaneous covibration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Beom-Chan; Martin, Bernard J; Ho, Allison; Sienko, Kathleen H

    2013-05-01

    Cutaneous information from joints has been attributed proprioceptive properties similar to those of muscle spindles. This study aimed to assess whether vibration-induced changes in torso cutaneous information contribute to whole-body postural reorganization in humans. Ten healthy young adults stood in normal and Romberg stances with six vibrating actuators positioned on the torso in contact with the skin over the left and right external oblique, internal oblique, and erector spinae muscle locations at the L4/L5 vertebrae level. Vibrations around the torso were randomly applied at two locations simultaneously (covibration) or at all locations simultaneously. Kinematic analysis of the body segments indicated that covibration applied to the skin over the internal oblique muscles induced shifts of both the head and torso in the anterior direction (torso flexion) while the hips shifted in the posterior direction (ankle plantar flexion). Conversely, covibration applied to the skin over the erector spinae muscle locations produced opposite effects. However, covibration applied to the skin over the left internal oblique and left erector spinae, the right internal oblique and right erector spinae, or at all locations simultaneously did not induce any significant postural changes. In addition, the center of pressure position as measured by the force plate was unaffected by all covibration conditions tested. These results were independent of stance and suggest an integrated and coordinated reorganization of posture in response to vibration-induced changes in cutaneous information. In addition, combinations of vibrotactile stimuli over multiple locations exhibit directional summation properties in contrast to the individual responses we observed in our previous work.

  3. Posture support improves object individuation in infants.

    PubMed

    Woods, Rebecca J; Wilcox, Teresa

    2013-08-01

    A hierarchical progression in infants' ability to use surface features, such as color, as a basis for object individuation in the first year has been well established (Tremoulet, Leslie, & Hall, 2000; Wilcox, 1999). There is evidence, however, that infants' sensitivity to surface features can be increased through multisensory (i.e., visuohaptic) exploration of objects (Wilcox, Woods, Chapa, & McCurry, 2007). Three studies were conducted to investigate the effect of multisensory experience on infants' sensitivity to pattern information. Experiments 1 and 2 confirmed that 5.5- and 6.5-month-olds do not spontaneously use pattern differences to individuate objects and revealed that 6.5- but not 5.5-month-olds can be primed to attend to pattern differences if allowed multisensory experience with the objects prior to the individuation task. However, the 5.5-month-olds also had greater difficulty maintaining a self-sitting posture during the multisensory priming experience. In Experiment 3, 4.5- and 5.5-month-olds were given full postural support during the multisensory exploration period. In this situation, the 5.5-month-olds successfully individuated the objects, but even with full postural support, 4.5-month-old infants did not use the pattern differences to individuate the objects. These results demonstrate that multisensory priming is effective with infants as young as 5.5 months and extends multisensory priming to another surface feature, pattern. Furthermore, these results indicate that constraints are placed on the multisensory experience by the physical and motor development of the infant.

  4. Posture Support Improves Object Individuation in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Rebecca J.; Wilcox, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    A hierarchical progression in infants’ ability to use surface features, such as color, as a basis for object individuation in the first year has been well established (Tremoulet, Leslie, & Hall, 2001; Wilcox, 1999). There is evidence, however, that infants’ sensitivity to surface features can be increased through multisensory (i.e., visuo-haptic) exploration of objects (Wilcox, Woods, Chapa, & McCurry, 2007). Three studies were conducted to investigate the effect of multisensory experience on infants’ sensitivity to pattern information. Experiments 1 and 2 confirmed that 5.5- and 6.5-month-olds do not spontaneously use pattern differences to individuate objects and revealed that 6.5- but not 5.5-month-olds can be primed to attend to pattern differences if allowed multisensory experience with the objects prior to the individuation task. However, the 5.5-month-olds also had greater difficulty maintaining a self-sitting posture during the multisensory priming experience. In Experiment 3, 4.5- and 5.5-month-olds were given full postural support during the multisensory exploration period. In this situation, the 5.5-month-olds successfully individuated the objects, but even with full postural support, 4.5-month-old infants did not use the pattern differences to individuate the objects. These results demonstrate that multisensory priming is effective with infants as young as 5.5 months and extends multisensory priming to another surface feature, pattern. Furthermore, these results indicate that constraints are placed on the multisensory experience by the physical and motor development of the infant. PMID:23046431

  5. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles DOD’s Acquisition Efforts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles : Hunter System Is Not Appropriate for Navy Fleet Use (GAO/NSIAD-96-2, Dec. 1, 1995). Unmanned Aerial Vehicles : Maneuver...System Schedule Includes Unnecessary Risk (GAO/NSIAD-95-161, Sept. 15, 1995). Unmanned Aerial Vehicles : No More Hunter Systems...Should Be Bought Until Problems are Fixed (GAO/NSIAD-95-52, Mar. 1, 1995). Unmanned Aerial Vehicles : Performance of Short-Range System in Question

  6. Artificial Intelligence Software for Assessing Postural Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieberman, Erez; Forth, Katharine; Paloski, William

    2013-01-01

    A software package reads and analyzes pressure distributions from sensors mounted under a person's feet. Pressure data from sensors mounted in shoes, or in a platform, can be used to provide a description of postural stability (assessing competence to deficiency) and enables the determination of the person's present activity (running, walking, squatting, falling). This package has three parts: a preprocessing algorithm for reading input from pressure sensors; a Hidden Markov Model (HMM), which is used to determine the person's present activity and level of sensing-motor competence; and a suite of graphical algorithms, which allows visual representation of the person's activity and vestibular function over time.

  7. Improving NATO’s Military Posture.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    AD-Hi57 370 IMPROYING NflTO’S MILITARY POSTURE(U) ARMY WAR COLL ti’ CARLISLE BARRACKS PRA 1M DIAZ 22 APR 85 UNCLASSIFIED F/G 15/7 NL I * mfll...DISTRTBU110C, STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. * .-’A 22 APRIL 1985 1 "’r0 * -- 𔃾 . ARMY WAR COLLEGE, CARLISLE...AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS 11. CCONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE M~S ArmOy War College 22 April 1985 CCarlisle Barracks, PA 17013-5050

  8. Postural deformities in congenital nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, G; Postlethwaite, R J; Lendon, M; Houston, I B; Savage, J M

    1981-01-01

    Six successive cases of congenital nephrotic syndrome are described. Each one showed flexion deformities of the knees and hips, widely open anterior and posterior fontanelles, and wide separation of the skull sutures. These abnormalities were present not only in cases in which the renal histology was of the microcystic Finnish type of congenital nephrotic syndrome, but also in those in which the histological picture was one of the variants associated with congenital nephrotic syndrome. It is suggested that such abnormalities are postural deformities, possibly produced by the large placenta. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7332344

  9. System for interactive management of aerial imaging campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wypych, Tom; Kuester, Falko

    We present a system to enable real time management of interchangeable imaging platforms aboard commodity unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to improve interactivity during aerial imaging campaigns. We argue that this improvement in interactivity enables powerful immediate-mode inspection by the ground operator, and implements a more intuitive, flexible, and ultimately useful control interface to aerial imaging systems.

  10. 47 CFR 32.6431 - Aerial wire expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aerial wire expense. 32.6431 Section 32.6431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6431 Aerial wire expense. This account shall include expenses associated with aerial wire....

  11. 47 CFR 32.6431 - Aerial wire expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aerial wire expense. 32.6431 Section 32.6431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6431 Aerial wire expense. This account shall include expenses associated with aerial wire....

  12. 47 CFR 32.6431 - Aerial wire expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aerial wire expense. 32.6431 Section 32.6431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6431 Aerial wire expense. This account shall include expenses associated with aerial wire....

  13. 47 CFR 32.6431 - Aerial wire expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aerial wire expense. 32.6431 Section 32.6431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6431 Aerial wire expense. This account shall include expenses associated with aerial wire....

  14. 47 CFR 32.6431 - Aerial wire expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aerial wire expense. 32.6431 Section 32.6431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6431 Aerial wire expense. This account shall include expenses associated with aerial wire....

  15. Multifunctional aerial display through use of polarization-processing display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Keitaro; Ito, Shusei; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu

    2017-02-01

    We have realized a multifunctional aerial display. An aerial image of a polarization-processing display is formed through aerial imaging by retro-reflection. By changing the polarization modulation patterns, we can switch between a three-layered display and a secure display.

  16. 77 FR 36250 - Information Collection Request; Request for Aerial Photography

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency Information Collection Request; Request for Aerial Photography... FSA Aerial Photography Program. The FSA Aerial Photography Field Office (APFO) uses the information from this form to collect the customer and photography information needed to produce and ship...

  17. Effects of Dyslexia on Postural Control in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, M.; Magnusson, M.; Lush, D.; Gomez, S.; Fransson, P. A.

    2010-01-01

    Dyslexia has been shown to affect postural control. The aim of the present study was to investigate the difference in postural stability measured as torque variance in an adult dyslexic group (n=14, determined using the Adult Dyslexia Checklist (ADCL) and nonsense word repetition test) and an adult non-dyslexic group (n=39) on a firm surface and…

  18. Predictors of Postural Stability in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Objective: As children with ADHD who have more inattention problems are more frequently with fine motor problems, it is not clear whether postural balance problems are associated with different subtypes of ADHD. This study investigates the predictors of postural stability in children with ADHD considering the covariant factors of age, gender, and…

  19. Postural Strategies in Prader-Willi and Down Syndrome Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimolin, Veronica; Galli, Manuela; Grugni, Graziano; Vismara, Luca; Precilios, Helmer; Albertini, Giorgio; Rigoldi, Chiara; Capodaglio, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Patients affected by Down (DS) and Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) are characterised by some common clinical and functional features including gait disorders and reduced postural control. The aim of our study was to quantitatively compare postural control in adult PWS and DS. We studied 12 PWS and 19 DS adult patients matched for age, height, weight…

  20. Oculomotor tasks affect differently postural control in healthy children.

    PubMed

    Bucci, Maria Pia; Ajrezo, Layla; Wiener-Vacher, Sylvette

    2015-11-01

    Eye movements affect postural stability in children. The present study focuses on the effect of different types of eye movements on postural stability in healthy children. Both eye movements and postural stability have been recorded in 51 healthy children from 6.3 to 15.5 years old. Eye movements were recorded binocularly with a video oculography (MobilEBT(®)), and postural stability was measured while child was standing on a force platform (TechnoConcept(®)). Children performed three oculomotor tasks: saccades, pursuits and reading a text silently. We measured the number of saccades made in the three oculomotor tasks, the number of words read, and the surface area, the length and mean velocity of the center of pressure (CoP). According to previous studies, postural control improves with age until 10-12 years. Saccades toward a target as well as during a reading task reduce significantly the CoP displacement and its velocity, while during pursuit eye movements all children increase postural parameters (i.e., the surface area, the length and mean velocity of the CoP). These results suggest the presence of an interaction between the oculomotor control and the postural system. Visual attention to perform saccades (to stationary targets or to words) influences postural stability more than the frequency of saccade triggering does.

  1. Group Rapport: Posture Sharing as a Nonverbal Indicator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFrance, Marianne; Broadbent, Maida

    1976-01-01

    Systematic observation and a questionnaire format were used to investigate the relationship between posture sharing and self-report indications of rapport in a group situation--college seminar classrooms. The greater the amount of mirroring and congruent postures evidenced by students vis-a-vis the teacher, the higher the ratings of involvement.…

  2. Prevalence of Common Postural Disorders Among Academic Dental Staff

    PubMed Central

    Vakili, Leila; Halabchi, Farzin; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Khami, Mohammad Reza; Irandoost, Shahla; Alizadeh, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal disorders are common problems among dentists. These conditions may lead to inappropriate postures and impairment in physical and psychological function. On the other hand, poor postures and inappropriate ergonomic may result in a wide variety of musculoskeletal disorders. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of common postural disorders of the spine and shoulder girdle among the dentists and possible correlations between demographic, anthropometric and occupational characteristics with these abnormal postures. Patients and Methods In a cross-sectional study, 96 dental staff including academic staff, residents and senior students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences was enrolled. Data were collected using a questionnaire and posture assessment tools such as plumb-line, checkerboard and flexible ruler. Data analysis was done with SPSS version 17. Results The prevalence of the forward head posture (FHP), rounded shoulder posture (RSP), scoliosis and hyperlordosis were reported in 85.5%, 68.8%, 18.8% and 17.3% of the participants, respectively. A significant correlation was found between gender and FHP (P = 0.04) and also scoliosis (P = 0.009). On the other hand, a significant correlation was seen between weight and hyperlordosis (P = 0.007). Conclusions Our study revealed a high prevalence of postural disorders especially FHP, RSP and scoliosis among Iranian dental staff. The female dentists were less susceptible to FHP and scoliosis. PMID:27625751

  3. Turning Configural Processing Upside Down: Part and Whole Body Postures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Catherine L.; Stone, Valerie E.; Grubb, Jefferson D.; McGoldrick, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Like faces, body postures are susceptible to an inversion effect in untrained viewers. The inversion effect may be indicative of configural processing, but what kind of configural processing is used for the recognition of body postures must be specified. The information available in the body stimulus was manipulated. The presence and magnitude of…

  4. Disruption of postural readaptation by inertial stimuli following space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, F. O.; Paloski, W. H.; Reschke, M. F.; Igarashi, M.; Guedry, F.; Anderson, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    Postural instability (relative to pre-flight) has been observed in all shuttle astronauts studied upon return from orbital missions. Postural stability was more closely examined in four shuttle astronaut subjects before and after an 8 day orbital mission. Results of the pre- and post-flight postural stability studies were compared with a larger (n = 34) study of astronauts returning from shuttle missions of similar duration. Results from both studies indicated that inadequate vestibular feedback was the most significant sensory deficit contributing to the postural instability observed post flight. For two of the four IML-1 astronauts, post-flight postural instability and rate of recovery toward their earth-normal performance matched the performance of the larger sample. However, post-flight postural control in one returning astronaut was substantially below mean performance. This individual, who was within normal limits with respect to postural control before the mission, indicated that recovery to pre-flight postural stability was also interrupted by a post-flight pitch plane rotation test. A similar, though less extreme departure from the mean recovery trajectory was present in another astronaut following the same post-flight rotation test. The pitch plane rotation stimuli included otolith stimuli in the form of both transient tangential and constant centripetal linear acceleration components. We inferred from these findings that adaptation on orbit and re-adaptation on earth involved a change in sensorimotor integration of vestibular signals most likely from the otolith organs.

  5. THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILD AND HIS POSTURE PATTERNS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DAVIES, EVELYN A.

    A CHILD'S POSTURE PATTERNS MAY LEAD TO AN ADULT'S PHYSICAL HANDICAP. THE MAIN THEME OF THIS BOOK IS TO SERVE AS A GUIDE FOR THE ELEMENTARY TEACHER OR PARENT IN THE DETECTION AND UNDERSTANDING OF DEVIATIONS FROM THE NORMAL POSTURE PATTERNS WHILE THE CHILD IS SITTING, STANDING, OR MOVING ABOUT SO AS TO PREVENT FUTURE HANDICAPPING CONDITIONS.…

  6. Disruption of postural readaptation by inertial stimuli following space flight.

    PubMed

    Black, F O; Paloski, W H; Reschke, M F; Igarashi, M; Guedry, F; Anderson, D J

    1999-01-01

    Postural instability (relative to pre-flight) has been observed in all shuttle astronauts studied upon return from orbital missions. Postural stability was more closely examined in four shuttle astronaut subjects before and after an 8 day orbital mission. Results of the pre- and post-flight postural stability studies were compared with a larger (n = 34) study of astronauts returning from shuttle missions of similar duration. Results from both studies indicated that inadequate vestibular feedback was the most significant sensory deficit contributing to the postural instability observed post flight. For two of the four IML-1 astronauts, post-flight postural instability and rate of recovery toward their earth-normal performance matched the performance of the larger sample. However, post-flight postural control in one returning astronaut was substantially below mean performance. This individual, who was within normal limits with respect to postural control before the mission, indicated that recovery to pre-flight postural stability was also interrupted by a post-flight pitch plane rotation test. A similar, though less extreme departure from the mean recovery trajectory was present in another astronaut following the same post-flight rotation test. The pitch plane rotation stimuli included otolith stimuli in the form of both transient tangential and constant centripetal linear acceleration components. We inferred from these findings that adaptation on orbit and re-adaptation on earth involved a change in sensorimotor integration of vestibular signals most likely from the otolith organs.

  7. Static Postural Stability Is Normal in Dyslexic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Brian; And Others

    1985-01-01

    An experiment on 15 dyslexic and 23 carefully matched control subjects (10- to 12-year-old males), examining their ability to maintain standing posture with eyes open and closed and with standard and tandem foot placement, revealed no differences under any condition tested and no differences in use of visual information to maintain their posture.…

  8. Postural responses to unexpected perturbations of balance during reaching

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Hari; Leonard, Julia A.; Ting, Lena H.; Stapley, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    To study the interaction between feedforward and feedback modes of postural control, we investigated postural responses during unexpected perturbations of the support surface that occurred during forward reaching in a standing position. We examined postural responses in lower limb muscles of 9 human subjects. Baseline measures were obtained when subjects executed reaching movements to a target placed in front of them (R condition) and during postural responses to forward and backward support-surface perturbations (no reaching, P condition) during quiet stance. Perturbations were also given at different delays after the onset of reaching movements (RP conditions) as well as with the arm extended in the direction of the target, but not reaching (P/AE condition). Results showed that during perturbations to reaching (RP), the initial automatic postural response, occurring around 100 ms after the onset of perturbations, was relatively unchanged in latency or amplitude compared to control conditions (P and P/AE). However, longer latency postural responses were modulated to aid in the reaching movements during forward perturbations but not during backward perturbations. Our results suggest that the nervous system prioritizes the maintenance of a stable postural base during reaching, and that later components of the postural responses can be modulated to ensure the performance of the voluntary task. PMID:20035321

  9. Cost-Based Analysis of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles/Unmanned Aerial Systems in Filling the Role of Logistical Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    UAVs in the U .S . Department of D efense (D OD) inv entory as w ell as the traditional aircraft ctmently used for logistical pwposes. Then, using a...14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF Cost-benefit, Cost-based, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Unmanned Aerial Systems, UAV , UAS, PAGES Logistics, Supp01t...thesis conducts a comparative cost analysis for using unmanned aerial vehicles ( UAVs )/unmanned aerial systems (UASs) for logistical resupply purposes

  10. Selection and control of limb posture for stability.

    PubMed

    Franklin, David W; Selen, Luc P J; Franklin, Sae; Wolpert, Daniel M

    2013-01-01

    Impedance control can be used to stabilize the limb against both instability and unpredictable perturbations. Limb posture influences motor noise, energy usage and limb impedance as well as their interaction. Here we examine whether subjects use limb posture as part of a mechanism to regulate limb stability. Subjects performed stabilization tasks while attached to a two dimensional robotic manipulandum which generated a virtual environment. Subjects were instructed that they could perform the stabilization task anywhere in the workspace, while the chosen postures were tracked as subjects repeated the task. In order to investigate the mechanisms behind the chosen limb postures, simulations of the neuro-mechanical system were performed. The results indicate that posture selection is performed to provide energy efficiency in the presence of force variability.

  11. Ergonomic intervention for improving work postures during notebook computer operation.

    PubMed

    Jamjumrus, Nuchrawee; Nanthavanij, Suebsak

    2008-06-01

    This paper discusses the application of analytical algorithms to determine necessary adjustments for operating notebook computers (NBCs) and workstations so that NBC users can assume correct work postures during NBC operation. Twenty-two NBC users (eleven males and eleven females) were asked to operate their NBCs according to their normal work practice. Photographs of their work postures were taken and analyzed using the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) technique. The algorithms were then employed to determine recommended adjustments for their NBCs and workstations. After implementing the necessary adjustments, the NBC users were then re-seated at their workstations, and photographs of their work postures were re-taken, to perform the posture analysis. The results show that the NBC users' work postures are improved when their NBCs and workstations are adjusted according to the recommendations. The effectiveness of ergonomic intervention is verified both visually and objectively.

  12. Posture and performance: sitting vs. standing for security screening.

    PubMed

    Drury, C G; Hsiao, Y L; Joseph, C; Joshi, S; Lapp, J; Pennathur, P R

    2008-03-01

    A classification of the literature on the effects of workplace posture on performance of different mental tasks showed few consistent patterns. A parallel classification of the complementary effect of performance on postural variables gave similar results. Because of a lack of data for signal detection tasks, an experiment was performed using 12 experienced security operators performing an X-ray baggage-screening task with three different workplace arrangements. The current workplace, sitting on a high chair viewing a screen placed on top of the X-ray machine, was compared to a standing workplace and a conventional desk-sitting workplace. No performance effects of workplace posture were found, although the experiment was able to measure performance effects of learning and body part discomfort effects of workplace posture. There are implications for the classification of posture and performance and for the justification of ergonomics improvements based on performance increases.

