Science.gov

Sample records for aerial thermal imagery

  1. D Surface Generation from Aerial Thermal Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodaei, B.; Samadzadegan, F.; Dadras Javan, F.; Hasani, H.

    2015-12-01

    Aerial thermal imagery has been recently applied to quantitative analysis of several scenes. For the mapping purpose based on aerial thermal imagery, high accuracy photogrammetric process is necessary. However, due to low geometric resolution and low contrast of thermal imaging sensors, there are some challenges in precise 3D measurement of objects. In this paper the potential of thermal video in 3D surface generation is evaluated. In the pre-processing step, thermal camera is geometrically calibrated using a calibration grid based on emissivity differences between the background and the targets. Then, Digital Surface Model (DSM) generation from thermal video imagery is performed in four steps. Initially, frames are extracted from video, then tie points are generated by Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) algorithm. Bundle adjustment is then applied and the camera position and orientation parameters are determined. Finally, multi-resolution dense image matching algorithm is used to create 3D point cloud of the scene. Potential of the proposed method is evaluated based on thermal imaging cover an industrial area. The thermal camera has 640×480 Uncooled Focal Plane Array (UFPA) sensor, equipped with a 25 mm lens which mounted in the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The obtained results show the comparable accuracy of 3D model generated based on thermal images with respect to DSM generated from visible images, however thermal based DSM is somehow smoother with lower level of texture. Comparing the generated DSM with the 9 measured GCPs in the area shows the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) value is smaller than 5 decimetres in both X and Y directions and 1.6 meters for the Z direction.

  2. Pedestrian Detection and Tracking from Low-Resolution Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Thermal Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yalong; Wu, Xinkai; Yu, Guizhen; Xu, Yongzheng; Wang, Yunpeng

    2016-01-01

    Driven by the prominent thermal signature of humans and following the growing availability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), more and more research efforts have been focusing on the detection and tracking of pedestrians using thermal infrared images recorded from UAVs. However, pedestrian detection and tracking from the thermal images obtained from UAVs pose many challenges due to the low-resolution of imagery, platform motion, image instability and the relatively small size of the objects. This research tackles these challenges by proposing a pedestrian detection and tracking system. A two-stage blob-based approach is first developed for pedestrian detection. This approach first extracts pedestrian blobs using the regional gradient feature and geometric constraints filtering and then classifies the detected blobs by using a linear Support Vector Machine (SVM) with a hybrid descriptor, which sophisticatedly combines Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) features in order to achieve accurate detection. This research further proposes an approach for pedestrian tracking. This approach employs the feature tracker with the update of detected pedestrian location to track pedestrian objects from the registered videos and extracts the motion trajectory data. The proposed detection and tracking approaches have been evaluated by multiple different datasets, and the results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. This research is expected to significantly benefit many transportation applications, such as the multimodal traffic performance measure, pedestrian behavior study and pedestrian-vehicle crash analysis. Future work will focus on using fused thermal and visual images to further improve the detection efficiency and effectiveness. PMID:27023564

  3. Pedestrian Detection and Tracking from Low-Resolution Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Thermal Imagery.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yalong; Wu, Xinkai; Yu, Guizhen; Xu, Yongzheng; Wang, Yunpeng

    2016-01-01

    Driven by the prominent thermal signature of humans and following the growing availability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), more and more research efforts have been focusing on the detection and tracking of pedestrians using thermal infrared images recorded from UAVs. However, pedestrian detection and tracking from the thermal images obtained from UAVs pose many challenges due to the low-resolution of imagery, platform motion, image instability and the relatively small size of the objects. This research tackles these challenges by proposing a pedestrian detection and tracking system. A two-stage blob-based approach is first developed for pedestrian detection. This approach first extracts pedestrian blobs using the regional gradient feature and geometric constraints filtering and then classifies the detected blobs by using a linear Support Vector Machine (SVM) with a hybrid descriptor, which sophisticatedly combines Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) features in order to achieve accurate detection. This research further proposes an approach for pedestrian tracking. This approach employs the feature tracker with the update of detected pedestrian location to track pedestrian objects from the registered videos and extracts the motion trajectory data. The proposed detection and tracking approaches have been evaluated by multiple different datasets, and the results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. This research is expected to significantly benefit many transportation applications, such as the multimodal traffic performance measure, pedestrian behavior study and pedestrian-vehicle crash analysis. Future work will focus on using fused thermal and visual images to further improve the detection efficiency and effectiveness. PMID:27023564

  4. Wildlife Multispecies Remote Sensing Using Visible and Thermal Infrared Imagery Acquired from AN Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (uav)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrétien, L.-P.; Théau, J.; Ménard, P.

    2015-08-01

    Wildlife aerial surveys require time and significant resources. Multispecies detection could reduce costs to a single census for species that coexist spatially. Traditional methods are demanding for observers in terms of concentration and are not adapted to multispecies censuses. The processing of multispectral aerial imagery acquired from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) represents a potential solution for multispecies detection. The method used in this study is based on a multicriteria object-based image analysis applied on visible and thermal infrared imagery acquired from a UAV. This project aimed to detect American bison, fallow deer, gray wolves, and elks located in separate enclosures with a known number of individuals. Results showed that all bison and elks were detected without errors, while for deer and wolves, 0-2 individuals per flight line were mistaken with ground elements or undetected. This approach also detected simultaneously and separately the four targeted species even in the presence of other untargeted ones. These results confirm the potential of multispectral imagery acquired from UAV for wildlife census. Its operational application remains limited to small areas related to the current regulations and available technology. Standardization of the workflow will help to reduce time and expertise requirements for such technology.

  5. New interpretations of the Fort Clark State Historic Site based on aerial color and thermal infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, Andrew Roland

    The Fort Clark State Historic Site (32ME2) is a well known site on the upper Missouri River, North Dakota. The site was the location of two Euroamerican trading posts and a large Mandan-Arikara earthlodge village. In 2004, Dr. Kenneth L. Kvamme and Dr. Tommy Hailey surveyed the site using aerial color and thermal infrared imagery collected from a powered parachute. Individual images were stitched together into large image mosaics and registered to Wood's 1993 interpretive map of the site using Adobe Photoshop. The analysis of those image mosaics resulted in the identification of more than 1,500 archaeological features, including as many as 124 earthlodges.

  6. Surface Temperature Mapping of the University of Northern Iowa Campus Using High Resolution Thermal Infrared Aerial Imageries

    PubMed Central

    Savelyev, Alexander; Sugumaran, Ramanathan

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this project was to map the surface temperature of the University of Northern Iowa campus using high-resolution thermal infrared aerial imageries. A thermal camera with a spectral bandwidth of 3.0-5.0 μm was flown at the average altitude of 600 m, achieving ground resolution of 29 cm. Ground control data was used to construct the pixel- to-temperature conversion model, which was later used to produce temperature maps of the entire campus and also for validation of the model. The temperature map then was used to assess the building rooftop conditions and steam line faults in the study area. Assessment of the temperature map revealed a number of building structures that may be subject to insulation improvement due to their high surface temperatures leaks. Several hot spots were also identified on the campus for steam pipelines faults. High-resolution thermal infrared imagery proved highly effective tool for precise heat anomaly detection on the campus, and it can be used by university facility services for effective future maintenance of buildings and grounds.

  7. Advanced Image Processing of Aerial Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodell, Glenn; Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-ur; Hines, Glenn

    2006-01-01

    Aerial imagery of the Earth is an invaluable tool for the assessment of ground features, especially during times of disaster. Researchers at the NASA Langley Research Center have developed techniques which have proven to be useful for such imagery. Aerial imagery from various sources, including Langley's Boeing 757 Aries aircraft, has been studied extensively. This paper discusses these studies and demonstrates that better-than-observer imagery can be obtained even when visibility is severely compromised. A real-time, multi-spectral experimental system will be described and numerous examples will be shown.

  8. Environmental applications utilizing digital aerial imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Monday, H.M.

    1995-06-01

    This paper discusses the use of satellite imagery, aerial photography, and computerized airborne imagery as applied to environmental mapping, analysis, and monitoring. A project conducted by the City of Irving, Texas involves compliance with national pollutant discharge elimination system (NPDES) requirements stipulated by the Environmental Protection Agency. The purpose of the project was the development and maintenance of a stormwater drainage utility. Digital imagery was collected for a portion of the city to map the City`s porous and impervious surfaces which will then be overlaid with property boundaries in the City`s existing Geographic information System (GIS). This information will allow the City to determine an equitable tax for each land parcel according to the amount of water each parcel is contributing to the stormwater system. Another project involves environmental compliance for warm water discharges created by utility companies. Environmental consultants are using digital airborne imagery to analyze thermal plume affects as well as monitoring power generation facilities. A third project involves wetland restoration. Due to freeway and other forms of construction, plus a major reduction of fresh water supplies, the Southern California coastal wetlands are being seriously threatened. These wetlands, rich spawning grounds for plant and animal life, are home to thousands of waterfowl and shore birds who use this habitat for nesting and feeding grounds. Under the leadership of Southern California Edison (SCE) and CALTRANS (California Department of Transportation), several wetland areas such as the San Dieguito Lagoon (Del Mar, California), the Sweetwater Marsh (San Diego, California), and the Tijuana Estuary (San Diego, California) are being restored and closely monitored using digital airborne imagery.

  9. COCOA: tracking in aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Saad; Shah, Mubarak

    2006-05-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are becoming a core intelligence asset for reconnaissance, surveillance and target tracking in urban and battlefield settings. In order to achieve the goal of automated tracking of objects in UAV videos we have developed a system called COCOA. It processes the video stream through number of stages. At first stage platform motion compensation is performed. Moving object detection is performed to detect the regions of interest from which object contours are extracted by performing a level set based segmentation. Finally blob based tracking is performed for each detected object. Global tracks are generated which are used for higher level processing. COCOA is customizable to different sensor resolutions and is capable of tracking targets as small as 100 pixels. It works seamlessly for both visible and thermal imaging modes. The system is implemented in Matlab and works in a batch mode.

  10. Estimating chlorophyll with thermal and broadband multispectral high resolution imagery from an unmanned aerial system using relevance vector machines for precision agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elarab, Manal; Ticlavilca, Andres M.; Torres-Rua, Alfonso F.; Maslova, Inga; McKee, Mac

    2015-12-01

    Precision agriculture requires high-resolution information to enable greater precision in the management of inputs to production. Actionable information about crop and field status must be acquired at high spatial resolution and at a temporal frequency appropriate for timely responses. In this study, high spatial resolution imagery was obtained through the use of a small, unmanned aerial system called AggieAirTM. Simultaneously with the AggieAir flights, intensive ground sampling for plant chlorophyll was conducted at precisely determined locations. This study reports the application of a relevance vector machine coupled with cross validation and backward elimination to a dataset composed of reflectance from high-resolution multi-spectral imagery (VIS-NIR), thermal infrared imagery, and vegetative indices, in conjunction with in situ SPAD measurements from which chlorophyll concentrations were derived, to estimate chlorophyll concentration from remotely sensed data at 15-cm resolution. The results indicate that a relevance vector machine with a thin plate spline kernel type and kernel width of 5.4, having LAI, NDVI, thermal and red bands as the selected set of inputs, can be used to spatially estimate chlorophyll concentration with a root-mean-squared-error of 5.31 μg cm-2, efficiency of 0.76, and 9 relevance vectors.

  11. Building and road detection from large aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Shunta; Aoki, Yoshimitsu

    2015-02-01

    Building and road detection from aerial imagery has many applications in a wide range of areas including urban design, real-estate management, and disaster relief. The extracting buildings and roads from aerial imagery has been performed by human experts manually, so that it has been very costly and time-consuming process. Our goal is to develop a system for automatically detecting buildings and roads directly from aerial imagery. Many attempts at automatic aerial imagery interpretation have been proposed in remote sensing literature, but much of early works use local features to classify each pixel or segment to an object label, so that these kind of approach needs some prior knowledge on object appearance or class-conditional distribution of pixel values. Furthermore, some works also need a segmentation step as pre-processing. Therefore, we use Convolutional Neural Networks(CNN) to learn mapping from raw pixel values in aerial imagery to three object labels (buildings, roads, and others), in other words, we generate three-channel maps from raw aerial imagery input. We take a patch-based semantic segmentation approach, so we firstly divide large aerial imagery into small patches and then train the CNN with those patches and corresponding three-channel map patches. Finally, we evaluate our system on a large-scale road and building detection datasets that is publicly available.

  12. High resolution channel geometry from repeat aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, T.; Neilson, B. T.; Jensen, A.; Torres-Rua, A. F.; Winkelaar, M.; Rasmussen, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    River channel cross sectional geometry is a key attribute for controlling the river energy balances where surface heat fluxes dominate and discharge varies significantly over short time periods throughout the open water season. These dynamics are seen in higher gradient portions of Arctic rivers where surface heat fluxes can dominates river energy balances and low hillslope storage produce rapidly varying hydrographs. Additionally, arctic river geometry can be highly dynamic in the face of thermal erosion of permafrost landscape. While direct in-situ measurements of channel cross sectional geometry are accurate, they are limited in spatial resolution and coverage, and can be access limited in remote areas. Remote sensing can help gather data at high spatial resolutions and large areas, however techniques for extracting channel geometry is often limited to the banks and flood plains adjacent to river, as the water column inhibits sensing of the river bed itself. Green light LiDAR can be used to map bathymetry, however this is expensive, difficult to obtain at large spatial scales, and dependent on water quality. Alternatively, 3D photogrammetry from aerial imagery can be used to analyze the non-wetted portion of the river channel, but extracting full cross sections requires extrapolation into the wetted portion of the river. To bridge these gaps, an approach for using repeat aerial imagery surveys with visual (RGB) and near infrared (NIR) to extract high resolution channel geometry for the Kuparuk River in the Alaskan Arctic was developed. Aerial imagery surveys were conducted under multiple flow conditions and water surface geometry (elevation and width) were extracted through photogrammetry. Channel geometry was extracted by combining water surface widths and elevations from multiple flights. The accuracy of these results were compared against field surveyed cross sections at many locations throughout the study reach and a digital elevation model created under

  13. Texture mapping based on multiple aerial imageries in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guoqing; Ye, Siqi; Wang, Yuefeng; Han, Caiyun; Wang, Chenxi

    2015-12-01

    In the realistic 3D model reconstruction, the requirement of the texture is very high. Texture is one of the key factors that affecting realistic of the model and using texture mapping technology to realize. In this paper we present a practical approach of texture mapping based on photogrammetry theory from multiple aerial imageries in urban areas. By collinearity equation to matching the model and imageries, and in order to improving the quality of texture, we describe an automatic approach for select the optimal texture to realized 3D building from the aerial imageries of many strip. The texture of buildings can be automatically matching by the algorithm. The experimental results show that the platform of texture mapping process has a high degree of automation and improve the efficiency of the 3D modeling reconstruction.

  14. Acquisition and registration of aerial video imagery of urban traffic

    SciTech Connect

    Loveland, Rohan C

    2008-01-01

    The amount of information available about urban traffic from aerial video imagery is extremely high. Here we discuss the collection of such video imagery from a helicopter platform with a low-cost sensor, and the post-processing used to correct radial distortion in the data and register it. The radial distortion correction is accomplished using a Harris model. The registration is implemented in a two-step process, using a globally applied polyprojective correction model followed by a fine scale local displacement field adjustment. The resulting cleaned-up data is sufficiently well-registered to allow subsequent straight-forward vehicle tracking.

  15. Comparison of hyperspectral imagery with aerial photography and multispectral imagery for mapping broom snakeweed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broom snakeweed [Gutierrezia sarothrae (Pursh.) Britt. and Rusby] is one of the most widespread and abundant rangeland weeds in western North America. The objectives of this study were to evaluate airborne hyperspectral imagery and compare it with aerial color-infrared (CIR) photography and multispe...

  16. Encoding and analyzing aerial imagery using geospatial semantic graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Jean-Paul; Strip, David R.; McLendon, William C.; Parekh, Ojas D.; Diegert, Carl F.; Martin, Shawn Bryan; Rintoul, Mark Daniel

    2014-02-01

    While collection capabilities have yielded an ever-increasing volume of aerial imagery, analytic techniques for identifying patterns in and extracting relevant information from this data have seriously lagged. The vast majority of imagery is never examined, due to a combination of the limited bandwidth of human analysts and limitations of existing analysis tools. In this report, we describe an alternative, novel approach to both encoding and analyzing aerial imagery, using the concept of a geospatial semantic graph. The advantages of our approach are twofold. First, intuitive templates can be easily specified in terms of the domain language in which an analyst converses. These templates can be used to automatically and efficiently search large graph databases, for specific patterns of interest. Second, unsupervised machine learning techniques can be applied to automatically identify patterns in the graph databases, exposing recurring motifs in imagery. We illustrate our approach using real-world data for Anne Arundel County, Maryland, and compare the performance of our approach to that of an expert human analyst.

  17. Application of airborne thermal imagery to surveys of Pacific walrus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burn, D.M.; Webber, M.A.; Udevitz, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    We conducted tests of airborne thermal imagery of Pacific walrus to determine if this technology can be used to detect walrus groups on sea ice and estimate the number of walruses present in each group. In April 2002 we collected thermal imagery of 37 walrus groups in the Bering Sea at spatial resolutions ranging from 1-4 m. We also collected high-resolution digital aerial photographs of the same groups. Walruses were considerably warmer than the background environment of ice, snow, and seawater and were easily detected in thermal imagery. We found a significant linear relation between walrus group size and the amount of heat measured by the thermal sensor at all 4 spatial resolutions tested. This relation can be used in a double-sampling framework to estimate total walrus numbers from a thermal survey of a sample of units within an area and photographs from a subsample of the thermally detected groups. Previous methods used in visual aerial surveys of Pacific walrus have sampled only a small percentage of available habitat, resulting in population estimates with low precision. Results of this study indicate that an aerial survey using a thermal sensor can cover as much as 4 times the area per hour of flight time with greater reliability than visual observation.

  18. Building population mapping with aerial imagery and GIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ural, Serkan; Hussain, Ejaz; Shan, Jie

    2011-12-01

    Geospatial distribution of population at a scale of individual buildings is needed for analysis of people's interaction with their local socio-economic and physical environments. High resolution aerial images are capable of capturing urban complexities and considered as a potential source for mapping urban features at this fine scale. This paper studies population mapping for individual buildings by using aerial imagery and other geographic data. Building footprints and heights are first determined from aerial images, digital terrain and surface models. City zoning maps allow the classification of the buildings as residential and non-residential. The use of additional ancillary geographic data further filters residential utility buildings out of the residential area and identifies houses and apartments. In the final step, census block population, which is publicly available from the U.S. Census, is disaggregated and mapped to individual residential buildings. This paper proposes a modified building population mapping model that takes into account the effects of different types of residential buildings. Detailed steps are described that lead to the identification of residential buildings from imagery and other GIS data layers. Estimated building populations are evaluated per census block with reference to the known census records. This paper presents and evaluates the results of building population mapping in areas of West Lafayette, Lafayette, and Wea Township, all in the state of Indiana, USA.

  19. Oblique Aerial Imagery for NMA - Some best Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remondino, F.; Toschi, I.; Gerke, M.; Nex, F.; Holland, D.; McGill, A.; Talaya Lopez, J.; Magarinos, A.

    2016-06-01

    Oblique airborne photogrammetry is rapidly maturing and being offered by service providers as a good alternative or replacement of the more traditional vertical imagery and for very different applications (Fig.1). EuroSDR, representing European National Mapping Agencies (NMAs) and research organizations of most EU states, is following the development of oblique aerial cameras since 2013, when an ongoing activity was created to continuously update its members on the developments in this technology. Nowadays most European NMAs still rely on the traditional workflow based on vertical photography but changes are slowly taking place also at production level. Some NMAs have already run some tests internally to understand the potential for their needs whereas other agencies are discussing on the future role of this technology and how to possibly adapt their production pipelines. At the same time, some research institutions and academia demonstrated the potentialities of oblique aerial datasets to generate textured 3D city models or large building block models. The paper provides an overview of tests, best practices and considerations coming from the R&D community and from three European NMAs concerning the use of oblique aerial imagery.

  20. Thermal imagery for census of ungulates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wride, M. C.; Baker, K.

    1977-01-01

    A Daedalus thermal linescanner mounted in a light single engine aircraft was used to image the entire 270 square kilometers within the fenced perimeter of ElK Island Park, Alberta, Canada. The data were collected during winter, 1976 in morning and midday (overcast conditions) processed and analyzed to obtain a number for total ungulates. Five different ungulate species were present during the survey. Ungulates were easily observed during the analysis of linescanner imagery and the total number of ungulates was established at 2175 compared to figures of 1010 and 1231 for visual method aerial survey results of the same area that year. It was concluded that the scanner was much more accurate and precise for census of ungulates than visual techniques.

  1. Automatic Sea Bird Detection from High Resolution Aerial Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, S.; Grenzdörffer, G. J.

    2016-06-01

    Great efforts are presently taken in the scientific community to develop computerized and (fully) automated image processing methods allowing for an efficient and automatic monitoring of sea birds and marine mammals in ever-growing amounts of aerial imagery. Currently the major part of the processing, however, is still conducted by especially trained professionals, visually examining the images and detecting and classifying the requested subjects. This is a very tedious task, particularly when the rate of void images regularly exceeds the mark of 90%. In the content of this contribution we will present our work aiming to support the processing of aerial images by modern methods from the field of image processing. We will especially focus on the combination of local, region-based feature detection and piecewise global image segmentation for automatic detection of different sea bird species. Large image dimensions resulting from the use of medium and large-format digital cameras in aerial surveys inhibit the applicability of image processing methods based on global operations. In order to efficiently handle those image sizes and to nevertheless take advantage of globally operating segmentation algorithms, we will describe the combined usage of a simple performant feature detector based on local operations on the original image with a complex global segmentation algorithm operating on extracted sub-images. The resulting exact segmentation of possible candidates then serves as a basis for the determination of feature vectors for subsequent elimination of false candidates and for classification tasks.

  2. Three-dimensional panoramic terrain reconstruction from aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ahua; Li, Xuejun; Xie, Jianwei; Wei, Yong

    2013-01-01

    A complete solution for effectively, automatically, and accurately reconstructing the three-dimensional (3-D) panoramic terrain from aerial imagery is presented. With enough premeasured and identified georeferences, we first estimate every camera's accurate intrinsic and extrinsic parameters by implementing bundle adjustment, which is introduced in detail. Afterward, the adjacent relationship of imagery is acquired from the cameras' position parameters. In addition, the formulas for corresponding area prediction and image rectification are derived according to the camera parameters. Subsequently, feature-based matching is conducted between adjacent image pairs to provide much more constraints for bundle adjustment. Area-based matching is applied to pairs of horizontal epipolar imagery for dense correspondence to produce dense spatial point cloud. Eventually, the mosaicked digital ortho map and digital elevation model of the whole imaging area are produced automatically by a series of steps including spatial intersection, Tin generation, differential correction, and color blending. Experimental results show that the root mean square (RMS) residual errors of check points in planimetry and altitude are, respectively, 0.039 and 0.170 m, demonstrating the high accuracy of camera orientation. The visualized panoramic 3-D realistic scene validates the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed solution.

  3. Robust vehicle detection in low-resolution aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahli, Samir; Ouyang, Yueh; Sheng, Yunlong; Lavigne, Daniel A.