  13. Barnacle geese achieve significant energetic savings by changing posture.

    PubMed

    Tickle, Peter G; Nudds, Robert L; Codd, Jonathan R

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the resting metabolic rate in barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis) and provide evidence for the significant energetic effect of posture. Under laboratory conditions flow-through respirometry together with synchronous recording of behaviour enabled a calculation of how metabolic rate varies with posture. Our principal finding is that standing bipedally incurs a 25% increase in metabolic rate compared to birds sitting on the ground. In addition to the expected decrease in energy consumption of hindlimb postural muscles when sitting, we hypothesise that a change in breathing mechanics represents one potential mechanism for at least part of the observed difference in energetic cost. Due to the significant effect of posture, future studies of resting metabolic rates need to take into account and/or report differences in posture.

  14. A TOOL FOR PLANNING AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    abstract The U.S. EPAs Pacific Coastal Ecology Branch has developed a tool in the form of an Excel. spreadsheet that facilitates planning aerial photography missions. The spreadsheet accepts various input parameters such as desired photo-scale and boundary coordinates of the stud...

  15. Aerial Infrared Photos for Citrus Growers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blazquez, C. H.; Horn, F. W. J.

    1982-01-01

    Handbook advises on benefits and methods of aerial photography with color infrared film. Interpretation of photographs is discussed in detail. Necessary equipment for interpretation is described--light table, magnifying lenses, and microfiche viewers, for example. Advice is given on rating tree condition; identifying effects of diseases, insects, and nematodes; and evaluating effects of soil, water, and weather.

  16. Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and GPS Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, B.

    1995-01-01

    It is proposed that a small fleet of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) be used over a period of years to monitor the rise of pressure surfaces caused by the hypothesized rise in average temperature of the troposphere due to global warming. Global Positioning Satellite System (GPS) receivers would be used for the precise tracking required.

  17. Converting aerial imagery to application maps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the last couple of years in Agricultural Aviation and at the 2014 and 2015 NAAA conventions, we have written about and presented both single-camera and two-camera imaging systems for use on agricultural aircraft. Many aerial applicators have shown a great deal of interest in the imaging systems...

  18. The Art and Science of Aerial Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kegel, Susan

    2006-01-01

    The author is always looking for ways to see connections and to adapt experiences across different subjects. Combining art with other disciplines helps keep students engaged, even the really analytical and verbal learners. Aerial perspective is an art technique, a scientific principle, and a vehicle for introducing Chinese painting and…

  19. Sea Ice Mapping using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solbø, S.; Storvold, R.

    2011-12-01

    Mapping of sea ice extent and sea ice features is an important task in climate research. Since the arctic coastal and oceanic areas have a high probability of cloud coverage, aerial platforms are superior to satellite measurements for high-resolution optical measurements. However, routine observations of sea ice conditions present a variety of problems using conventional piloted aircrafts. Specially, the availability of suitable aircrafts for lease does not cover the demand in major parts of the arctic. With the recent advances in unmanned aerial systems (UAS), there is a high possibility of establishing routine, cost effective aerial observations of sea ice conditions in the near future. Unmanned aerial systems can carry a wide variety of sensors useful for characterizing sea-ice features. For instance, the CryoWing UAS, a system initially designed for measurements of the cryosphere, can be equipped with digital cameras, surface thermometers and laser altimeters for measuring freeboard of ice flows. In this work we will present results from recent CryoWing sea ice flights on Svalbard, Norway. The emphasis will be on data processing for stitching together images acquired with the non-stabilized camera payload, to form high-resolution mosaics covering large spatial areas. These data are being employed to map ice conditions; including ice and lead features and melt ponds. These high-resolution mosaics are also well suited for sea-ice mechanics, classification studies and for validation of satellite sea-ice products.

  20. Aerial Scene Recognition using Efficient Sparse Representation

    SciTech Connect

    Cheriyadat, Anil M

    2012-01-01

    Advanced scene recognition systems for processing large volumes of high-resolution aerial image data are in great demand today. However, automated scene recognition remains a challenging problem. Efficient encoding and representation of spatial and structural patterns in the imagery are key in developing automated scene recognition algorithms. We describe an image representation approach that uses simple and computationally efficient sparse code computation to generate accurate features capable of producing excellent classification performance using linear SVM kernels. Our method exploits unlabeled low-level image feature measurements to learn a set of basis vectors. We project the low-level features onto the basis vectors and use simple soft threshold activation function to derive the sparse features. The proposed technique generates sparse features at a significantly lower computational cost than other methods~\\cite{Yang10, newsam11}, yet it produces comparable or better classification accuracy. We apply our technique to high-resolution aerial image datasets to quantify the aerial scene classification performance. We demonstrate that the dense feature extraction and representation methods are highly effective for automatic large-facility detection on wide area high-resolution aerial imagery.

  1. "A" Is for Aerial Maps and Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Reese H.; Delahunty, Tina

    2007-01-01

    The technology of satellite imagery and remote sensing adds a new dimension to teaching and learning about maps with elementary school children. Just a click of the mouse brings into view some images of the world that could only be imagined a generation ago. Close-up aerial pictures of the school and neighborhood quickly catch the interest of…

  2. 47 CFR 32.2421 - Aerial cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the original cost of single or paired conductor cable, wire and other associated material used in... cable or aerial wire as well as the cost of other material used in construction of such plant... cost of optical fiber cable and other associated material used in constructing a physical path for...

  3. [Orthostatic postural tachycardia: study of 8 patients].

    PubMed

    Santiago Pérez, S; Ferrer Gila, T

    1998-02-07

    The occurrence of syncopal episodes is a very frequent event. In the absence of a structural systemic or cardiac disease, syncope is resulting of an anomalous cardiovascular response neurally mediated by the autonomic nervous system. It is the final common manifestation of different abnormal mechanisms and is frequently precipitated by orthostatism. Orthostatic intolerance syndrome refers to the development of symptoms during the upright posture that disappear in supine position. Tachycardia may be one of the clinical features of the syndrome. During orthostatic stress a hyperadrenergic response, with maintained increment of heart rate and associated symptoms, is developed. Changes in blood pressure may be diverse and in some cases hypotension and syncope occurs. Eight patients with symptoms of orthostatic intolerance who underwent autonomic evaluation and were diagnosed from postural tachycardia are presented. In all the cases an abnormal increment of heart rate during tilting was found and it was associated to hyperadrenergic symptoms. Evidence of restricted sympathetic impairment was observed in six cases with distal reduction of sudomotor function and abnormal adrenergic response during Valsalva manoeuvre. Symptoms disappeared or mostly subsided with pharmacological (amitriptyline in one case, phenobarbital in another one and non-cardioselective beta-blockers in six patients) and non-pharmacological treatment. In further examinations heart rate and blood pressure were normal.

  4. Emotion expression in body action and posture.

    PubMed

    Dael, Nele; Mortillaro, Marcello; Scherer, Klaus R

    2012-10-01

    Emotion communication research strongly focuses on the face and voice as expressive modalities, leaving the rest of the body relatively understudied. Contrary to the early assumption that body movement only indicates emotional intensity, recent studies have shown that body movement and posture also conveys emotion specific information. However, a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms is hampered by a lack of production studies informed by a theoretical framework. In this research we adopted the Body Action and Posture (BAP) coding system to examine the types and patterns of body movement that are employed by 10 professional actors to portray a set of 12 emotions. We investigated to what extent these expression patterns support explicit or implicit predictions from basic emotion theory, bidimensional theory, and componential appraisal theory. The overall results showed partial support for the different theoretical approaches. They revealed that several patterns of body movement systematically occur in portrayals of specific emotions, allowing emotion differentiation. Although a few emotions were prototypically expressed by one particular pattern, most emotions were variably expressed by multiple patterns, many of which can be explained as reflecting functional components of emotion such as modes of appraisal and action readiness. It is concluded that further work in this largely underdeveloped area should be guided by an appropriate theoretical framework to allow a more systematic design of experiments and clear hypothesis testing.

  5. Artificial balancer - supporting device for postural reflex.

    PubMed

    Wojtara, Tytus; Sasaki, Makoto; Konosu, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Masashi; Shimoda, Shingo; Alnajjar, Fady; Kimura, Hidenori

    2012-02-01

    The evolutionarily novel ability to keep ones body upright while standing or walking, the human balance, deteriorates in old age or can be compromised after accidents or brain surgeries. With the aged society, age related balance problems are on the rise. Persons with balance problems are more likely to fall during their everyday life routines. Especially in elderly, falls can lead to bone fractures making the patient bedridden, weakening the body and making it more prone to other diseases. Health care expenses for a fall patient are often very high. There is a great deal of research being done on exoskeletons and power assists. However, these technologies concentrate mainly on the amplifications of human muscle power while balance has to be provided by the human themself. Our research has been focused on supporting human balance in harmony with the human's own posture control mechanisms such as postural reflexes. This paper proposes an artificial balancer that supports human balance through acceleration of a flywheel attached to the body. Appropriate correcting torques are generated through our device based on the measurements of body deflections. We have carried out experiments with test persons standing on a platform subject to lateral perturbations and ambulatory experiments while walking on a balance beam. These experiments have demonstrated the effectiveness of our device in supporting balance and the possibility of enhancing balance-keeping capability in human beings through the application of external torque.

  6. Automated assessment of postural stability system.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Alessandro; Ward, Christian R; Glass, Stephen M; Tucker, Carole; Obeid, Iyad

    2016-08-01

    The Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) is one of the most commonly used clinical tests to evaluate static postural stability deficits resulting from traumatic brain events and musculoskeletal injury. This test requires a trained operator to visually assess balance and give the subject a performance score based on the number of balance "errors" they committed. Despite being regularly used in several real-world situations, the BESS test is scored by clinician observation and is therefore (a) potentially susceptible to biased and inaccurate test scores and (b) cannot be administered in the absence of a trained provider. The purpose of this research is to develop, calibrate and field test a computerized version of the BESS test using low-cost commodity motion tracking technology. This `Automated Assessment of Postural Stability' (AAPS) system will quantify balance control in field conditions. This research goal is to overcome the main limitations of both the commercially available motion capture systems and the standard BESS test. The AAPS system has been designed to be operated by a minimally trained user and it requires little set-up time with no sensor calibration necessary. These features make the proposed automated system a valuable balance assessment tool to be utilized in the field.

  7. Viscoelastic properties of laryngeal posturing muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alipour, Fariborz; Hunter, Eric; Titze, Ingo

    2003-10-01

    Viscoelastic properties of canine laryngeal muscles were measured in a series of in vitro experiments. Laryngeal posturing that controls vocal fold length and adduction/abduction is an essential component of the voice production. The dynamics of posturing depends on the viscoelastic and physiological properties of the laryngeal muscles. The time-dependent and nonlinear behaviors of these tissues are also crucial in the voice production and pitch control theories. The lack of information on some of these muscles such as posterior cricoarytenoid muscle (PCA), lateral cricoarytenoid muscle (LCA), and intraarytenoid muscle (IA) was the major incentive for this study. Samples of PCA and LCA muscles were made from canine larynges and mounted on a dual-servo system (Ergometer) as described in our previous works. Two sets of experiments were conducted on each muscle, a 1-Hz stretch and release experiment that provides stress-strain data and a stress relaxation test. Data from these muscles were fitted to viscoelastic models and Young's modulus and viscoelastic constants are obtained for each muscle. Preliminary data indicates that elastics properties of these muscles are similar to those of thyroarytenoid and cricothyroid muscles. The relaxation response of these muscles also shows some similarity to other laryngeal muscles in terms of time constants.

  8. Head posture in obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Solow, B; Ovesen, J; Nielsen, P W; Wildschiødtz, G; Tallgren, A

    1993-04-01

    In growing subjects, obstruction of the upper airway may lead to excessive vertical facial development. According to the soft-tissue stretching hypothesis (Solow and Kreiborg, 1977) this could be due to an increased cranio-cervical angulation triggered by the airway obstruction. The present study aimed to examine the effect of airway obstruction on cranio-cervical posture in a sample of adult patients with severe obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Lateral cephalometric radiographs taken in the natural head position (mirror position) were obtained from 50 male patients aged 28-70 with polysomnographic diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnoea. The Apnoea Index ranged from 21 to 98 episodes per hour with a mean of 54.6. Control samples were available from previous cephalometric studies of head posture in five samples of healthy subjects and one sample of congenitally blind subjects. The average cranio-cervical angle, NSL/OPT, was found to be extremely large (mean 104.1, SD 9.1) exceeding the average values in the control samples by 1-2 standard deviations (P < 0.001). It is suggested that the large cranio-cervical angle in OSA patients is a physiological adaptation aiming to maintain airway adequacy while the head, and thus the visual axis, is kept in its natural relationship to the true vertical. The findings thus provide evidence for the hypothesis that upper airway obstruction may trigger an increase in the cranio-cervical angulation.

  9. Postural Tachycardia Syndrome: Beyond Orthostatic Intolerance.

    PubMed

    Garland, Emily M; Celedonio, Jorge E; Raj, Satish R

    2015-09-01

    Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a form of chronic orthostatic intolerance for which the hallmark physiological trait is an excessive increase in heart rate with assumption of upright posture. The orthostatic tachycardia occurs in the absence of orthostatic hypotension and is associated with a >6-month history of symptoms that are relieved by recumbence. The heart rate abnormality and orthostatic symptoms should not be caused by medications that impair autonomic regulation or by debilitating disorders that can cause tachycardia. POTS is a "final common pathway" for a number of overlapping pathophysiologies, including an autonomic neuropathy in the lower body, hypovolemia, elevated sympathetic tone, mast cell activation, deconditioning, and autoantibodies. Not only may patients be affected by more than one of these pathophysiologies but also the phenotype of POTS has similarities to a number of other disorders, e.g., chronic fatigue syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, vasovagal syncope, and inappropriate sinus tachycardia. POTS can be treated with a combination of non-pharmacological approaches, a structured exercise training program, and often some pharmacological support.

  10. Object and activity detection from aerial video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Se, Stephen; Shi, Feng; Liu, Xin; Ghazel, Mohsen

    2015-05-01

    Aerial video surveillance has advanced significantly in recent years, as inexpensive high-quality video cameras and airborne platforms are becoming more readily available. Video has become an indispensable part of military operations and is now becoming increasingly valuable in the civil and paramilitary sectors. Such surveillance capabilities are useful for battlefield intelligence and reconnaissance as well as monitoring major events, border control and critical infrastructure. However, monitoring this growing flood of video data requires significant effort from increasingly large numbers of video analysts. We have developed a suite of aerial video exploitation tools that can alleviate mundane monitoring from the analysts, by detecting and alerting objects and activities that require analysts' attention. These tools can be used for both tactical applications and post-mission analytics so that the video data can be exploited more efficiently and timely. A feature-based approach and a pixel-based approach have been developed for Video Moving Target Indicator (VMTI) to detect moving objects at real-time in aerial video. Such moving objects can then be classified by a person detector algorithm which was trained with representative aerial data. We have also developed an activity detection tool that can detect activities of interests in aerial video, such as person-vehicle interaction. We have implemented a flexible framework so that new processing modules can be added easily. The Graphical User Interface (GUI) allows the user to configure the processing pipeline at run-time to evaluate different algorithms and parameters. Promising experimental results have been obtained using these tools and an evaluation has been carried out to characterize their performance.

  11. Effect of Seated Trunk Posture on Eye Blink Startle and Subjective Experience: Comparing Flexion, Neutral Upright Posture, and Extension of Spine

    PubMed Central

    Ceunen, Erik; Zaman, Jonas; Vlaeyen, Johan W. S.; Dankaerts, Wim; Van Diest, Ilse

    2014-01-01

    Postures are known to be able to affect emotion and motivation. Much less is known about whether (affective) modulation of eye blink startle occurs following specific postures. The objective of the current study was to explore this. Participants in the present study were requested to assume three different sitting postures: with the spine flexed (slouched), neutral upright, and extended. Each posture was assumed for four minutes, and was followed by the administration of brief self-report questionnaires before proceeding to the next posture. The same series of postures and measures were repeated prior to ending the experiment. Results indicate that, relative to the other postures, the extended sitting posture was associated with an increased startle, was more unpleasant, arousing, had smaller levels of dominance, induced more discomfort, and was perceived as more difficult. The upright and flexed sitting postures differed in the level of self-reported positive affect, but not in eye blink startle amplitudes. PMID:24516664

  12. Trunk postures and peak and cumulative low back kinetics during upright posture sheep shearing.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Diane E; Laughton, Carla; Carman, Allan; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Callaghan, Jack P

    2009-12-01

    Sheep shearing is the most demanding occupation in the wool harvesting industry and is known to have a high prevalence of low back pain. While use of a commercially available trunk harness reduces load on the low back, the extreme trunk flexion associated with shearing still remains. A novel, upright posture shearing technique has been designed to allow a more neutral spine posture. This study assessed this upright technique and found significant reductions in both trunk flexion and cumulative low back loading when compared to either the traditional method or the use of the trunk harness. Moments about the shoulder tended to be higher while using the upright shearing technique and further investigation of shoulder kinetics will be required to assess whether this creates injury risk to the upper extremity. Despite increased shoulder moments, the reduction in flexion and cumulative loading with the use of the upright technique has the potential to reduce risk of low back pain among shearers.

  13. Hemodynamic response to the upright posture.

    PubMed

    Smith, J J; Porth, C M; Erickson, M

    1994-05-01

    The authors' objective was to review previous studies of immediate (first 30 seconds) and stabilized (30 seconds to 20 minutes) hemodynamic responses of healthy adults to the head-up posture, with particular reference to alteration of such responses in the elderly and the usefulness of such data in the diagnosis of orthostatic hypotension. The immediate response in healthy young adults is characterized by a prompt rise in heart rate, which peaks at about 8 to 15 seconds and then tapers; the arterial pressure and total vascular resistance decrease sharply at 5 to 10 seconds, followed by a rapid rebound and overshoot. Over the first 30 seconds there is a steady parallel decline of thoracic blood volume and stroke volume; there is also an initial surge of cardiac output followed by a steady decrease. During the stabilized response (30 seconds to 20 minutes), the hemodynamic variables are relatively steady, showing average increases in heart rate of about 15 to 30%, in diastolic pressure of 10 to 15%, and in total vascular resistance of 30 to 40%; during the 5th to 20th minutes there are also decreases in thoracic blood volume averaging about 25 to 30%, in cardiac output 15 to 30%, and in pulse pressure about 5 to 10%. It is evident that in normal human subjects, assumption of the upright posture results in profound hemodynamic changes, most of them occurring during the first 30 seconds. In elderly subjects (aged 60-69 years), there are, in the upright posture, lesser increments of heart rate and diastolic pressure, but no significant differences from younger age groups in the response of thoracic blood volume, cardiac output or total vascular resistance. However, beginning at about age 75, there is an increasing incidence of orthostatic hypotension, which averages about 14 to 20% at age 75 and older. The tendency toward orthostatic hypotension in the elderly is due (1) to the structural and functional changes in the circulation itself, (2) to a decline in autonomic

  14. Sensorimotor integration in human postural control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    It is generally accepted that human bipedal upright stance is achieved by feedback mechanisms that generate an appropriate corrective torque based on body-sway motion detected primarily by visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive sensory systems. Because orientation information from the various senses is not always available (eyes closed) or accurate (compliant support surface), the postural control system must somehow adjust to maintain stance in a wide variety of environmental conditions. This is the sensorimotor integration problem that we investigated by evoking anterior-posterior (AP) body sway using pseudorandom rotation of the visual surround and/or support surface (amplitudes 0.5-8 degrees ) in both normal subjects and subjects with severe bilateral vestibular loss (VL). AP rotation of body center-of-mass (COM) was measured in response to six conditions offering different combinations of available sensory information. Stimulus-response data were analyzed using spectral analysis to compute transfer functions and coherence functions over a frequency range from 0.017 to 2.23 Hz. Stimulus-response data were quite linear for any given condition and amplitude. However, overall behavior in normal subjects was nonlinear because gain decreased and phase functions sometimes changed with increasing stimulus amplitude. "Sensory channel reweighting" could account for this nonlinear behavior with subjects showing increasing reliance on vestibular cues as stimulus amplitudes increased. VL subjects could not perform this reweighting, and their stimulus-response behavior remained quite linear. Transfer function curve fits based on a simple feedback control model provided estimates of postural stiffness, damping, and feedback time delay. There were only small changes in these parameters with increasing visual stimulus amplitude. However, stiffness increased as much as 60% with increasing support surface amplitude. To maintain postural stability and avoid resonant behavior, an

  15. Sensorimotor integration in human postural control.

    PubMed

    Peterka, R J

    2002-09-01

    It is generally accepted that human bipedal upright stance is achieved by feedback mechanisms that generate an appropriate corrective torque based on body-sway motion detected primarily by visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive sensory systems. Because orientation information from the various senses is not always available (eyes closed) or accurate (compliant support surface), the postural control system must somehow adjust to maintain stance in a wide variety of environmental conditions. This is the sensorimotor integration problem that we investigated by evoking anterior-posterior (AP) body sway using pseudorandom rotation of the visual surround and/or support surface (amplitudes 0.5-8 degrees ) in both normal subjects and subjects with severe bilateral vestibular loss (VL). AP rotation of body center-of-mass (COM) was measured in response to six conditions offering different combinations of available sensory information. Stimulus-response data were analyzed using spectral analysis to compute transfer functions and coherence functions over a frequency range from 0.017 to 2.23 Hz. Stimulus-response data were quite linear for any given condition and amplitude. However, overall behavior in normal subjects was nonlinear because gain decreased and phase functions sometimes changed with increasing stimulus amplitude. "Sensory channel reweighting" could account for this nonlinear behavior with subjects showing increasing reliance on vestibular cues as stimulus amplitudes increased. VL subjects could not perform this reweighting, and their stimulus-response behavior remained quite linear. Transfer function curve fits based on a simple feedback control model provided estimates of postural stiffness, damping, and feedback time delay. There were only small changes in these parameters with increasing visual stimulus amplitude. However, stiffness increased as much as 60% with increasing support surface amplitude. To maintain postural stability and avoid resonant behavior, an

  16. Chronic Low Quality Sleep Impairs Postural Control in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Bruno da Silva B.; Abranches, Isabela Lopes Laguardia; Abrantes, Ana Flávia

    2016-01-01

    The lack of sleep, both in quality and quantity, is an increasing problem in modern society, often related to workload and stress. A number of studies have addressed the effects of acute (total) sleep deprivation on postural control. However, up to date, the effects of chronic sleep deficits, either in quantity or quality, have not been analyzed. Thirty healthy adults participated in the study that consisted of registering activity with a wrist actigraph for more than a week before performing a series of postural control tests. Sleep and circadian rhythm variables were correlated and the sum of activity of the least active 5-h period, L5, a rhythm variable, obtained the greater coefficient value with sleep quality variables (wake after sleep onset WASO and efficiency sleep). Cluster analysis was performed to classify subjects into two groups based on L5 (low and high). The balance tests scores used to asses postural control were measured using Biodex Balance System and were compared between the two groups with different sleep quality. The postural tests were divided into dynamic (platform tilt with eyes open, closed and cursor) and static (clinical test of sensory integration). The results showed that during the tests with eyes closed, the group with worse sleep quality had also worse postural control performance. Lack of vision impairs postural balance more deeply in subjects with chronic sleep inefficiency. Chronic poor sleep quality impairs postural control similarly to total sleep deprivation. PMID:27732604

  17. Postural perturbations: new insights for treatment of balance disorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horak, F. B.; Henry, S. M.; Shumway-Cook, A.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    This article reviews the neural control of posture as understood through studies of automatic responses to mechanical perturbations. Recent studies of responses to postural perturbations have provided a new view of how postural stability is controlled, and this view has profound implications for physical therapy practice. We discuss the implications for rehabilitation of balance disorders and demonstrate how an understanding of the specific systems underlying postural control can help to focus and enrich our therapeutic approaches. By understanding the basic systems underlying control of balance, such as strategy selection, rapid latencies, coordinated temporal spatial patterns, force control, and context-specific adaptations, therapists can focus their treatment on each patient's specific impairments. Research on postural responses to surface translations has shown that balance is not based on a fixed set of equilibrium reflexes but on a flexible, functional motor skill that can adapt with training and experience. More research is needed to determine the extent to which quantification of automatic postural responses has practical implications for predicting falls in patients with constraints in their postural control system.

  18. Postural orientation in microgravity depends on straightening up movement performed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaugoyeau, Marianne; Assaiante, Christine

    2009-08-01

    Whether the vertical body orientation depends on the initial posture and/or the type of straightening up movement is the main question raised in this paper. Another objective was to specify the compensatory role of visual input while adopting an erected posture during microgravity. The final body orientation was analysed in microgravity during parabolic flights. After either (1) straightening up movement from a crouching or (2) a sitting posture, with and without vision. The main results are the following: (1) a vertical erected final posture is correctly achieved after sit to stand movement, whereas all subjects were tilted forward after straightening up from a crouching posture and (2) vision may contribute to correct final posture. These results suggest the existence of a re-weighting of the remaining sensory information, visual information, contact cutaneous cues and proprioceptive information under microgravity condition. We can put forward the alternative hypothesis that the control of body orientation under microgravity condition may also be achieved on the basis of a postural body scheme, that seems to be dependant on the type of movement and/ or the initial position of the whole body.

  19. Chronic Low Quality Sleep Impairs Postural Control in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Fabianne; Gonçalves, Bruno da Silva B; Abranches, Isabela Lopes Laguardia; Abrantes, Ana Flávia; Forner-Cordero, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    The lack of sleep, both in quality and quantity, is an increasing problem in modern society, often related to workload and stress. A number of studies have addressed the effects of acute (total) sleep deprivation on postural control. However, up to date, the effects of chronic sleep deficits, either in quantity or quality, have not been analyzed. Thirty healthy adults participated in the study that consisted of registering activity with a wrist actigraph for more than a week before performing a series of postural control tests. Sleep and circadian rhythm variables were correlated and the sum of activity of the least active 5-h period, L5, a rhythm variable, obtained the greater coefficient value with sleep quality variables (wake after sleep onset WASO and efficiency sleep). Cluster analysis was performed to classify subjects into two groups based on L5 (low and high). The balance tests scores used to asses postural control were measured using Biodex Balance System and were compared between the two groups with different sleep quality. The postural tests were divided into dynamic (platform tilt with eyes open, closed and cursor) and static (clinical test of sensory integration). The results showed that during the tests with eyes closed, the group with worse sleep quality had also worse postural control performance. Lack of vision impairs postural balance more deeply in subjects with chronic sleep inefficiency. Chronic poor sleep quality impairs postural control similarly to total sleep deprivation.

  20. Global Body Posture Evaluation in Patients with Temporomandibular Joint Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Eliza Tiemi; Akashi, Paula Marie Hanai; de Camargo Neves Sacco, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To identify the relationship between anterior disc displacement and global posture (plantar arches, lower limbs, shoulder and pelvic girdle, vertebral spine, head and mandibles). Common signs and symptoms of anterior disc displacement were also identified. INTRODUCTION: Global posture deviations cause body adaptation and realignment, which may interfere with the organization and function of the temporomandibular joint. METHODS : Global posture evaluation was performed in a group of 10 female patients (20 to 30 years of age) with temporomandibular joint disc displacement and in a control group of 16 healthy female volunteers matched for age, weight and height. Anterior disc displacement signs, symptoms and the presence of parafunctional habits were also identified through interview. RESULTS: Patients with disc displacement showed a higher incidence of pain in the temporomandibular joint area, but there were no differences in parafunctional habits between the groups. In the disc displacement group, postural deviations were found in the pelvis (posterior rotation), lumbar spine (hyperlordosis), thoracic spine (rectification), head (deviation to the right) and mandibles (deviation to the left with open mouth). There were no differences in the longitudinal plantar arches between the groups. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest a close relationship between body posture and temporomandibular disorder, though it is not possible to determine whether postural deviations are the cause or the result of the disorder. Hence, postural evaluation could be an important component in the overall approach to providing accurate prevention and treatment in the management of patients with temporomandibular disorder. PMID:19142549

  1. Postural ability reflects the athletic skill level of surfers.

    PubMed

    Paillard, Thierry; Margnes, Eric; Portet, Mathieu; Breucq, Arnaud

    2011-08-01

    This work analyses surfers' postural control and their use of visual information in static (stable) and dynamic (unstable) postures according to their level of competition. Two groups of healthy surfers were investigated: a group of local level surfers (LOC) (n = 8) and a group of national/international level surfers (NIN) (n = 9). Posture was assessed by measuring the centre of foot pressure with a force platform for 50 s with stable support and for 25 s with unstable support (sagittal or frontal plane). The tests were completed with the eyes open (the subjects looked at a fixed level target at a distance of 2 m) and closed (they kept their gaze in a straight-ahead direction). Results showed that the contribution of vision in postural maintenance, with unstable support was less important in the NIN surfers than in the LOC surfers and that the NIN surfers had better postural control than the LOC surfers. Firstly, the results suggest that expert surfers could shift the sensorimotor dominance from vision to proprioception for postural maintenance. Secondly, there is a relationship between the postural ability and the competition level of surfers. These observations are likely to induce new prospects of training for surfers.

  2. Directional specificity of postural threat on anticipatory postural adjustments during lateral leg raising.

    PubMed

    Gendre, Manon; Yiou, Eric; Gélat, Thierry; Honeine, Jean-Louis; Deroche, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    This study explored the directional specificity of fear of falling (FoF) effects on the stabilizing function of anticipatory postural adjustments (APA). Participants (N = 71) performed a series of lateral leg raises from an elevated surface in three conditions: in the "Control condition", participants stood at the middle of the surface; in the two test conditions, participants were positioned at the lateral edge of the surface so that the shift of the whole-body centre-of-mass during APA for leg raising was directed towards the edge ("Approach condition") or was directed away from the edge ("Avoidance condition"). Results showed that the amplitude of APA was lower in the "Approach condition" than in the "Control condition" (p < .01); this reduction was compensated for by an increase in APA duration (p < .05), so that both postural stability and motor performance (in terms of peak leg velocity, final leg posture and movement duration) remained unchanged. These changes in APA parameters were not present in the "Avoidance condition". Participants further self-reported a greater FoF (p < .001) and a lower ability to avoid a fall (p < .001) in the "Approach condition" (but not in the "Avoidance condition") than in the "Control condition". The results of this study show that the effects of FoF do not solely depend on initial environmental conditions, but also on the direction of APA relative to the location of the postural threat. These results support the so-called Motivational Direction Hypothesis, according to which approach and avoidance behaviours are primed by emotional state.

  3. The role of anticipatory postural adjustments in compensatory control of posture: 2. Biomechanical analysis.

    PubMed

    Santos, Marcio J; Kanekar, Neeta; Aruin, Alexander S

    2010-06-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) utilizes anticipatory (APAs) and compensatory (CPAs) postural adjustments to maintain equilibrium while standing. It is known that these postural adjustments involve displacements of the center of mass (COM) and center of pressure (COP). The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between APAs and CPAs from a kinetic and kinematic perspective. Eight subjects were exposed to external predictable and unpredictable perturbations induced at the shoulder level while standing. Kinematic and kinetic data were recorded and analyzed during the time duration typical for anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments. When the perturbations were unpredictable, the COM and COP displacements were larger compared to predictable conditions with APAs. Thus, the peak of COM displacement, after the pendulum impact, in the posterior direction reached 28+/-9.6mm in the unpredictable conditions with no APAs whereas it was 1.6 times smaller, reaching 17+/-5.5mm during predictable perturbations. Similarly, after the impact, the peak of COP displacement in the posterior direction was 60+/-14 mm for unpredictable conditions and 28+/-3.6mm for predictable conditions. Finally, the times of the peak COM and COP displacements were similar in the predictable and unpredictable conditions. This outcome provides additional knowledge about how body balance is controlled in presence and in absence of information about the forthcoming perturbation. Moreover, it suggests that control of posture could be enhanced by better utilization of APAs and such an approach could be considered as a valuable modality in the rehabilitation of individuals with balance impairment.

  4. Postural adjustment after an unexpected perturbation in children with haemophilia.

    PubMed

    De Souza, F M B; Pereira, R P; Minuque, N P; Do Carmo, C M; De Mello, M H M; Villaça, P; Tanaka, C

    2012-05-01

    Children with haemophilia often bleed inside joints and muscles, which may impair postural adjustments. These postural adjustments are necessary to control postural balance during daily activities. The inability to quickly recover postural balance could elevate the risk of bleeding. To determine whether children with haemophilia have impaired postural adjustment after an unexpected perturbation compared with healthy children. Twenty children with haemophilia comprised the haemophilic group (HG), and 20 healthy, age-paired children comprised the control group (CG). Subjects stood on a force plate, and 4% of the subjects' body weight was applied via a pulley system to a belt around the subjects' trunks. The centre of pressure (COP) displacement was measured after the weight was unexpectedly released to produce a controlled postural perturbation followed by postural adjustment to recover balance. The subjects' postural adjustments in eight subsequent intervals of 1 s (t1-t8), beginning with the moment of weight removal, were compared among intervals and between groups. The applied perturbation magnitudes were the same for both groups, and no difference was observed between the groups in t1. However, the COP displacement in t2 in the HG was significantly higher than in the CG. No differences were observed between the groups in the other intervals. Within-group analysis showed that the COP was higher in t2 than in t4 (P = 0.016), t5 (P = 0.001) and t8 (P = 0.050) in the HG. No differences were observed among intervals in the CG. Children with haemophilia demonstrated differences in postural adjustment while undergoing unexpected balance perturbations when compared with healthily children.

  5. Effect of magnification loupes on dental hygiene student posture.

    PubMed

    Maillet, J Peggy; Millar, A Michele; Burke, Jillian M; Maillet, Michelle A; Maillet, Wayne A; Neish, Nancy R

    2008-01-01

    The chair-side work posture of dental hygienists has long been a concern because of health-related problems potentially caused or exacerbated by poor posture. The purpose of this study was to investigate if using magnification loupes improved dental hygiene students' posture during provision of treatment. The treatment chosen was hand-scaling, and the effect of the timing of introduction of the loupes to students was also examined. Thirty-five novice dental hygiene students took part in the study. Each student was assessed providing dental hygiene care with and without loupes, thus controlling for innate differences in natural posture. Students were randomized into two groups. Group one used loupes in the first session and did not use them for the second session. Group two reversed this sequence. At the end of each session, all students were videotaped while performing scaling procedures. Their posture was assessed using an adapted version of Branson et al.'s Posture Assessment Instrument (PAI). Four raters assessed students at three time periods for nine posture components on the PAI. A paired t-test compared scores with and without loupes for each student. Scores showed a significant improvement in posture when using loupes (p<0.0001), and these improvements were significantly more pronounced for students starting loupes immediately on entering the program compared with students who delayed until the second session (p<0.1). These results suggest a significant postural benefit is realized by requiring students to master the use of magnification loupes as early as possible within the curriculum.

  6. Postural dependence of human locomotion during gait initiation

    PubMed Central

    Mille, Marie-Laure; Simoneau, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The initiation of human walking involves postural motor actions for body orientation and balance stabilization that must be effectively integrated with locomotion to allow safe and efficient transport. Our ability to coordinately adapt these functions to environmental or bodily changes through error-based motor learning is essential to effective performance. Predictive compensations for postural perturbations through anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) that stabilize mediolateral (ML) standing balance normally precede and accompany stepping. The temporal sequencing between these events may involve neural processes that suppress stepping until the expected stability conditions are achieved. If so, then an unexpected perturbation that disrupts the ML APAs should delay locomotion. This study investigated how the central nervous system (CNS) adapts posture and locomotion to perturbations of ML standing balance. Healthy human adults initiated locomotion while a resistance force was applied at the pelvis to perturb posture. In experiment 1, using random perturbations, step onset timing was delayed relative to the APA onset indicating that locomotion was withheld until expected stability conditions occurred. Furthermore, stepping parameters were adapted with the APAs indicating that motor prediction of the consequences of the postural changes likely modified the step motor command. In experiment 2, repetitive postural perturbations induced sustained locomotor aftereffects in some parameters (i.e., step height), immediate but rapidly readapted aftereffects in others, or had no aftereffects. These results indicated both rapid but transient reactive adaptations in the posture and gait assembly and more durable practice-dependent changes suggesting feedforward adaptation of locomotion in response to the prevailing postural conditions. PMID:25231611

  7. The relationship between a child's postural stability and manual dexterity.

    PubMed

    Flatters, Ian; Mushtaq, Faisal; Hill, Liam J B; Holt, Raymond J; Wilkie, Richard M; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2014-09-01

    The neural systems responsible for postural control are separate from the neural substrates that underpin control of the hand. Nonetheless, postural control and eye-hand coordination are linked functionally. For example, a stable platform is required for precise manual control tasks (e.g. handwriting) and thus such skills often cannot develop until the child is able to sit or stand upright. This raises the question of the strength of the empirical relationship between measures of postural stability and manual motor control. We recorded objective computerised measures of postural stability in stance and manual control in sitting in a sample of school children (n = 278) aged 3-11 years in order to explore the extent to which measures of manual skill could be predicted by measures of postural stability. A strong correlation was found across the whole sample between separate measures of postural stability and manual control taken on different days. Following correction for age, a significant but modest correlation was found. Regression analysis with age correction revealed that postural stability accounted for between 1 and 10% of the variance in manual performance, dependent on the specific manual task. These data reflect an interdependent functional relationship between manual control and postural stability development. Nevertheless, the relatively small proportion of the explained variance is consistent with the anatomically distinct neural architecture that exists for 'gross' and 'fine' motor control. These data justify the approach of motor batteries that provide separate assessments of postural stability and manual dexterity and have implications for therapeutic intervention in developmental disorders.

  8. Functional muscle synergies constrain force production during postural tasks.

    PubMed

    McKay, J Lucas; Ting, Lena H

    2008-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that a set of five functional muscle synergies were sufficient to characterize both hindlimb muscle activity and active forces during automatic postural responses in cats standing at multiple postural configurations. This characterization depended critically upon the assumption that the endpoint force vector (synergy force vector) produced by the activation of each muscle synergy rotated with the limb axis as the hindlimb posture varied in the sagittal plane. Here, we used a detailed, 3D static model of the hindlimb to confirm that this assumption is biomechanically plausible: as we varied the model posture, simulated synergy force vectors rotated monotonically with the limb axis in the parasagittal plane (r2=0.94+/-0.08). We then tested whether a neural strategy of using these five functional muscle synergies provides the same force-generating capability as controlling each of the 31 muscles individually. We compared feasible force sets (FFSs) from the model with and without a muscle synergy organization. FFS volumes were significantly reduced with the muscle synergy organization (F=1556.01, p<0.01), and as posture varied, the synergy-limited FFSs changed in shape, consistent with changes in experimentally measured active forces. In contrast, nominal FFS shapes were invariant with posture, reinforcing prior findings that postural forces cannot be predicted by hindlimb biomechanics alone. We propose that an internal model for postural force generation may coordinate functional muscle synergies that are invariant in intrinsic limb coordinates, and this reduced-dimension control scheme reduces the set of forces available for postural control.

  9. Effects of elastic band exercise on subjects with rounded shoulder posture and forward head posture

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Woon; An, Da-In; Lee, Hye-Yun; Jeong, Ho-Young; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Sung, Yun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study performed to investigate the effect of elastic band exercise program on the posture of subjects with rounded shoulder and forward head posture. [Subjects and Methods] The body length, forward shoulder angle, craniovertebral angle, and cranial rotation angle of participants (n=12) were measured before and after the exercise program. Furthermore, the thicknesses of the pectoralis major, rhomboid major, and upper trapezius were measured using an ultrasonographic imaging device. The exercises program was conducted with elastic bands, with 15 repetitions per set and 3 sets in total. [Results] The length of the pectoralis major, forward shoulder angle, and craniovertebral angle showed significant changes between before and after the exercise program, whereas the changes in the other measurements were not significant. The thickness of the upper trapezius showed a significant increase between before and after the elastic band exercise. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that the elastic band exercise program used in the study is effective for lengthening the pectoralis major and correcting rounded shoulder and forward head posture. PMID:27390405

  10. Microcomputer video image processing technology in working posture analysis: application to seated postures of keyboard operators.

    PubMed

    Wrigley, T V; Green, R A; Briggs, C A

    1991-02-01

    A new two-dimensional video-based technique for the recording and analysis of working posture has been developed and applied to seated work. After initial set-up of the portable equipment in the workplace, and attachment of small adhesive retroreflective joint markers on the subject, an operator is not required for the remainder of the recording session. Analysis of the video recording is conducted in the laboratory using custom-written software and a commercially available image-processing package running on an IBM AT-compatible computer. After interactive set-up of a reference frame, the system is able to analyse the full video tape automatically, extracting video frames for analysis at approximately 30-s intervals. Poor image quality may occasionally necessitate interactive analysis. The system is capable of determining postural angles to an accuracy of 1-2 degrees , and thus represents a substantial improvement on other postural analysis systems which are able to be used readily in the workplace.