    2010-04-01

    We propose a feature-based approach for vehicle detection in aerial imagery with 11.2 cm/pixel resolution. The approach is free of all constraints related to the vehicles appearance. The scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) is used to extract keypoints in the image. The local structure in the neighbouring of the SIFT keypoints is described by 128 gradient orientation based features. A Support Vector Machine is used to create a model which is able to predict if the SIFT keypoints belong to or not to car structures in the image. The collection of SIFT keypoints with car label are clustered in the geometric space into subsets and each subset is associated to one car. This clustering is based on the Affinity Propagation algorithm modified to take into account specific spatial constraint related to geometry of cars at the given resolution.

  4. Applicability Evaluation of Object Detection Method to Satellite and Aerial Imageries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiya, K.; Fuse, T.; Takahashi, M.

    2016-06-01

    Since satellite and aerial imageries are recently widely spread and frequently observed, combination of them are expected to complement spatial and temporal resolution each other. One of the prospective applications is traffic monitoring, where objects of interest, or vehicles, need to be recognized automatically. Techniques that employ object detection before object recognition can save a computational time and cost, and thus take a significant role. However, there is not enough knowledge whether object detection method can perform well on satellite and aerial imageries. In addition, it also has to be studied how characteristics of satellite and aerial imageries affect the object detection performance. This study employ binarized normed gradients (BING) method that runs significantly fast and is robust to rotation and noise. For our experiments, 11-bits BGR-IR satellite imageries from WorldView-3, and BGR-color aerial imageries are used respectively, and we create thousands of ground truth samples. We conducted several experiments to compare the performances with different images, to verify whether combination of different resolution images improved the performance, and to analyze the applicability of mixing satellite and aerial imageries. The results showed that infrared band had little effect on the detection rate, that 11-bit images performed less than 8-bit images and that the better spatial resolution brought the better performance. Another result might imply that mixing higher and lower resolution images for training dataset could help detection performance. Furthermore, we found that aerial images improved the detection performance on satellite images.

  5. First results for an image processing workflow for hyperspatial imagery acquired with a low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Very high-resolution images from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have great potential for use in rangeland monitoring and assessment, because the imagery fills the gap between ground-based observations and remotely sensed imagery from aerial or satellite sensors. However, because UAV imagery is ofte...

  6. Texture and scale in object-based analysis of subdecimeter resolution unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Imagery acquired with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has great potential for incorporation into natural resource monitoring protocols due to their ability to be deployed quickly and repeatedly and to fly at low altitudes. While the imagery may have high spatial resolution, the spectral resolution i...

  7. Realistic texture in simulated thermal infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Jason T.

    Creating a visually-realistic yet radiometrically-accurate simulation of thermal infrared (TIR) imagery is a challenge that has plagued members of industry and academia alike. The goal of imagery simulation is to provide a practical alternative to the often staggering effort required to collect actual data. Previous attempts at simulating TIR imagery have suffered from a lack of texture---the simulated scenes generally failed to reproduce the natural variability seen in actual TIR images. Realistic synthetic TIR imagery requires modeling sources of variability including surface effects such as solar insolation and convective heat exchange as well as sub-surface effects such as density and water content. This research effort utilized the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) model, developed at the Rochester Institute of Technology, to investigate how these additional sources of variability could be modeled to correctly and accurately provide simulated TIR imagery. Actual thermal data were collected, analyzed, and exploited to determine the underlying thermodynamic phenomena and ascertain how these phenomena are best modeled. The underlying task was to determine how to apply texture in the thermal region to attain radiometrically-correct, visually-appealing simulated imagery. Three natural desert scenes were used to test the methodologies that were developed for estimating per-pixel thermal parameters which could then be used for TIR image simulation by DIRSIG. Additional metrics were devised and applied to the synthetic images to further quantify the success of this research. The resulting imagery demonstrated that these new methodologies for modeling TIR phenomena and the utilization of an improved DIRSIG tool improved the root mean-squared error (RMSE) of our synthetic TIR imagery by up to 88%.

  8. Analysis of aerial multispectral imagery to assess water quality parameters of Mississippi water bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvin, Shane Adison

    The goal of this study was to demonstrate the application of aerial imagery as a tool in detecting water quality indicators in a three mile segment of Tibbee Creek in, Clay County, Mississippi. Water samples from 10 transects were collected per sampling date over two periods in 2010 and 2011. Temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) were measured at each point, and water samples were tested for turbidity and total suspended solids (TSS). Relative reflectance was extracted from high resolution (0.5 meter) multispectral aerial images. A regression model was developed for turbidity and TSS as a function of values for specific sampling dates. The best model was used to predict turbidity and TSS using datasets outside the original model date. The development of an appropriate predictive model for water quality assessment based on the relative reflectance of aerial imagery is affected by the quality of imagery and time of sampling.

  9. Applications of thermal infrared imagery for energy conservation and environmental surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carney, J. R.; Vogel, T. C.; Howard, G. E., Jr.; Love, E. R.

    1977-01-01

    The survey procedures, developed during the winter and summer of 1976, employ color and color infrared aerial photography, thermal infrared imagery, and a handheld infrared imaging device. The resulting imagery was used to detect building heat losses, deteriorated insulation in built-up type building roofs, and defective underground steam lines. The handheld thermal infrared device, used in conjunction with the aerial thermal infrared imagery, provided a method for detecting and locating those roof areas that were underlain with wet insulation. In addition, the handheld infrared device was employed to conduct a survey of a U.S. Army installation's electrical distribution system under full operating loads. This survey proved to be cost effective procedure for detecting faulty electrical insulators and connections that if allowed to persist could have resulted in both safety hazards and loss in production.

  10. Thermal Imaging Using Small-Aerial Platforms for Assessment of Crop Water Stress in Humid Subtropical Climates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf- or canopy-to-air temperature difference (hereafter called CATD) can provide information on crop energy status. Thermal imagery from agricultural aircraft or Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have the potential of providing thermal data for calculation of CATD and visual snapshots that can guide ...

  11. Very large scale aerial (VLSA) imagery for assessing postfire bitterbrush recovery.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Very large scale aerial (VLSA) imagery is an efficient tool for monitoring bare ground and cover on extensive rangelands. This study was conducted to determine whether VLSA images could be used to detect differences in antelope bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata Pursh DC) cover and density among simila...

  12. Monitoring spotted knapweed with very-large-scale-aerial imagery in sagebrush-dominated rangelands.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe L.) invades and destroys productive rangelands. Monitoring weed infestations across extensive and remote landscapes can be difficult and costly. We evaluated the efficacy of very-large-scale-aerial (VLSA) imagery for detection and quantification of spotted knapwee...

  13. Acquisition, orthorectification, and object-based classification of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery for rangeland monitoring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper, we examine the potential of using a small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for rangeland inventory, assessment and monitoring. Imagery with 8-cm resolution was acquired over 290 ha in southwestern Idaho. We developed a semi-automated orthorectification procedure suitable for handling lar...

  14. Automated Identification of River Hydromorphological Features Using UAV High Resolution Aerial Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Rivas Casado, Monica; Ballesteros Gonzalez, Rocio; Kriechbaumer, Thomas; Veal, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    European legislation is driving the development of methods for river ecosystem protection in light of concerns over water quality and ecology. Key to their success is the accurate and rapid characterisation of physical features (i.e., hydromorphology) along the river. Image pattern recognition techniques have been successfully used for this purpose. The reliability of the methodology depends on both the quality of the aerial imagery and the pattern recognition technique used. Recent studies have proved the potential of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to increase the quality of the imagery by capturing high resolution photography. Similarly, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) have been shown to be a high precision tool for automated recognition of environmental patterns. This paper presents a UAV based framework for the identification of hydromorphological features from high resolution RGB aerial imagery using a novel classification technique based on ANNs. The framework is developed for a 1.4 km river reach along the river Dee in Wales, United Kingdom. For this purpose, a Falcon 8 octocopter was used to gather 2.5 cm resolution imagery. The results show that the accuracy of the framework is above 81%, performing particularly well at recognising vegetation. These results leverage the use of UAVs for environmental policy implementation and demonstrate the potential of ANNs and RGB imagery for high precision river monitoring and river management. PMID:26556355

  15. Automated Identification of River Hydromorphological Features Using UAV High Resolution Aerial Imagery.

    PubMed

    Casado, Monica Rivas; Gonzalez, Rocio Ballesteros; Kriechbaumer, Thomas; Veal, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    European legislation is driving the development of methods for river ecosystem protection in light of concerns over water quality and ecology. Key to their success is the accurate and rapid characterisation of physical features (i.e., hydromorphology) along the river. Image pattern recognition techniques have been successfully used for this purpose. The reliability of the methodology depends on both the quality of the aerial imagery and the pattern recognition technique used. Recent studies have proved the potential of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to increase the quality of the imagery by capturing high resolution photography. Similarly, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) have been shown to be a high precision tool for automated recognition of environmental patterns. This paper presents a UAV based framework for the identification of hydromorphological features from high resolution RGB aerial imagery using a novel classification technique based on ANNs. The framework is developed for a 1.4 km river reach along the river Dee in Wales, United Kingdom. For this purpose, a Falcon 8 octocopter was used to gather 2.5 cm resolution imagery. The results show that the accuracy of the framework is above 81%, performing particularly well at recognising vegetation. These results leverage the use of UAVs for environmental policy implementation and demonstrate the potential of ANNs and RGB imagery for high precision river monitoring and river management. PMID:26556355

  16. Automatic Extraction of Building Outline from High Resolution Aerial Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yandong

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a new approach for automated extraction of building boundary from high resolution imagery is proposed. The proposed approach uses both geometric and spectral properties of a building to detect and locate buildings accurately. It consists of automatic generation of high quality point cloud from the imagery, building detection from point cloud, classification of building roof and generation of building outline. Point cloud is generated from the imagery automatically using semi-global image matching technology. Buildings are detected from the differential surface generated from the point cloud. Further classification of building roof is performed in order to generate accurate building outline. Finally classified building roof is converted into vector format. Numerous tests have been done on images in different locations and results are presented in the paper.

  17. D Object Classification Based on Thermal and Visible Imagery in Urban Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasani, H.; Samadzadegan, F.

    2015-12-01

    The spatial distribution of land cover in the urban area especially 3D objects (buildings and trees) is a fundamental dataset for urban planning, ecological research, disaster management, etc. According to recent advances in sensor technologies, several types of remotely sensed data are available from the same area. Data fusion has been widely investigated for integrating different source of data in classification of urban area. Thermal infrared imagery (TIR) contains information on emitted radiation and has unique radiometric properties. However, due to coarse spatial resolution of thermal data, its application has been restricted in urban areas. On the other hand, visible image (VIS) has high spatial resolution and information in visible spectrum. Consequently, there is a complementary relation between thermal and visible imagery in classification of urban area. This paper evaluates the potential of aerial thermal hyperspectral and visible imagery fusion in classification of urban area. In the pre-processing step, thermal imagery is resampled to the spatial resolution of visible image. Then feature level fusion is applied to construct hybrid feature space include visible bands, thermal hyperspectral bands, spatial and texture features and moreover Principle Component Analysis (PCA) transformation is applied to extract PCs. Due to high dimensionality of feature space, dimension reduction method is performed. Finally, Support Vector Machines (SVMs) classify the reduced hybrid feature space. The obtained results show using thermal imagery along with visible imagery, improved the classification accuracy up to 8% respect to visible image classification.

  18. Supervised Material Classification in Oblique Aerial Imagery Using Gabor Filter Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Michael L.

    RIT's Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) tool allows modeling of real world scenes to create synthetic imagery for sensor design and analysis, trade studies, algorithm validation, and training image analysts. To increase model construction speed, and the diversity and size of synthetic scenes which can be generated it is desirable to automatically segment real world imagery into different material types and import a material classmap into DIRSIG. This work contributes a methodology based on standard texture recognition techniques to supervised classification of material types in oblique aerial imagery. Oblique imagery provides many challenges for texture recognition due to illumination changes with view angle, projective distortions, occlusions and self shadowing. It is shown that features derived from a set of rotationally invariant bandpass filters fused with color channel information can provide supervised classification accuracies up to 70% with minimal training data.

  19. Onboard Algorithms for Data Prioritization and Summarization of Aerial Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve A.; Hayden, David; Thompson, David R.; Castano, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Many current and future NASA missions are capable of collecting enormous amounts of data, of which only a small portion can be transmitted to Earth. Communications are limited due to distance, visibility constraints, and competing mission downlinks. Long missions and high-resolution, multispectral imaging devices easily produce data exceeding the available bandwidth. To address this situation computationally efficient algorithms were developed for analyzing science imagery onboard the spacecraft. These algorithms autonomously cluster the data into classes of similar imagery, enabling selective downlink of representatives of each class, and a map classifying the terrain imaged rather than the full dataset, reducing the volume of the downlinked data. A range of approaches was examined, including k-means clustering using image features based on color, texture, temporal, and spatial arrangement

  20. Evaluation of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery to model vegetation heights in Hulun Buir grassland ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Xin, X.; Li, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Vertical vegetation structure in grassland ecosystem is needed to assess grassland health and monitor available forage for livestock and wildlife habitat. Traditional ground-based field methods for measuring vegetation heights are time consuming. Most emerging airborne remote sensing techniques capable of measuring surface and vegetation height (e.g., LIDAR) are too expensive to apply at broad scales. Aerial or spaceborne stereo imagery has the cost advantage for mapping height of tall vegetation, such as forest. However, the accuracy and uncertainty of using stereo imagery for modeling heights of short vegetation, such as grass (generally lower than 50cm) needs to be investigated. In this study, 2.5-cm resolution UAV stereo imagery are used to model vegetation heights in Hulun Buir grassland ecosystem. Strong correlations were observed (r > 0.9) between vegetation heights derived from UAV stereo imagery and those field-measured ones at individual and plot level. However, vegetation heights tended to be underestimated in the imagery especially for those areas with high vegetation coverage. The strong correlations between field-collected vegetation heights and metrics derived from UAV stereo imagery suggest that UAV stereo imagery can be used to estimate short vegetation heights such as those in grassland ecosystem. Future work will be needed to verify the extensibility of the methods to other sites and vegetation types.

  1. Exterior Orientation Estimation of Oblique Aerial Imagery Using Vanishing Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verykokou, Styliani; Ioannidis, Charalabos

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a methodology for the calculation of rough exterior orientation (EO) parameters of multiple large-scale overlapping oblique aerial images, in the case that GPS/INS information is not available (e.g., for old datasets), is presented. It consists of five main steps; (a) the determination of the overlapping image pairs and the single image in which four ground control points have to be measured; (b) the computation of the transformation parameters from every image to the coordinate reference system; (c) the rough estimation of the camera interior orientation parameters; (d) the estimation of the true horizon line and the nadir point of each image; (e) the calculation of the rough EO parameters of each image. A developed software suite implementing the proposed methodology is tested using a set of UAV multi-perspective oblique aerial images. Several tests are performed for the assessment of the errors and show that the estimated EO parameters can be used either as initial approximations for a bundle adjustment procedure or as rough georeferencing information for several applications, like 3D modelling, even by non-photogrammetrists, because of the minimal user intervention needed. Finally, comparisons with a commercial software are made, in terms of automation and correctness of the computed EO parameters.

  2. Analysis and Exploitation of Automatically Generated Scene Structure from Aerial Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilosek, David R.

    The recent advancements made in the field of computer vision, along with the ever increasing rate of computational power has opened up opportunities in the field of automated photogrammetry. Many researchers have focused on using these powerful computer vision algorithms to extract three-dimensional point clouds of scenes from multi-view imagery, with the ultimate goal of creating a photo-realistic scene model. However, geographically accurate three-dimensional scene models have the potential to be exploited for much more than just visualization. This work looks at utilizing automatically generated scene structure from near-nadir aerial imagery to identify and classify objects within the structure, through the analysis of spatial-spectral information. The limitation to this type of imagery is imposed due to the common availability of this type of aerial imagery. Popular third-party computer-vision algorithms are used to generate the scene structure. A voxel-based approach for surface estimation is developed using Manhattan-world assumptions. A surface estimation confidence metric is also presented. This approach provides the basis for further analysis of surface materials, incorporating spectral information. Two cases of spectral analysis are examined: when additional hyperspectral imagery of the reconstructed scene is available, and when only R,G,B spectral information can be obtained. A method for registering the surface estimation to hyperspectral imagery, through orthorectification, is developed. Atmospherically corrected hyperspectral imagery is used to assign reflectance values to estimated surface facets for physical simulation with DIRSIG. A spatial-spectral region growing-based segmentation algorithm is developed for the R,G,B limited case, in order to identify possible materials for user attribution. Finally, an analysis of the geographic accuracy of automatically generated three-dimensional structure is performed. An end-to-end, semi-automated, workflow

  3. Accuracy Comparison of Digital Surface Models Created by Unmanned Aerial Systems Imagery and Terrestrial Laser Scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumann, M.; Geist, M.; Bill, R.; Niemeyer, F.; Grenzdörffer, G.

    2013-08-01

    The main focus of the paper is a comparative study in which we have investigated, whether automatically generated digital surface models (DSM) obtained from unmanned aerial systems (UAS) imagery are comparable with DSM obtained from terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). The research is conducted at a pilot dike for coastal engineering. The effort and the achievable accuracy of both DSMs are compared. The error budgets of these two methods are investigated and the models obtained in each case compared against each other.

  4. Canopy Density Mapping on Ultracam-D Aerial Imagery in Zagros Woodlands, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erfanifard, Y.; Khodaee, Z.

    2013-09-01

    Canopy density maps express different characteristics of forest stands, especially in woodlands. Obtaining such maps by field measurements is so expensive and time-consuming. It seems necessary to find suitable techniques to produce these maps to be used in sustainable management of woodland ecosystems. In this research, a robust procedure was suggested to obtain these maps by very high spatial resolution aerial imagery. It was aimed to produce canopy density maps by UltraCam-D aerial imagery, newly taken in Zagros woodlands by Iran National Geographic Organization (NGO), in this study. A 30 ha plot of Persian oak (Quercus persica) coppice trees was selected in Zagros woodlands, Iran. The very high spatial resolution aerial imagery of the plot purchased from NGO, was classified by kNN technique and the tree crowns were extracted precisely. The canopy density was determined in each cell of different meshes with different sizes overlaid on the study area map. The accuracy of the final maps was investigated by the ground truth obtained by complete field measurements. The results showed that the proposed method of obtaining canopy density maps was efficient enough in the study area. The final canopy density map obtained by a mesh with 30 Ar (3000 m2) cell size had 80% overall accuracy and 0.61 KHAT coefficient of agreement which shows a great agreement with the observed samples. This method can also be tested in other case studies to reveal its capability in canopy density map production in woodlands.

  5. A procedure for orthorectification of sub-decimeter resolution imagery obtained with an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Digital aerial photography acquired with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has great value for resource management due to the flexibility and relatively low cost for image acquisition, and very high resolution imagery (5 cm) which allows for mapping bare soil and vegetation types, structure and patter...

  6. Automatic georeferencing of imagery from high-resolution, low-altitude, low-cost aerial platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geniviva, Amanda; Faulring, Jason; Salvaggio, Carl

    2014-06-01

    Existing nadir-viewing aerial image databases such as that available on Google Earth contain data from a variety of sources at varying spatial resolutions. Low-cost, low-altitude, high-resolution aerial systems such as unmanned aerial vehicles and balloon- borne systems can provide ancillary data sets providing higher resolution, oblique­ looking data to enhance the data available to the user. This imagery is difficult to georeference due to the different projective geometry present in these data. Even if this data is accompanied by metadata from global positioning system (GPS) and inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensors, the accuracy obtained from low-cost versions of these sensors is limited. Combining automatic image registration techniques with the information provided by the IMU and onboard GPS, it is possible to improve the positioning accuracy of these oblique data sets on the ground plane using existing orthorectified imagery available from sources such as Google Earth. Using both the affine scale-invariant feature transform (ASIFT) and maximally stable extremal regions (MSER), feature detectors aid in automatically detecting correspondences between the obliquely collected images and the base map. These correspondences are used to georeference the high-resolution, oblique image data collected from these low-cost aerial platforms providing the user with an enhanced visualization experience.

  7. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Produce High-Resolution Seasonally-Relevant Imagery for Classifying Wetland Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcaccio, J. V.; Markle, C. E.; Chow-Fraser, P.

    2015-08-01

    With recent advances in technology, personal aerial imagery acquired with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has transformed the way ecologists can map seasonal changes in wetland habitat. Here, we use a multi-rotor (consumer quad-copter, the DJI Phantom 2 Vision+) UAV to acquire a high-resolution (< 8 cm) composite photo of a coastal wetland in summer 2014. Using validation data collected in the field, we determine if a UAV image and SWOOP (Southwestern Ontario Orthoimagery Project) image (collected in spring 2010) differ in their classification of type of dominant vegetation type and percent cover of three plant classes: submerged aquatic vegetation, floating aquatic vegetation, and emergent vegetation. The UAV imagery was more accurate than available SWOOP imagery for mapping percent cover of submergent and floating vegetation categories, but both were able to accurately determine the dominant vegetation type and percent cover of emergent vegetation. Our results underscore the value and potential for affordable UAVs (complete quad-copter system < 3,000 CAD) to revolutionize the way ecologists obtain imagery and conduct field research. In Canada, new UAV regulations make this an easy and affordable way to obtain multiple high-resolution images of small (< 1.0 km2) wetlands, or portions of larger wetlands throughout a year.

  8. Vectorization of Road Data Extracted from Aerial and Uav Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatov, Dimitri; Häufel, Gisela; Pohl, Melanie

    2016-06-01

    Road databases are essential instances of urban infrastructure. Therefore, automatic road detection from sensor data has been an important research activity during many decades. Given aerial images in a sufficient resolution, dense 3D reconstruction can be performed. Starting at a classification result of road pixels from combined elevation and optical data, we present in this paper a fivestep procedure for creating vectorized road networks. These main steps of the algorithm are: preprocessing, thinning, polygonization, filtering, and generalization. In particular, for the generalization step, which represents the principal area of innovation, two strategies are presented. The first strategy corresponds to a modification of the Douglas-Peucker-algorithm in order to reduce the number of vertices while the second strategy allows a smoother representation of street windings by Bezir curves, which results in reduction - to a decimal power - of the total curvature defined for the dataset. We tested our approach on three datasets with different complexity. The quantitative assessment of the results was performed by means of shapefiles from OpenStreetMap data. For a threshold of 6 m, completeness and correctness values of up to 85% were achieved.

  9. Challenges in collecting hyperspectral imagery of coastal waters using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, D. C.; Herwitz, S.; Hu, C.; Carlson, P. R., Jr.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Yates, K. K.; Ramsewak, D.