  11. Posture kinematics reconstruction and body model creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goffredo, M.; Schmid, M.; Conforto, S.; Carli, Marco; D'Alessio, Tommaso

    2004-05-01

    Postural ability can be evaluated through the analysis of body oscillations, by estimating the displacements of selected sets of body segments. The analysis of human movement is generally achieved through the exploitation of stereophotogrammetric systems that rely on the use of markers. Marker systems show a high cost and patient settings which can be uncomfortable. On the other hand, the use of force platform has some disadvantages: the acquisition of dynamics data permits to estimate only the body oscillations as a whole, without any information about individual body segment movements. Some of these drawbacks can be overcome by the use of video systems, applying a marker-free sub-pixel algorithm. In this paper, a novel method to evaluate balance strategies that utilises commercial available systems and applies methods for feature extraction and image processing algorithms is presented.

  12. Postural tremor induced by paint sniffing.

    PubMed

    Gautschi, Oliver P; Cadosch, Dieter; Zellweger, René

    2007-01-01

    Volatile substance abuse is the intentional inhalation of volatile solvents, aerosols, gases or nitrates for the purpose of intoxication. This practice is more common among young people, due, in part, to the low cost and ready availability of these inhalants. In this report, we present the case of a 22-year-old male with a seven-year history of chronic paint sniffing. The patient presented with vigorous postural and kinetic tremor in both hands. A neurological examination revealed a bilateral, non-fatiguing geotropic positional nystagmus and a mild ataxia together with dysdiadochokinesis. He also had a mild chronic encephalopathy. Following treatment with clonazepam, the tremors subsided, but were not completely controlled.

  13. A Methodology for Investigating Adaptive Postural Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, P. V.; Riccio, G. E.

    1999-01-01

    Our research on postural control and human-environment interactions provides an appropriate scientific foundation for understanding the skill of mass handling by astronauts in weightless conditions (e.g., extravehicular activity or EVA). We conducted an investigation of such skills in NASA's principal mass-handling simulator, the Precision Air-Bearing Floor, at the Johnson Space Center. We have studied skilled movement-body within a multidisciplinary context that draws on concepts and methods from biological and behavioral sciences (e.g., psychology, kinesiology and neurophysiology) as well as bioengineering. Our multidisciplinary research has led to the development of measures, for manual interactions between individuals and the substantial environment, that plausibly are observable by human sensory systems. We consider these methods to be the most important general contribution of our EVA investigation. We describe our perspective as control theoretic because it draws more on fundamental concepts about control systems in engineering than it does on working constructs from the subdisciplines of biomechanics and motor control in the bio-behavioral sciences. At the same time, we have attempted to identify the theoretical underpinnings of control-systems engineering that are most relevant to control by human beings. We believe that these underpinnings are implicit in the assumptions that cut across diverse methods in control-systems engineering, especially the various methods associated with "nonlinear control", "fuzzy control," and "adaptive control" in engineering. Our methods are based on these theoretical foundations rather than on the mathematical formalisms that are associated with particular methods in control-systems engineering. The most important aspects of the human-environment interaction in our investigation of mass handling are the functional consequences that body configuration and stability have for the pick up of information or the achievement of

  14. Prephonatory chest wall posturing in stutterers.

    PubMed

    Baken, R J; McManus, D A; Cavallo, S A

    1983-09-01

    The possibility that prephonatory chest wall posturing is abnormal in stutterers was explored by observing rib cage and abdominal hemicircumference changes during the interval between the presentation of a stimulus and the production of/alpha/by a group of stutterers (N = 5). It was found that the patterns of chest wall adjustment for phonation were qualitatively identical in the stutterers and in a comparable group of normal men studied previously. There was, however, a significant difference in the way in which lung volume changed during the execution of the chest wall adjustment. This was considered to be indicative of delayed glottal closure among the stutterers rather than representative of a primary ventilatory disturbance.

  15. Postural Instability in Children with ADHD Is Improved by Methylphenidate

    PubMed Central

    Bucci, Maria P.; Stordeur, Coline; Acquaviva, Eric; Peyre, Hugo; Delorme, Richard

    2016-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS Both spatial and temporal analyses of the Center of Pressure demonstrate that children with ADHD have poorer postural control than typically developing sex-, age-, and IQ-matched children.Poor sensory integration in postural control could partially explained the deficits in postural stability in children with ADHD.MPH treatment improves postural performance in both spatial and temporal domains in children with ADHD.MPH improves postural control specifically when visual and proprioceptive inputs are misleading.Such improvement could be due to MPH effects on neurons, facilitating cerebellar processing of postural control. The aim of this study was to examine postural control in children with ADHD and explore the effect of methylphenidate (MPH), using spatial and temporal analyses of the center of pressure (CoP). Thirty-eight children with ADHD (mean age 9.82 ± 0.37 years) and 38 sex- age- and IQ-matched children with typically development were examined. Postural stability was evaluated using the Multitest Equilibre machine (Framiral®) at inclusion and after 1 month of MPH in children with ADHD. Postural stability was assessed by recording under several conditions: with eyes open and fixed on a target, with eyes closed and with vision perturbed by optokinetic stimulation, on stable and unstable platforms. At inclusion, we observed poor spatial and temporal postural stability in children with ADHD. The spectral power index was higher in children with ADHD than in controls. Canceling time was shorter at low and medium frequencies of oscillation and longer at higher frequencies in children with ADHD. After 1 month of MPH, the surface area and mean velocity of the CoP decreased significantly under the most complex conditions (unstable platform in the absence of proprioceptive and visual inputs). The spectral power index decreased significantly after MPH while the canceling time did not change. Poor postural control in children with ADHD supports the

  16. Posture and posterior crossbite in oral and nasal breathing children.

    PubMed

    Costa, Jecilene Rosana; Pereira, Silvia Regina Amorim; Pignatari, Shirley S N; Weckx, Luc Louis Maurice

    2010-01-01

    The most known etiologic factors of oral breathing may influence the craniofacial development leading to anatomical and functional alterations. A proper head and cervical spine posture allows a well functioning of the stomatognathic system structures and vice versa. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of posterior crossbite in a group of oral breathing children (OB) and nasal (NB) and associate the type of bite with the head and cervical spine posture. It was concluded that most of the children, either oral or nasal breathers, did not present a crossbite and any kind of head posture and cervical spine can vary independently of a posterior crossbite.

  17. Functional asymmetry of posture and body system regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boloban, V. N.; Otsupok, A. P.

    1980-01-01

    The manifestation of functional asymmetry during the regulation of an athlete's posture and a system of bodies and its effect on the execution of individual and group acrobatic exercises were studied. Functional asymmetry of posture regulation was recorded in acrobats during the execution of individual and group exercises. It was shown that stability is maintained at the expense of bending and twisting motions. It is important to consider whether the functional asymmetry of posture regulation is left or right sided in making up pairs and groups of acrobats.

  18. Postural support by a standing aid alleviating subjective discomfort among cooks in a forward-bent posture during food preparation.

    PubMed

    Iwakiri, Kazuyuki; Kunisue, Reiko; Sotoyama, Midori; Udo, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects on subjective discomfort among cooks during food preparation through use of a standing aid that we developed to alleviate the workload on the low back in the forward-bent posture. Twelve female cooks who worked in a kitchen in a nursing home were asked to prepare foods in 2 working postures: (a) supported by the standing aid (Aid) and (b) without the aid (No aid). They were instructed to evaluate discomfort in 13-body regions during food preparation and the degree of fatigue at the day's end and to enter their ratings after the end of the workday. Since a significant correlation was observed between body height and the improvement effect of discomfort through use of the standing aid, cooks were divided into two groups according to the height, and ratings were analyzed in each group. Among the tall cooks, subjective discomfort in the low back and the front and back of thighs was significantly less with the Aid posture than with the No aid posture. However, in short cooks these values tended to increase in the Aid posture compared with the No aid posture. The results suggest that the standing aid was effective in alleviating tall cooks' workload on the low back in the forward-bent posture.

  19. Aerial color infrared photography applications to citriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blazquez, C. H.; Horn, F. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Results of a one-year experimental study on the use of aerial color infrared photography in citrus grove management are presented. It is found that the spring season, when trees are in flush (have young leaves), is the best season to photograph visible differences between healthy and diseased trees. It is also shown that the best photography can be obtained with a 12-in. focal length lens. The photographic scale that allowed good photo interpretation with simple inexpensive equipment was 1 in. = 330 ft. The use of a window-overlay transparency method allowed rapid photo interpretation and data recording in computer-compatible forms. Aerial color infrared photography carried out during the spring season revealed a more accurate status of tree condition than visual inspection.

  20. Locating waterfowl observations on aerial surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, W.I.; Hodges, J.I.; Stehn, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    We modified standard aerial survey data collection to obtain the geographic location for each waterfowl observation on surveys in Alaska during 1987-1993. Using transect navigation with CPS (global positioning system), data recording on continuously running tapes, and a computer data input program, we located observations with an average deviation along transects of 214 m. The method provided flexibility in survey design and data analysis. Although developed for geese nesting near the coast of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, the methods are widely applicable and were used on other waterfowl surveys in Alaska to map distribution and relative abundance of waterfowl. Accurate location data with GIS analysis and display may improve precision and usefulness of data from any aerial transect survey.

  1. Postural Stability of Patients with Schizophrenia during Challenging Sensory Conditions: Implication of Sensory Integration for Postural Control

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chiung-Ling; Lou, Shu-Zon; Wang, Wei-Tsan; Wu, Jui-Yen

    2016-01-01

    Postural dysfunctions are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and affect their daily life and ability to work. In addition, sensory functions and sensory integration that are crucial for postural control are also compromised. This study intended to examine how patients with schizophrenia coordinate multiple sensory systems to maintain postural stability in dynamic sensory conditions. Twenty-nine patients with schizophrenia and 32 control subjects were recruited. Postural stability of the participants was examined in six sensory conditions of different level of congruency of multiple sensory information, which was based on combinations of correct, removed, or conflicting sensory inputs from visual, somatosensory, and vestibular systems. The excursion of the center of pressure was measured by posturography. Equilibrium scores were derived to indicate the range of anterior-posterior (AP) postural sway, and sensory ratios were calculated to explore ability to use sensory information to maintain balance. The overall AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients with schizophrenia compared to the controls [patients (69.62±8.99); controls (76.53±7.47); t1,59 = -3.28, p<0.001]. The results of mixed-model ANOVAs showed a significant interaction between the group and sensory conditions [F5,295 = 5.55, p<0.001]. Further analysis indicated that AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients compared to the controls in conditions containing unreliable somatosensory information either with visual deprivation or with conflicting visual information. Sensory ratios were not significantly different between groups, although small and non-significant difference in inefficiency to utilize vestibular information was also noted. No significant correlations were found between postural stability and clinical characteristics. To sum up, patients with schizophrenia showed increased postural sway and a higher rate of falls during challenging sensory conditions, which

  2. Postural Stability of Patients with Schizophrenia during Challenging Sensory Conditions: Implication of Sensory Integration for Postural Control.

    PubMed

    Teng, Ya-Ling; Chen, Chiung-Ling; Lou, Shu-Zon; Wang, Wei-Tsan; Wu, Jui-Yen; Ma, Hui-Ing; Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Postural dysfunctions are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and affect their daily life and ability to work. In addition, sensory functions and sensory integration that are crucial for postural control are also compromised. This study intended to examine how patients with schizophrenia coordinate multiple sensory systems to maintain postural stability in dynamic sensory conditions. Twenty-nine patients with schizophrenia and 32 control subjects were recruited. Postural stability of the participants was examined in six sensory conditions of different level of congruency of multiple sensory information, which was based on combinations of correct, removed, or conflicting sensory inputs from visual, somatosensory, and vestibular systems. The excursion of the center of pressure was measured by posturography. Equilibrium scores were derived to indicate the range of anterior-posterior (AP) postural sway, and sensory ratios were calculated to explore ability to use sensory information to maintain balance. The overall AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients with schizophrenia compared to the controls [patients (69.62±8.99); controls (76.53±7.47); t1,59 = -3.28, p<0.001]. The results of mixed-model ANOVAs showed a significant interaction between the group and sensory conditions [F5,295 = 5.55, p<0.001]. Further analysis indicated that AP postural sway was significantly larger for patients compared to the controls in conditions containing unreliable somatosensory information either with visual deprivation or with conflicting visual information. Sensory ratios were not significantly different between groups, although small and non-significant difference in inefficiency to utilize vestibular information was also noted. No significant correlations were found between postural stability and clinical characteristics. To sum up, patients with schizophrenia showed increased postural sway and a higher rate of falls during challenging sensory conditions, which

  3. Comparative Analysis of the Tour Jete and Aerial with Detailed Analysis of Aerial Takeoff Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierson, Mimi; Coplin, Kim

    2006-10-01

    Whether internally as muscle tension or from external sources, forces are necessary for all motion. This research focused on athletic rotations where conditions of flight are established during takeoff. By studying reaction forces that produce torques, moments of inertia, and linear and angular differences between distinct rotations around different principle axes of the body (tour jete in ballet - longitudinal axis; aerial in gymnastics - anteroposterior axis), and by looking at the values of angular momentum in the specific mechanics of aerial takeoff, we can gain insight into possible causes of injury, flaws in technique and limitations of athletes. Results showed significant differences in the horizontal and vertical components of takeoff between the tour jete and the aerial, and a realization that torque was produced in different biomechanical planes. Both rotations showed braking forces before takeoff to counteract forward momentum and increase vertical lift, but the angle of applied force varied, and the horizontal components of velocity and force and vertical velocity as well as moment of inertia throughout flight were consistently greater for the aerial. Breakdown of aerial takeoff highlighted the relative importance of the takeoff phases, showing that completion depends fundamentally upon the rotation of the rear foot and torso twisting during takeoff rather than the last foot in contact with the ground.

  4. U.S. Unmanned Aerial Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-03

    decades for crop dusting and other agricultural purposes.84 Historically, UAS were predominately operated by DoD in support of combat operations in...advocates state that in order for UAS to take an active role in homeland security, law enforcement, aerial surveying, crop dusting, and other...isn’t ready for.93 The issue of when and how UAS will be allowed to operate in U.S. airspace continues to evolve, and continues to be of interest

  5. Twenty-First-Century Aerial Mining

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    of Deer Island, the approaches open up into three deepwater channels and then into unrestricted waters. Using traditional aerial mine-laying...Boston’s inner harbor, showing two lucrative choke points—the channels south of Logan International or the Deer Island channel in the lower right. Areas...electric submarines yet leave commercial shipping unaffected. Some straits, such as Gibraltar, Lombok, or the Bab el Mandeb ( Red Sea) are too deep for

  6. Inertial instrument system for aerial surveying

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, R.H.; Chapman, W.H.; Hanna, W.F.; Mongan, C.E.; Hursh, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    An inertial guidance system for aerial surveying has been developed under contract to the U.S. Geological Survey. This prototype system, known as the aerial profiling of terrain (APT) system, is designed to determine continuously the positions of points along an aircraft flight path, or the underlying terrain profile, to an accuracy of + or - 0.5 ft (15 cm) vertically and + or - 2 ft (61 cm) horizontally. The system 's objective thus is to accomplish, from a fixed-wing aircraft, what would traditionally be accomplished from ground-based topographic surveys combined with aerial photography and photogrammetry. The two-part strategy for measuring the terrain profile entails: (1) use of an inertial navigator for continuous determination of the three-coordinate position of the aircraft, and (2) use of an eye-safe pulsed laser profiler for continuous measurement of the vertical distance from aircraft to land surface, so that the desired terrain profile can then be directly computed. The APT system, installed in a DeHavilland Twin Otter aircraft, is typically flown at a speed of 115 mph (105 knots) at an altitude of 2,000 ft (610 m) above the terrain. Performance-evaluation flights have shown that the vertical and horizontal accuracy specifications are met. (USGS)

  7. Localization of aerial broadband noise by pinnipeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Marla M.; Schusterman, Ronald J.; Southall, Brandon L.; Kastak, David

    2004-05-01

    Although many pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses) emit broadband calls on land as part of their communication system, few studies have addressed these animals' ability to localize aerial broadband sounds. In this study, the aerial sound localization acuities of a female northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), a male harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and a female California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) were measured in the horizontal plane. The stimulus was broadband white noise that was band pass filtered between 1.2 and 15 kHz. Testing was conducted in a hemi-anechoic chamber using a left/right forced choice procedure to measure the minimum audible angle (MAA) for each subject. MAAs were defined as half the angular separation of two sound sources bisected by a subject's midline that corresponded to 75% correct discrimination. MAAs were 4.7°, 3.6°, and 4.2° for the northern elephant seal, harbor seal, and California sea lion, respectively. These results demonstrate that individuals of these pinniped species have sound localization abilities comparable to the domestic cat and rhesus macaque. The acuity differences between our subjects were small and not predicted by head size. These results likely reflect the relatively acute general abilities of pinnipeds to localize aerial broadband signals.

  8. Remotely deployable aerial inspection using tactile sensors

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, C. N.; Cao, J.; Pierce, S. G.; Dobie, G.; Summan, R.; Sullivan, J. C.; Pipe, A. G.

    2014-02-18

    For structural monitoring applications, the use of remotely deployable Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) inspection platforms offer many advantages, including improved accessibility, greater safety and reduced cost, when compared to traditional manual inspection techniques. The use of such platforms, previously reported by researchers at the University Strathclyde facilitates the potential for rapid scanning of large areas and volumes in hazardous locations. A common problem for both manual and remote deployment approaches lies in the intrinsic stand-off and surface coupling issues of typical NDE probes. The associated complications of these requirements are obviously significantly exacerbated when considering aerial based remote inspection and deployment, resulting in simple visual techniques being the preferred sensor payload. Researchers at Bristol Robotics Laboratory have developed biomimetic tactile sensors modelled on the facial whiskers (vibrissae) of animals such as rats and mice, with the latest sensors actively sweeping their tips across the surface in a back and forth motion. The current work reports on the design and performance of an aerial inspection platform and the suitability of tactile whisking sensors to aerial based surface monitoring applications.

  9. Mask degradation monitoring with aerial mask inspector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Wen-Jui; Fu, Yung-Ying; Lu, Shih-Ping; Jiang, Ming-Sian; Lin, Jeffrey; Wu, Clare; Lifschitz, Sivan; Tam, Aviram

    2013-06-01

    As design rule continues to shrink, microlithography is becoming more challenging and the photomasks need to comply with high scanner laser energy, low CDU, and ever more aggressive RETs. This give rise to numerous challenges in the semiconductor wafer fabrication plants. Some of these challenges being contamination (mainly haze and particles), mask pattern degradation (MoSi oxidation, chrome migration, etc.) and pellicle degradation. Fabs are constantly working to establish an efficient methodology to manage these challenges mainly using mask inspection, wafer inspection, SEM review and CD SEMs. Aerial technology offers a unique opportunity to address the above mask related challenges using one tool. The Applied Materials Aera3TM system has the inherent ability to inspect for defects (haze, particles, etc.), and track mask degradation (e.g. CDU). This paper focuses on haze monitoring, which is still a significant challenge in semiconductor manufacturing, and mask degradation effects that are starting to emerge as the next challenge for high volume semiconductor manufacturers. The paper describes Aerial inspector (Aera3) early haze methodology and mask degradation tracking related to high volume manufacturing. These will be demonstrated on memory products. At the end of the paper we take a brief look on subsequent work currently conducted on the more general issue of photo mask degradation monitoring by means of an Aerial inspector.

  10. Orientation Strategies for Aerial Oblique Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedemann, A.; Moré, J.

    2012-07-01

    Oblique aerial images become more and more distributed to fill the gap between vertical aerial images and mobile mapping systems. Different systems are on the market. For some applications, like texture mapping, precise orientation data are required. One point is the stable interior orientation, which can be achieved by stable camera systems, the other a precise exterior orientation. A sufficient exterior orientation can be achieved by a large effort in direct sensor orientation, whereas minor errors in the angles have a larger effect than in vertical imagery. The more appropriate approach is by determine the precise orientation parameters by photogrammetric methods using an adapted aerial triangulation. Due to the different points of view towards the object the traditional aerotriangulation matching tools fail, as they produce a bunch of blunders and require a lot of manual work to achieve a sufficient solution. In this paper some approaches are discussed and results are presented for the most promising approaches. We describe a single step approach with an aerotriangulation using all available images; a two step approach with an aerotriangulation only of the vertical images plus a mathematical transformation of the oblique images using the oblique cameras excentricity; and finally the extended functional model for a bundle block adjustment considering the mechanical connection between vertical and oblique images. Beside accuracy also other aspects like efficiency and required manual work have to be considered.