    2013-12-01

    Airborne multi-band remote sensing is an important tool for many aquatic applications; and the increased spectral information from hyperspectral sensors may increase the utility of coastal surveys. Recent technological advances allow Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to be used as alternatives or complements to manned aircraft or in situ observing platforms, and promise significant advantages for field studies. These include the ability to conduct programmed flight plans, prolonged and coordinated surveys, and agile flight operations under difficult conditions such as measurements made at low altitudes. Hyperspectral imagery collected from UAVs should allow the increased differentiation of water column or shallow benthic communities at relatively small spatial scales. However, the analysis of hyperspectral imagery from airborne platforms over shallow coastal waters differs from that used for terrestrial or oligotrophic ocean color imagery, and the operational constraints and considerations for the collection of such imagery from autonomous platforms also differ from terrestrial surveys using manned aircraft. Multispectral and hyperspectral imagery of shallow seagrass and coral environments in the Florida Keys were collected with various sensor systems mounted on manned and unmanned aircrafts in May 2012, October 2012, and May 2013. The imaging systems deployed on UAVs included NovaSol's Selectable Hyperspectral Airborne Remote-sensing Kit (SHARK), a Tetracam multispectral imaging system, and the Sunflower hyperspectal imager from Galileo Group, Inc. The UAVs carrying these systems were Xtreme Aerial Concepts' Vision-II Rotorcraft UAV, MLB Company's Bat-4 UAV, and NASA's SIERRA UAV, respectively. Additionally, the Galileo Group's manned aircraft also surveyed the areas with their AISA Eagle hyperspectral imaging system. For both manned and autonomous flights, cloud cover and sun glint (solar and viewing angles) were dominant constraints on retrieval of quantitatively

  10. Detecting blind building façades from highly overlapping wide angle aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burochin, Jean-Pascal; Vallet, Bruno; Brédif, Mathieu; Mallet, Clément; Brosset, Thomas; Paparoditis, Nicolas

    2014-10-01

    This paper deals with the identification of blind building façades, i.e. façades which have no openings, in wide angle aerial images with a decimeter pixel size, acquired by nadir looking cameras. This blindness characterization is in general crucial for real estate estimation and has, at least in France, a particular importance on the evaluation of legal permission of constructing on a parcel due to local urban planning schemes. We assume that we have at our disposal an aerial survey with a relatively high stereo overlap along-track and across-track and a 3D city model of LoD 1, that can have been generated with the input images. The 3D model is textured with the aerial imagery by taking into account the 3D occlusions and by selecting for each façade the best available resolution texture seeing the whole façade. We then parse all 3D façades textures by looking for evidence of openings (windows or doors). This evidence is characterized by a comprehensive set of basic radiometric and geometrical features. The blindness prognostic is then elaborated through an (SVM) supervised classification. Despite the relatively low resolution of the images, we reach a classification accuracy of around 85% on decimeter resolution imagery with 60 × 40 % stereo overlap. On the one hand, we show that the results are very sensitive to the texturing resampling process and to vegetation presence on façade textures. On the other hand, the most relevant features for our classification framework are related to texture uniformity and horizontal aspect and to the maximal contrast of the opening detections. We conclude that standard aerial imagery used to build 3D city models can also be exploited to some extent and at no additional cost for facade blindness characterisation.

  11. Evapotranspiration estimates using ASTER thermal infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmugge, Thomas J.; French, Andrew; Kustas, William P.

    2002-01-01

    The recent availability of multi-band thermal infrared imagery from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission & Reflection radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite has made feasible the estimation of evapotranspiration at 90 meter resolution. One critical variable in evapotranspiration models is surface temperature. With ASTER the temperature can be reliably determined over a wide range of vegetative conditions. The requirements for accurate temperature measurement include minimization of atmospheric effects, correction for surface emissivity variations and sufficient resolution for the type of vegetative cover. When ASTER imagery are combined with meteorological observations, these requirements are usually met and result in surface temperatures accurate within 1-2 C. ASTER-based evapotranspiration estimates were made during September 2000 over a sub-humid regions at the USDA/ARS Grazinglands research laboratory near El Reno in central Oklahoma. Daily evapotranspiration was estimated by applying instantaneous ASTER surface temperatures, as well as ASTER-based vegetation indices from visible-near infrared bands, to a two-source energy flux model and combining the result with separately acquired hourly solar radiation data. The estimates of surface fluxes show reasonable agreement (within 50-100 W/m2) with ground-based Bowen Ratio Energy Balance measurements and illustrate how ASTER measurements can be applied to heterogeneous terrain. There are some significant discrepancies, however, and these may in part be due to difficulty quantifying fractional cover of senescent vegetation.

  12. L-shaped corner detector for rooftop extraction from satellite/aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Hui Li; Fan, Jiayuan; Lu, Shijian

    2015-10-01

    Rooftop extraction from satellite/aerial imagery is an important geospatial problem with many practical applications. However, rooftop extraction remains a challenging problem due to the diverse characteristics and appearances of the buildings, as well as the quality of the satellite/aerial images. Many existing rooftop extraction methods use rooftop corners as a basic component. Nonetheless, existing rooftop corner detectors either suffer from high missed detection or introduce high false alarm. Based on the observation that rooftop corners are typically of L-shape, we propose an L-shaped corner detector for automatic rooftop extraction from high resolution satellite/aerial imagery. The proposed detector considers information in a spatial circle around each pixel to construct a feature map which captures the probability of L-shaped corner at every pixel. Our experimental results on a rooftop database of over 200 buildings demonstrate its effectiveness for detecting rooftop corners. Furthermore, our proposed detector is complementary to many existing rooftop extraction approaches which require reliable rooftop corners as their inputs. For instance, it can be used in the quadrilateral footprint extraction methods or in driving level-set-based segmentation techniques.

  13. EROS main image file - A picture perfect database for Landsat imagery and aerial photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    The Earth Resources Observation System (EROS) Program was established by the U.S. Department of the Interior in 1966 under the administration of the Geological Survey. It is primarily concerned with the application of remote sensing techniques for the management of natural resources. The retrieval system employed to search the EROS database is called INORAC (Inquiry, Ordering, and Accounting). A description is given of the types of images identified in EROS, taking into account Landsat imagery, Skylab images, Gemini/Apollo photography, and NASA aerial photography. Attention is given to retrieval commands, geographic coordinate searching, refinement techniques, various online functions, and questions regarding the access to the EROS Main Image File.

  14. Environmental waste site characterization utilizing aerial photographs and satellite imagery: Three sites in New Mexico, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Van Eeckhout, E.; Pope, P.; Becker, N.; Wells, B.; Lewis, A.; David, N.

    1996-04-01

    The proper handling and characterization of past hazardous waste sites is becoming more and more important as world population extends into areas previously deemed undesirable. Historical photographs, past records, current aerial satellite imagery can play an important role in characterizing these sites. These data provide clear insight into defining problem areas which can be surface samples for further detail. Three such areas are discussed in this paper: (1) nuclear wastes buried in trenches at Los Alamos National Laboratory, (2) surface dumping at one site at Los Alamos National Laboratory, and (3) the historical development of a municipal landfill near Las Cruces, New Mexico.

  15. Estimation of walrus populations on sea ice with infrared imagery and aerial photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Udevitz, M.S.; Burn, D.M.; Webber, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Population sizes of ice-associated pinnipeds have often been estimated with visual or photographic aerial surveys, but these methods require relatively slow speeds and low altitudes, limiting the area they can cover. Recent developments in infrared imagery and its integration with digital photography could allow substantially larger areas to be surveyed and more accurate enumeration of individuals, thereby solving major problems with previous survey methods. We conducted a trial survey in April 2003 to estimate the number of Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) hauled out on sea ice around St. Lawrence Island, Alaska. The survey used high altitude infrared imagery to detect groups of walruses on strip transects. Low altitude digital photography was used to determine the number of walruses in a sample of detected groups and calibrate the infrared imagery for estimating the total number of walruses. We propose a survey design incorporating this approach with satellite radio telemetry to estimate the proportion of the population in the water and additional low-level flights to estimate the proportion of the hauled-out population in groups too small to be detected in the infrared imagery. We believe that this approach offers the potential for obtaining reliable population estimates for walruses and other ice-associated pinnipeds. ?? 2007 by the Society for Marine Mammalogy.

  16. A Semi-Automated Single Day Image Differencing Technique to Identify Animals in Aerial Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Terletzky, Pat; Ramsey, Robert Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Our research presents a proof-of-concept that explores a new and innovative method to identify large animals in aerial imagery with single day image differencing. We acquired two aerial images of eight fenced pastures and conducted a principal component analysis of each image. We then subtracted the first principal component of the two pasture images followed by heuristic thresholding to generate polygons. The number of polygons represented the number of potential cattle (Bos taurus) and horses (Equus caballus) in the pasture. The process was considered semi-automated because we were not able to automate the identification of spatial or spectral thresholding values. Imagery was acquired concurrently with ground counts of animal numbers. Across the eight pastures, 82% of the animals were correctly identified, mean percent commission was 53%, and mean percent omission was 18%. The high commission error was due to small mis-alignments generated from image-to-image registration, misidentified shadows, and grouping behavior of animals. The high probability of correctly identifying animals suggests short time interval image differencing could provide a new technique to enumerate wild ungulates occupying grassland ecosystems, especially in isolated or difficult to access areas. To our knowledge, this was the first attempt to use standard change detection techniques to identify and enumerate large ungulates. PMID:24454827

  17. Fusion of monocular cues to detect man-made structures in aerial imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shufelt, Jefferey; Mckeown, David M.

    1991-01-01

    The extraction of buildings from aerial imagery is a complex problem for automated computer vision. It requires locating regions in a scene that possess properties distinguishing them as man-made objects as opposed to naturally occurring terrain features. It is reasonable to assume that no single detection method can correctly delineate or verify buildings in every scene. A cooperative-methods paradigm is useful in approaching the building extraction problem. Using this paradigm, each extraction technique provides information which can be added or assimilated into an overall interpretation of the scene. Thus, the main objective is to explore the development of computer vision system that integrates the results of various scene analysis techniques into an accurate and robust interpretation of the underlying three dimensional scene. The problem of building hypothesis fusion in aerial imagery is discussed. Building extraction techniques are briefly surveyed, including four building extraction, verification, and clustering systems. A method for fusing the symbolic data generated by these systems is described, and applied to monocular image and stereo image data sets. Evaluation methods for the fusion results are described, and the fusion results are analyzed using these methods.

  18. Tracking stormwater discharge plumes and water quality of the Tijuana River with multispectral aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svejkovsky, Jan; Nezlin, Nikolay P.; Mustain, Neomi M.; Kum, Jamie B.

    2010-04-01

    Spatial-temporal characteristics and environmental factors regulating the behavior of stormwater runoff from the Tijuana River in southern California were analyzed utilizing very high resolution aerial imagery, and time-coincident environmental and bacterial sampling data. Thirty nine multispectral aerial images with 2.1-m spatial resolution were collected after major rainstorms during 2003-2008. Utilizing differences in color reflectance characteristics, the ocean surface was classified into non-plume waters and three components of the runoff plume reflecting differences in age and suspended sediment concentrations. Tijuana River discharge rate was the primary factor regulating the size of the freshest plume component and its shorelong extensions to the north and south. Wave direction was found to affect the shorelong distribution of the shoreline-connected fresh plume components much more strongly than wind direction. Wave-driven sediment resuspension also significantly contributed to the size of the oldest plume component. Surf zone bacterial samples collected near the time of each image acquisition were used to evaluate the contamination characteristics of each plume component. The bacterial contamination of the freshest plume waters was very high (100% of surf zone samples exceeded California standards), but the oldest plume areas were heterogeneous, including both polluted and clean waters. The aerial imagery archive allowed study of river runoff characteristics on a plume component level, not previously done with coarser satellite images. Our findings suggest that high resolution imaging can quickly identify the spatial extents of the most polluted runoff but cannot be relied upon to always identify the entire polluted area. Our results also indicate that wave-driven transport is important in distributing the most contaminated plume areas along the shoreline.

  19. Influence of Gsd for 3d City Modeling and Visualization from Aerial Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alrajhi, Muhamad; Alam, Zafare; Afroz Khan, Mohammad; Alobeid, Abdalla

    2016-06-01

    Ministry of Municipal and Rural Affairs (MOMRA), aims to establish solid infrastructure required for 3D city modelling, for decision making to set a mark in urban development. MOMRA is responsible for the large scale mapping 1:1,000; 1:2,500; 1:10,000 and 1:20,000 scales for 10cm, 20cm and 40 GSD with Aerial Triangulation data. As 3D city models are increasingly used for the presentation exploration, and evaluation of urban and architectural designs. Visualization capabilities and animations support of upcoming 3D geo-information technologies empower architects, urban planners, and authorities to visualize and analyze urban and architectural designs in the context of the existing situation. To make use of this possibility, first of all 3D city model has to be created for which MOMRA uses the Aerial Triangulation data and aerial imagery. The main concise for 3D city modelling in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia exists due to uneven surface and undulations. Thus real time 3D visualization and interactive exploration support planning processes by providing multiple stakeholders such as decision maker, architects, urban planners, authorities, citizens or investors with a three - dimensional model. Apart from advanced visualization, these 3D city models can be helpful for dealing with natural hazards and provide various possibilities to deal with exotic conditions by better and advanced viewing technological infrastructure. Riyadh on one side is 5700m above sea level and on the other hand Abha city is 2300m, this uneven terrain represents a drastic change of surface in the Kingdom, for which 3D city models provide valuable solutions with all possible opportunities. In this research paper: influence of different GSD (Ground Sample Distance) aerial imagery with Aerial Triangulation is used for 3D visualization in different region of the Kingdom, to check which scale is more sophisticated for obtaining better results and is cost manageable, with GSD (7.5cm, 10cm, 20cm and 40cm

  20. Estimating stomatal conductance with thermal imagery.

    PubMed

    Leinonen, I; Grant, O M; Tagliavia, C P P; Chaves, M M; Jones, H G

    2006-08-01

    Most thermal methods for the study of drought responses in plant leaves are based on the calculation of 'stress indices'. This paper proposes and compares three main extensions of these for the direct estimation of absolute values of stomatal conductance to water vapour (gs) using infrared thermography (IRT). All methods use the measured leaf temperature and two environmental variables (air temperature and boundary layer resistance) as input. Additional variables required, depending on the method, are the temperatures of wet and dry reference surfaces, net radiation and relative humidity. The methods were compared using measured gs data from a vineyard in Southern Portugal. The errors in thermal estimates of conductance were of the same order as the measurement errors using a porometer. Observed variability was also compared with theoretical estimates of errors in estimated gs determined on the basis of the errors in the input variables (leaf temperature, boundary layer resistance, net radiation) and the partial derivatives of the energy balance equations used for the gs calculations. The full energy balance approach requires accurate estimates of net radiation absorbed, which may not be readily available in field conditions, so alternatives using reference surfaces are shown to have advantages. A new approach using a dry reference leaf is particularly robust and recommended for those studies where the specific advantages of thermal imagery, including its non-contact nature and its ability to sample large numbers of leaves, are most apparent. Although the results suggest that estimates of the absolute magnitude of gs are somewhat subjective, depending on the skill of the experimenter at selecting evenly exposed leaves, relative treatment differences in conductance are sensitively detected by different experimenters. PMID:16898014

  1. Assessment of the Quality of Digital Terrain Model Produced from Unmanned Aerial System Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmatin Fras, M.; Kerin, A.; Mesarič, M.; Peterman, V.; Grigillo, D.

    2016-06-01

    Production of digital terrain model (DTM) is one of the most usual tasks when processing photogrammetric point cloud generated from Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) imagery. The quality of the DTM produced in this way depends on different factors: the quality of imagery, image orientation and camera calibration, point cloud filtering, interpolation methods etc. However, the assessment of the real quality of DTM is very important for its further use and applications. In this paper we first describe the main steps of UAS imagery acquisition and processing based on practical test field survey and data. The main focus of this paper is to present the approach to DTM quality assessment and to give a practical example on the test field data. For data processing and DTM quality assessment presented in this paper mainly the in-house developed computer programs have been used. The quality of DTM comprises its accuracy, density, and completeness. Different accuracy measures like RMSE, median, normalized median absolute deviation and their confidence interval, quantiles are computed. The completeness of the DTM is very often overlooked quality parameter, but when DTM is produced from the point cloud this should not be neglected as some areas might be very sparsely covered by points. The original density is presented with density plot or map. The completeness is presented by the map of point density and the map of distances between grid points and terrain points. The results in the test area show great potential of the DTM produced from UAS imagery, in the sense of detailed representation of the terrain as well as good height accuracy.

  2. Unsupervised building detection from irregularly spaced LiDAR and aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shorter, Nicholas Sven

    As more data sources containing 3-D information are becoming available, an increased interest in 3-D imaging has emerged. Among these is the 3-D reconstruction of buildings and other man-made structures. A necessary preprocessing step is the detection and isolation of individual buildings that subsequently can be reconstructed in 3-D using various methodologies. Applications for both building detection and reconstruction have commercial use for urban planning, network planning for mobile communication (cell phone tower placement), spatial analysis of air pollution and noise nuisances, microclimate investigations, geographical information systems, security services and change detection from areas affected by natural disasters. Building detection and reconstruction are also used in the military for automatic target recognition and in entertainment for virtual tourism. Previously proposed building detection and reconstruction algorithms solely utilized aerial imagery. With the advent of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) systems providing elevation data, current algorithms explore using captured LiDAR data as an additional feasible source of information. Additional sources of information can lead to automating techniques (alleviating their need for manual user intervention) as well as increasing their capabilities and accuracy. Several building detection approaches surveyed in the open literature have fundamental weaknesses that hinder their use; such as requiring multiple data sets from different sensors, mandating certain operations to be carried out manually, and limited functionality to only being able to detect certain types of buildings. In this work, a building detection system is proposed and implemented which strives to overcome the limitations seen in existing techniques. The developed framework is flexible in that it can perform building detection from just LiDAR data (first or last return), or just nadir, color aerial imagery. If data from both LiDAR and

  3. Evaluation of terrestrial photogrammetric point clouds derived from thermal imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalf, Jeremy P.; Olsen, Richard C.

    2016-05-01

    Computer vision and photogrammetric techniques have been widely applied to digital imagery producing high density 3D point clouds. Using thermal imagery as input, the same techniques can be applied to infrared data to produce point clouds in 3D space, providing surface temperature information. The work presented here is an evaluation of the accuracy of 3D reconstruction of point clouds produced using thermal imagery. An urban scene was imaged over an area at the Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, viewing from above as with an airborne system. Terrestrial thermal and RGB imagery were collected from a rooftop overlooking the site using a FLIR SC8200 MWIR camera and a Canon T1i DSLR. In order to spatially align each dataset, ground control points were placed throughout the study area using Trimble R10 GNSS receivers operating in RTK mode. Each image dataset is processed to produce a dense point cloud for 3D evaluation.

  4. Identification of wild areas in southern lower Michigan. [terrain analysis from aerial photography, and satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habowski, S.; Cialek, C.

    1978-01-01

    An inventory methodology was developed to identify potential wild area sites. A list of site criteria were formulated and tested in six selected counties. Potential sites were initially identified from LANDSAT satellite imagery. A detailed study of the soil, vegetation and relief characteristics of each site based on both high-altitude aerial photographs and existing map data was conducted to eliminate unsuitable sites. Ground reconnaissance of the remaining wild areas was made to verify suitability and acquire information on wildlife and general aesthetics. Physical characteristics of the wild areas in each county are presented in tables. Maps show the potential sites to be set aside for natural preservation and regulation by the state under the Wilderness and Natural Areas Act of 1972.

  5. Extracting Semantically Annotated 3d Building Models with Textures from Oblique Aerial Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frommholz, D.; Linkiewicz, M.; Meissner, H.; Dahlke, D.; Poznanska, A.

    2015-03-01

    This paper proposes a method for the reconstruction of city buildings with automatically derived textures that can be directly used for façade element classification. Oblique and nadir aerial imagery recorded by a multi-head camera system is transformed into dense 3D point clouds and evaluated statistically in order to extract the hull of the structures. For the resulting wall, roof and ground surfaces high-resolution polygonal texture patches are calculated and compactly arranged in a texture atlas without resampling. The façade textures subsequently get analyzed by a commercial software package to detect possible windows whose contours are projected into the original oriented source images and sparsely ray-casted to obtain their 3D world coordinates. With the windows being reintegrated into the previously extracted hull the final building models are stored as semantically annotated CityGML "LOD-2.5" objects.

  6. Enhanced facial recognition for thermal imagery using polarimetric imaging.

    PubMed

    Gurton, Kristan P; Yuffa, Alex J; Videen, Gorden W

    2014-07-01

    We present a series of long-wave-infrared (LWIR) polarimetric-based thermal images of facial profiles in which polarization-state information of the image-forming radiance is retained and displayed. The resultant polarimetric images show enhanced facial features, additional texture, and details that are not present in corresponding conventional thermal imagery. It has been generally thought that conventional thermal imagery (MidIR or LWIR) could not produce the detailed spatial information required for reliable human identification due to the so-called "ghosting" effect often seen in thermal imagery of human subjects. By using polarimetric information, we are able to extract subtle surface features of the human face, thus improving subject identification. Polarimetric image sets considered include the conventional thermal intensity image, S0, the two Stokes images, S1 and S2, and a Stokes image product called the degree-of-linear-polarization image. PMID:24978755

  7. An improved procedure for detection and enumeration of walrus signatures in airborne thermal imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burn, Douglas M.; Udevitz, Mark S.; Speckman, Suzann G.; Benter, R. Bradley

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, application of remote sensing to marine mammal surveys has been a promising area of investigation for wildlife managers and researchers. In April 2006, the United States and Russia conducted an aerial survey of Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) using thermal infrared sensors to detect groups of animals resting on pack ice in the Bering Sea. The goal of this survey was to estimate the size of the Pacific walrus population. An initial analysis of the U.S. data using previously-established methods resulted in lower detectability of walrus groups in the imagery and higher variability in calibration models than was expected based on pilot studies. This paper describes an improved procedure for detection and enumeration of walrus groups in airborne thermal imagery. Thermal images were first subdivided into smaller 200 x 200 pixel "tiles." We calculated three statistics to represent characteristics of walrus signatures from the temperature histogram for each the. Tiles that exhibited one or more of these characteristics were examined further to determine if walrus signatures were present. We used cluster analysis on tiles that contained walrus signatures to determine which pixels belonged to each group. We then calculated a thermal index value for each walrus group in the imagery and used generalized linear models to estimate detection functions (the probability of a group having a positive index value) and calibration functions (the size of a group as a function of its index value) based on counts from matched digital aerial photographs. The new method described here improved our ability to detect walrus groups at both 2 m and 4 m spatial resolution. In addition, the resulting calibration models have lower variance than the original method. We anticipate that the use of this new procedure will greatly improve the quality of the population estimate derived from these data. This procedure may also have broader applicability to thermal infrared

  8. An improved procedure for detection and enumeration of walrus signatures in airborne thermal imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burn, Douglas M.; Udevitz, Mark S.; Speckman, Suzann G.; Benter, R. Bradley

    2009-10-01

    In recent years, application of remote sensing to marine mammal surveys has been a promising area of investigation for wildlife managers and researchers. In April 2006, the United States and Russia conducted an aerial survey of Pacific walrus ( Odobenus rosmarus divergens) using thermal infrared sensors to detect groups of animals resting on pack ice in the Bering Sea. The goal of this survey was to estimate the size of the Pacific walrus population. An initial analysis of the U.S. data using previously-established methods resulted in lower detectability of walrus groups in the imagery and higher variability in calibration models than was expected based on pilot studies. This paper describes an improved procedure for detection and enumeration of walrus groups in airborne thermal imagery. Thermal images were first subdivided into smaller 200 × 200 pixel "tiles." We calculated three statistics to represent characteristics of walrus signatures from the temperature histogram for each tile. Tiles that exhibited one or more of these characteristics were examined further to determine if walrus signatures were present. We used cluster analysis on tiles that contained walrus signatures to determine which pixels belonged to each group. We then calculated a thermal index value for each walrus group in the imagery and used generalized linear models to estimate detection functions (the probability of a group having a positive index value) and calibration functions (the size of a group as a function of its index value) based on counts from matched digital aerial photographs. The new method described here improved our ability to detect walrus groups at both 2 m and 4 m spatial resolution. In addition, the resulting calibration models have lower variance than the original method. We anticipate that the use of this new procedure will greatly improve the quality of the population estimate derived from these data. This procedure may also have broader applicability to thermal

  9. Automatic registration of optical aerial imagery to a LiDAR point cloud for generation of city models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abayowa, Bernard O.; Yilmaz, Alper; Hardie, Russell C.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a framework for automatic registration of both the optical and 3D structural information extracted from oblique aerial imagery to a Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) point cloud without prior knowledge of an initial alignment. The framework employs a coarse to fine strategy in the estimation of the registration parameters. First, a dense 3D point cloud and the associated relative camera parameters are extracted from the optical aerial imagery using a state-of-the-art 3D reconstruction algorithm. Next, a digital surface model (DSM) is generated from both the LiDAR and the optical imagery-derived point clouds. Coarse registration parameters are then computed from salient features extracted from the LiDAR and optical imagery-derived DSMs. The registration parameters are further refined using the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm to minimize global error between the registered point clouds. The novelty of the proposed approach is in the computation of salient features from the DSMs, and the selection of matching salient features using geometric invariants coupled with Normalized Cross Correlation (NCC) match validation. The feature extraction and matching process enables the automatic estimation of the coarse registration parameters required for initializing the fine registration process. The registration framework is tested on a simulated scene and aerial datasets acquired in real urban environments. Results demonstrates the robustness of the framework for registering optical and 3D structural information extracted from aerial imagery to a LiDAR point cloud, when co-existing initial registration parameters are unavailable.

  10. The Photo-Mosaic Assistant: Incorporating Historic Aerial Imagery into Modern Research Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flathers, E.

    2013-12-01

    One challenge that researchers face as data organization and analysis shift into the digital realm is the incorporation of 'dirty' data from analog back-catalogs into current projects. Geospatial data collections in university libraries, government data repositories, and private industry contain historic data such as aerial photographs that may be stored as negatives, prints, and as scanned digital image files. A typical aerial imagery series is created by taking photos of the ground from an aircraft along a series of parallel flight lines. The raw photos can be assembled into a mosaic that represents the full geographic area of the collection, but each photo suffers from individual distortion according to the attitude and altitude of the collecting aircraft at the moment of acquisition, so there is a process of orthorectification needed in order to produce a planimetric composite image that can be used to accurately refer to locations on the ground. Historic aerial photo collections often need significant preparation for consumption by a GIS: they may need to be digitized, often lack any explicit spatial coordinates, and may not include information about flight line patterns. Many collections lack even such basic information as index numbers for the photos, so it may be unclear in what order the photos were acquired. When collections contain large areas of, for example, forest or agricultural land, any given photo may have few visual cues to assist in relating it to the other photos or to an area on the ground. The Photo-Mosaic Assistant (PMA) is a collection of tools designed to assist in the organization of historic aerial photo collections and the preparation of collections for orthorectification and use in modern research applications. The first tool is a light table application that allows a user to take advantage of visual cues within photos to organize and explore the collection, potentially building a rough image mosaic by hand. The second tool is a set of

  11. Forest and land inventory using ERTS imagery and aerial photography in the boreal forest region of Alberta, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, C. L.

    1974-01-01

    Satellite imagery and small-scale (1:120,000) infrared ektachrome aerial photography for the development of improved forest and land inventory techniques in the boreal forest region are presented to demonstrate spectral signatures and their application. The forest is predominately mixed, stands of white spruce and poplar, with some pure stands of black spruce, pine and large areas of poorly drained land with peat and sedge type muskegs. This work is part of coordinated program to evaluate ERTS imagery by the Canadian Forestry Service.

  12. Interactive analysis of thermal imagery. [computer graphics terminal for photointerpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madding, R. P.; Fisher, L. T.

    1976-01-01

    Necessary knowledge is presented on data acquisition and preparation for analysis of thermal imagery of power plant heated discharges remotely sensed from an aircraft, with special emphasis on analog to digital conversion of analog tapes acquired during scanning and to geometrical scaling. The central element in the interactive analysis of thermal imagery is an interactive graphics computer terminal which allows an interpreter to effectively interact with a large-scale computer, providing decisions or data as computations are carried out. A temperature calibration is performed, which the interpreter may test anywhere on the image. When satisfied that calibration is correct, the portion of the image to be analyzed is outlined. Printed and microfiche analyses of the plume are produced. The flow chart of programs for analysis of thermal imagery is presented and discussed in some detail.

  13. Outlier and target detection in aerial hyperspectral imagery: a comparison of traditional and percentage occupancy hit or miss transform techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Andrew; Marshall, Stephen; Gray, Alison

    2016-05-01

    The use of aerial hyperspectral imagery for the purpose of remote sensing is a rapidly growing research area. Currently, targets are generally detected by looking for distinct spectral features of the objects under surveillance. For example, a camouflaged vehicle, deliberately designed to blend into background trees and grass in the visible spectrum, can be revealed using spectral features in the near-infrared spectrum. This work aims to develop improved target detection methods, using a two-stage approach, firstly by development of a physics-based atmospheric correction algorithm to convert radiance into re ectance hyperspectral image data and secondly by use of improved outlier detection techniques. In this paper the use of the Percentage Occupancy Hit or Miss Transform is explored to provide an automated method for target detection in aerial hyperspectral imagery.

  14. Geomorphological relationships through the use of 2-D seismic reflection data, Lidar, and aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alesce, Meghan Elizabeth

    Barrier Islands are crucial in protecting coastal environments. This study focuses on Dauphin Island, Alabama, located within the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) Barrier Island complex. It is one of many islands serving as natural protection for NGOM ecosystems and coastal cities. The NGOM barrier islands formed at 4 kya in response to a decrease in rate of sea level rise. The morphology of these islands changes with hurricanes, anthropogenic activity, and tidal and wave action. This study focuses on ancient incised valleys and and the impact on island morphology on hurricane breaches. Using high frequency 2-D seismic reflection data four horizons, including the present seafloor, were interpreted. Subaerial portions of Dauphin Island were imaged using Lidar data and aerial imagery over a ten-year time span, as well as historical maps. Historical shorelines of Dauphin Island were extracted from aerial imagery and historical maps, and were compared to the location of incised valleys seen within the 2-D seismic reflection data. Erosion and deposition volumes of Dauphin Island from 1998 to 2010 (the time span covering hurricanes Ivan and Katrina) in the vicinity of Katrina Cut and Pelican Island were quantified using Lidar data. For the time period prior to Hurricane Ivan an erosional volume of 46,382,552 m3 and depositional volume of 16,113.6 m3 were quantified from Lidar data. The effects of Hurricane Ivan produced a total erosion volume of 4,076,041.5 m3. The erosional and depositional volumes of Katrina Cut being were 7,562,068.5 m3 and 510,936.7 m3, respectively. More volume change was found within Pelican Pass. For the period between hurricanes Ivan and Katrina the erosion volume was 595,713.8 m3. This was mostly located within Katrina Cut. Total deposition for the same period, including in Pelican Pass, was 15,353,961 m3. Hurricane breaches were compared to ancient incised valleys seen within the 2-D seismic reflection results. Breaches from hurricanes from 1849

  15. Integrating Terrestrial LIDAR with Point Clouds Created from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslar, M.

    2015-08-01

    Using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for the purposes of conducting high-accuracy aerial surveying has become a hot topic over the last year. One of the most promising means of conducting such a survey involves integrating a high-resolution non-metric digital camera with the UAV and using the principals of digital photogrammetry to produce high-density colorized point clouds. Through the use of stereo imagery, precise and accurate horizontal positioning information can be produced without the need for integration with any type of inertial navigation system (INS). Of course, some form of ground control is needed to achieve this result. Terrestrial LiDAR, either static or mobile, provides the solution. Points extracted from Terrestrial LiDAR can be used as control in the digital photogrammetry solution required by the UAV. In return, the UAV is an affordable solution for filling in the shadows and occlusions typically experienced by Terrestrial LiDAR. In this paper, the accuracies of points derived from a commercially available UAV solution will be examined and compared to the accuracies achievable by a commercially available LIDAR solution. It was found that the LiDAR system produced a point cloud that was twice as accurate as the point cloud produced by the UAV's photogrammetric solution. Both solutions gave results within a few centimetres of the control field. In addition the about of planar dispersion on the vertical wall surfaces in the UAV point cloud was found to be multiple times greater than that from the horizontal ground based UAV points or the LiDAR data.

  16. Mapping of riparian invasive species with supervised classification of Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michez, Adrien; Piégay, Hervé; Jonathan, Lisein; Claessens, Hugues; Lejeune, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    Riparian zones are key landscape features, representing the interface between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Although they have been influenced by human activities for centuries, their degradation has increased during the 20th century. Concomitant with (or as consequences of) these disturbances, the invasion of exotic species has increased throughout the world's riparian zones. In our study, we propose a easily reproducible methodological framework to map three riparian invasive taxa using Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) imagery: Impatiens glandulifera Royle, Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier and Levier, and Japanese knotweed (Fallopia sachalinensis (F. Schmidt Petrop.), Fallopia japonica (Houtt.) and hybrids). Based on visible and near-infrared UAS orthophoto, we derived simple spectral and texture image metrics computed at various scales of image segmentation (10, 30, 45, 60 using eCognition software). Supervised classification based on the random forests algorithm was used to identify the most relevant variable (or combination of variables) derived from UAS imagery for mapping riparian invasive plant species. The models were built using 20% of the dataset, the rest of the dataset being used as a test set (80%). Except for H. mantegazzianum, the best results in terms of global accuracy were achieved with the finest scale of analysis (segmentation scale parameter = 10). The best values of overall accuracies reached 72%, 68%, and 97% for I. glandulifera, Japanese knotweed, and H. mantegazzianum respectively. In terms of selected metrics, simple spectral metrics (layer mean/camera brightness) were the most used. Our results also confirm the added value of texture metrics (GLCM derivatives) for mapping riparian invasive species. The results obtained for I. glandulifera and Japanese knotweed do not reach sufficient accuracies for operational applications. However, the results achieved for H. mantegazzianum are encouraging. The high accuracies values combined to

  17. Fusing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Imagery with High Resolution Hydrologic Modeling (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivoni, E. R.; Pierini, N.; Schreiner-McGraw, A.; Anderson, C.; Saripalli, S.; Rango, A.

    2013-12-01

    After decades of development and applications, high resolution hydrologic models are now common tools in research and increasingly used in practice. More recently, high resolution imagery from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) that provide information on land surface properties have become available for civilian applications. Fusing the two approaches promises to significantly advance the state-of-the-art in terms of hydrologic modeling capabilities. This combination will also challenge assumptions on model processes, parameterizations and scale as land surface characteristics (~0.1 to 1 m) may now surpass traditional model resolutions (~10 to 100 m). Ultimately, predictions from high resolution hydrologic models need to be consistent with the observational data that can be collected from UAVs. This talk will describe our efforts to develop, utilize and test the impact of UAV-derived topographic and vegetation fields on the simulation of two small watersheds in the Sonoran and Chihuahuan Deserts at the Santa Rita Experimental Range (Green Valley, AZ) and the Jornada Experimental Range (Las Cruces, NM). High resolution digital terrain models, image orthomosaics and vegetation species classification were obtained from a fixed wing airplane and a rotary wing helicopter, and compared to coarser analyses and products, including Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR). We focus the discussion on the relative improvements achieved with UAV-derived fields in terms of terrain-hydrologic-vegetation analyses and summer season simulations using the TIN-based Real-time Integrated Basin Simulator (tRIBS) model. Model simulations are evaluated at each site with respect to a high-resolution sensor network consisting of six rain gauges, forty soil moisture and temperature profiles, four channel runoff flumes, a cosmic-ray soil moisture sensor and an eddy covariance tower over multiple summer periods. We also discuss prospects for the fusion of high resolution models with novel

  18. LWIR polarimetry for enhanced facial recognition in thermal imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurton, Kristan P.; Yuffa, Alex J.; Videen, Gorden

    2014-05-01

    We present a series of long-wave-infrared (LWIR) polarimetric-based thermal images of facial profiles in which polarization-state information of the image forming radiance is retained and displayed. The resultant polarimetric images show enhanced facial features, additional texture, and details that are not present in the corresponding conventional thermal imagery. It has been generally thought that conventional thermal imagery (MidiR or LWIR) could not produce the detailed spatial information required for reliable human identification due to the so-called "ghosting" effect often seen in thermal imagery of human subjects. By using polarimetric information, we are able to extract subtle surface features of the human face, thus improving subject identification. The considered polarimetric image sets include the conventional thermal intensity image, S0 , the two Stokes images, S1 and S2, and a Stokes image product called the degree-of-linear-polarization (DoLP) image. Finally, Stokes imagery is combined with Fresnel relations to extract additional 3D surface information.

  19. Fusion of Multi-View and Multi-Scale Aerial Imagery for Real-Time Situation Awareness Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, X.; Kurz, F.; Reinartz, P.

    2015-08-01

    Manned aircraft has long been used for capturing large-scale aerial images, yet the high costs and weather dependence restrict its availability in emergency situations. In recent years, MAV (Micro Aerial Vehicle) emerged as a novel modality for aerial image acquisition. Its maneuverability and flexibility enable a rapid awareness of the scene of interest. Since these two platforms deliver scene information from different scale and different view, it makes sense to fuse these two types of complimentary imagery to achieve a quick, accurate and detailed description of the scene, which is the main concern of real-time situation awareness. This paper proposes a method to fuse multi-view and multi-scale aerial imagery by establishing a common reference frame. In particular, common features among MAV images and geo-referenced airplane images can be extracted by a scale invariant feature detector like SIFT. From the tie point of geo-referenced images we derive the coordinate of corresponding ground points, which are then utilized as ground control points in global bundle adjustment of MAV images. In this way, the MAV block is aligned to the reference frame. Experiment results show that this method can achieve fully automatic geo-referencing of MAV images even if GPS/IMU acquisition has dropouts, and the orientation accuracy is improved compared to the GPS/IMU based georeferencing. The concept for a subsequent 3D classification method is also described in this paper.

  20. Generating high temporal and spatial resolution thermal band imagery using robust sharpening approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal infrared band imagery provides key information for detecting wild fires, mapping land surface energy fluxes and evapotranspiration, monitoring urban heat fluxes and drought monitoring. Thermal infrared (TIR) imagery at fine resolution is required for field scale applications. However, therma...

  1. Random Forest and Objected-Based Classification for Forest Pest Extraction from Uav Aerial Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yi; Hu, Xiangyun

    2016-06-01

    Forest pest is one of the most important factors affecting the health of forest. However, since it is difficult to figure out the pest areas and to predict the spreading ways just to partially control and exterminate it has not effective enough so far now. The infected areas by it have continuously spreaded out at present. Thus the introduction of spatial information technology is highly demanded. It is very effective to examine the spatial distribution characteristics that can establish timely proper strategies for control against pests by periodically figuring out the infected situations as soon as possible and by predicting the spreading ways of the infection. Now, with the UAV photography being more and more popular, it has become much cheaper and faster to get UAV images which are very suitable to be used to monitor the health of forest and detect the pest. This paper proposals a new method to effective detect forest pest in UAV aerial imagery. For an image, we segment it to many superpixels at first and then we calculate a 12-dimension statistical texture information for each superpixel which are used to train and classify the data. At last, we refine the classification results by some simple rules. The experiments show that the method is effective for the extraction of forest pest areas in UAV images.

  2. Spatial Quality Evaluation of Resampled Unmanned Aerial Vehicle-Imagery for Weed Mapping.

    PubMed

    Borra-Serrano, Irene; Peña, José Manuel; Torres-Sánchez, Jorge; Mesas-Carrascosa, Francisco Javier; López-Granados, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) combined with different spectral range sensors are an emerging technology for providing early weed maps for optimizing herbicide applications. Considering that weeds, at very early phenological stages, are similar spectrally and in appearance, three major components are relevant: spatial resolution, type of sensor and classification algorithm. Resampling is a technique to create a new version of an image with a different width and/or height in pixels, and it has been used in satellite imagery with different spatial and temporal resolutions. In this paper, the efficiency of resampled-images (RS-images) created from real UAV-images (UAV-images; the UAVs were equipped with two types of sensors, i.e., visible and visible plus near-infrared spectra) captured at different altitudes is examined to test the quality of the RS-image output. The performance of the object-based-image-analysis (OBIA) implemented for the early weed mapping using different weed thresholds was also evaluated. Our results showed that resampling accurately extracted the spectral values from high spatial resolution UAV-images at an altitude of 30 m and the RS-image data at altitudes of 60 and 100 m, was able to provide accurate weed cover and herbicide application maps compared with UAV-images from real flights. PMID:26274960

  3. Spatial Quality Evaluation of Resampled Unmanned Aerial Vehicle-Imagery for Weed Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Borra-Serrano, Irene; Peña, José Manuel; Torres-Sánchez, Jorge; Mesas-Carrascosa, Francisco Javier; López-Granados, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) combined with different spectral range sensors are an emerging technology for providing early weed maps for optimizing herbicide applications. Considering that weeds, at very early phenological stages, are similar spectrally and in appearance, three major components are relevant: spatial resolution, type of sensor and classification algorithm. Resampling is a technique to create a new version of an image with a different width and/or height in pixels, and it has been used in satellite imagery with different spatial and temporal resolutions. In this paper, the efficiency of resampled-images (RS-images) created from real UAV-images (UAV-images; the UAVs were equipped with two types of sensors, i.e., visible and visible plus near-infrared spectra) captured at different altitudes is examined to test the quality of the RS-image output. The performance of the object-based-image-analysis (OBIA) implemented for the early weed mapping using different weed thresholds was also evaluated. Our results showed that resampling accurately extracted the spectral values from high spatial resolution UAV-images at an altitude of 30 m and the RS-image data at altitudes of 60 and 100 m, was able to provide accurate weed cover and herbicide application maps compared with UAV-images from real flights. PMID:26274960

  4. Discrimination of Deciduous Tree Species from Time Series of Unmanned Aerial System Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Lisein, Jonathan; Michez, Adrien; Claessens, Hugues; Lejeune, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Technology advances can revolutionize Precision Forestry by providing accurate and fine forest information at tree level. This paper addresses the question of how and particularly when Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) should be used in order to efficiently discriminate deciduous tree species. The goal of this research is to determine when is the best time window to achieve an optimal species discrimination. A time series of high resolution UAS imagery was collected to cover the growing season from leaf flush to leaf fall. Full benefit was taken of the temporal resolution of UAS acquisition, one of the most promising features of small drones. The disparity in forest tree phenology is at the maximum during early spring and late autumn. But the phenology state that optimized the classification result is the one that minimizes the spectral variation within tree species groups and, at the same time, maximizes the phenologic differences between species. Sunlit tree crowns (5 deciduous species groups) were classified using a Random Forest approach for monotemporal, two-date and three-date combinations. The end of leaf flushing was the most efficient single-date time window. Multitemporal datasets definitely improve the overall classification accuracy. But single-date high resolution orthophotomosaics, acquired on optimal time-windows, result in a very good classification accuracy (overall out of bag error of 16%). PMID:26600422

  5. Discrimination of Deciduous Tree Species from Time Series of Unmanned Aerial System Imagery.

    PubMed

    Lisein, Jonathan; Michez, Adrien; Claessens, Hugues; Lejeune, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Technology advances can revolutionize Precision Forestry by providing accurate and fine forest information at tree level. This paper addresses the question of how and particularly when Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) should be used in order to efficiently discriminate deciduous tree species. The goal of this research is to determine when is the best time window to achieve an optimal species discrimination. A time series of high resolution UAS imagery was collected to cover the growing season from leaf flush to leaf fall. Full benefit was taken of the temporal resolution of UAS acquisition, one of the most promising features of small drones. The disparity in forest tree phenology is at the maximum during early spring and late autumn. But the phenology state that optimized the classification result is the one that minimizes the spectral variation within tree species groups and, at the same time, maximizes the phenologic differences between species. Sunlit tree crowns (5 deciduous species groups) were classified using a Random Forest approach for monotemporal, two-date and three-date combinations. The end of leaf flushing was the most efficient single-date time window. Multitemporal datasets definitely improve the overall classification accuracy. But single-date high resolution orthophotomosaics, acquired on optimal time-windows, result in a very good classification accuracy (overall out of bag error of 16%). PMID:26600422

  6. Interpretation of Thermal Infrared Imagery for Irrigation Water Resource Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nellis, M. Duane

    1985-01-01

    Water resources play a major role in the character of agricultural development in the arid western United States. This case study shows how thermal infrared imagery, which is sensitive to radiant or heat energy, can be used to interpret crop moisture content and associated stress in irrigated areas. (RM)

  7. Using aerial video to train the supervised classification of Landsat TM imagery for coral reef habitats mapping.

    PubMed

    Bello-Pineda, J; Liceaga-Correa, M A; Hernández-Núñez, H; Ponce-Hernández, R

    2005-06-01

    Management of coral reef resources is a challenging task, in many cases, because of the scarcity or inexistence of accurate sources of information and maps. Remote sensing is a not intrusive, but powerful tool, which has been successfully used for the assessment and mapping of natural resources in coral reef areas. In this study we utilized GIS to combine Landsat TM imagery, aerial photography, aerial video and a digital bathymetric model, to assess and to map submerged habitats for Alacranes reef, Yucatán, México. Our main goal was testing the potential of aerial video as the source of data to produce training areas for the supervised classification of Landsat TM imagery. Submerged habitats were ecologically characterized by using a hierarchical classification of field data. Habitats were identified on an overlaid image, consisting of the three types of remote sensing products and the bathymetric model. Pixels representing those habitats were selected as training areas by using GIS tools. Training areas were used to classify the Landsat TM bands 1, 2 and 3 and the bathymetric model by using a maximum likelihood algorithm. The resulting thematic map was compared against field data classification to improve habitats definition. Contextual editing and reclassification were used to obtain the final thematic map with an overall accuracy of 77%. Analysis of aerial video by a specialist in coral reef ecology was found to be a suitable source of information to produce training areas for the supervised classification of Landsat TM imagery in coral reefs at a coarse scale. PMID:15952517

  8. Exploration towards the modeling of gable-roofed buildings using a combination of aerial and street-level imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creusen, Ivo; Hazelhoff, Lykele; de With, Peter H. N.

    2015-03-01

    Extraction of residential building properties is helpful for numerous applications, such as computer-guided feasibility analysis for solar panel placement, determination of real-estate taxes and assessment of real-estate insurance policies. Therefore, this work explores the automated modeling of buildings with a gable roof (the most common roof type within Western Europe), based on a combination of aerial imagery and street-level panoramic images. This is a challenging task, since buildings show large variations in shape, dimensions and building extensions, and may additionally be captured under non-ideal lighting conditions. The aerial images feature a coarse overview of the building due to the large capturing distance. The building footprint and an initial estimate of the building height is extracted based on the analysis of stereo aerial images. The estimated model is then refined using street-level images, which feature higher resolution and enable more accurate measurements, however, displaying a single building side only. Initial experiments indicate that the footprint dimensions of the main building can be accurately extracted from aerial images, while the building height is extracted with slightly less accuracy. By combining aerial and street-level images, we have found that the accuracies of these height measurements are significantly increased, thereby improving the overall quality of the extracted building model, and resulting in an average inaccuracy of the estimated volume below 10%.

  9. Observations of coastal systems using low-cost, high-resolution, balloon and kite-based aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, A.; Young, R.