  11. Localization of aerial broadband noise by pinnipeds.

    PubMed

    Holt, Marla M; Schusterman, Ronald J; Southall, Brandon L; Kastak, David

    2004-05-01

    Although many pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses) emit broadband calls on land as part of their communication system, few studies have addressed these animals' ability to localize aerial broadband sounds. In this study, the aerial sound localization acuities of a female northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), a male harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and a female California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) were measured in the horizontal plane. The stimulus was broadband white noise that was band pass filtered between 1.2 and 15 kHz. Testing was conducted in a hemi-anechoic chamber using a left/right forced choice procedure to measure the minimum audible angle (MAA) for each subject. MAAs were defined as half the angular separation of two sound sources bisected by a subject's midline that corresponded to 75% correct discrimination. MAAs were 4.7 degrees, 3.6 degrees, and 4.2 degrees for the northern elephant seal, harbor seal, and California sea lion, respectively. These results demonstrate that individuals of these pinniped species have sound localization abilities comparable to the domestic cat and rhesus macaque. The acuity differences between our subjects were small and not predicted by head size. These results likely reflect the relatively acute general abilities of pinnipeds to localize aerial broadband signals.

  12. Aerial vehicles collision avoidance using monocular vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balashov, Oleg; Muraviev, Vadim; Strotov, Valery

    2016-10-01

    In this paper image-based collision avoidance algorithm that provides detection of nearby aircraft and distance estimation is presented. The approach requires a vision system with a single moving camera and additional information about carrier's speed and orientation from onboard sensors. The main idea is to create a multi-step approach based on a preliminary detection, regions of interest (ROI) selection, contour segmentation, object matching and localization. The proposed algorithm is able to detect small targets but unlike many other approaches is designed to work with large-scale objects as well. To localize aerial vehicle position the system of equations relating object coordinates in space and observed image is solved. The system solution gives the current position and speed of the detected object in space. Using this information distance and time to collision can be estimated. Experimental research on real video sequences and modeled data is performed. Video database contained different types of aerial vehicles: aircrafts, helicopters, and UAVs. The presented algorithm is able to detect aerial vehicles from several kilometers under regular daylight conditions.

  13. Transition from Rocking to Crawling: Postural Constraints on Infant Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfield, Eugene C.

    1989-01-01

    Investigated postural constraints on movement of 15 6-month-old infants. Results suggested that each of the developing capabilities of orienting, reaching, and kicking assumed a specific function for locomotion at the stage of crawling. (RJC)

  14. Correcting working postures in industry: A practical method for analysis.

    PubMed

    Karhu, O; Kansi, P; Kuorinka, I

    1977-12-01

    A practical method for identifying and evaluating poor working postures, ie, the Ovako Working Posture Analysing System (OWAS), is presented. The method consists of two parts. The first is an observational technique for evaluating working postures. It can be used by work-study engineers in their daily routine and it gives reliable results after a short training period. The second part of the method is a set of criteria for the redesign of working methods and places. The criteria are based on evaluations made by experienced workers and ergonomics experts. They take into consideration factors such as health and safety, but the main emphasis is placed on the discomfort caused by the working postures. The method has been extensively used in the steel company which participated in its development. Complete production lines have already been redesigned on the basis of information gathered from OWAS, the result being more comfortable workplaces as well as a positive effect on production quality.

  15. Observing working postures in industry: Examples of OWAS application.

    PubMed

    Karhu, O; Härkönen, R; Sorvali, P; Vepsäläinen, P

    1981-03-01

    A practical method for identifying and evaluating poor working postures, ie the Ovako Working Posture Analysing System (OWAS), was presented in an earlier paper (Karhu et al, 1977). The application of the method is here described by means of two examples. One is a case study undertaken by members of an ergonomics training course, in which a marked improvement in working posture was achieved by OWAS analysis of critical activities. The second illustrates the effect of setting up a multidisciplinary group in order to develop an alternative method for the installation and maintenance of steel mill equipment. In both examples, application of the OWAS method led to improved posture in the situations studied, and to the likelihood of its wider industrial use.

  16. Postural changes following sensory reinterpretation as an analog to spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William H.; Harm, D. L.; Reschke, M. F.; Doxey, D. D.; Skinner, N. C.; Michaud, L. J.; Parker, D. E.

    1990-01-01

    Postural control changes noted in astronauts immediately following spaceflight are thought to be caused by inflight adaptative changes in Central Nervous System (CNS) processing of sensory information from the visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive systems. In order to elicit these adaptative changes in ground based studies, a Tilt Translation Device (TTD) which causes the CNS of exposed subjects to reinterpret tilt generated sensory inputs from the otolith organs as linear translation of the subject was developed. This device was designed to simulate partially the stimulus rearrangement experienced by astronauts during microgravity. Postural stability is assessed in ten subjects before and after 30 minutes of exposure to TTD. The resulting data suggests that exposure to TTD causes decreases in postural stability and shifts in postflight studies of astronauts. It is concluded that the TTD may be an effective weightlessness simulator, and that the postural changes following TTD exposure may provide a useful dependent measure for evaluation of this apparatus.

  17. Models of the vestibular system and postural control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. R.; Weiss, A.

    1974-01-01

    Applications of control theory and systems analysis to the problem of orientation and posture control are discussed, with the possible long range goals of contributing to the development of hardware for rehabilitation of the handicapped.

  18. Movement plans for posture selection do not transfer across hands

    PubMed Central

    Schütz, Christoph; Schack, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In a sequential task, the grasp postures people select depend on their movement history. This motor hysteresis effect results from the reuse of former movement plans and reduces the cognitive cost of movement planning. Movement plans for hand trajectories not only transfer across successive trials, but also across hands. We therefore asked whether such a transfer would also be found in movement plans for hand postures. To this end, we designed a sequential, continuous posture selection task. Participants had to open a column of drawers with cylindrical knobs in ascending and descending sequences. A hand switch was required in each sequence. Hand pro/supination was analyzed directly before and after the hand switch. Results showed that hysteresis effects were present directly before, but absent directly after the hand switch. This indicates that, in the current study, movement plans for hand postures only transfer across trials, but not across hands. PMID:26441734

  19. Increased dynamic regulation of postural tone through Alexander Technique training

    PubMed Central

    Cacciatore, TW; Gurfinkel, VS; Horak, FB; Cordo, PJ; Ames, KE

    2010-01-01

    Gurfinkel and colleagues (2006) recently found that healthy adults dynamically modulate postural muscle tone in the body axis during anti-gravity postural maintenance and that this modulation is inversely correlated with axial stiffness. Our objective in the present study was to investigate whether dynamic modulation of axial postural tone can change through training. We examined whether teachers of the Alexander Technique (AT), who undergo “long-term” (3-year) training, have greater modulation of axial postural tone than matched control subjects. In addition, we performed a longitudinal study on the effect of “short-term” (10-week) AT training on the axial postural tone of individuals with low back pain (LBP), since short term AT training has previously been shown to reduce LBP. Axial postural tone was quantified by measuring the resistance of the neck, trunk and hips to small (±10°), slow (1°/s) torsional rotation during stance. Modulation of tone was determined by the torsional resistance to rotation (peak-to-peak, phase-advance, and variability of torque) and axial muscle activity (EMG). Peak-to-peak torque was lower (~50%), while phase-advance and cycle-to-cycle variability were enhanced for AT teachers compared to matched control subjects at all levels of the axis. In addition, LBP subjects decreased trunk and hip stiffness following short-term AT training compared to a control intervention. While changes in static levels of postural tone may have contributed to the reduced stiffness observed with the AT, our results suggest that dynamic modulation of postural tone can be enhanced through long-term training in the AT, which may constitute an important direction for therapeutic intervention. PMID:21185100

  20. Tai Chi training reduced coupling between respiration and postural control

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Matthew L; Manor, Brad; Hsieh, Wan-hsin; Hu, Kun; Lipsitz, Lewis A; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    In order to maintain stable upright stance, the postural control system must account for the continuous perturbations to the body’s center-of-mass including those caused by spontaneous respiration. Both aging and disease increase “posturo-respiratory synchronization;” which reflects the degree to which respiration affects postural sway fluctuations over time. Tai Chi training emphasizes the coordination of respiration and bodily movements and may therefore optimize the functional interaction between these two systems. The purpose of the project was to examine the effect of Tai Chi training on the interaction between respiration and postural control in older adults. We hypothesized that Tai Chi training would improve the ability of the postural control system to compensate for respiratory perturbations and thus, reduce posturo-respiratory synchronization. Participants were recruited from supportive housing facilities and randomized to a 12-week Tai Chi intervention (n=28; 86±5yrs) or educational-control program (n=34, 85±6yrs). Standing postural sway and respiration were simultaneously recorded with a force plate and respiratory belt under eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. Posturo-respiratory synchronization was determined by quantifying the variation of the phase relationship between the dominant oscillatory mode of respiration and corresponding oscillations within postural sway. Groups were similar in age, gender distribution, height, body mass, and intervention compliance. Neither intervention altered average sway speed, sway magnitude or respiratory rate. As compared to the education-control group, however, Tai Chi training reduced posturo-respiratory synchronization when standing with eyes open or closed (p<0.001). Tai Chi training did not affect traditional parameters of standing postural control or respiration, yet reduced the coupling between respiration and postural control. The beneficial effects of Tai Chi training may therefore stem in part

  1. The Relationship of Military Posture to National Policy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    suspicious, and uncertain in their international relationships , and if anything seem to be pursuing a more obscurantist and even romantic foreign...4 "Copy 9 of 100 copies AD-A239 144 IDA PAPER P-1588 THE RELATIONSHIP OF MILITARY POSTURE TO NATIONAL POLICY William J. Schultis Herschel Kanter John...FINAL: SEPTEMBER 1981 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS THE RELATIONSHIP OF MILITARY POSTURE TO NATIONAL POLICY NONE 6. AUTHOR(S) W. Schultis

  2. Tai Chi training reduced coupling between respiration and postural control.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Matthew L; Manor, Brad; Hsieh, Wan-hsin; Hu, Kun; Lipsitz, Lewis A; Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    In order to maintain stable upright stance, the postural control system must account for the continuous perturbations to the body's center-of-mass including those caused by spontaneous respiration. Both aging and disease increase "posturo-respiratory synchronization;" which reflects the degree to which respiration affects postural sway fluctuations over time. Tai Chi training emphasizes the coordination of respiration and bodily movements and may therefore optimize the functional interaction between these two systems. The purpose of the project was to examine the effect of Tai Chi training on the interaction between respiration and postural control in older adults. We hypothesized that Tai Chi training would improve the ability of the postural control system to compensate for respiratory perturbations and thus, reduce posturo-respiratory synchronization. Participants were recruited from supportive housing facilities and randomized to a 12-week Tai Chi intervention (n=28; 86 ± 5 yrs) or educational-control program (n=34, 85 ± 6 yrs). Standing postural sway and respiration were simultaneously recorded with a force plate and respiratory belt under eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. Posturo-respiratory synchronization was determined by quantifying the variation of the phase relationship between the dominant oscillatory mode of respiration and corresponding oscillations within postural sway. Groups were similar in age, gender distribution, height, body mass, and intervention compliance. Neither intervention altered average sway speed, sway magnitude or respiratory rate. As compared to the education-control group, however, Tai Chi training reduced posturo-respiratory synchronization when standing with eyes open or closed (p<0.001). Tai Chi training did not affect traditional parameters of standing postural control or respiration, yet reduced the coupling between respiration and postural control. The beneficial effects of Tai Chi training may therefore stem in part

  3. Real-time posture reconstruction for Microsoft Kinect.

    PubMed

    Shum, Hubert P H; Ho, Edmond S L; Jiang, Yang; Takagi, Shu

    2013-10-01

    The recent advancement of motion recognition using Microsoft Kinect stimulates many new ideas in motion capture and virtual reality applications. Utilizing a pattern recognition algorithm, Kinect can determine the positions of different body parts from the user. However, due to the use of a single-depth camera, recognition accuracy drops significantly when the parts are occluded. This hugely limits the usability of applications that involve interaction with external objects, such as sport training or exercising systems. The problem becomes more critical when Kinect incorrectly perceives body parts. This is because applications have limited information about the recognition correctness, and using those parts to synthesize body postures would result in serious visual artifacts. In this paper, we propose a new method to reconstruct valid movement from incomplete and noisy postures captured by Kinect. We first design a set of measurements that objectively evaluates the degree of reliability on each tracked body part. By incorporating the reliability estimation into a motion database query during run time, we obtain a set of similar postures that are kinematically valid. These postures are used to construct a latent space, which is known as the natural posture space in our system, with local principle component analysis. We finally apply frame-based optimization in the space to synthesize a new posture that closely resembles the true user posture while satisfying kinematic constraints. Experimental results show that our method can significantly improve the quality of the recognized posture under severely occluded environments, such as a person exercising with a basketball or moving in a small room.

  4. Postural orientation modifications in autism in response to ambient lenses.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, M; Carmody, D P; Gaydos, A

    1996-01-01

    Autistic children often display abnormal postures, head tilts, and other spatial management dysfunctions. Methods were introduced to measure spatial orientation in tasks in a group of fourteen autistic children in Montreal, Canada. Ambient lenses were found to improve posture, correct head tilts, and improve ball catching abilities. A model of spatial orientation is described and recommendations are made to incorporate ambient lenses in treatment programs.

  5. "Postural first" principle when balance is challenged in elderly people.

    PubMed

    Lion, Alexis; Spada, Rosario S; Bosser, Gilles; Gauchard, Gérome C; Anello, Guido; Bosco, Paolo; Calabrese, Santa; Iero, Antonella; Stella, Giuseppe; Elia, Maurizio; Perrin, Philippe P

    2014-08-01

    Human cognitive processing limits can lead to difficulties in performing two tasks simultaneously. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of cognitive load on both simple and complex postural tasks. Postural control was evaluated in 128 noninstitutionalized elderly people (mean age = 73.6 ± 5.6 years) using a force platform on a firm support in control condition (CC) and mental counting condition (MCC) with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC). Then, the same tests were performed on a foam support. Sway path traveled and area covered by the center of foot pressure were recorded, low values indicating efficient balance. On firm support, sway path was higher in MCC than in CC both in EO and EC conditions (p < 0.001). On foam support, sway path was higher in CC than in MCC in EC condition (p < 0.001), area being higher in CC than in MCC both in EO (p < 0.05) and EC (p < 0.001) conditions. The results indicate that cognitive load alters balance control in a simple postural task (i.e. on firm support), which is highlighted by an increase of energetic expenditure (i.e. increase of the sway path covered) to balance. Awareness may not be increased and the attentional demand may be shared between balance and mental task. Conversely, cognitive load does not perturb the realization of a new complex postural task. This result showed that postural control is prioritized ("postural first" principle) when seriously challenged.

  6. Otolith and Vertical Canal Contributions to Dynamic Postural Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, F. Owen

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project is to determine: 1) how do normal subjects adjust postural movements in response to changing or altered otolith input, for example, due to aging? and 2) how do patients adapt postural control after altered unilateral or bilateral vestibular sensory inputs such as ablative inner ear surgery or ototoxicity, respectively? The following hypotheses are under investigation: 1) selective alteration of otolith input or abnormalities of otolith receptor function will result in distinctive spatial, frequency, and temporal patterns of head movements and body postural sway dynamics. 2) subjects with reduced, altered, or absent vertical semicircular canal receptor sensitivity but normal otolith receptor function or vice versa, should show predictable alterations of body and head movement strategies essential for the control of postural sway and movement. The effect of altered postural movement control upon compensation and/or adaptation will be determined. These experiments provide data for the development of computational models of postural control in normals, vestibular deficient subjects and normal humans exposed to unusual force environments, including orbital space flight.

  7. Subjective Visual Vertical and Postural Capability in Children Born Prematurely

    PubMed Central

    Bucci, Maria Pia; Wiener-Vacher, Sylvette; Trousson, Clémence; Baud, Olivier; Biran, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We compared postural stability and subjective visual vertical performance in a group of very preterm-born children aged 3-4 years and in a group of age-matched full-term children. Materials and Methods A platform (from TechnoConcept) was used to measure postural control in children. Perception of subjective visual vertical was also recorded with posture while the child had to adjust the vertical in the dark or with visual perturbation. Two other conditions (control conditions) were also recorded while the child was on the platform: for a fixation of the vertical bar, and in eyes closed condition. Results Postural performance was poor in preterm-born children compared to that of age-matched full-term children: the surface area, the length in medio-lateral direction and the mean speed of the center of pressure (CoP) were significantly larger in the preterm-born children group (p < 0.04, p < 0.01, and p < 0.04, respectively). Dual task in both groups of children significantly affected postural control. The subjective visual vertical (SVV) values were more variable and less precise in preterm-born children. Discussion-Conclusions We suggest that poor postural control as well as perception of verticality observed in preterm-born children could be due to immaturity of the cortical processes involved in the motor control and in the treatment of perception and orientation of verticality. PMID:25790327

  8. Postural strategy changes with fatigue of the lumbar extensor muscles.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Erin L; Madigan, Michael L; Davidson, Bradley S; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of lumbar extensor fatigue on postural strategy in response to a balance perturbation. Anteriorly-directed force perturbations were applied to the upper back with a padded pendulum and attempted to challenge the postural control system without eliciting a stepping response. In three separate sessions, subjects were perturbed both before and after a fatiguing protocol that induced lumbar extensor fatigue to one of three different fatigue levels. Postural strategy was quantified using center of pressure position along with joint angles and joint torques for the ankle, knee, hip, and "low back" joints. Results showed both proactive and reactive changes in postural strategy. Proactive changes involved a slight anterior lean prior to the perturbation, and reactive changes were consistent with a shift toward more of a hip strategy with fatigue. In addition, results suggested that subjects classified as moving mostly at the hip prior to fatigue were more affected by fatigue compared to subjects classified as moving roughly equal amounts at the ankle and hip prior to fatigue. Increasing fatigue level exaggerated some, but not all, of the changes in postural strategy with fatigue. These findings illustrate that neuromuscular fatigue can influence postural strategy in response to a balance perturbation.

  9. Monitoring the prevalence of postural changes in schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Nichele da Rosa, Bruna; Noll, Matias; Sedrez, Juliana Adami; Furlanetto, Tassia Silveira; Candotti, Claudia Tarrago

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to identify whether postural changes are prevalent with advancing age using a photogrammetric method performing one-year follow-up study. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-eight schoolchildren were evaluated in 2011 and 2012 in this cohort study. The subjects underwent a postural evaluation, which involved palpation of reference anatomic points, placement of reflexive markers over the anatomic points, image acquisition, and point digitalization using the Digital Image-based Postural Assessment evaluation software. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were analyzed by McNemar’s test. [Results] The results showed a significant increase in postural change prevalence for the lumbar spine in the sagittal plane (from 42.2% to 81.6%) and the knees in the frontal plane (from 39.5% to 63.2%) and a significant decrease in the prevalence of scoliosis (from 68.5% to 42.2%). [Conclusion] The findings indicate an increase in the prevalence of postural changes in schoolchildren from Teutônia, RS, Brazil, in 2012 compared with 2011. The development of longitudinal investigations for long-term monitoring of the evolution of posture and of schoolchildren habits’s representing a viable alternative to subsidize health actions. PMID:27065514

  10. Postural changes in dental hygienists. Four-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Barry, R M; Woodall, W R; Mahan, J M

    1992-01-01

    Numerous surveys identify the occurrence of musculoskeletal complaints as a concern in dentistry. However, no longitudinal data exist to indicate whether postural changes occur as a result of practicing dental hygiene. The purpose of this preliminary, four-year longitudinal study was to investigate whether any postural changes developed during the hygienists' clinical education and/or during subsequent dental hygiene practice after one and/or two years. It was anticipated that the awkward positions and intense physical demands placed on hygienists might initiate musculoskeletal problems, but that no postural changes would occur over this short period of time. Nine of 10 dental hygienists in the graduating class of 1987 were surveyed for existing musculoskeletal complaints, and the subjects were photographed for a measurement of postural change. Responses from participants indicated an increase in musculoskeletal-related complaints in each of the six areas investigated. The photographic findings indicated that one of the nine hygienists showed an increase in forward head posture, a postural change.

  11. The effect of aging on anticipatory postural control.

    PubMed

    Kanekar, Neeta; Aruin, Alexander S

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the differences in anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) between young and older adults and its effect on subsequent control of posture. Ten healthy older adults and thirteen healthy young adults were exposed to predictable external perturbations using the pendulum impact paradigm. Electromyographic activity of the trunk and leg muscles, the center of pressure (COP), and center of mass (COM) displacements in the anterior-posterior direction were recorded and analyzed during the anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments (CPAs) phases of postural control. The effect of aging was seen as delayed anticipatory muscle activity and larger compensatory muscle responses in older adults as compared to young adults. Moreover, in spite of such larger reactive responses, older adults were still more unstable, exhibiting larger COP and COM peak displacements after the perturbation than young adults when exposed to similar postural disturbances. Nonetheless, while APAs are impaired in older adults, the ability to recruit muscles anticipatorily is largely preserved; however, due to their smaller magnitudes and delayed onsets, it is likely that their effectiveness in reducing the magnitude of CPAs is smaller. The outcome of the study lends support toward investigating the ways of improving anticipatory postural control in people with balance impairments due to aging or neurological disorders.