    2012-04-01

    Remote-sensed aerial imagery has been one of the primary methods for tracking shoreline change, but the low availability of high-quality data that is temporally relevant to the area of interest is often too expensive for small scale studies, if the data even exist. The Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines (PSDS) at Western Carolina University has been using balloon and kite mounted cameras for two years to make observations of highly dynamic, near shore systems in the southeastern United States. Through a partnership with GrassrootsMapping.org, our program was introduced to the system of aerial photography which collects images for under 200 USD at resolutions of 5-10 cm/pixel. The system is field transportable and can collect imagery on an as-needed basis, instead of scheduling aerial over flights or waiting for Google Earth imagery to be updated. Successful research trips to Beaufort County, South Carolina have identified buildings and infrastructure that are at risk of inundation from sea-level rise. The region experiences daily tidal fluctuations in excess of 2 m, allowing imagery to be captured at a variety of tidal cycles. The method has identified wetlands adjacent to developed areas lacking a buffer area allowing them to expand as sea levels rise. Due to the high resolution of the images, changes over shorter time intervals can be observed, such as the transition from high marsh to low marsh, as sea levels rise. After the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, PSDS staff mapped the oil spill on several trips to the Gulf of Mexico. Repeated visits to the same area have yielded a time series of images with greater frequency than more expensive methods. Finally, offshore sand movements at tidal inlets have been observed in detail on beaches in southern Georgia.

  10. Advanced Tie Feature Matching for the Registration of Mobile Mapping Imaging Data and Aerial Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jende, P.; Peter, M.; Gerke, M.; Vosselman, G.

    2016-06-01

    Mobile Mapping's ability to acquire high-resolution ground data is opposing unreliable localisation capabilities of satellite-based positioning systems in urban areas. Buildings shape canyons impeding a direct line-of-sight to navigation satellites resulting in a deficiency to accurately estimate the mobile platform's position. Consequently, acquired data products' positioning quality is considerably diminished. This issue has been widely addressed in the literature and research projects. However, a consistent compliance of sub-decimetre accuracy as well as a correction of errors in height remain unsolved. We propose a novel approach to enhance Mobile Mapping (MM) image orientation based on the utilisation of highly accurate orientation parameters derived from aerial imagery. In addition to that, the diminished exterior orientation parameters of the MM platform will be utilised as they enable the application of accurate matching techniques needed to derive reliable tie information. This tie information will then be used within an adjustment solution to correct affected MM data. This paper presents an advanced feature matching procedure as a prerequisite to the aforementioned orientation update. MM data is ortho-projected to gain a higher resemblance to aerial nadir data simplifying the images' geometry for matching. By utilising MM exterior orientation parameters, search windows may be used in conjunction with a selective keypoint detection and template matching. Originating from different sensor systems, however, difficulties arise with respect to changes in illumination, radiometry and a different original perspective. To respond to these challenges for feature detection, the procedure relies on detecting keypoints in only one image. Initial tests indicate a considerable improvement in comparison to classic detector/descriptor approaches in this particular matching scenario. This method leads to a significant reduction of outliers due to the limited availability

  11. MEASUREMENT OF WIND SPEED FROM COOLING LAKE THERMAL IMAGERY

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, A; Robert Kurzeja, R; Eliel Villa-Aleman, E; Cary Tuckfield, C; Malcolm Pendergast, M

    2009-01-20

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) collected thermal imagery and ground truth data at two commercial power plant cooling lakes to investigate the applicability of laboratory empirical correlations between surface heat flux and wind speed, and statistics derived from thermal imagery. SRNL demonstrated in a previous paper [1] that a linear relationship exists between the standard deviation of image temperature and surface heat flux. In this paper, SRNL will show that the skewness of the temperature distribution derived from cooling lake thermal images correlates with instantaneous wind speed measured at the same location. SRNL collected thermal imagery, surface meteorology and water temperatures from helicopters and boats at the Comanche Peak and H. B. Robinson nuclear power plant cooling lakes. SRNL found that decreasing skewness correlated with increasing wind speed, as was the case for the laboratory experiments. Simple linear and orthogonal regression models both explained about 50% of the variance in the skewness - wind speed plots. A nonlinear (logistic) regression model produced a better fit to the data, apparently because the thermal convection and resulting skewness are related to wind speed in a highly nonlinear way in nearly calm and in windy conditions.

  12. Measurement of wind speed from cooling lake thermal imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, Alfred J.; Tuckfield, R. Cary; Villa-Aleman, Eliel; Kurzeja, Robert J.; Pendergast, Malcolm M.

    2009-05-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) collected thermal imagery and ground truth data at two commercial power plant cooling lakes to investigate the applicability of laboratory empirical correlations between surface heat flux and wind speed, and statistics derived from thermal imagery. SRNL demonstrated in a previous paper [1] that a linear relationship exists between the standard deviation of image temperature and surface heat flux. In this paper, SRNL will show that the skewness of the temperature distribution derived from cooling lake thermal images correlates with instantaneous wind speed measured at the same location. SRNL collected thermal imagery, surface meteorology and water temperatures from helicopters and boats at the Comanche Peak and H. B. Robinson nuclear power plant cooling lakes. SRNL found that decreasing skewness correlated with increasing wind speed, as was the case for the laboratory experiments. Simple linear and orthogonal regression models both explained about 50% of the variance in the skewness - wind speed plots. A nonlinear (logistic) regression model produced a better fit to the data, apparently because the thermal convection and resulting skewness are related to wind speed in a highly nonlinear way in nearly calm and in windy conditions.

  13. Low-Level Tie Feature Extraction of Mobile Mapping Data (mls/images) and Aerial Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jende, P.; Hussnain, Z.; Peter, M.; Oude Elberink, S.; Gerke, M.; Vosselman, G.

    2016-03-01

    Mobile Mapping (MM) is a technique to obtain geo-information using sensors mounted on a mobile platform or vehicle. The mobile platform's position is provided by the integration of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and Inertial Navigation Systems (INS). However, especially in urban areas, building structures can obstruct a direct line-of-sight between the GNSS receiver and navigation satellites resulting in an erroneous position estimation. Therefore, derived MM data products, such as laser point clouds or images, lack the expected positioning reliability and accuracy. This issue has been addressed by many researchers, whose aim to mitigate these effects mainly concentrates on utilising tertiary reference data. However, current approaches do not consider errors in height, cannot achieve sub-decimetre accuracy and are often not designed to work in a fully automatic fashion. We propose an automatic pipeline to rectify MM data products by employing high resolution aerial nadir and oblique imagery as horizontal and vertical reference, respectively. By exploiting the MM platform's defective, and therefore imprecise but approximate orientation parameters, accurate feature matching techniques can be realised as a pre-processing step to minimise the MM platform's three-dimensional positioning error. Subsequently, identified correspondences serve as constraints for an orientation update, which is conducted by an estimation or adjustment technique. Since not all MM systems employ laser scanners and imaging sensors simultaneously, and each system and data demands different approaches, two independent workflows are developed in parallel. Still under development, both workflows will be presented and preliminary results will be shown. The workflows comprise of three steps; feature extraction, feature matching and the orientation update. In this paper, initial results of low-level image and point cloud feature extraction methods will be discussed as well as an outline of

  14. GPR investigation of karst guided by comparison with outcrop and unmanned aerial vehicle imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Antonio L.; Medeiros, Walter E.; Bezerra, Francisco H. R.; Oliveira, Josibel G.; Cazarin, Caroline L.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing importance of carbonate rocks as aquifers, oil reservoirs, and for urban problems is demanding detailed characterization of karst systems, a demand that can be partially satisfied with GPR imaging. However, the goal of imaging and interpreting karstified carbonate rocks is notoriously difficult due to the complex nature of the geometry of the dissolution and the GPR intrinsic limitations. One way forward is the direct comparison of GPR images with similar outcropping rocks. A joint study involving a 200 MHz GPR survey, unmanned aerial vehicle imagery (UAV), and outcrop characterization is presented aiming to improve the interpretation of sedimentary structures, fractures and karst structures in GPR images. The study area is a 500 m wide and 1000 m long carbonate outcrop of the Jandaíra Formation in Potiguar basin, Brazil, where sedimentary, fracture, and karst features can be directly investigated in both vertical and horizontal plan views. The key elements to interpret GPR images of karstified carbonate rocks are: (1) primary sedimentary structures appear in radargrams as unaltered imaged strata but care must be taken to interpret complex primary sedimentary features, such as those associated with bioturbation; (2) subvertical fractures might appear as consistent discontinuities in the imaged strata, forming complex structures such as negative flowers along strike-slip faults; (3) dissolution may create voids along subhorizontal layers, which appear in radargrams as relatively long amplitude shadow zones; and (4) dissolution may also create voids along subvertical fractures, appearing in radargrams as amplitude shadow zones with relatively large vertical dimensions, which are bounded by fractures.

  15. Using very-large-scale aerial imagery for rangeland monitoring and assessment: Some statistical considerations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The availability of very-high-resolution (VHR) imagery and techniques for processing those data into indicators of ecosystem function has opened the door for VHR imagery to be used in rangeland monitoring and assessment. However, VHR imagery can be expensive and, like any survey measurement, studies...

  16. Thermal Imagery and Field Techniques to Evaluate Groundwater Nutrient Loading to an Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ROSEEN, R. M.; BRANNAKA, L. K.; BALLESTERO, T. P.

    2001-05-01

    Thermal infrared imagery has the potential to be a powerful and affordable tool for coastal managers and scientists to assist in the evaluation of pollution from groundwater. Developments in thermal imagery have improved its accessibility and affordability for use in coastal resource management. An on-going study has applied these new developments in thermal imagery to evaluate groundwater discharge on a large scale. In April and August of 2000 a series of thermal infrared aerial surveys were flown over the Great Bay Estuary in coastal New Hampshire. This study delineated the large-scale groundwater flux to an estuary. This flux was then used to estimate the nutrient loading to the estuarine ecosystem. The aerial survey covered the Great Bay, including nearly 50 miles of shoreline and four of the major contributing rivers. The August survey was completed in the equivalent of an afternoon. The images were available immediately with no post-processing required, and are being mosaicked into larger contiguous images to be incorporated into GIS applications. The images were studied for thermal anomalies as an indication of upwelling groundwater. The surface areas of each individual groundwater discharge zones were computed by GIS analysis of the photo-identified discharge zones. This was accomplished by use of gray-scale images calibrated to a known temperature range. The suspected groundwater discharge zones were identified in the field, characterized for hydrologic parameters, and sampled for water quality. Preliminary results suggest that groundwater is a significant component of the freshwater influx to the Great Bay, contributing half as much as the 10-year daily average of the Lamprey River. The Lamprey River is the largest (183 sq. mi. drainage area) of the four major surface freshwater sources to the upper Great Bay. Of particular significance, the estimated groundwater contribution was as much as 150%\\ that contributed by the Lamprey River during the summer

  17. Thermal soaring flight of birds and unmanned aerial vehicles.

    PubMed

    Akos, Zsuzsa; Nagy, Máté; Leven, Severin; Vicsek, Tamás

    2010-12-01

    Thermal soaring saves much energy, but flying large distances in this form represents a great challenge for birds, people and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The solution is to make use of the so-called thermals, which are localized, warmer regions in the atmosphere moving upward with a speed exceeding the descent rate of birds and planes. Saving energy by exploiting the environment more efficiently is an important possibility for autonomous UAVs as well. Successful control strategies have been developed recently for UAVs in simulations and in real applications. This paper first presents an overview of our knowledge of the soaring flight and strategy of birds, followed by a discussion of control strategies that have been developed for soaring UAVs both in simulations and applications on real platforms. To improve the accuracy of the simulation of thermal exploitation strategies we propose a method to take into account the effect of turbulence. Finally, we propose a new GPS-independent control strategy for exploiting thermal updrafts. PMID:21098957

  18. DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF HEAT FLUX FROM COOLING LAKE THERMAL IMAGERY

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, A; Eliel Villa-Aleman, E; Robert Kurzeja, R; Malcolm Pendergast, M; Timothy Brown, T; Saleem Salaymeh, S

    2007-12-19

    Laboratory experiments show a linear relationship between the total heat flux from a water surface to air and the standard deviation of the surface temperature field, {sigma}, derived from thermal images of the water surface over a range of heat fluxes from 400 to 1800 Wm{sup -2}. Thermal imagery and surface data were collected at two power plant cooling lakes to determine if the laboratory relationship between heat flux and {sigma} exists in large heated bodies of water. The heat fluxes computed from the cooling lake data range from 200 to 1400 Wm{sup -2}. The linear relationship between {sigma} and Q is evident in the cooling lake data, but it is necessary to apply band pass filtering to the thermal imagery to remove camera artifacts and non-convective thermal gradients. The correlation between {sigma} and Q is improved if a correction to the measured {sigma} is made that accounts for wind speed effects on the thermal convection. Based on more than a thousand cooling lake images, the correlation coefficients between {sigma} and Q ranged from about 0.8 to 0.9.

  19. Bridging Estimates of Greenness in an Arid Grassland Using Field Observations, Phenocams, and Time Series Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, D. M.; Tweedie, C. E.; Rango, A.

    2013-12-01

    Spatially extensive grasslands and savannas in arid and semi-arid ecosystems (i.e., rangelands) require cost-effective, accurate, and consistent approaches for monitoring plant phenology. Remotely sensed imagery offers these capabilities; however contributions of exposed soil due to modest vegetation cover, susceptibility of vegetation to drought, and lack of robust scaling relationships challenge biophysical retrievals using moderate- and coarse-resolution satellite imagery. To evaluate methods for characterizing plant phenology of common rangeland species and to link field measurements to remotely sensed metrics of land surface phenology, we devised a hierarchical study spanning multiple spatial scales. We collect data using weekly standardized field observations on focal plants, daily phenocam estimates of vegetation greenness, and very high spatial resolution imagery from an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) throughout the growing season. Field observations of phenological condition and vegetation cover serve to verify phenocam greenness indices along with indices derived from time series UAS imagery. UAS imagery is classified using object-oriented image analysis to identify species-specific image objects for which greenness indices are derived. Species-specific image objects facilitate comparisons with phenocam greenness indices and scaling spectral responses to footprints of Landsat and MODIS pixels. Phenocam greenness curves indicated rapid canopy development for the widespread deciduous shrub Prosopis glandulosa over 14 (in April 2012) to 16 (in May 2013) days. The modest peak in greenness for the dominant perennial grass Bouteloua eriopoda occurred in October 2012 following peak summer rainfall. Weekly field estimates of canopy development closely coincided with daily patterns in initial growth and senescence for both species. Field observations improve the precision of the timing of phenophase transitions relative to inflection points calculated from phenocam

  20. Intergration of LiDAR Data with Aerial Imagery for Estimating Rooftop Solar Photovoltaic Potentials in City of Cape Town

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeleke, A. K.; Smit, J. L.

    2016-06-01

    Apart from the drive to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by carbon-intensive economies like South Africa, the recent spate of electricity load shedding across most part of the country, including Cape Town has left electricity consumers scampering for alternatives, so as to rely less on the national grid. Solar energy, which is adequately available in most part of Africa and regarded as a clean and renewable source of energy, makes it possible to generate electricity by using photovoltaics technology. However, before time and financial resources are invested into rooftop solar photovoltaic systems in urban areas, it is important to evaluate the potential of the building rooftop, intended to be used in harvesting the solar energy. This paper presents methodologies making use of LiDAR data and other ancillary data, such as high-resolution aerial imagery, to automatically extract building rooftops in City of Cape Town and evaluate their potentials for solar photovoltaics systems. Two main processes were involved: (1) automatic extraction of building roofs using the integration of LiDAR data and aerial imagery in order to derive its' outline and areal coverage; and (2) estimating the global solar radiation incidence on each roof surface using an elevation model derived from the LiDAR data, in order to evaluate its solar photovoltaic potential. This resulted in a geodatabase, which can be queried to retrieve salient information about the viability of a particular building roof for solar photovoltaic installation.

  1. Decision Level Fusion of LIDAR Data and Aerial Color Imagery Based on Bayesian Theory for Urban Area Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastiveis, H.

    2015-12-01

    Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) generates high-density 3D point clouds to provide a comprehensive information from object surfaces. Combining this data with aerial/satellite imagery is quite promising for improving land cover classification. In this study, fusion of LiDAR data and aerial imagery based on Bayesian theory in a three-level fusion algorithm is presented. In the first level, pixel-level fusion, the proper descriptors for both LiDAR and image data are extracted. In the next level of fusion, feature-level, using extracted features the area are classified into six classes of "Buildings", "Trees", "Asphalt Roads", "Concrete roads", "Grass" and "Cars" using Naïve Bayes classification algorithm. This classification is performed in three different strategies: (1) using merely LiDAR data, (2) using merely image data, and (3) using all extracted features from LiDAR and image. The results of three classifiers are integrated in the last phase, decision level fusion, based on Naïve Bayes algorithm. To evaluate the proposed algorithm, a high resolution color orthophoto and LiDAR data over the urban areas of Zeebruges, Belgium were applied. Obtained results from the decision level fusion phase revealed an improvement in overall accuracy and kappa coefficient.

  2. Detection of two intermixed invasive woody species using color infrared aerial imagery and the support vector machine classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirik, Mustafa; Chaudhuri, Sriroop; Surber, Brady; Ale, Srinivasulu; James Ansley, R.

    2013-01-01

    Both the evergreen redberry juniper (Juniperus pinchotii Sudw.) and deciduous honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) are destructive and aggressive invaders that affect rangelands and grasslands of the southern Great Plains of the United States. However, their current spatial extent and future expansion trends are unknown. This study was aimed at: (1) exploring the utility of aerial imagery for detecting and mapping intermixed redberry juniper and honey mesquite while both are in full foliage using the support vector machine classifier at two sites in north central Texas and, (2) assessing and comparing the mapping accuracies between sites. Accuracy assessments revealed that the overall accuracies were 90% with the associated kappa coefficient of 0.86% and 89% with the associated kappa coefficient of 0.85 for sites 1 and 2, respectively. Z-statistics (0.102<1.96) used to compare the classification results for both sites indicated an insignificant difference between classifications at 95% probability level. In most instances, juniper and mesquite were identified correctly with <7% being mistaken for the other woody species. These results indicated that assessment of the current infestation extent and severity of these two woody species in a spatial context is possible using aerial remote sensing imagery.

  3. Analysis of the impact of spatial resolution on land/water classifications using high-resolution aerial imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Enwright, Nicholas M.; Jones, William R.; Garber, Adrienne L.; Keller, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Long-term monitoring efforts often use remote sensing to track trends in habitat or landscape conditions over time. To most appropriately compare observations over time, long-term monitoring efforts strive for consistency in methods. Thus, advances and changes in technology over time can present a challenge. For instance, modern camera technology has led to an increasing availability of very high-resolution imagery (i.e. submetre and metre) and a shift from analogue to digital photography. While numerous studies have shown that image resolution can impact the accuracy of classifications, most of these studies have focused on the impacts of comparing spatial resolution changes greater than 2 m. Thus, a knowledge gap exists on the impacts of minor changes in spatial resolution (i.e. submetre to about 1.5 m) in very high-resolution aerial imagery (i.e. 2 m resolution or less). This study compared the impact of spatial resolution on land/water classifications of an area dominated by coastal marsh vegetation in Louisiana, USA, using 1:12,000 scale colour-infrared analogue aerial photography (AAP) scanned at four different dot-per-inch resolutions simulating ground sample distances (GSDs) of 0.33, 0.54, 1, and 2 m. Analysis of the impact of spatial resolution on land/water classifications was conducted by exploring various spatial aspects of the classifications including density of waterbodies and frequency distributions in waterbody sizes. This study found that a small-magnitude change (1–1.5 m) in spatial resolution had little to no impact on the amount of water classified (i.e. percentage mapped was less than 1.5%), but had a significant impact on the mapping of very small waterbodies (i.e. waterbodies ≤ 250 m2). These findings should interest those using temporal image classifications derived from very high-resolution aerial photography as a component of long-term monitoring programs.

  4. Using high-resolution digital aerial imagery to map land cover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieck, J.J.; Robinson, Larry

    2014-01-01

    The Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) has used aerial photography to map land cover/land use on federally owned and managed lands for over 20 years. Until recently, that process used 23- by 23-centimeter (9- by 9-inch) analog aerial photos to classify vegetation along the Upper Mississippi River System, on National Wildlife Refuges, and in National Parks. With digital aerial cameras becoming more common and offering distinct advantages over analog film, UMESC transitioned to an entirely digital mapping process in 2009. Though not without challenges, this method has proven to be much more accurate and efficient when compared to the analog process.

  5. Monitoring the invasion of Spartina alterniflora using very high resolution unmanned aerial vehicle imagery in Beihai, Guangxi (China).

    PubMed

    Wan, Huawei; Wang, Qiao; Jiang, Dong; Fu, Jingying; Yang, Yipeng; Liu, Xiaoman

    2014-01-01

    Spartina alterniflora was introduced to Beihai, Guangxi (China), for ecological engineering purposes in 1979. However, the exceptional adaptability and reproductive ability of this species have led to its extensive dispersal into other habitats, where it has had a negative impact on native species and threatens the local mangrove and mudflat ecosystems. To obtain the distribution and spread of Spartina alterniflora, we collected HJ-1 CCD imagery from 2009 and 2011 and very high resolution (VHR) imagery from the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The invasion area of Spartina alterniflora was 357.2 ha in 2011, which increased by 19.07% compared with the area in 2009. A field survey was conducted for verification and the total accuracy was 94.0%. The results of this paper show that VHR imagery can provide details on distribution, progress, and early detection of Spartina alterniflora invasion. OBIA, object based image analysis for remote sensing (RS) detection method, can enable control measures to be more effective, accurate, and less expensive than a field survey of the invasive population. PMID:24892066

  6. Monitoring the Invasion of Spartina alterniflora Using Very High Resolution Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Imagery in Beihai, Guangxi (China)

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Huawei; Wang, Qiao; Jiang, Dong; Yang, Yipeng; Liu, Xiaoman

    2014-01-01

    Spartina alterniflora was introduced to Beihai, Guangxi (China), for ecological engineering purposes in 1979. However, the exceptional adaptability and reproductive ability of this species have led to its extensive dispersal into other habitats, where it has had a negative impact on native species and threatens the local mangrove and mudflat ecosystems. To obtain the distribution and spread of Spartina alterniflora, we collected HJ-1 CCD imagery from 2009 and 2011 and very high resolution (VHR) imagery from the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The invasion area of Spartina alterniflora was 357.2 ha in 2011, which increased by 19.07% compared with the area in 2009. A field survey was conducted for verification and the total accuracy was 94.0%. The results of this paper show that VHR imagery can provide details on distribution, progress, and early detection of Spartina alterniflora invasion. OBIA, object based image analysis for remote sensing (RS) detection method, can enable control measures to be more effective, accurate, and less expensive than a field survey of the invasive population. PMID:24892066

  7. Preliminary statistical studies concerning the Campos RJ sugar cane area, using LANDSAT imagery and aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Costa, S. R. X.; Paiao, L. B. F.; Mendonca, F. J.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Duarte, V.

    1983-01-01

    The two phase sampling technique was applied to estimate the area cultivated with sugar cane in an approximately 984 sq km pilot region of Campos. Correlation between existing aerial photography and LANDSAT data was used. The two phase sampling technique corresponded to 99.6% of the results obtained by aerial photography, taken as ground truth. This estimate has a standard deviation of 225 ha, which constitutes a coefficient of variation of 0.6%.

  8. Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Imagery to Investigate Surface Displacements and Surface Features of the Super-Sauze Earthflow (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, M. R.; Tizzard, S.; Niethammer, U.

    2014-12-01

    We present the result of using imagery collected with a small rotary wing UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) to investigate surface displacements and fissures on the Super-Sauze earthflow (France); a slow moving earthflow with the potential to develop into rapid and highly destructive mud flows. UAV imagery acquired in October 2009 was processed using a structure-from-motion and multi-view stereo (SfM-MVS) approach in PhotoScan software. Identification of ~200 ground control points throughout the image set was facilitated by automated image matching in SfM_georef software[1] and the data incorporated into PhotoScan for network optimisation and georeferencing. The completed 2009 model enabled an ~5 cm spatial resolution orthoimage to be generated with an expected accuracy (based on residuals on control) of ~0.3 m. This was supported by comparison to a previously created 2008 model, which gave standard deviations on tie points (located on stationary terrain) of 0.27 m and 0.43 m in Easting and Northing respectively. The high resolution of the orthoimage allowed an investigation into surface displacements and geomorphology of surface features (compared to the 2008 model). The results have produced a comprehensive surface displacement map of the Super-Sauze earthflow, as well as highlighting interesting variations in fissure geomorphology and density between the 2008 and 2009 models. This study underscored the capability for UAV imagery and SfM-MVS to generate highly detailed orthographic imagery and DEMs with a low cost approach that offers significant potential for landslide hazard assessments. [1] http://www.lancaster.ac.uk/staff/jamesm/software/sfm_georef.htm

  9. Agreement between measurements of shrub cover using ground-based methods and Very Large Scale Aerial (VLSA)imagery-measured shrub cover.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New sampling methods are needed for measuring rangeland cover that are more efficient than conventional methods. Very large scale aerial (VLSA) imagery has been suggested as a tool for improving cover sampling efficiency. Because of aircraft pitch and roll, camera misalignment, and errors in the n...

  10. Remote sensing based detection of forested wetlands: An evaluation of LiDAR, aerial imagery, and their data fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suiter, Ashley Elizabeth

    Multi-spectral imagery provides a robust and low-cost dataset for assessing wetland extent and quality over broad regions and is frequently used for wetland inventories. However in forested wetlands, hydrology is obscured by tree canopy making it difficult to detect with multi-spectral imagery alone. Because of this, classification of forested wetlands often includes greater errors than that of other wetlands types. Elevation and terrain derivatives have been shown to be useful for modelling wetland hydrology. But, few studies have addressed the use of LiDAR intensity data detecting hydrology in forested wetlands. Due the tendency of LiDAR signal to be attenuated by water, this research proposed the fusion of LiDAR intensity data with LiDAR elevation, terrain data, and aerial imagery, for the detection of forested wetland hydrology. We examined the utility of LiDAR intensity data and determined whether the fusion of Lidar derived data with multispectral imagery increased the accuracy of forested wetland classification compared with a classification performed with only multi-spectral image. Four classifications were performed: Classification A -- All Imagery, Classification B -- All LiDAR, Classification C -- LiDAR without Intensity, and Classification D -- Fusion of All Data. These classifications were performed using random forest and each resulted in a 3-foot resolution thematic raster of forested upland and forested wetland locations in Vermilion County, Illinois. The accuracies of these classifications were compared using Kappa Coefficient of Agreement. Importance statistics produced within the random forest classifier were evaluated in order to understand the contribution of individual datasets. Classification D, which used the fusion of LiDAR and multi-spectral imagery as input variables, had moderate to strong agreement between reference data and classification results. It was found that Classification A performed using all the LiDAR data and its derivatives

  11. Forest fuel treatment detection using multi-temporal airborne Lidar data and high resolution aerial imagery ---- A case study at Sierra Nevada, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Y.; Guo, Q.; Collins, B.; Fry, D.; Kelly, M.

    2014-12-01

    Forest fuel treatments (FFT) are often employed in Sierra Nevada forest (located in California, US) to enhance forest health, regulate stand density, and reduce wildfire risk. However, there have been concerns that FFTs may have negative impacts on certain protected wildlife species. Due to the constraints and protection of resources (e.g., perennial streams, cultural resources, wildlife habitat, etc.), the actual FFT extents are usually different from planned extents. Identifying the actual extent of treated areas is of primary importance to understand the environmental influence of FFTs. Light detection and ranging (Lidar) is a powerful remote sensing technique that can provide accurate forest structure measurements, which provides great potential to monitor forest changes. This study used canopy height model (CHM) and canopy cover (CC) products derived from multi-temporal airborne Lidar data to detect FFTs by an approach combining a pixel-wise thresholding method and a object-of-interest segmentation method. We also investigated forest change following the implementation of landscape-scale FFT projects through the use of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and standardized principle component analysis (PCA) from multi-temporal high resolution aerial imagery. The same FFT detection routine was applied on the Lidar data and aerial imagery for the purpose of comparing the capability of Lidar data and aerial imagery on FFT detection. Our results demonstrated that the FFT detection using Lidar derived CC products produced both the highest total accuracy and kappa coefficient, and was more robust at identifying areas with light FFTs. The accuracy using Lidar derived CHM products was significantly lower than that of the result using Lidar derived CC, but was still slightly higher than using aerial imagery. FFT detection results using NDVI and standardized PCA using multi-temporal aerial imagery produced almost identical total accuracy and kappa coefficient

  12. Automatic geolocation of targets tracked by aerial imaging platforms using satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, P. K.; Goel, S.; Singh, P.; Lohani, B.

    2014-11-01

    Tracking of targets from aerial platforms is an important activity in several applications, especially surveillance. Knowled ge of geolocation of these targets adds additional significant and useful information to the application. This paper determines the geolocation of a target being tracked from an aerial platform using the technique of image registration. Current approaches utilize a POS to determine the location of the aerial platform and then use the same for geolocation of the targets using the principle of photogrammetry. The constraints of cost and low-payload restrict the applicability of this approach using UAV platforms. This paper proposes a methodology for determining the geolocation of a target tracked from an aerial platform in a partially GPS devoid environment. The method utilises automatic feature based registration technique of a georeferenced satellite image with an ae rial image which is already stored in UAV's database to retrieve the geolocation of the target. Since it is easier to register subsequent aerial images due to similar viewing parameters, the subsequent overlapping images are registered together sequentially thus resulting in the registration of each of the images with georeferenced satellite image thus leading to geolocation of the target under interest. Using the proposed approach, the target can be tracked in all the frames in which it is visible. The proposed concept is verified experimentally and the results are found satisfactory. Using the proposed method, a user can obtain location of target of interest as well features on ground without requiring any POS on-board the aerial platform. The proposed approach has applications in surveillance for target tracking, target geolocation as well as in disaster management projects like search and rescue operations.

  13. Projection of Stabilized Aerial Imagery Onto Digital Elevation Maps for Geo-Rectified and Jitter-Free Viewing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansar, Adnan I.; Brennan, Shane; Clouse, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    As imagery is collected from an airborne platform, an individual viewing the images wants to know from where on the Earth the images were collected. To do this, some information about the camera needs to be known, such as its position and orientation relative to the Earth. This can be provided by common inertial navigation systems (INS). Once the location of the camera is known, it is useful to project an image onto some representation of the Earth. Due to the non-smooth terrain of the Earth (mountains, valleys, etc.), this projection is highly non-linear. Thus, to ensure accurate projection, one needs to project onto a digital elevation map (DEM). This allows one to view the images overlaid onto a representation of the Earth. A code has been developed that takes an image, a model of the camera used to acquire that image, the pose of the camera during acquisition (as provided by an INS), and a DEM, and outputs an image that has been geo-rectified. The world coordinate of the bounds of the image are provided for viewing purposes. The code finds a mapping from points on the ground (DEM) to pixels in the image. By performing this process for all points on the ground, one can "paint" the ground with the image, effectively performing a projection of the image onto the ground. In order to make this process efficient, a method was developed for finding a region of interest (ROI) on the ground to where the image will project. This code is useful in any scenario involving an aerial imaging platform that moves and rotates over time. Many other applications are possible in processing aerial and satellite imagery.

  14. Characterizing Sediment Flux Using Reconstructed Topography and Bathymetry from Historical Aerial Imagery on the Willamette River, OR.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langston, T.; Fonstad, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Willamette is a gravel-bed river that drains ~28,800 km^2 between the Coast Range and Cascade Range in northwestern Oregon before entering the Columbia River near Portland. In the last 150 years, natural and anthropogenic drivers have altered the sediment transport regime, drastically reducing the geomorphic complexity of the river. Previously dynamic multi-threaded reaches have transformed into stable single channels to the detriment of ecosystem diversity and productivity. Flow regulation by flood-control dams, bank revetments, and conversion of riparian forests to agriculture have been key drivers of channel change. To date, little has been done to quantitatively describe temporal and spatial trends of sediment transport in the Willamette. This knowledge is critical for understanding how modern processes shape landforms and habitats. The goal of this study is to describe large-scale temporal and spatial trends in the sediment budget by reconstructing historical topography and bathymetry from aerial imagery. The area of interest for this project is a reach of the Willamette stretching from the confluence of the McKenzie River to the town of Peoria. While this reach remains one of the most dynamic sections of the river, it has exhibited a great loss in geomorphic complexity. Aerial imagery for this section of the river is available from USDA and USACE projects dating back to the 1930's. Above water surface elevations are extracted using the Imagine Photogrammetry package in ERDAS. Bathymetry is estimated using a method known as Hydraulic Assisted Bathymetry in which hydraulic parameters are used to develop a regression between water depth and pixel values. From this, pixel values are converted to depth below the water surface. Merged together, topography and bathymetry produce a spatially continuous digital elevation model of the geomorphic floodplain. Volumetric changes in sediment stored along the study reach are then estimated for different historic periods

  15. Monitoring a BLM level 5 watershed with very-large aerial imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A fifth order BLM watershed in central Wyoming was flown using a Sport-airplane to acquire high-resolution aerial images from 2 cameras at 2 altitudes. Project phases 1 and 2 obtained images for measuring ground cover, species composition and canopy cover of Wyoming big sagebrush by ecological site....

  16. Technical development for automatic aerial triangulation of high resolution satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Zhen

    Because they contain abundant spatial information, high resolution satellite images are widely used in a variety of applications. Aerial triangulation is one of the most important technologies to obtain accurate spatial information from those images. Thus aerial triangulation is always an important research topic in the photogrammetric community and automatic aerial triangulation is a common goal of such PhD research activities. To date, many techniques have been developed to improve the efficiency and accuracy of aerial triangulation. However, for processing high resolution satellite images, automatic aerial triangulation still faces many challenges, including tie point extraction and sensor model refinement. The main purpose of this research is to develop and test new tie point extraction, sensor model refinement and bundle block adjustment methods for improving the automation and accuracy of aerial triangulation. The accuracy of tie points directly determines the success of aerial triangulation. Generally both the corner point and the gravity center point of a rectangular or circular object can be used as tie points, but the resulting outcomes can vary greatly in aerial triangulation. However, this difference has not drawn much attention from researchers yet. Thus, most of the tie point extraction algorithms only extract various corners. In order to quantify the difference between corner and center tie points for image registration, this research analyzed the error introduced by using corner or center tie points in different cases. Through quantitative analysis and experiments, the author reached the conclusion that the 'center' points, when used as tie points, can improve the accuracy of image registration by at least 40 percent over that for the 'corner' points. Extracting a large number of tie points is the prerequisite of automatic aerial triangulation. Interest point matching can extract tie points automatically. To date numerous interest point matching

  17. Classification of riparian forest species and health condition using multi-temporal and hyperspatial imagery from unmanned aerial system.

    PubMed

    Michez, Adrien; Piégay, Hervé; Lisein, Jonathan; Claessens, Hugues; Lejeune, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    Riparian forests are critically endangered many anthropogenic pressures and natural hazards. The importance of riparian zones has been acknowledged by European Directives, involving multi-scale monitoring. The use of this very-high-resolution and hyperspatial imagery in a multi-temporal approach is an emerging topic. The trend is reinforced by the recent and rapid growth of the use of the unmanned aerial system (UAS), which has prompted the development of innovative methodology. Our study proposes a methodological framework to explore how a set of multi-temporal images acquired during a vegetative period can differentiate some of the deciduous riparian forest species and their health conditions. More specifically, the developed approach intends to identify, through a process of variable selection, which variables derived from UAS imagery and which scale of image analysis are the most relevant to our objectives.The methodological framework is applied to two study sites to describe the riparian forest through two fundamental characteristics: the species composition and the health condition. These characteristics were selected not only because of their use as proxies for the riparian zone ecological integrity but also because of their use for river management.The comparison of various scales of image analysis identified the smallest object-based image analysis (OBIA) objects (ca. 1 m(2)) as the most relevant scale. Variables derived from spectral information (bands ratios) were identified as the most appropriate, followed by variables related to the vertical structure of the forest. Classification results show good overall accuracies for the species composition of the riparian forest (five classes, 79.5 and 84.1% for site 1 and site 2). The classification scenario regarding the health condition of the black alders of the site 1 performed the best (90.6%).The quality of the classification models developed with a UAS-based, cost-effective, and semi-automatic approach

  18. Wavelet-based detection of bush encroachment in a savanna using multi-temporal aerial photographs and satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekede, Munyaradzi D.; Murwira, Amon; Masocha, Mhosisi

    2015-03-01

    Although increased woody plant abundance has been reported in tropical savannas worldwide, techniques for detecting the direction and magnitude of change are mostly based on visual interpretation of historical aerial photography or textural analysis of multi-temporal satellite images. These techniques are prone to human error and do not permit integration of remotely sensed data from diverse sources. Here, we integrate aerial photographs with high spatial resolution satellite imagery and use a discrete wavelet transform to objectively detect the dynamics in bush encroachment at two protected Zimbabwean savanna sites. Based on the recently introduced intensity-dominant scale approach, we test the hypotheses that: (1) the encroachment of woody patches into the surrounding grassland matrix causes a shift in the dominant scale. This shift in the dominant scale can be detected using a discrete wavelet transform regardless of whether aerial photography and satellite data are used; and (2) as the woody patch size stabilises, woody cover tends to increase thereby triggering changes in intensity. The results show that at the first site where tree patches were already established (Lake Chivero Game Reserve), between 1972 and 1984 the dominant scale of woody patches initially increased from 8 m before stabilising at 16 m and 32 m between 1984 and 2012 while the intensity fluctuated during the same period. In contrast, at the second site, which was formely grass-dominated site (Kyle Game Reserve), we observed an unclear dominant scale (1972) which later becomes distinct in 1985, 1996 and 2012. Over the same period, the intensity increased. Our results imply that using our approach we can detect and quantify woody/bush patch dynamics in savanna landscapes.

  19. Combining Oblique Thermal Imagery and Topographic Data of Lava Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, M. R.; Robson, S.

    2005-12-01

    Collecting ground-based images of environmental scenes usually results in images with significant depth of field and strongly oblique views of the objects of interest. These factors complicate quantitative analysis by introducing large changes in scale within images and, in the case of thermal data, varying the corrections required to account for atmospheric attenuation. We report on the use of photogrammetric and machine vision techniques to combine spatial data with thermal imagery in order to allow distance, velocity and appropriately corrected thermal data to be obtained. Topographic information was determined by photogrammetry, using visible images from a consumer-grade digital SLR camera which were collected simultaneously with the thermal images. Orientation of the thermal images (i.e. calculation of camera position and pointing direction) then allowed viewing distance corrections to be applied to the thermal images on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Rectification of the corrected images allows them to be presented in geographic coordinates and therefore facilitates correlation with other datasets for analysis. Examples are given from the 2004 to 2005 eruption of Mount Etna, Sicily. Images were collected from flow front regions just south of Monte Centenari, approximately 2 km from the active vent. From the viewing positions occupied, the lava flowed towards the camera, with distances to the flow being between ~50 and 400 m. We describe the viewing distance corrections applied to the thermal data and illustrate how sequence analysis in a 3D spatial context can be used to determine flow profiles and lava flux rates. Significant variations in flux can be correlated with periods of levee building, breaching and ogive formation.

  20. Mapping trees outside forests using high-resolution aerial imagery: a comparison of pixel- and object-based classification approaches.

    PubMed

    Meneguzzo, Dacia M; Liknes, Greg C; Nelson, Mark D

    2013-08-01

    Discrete trees and small groups of trees in nonforest settings are considered an essential resource around the world and are collectively referred to as trees outside forests (ToF). ToF provide important functions across the landscape, such as protecting soil and water resources, providing wildlife habitat, and improving farmstead energy efficiency and aesthetics. Despite the significance of ToF, forest and other natural resource inventory programs and geospatial land cover datasets that are available at a national scale do not include comprehensive information regarding ToF in the United States. Additional ground-based data collection and acquisition of specialized imagery to inventory these resources are expensive alternatives. As a potential solution, we identified two remote sensing-based approaches that use free high-resolution aerial imagery from the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) to map all tree cover in an agriculturally dominant landscape. We compared the results obtained using an unsupervised per-pixel classifier (independent component analysis-[ICA]) and an object-based image analysis (OBIA) procedure in Steele County, Minnesota, USA. Three types of accuracy assessments were used to evaluate how each method performed in terms of: (1) producing a county-level estimate of total tree-covered area, (2) correctly locating tree cover on the ground, and (3) how tree cover patch metrics computed from the classified outputs compared to those delineated by a human photo interpreter. Both approaches were found to be viable for mapping tree cover over a broad spatial extent and could serve to supplement ground-based inventory data. The ICA approach produced an estimate of total tree cover more similar to the photo-interpreted result, but the output from the OBIA method was more realistic in terms of describing the actual observed spatial pattern of tree cover. PMID:23255169

  1. Pricise Target Geolocation Based on Integeration of Thermal Video Imagery and Rtk GPS in Uavs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinpoor, H. R.; Samadzadegan, F.; Dadras Javan, F.

    2015-12-01

    There are an increasingly large number of uses for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) from surveillance, mapping and target geolocation. However, most of commercial UAVs are equipped with low-cost navigation sensors such as C/A code GPS and a low-cost IMU on board, allowing a positioning accuracy of 5 to 10 meters. This low accuracy which implicates that it cannot be used in applications that require high precision data on cm-level. This paper presents a precise process for geolocation of ground targets based on thermal video imagery acquired by small UAV equipped with RTK GPS. The geolocation data is filtered using a linear Kalman filter, which provides a smoothed estimate of target location and target velocity. The accurate geo-locating of targets during image acquisition is conducted via traditional photogrammetric bundle adjustment equations using accurate exterior parameters achieved by on board IMU and RTK GPS sensors and Kalman filtering and interior orientation parameters of thermal camera from pre-flight laboratory calibration process.

  2. Image degradation in aerial imagery duplicates. [photographic processing of photographic film and reproduction (copying)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, H. E.

    1975-01-01

    A series of Earth Resources Aircraft Program data flights were made over an aerial test range in Arizona for the evaluation of large cameras. Specifically, both medium altitude and high altitude flights were made to test and evaluate a series of color as well as black-and-white films. Image degradation, inherent in duplication processing, was studied. Resolution losses resulting from resolution characteristics of the film types are given. Color duplicates, in general, are shown to be degraded more than black-and-white films because of the limitations imposed by available aerial color duplicating stock. Results indicate that a greater resolution loss may be expected when the original has higher resolution. Photographs of the duplications are shown.

  3. Automatic Feature Detection, Description and Matching from Mobile Laser Scanning Data and Aerial Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussnain, Zille; Oude Elberink, Sander; Vosselman, George

    2016-06-01

    In mobile laser scanning systems, the platform's position is measured by GNSS and IMU, which is often not reliable in urban areas. Consequently, derived Mobile Laser Scanning Point Cloud (MLSPC) lacks expected positioning reliability and accuracy. Many of the current solutions are either semi-automatic or unable to achieve pixel level accuracy. We propose an automatic feature extraction method which involves utilizing corresponding aerial images as a reference data set. The proposed method comprise three steps; image feature detection, description and matching between corresponding patches of nadir aerial and MLSPC ortho images. In the data pre-processing step the MLSPC is patch-wise cropped and converted to ortho images. Furthermore, each aerial image patch covering the area of the corresponding MLSPC patch is also cropped from the aerial image. For feature detection, we implemented an adaptive variant of Harris-operator to automatically detect corner feature points on the vertices of road markings. In feature description phase, we used the LATCH binary descriptor, which is robust to data from different sensors. For descriptor matching, we developed an outlier filtering technique, which exploits the arrangements of relative Euclidean-distances and angles between corresponding sets of feature points. We found that the positioning accuracy of the computed correspondence has achieved the pixel level accuracy, where the image resolution is 12cm. Furthermore, the developed approach is reliable when enough road markings are available in the data sets. We conclude that, in urban areas, the developed approach can reliably extract features necessary to improve the MLSPC accuracy to pixel level.

  4. Assessing the relationship between urban parameters and the LST derived by satellite and aerial imageries in a GIS environment: the case of Bari (Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caprioli, Mauro; Ceppi, Claudia; Falchi, Ugo; Mancini, Francesco; Scarano, Mario

    2014-05-01

    The use of thermal remote sensing to estimate the phenomenon of urban heat islands (UHI) and development of climate anomalies in urban context represents a consolidated approach. In the current scientific literature a widespread case studies were focused on the estimation of the relationship between features related to the urban environment and the Land Surface Temperatures (LST). The latter is a basic starting observation in the investigation on the UHI phenomenon . However, the evaluation of these relationships is rather difficult. This is due to deficiencies in the detailed knowledge of parameters able to describe geometric and qualitative properties of land covers. These properties are very often not repeatable and not easily transferable in other contexts. In addition, many of the relevant parameters are difficult to be determined at the required spatial resolution and analyses are affected by a lack in the amount of quantitative parameters used. In addition to the LST, several useful indicators are introduced by the literature in the investigation of such phenomena. The objective of this work is to study the relationship between the LST and a set of variables that characterize the anthropic and natural domains of the urban areas, such as urban morphology, the Normalized Differenced Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Sky View Factor (SVF) and other morphometric parameters implemented within a GIS environment. The study case is the city of Bari (Southern Italy) where several recognizable morphologies exhibit a different thermal behavior. The LST parameter was derived from a collection of satellite ASTER images collected within a period spanning from July 2001 and July 2006, whereas aerial thermal imageries were acquired on September 2013. The basic data used for the determination of the descriptive parameters of the urban environmental are derived from digital maps(Geographic Information System of the Apulia Region), Digital Elevation Model and Land Use. The analysis

  5. Aerial infrared surveys of Reykjanes and Torfajökull thermal areas, Iceland, with a section on cost of exploration surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pálmason, G.; Friedman, J.D.; Williams, R.S., Jr.; Jónsson, J.; Saemundsson, K.

    1970-01-01

    In 1966 and 1968 aerial infrared surveys were conducted over 10 of 13 high-temperature thermal areas in Iceland. The surveys were made with an airborne scanner system, utilizing radiation in the 4.5–5.5 μm wavelength band. Supplementary ground geological studies were made in the Reykjanes and Torfajökull thermal areas to interpret features depicted on the infrared imagery and to relate zones of high heat flux to tectonic structure. In the Reykjanes area in southwestern Iceland a shallow ground temperature map was prepared for temperatures at a depth of 0.5 meters; comparison of this map with the infrared imagery reveals some striking similarities. It appears that aerial infrared surveys outline the surface thermal patterns of high-temperature areas and aid in relating these patterns to possible geological structures controlling the upflow of hot water. Amplitude-slicing techniques applied to the magnetically taped airborne scanner data permit an estimate to be made of the natural heat output on the basis of size of area and specific radiance. In addition to their value in preliminary studies of high-temperature areas, infrared surveys conducted at regular intervals over thermal area under exploitation can provide valuable data on changes that occur in surface manifestations with time.

  6. Hyperspatial Thermal Imaging of Surface Hydrothermal Features at Pilgrim Hot Springs, Alaska using a small Unmanned Aerial System (sUAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haselwimmer, C. E.; Wilson, R.; Upton, C.; Prakash, A.; Holdmann, G.; Walker, G.