  12. Effects of Levodopa on Postural Strategies in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Baston, Chiara; Mancini, Martina; Rocchi, Laura; Horak, Fay

    2016-05-01

    Altered postural control and balance are major disabling issues of Parkinson's disease (PD). Static and dynamic posturography have provided insight into PD's postural deficits; however, little is known about impairments in postural coordination. We hypothesized that subjects with PD would show more ankle strategy during quiet stance than healthy control subjects, who would include some hip strategy, and this stiffer postural strategy would increase with disease progression. We quantified postural strategy and sway dispersion with inertial sensors (one placed on the shank and one on the posterior trunk at L5 level) while subjects were standing still with their eyes open. A total of 70 subjects with PD, including a mild group (H&Y≤2, N=33) and a more severe group (H&Y≥3, N=37), were assessed while OFF and while ON levodopa medication. We also included a healthy control group (N=21). Results showed an overall preference of ankle strategy in all groups while maintaining balance. Postural strategy was significantly lower ON compared to OFF medication (indicating more hip strategy), but no effect of disease stage was found. Instead, sway dispersion was significantly larger in ON compared to OFF medication, and significantly larger in the more severe PD group compared to the mild. In addition, increased hip strategy during stance was associated with poorer self-perception of balance.

  13. Use of Video Analysis System for Working Posture Evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Timothy D.; Whitmore, Mihriban

    1994-01-01

    In a work environment, it is important to identify and quantify the relationship among work activities, working posture, and workplace design. Working posture may impact the physical comfort and well-being of individuals, as well as performance. The Posture Video Analysis Tool (PVAT) is an interactive menu and button driven software prototype written in Supercard (trademark). Human Factors analysts are provided with a predefined set of options typically associated with postural assessments and human performance issues. Once options have been selected, the program is used to evaluate working posture and dynamic tasks from video footage. PVAT has been used to evaluate postures from Orbiter missions, as well as from experimental testing of prototype glove box designs. PVAT can be used for video analysis in a number of industries, with little or no modification. It can contribute to various aspects of workplace design such as training, task allocations, procedural analyses, and hardware usability evaluations. The major advantage of the video analysis approach is the ability to gather data, non-intrusively, in restricted-access environments, such as emergency and operation rooms, contaminated areas, and control rooms. Video analysis also provides the opportunity to conduct preliminary evaluations of existing work areas.

  14. "Stand up straight": notes toward a history of posture.

    PubMed

    Gilman, Sander L

    2014-03-01

    The essay presents a set of interlinked claims about posture in modern culture. Over the past two centuries it has come to define a wide range of assumptions in the West from what makes human beings human (from Lamarck to Darwin and beyond) to the efficacy of the body in warfare (from Dutch drill manuals in the 17th century to German military medical studies of soldiers in the 19th century). Dance and sport both are forms of posture training in terms of their own claims. Posture separates 'primitive' from 'advanced' peoples and the 'ill' from the 'healthy.' Indeed an entire medical sub-specialty developed in which gymnastics defined and recuperated the body. But all of these claims were also part of a Western attempt to use posture (and the means of altering it) as the litmus test for the healthy modern body of the perfect citizen. Focusing on the centrality of posture in two oddly linked moments of modern thought--modern Zionist thought and Nationalism in early 20th century China--in terms of bodily reform, we show how "posture" brings all of the earlier debates together to reform the body.

  15. Body size and lower limb posture during walking in humans

    PubMed Central

    Hora, Martin; Soumar, Libor; Pontzer, Herman; Sládek, Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    We test whether locomotor posture is associated with body mass and lower limb length in humans and explore how body size and posture affect net joint moments during walking. We acquired gait data for 24 females and 25 males using a three-dimensional motion capture system and pressure-measuring insoles. We employed the general linear model and commonality analysis to assess the independent effect of body mass and lower limb length on flexion angles at the hip, knee, and ankle while controlling for sex and velocity. In addition, we used inverse dynamics to model the effect of size and posture on net joint moments. At early stance, body mass has a negative effect on knee flexion (p < 0.01), whereas lower limb length has a negative effect on hip flexion (p < 0.05). Body mass uniquely explains 15.8% of the variance in knee flexion, whereas lower limb length uniquely explains 5.4% of the variance in hip flexion. Both of the detected relationships between body size and posture are consistent with the moment moderating postural adjustments predicted by our model. At late stance, no significant relationship between body size and posture was detected. Humans of greater body size reduce the flexion of the hip and knee at early stance, which results in the moderation of net moments at these joints. PMID:28192522

  16. Adaptability of anticipatory postural adjustments associated with voluntary movement

    PubMed Central

    Yiou, Eric; Caderby, Teddy; Hussein, Tarek

    2012-01-01

    The control of balance is crucial for efficiently performing most of our daily motor tasks, such as those involving goal-directed arm movements or whole body displacement. The purpose of this article is twofold. Firstly, it is to recall how balance can be maintained despite the different sources of postural perturbation arising during voluntary movement. The importance of the so-called “anticipatory postural adjustments” (APA), taken as a “line of defence” against the destabilizing effect induced by a predicted perturbation, is emphasized. Secondly, it is to report the results of recent studies that questioned the adaptability of APA to various constraints imposed on the postural system. The postural constraints envisaged here are classified into biomechanical (postural stability, superimposition of motor tasks), (neuro) physiological (fatigue), temporal (time pressure) and psychological (fear of falling, emotion). Overall, the results of these studies point out the capacity of the central nervous system (CNS) to adapt the spatio-temporal features of APA to each of these constraints. However, it seems that, depending on the constraint, the “priority” of the CNS was focused on postural stability maintenance, on body protection and/or on maintenance of focal movement performance. PMID:22720267

  17. Evidence from the eyes: Threatening postures hold attention.

    PubMed

    Azarian, Bobby; Esser, Elizabeth G; Peterson, Matthew S

    2016-06-01

    Efficient detection of threat provides obvious survival advantages and has resulted in a fast and accurate threat-detection system. Although beneficial under normal circumstances, this system may become hypersensitive and cause threat-processing abnormalities. Past research has shown that anxious individuals have difficulty disengaging attention from threatening faces, but it is unknown whether other forms of threatening social stimuli also influence attentional orienting. Much like faces, human body postures are salient social stimuli, because they are informative of one's emotional state and next likely action. Additionally, postures can convey such information in situations in which another's facial expression is not easily visible. Here we investigated whether there is a threat-specific effect for high-anxious individuals, by measuring the time that it takes the eyes to leave the attended stimulus, a task-irrelevant body posture. The results showed that relative to nonthreating postures, threat-related postures hold attention in anxious individuals, providing further evidence of an anxiety-related attentional bias for threatening information. This is the first study to demonstrate that attentional disengagement from threatening postures is affected by emotional valence in those reporting anxiety.

  18. Effects of acute spinalization on neurons of postural networks

    PubMed Central

    Zelenin, Pavel V.; Lyalka, Vladimir F.; Hsu, Li-Ju; Orlovsky, Grigori N.; Deliagina, Tatiana G.

    2016-01-01

    Postural limb reflexes (PLRs) represent a substantial component of postural corrections. Spinalization results in loss of postural functions, including disappearance of PLRs. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of acute spinalization on two populations of spinal neurons (F and E) mediating PLRs, which we characterized previously. For this purpose, in decerebrate rabbits spinalized at T12, responses of interneurons from L5 to stimulation causing PLRs before spinalization, were recorded. The results were compared to control data obtained in our previous study. We found that spinalization affected the distribution of F- and E-neurons across the spinal grey matter, caused a significant decrease in their activity, as well as disturbances in processing of posture-related sensory inputs. A two-fold decrease in the proportion of F-neurons in the intermediate grey matter was observed. Location of populations of F- and E-neurons exhibiting significant decrease in their activity was determined. A dramatic decrease of the efficacy of sensory input from the ipsilateral limb to F-neurons, and from the contralateral limb to E-neurons was found. These changes in operation of postural networks underlie the loss of postural control after spinalization, and represent a starting point for the development of spasticity. PMID:27302149

  19. Postural reactions to neck vibration in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Valkovic, Peter; Krafczyk, Siegbert; Saling, Marian; Benetin, Ján; Bötzel, Kai

    2006-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that reduced reactions to proprioceptive input signals contribute to postural instability in Parkinson's disease (PD), pulses of mechanical vibration were applied to the neck muscles of PD patients and healthy controls. This stimulus elicits postural reactions in standing subjects. Participating were 13 moderately affected PD patients, 13 severely affected PD patients, and 13 age-matched healthy subjects. Patients were tested on and off medication. Three-second-long pulses of vibration were regularly (10 times) applied to the posterior neck muscles while subjects kept their eyes open or closed. Postural responses to the stimuli were measured by static posturography. No intergroup difference in the pattern and latencies of responses was found. However, the amplitudes of the postural reactions (shift of center of foot pressure) were significantly larger in advanced PD patients; those of moderately affected PD patients did not differ from those of control subjects. Moreover, the size of postural responses in both latter groups decreased across the trial contrary to that of advanced PD patients. Comparison of the measures during on and off testing revealed no significant differences. These results indicate that neither afferent proprioceptive deficits nor central integrative functions but rather scaling and habituation of erroneous proprioceptive information are disturbed in the postural control of advanced PD. Nondopaminergic structures seem to be responsible for this impairment.

  20. The Relationship Between the Stomatognathic System and Body Posture

    PubMed Central

    Cuccia, Antonino; Caradonna, Carola

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, many researchers have investigated the various factors that can influence body posture: mood states, anxiety, head and neck positions, oral functions (respiration, swallowing), oculomotor and visual systems, and the inner ear. Recent studies indicate a role for trigeminal afferents on body posture, but this has not yet been demonstrated conclusively. The present study aims to review the papers that have shown a relationship between the stomatognathic system and body posture. These studies suggest that tension in the stomatognathic system can contribute to impaired neural control of posture. Numerous anatomical connections between the stomatognathic system’s proprioceptive inputs and nervous structures are implicated in posture (cerebellum, vestibular and oculomotor nuclei, superior colliculus). If the proprioceptive information of the stomatognathic system is inaccurate, then head control and body position may be affected. In addition, the present review discusses the role the myofascial system plays in posture. If confirmed by further research, these considerations can improve our understanding and treatment of muscular-skeletal disorders that are associated with temporomandibular joint disorders, occlusal changes, and tooth loss. PMID:19142553

  1. Acute changes in postural control after soccer heading.

    PubMed

    Haran, F J; Tierney, R; Wright, W G; Keshner, E; Silter, M

    2013-04-01

    This study intended to determine if an acute bout of soccer heading alters postural control and pronounced self-reported symptoms of cerebral concussion. Collegiate soccer players were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups. Each participant completed a baseline postural control assessment prior to heading. Participants either simulated (control group; CG) or performed (experimental group; EG) 10 headers at 11.2 m/s in 10 min. The postural assessment was repeated post heading at hrs 1, 24, and 48. The postural control parameter assessed was the root mean square (RMS) of the center of mass (COM). COM RMS were calculated for the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) time series. Compared to the CG, for the AP and ML time series COM RMS values were significantly higher in the EG at hr 24 (p <0.05). An acute bout of heading results in quantifiable alterations in postural control that are detectable 24 h post heading and dissipate within an additional 24 h. The significant findings may be due to the dynamic postural control assessment that incorporated robust discordant environmental conditions.

  2. A New Standing Posture Detector to Enable People with Multiple Disabilities to Control Environmental Stimulation by Changing Their Standing Posture through a Commercial Wii Balance Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Ching-Tien; Chiang, Ming-Shan

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control environmental stimulation using body swing (changing standing posture) and a Wii Balance Board with a newly developed standing posture detection program (i.e. a new software program turns a Wii Balance Board into a precise standing posture detector). The…

  3. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-21

    Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Order Code RL31872 Unmanned Aerial Vehicles : Background...00-2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Unmanned Aerial Vehicles : Background and Issues for Congress 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Unmanned Aerial Vehicles : Background and

  4. The Impact of Unmanned Aerial Systems on Joint Operational Art

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    The Impact of Unmanned Aerial Systems on Joint Operational Art A Monograph by Major Joel E Pauls USAF School of Advanced Military Studies...Unmanned Aerial Systems on Joint Operational Art 6. AUTHOR(S) Joel E. Pauls Major, United States Air Force 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 Words) The use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) by the United States

  5. Effects of disease severity and medication state on postural control asymmetry during challenging postural tasks in individuals with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Fabio A; Polastri, Paula F; Baptista, André M; Lirani-Silva, Ellen; Simieli, Lucas; Orcioli-Silva, Diego; Beretta, Victor S; Gobbi, Lilian T B

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of disease severity and medication state on postural control asymmetry during challenging tasks in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Nineteen people with PD and 11 neurologically healthy individuals performed three standing task conditions: bipedal standing, tandem and unipedal adapted standing; the individuals with PD performed the tasks in ON and OFF medication state. The participants with PD were distributed into 2 groups according to disease severity: unilateral group (n=8) and bilateral group (n=11). The two PD groups performed the evaluations both under and without the medication. Two force plates were used to analyze the posture. The symmetric index was calculated for various of center of pressure. ANOVA one-way (groups) and two-way (PD groups×medication), with repeated measures for medication, were calculated. For main effects of group, the bilateral group was more asymmetric than CG. For main effects of medication, only unipedal adapted standing presented effects of PD medication. There was PD groups×medication interaction. Under the effects of medication, the unilateral group presented lower asymmetry of RMS in anterior-posterior direction and area than the bilateral group in unipedal adapted standing. In addition, the unilateral group presented lower asymmetry of mean velocity, RMS in anterior-posterior direction and area in unipedal standing and area in tandem adapted standing after a medication dose. Postural control asymmetry during challenging postural tasks was dependent on disease severity and medication state in people with PD. The bilateral group presented higher postural control asymmetry than the control and unilateral groups in challenging postural tasks. Finally, the medication dose was able to reduce postural control asymmetry in the unilateral group during challenging postural tasks.

  6. HISTORIC IMAGE: AERIAL VIEW WITH THE CEMETERY IN BACKGROUND. PHOTOGRAPH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HISTORIC IMAGE: AERIAL VIEW WITH THE CEMETERY IN BACKGROUND. PHOTOGRAPH 29 OCTOBER 1959. NCA HISTORY COLLECTION. - Black Hills National Cemetery, 20901 Pleasant Valley Drive, Sturgis, Meade County, SD

  7. HISTORIC IMAGE: AERIAL VIEW WITH NEW EXPRESSWAY IN FOREGROUND. PHOTOGRAPH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HISTORIC IMAGE: AERIAL VIEW WITH NEW EXPRESSWAY IN FOREGROUND. PHOTOGRAPH 19 SEPTEMBER 1978. NCA HISTORY COLLECTION. - Black Hills National Cemetery, 20901 Pleasant Valley Drive, Sturgis, Meade County, SD

  8. 1. Aerial view, looking northeast up Newark Bay, showing entire ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Aerial view, looking northeast up Newark Bay, showing entire island Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  9. Two aspects of feedforward postural control: anticipatory postural adjustments and anticipatory synergy adjustments.

    PubMed

    Klous, Miriam; Mikulic, Pavle; Latash, Mark L

    2011-05-01

    We used the framework of the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis to explore the relations between anticipatory synergy adjustments (ASAs) and anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) during feedforward control of vertical posture. ASAs represent a drop in the index of a multimuscle-mode synergy stabilizing the coordinate of the center of pressure in preparation to an action. ASAs reflect early changes of an index of covariation among variables reflecting muscle activation, whereas APAs reflect early changes in muscle activation levels averaged across trials. The assumed purpose of ASAs is to modify stability of performance variables, whereas the purpose of APAs is to change magnitudes of those variables. We hypothesized that ASAs would be seen before APAs and that this finding would be consistent with regard to the muscle-mode composition defined on the basis of different tasks and phases of action. Subjects performed a voluntary body sway task and a quick, bilateral shoulder flexion task under self-paced and reaction time conditions. Surface muscle activity of 12 leg and trunk muscles was analyzed to identify sets of 4 muscle modes for each task and for different phases within the shoulder flexion task. Variance components in the muscle-mode space and indexes of multimuscle-mode synergy stabilizing shift of the center of pressure were computed. ASAs were seen ∼ 100-150 ms prior to the task initiation, before APAs. The results were consistent with respect to different sets of muscle modes defined over the two tasks and different shoulder flexion phases. We conclude that the preparation for a self-triggered postural perturbation is associated with two types of anticipatory adjustments, ASAs and APAs. They reflect different feedforward processes within the hypothetical hierarchical control scheme, resulting in changes in patterns of covariation of elemental variables and in their patterns averaged across trials, respectively. The results show that synergies quantified

  10. Modifications of anticipatory postural adjustments in a rock climbing task: the effect of supporting wall inclination.

    PubMed

    Noé, F

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of initial postural constraint on the realisation of a leg release in a rock climbing task. Two conditions were tested: a vertical posture and an overhanging posture. The overhanging posture was characterised by a large sustentation base, which enhanced the mechanical possibilities of the system. Subjects had to release their right foot in both postural conditions. In the vertical posture, movement's effectuation was associated with anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs). In the overhanging posture, the movement was performed without APAs. The results indicated that APAs were modulated according to the possibilities of force creation of the system. Hence, the disappearance of APAs in the overhanging posture was explained by the efficiency of the system to create the impulse necessary to perform the task.

  11. A comparison of three observational techniques for assessing postural loads in industry.

    PubMed

    Kee, Dohyung; Karwowski, Waldemar

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to compare 3 observational techniques for assessing postural load, namely, OWAS, RULA, and REBA. The comparison was based on the evaluation results generated by the classification techniques using 301 working postures. All postures were sampled from the iron and steel, electronics, automotive, and chemical industries, and a general hospital. While only about 21% of the 301 postures were classified at the action category/level 3 or 4 by both OWAS and REBA, about 56% of the postures were classified into action level 3 or 4 by RULA. The inter-method reliability for postural load category between OWAS and RULA was just 29.2%, and the reliability between RULA and REBA was 48.2%. These results showed that compared to RULA, OWAS, and REBA generally underestimated postural loads for the analyzed postures, irrespective of industry, work type, and whether or not the body postures were in a balanced state.

  12. Bimanual comfort depends on how extreme either hand's posture is, not on which hand is in the more extreme posture.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Kate M; Rosenbaum, David A

    2017-01-01

    Although hand preference is one of the best known features of performance, a recent study of object transfer behavior (Coelho, Studenka, & Rosenbaum, J Exp Psychol Human Percept Perform, 40:718-730, 2014) showed that people place greater emphasis on using the hand that avoids extreme joint angles than on using the hand they normally prefer. In the present study, we sought converging evidence for the hypothesis that adopting midrange joint angles by either hand (the preferred-posture hypothesis) is more important than using the preferred hand in particular to adopt midrange joint angles (the preferred-hand hypothesis). We asked participants to hold both of their hands in different orientations and to rate their comfort. Consistent with the preferred-posture hypothesis but contrary to the preferred-hand hypothesis, the bimanual comfort ratings were more strongly affected by how extreme the two hands' postures were than by which of the hands was in the more extreme posture. The data support a theory of action planning, the posture-based motion planning theory, which says that whole-body postural comfort is a key ingredient for physical action planning.