    2013-12-01

    Thermal remote sensing provides a valuable tool for mapping and monitoring surface hydrothermal features associated with geothermal activity. The increasing availability of low-cost, small Unmanned Aerial Systems (sUAS) with integrated thermal imaging sensors offers a means to undertake very high spatial resolution (hyperspatial), quantitative thermal remote sensing of surface geothermal features in support of exploration and long-term monitoring efforts. Results from the deployment of a quadcopter sUAS equipped with a thermal camera over Pilgrim Hot Springs, Alaska for detailed mapping and heat flux estimation for hot springs, seeps, and thermal pools are presented. Hyperspatial thermal infrared imagery (4 cm pixels) was acquired over Pilgrim Hot Springs in July 2013 using a FLIR TAU 640 camera operating from an Aeryon Scout sUAS flying at an altitude of 40m. The registered and mosaicked thermal imagery is calibrated to surface temperature values using in-situ measurements of uniform blackbody tarps and the temperatures of geothermal and other surface pools acquired with a series of water temperature loggers. Interpretation of the pre-processed thermal imagery enables the delineation of hot springs, the extents of thermal pools, and the flow and mixing of individual geothermal outflow plumes with an unprecedented level of detail. Using the surface temperatures of thermal waters derived from the FLIR data and measured in-situ meteorological parameters the hot spring heat flux and outflow rate is calculated using a heat budget model for a subset of the thermal drainage. The heat flux/outflow rate estimates derived from the FLIR data are compared against in-situ measurements of the hot spring outflow rate recorded at the time of the thermal survey.

  7. 3D Building Modeling and Reconstruction using Photometric Satellite and Aerial Imageries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izadi, Mohammad

    In this thesis, the problem of three dimensional (3D) reconstruction of building models using photometric satellite and aerial images is investigated. Here, two systems are pre-sented: 1) 3D building reconstruction using a nadir single-view image, and 2) 3D building reconstruction using slant multiple-view aerial images. The first system detects building rooftops in orthogonal aerial/satellite images using a hierarchical segmentation algorithm and a shadow verification approach. The heights of detected buildings are then estimated using a fuzzy rule-based method, which measures the height of a building by comparing its predicted shadow region with the actual shadow evidence in the image. This system finally generated a KML (Keyhole Markup Language) file as the output, that contains 3D models of detected buildings. The second system uses the geolocation information of a scene containing a building of interest and uploads all slant-view images that contain this scene from an input image dataset. These images are then searched automatically to choose image pairs with different views of the scene (north, east, south and west) based on the geolocation and auxiliary data accompanying the input data (metadata that describes the acquisition parameters at the capture time). The camera parameters corresponding to these images are refined using a novel point matching algorithm. Next, the system independently reconstructs 3D flat surfaces that are visible in each view using an iterative algorithm. 3D surfaces generated for all views are combined, and redundant surfaces are removed to create a complete set of 3D surfaces. Finally, the combined 3D surfaces are connected together to generate a more complete 3D model. For the experimental results, both presented systems are evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively and different aspects of the two systems including accuracy, stability, and execution time are discussed.

  8. Roof heat loss detection using airborne thermal infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, K.; Bauer, C.; Sulzer, W.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the Austrian and European attempt to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, thermal rehabilitation and the improvement of the energy efficiency of buildings became an important topic in research as well as in building construction and refurbishment. Today, in-situ thermal infrared measurements are routinely used to determine energy loss through the building envelope. However, in-situ thermal surveys are expensive and time consuming, and in many cases the detection of the amount and location of waste heat leaving building through roofs is not possible with ground-based observations. For some years now, a new generation of high-resolution thermal infrared sensors makes it possible to survey heat-loss through roofs at a high level of detail and accuracy. However, to date, comparable studies have mainly been conducted on buildings with uniform roof covering and provided two-dimensional, qualitative information. This pilot study aims to survey the heat-loss through roofs of the buildings of the University of Graz (Austria) campus by using high-resolution airborne thermal infrared imagery (TABI 1800 - Thermal Airborne Broadband imager). TABI-1800 acquires data in a spectral range from 3.7 - 4.8 micron, a thermal resolution of 0.05 °C and a spatial resolution of 0.6 m. The remote sensing data is calibrated to different roof coverings (e.g. clay shingle, asphalt shingle, tin roof, glass) and combined with a roof surface model to determine the amount of waste heat leaving the building and to identify hot spots. The additional integration of information about the conditions underneath the roofs into the study allows a more detailed analysis of the upward heat flux and is a significant improvement of existing methods. The resulting data set provides useful information to the university facility service for infrastructure maintenance, especially in terms of attic and roof insulation improvements. Beyond that, the project is supposed to raise public

  9. Mapping Urban Tree Canopy Coverage and Structure using Data Fusion of High Resolution Satellite Imagery and Aerial Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmes, A.; Rogan, J.; Williams, C. A.; Martin, D. G.; Ratick, S.; Nowak, D.

    2015-12-01

    Urban tree canopy (UTC) coverage is a critical component of sustainable urban areas. Trees provide a number of important ecosystem services, including air pollution mitigation, water runoff control, and aesthetic and cultural values. Critically, urban trees also act to mitigate the urban heat island (UHI) effect by shading impervious surfaces and via evaporative cooling. The cooling effect of urban trees can be seen locally, with individual trees reducing home HVAC costs, and at a citywide scale, reducing the extent and magnitude of an urban areas UHI. In order to accurately model the ecosystem services of a given urban forest, it is essential to map in detail the condition and composition of these trees at a fine scale, capturing individual tree crowns and their vertical structure. This paper presents methods for delineating UTC and measuring canopy structure at fine spatial resolution (<1m). These metrics are essential for modeling the HVAC benefits from UTC for individual homes, and for assessing the ecosystem services for entire urban areas. Such maps have previously been made using a variety of methods, typically relying on high resolution aerial or satellite imagery. This paper seeks to contribute to this growing body of methods, relying on a data fusion method to combine the information contained in high resolution WorldView-3 satellite imagery and aerial lidar data using an object-based image classification approach. The study area, Worcester, MA, has recently undergone a large-scale tree removal and reforestation program, following a pest eradication effort. Therefore, the urban canopy in this location provides a wide mix of tree age class and functional type, ideal for illustrating the effectiveness of the proposed methods. Early results show that the object-based classifier is indeed capable of identifying individual tree crowns, while continued research will focus on extracting crown structural characteristics using lidar-derived metrics. Ultimately

  10. Assessing the accuracy and repeatability of automated photogrammetrically generated digital surface models from unmanned aerial system imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavis, Christopher

    Using commercial digital cameras in conjunction with Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to generate 3-D Digital Surface Models (DSMs) and orthomosaics is emerging as a cost-effective alternative to Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR). Powerful software applications such as Pix4D and APS can automate the generation of DSM and orthomosaic products from a handful of inputs. However, the accuracy of these models is relatively untested. The objectives of this study were to generate multiple DSM and orthomosaic pairs of the same area using Pix4D and APS from flights of imagery collected with a lightweight UAS. The accuracy of each individual DSM was assessed in addition to the consistency of the method to model one location over a period of time. Finally, this study determined if the DSMs automatically generated using lightweight UAS and commercial digital cameras could be used for detecting changes in elevation and at what scale. Accuracy was determined by comparing DSMs to a series of reference points collected with survey grade GPS. Other GPS points were also used as control points to georeference the products within Pix4D and APS. The effectiveness of the products for change detection was assessed through image differencing and observance of artificially induced, known elevation changes. The vertical accuracy with the optimal data and model is ≈ 25 cm and the highest consistency over repeat flights is a standard deviation of ≈ 5 cm. Elevation change detection based on such UAS imagery and DSM models should be viable for detecting infrastructure change in urban or suburban environments with little dense canopy vegetation.

  11. Radiometric and geometric analysis of hyperspectral imagery acquired from an unmanned aerial vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Hruska, Ryan; Mitchell, Jessica; Anderson, Matthew; Glenn, Nancy F.

    2012-09-17

    During the summer of 2010, an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) hyperspectral in-flight calibration and characterization experiment of the Resonon PIKA II imaging spectrometer was conducted at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory (INL) UAV Research Park. The purpose of the experiment was to validate the radiometric calibration of the spectrometer and determine the georegistration accuracy achievable from the on-board global positioning system (GPS) and inertial navigation sensors (INS) under operational conditions. In order for low-cost hyperspectral systems to compete with larger systems flown on manned aircraft, they must be able to collect data suitable for quantitative scientific analysis. The results of the in-flight calibration experiment indicate an absolute average agreement of 96.3%, 93.7% and 85.7% for calibration tarps of 56%, 24%, and 2.5% reflectivity, respectively. The achieved planimetric accuracy was 4.6 meters (based on RMSE).

  12. Motion Component Supported Boosted Classifier for CAR Detection in Aerial Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuermer, S.; Leitloff, J.; Reinartz, P.; Stilla, U.

    2011-04-01

    Research of automatic vehicle detection in aerial images has been done with a lot of innovation and constantly rising success for years. However information was mostly taken from a single image only. Our aim is using the additional information which is offered by the temporal component, precisely the difference of the previous and the consecutive image. On closer viewing the moving objects are mainly vehicles and therefore we provide a method which is able to limit the search space of the detector to changed areas. The actual detector is generated of HoG features which are composed and linearly weighted by AdaBoost. Finally the method is tested on a motorway section including an exit and congested traffic near Munich, Germany.

  13. Mapping potential Blanding's turtle habitat using aerial orthophotographic imagery and object based classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Rebecca

    Blanding's turtle (Emydoidea blandingii) is a threatened species in southern Quebec that is being inventoried to determine abundance and potential habitat by the Quebec Ministry of Natural Resources and Wildlife. In collaboration with that program and using spring leaf-off aerial orthophotos of Gatineau Park, attributes associated with known habitat criteria were analyzed: wetlands with open water, vegetation mounds for camouflage and thermoregulation, and logs for spring sun-basking. Pixel-based classification to separate wetlands from other land cover types was followed by object-based segmentation and rule-based classification of within--wetland vegetation and logs. Classifications integrated several image characteristics including texture, context, shape, area and spectral attributes. Field data and visual interpretation showed the accuracies of wetland and within wetland habitat feature classifications to be over 82.5%. The wetland classification results were used to develop a ranked potential habitat suitability map for Blanding's turtle that can be employed in conservation planning and management.

  14. The influence of the in situ camera calibration for direct georeferencing of aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitishita, E.; Barrios, R.; Centeno, J.

    2014-11-01

    The direct determination of exterior orientation parameters (EOPs) of aerial images via GNSS/INS technologies is an essential prerequisite in photogrammetric mapping nowadays. Although direct sensor orientation technologies provide a high degree of automation in the process due to the GNSS/INS technologies, the accuracies of the obtained results depend on the quality of a group of parameters that models accurately the conditions of the system at the moment the job is performed. One sub-group of parameters (lever arm offsets and boresight misalignments) models the position and orientation of the sensors with respect to the IMU body frame due to the impossibility of having all sensors on the same position and orientation in the airborne platform. Another sub-group of parameters models the internal characteristics of the sensor (IOP). A system calibration procedure has been recommended by worldwide studies to obtain accurate parameters (mounting and sensor characteristics) for applications of the direct sensor orientation. Commonly, mounting and sensor characteristics are not stable; they can vary in different flight conditions. The system calibration requires a geometric arrangement of the flight and/or control points to decouple correlated parameters, which are not available in the conventional photogrammetric flight. Considering this difficulty, this study investigates the feasibility of the in situ camera calibration to improve the accuracy of the direct georeferencing of aerial images. The camera calibration uses a minimum image block, extracted from the conventional photogrammetric flight, and control point arrangement. A digital Vexcel UltraCam XP camera connected to POS AV TM system was used to get two photogrammetric image blocks. The blocks have different flight directions and opposite flight line. In situ calibration procedures to compute different sets of IOPs are performed and their results are analyzed and used in photogrammetric experiments. The IOPs

  15. Supervised classification of aerial imagery and multi-source data fusion for flood assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sava, E.; Harding, L.; Cervone, G.

    2015-12-01

    Floods are among the most devastating natural hazards and the ability to produce an accurate and timely flood assessment before, during, and after an event is critical for their mitigation and response. Remote sensing technologies have become the de-facto approach for observing the Earth and its environment. However, satellite remote sensing data are not always available. For these reasons, it is crucial to develop new techniques in order to produce flood assessments during and after an event. Recent advancements in data fusion techniques of remote sensing with near real time heterogeneous datasets have allowed emergency responders to more efficiently extract increasingly precise and relevant knowledge from the available information. This research presents a fusion technique using satellite remote sensing imagery coupled with non-authoritative data such as Civil Air Patrol (CAP) and tweets. A new computational methodology is proposed based on machine learning algorithms to automatically identify water pixels in CAP imagery. Specifically, wavelet transformations are paired with multiple classifiers, run in parallel, to build models discriminating water and non-water regions. The learned classification models are first tested against a set of control cases, and then used to automatically classify each image separately. A measure of uncertainty is computed for each pixel in an image proportional to the number of models classifying the pixel as water. Geo-tagged tweets are continuously harvested and stored on a MongoDB and queried in real time. They are fused with CAP classified data, and with satellite remote sensing derived flood extent results to produce comprehensive flood assessment maps. The final maps are then compared with FEMA generated flood extents to assess their accuracy. The proposed methodology is applied on two test cases, relative to the 2013 floods in Boulder CO, and the 2015 floods in Texas.

  16. Application of thermal imagery to the development of a Great Lakes ice information system. [infrared and SLAR imagery of fresh water ice thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schertler, R. J.; Raquet, C. A.; Svehla, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    Recent measurements and analysis have shown that thermal infrared imagery (wavelength, 8-14 microns) can be employed to delineate the relative thicknesses of various regions of freshwater ice, as well as, differentiate new ice from both open water areas and thicker (young)ice. Thermal imagery was observed to be generally superior to visual (0.4 - 0.7 microns) and our SLAR (3.3 cm) imagery for estimating relative ice thicknesses and delineating open water from new ice growth. In a real-time Great Lakes Ice Information System, thermal imagery can not only provide supplementary imagery but also aid in developing interpretative methods for all-weather SLAR imagery, as well as, establishing the areal extent of spot thickness measurements.

  17. Cultivated land information extraction from high-resolution unmanned aerial vehicle imagery data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lei; Cheng, Liang; Han, Wenquan; Zhong, Lishan; Li, Manchun

    2014-01-01

    The development of precision agriculture demands high accuracy and efficiency of cultivated land information extraction. Simultaneously, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have been increasingly used for natural resource applications in recent years as a result of their greater availability, the miniaturization of sensors, and the ability to deploy UAVs relatively quickly and repeatedly at low altitudes. We examine the potential of utilizing a small UAV for the characterization, assessment, and monitoring of cultivated land. Because most UAV images lack spectral information, we propose a novel cultivated land information extraction method based on a triangulation for cultivated land information extraction (TCLE) method. Thus, the information on more spatial properties of a region is incorporated into the classification process. The TCLE comprises three main steps: image segmentation, triangulation construction, and triangulation clustering using AUTOCLUST. Experiments were conducted on three UAV images in Deyang, China, using TCLE and eCognition for cultivated land information extraction (ECLE). Experimental results show that TCLE, which does not require training samples and has a much higher level of automation, can obtain accuracies equivalent to ECLE. Comparing with ECLE, TCLE also extracts coherent cultivated land with much less noise. As such, cultivated land information extraction based on high-resolution UAV images can be effectively and efficiently conducted using the proposed method.

  18. Assessment of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Imagery for Quantitative Monitoring of Wheat Crop in Small Plots

    PubMed Central

    Lelong, Camille C. D.; Burger, Philippe; Jubelin, Guillaume; Roux, Bruno; Labbé, Sylvain; Baret, Frédéric

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlines how light Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) can be used in remote sensing for precision farming. It focuses on the combination of simple digital photographic cameras with spectral filters, designed to provide multispectral images in the visible and near-infrared domains. In 2005, these instruments were fitted to powered glider and parachute, and flown at six dates staggered over the crop season. We monitored ten varieties of wheat, grown in trial micro-plots in the South-West of France. For each date, we acquired multiple views in four spectral bands corresponding to blue, green, red, and near-infrared. We then performed accurate corrections of image vignetting, geometric distortions, and radiometric bidirectional effects. Afterwards, we derived for each experimental micro-plot several vegetation indexes relevant for vegetation analyses. Finally, we sought relationships between these indexes and field-measured biophysical parameters, both generic and date-specific. Therefore, we established a robust and stable generic relationship between, in one hand, leaf area index and NDVI and, in the other hand, nitrogen uptake and GNDVI. Due to a high amount of noise in the data, it was not possible to obtain a more accurate model for each date independently. A validation protocol showed that we could expect a precision level of 15% in the biophysical parameters estimation while using these relationships.

  19. Radiometric and geometric analysis of hyperspectral imagery acquired from an unmanned aerial vehicle

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hruska, Ryan; Mitchell, Jessica; Anderson, Matthew; Glenn, Nancy F.

    2012-09-17

    During the summer of 2010, an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) hyperspectral in-flight calibration and characterization experiment of the Resonon PIKA II imaging spectrometer was conducted at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory (INL) UAV Research Park. The purpose of the experiment was to validate the radiometric calibration of the spectrometer and determine the georegistration accuracy achievable from the on-board global positioning system (GPS) and inertial navigation sensors (INS) under operational conditions. In order for low-cost hyperspectral systems to compete with larger systems flown on manned aircraft, they must be able to collect data suitable for quantitative scientific analysis.more » The results of the in-flight calibration experiment indicate an absolute average agreement of 96.3%, 93.7% and 85.7% for calibration tarps of 56%, 24%, and 2.5% reflectivity, respectively. The achieved planimetric accuracy was 4.6 meters (based on RMSE).« less

  20. Automatic Road Extraction Based on Integration of High Resolution LIDAR and Aerial Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, S.; Arefi, H.; Bahmanyar, R.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the rapid increase in the demand for road information together with the availability of large volumes of high resolution Earth Observation (EO) images, have drawn remarkable interest to the use of EO images for road extraction. Among the proposed methods, the unsupervised fully-automatic ones are more efficient since they do not require human effort. Considering the proposed methods, the focus is usually to improve the road network detection, while the roads' precise delineation has been less attended to. In this paper, we propose a new unsupervised fully-automatic road extraction method, based on the integration of the high resolution LiDAR and aerial images of a scene using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). This method discriminates the existing roads in a scene; and then precisely delineates them. Hough transform is then applied to the integrated information to extract straight lines; which are further used to segment the scene and discriminate the existing roads. The roads' edges are then precisely localized using a projection-based technique, and the round corners are further refined. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method extracts and delineates the roads with a high accuracy.

  1. Improvement of erosion risk modelling using soil information derived from aerial Vis-NIR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciampalini, Rossano; Raclot, Damien; Le Bissonnais, Yves

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this research is to test the benefit of the hyperspectral imagery in soil surface properties characterisation for soil erosion modelling purposes. The research area is the Lebna catchment located in the in the north of Tunisia (Cap Bon Region). Soil erosion is evaluated with the use of two different soil erosion models: PESERA (Pan-European Soil Erosion Risk Assessment already used for the soil erosion risk mapping for the European Union, Kirkby et al., 2008) and Mesales (Regional Modelling of Soil Erosion Risk developed by Le Bissonnais et al., 1998, 2002); for that, different sources for soil properties and derived parameters such as soil erodibility map and soil crusting map have been evaluated with use of four different supports: 1) IAO soil map (IAO, 2000), 2) Carte Agricole - CA - (Ministry of Agriculture, Tunisia), 3) Hyperspectral VIS-NIR map - HY - (Gomez et al., 2012; Ciampalini t al., 2012), and, 3) a here developed Hybrid map - CY - integrating information from Hyperspectral VIS-NIR and pedological maps. Results show that the data source has a high influence on the estimation of the parameters for both the models with a more evident sensitivity for Pesera. With regard to the classical pedological data, the VIS-NIR data clearly ameliorates the spatialization of the texture, then, the spatial detail of the results. Differences in the output using different maps are more important in Pesera model than in Mesales showing no-change ranges of about 15 to 41% and 53 to 67%, respectively.

  2. Knowledge Based 3d Building Model Recognition Using Convolutional Neural Networks from LIDAR and Aerial Imageries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alidoost, F.; Arefi, H.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, with the development of the high resolution data acquisition technologies, many different approaches and algorithms have been presented to extract the accurate and timely updated 3D models of buildings as a key element of city structures for numerous applications in urban mapping. In this paper, a novel and model-based approach is proposed for automatic recognition of buildings' roof models such as flat, gable, hip, and pyramid hip roof models based on deep structures for hierarchical learning of features that are extracted from both LiDAR and aerial ortho-photos. The main steps of this approach include building segmentation, feature extraction and learning, and finally building roof labeling in a supervised pre-trained Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) framework to have an automatic recognition system for various types of buildings over an urban area. In this framework, the height information provides invariant geometric features for convolutional neural network to localize the boundary of each individual roofs. CNN is a kind of feed-forward neural network with the multilayer perceptron concept which consists of a number of convolutional and subsampling layers in an adaptable structure and it is widely used in pattern recognition and object detection application. Since the training dataset is a small library of labeled models for different shapes of roofs, the computation time of learning can be decreased significantly using the pre-trained models. The experimental results highlight the effectiveness of the deep learning approach to detect and extract the pattern of buildings' roofs automatically considering the complementary nature of height and RGB information.

  3. Aerial Imagery and Other Non-invasive Approaches to Detect Nitrogen and Water Stress in a Potato Crop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigon, Tyler John

    commercial potato field using aerial imagery. Reference areas were found to be necessary in order to make accurate recommendations because of differences in sensors, potato variety, growth stage, and other local conditions. The results from this study suggest that diagnostic criteria based on both biomass and plant nutrient concentration (e.g., canopy-level spectral reflectance data) were best suited to determine overall crop N status for determination of in-season N fertilizer recommendations.

  4. EFFECTS OF AERIAL THERMAL FOG APPLICATIONS OF FENTHION ON CAGED PINK SHRIMP, MYSIDS AND SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mosquito control applications of fenthion by aerial thermal fog equipment were studied at two sites in Collier County, FL, for sprays that occurred on 20 and 23 June 1984. Acute, lethal effects of fenthion deposited in these estuarine habitats were assessed for caged pink shrimp ...

  5. Crop Status Monitoring using Multispectral and Thermal Imaging systems for Accessible Aerial Platforms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural aircraft and unmanned aerial systems (UAS) are easily scheduled and accessible remote sensing platforms. Canopy temperature data were taken with an Electrophysics PV-320T thermal imaging camera mounted in agricultural aircraft. Weather data and soil water potential were monitored and th...

  6. Error Detection, Factorization and Correction for Multi-View Scene Reconstruction from Aerial Imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Hess-Flores, Mauricio

    2011-11-10

    reconstruction pre-processing, where an algorithm detects and discards frames that would lead to inaccurate feature matching, camera pose estimation degeneracies or mathematical instability in structure computation based on a residual error comparison between two different match motion models. The presented algorithms were designed for aerial video but have been proven to work across different scene types and camera motions, and for both real and synthetic scenes.