  13. Real-Time Hand Posture Recognition Using a Range Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahamy, Herve

    The basic goal of human computer interaction is to improve the interaction between users and computers by making computers more usable and receptive to the user's needs. Within this context, the use of hand postures in replacement of traditional devices such as keyboards, mice and joysticks is being explored by many researchers. The goal is to interpret human postures via mathematical algorithms. Hand posture recognition has gained popularity in recent years, and could become the future tool for humans to interact with computers or virtual environments. An exhaustive description of the frequently used methods available in literature for hand posture recognition is provided. It focuses on the different types of sensors and data used, the segmentation and tracking methods, the features used to represent the hand postures as well as the classifiers considered in the recognition process. Those methods are usually presented as highly robust with a recognition rate close to 100%. However, a couple of critical points necessary for a successful real-time hand posture recognition system require major improvement. Those points include the features used to represent the hand segment, the number of postures simultaneously recognizable, the invariance of the features with respect to rotation, translation and scale and also the behavior of the classifiers against non-perfect hand segments for example segments including part of the arm or missing part of the palm. A 3D time-of-flight camera named SR4000 has been chosen to develop a new methodology because of its capability to provide in real-time and at high frame rate 3D information on the scene imaged. This sensor has been described and evaluated for its capability for capturing in real-time a moving hand. A new recognition method that uses the 3D information provided by the range camera to recognize hand postures has been proposed. The different steps of this methodology including the segmentation, the tracking, the hand

  14. Influence of Sensory Dependence on Postural Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santana, Patricia A.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Fiedler, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The current project is part of an NSBRI funded project, "Development of Countermeasures to Aid Functional Egress from the Crew Exploration Vehicle Following Long-Duration Spaceflight." The development of this countermeasure is based on the use of imperceptible levels of electrical stimulation to the balance organs of the inner ear to assist and enhance the response of a person s sensorimotor function. These countermeasures could be used to increase an astronaut s re-adaptation rate to Earth s gravity following long-duration space flight. The focus of my project is to evaluate and examine the correlation of sensory preferences for vision and vestibular systems. Disruption of the sensorimotor functions following space flight affects posture, locomotion and spatial orientation tasks in astronauts. The Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), the Rod and Frame Test (RFT) and the Computerized Dynamic Posturography Test (CDP) are measurements used to examine subjects visual and vestibular sensory preferences. The analysis of data from these tasks will assist in relating the visual dependence measures recognized in the GEFT and RFT with vestibular dependence measures recognized in the stability measures obtained during CDP. Studying the impact of sensory dependence on the performance in varied tasks will help in the development of targeted countermeasures to help astronauts readapt to gravitational changes after long duration space flight.

  15. Finger posture modulates structural body representations

    PubMed Central

    Tamè, Luigi; Dransfield, Elanah; Quettier, Thomas; Longo, Matthew R.

    2017-01-01

    Patients with lesions of the left posterior parietal cortex commonly fail in identifying their fingers, a condition known as finger agnosia, yet are relatively unimpaired in sensation and skilled action. Such dissociations have traditionally been interpreted as evidence that structural body representations (BSR), such as the body structural description, are distinct from sensorimotor representations, such as the body schema. We investigated whether performance on tasks commonly used to assess finger agnosia is modulated by changes in hand posture. We used the ‘in between’ test in which participants estimate the number of unstimulated fingers between two touched fingers or a localization task in which participants judge which two fingers were stimulated. Across blocks, the fingers were placed in three levels of splay. Judged finger numerosity was analysed, in Exp. 1 by direct report and in Exp. 2 as the actual number of fingers between the fingers named. In both experiments, judgments were greater when non-adjacent stimulated fingers were positioned far apart compared to when they were close together or touching, whereas judgements were unaltered when adjacent fingers were stimulated. This demonstrates that BSRs are not fixed, but are modulated by the real-time physical distances between body parts. PMID:28223685

  16. Idiopathic orthostatic intolerance and postural tachycardia syndromes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, G.; Biaggioni, I.; Robertson, D. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Upright posture imposes a substantial gravitational stress on the body, for which we are able to compensate, in large part because of the autonomic nervous system. Alteration in autonomic function, therefore, may lead to orthostatic intolerance. On one extreme, patients with autonomic failure caused by degenerative loss of autonomic function are severely disabled by orthostatic hypotension and may faint whenever they stand up. Fortunately, such patients are relatively rare. On the other hand, disabling orthostatic intolerance can develop in otherwise normal young people. These patients can be severely impaired by symptoms of fatigue, tachycardia, and shortness of breath when they stand up. The actual incidence of this disorder is unknown, but these patients make up the largest group of patients referred to centers that specialize in autonomic disorders. We will review recent advances made in the understanding of this condition, potential pathophysiological mechanisms that contribute to orthostatic intolerance, therapeutic alternatives currently available for the management of these patients, and areas in which more research is needed.

  17. Neuromuscular dentistry: Occlusal diseases and posture.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohd Toseef; Verma, Sanjeev Kumar; Maheshwari, Sandhya; Zahid, Syed Naved; Chaudhary, Prabhat K

    2013-01-01

    Neuromuscular dentistry has been a controversial topic in the field of dentistry and still remains debatable. The issue of good occlusion and sound health has been repeatedly discussed. Sometimes we get complains of sensitive teeth and sometimes of tired facial muscles on getting up in the morning. Owing to the intimate relation of masticatory apparatus with the cranium and cervico-scapular muscular system, the disorders in any system, draw attention from concerned clinicians involved in management, to develop an integrated treatment protocol for the suffering patients. There may be patients reporting to the dental clinics after an occlusal restoration or extraction, having pain in or around the temporomandibular joint, headache or neck pain. Although their esthetic demands must not be undermined during the course of treatment plan, whenever dental treatment of any sort is planned, occlusion/bite should be given prime importance. Very few dentist are able to diagnose the occlusal disease and of those who diagnose many people resort to aggressive treatment modalities. This paper aims to report the signs of occlusal disease, and discuss their association with TMDs and posture.

  18. Neuromuscular dentistry: Occlusal diseases and posture

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohd Toseef; Verma, Sanjeev Kumar; Maheshwari, Sandhya; Zahid, Syed Naved; Chaudhary, Prabhat K.

    2013-01-01

    Neuromuscular dentistry has been a controversial topic in the field of dentistry and still remains debatable. The issue of good occlusion and sound health has been repeatedly discussed. Sometimes we get complains of sensitive teeth and sometimes of tired facial muscles on getting up in the morning. Owing to the intimate relation of masticatory apparatus with the cranium and cervico-scapular muscular system, the disorders in any system, draw attention from concerned clinicians involved in management, to develop an integrated treatment protocol for the suffering patients. There may be patients reporting to the dental clinics after an occlusal restoration or extraction, having pain in or around the temporomandibular joint, headache or neck pain. Although their esthetic demands must not be undermined during the course of treatment plan, whenever dental treatment of any sort is planned, occlusion/bite should be given prime importance. Very few dentist are able to diagnose the occlusal disease and of those who diagnose many people resort to aggressive treatment modalities. This paper aims to report the signs of occlusal disease, and discuss their association with TMDs and posture. PMID:25737904

  19. Airway adequacy, head posture, and craniofacial morphology.

    PubMed

    Solow, B; Siersbaek-Nielsen, S; Greve, E

    1984-09-01

    Previous studies of different samples have demonstrated associations between craniocervical angulation and craniofacial morphology, between airway obstruction by adenoids and craniofacial morphology, and between airway obstruction and craniocervical angulation. A hypothesis to account for the different sets of associations was suggested by Solow and Kreiborg in 1977. In the present study, the three sets of associations were examined in a single group of nonpathologic subjects with no history of airway obstruction. Cephalometric radiographs taken in the natural head position and rhinomanometric recordings were obtained from twenty-four children 7 to 9 years of age. Correlations were calculated between twenty-seven morphologic, eight postural, and two airway variables. A large craniocervical angle was, on the average, seen in connection with small mandibular dimensions, mandibular retrognathism, and a large mandibular inclination. Obstructed nasopharyngeal airways (defined as a small pm-ad 2 radiographic distance and a large nasal respiratory resistance, NRR, determined rhinomanometrically) were, on the average, seen in connection with a large craniocervical angle and with small mandibular dimensions, mandibular retrognathism, a large mandibular inclination, and retroclination of the upper incisors. The observed correlations were in agreement with the predicted pattern of associations between craniofacial morphology, craniocervical angulation, and airway resistance, thus suggesting the simultaneous presence of such associations in the sample of nonpathologic subjects with no history of airway obstruction.

  20. Exercise in the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qi; Levine, Benjamin D

    2015-03-01

    Patients with the Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS) have orthostatic intolerance, as well as exercise intolerance. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) is generally lower in these patients compared with healthy sedentary individuals, suggesting a lower physical fitness level. During acute exercise, POTS patients have an excessive increase in heart rate and reduced stroke volume for each level of absolute workload; however, when expressed at relative workload (%VO2peak), there is no difference in the heart rate response between patients and healthy individuals. The relationship between cardiac output and VO2 is similar between POTS patients and healthy individuals. Short-term (i.e., 3 months) exercise training increases cardiac size and mass, blood volume, and VO2peak in POTS patients. Exercise performance is improved after training. Specifically, stroke volume is greater and heart rate is lower at any given VO2 during exercise after training versus before training. Peak heart rate is the same but peak stroke volume and cardiac output are greater after training. Heart rate recovery from peak exercise is significantly faster after training, indicating an improvement in autonomic circulatory control. These results suggest that patients with POTS have no intrinsic abnormality of heart rate regulation during exercise. The tachycardia in POTS is due to a reduced stroke volume. Cardiac remodeling and blood volume expansion associated with exercise training increase physical fitness and improve exercise performance in these patients.

  1. Photogrammetric mapping using unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graça, N.; Mitishita, E.; Gonçalves, J.

    2014-11-01

    Nowadays Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology has attracted attention for aerial photogrammetric mapping. The low cost and the feasibility to automatic flight along commanded waypoints can be considered as the main advantages of this technology in photogrammetric applications. Using GNSS/INS technologies the images are taken at the planned position of the exposure station and the exterior orientation parameters (position Xo, Yo, Zo and attitude ω, φ, χ) of images can be direct determined. However, common UAVs (off-the-shelf) do not replace the traditional aircraft platform. Overall, the main shortcomings are related to: difficulties to obtain the authorization to perform the flight in urban and rural areas, platform stability, safety flight, stability of the image block configuration, high number of the images and inaccuracies of the direct determination of the exterior orientation parameters of the images. In this paper are shown the obtained results from the project photogrammetric mapping using aerial images from the SIMEPAR UAV system. The PIPER J3 UAV Hydro aircraft was used. It has a micro pilot MP2128g. The system is fully integrated with 3-axis gyros/accelerometers, GPS, pressure altimeter, pressure airspeed sensors. A Sony Cyber-shot DSC-W300 was calibrated and used to get the image block. The flight height was close to 400 m, resulting GSD near to 0.10 m. The state of the art of the used technology, methodologies and the obtained results are shown and discussed. Finally advantages/shortcomings found in the study and main conclusions are presented

  2. BOREAS Level-0 C-130 Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominguez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), C-130 and other aerial photography was collected to provide finely detailed and spatially extensive documentation of the condition of the primary study sites. The NASA C-130 Earth Resources aircraft can accommodate two mapping cameras during flight, each of which can be fitted with 6- or 12-inch focal-length lenses and black-and-white, natural-color, or color-IR film, depending upon requirements. Both cameras were often in operation simultaneously, although sometimes only the lower resolution camera was deployed. When both cameras were in operation, the higher resolution camera was often used in a more limited fashion. The acquired photography covers the period of April to September 1994. The aerial photography was delivered as rolls of large format (9 x 9 inch) color transparency prints, with imagery from multiple missions (hundreds of prints) often contained within a single roll. A total of 1533 frames were collected from the C-130 platform for BOREAS in 1994. Note that the level-0 C-130 transparencies are not contained on the BOREAS CD-ROM set. An inventory file is supplied on the CD-ROM to inform users of all the data that were collected. Some photographic prints were made from the transparencies. In addition, BORIS staff digitized a subset of the tranparencies and stored the images in JPEG format. The CD-ROM set contains a small subset of the collected aerial photography that were the digitally scanned and stored as JPEG files for most tower and auxiliary sites in the NSA and SSA. See Section 15 for information about how to acquire additional imagery.

  3. Aerial thermography in archaeological prospection: Applications & processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cool, Autumn Chrysantha

    Aerial thermography is one of the least utilized archaeological prospection methods, yet it has great potential for detecting anthropogenic anomalies. Thermal infrared radiation is absorbed and reemitted at varying rates by all objects on and within the ground depending upon their density, composition, and moisture content. If an area containing archaeological features is recorded at the moment when their thermal signatures most strongly contrast with that of the surrounding matrix, they can be visually identified in thermal images. Research conducted in the 1960s and 1970s established a few basic rules for conducting thermal survey, but the expense associated with the method deterred most archaeologists from using this technology. Subsequent research was infrequent and almost exclusively appeared in the form of case studies. However, as the current proliferation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and compact thermal cameras draws renewed attention to aerial thermography as an attractive and exciting form of survey, it is appropriate and necessary to reevaluate our approach. In this thesis I have taken a two-pronged approach. First, I built upon the groundwork of earlier researchers and created an experiment to explore the impact that different environmental and climatic conditions have on the success or failure of thermal imaging. I constructed a test site designed to mimic a range of archaeological features and imaged it under a variety of conditions to compare and contrast the results. Second, I explored a new method for processing thermal data that I hope will lead to a means of reducing noise and increasing the clarity of thermal images. This step was done as part of a case study so that the effectiveness of the processing method could be evaluated by comparison with the results of other geophysical surveys.

  4. D Surface Generation from Aerial Thermal Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodaei, B.; Samadzadegan, F.; Dadras Javan, F.; Hasani, H.

    2015-12-01

    Aerial thermal imagery has been recently applied to quantitative analysis of several scenes. For the mapping purpose based on aerial thermal imagery, high accuracy photogrammetric process is necessary. However, due to low geometric resolution and low contrast of thermal imaging sensors, there are some challenges in precise 3D measurement of objects. In this paper the potential of thermal video in 3D surface generation is evaluated. In the pre-processing step, thermal camera is geometrically calibrated using a calibration grid based on emissivity differences between the background and the targets. Then, Digital Surface Model (DSM) generation from thermal video imagery is performed in four steps. Initially, frames are extracted from video, then tie points are generated by Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) algorithm. Bundle adjustment is then applied and the camera position and orientation parameters are determined. Finally, multi-resolution dense image matching algorithm is used to create 3D point cloud of the scene. Potential of the proposed method is evaluated based on thermal imaging cover an industrial area. The thermal camera has 640×480 Uncooled Focal Plane Array (UFPA) sensor, equipped with a 25 mm lens which mounted in the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The obtained results show the comparable accuracy of 3D model generated based on thermal images with respect to DSM generated from visible images, however thermal based DSM is somehow smoother with lower level of texture. Comparing the generated DSM with the 9 measured GCPs in the area shows the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) value is smaller than 5 decimetres in both X and Y directions and 1.6 meters for the Z direction.

  5. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  6. Aerial view of the Press Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In this aerial view, The News Center sits beyond a large parking lot, on a hill at the northeastern end of the Launch Complex 39 Area , next to the turn basin (at left). From left, the grandstand faces the launch pads several miles away on the Atlantic seashore; behind it, the television studio is the site of media conferences; next, the large white-roofed building is the hub of information and activity for press representatives. Lined up on the right of the Press Site are various buildings and trailers, home to major news networks. The parking lot can accommodate the hundreds of media personnel who attend Space Shuttle launches.

  7. Aerial view of Runway 33 at SLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This aerial view shows the approach on Runway 33 at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility. The runway is 15,000 feet long, with 1,000-foot paved overruns at each end; 300 feet wide (about length of football field), with 50-foot asphalt shoulders each side; 16 inches thick in the center, and 15 inches thick on sides. It has a slope of 24 inches from the center line to the edge for drainage. The single landing strip is considered two runways, depending on approach -- Runway 15 from northwest, Runway 33 from southeast.

  8. Aeolic vibration of aerial electricity transmission cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, A.; Rodriguez-Vera, Ramon; Rayas, Juan A.; Barrientos, Bernardino

    2005-02-01

    A feasibility study for amplitude and frequency vibration measurement in aerial electricity transmission cable has been made. This study was carried out incorporating a fringe projection method for the experimental part and horizontal taut string model for theoretical one. However, this kind of model ignores some inherent properties such as cable sag and cable inclination. Then, this work reports advances on aeolic vibration considering real cables. Catenary and sag are considered in our theoretical model in such a way that an optical theodolite for measuring has been used. Preliminary measurements of the catenary as well as numerical simulation of a sagged cable vibration are given.

  9. Aerial views of the San Andreas Fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, M.

    1988-01-01

    These aerial photographs of the San Andreas fault were taken in 1965 by Robert E. Wallace of the U.S Geological Survey. The pictures were taken with a Rolliflex camera on 20 format black and white flim; Wallace was aboard a light, fixed-wing aircraft, flying mostly at low altitudes. He photographed the fault from San Francisco near its north end where it enters by the Salton Sea. These images represent only a sampling of the more than 300 images prodcued during this project. All the photographs reside in the U.S Geological Survey Library in Menlo Park, California. 

  10. Human Operator Modeling for Aerial Tracking.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    HUMAN OPERATOR MODELING FOR AERIAL TRACKING JONA THAN KORN ARTER. EPHRATH DA VLD L. KLEINMAN DBCXMBt 19MDTICSELECTE APR 3 1981.j B Approwd for pVA& u...8217the "Guid 8en th Cart end Use of laboratory Animals, "Inatitate of Laboratory Animl ReaNuWAes, National Rtesarch CouncL The voluntary Infomed consent...Continue. on reverse aide If necessary and identify hc block numbrh) ._Modern Optimal Control techniques are e:iployed to investigate and model human

  11. Delivery of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Sullivan, Donald V.

    2011-01-01

    To support much of NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Program science, NASA has acquired two Global Hawk Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Two major missions are currently planned using the Global Hawk: the Global Hawk Pacific (GloPac) and the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) missions. This paper briefly describes GloPac and GRIP, the concept of operations and the resulting requirements and communication architectures. Also discussed are requirements for future missions that may use satellite systems and networks owned and operated by third parties.

  12. Adaptive control of an unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguen, V. F.; Putov, A. V.; Nguen, T. T.

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with design and comparison of adaptive control systems based on plant state vector and output for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with nonlinearity and uncertainty of parameters of the aircraft incomplete measurability of its state and presence of wind disturbances. The results of computer simulations of flight stabilization processes on the example of the experimental model UAV-70V (Aerospace Academy, Hanoi) with presence of periodic and non-periodic vertical wind disturbances with designed adaptive control systems based on plant state vector with state observer and plant output.

  13. One month of contemporary dance modulates fractal posture in aging.

    PubMed

    Coubard, Olivier A; Ferrufino, Lena; Nonaka, Tetsushi; Zelada, Oscar; Bril, Blandine; Dietrich, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the human aging of postural control and how physical or motor activity improves balance and gait is challenging for both clinicians and researchers. Previous studies have evidenced that physical and sporting activity focusing on cardiovascular and strength conditioning help older adults develop their balance and gait and/or decrease their frequency of falls. Motor activity based on motor-skill learning has also been put forward as an alternative to develop balance and/or prevent falls in aging. Specifically dance has been advocated as a promising program to boost motor control. In this study, we examined the effects of contemporary dance (CD) on postural control of older adults. Upright stance posturography was performed in 38 participants aged 54-89 years before and after the intervention period, during which one half of the randomly assigned participants was trained to CD and the other half was not trained at all (no dance, ND). CD training lasted 4 weeks, 3 times a week. We performed classical statistic scores of postural signal and dynamic analyses, namely signal diffusion analysis (SDA), recurrence quantification analysis (RQA), and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). CD modulated postural control in older trainees, as revealed in the eyes closed condition by a decrease in fractal dimension and an increase in DFA alpha component in the mediolateral plane. The ND group showed an increase in length and mean velocity of postural signal, and the eyes open a decrease in RQA maximal diagonal line in the anteroposterior plane and an increase in DFA alpha component in the mediolateral plane. No change was found in SDA in either group. We suggest that such a massed practice of CD reduced the quantity of exchange between the subject and the environment by increasing their postural confidence. Since CD has low-physical but high-motor impact, we conclude that it may be recommended as a useful program to rehabilitate posture in aging.

  14. Postural Rehabilitation for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis during Growth

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Hans-Rudolf; Moramarco, Marc Michael; Borysov, Maksym; Lee, Sang Gil; Nan, Xiaofeng; Moramarco, Kathryn Ann

    2016-01-01

    Long-term follow-up of untreated patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) indicates that, with the exception of some extremely severe cases, AIS does not have a significant impact on quality of life and does not result in dire consequences. In view of the relatively benign nature of AIS and the long-term complications of surgery, the indications for treatment should be reviewed. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that scoliosis-specific exercises focusing on postural rehabilitation can positively influence the spinal curvatures in growing adolescents. Experiential postural re-education is a conservative, non-invasive approach, and its role in the management of AIS warrants further study. This article reviews current evidence for the inclusion of various forms of postural reeducation in the management of AIS. Recent comprehensive reviews have been researched including a manual and PubMed search for evidence regarding the effectiveness of physical/postural re-education/physiotherapy programs in growing AIS patients. This search revealed that there were few studies on the application of postural re-education in the management of AIS. These studies revealed that postural re-education in the form of exercise rehabilitation programs may have a positive influence on scoliosis; however, the various programs were difficult to compare. More research is necessary. There is at present Level 1 evidence for the effectiveness of Schroth scoliosis exercises in the management of AIS. Whether this evidence can be extrapolated to include other forms of scoliosis- pattern-specific exercises requires further investigation. Because corrective postures theoretically reduce the asymmetric loading of the spinal deformities and reverse the vicious cycle of spinal curvature progression, their integration into AIS programs may be beneficial and should be further examined. PMID:27340540

  15. Development of adaptive sensorimotor control in infant sitting posture.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Chiou; Jeka, John; Clark, Jane E

    2016-03-01

    A reliable and adaptive relationship between action and perception is necessary for postural control. Our understanding of how this adaptive sensorimotor control develops during infancy is very limited. This study examines the dynamic visual-postural relationship during early development. Twenty healthy infants were divided into 4 developmental groups (each n=5): sitting onset, standing alone, walking onset, and 1-year post-walking. During the experiment, the infant sat independently in a virtual moving-room in which anterior-posterior oscillations of visual motion were presented using a sum-of-sines technique with five input frequencies (from 0.12 to 1.24 Hz). Infants were tested in five conditions that varied in the amplitude of visual motion (from 0 to 8.64 cm). Gain and phase responses of infants' postural sway were analyzed. Our results showed that infants, from a few months post-sitting to 1 year post-walking, were able to control their sitting posture in response to various frequency and amplitude properties of the visual motion. Infants showed an adult-like inverted-U pattern for the frequency response to visual inputs with the highest gain at 0.52 and 0.76 Hz. As the visual motion amplitude increased, the gain response decreased. For the phase response, an adult-like frequency-dependent pattern was observed in all amplitude conditions for the experienced walkers. Newly sitting infants, however, showed variable postural behavior and did not systemically respond to the visual stimulus. Our results suggest that visual-postural entrainment and sensory re-weighting are fundamental processes that are present after a few months post sitting. Sensorimotor refinement during early postural development may result from the interactions of improved self-motion control and enhanced perceptual abilities.

  16. One month of contemporary dance modulates fractal posture in aging

    PubMed Central

    Coubard, Olivier A.; Ferrufino, Lena; Nonaka, Tetsushi; Zelada, Oscar; Bril, Blandine; Dietrich, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the human aging of postural control and how physical or motor activity improves balance and gait is challenging for both clinicians and researchers. Previous studies have evidenced that physical and sporting activity focusing on cardiovascular and strength conditioning help older adults develop their balance and gait and/or decrease their frequency of falls. Motor activity based on motor-skill learning has also been put forward as an alternative to develop balance and/or prevent falls in aging. Specifically dance has been advocated as a promising program to boost motor control. In this study, we examined the effects of contemporary dance (CD) on postural control of older adults. Upright stance posturography was performed in 38 participants aged 54–89 years before and after the intervention period, during which one half of the randomly assigned participants was trained to CD and the other half was not trained at all (no dance, ND). CD training lasted 4 weeks, 3 times a week. We performed classical statistic scores of postural signal and dynamic analyses, namely signal diffusion analysis (SDA), recurrence quantification analysis (RQA), and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). CD modulated postural control in older trainees, as revealed in the eyes closed condition by a decrease in fractal dimension and an increase in DFA alpha component in the mediolateral plane. The ND group showed an increase in length and mean velocity of postural signal, and the eyes open a decrease in RQA maximal diagonal line in the anteroposterior plane and an increase in DFA alpha component in the mediolateral plane. No change was found in SDA in either group. We suggest that such a massed practice of CD reduced the quantity of exchange between the subject and the environment by increasing their postural confidence. Since CD has low-physical but high-motor impact, we conclude that it may be recommended as a useful program to rehabilitate posture in aging. PMID:24611047

  17. Ankle and hip postural strategies defined by joint torques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runge, C. F.; Shupert, C. L.; Horak, F. B.; Zajac, F. E.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies have identified two discrete strategies for the control of posture in the sagittal plane based on EMG activations, body kinematics, and ground reaction forces. The ankle strategy was characterized by body sway resembling a single-segment-inverted pendulum and was elicited on flat support surfaces. In contrast, the hip strategy was characterized by body sway resembling a double-segment inverted pendulum divided at the hip and was elicited on short or compliant support surfaces. However, biomechanical optimization models have suggested that hip strategy should be observed in response to fast translations on a flat surface also, provided the feet are constrained to remain in contact with the floor and the knee is constrained to remain straight. The purpose of this study was to examine the experimental evidence for hip strategy in postural responses to backward translations of a flat support surface and to determine whether analyses of joint torques would provide evidence for two separate postural strategies. Normal subjects standing on a flat support surface were translated backward with a range of velocities from fast (55 cm/s) to slow (5 cm/s). EMG activations and joint kinematics showed pattern changes consistent with previous experimental descriptions of mixed hip and ankle strategy with increasing platform velocity. Joint torque analyses revealed the addition of a hip flexor torque to the ankle plantarflexor torque during fast translations. This finding indicates the addition of hip strategy to ankle strategy to produce a continuum of postural responses. Hip torque without accompanying ankle torque (pure hip strategy) was not observed. Although postural control strategies have previously been defined by how the body moves, we conclude that joint torques, which indicate how body movements are produced, are useful in defining postural control strategies. These results also illustrate how the biomechanics of the body can transform discrete control

  18. Postural support strategies of disabled drivers and the effectiveness of postural support aids.

    PubMed

    Lawton, Clare; Cook, Sharon; May, Andrew; Clemo, Keith; Brown, Susan

    2008-01-01

    The paper discusses a series of driving trials that were conducted to investigate postural stability of disabled drivers and to assess the effectiveness of a representative sample of support aids. Twenty-three disabled drivers with varying levels of physical disability and seven non disabled drivers participated in the study. The test car was equipped with transducers to measure vehicle velocity and acceleration (longitudinal and lateral), steering wheel movement and torque, and the bracing forces exerted by the driver on the steering wheel. Video cameras were installed to record postural support strategies and displacement of the driver and to record deviation of the car from the specified path. Subjective data regarding driver attitudes and acceptance were also collected through the administration of questionnaires. Findings from the study showed that support aids significantly improved driving performance and reduced physical exertion to maintain an upright driving position for disabled drivers. However, ergonomics design aspects regarding the ease of use and acceptance of the support aids by the end users were identified as obstacles to their sustained use in everyday driving.

  19. Does increased muscular tension along the torso impair postural equilibrium in a standing posture?

    PubMed

    Hamaoui, Alain; Friant, Yola; Le Bozec, Serge

    2011-10-01

    This paper focused on the relationship between active muscular tension along the torso and postural equilibrium while standing. Eleven healthy male subjects underwent a posturographic examination associated with a bimanual compression of a dynamometric bar, which was used to set the torso muscular activity at three different levels (0MVC, 20MVC, 40MVC). Electromyographic pre-tests identified the main superficial muscles of the compressive load as: pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, thoracic and lumbar erector spinae. Kinematics of the chest wall was recorded by means of two sensing belts, in order to assess the respiratory component of the center of pressure (CP) signal. The analysis of time-domain stabilometric parameters showed that CP displacements were larger and faster in 40MVC that in 20MVC, with no variation between 0MVC and 20MVC. The respiratory component of the CP signal was not sensitive to the compressive load. It was concluded that increased muscular tension along the torso is likely to disturb postural equilibrium, but only when it exceeds a given level.

  20. Neural network control of a parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system for a small unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, Frederick G.

    2005-11-01

    Parallel hybrid-electric propulsion systems would be beneficial for small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) used for military, homeland security, and disaster-monitoring missions. The benefits, due to the hybrid and electric-only modes, include increased time-on-station and greater range as compared to electric-powered UAVs and stealth modes not available with gasoline-powered UAVs. This dissertation contributes to the research fields of small unmanned aerial vehicles, hybrid-electric propulsion system control, and intelligent control. A conceptual design of a small UAV with a parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system is provided. The UAV is intended for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) missions. A conceptual design reveals the trade-offs that must be considered to take advantage of the hybrid-electric propulsion system. The resulting hybrid-electric propulsion system is a two-point design that includes an engine primarily sized for cruise speed and an electric motor and battery pack that are primarily sized for a slower endurance speed. The electric motor provides additional power for take-off, climbing, and acceleration and also serves as a generator during charge-sustaining operation or regeneration. The intelligent control of the hybrid-electric propulsion system is based on an instantaneous optimization algorithm that generates a hyper-plane from the nonlinear efficiency maps for the internal combustion engine, electric motor, and lithium-ion battery pack. The hyper-plane incorporates charge-depletion and charge-sustaining strategies. The optimization algorithm is flexible and allows the operator/user to assign relative importance between the use of gasoline, electricity, and recharging depending on the intended mission. A MATLAB/Simulink model was developed to test the control algorithms. The Cerebellar Model Arithmetic Computer (CMAC) associative memory neural network is applied to the control of the UAVs parallel hybrid

  1. Differences in lumbar and pelvic angles and gluteal pressure in different sitting postures.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ji-Su; An, Duk-Hyun

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effects of erect sitting, slouched posture with cross-legged sitting, and erect posture with cross-legged sitting on the lumbar and pelvic angles, and gluteal pressure. [Subjects] For the experiments, 17 healthy women were recruited. [Methods] All subjects were asked to perform three sitting postures: erect sitting, slouched posture with cross-legged sitting, and erect posture with cross-legged sitting. Lumbar and pelvic angles were measured using a three-dimensional motion-capture system, and gluteal pressure was measured using a pressure mat. [Results] Compared to erector sitting, slouched posture with cross-legged sitting showed significantly greater lumbar flexion, posterior pelvic tilt, and left pelvic tilt. Compared to erect sitting, erect posture with cross-legged sitting showed significantly greater lumbar flexion and posterior pelvic tilt. Compared to erect posture with cross-legged sitting, slouched posture with cross-legged sitting showed significantly greater lumbar flexion and posterior pelvic tilt. Compared to erect sitting and erect posture with cross-legged sitting, slouched posture with cross-legged sitting showed significantly greater left gluteal pressure; there was no significant difference in right gluteal pressure. [Conclusion] An erect posture can reduce changes in lumbar and pelvic angles, and gluteal pressure compared to a slouched posture during cross-legged sitting.

  2. Reliability of upright posture measurements in primary school children

    PubMed Central

    McEvoy, Maureen P; Grimmer, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Background Correct upright posture is considered to be a measure of good musculoskeletal health. Little is known about the usual variability of children's upright standing posture. The aim of this study was to assess differences between repeated measures of upright posture in a group of primary school children. Methods Sagittal plane photographs of usual, relaxed upright standing posture of 38 boys and girls aged 5–12 years were taken twice within an hour. Reflective markers were placed over the canthus, tragus, C7 spinous process, greater trochanter and lateral malleolus. Digitising software was used to calculate the x,y plane coordinates, from which five postural angles were calculated (trunk, neck, gaze, head on neck, lower limb). Height, weight, motor control estimates (as measured by the Brace Tests) and presence of recent pain were recorded for each child, and the association between the first test measure of posture angles and these factors was assessed using linear regression and ANOVA models. Multiple ANOVA models were applied to analyse the effect of repeated testing, and significant predictors on the angles. Results Four of the five postural angles (trunk, neck, head on neck, lower limb) were significantly influenced by age. As age was strongly associated with height (r2 = 0.84) and moderately associated with weight and motor control (r2 = 0.67, 0.56 respectively), these developmental parameters may well explain the age effect on angles. There was no relationship between age and pain reported on either the testing day, or recently, and there was no gender influence on any angle. There was no significant effect of repeated testing on any angle (ICC>0.93). None of the hypothesized predictors were associated with differences in angles from repeated testing. Conclusion This study outlined the variability of relaxed upright standing posture of children aged 5–12 years, when measured twice in an hour. Age influenced the size of the angles but not the

  3. Dynamic posture analysis of Spacelab-1 crew members.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D J; Reschke, M F; Homick, J E; Werness, S A

    1986-01-01

    Dynamic posture testing was conducted on the science crew of the Spacelab-1 mission on a single axis linear motion platform. Tests took place in pre- and post-flight sessions lasting approximately 20 min each. The pre-flight tests were widely spaced over the several months prior to the mission while the post-flight tests were conducted over the first, second, fourth, and sixth days after landing. Two of the crew members were also tested on the day of landing. Consistent with previous postural testing conducted on flight crews, these crew members were able to complete simple postural tasks to an acceptable level even in the first few hours after landing. Our tests were designed to induce dynamic postural responses using a variety of stimuli and from these responses, evaluate subtle changes in the postural control system which had occurred over the duration of the flight. Periodic sampling post-flight allowed us to observe the time course of readaptation to terrestrial life. Our observations of hip and shoulder position, when subjected to careful analysis, indicated modification of the postural response from pre- to post-flight and that demonstrable adjustments in the dynamic control of their postural systems were taking place in the first few days after flight. For transient stimuli where the platform on which they were asked to stand quickly moved a few centimeters fore or aft then stopped, ballistic or open loop 'programs' would closely characterize the response. During these responses the desired target position was not always achieved and of equal importance not always properly corrected some 15 seconds after the platform ceased to move. The persistent observation was that the subjects had a much stronger dependence on visual stabilization post-flight than pre-flight. This was best illustrated by a slow or only partial recovery to an upward posture after a transient base-of-support movement with eyes open. Postural responses to persistent wideband pseudorandom

  4. 7 CFR 1755.506 - Aerial wire services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .../Orange or White Orange 3 White/Green or White Green 4 White/Brown or White Brown 5 White/Slate or White... clear of roof drainage points. (v) Where practicable, aerial service wires shall pass under electrical..., aerial service wires shall be located so that ice and snow falling from the roof will not strike...

  5. 7 CFR 1755.506 - Aerial wire services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .../Orange or White Orange 3 White/Green or White Green 4 White/Brown or White Brown 5 White/Slate or White... clear of roof drainage points. (v) Where practicable, aerial service wires shall pass under electrical..., aerial service wires shall be located so that ice and snow falling from the roof will not strike...

  6. 7 CFR 1755.506 - Aerial wire services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .../Orange or White Orange 3 White/Green or White Green 4 White/Brown or White Brown 5 White/Slate or White... clear of roof drainage points. (v) Where practicable, aerial service wires shall pass under electrical..., aerial service wires shall be located so that ice and snow falling from the roof will not strike...

  7. AERIAL OF VISITORS INFORMATION CENTER [VIC] & ROCKET GARDEN EXHIBIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    AERIAL OF VISITORS INFORMATION CENTER [VIC] & ROCKET GARDEN EXHIBIT KSC-375C-0604.12 116-KSC-375C-604.12, P-20220, ARCHIVE-04465 Aerial view of Kennedy Space Center Visitors Information Center looking east-northeastward. New food services building under construction is visible at upper left.

  8. Droning On: American Strategic Myopia Toward Unmanned Aerial Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    AMERICAN STRATEGIC MYOPIA TOWARD UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEMS by Carlos S. Cabello December 2013 Thesis Advisor: Bradley Jay Strawser...3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DRONING ON: AMERICAN STRATEGIC MYOPIA TOWARD UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEMS 5...the long-term. The thesis concludes with an assessment of whether strategic myopia has already set a dangerous international precedent, which

  9. Monitoring and Assuring the Quality of Digital Aerial Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christopherson, Jon

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation explains the USGS plan for monitoring and assuring the quality of digital aerial data. The contents include: 1) History of USGS Aerial Imaging Involvement; 2) USGS Research and Results; 3) Outline of USGS Quality Assurance Plan; 4) Other areas of Interest; and 5) Summary

  10. 12. Photographic copy of aerial photograph dated October 1988; Photographed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photographic copy of aerial photograph dated October 1988; Photographed by Aerial Services, Incorporated, Waterloo, Iowa; THE RATH COMPLEX FROM DIRECTLY OVERHEAD; THE PACKING PLANT BUILDINGS OCCUPY UPPER RIGHT QUADRANT OF PHOTO; 18TH STREET BRIDGE AT CENTER - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  11. An algorithm for approximate rectification of digital aerial images

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-resolution aerial photography is one of the most valuable tools available for managing extensive landscapes. With recent advances in digital camera technology, computer hardware, and software, aerial photography is easier to collect, store, and transfer than ever before. Images can be automa...

  12. The remote characterization of vegetation using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle photography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can fly in place of piloted aircraft to gather remote sensing information on vegetation characteristics. The type of sensors flown depends on the instrument payload capacity available, so that, depending on the specific UAV, it is possible to obtain video, aerial phot...

  13. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-25

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have been referred to in many ways: RPV (remotely piloted vehicle), drone, robot plane, and pilotless aircraft. Most...the DoD for UAVs, investments in unmanned aerial vehicles have been increasing every year. Congressional considerations include the proper pace, scope

  14. Kite Aerial Photography (KAP) as a Tool for Field Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    Kite aerial photography (KAP) is proposed as a creative tool for geography field teaching and as a medium to approach the complexity of readily available geodata. The method can be integrated as field experiment, surveying technique or group activity. The acquired aerial images can instantaneously be integrated in geographic information systems…

  15. DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM CABLE COUNTERWEIGHT SYSTEM, LOOKING DOWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM CABLE COUNTERWEIGHT SYSTEM, LOOKING DOWN THROUGH THE LOWER TERMINAL FLOOR. TWO SUSPENDED ROCK FILLED WOODEN BOXES CAN BE SEEN AT BOTTOM. THE METAL FRAMEWORK WAS INSTALLED BY THE PARK SERVICE DURING THE AERIAL TRAM'S STABILIZATION IN THE 1983. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  16. Aerially released spray penetration of a tall coniferous canopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An aerial spray deposition project was designed to evaluate aerial application to an Eastern Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) canopy to combat Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Adelges tsugae). This adelgid offers a difficult target residing in the forest canopy at the nodes of branchlets. The study collected 1680 ...

  17. 11. Photographic copy of aerial photograph dated ca. 1954; Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photographic copy of aerial photograph dated ca. 1954; Photographer unknown; Original owned by Waterloo Courier, Waterloo, Iowa; AERIAL VIEW OF RATH COMPLEX, LOOKING WEST; BEEF KILLING BUILDING (149 AND LIVESTOCK HOLDING AREAS ARE AT LEFT CENTER; FERTILIZER PLANT/STORAGE BUILDINGS ARE AT BOTTOM OF PHOTO - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  18. Aerial radiological survey of Area 11, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    1983-06-01

    An aerial radiological survey of Area 11's Plutonium Valley was conducted at the Nevada Test Site from 18 to 30 January 1982. Contour maps representing terrestrial exposure rates and soil concentrations of transuranics, /sup 235/U and /sup 137/Cs are presented on an aerial photograph. Inventories of the locale's transuranic and uranium activities are also included.

  19. Blending zone determination for aerial orthimage mosaicking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chao-Hung; Chen, Bo-Heng; Lin, Bo-Yi; Chou, Han-Szu

    2016-09-01

    Creating a composed image from a set of aerial images is a fundamental step in orthomosaic generation. One of the processes involved in this technique is determining an optimal seamline in an overlapping region to stitch image patches seamlessly. Most previous studies have solved this optimization problem by searching for a one-pixel-wide seamline with an objective function. This strategy significantly reduced pixel mismatches on the seamline caused by geometric distortions of images but did not fully consider color discontinuity and mismatch problems that occur around the seamline, which sometimes cause mosaicking artifacts. This study proposes a blending zone determination scheme with a novel path finding algorithm to reduce the occurrence of unwanted artifacts. Instead of searching for a one-pixel-wide seamline, a blending zone, which is a k-pixel-wide seamline that passes through high-similarity pixels in the overlapping region, is determined using a hierarchical structure. This strategy allows for not only seamless stitching but also smooth color blending of neighboring image patches. Moreover, the proposed method searches for a blending zone without the pre-process of highly mismatched pixel removal and additional geographic data of road vectors and digital surface/elevation models, which increases the usability of the approach. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of aerial images demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method to related methods in terms of avoidance of passing highly mismatched pixels.

  20. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles unique cost estimating requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, P.; Apgar, H.; Stukes, S.; Sterk, S.

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also referred to as drones, are aerial platforms that fly without a human pilot onboard. UAVs are controlled autonomously by a computer in the vehicle or under the remote control of a pilot stationed at a fixed ground location. There are a wide variety of drone shapes, sizes, configurations, complexities, and characteristics. Use of these devices by the Department of Defense (DoD), NASA, civil and commercial organizations continues to grow. UAVs are commonly used for intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR). They are also use for combat operations, and civil applications, such as firefighting, non-military security work, surveillance of infrastructure (e.g. pipelines, power lines and country borders). UAVs are often preferred for missions that require sustained persistence (over 4 hours in duration), or are “ too dangerous, dull or dirty” for manned aircraft. Moreover, they can offer significant acquisition and operations cost savings over traditional manned aircraft. Because of these unique characteristics and missions, UAV estimates require some unique estimating methods. This paper describes a framework for estimating UAV systems total ownership cost including hardware components, software design, and operations. The challenge of collecting data, testing the sensitivities of cost drivers, and creating cost estimating relationships (CERs) for each key work breakdown structure (WBS) element is discussed. The autonomous operation of UAVs is especially challenging from a software perspective.