  7. Inlining 3d Reconstruction, Multi-Source Texture Mapping and Semantic Analysis Using Oblique Aerial Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frommholz, D.; Linkiewicz, M.; Poznanska, A. M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes an in-line method for the simplified reconstruction of city buildings from nadir and oblique aerial images that at the same time are being used for multi-source texture mapping with minimal resampling. Further, the resulting unrectified texture atlases are analyzed for façade elements like windows to be reintegrated into the original 3D models. Tests on real-world data of Heligoland/ Germany comprising more than 800 buildings exposed a median positional deviation of 0.31 m at the façades compared to the cadastral map, a correctness of 67% for the detected windows and good visual quality when being rendered with GPU-based perspective correction. As part of the process building reconstruction takes the oriented input images and transforms them into dense point clouds by semi-global matching (SGM). The point sets undergo local RANSAC-based regression and topology analysis to detect adjacent planar surfaces and determine their semantics. Based on this information the roof, wall and ground surfaces found get intersected and limited in their extension to form a closed 3D building hull. For texture mapping the hull polygons are projected into each possible input bitmap to find suitable color sources regarding the coverage and resolution. Occlusions are detected by ray-casting a full-scale digital surface model (DSM) of the scene and stored in pixel-precise visibility maps. These maps are used to derive overlap statistics and radiometric adjustment coefficients to be applied when the visible image parts for each building polygon are being copied into a compact texture atlas without resampling whenever possible. The atlas bitmap is passed to a commercial object-based image analysis (OBIA) tool running a custom rule set to identify windows on the contained façade patches. Following multi-resolution segmentation and classification based on brightness and contrast differences potential window objects are evaluated against geometric constraints and

  8. An Algorithm to Atmospherically Correct Visible and Thermal Airborne Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Doug L.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Schiller, Stephen; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The program Watts implements a system of physically based models developed by the authors, described elsewhere, for the removal of atmospheric effects in multispectral imagery. The band range we treat covers the visible, near IR and the thermal IR. Input to the program begins with atmospheric pal red models specifying transmittance and path radiance. The system also requires the sensor's spectral response curves and knowledge of the scanner's geometric definition. Radiometric characterization of the sensor during data acquisition is also necessary. While the authors contend that active calibration is critical for serious analytical efforts, we recognize that most remote sensing systems, either airborne or space borne, do not as yet attain that minimal level of sophistication. Therefore, Watts will also use semi-active calibration where necessary and available. All of the input is then reduced to common terms, in terms of the physical units. From this it Is then practical to convert raw sensor readings into geophysically meaningful units. There are a large number of intricate details necessary to bring an algorithm or this type to fruition and to even use the program. Further, at this stage of development the authors are uncertain as to the optimal presentation or minimal analytical techniques which users of this type of software must have. Therefore, Watts permits users to break out and analyze the input in various ways. Implemented in REXX under OS/2 the program is designed with attention to the probability that it will be ported to other systems and other languages. Further, as it is in REXX, it is relatively simple for anyone that is literate in any computer language to open the code and modify to meet their needs. The authors have employed Watts in their research addressing precision agriculture and urban heat island.

  9. Detection of Single Standing Dead Trees from Aerial Color Infrared Imagery by Segmentation with Shape and Intensity Priors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polewski, P.; Yao, W.; Heurich, M.; Krzystek, P.; Stilla, U.

    2015-03-01

    Standing dead trees, known as snags, are an essential factor in maintaining biodiversity in forest ecosystems. Combined with their role as carbon sinks, this makes for a compelling reason to study their spatial distribution. This paper presents an integrated method to detect and delineate individual dead tree crowns from color infrared aerial imagery. Our approach consists of two steps which incorporate statistical information about prior distributions of both the image intensities and the shapes of the target objects. In the first step, we perform a Gaussian Mixture Model clustering in the pixel color space with priors on the cluster means, obtaining up to 3 components corresponding to dead trees, living trees, and shadows. We then refine the dead tree regions using a level set segmentation method enriched with a generative model of the dead trees' shape distribution as well as a discriminative model of their pixel intensity distribution. The iterative application of the statistical shape template yields the set of delineated dead crowns. The prior information enforces the consistency of the template's shape variation with the shape manifold defined by manually labeled training examples, which makes it possible to separate crowns located in close proximity and prevents the formation of large crown clusters. Also, the statistical information built into the segmentation gives rise to an implicit detection scheme, because the shape template evolves towards an empty contour if not enough evidence for the object is present in the image. We test our method on 3 sample plots from the Bavarian Forest National Park with reference data obtained by manually marking individual dead tree polygons in the images. Our results are scenario-dependent and range from a correctness/completeness of 0.71/0.81 up to 0.77/1, with an average center-of-gravity displacement of 3-5 pixels between the detected and reference polygons.

  10. Terrestrial and unmanned aerial system imagery for deriving photogrammetric three-dimensional point clouds and volume models of mass wasting sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hämmerle, Martin; Schütt, Fabian; Höfle, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) geodata of mass wasting sites are important to model surfaces, volumes, and their changes over time. With a photogrammetric approach commonly known as structure from motion, 3-D point clouds can be derived from image collections in a straightforward way. The quality of point clouds covering a quarry dump derived from terrestrial and aerial imagery is compared and assessed. A comprehensive set of quality indicators is calculated and compared to surveyed reference data and to a terrestrial LiDAR point cloud. The examined indicators are completeness of coverage, point density, vertical accuracy, multiscale point cloud distance, scaling accuracy, and dump volume. It is found that the photogrammetric datasets generally represent the examined dump well with, for example, an area coverage of up to 90% and 100% in case of terrestrial and aerial imagery, respectively, a maximum scaling difference of 0.62%, and volume estimations reaching up to 100% of the LiDAR reference. Combining the advantages of 3-D geodata derived from terrestrial (high detail, accurate volume calculation even with a small number of input images) and aerial images (high coverage) can be a promising method to further improve the quality of 3-D geodata derived with low-cost approaches.

  11. Tree Crown Delineation on Vhr Aerial Imagery with Svm Classification Technique Optimized by Taguchi Method: a Case Study in Zagros Woodlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erfanifard, Y.; Behnia, N.; Moosavi, V.

    2013-09-01

    The Support Vector Machine (SVM) is a theoretically superior machine learning methodology with great results in classification of remotely sensed datasets. Determination of optimal parameters applied in SVM is still vague to some scientists. In this research, it is suggested to use the Taguchi method to optimize these parameters. The objective of this study was to detect tree crowns on very high resolution (VHR) aerial imagery in Zagros woodlands by SVM optimized by Taguchi method. A 30 ha plot of Persian oak (Quercus persica) coppice trees was selected in Zagros woodlands, Iran. The VHR aerial imagery of the plot with 0.06 m spatial resolution was obtained from National Geographic Organization (NGO), Iran, to extract the crowns of Persian oak trees in this study. The SVM parameters were optimized by Taguchi method and thereafter, the imagery was classified by the SVM with optimal parameters. The results showed that the Taguchi method is a very useful approach to optimize the combination of parameters of SVM. It was also concluded that the SVM method could detect the tree crowns with a KHAT coefficient of 0.961 which showed a great agreement with the observed samples and overall accuracy of 97.7% that showed the accuracy of the final map. Finally, the authors suggest applying this method to optimize the parameters of classification techniques like SVM.

  12. Detection of Verticillium wilt of olive trees and downy mildew of opium poppy using hyperspectral and thermal UAV imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderón Madrid, Rocío; Navas Cortés, Juan Antonio; Montes Borrego, Miguel; Landa del Castillo, Blanca Beatriz; Lucena León, Carlos; Jesús Zarco Tejada, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    The present study explored the use of high-resolution thermal, multispectral and hyperspectral imagery as indicators of the infections caused by Verticillium wilt (VW) in olive trees and downy mildew (DM) in opium poppy fields. VW, caused by the soil-borne fungus Verticillium dahliae, and DM, caused by the biotrophic obligate oomycete Peronospora arborescens, are the most economically limiting diseases of olive trees and opium poppy, respectively, worldwide. V. dahliae infects the plant by the roots and colonizes its vascular system, blocking water flow and eventually inducing water stress. P. arborescens colonizes the mesophyll, appearing the first symptoms as small chlorotic leaf lesions, which can evolve to curled and thickened tissues and systemic infections that become deformed and necrotic as the disease develops. The work conducted to detect VW and DM infection consisted on the acquisition of time series of airborne thermal, multispectral and hyperspectral imagery using 2-m and 5-m wingspan electric Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in spring and summer of three consecutive years (2009 to 2011) for VW detection and on three dates in spring of 2009 for DM detection. Two 7-ha commercial olive orchards naturally infected with V. dahliae and two opium poppy field plots artificially infected by P. arborescens were flown. Concurrently to the airborne campaigns, olive orchards and opium poppy fields were assessed "in situ" to assess actual VW severity and DM incidence. Furthermore, field measurements were conducted at leaf and crown level. The field results related to VW detection showed a significant increase in crown temperature (Tc) minus air temperature (Ta) and a decrease in leaf stomatal conductance (G) as VW severity increased. This reduction in G was associated with a significant increase in the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI570) and a decrease in chlorophyll fluorescence. DM asymptomatic leaves showed significantly higher NDVI and lower green/red index

  13. Thermal Infrared Inspection of Roof Insulation Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Jung, J.; Sohn, G.; Cohen, M.

    2015-08-01

    UAVs equipped with high-resolution thermal cameras provide an excellent investigative tool used for a multitude of building-specific applications, including roof insulation inspection. We have presented in this study a relative thermographic calibration algorithm and a superpixel Markov Random Field model to address problems in thermal infrared inspection of roof insulation using UAVs. The relative thermographic radiometric calibration algorithm is designed to address the autogain problem of the thermal camera. Results show the algorithm can enhance the contrast between warm and cool areas on the roof surface in thermal images, and produces more constant thermal signatures of different roof insulations or surfaces, which could facilitate both visual interpretation and computer-based thermal anomaly detection. An automatic thermal anomaly detection algorithm based on superpixel Markov Random Field is proposed, which is more computationally efficient than pixel based MRF, and can potentially improve the production throughput capacity and increase the detection accuracy for thermal anomaly detection. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. A Vegetation Index Based Technique for Spatial Sharpening of Thermal Imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High spatial resolution (~100 m) thermal infrared band imagery has utility in a variety of applications in environmental monitoring. However, currently such data have limited availability and only at low temporal resolution, while coarser resolution thermal data (~1000 m) are routinely available, bu...

  15. Mass and heat flux balance of La Soufrière volcano (Guadeloupe) from aerial infrared thermal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudin, Damien; Beauducel, François; Coutant, Olivier; Delacourt, Christophe; Richon, Patrick; de Chabalier, Jean-Bernard; Hammouya, Gilbert

    2016-06-01

    La Soufrière of Guadeloupe is an active volcano of Lesser Antilles that is closely monitored due to a high eruptive hazard potential. Since 1992 it exhibits a medium-level but sustained background hydrothermal activity with low-energy and shallow seismicity, hot springs temperature increase and high flux acidic gas fumaroles at the summit. The problem of estimating the heat balance and quantifying the evolution of hydrothermal activity has become a key challenge for surveillance. This work is the first attempt of a global mapping and quantification of La Soufrière thermal activity performed in February 2010 using aerial thermal infrared imagery. After instrument calibration and data processing, we present a global map of thermal anomalies allowing to spot the main active sites: the summit area (including the fumaroles of Tarissan Pit and South Crater), the Ty Fault fumarolic zone, and the hot springs located at the vicinity of the dome. In a second step, we deduce the mass and the energy fluxes released by the volcano. In particular, we propose a simple model of energy balance to estimate the mass flux of the summit fumaroles from their brightness temperature and size. In February 2010, Tarissan Pit had a 22.8 ± 8.1 kg s -1 flux (1970 ± 704 tons day -1), while South Crater vents had a total of 19.5 ± 4.0 kg s -1 (1687 ± 348 tons day -1). Once converted into energy flux, summit fumaroles represent 98% of the 106 ± 30 MW released by the volcano, the 2% remaining being split between the hot springs and the thermal anomalies at the summit and at the Ty Fault fumarolic zone. These values are in the high range of the previous estimations, highlighting the short-term variability of the expelled fluxes. Such a heat flux requires the cooling of 1500 m 3 of magma per day, in good agreement with previous geochemical studies.

  16. Detecting new Buffel grass infestations in Australian arid lands: evaluation of methods using high-resolution multispectral imagery and aerial photography.

    PubMed

    Marshall, V M; Lewis, M M; Ostendorf, B

    2014-03-01

    We assess the feasibility of using airborne imagery for Buffel grass detection in Australian arid lands and evaluate four commonly used image classification techniques (visual estimate, manual digitisation, unsupervised classification and normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) thresholding) for their suitability to this purpose. Colour digital aerial photography captured at approximately 5 cm of ground sample distance (GSD) and four-band (visible–near-infrared) multispectral imagery (25 cm GSD) were acquired (14 February 2012) across overlapping subsets of our study site. In the field, Buffel grass projected cover estimates were collected for quadrates (10 m diameter), which were subsequently used to evaluate the four image classification techniques. Buffel grass was found to be widespread throughout our study site; it was particularly prevalent in riparian land systems and alluvial plains. On hill slopes, Buffel grass was often present in depressions, valleys and crevices of rock outcrops, but the spread appeared to be dependent on soil type and vegetation communities. Visual cover estimates performed best (r 2 0.39), and pixel-based classifiers (unsupervised classification and NDVI thresholding) performed worst (r 2 0.21). Manual digitising consistently underrepresented Buffel grass cover compared with field- and image-based visual cover estimates; we did not find the labours of digitising rewarding. Our recommendation for regional documentation of new infestation of Buffel grass is to acquire ultra-high-resolution aerial photography and have a trained observer score cover against visual standards and use the scored sites to interpolate density across the region. PMID:24234223

  17. Evaluating the Sensitivity of an Unmanned Thermal Infrared Aerial System to Detect Water Stress in a Cotton Canopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Airborne thermal infrared (TIR) imagery is a promising and innovative tool for assessing canopy response to a range of stressors. However, the expense associated with acquiring imagery for agricultural management is often cost-prohibitive. The objective of this study was to evaluate a less expensi...

  18. Sharpening landsat thermal infrared imagery for mapping evapotranspiration at field scale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal infrared (TIR) imagery provides estimates of land-surface temperature (LST) that can be used for mapping land surface energy fluxes and evapotranspiration (ET). For the ET mapping at the field scale, TIR data are required at relatively fine pixel resolution similar to the resolution of Land...

  19. A data mining approach for sharpening satellite thermal imagery over land

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal infrared (TIR) imagery is normally acquired at coarser pixel resolution than that of shortwave sensors on the same satellite platform and often the TIR resolution is not suitable for monitoring crop conditions of individual fields or the impacts of land cover changes which are at significant...

  20. Use of landsat thermal imagery in monitoring evapotranspiration and managing water resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Freshwater resources are becoming increasingly limited in many parts of the world, and decision makers are demanding new tools for monitoring water availability and rates of consumption. Remotely sensed thermal-infrared imagery collected by Landsat provides estimates of land-surface temperature tha...

  1. Estimating maize water stress by standard deviation of canopy temperature in thermal imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new crop water stress index using standard deviation of canopy temperature as an input was developed to monitor crop water status. In this study, thermal imagery was taken from maize under various levels of deficit irrigation treatments in different crop growing stages. The Expectation-Maximizatio...

  2. Assessing coastal plain wetland composition using advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantaleoni, Eva

    Establishing wetland gains and losses, delineating wetland boundaries, and determining their vegetative composition are major challenges that can be improved through remote sensing studies. We used the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) to separate wetlands from uplands in a study of 870 locations on the Virginia Coastal Plain. We used the first five bands from each of two ASTER scenes (6 March 2005 and 16 October 2005), covering the visible to the short-wave infrared region (0.52-2.185mum). We included GIS data layers for soil survey, topography, and presence or absence of water in a logistic regression model that predicted the location of over 78% of the wetlands. While this was slightly less accurate (78% vs. 86%) than current National Wetland Inventory (NWI) aerial photo interpretation procedures of locating wetlands, satellite imagery analysis holds great promise for speeding wetland mapping, lowering costs, and improving update frequency. To estimate wetland vegetation composition classes, we generated a classification and regression tree (CART) model and a multinomial logistic regression (logit) model, and compared their accuracy in separating woody wetlands, emergent wetlands and open water. The overall accuracy of the CART model was 73.3%, while for the logit model was 76.7%. The CART producer's accuracy of the emergent wetlands was higher than the accuracy from the multinomial logit (57.1% vs. 40.7%). However, we obtained the opposite result for the woody wetland category (68.7% vs. 52.6%). A McNemar test between the two models and NWI maps showed that their accuracies were not statistically different. We conducted a subpixel analysis of the ASTER images to estimate canopy cover of forested wetlands. We used top-of-atmosphere reflectance from the visible and near infrared bands, Delta Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and a tasseled cap brightness, greenness, and wetness in linear regression model with canopy

  3. Moving target detection in thermal infrared imagery using spatiotemporal information.

    PubMed

    Akula, Aparna; Ghosh, Ripul; Kumar, Satish; Sardana, H K

    2013-08-01

    An efficient target detection algorithm for detecting moving targets in infrared imagery using spatiotemporal information is presented. The output of the spatial processing serves as input to the temporal stage in a layered manner. The spatial information is obtained using joint space-spatial-frequency distribution and Rényi entropy. Temporal information is incorporated using background subtraction. By utilizing both spatial and temporal information, it is observed that the proposed method can achieve both high detection and a low false-alarm rate. The method is validated with experimentally generated data consisting of a variety of moving targets. Experimental results demonstrate a high value of F-measure for the proposed algorithm. PMID:24323206

  4. Sharpening landsat 8 thermal imagery for field scale ET mapping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing provides valuable information for mapping land surface energy flux and evapotranspiration (ET). Landsat 8 carries a TIR instrument with two thermal bands that can provide a more accurate estimate of land surface temperature (LST) than prior landsat satellites. H...

  5. Classifying Multiple Stages of Mountain Pine Beetle Disturbance Using Multispectral Aerial Imagery in North-Central Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meddens, A. J.; Hicke, J. A.; Vierling, L. A.

    2010-12-01

    Insect outbreaks are major forest disturbances, killing trees across millions of ha in the United States. These dead trees affect the condition of the ecosystems, leading to alterations of forest functioning and fuel arrangement, among other impacts. In this study, we evaluated methods for classifying 30-cm multispectral imagery including insect-caused tree mortality (both red and gray attack) classes and non-forest classes. We acquired 4-band imagery in lodgepole pine stands of central Colorado that were recently attacked by mountain pine beetle. The 30-cm resolution image facilitated delineation of field-observed trees, which were used for image classification. We employed the maximum likelihood classifier with the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Red-Green Index (RGI), and Green band (GREEN). Our initial classification used original spatial resolution imagery to identify green trees, red-attack, gray-attack, herbaceous, bare soil, and shadow classes. Although classification accuracies were good (overall accuracy of 85.95%, kappa = 0.826), we noted confusion between sunlit crowns of live (green) trees and herbaceous classes at this very fine spatial resolution, and confusion between sunlit crowns of gray- and red-attack trees and bare soil, and thus explored additional methods to reduce omission and commission errors. Classification confusion was overcome by aggregating the 30-cm multispectral imagery into a 2.4-m resolution image (matching very high resolution satellite imagery). Pixels in the 2.4-m resolution image included more shadow in the forested regions than the 30-cm resolution, thereby reducing forest canopy reflectance and improving the separability between the forest and non-forest classes that had caused previous errors. We conclude that operational mapping of insect-caused tree mortality with multispectral imagery has great potential for forest disturbance mapping, and that imagery with a spatial resolution about the crown width of

  6. Toward quantitative aerial thermal infrared thermography for energy conservation in the built environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allinson, David; Medjdoub, Benachir; Wilson, Robin

    2005-03-01

    The UK Home Energy Conservation Act puts a duty on local authorities to develop strategies to improve energy efficiency in all public and private sector housing in order to tackle fuel poverty and reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The City of Nottingham, UK turned to aerial Thermal InfraRed Thermography (TIRT) to try and identify households where energy savings can be made. In this paper, existing literature is reviewed to explain the limitations of aerial TIRT for energy conservation in the built environment and define the techniques required to overcome them. This includes the range of suitable meteorological conditions at the time of the survey, the use of ground truth data, the need to account for all radiation paths and losses when calculating roof surface temperature and the assumptions that must be made when calculating insulation levels. Atmospheric calibration, roof surface emissivity and sky view factor must also be determined by some means and approaches to these problems are reviewed from the wider literature. Error analysis and benchmarking are important if the technique is to be validated and these are discussed with reference to the literature. A methodology for determining the thickness of loft insulation for residential buildings in the city of Nottingham, UK using aerial TIRT data within a GIS software environment is proposed.

  7. Thermal Imaging of Subsurface Coal Fires by means of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in the Autonomous Province Xinjiang, PRC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasterling, Margarete; Schloemer, Stefan; Fischer, Christian; Ehrler, Christoph

    2010-05-01

    Spontaneous combustion of coal and resulting coal fires lead to very high temperatures in the subsurface. To a large amount the heat is transferred to the surface by convective and conductive transport inducing a more or less pronounced thermal anomaly. During the past decade satellite-based infrared-imaging (ASTER, MODIS) was the method of choice for coal fire detection on a local and regional scale. However, the resolution is by far too low for a detailed analysis of single coal fires which is essential prerequisite for corrective measures (i.e. fire fighting) and calculation of carbon dioxide emission based on a complex correlation between energy release and CO2 generation. Consequently, within the framework of the Sino-German research project "Innovative Technologies for Exploration, Extinction and Monitoring of Coal Fires in Northern China", a new concept was developed and successfully tested. An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was equipped with a lightweight camera for thermografic (resolution 160 by 120 pixel, dynamic range -20 to 250°C) and for visual imaging. The UAV designed as an octocopter is able to hover at GPS controlled waypoints during predefined flight missions. The application of a UAV has several advantages. Compared to point measurements on the ground the thermal imagery quickly provides the spatial distribution of the temperature anomaly with a much better resolution. Areas otherwise not accessible (due to topography, fire induced cracks, etc.) can easily be investigated. The results of areal surveys on two coal fires in Xinjiang are presented. Georeferenced thermal and visual images were mosaicked together and analyzed. UAV-born data do well compared to temperatures measured directly on the ground and cover large areas in detail. However, measuring surface temperature alone is not sufficient. Simultaneous measurements made at the surface and in roughly 15cm depth proved substantial temperature gradients in the upper soil. Thus the temperature

  8. Use of Airborne Thermal Imagery to Detect and Monitor Inshore Oil Spill Residues During Darkness Hours.

    PubMed

    GRIERSON

    1998-11-01

    / Trials were conducted using an airborne video system operating in the visible, near-infrared, and thermal wavelengths to detect two known oil spill releases during darkness at a distance of 10 nautical miles from the shore in St. Vincent's Gulf, South Australia. The oil spills consisted of two 20-liter samples released at 2-h intervals, one sample consisted of paraffinic neutral material and the other of automotive diesel oil. A tracking buoy was sent overboard in conjunction with the release of sample 1, and its movement monitored by satellite relay. Both oil residues were overflown by a light aircraft equipped with thermal, visible, and infrared imagers at a period of approximately 1 h after the release of the second oil residue. Trajectories of the oil residue releases were also modeled and the results compared to those obtained by the airborne video and the tracking buoy. Airborne imagery in the thermal wavelengths successfully located and mapped both oil residue samples during nighttime conditions. Results from the trial suggest that the most advantageous technique would be the combined use of the tracking beacon to obtain an approximate location of the oil spill and the airborne imagery to ascertain its extent and characteristics.KEY WORDS: Airborne video; Thermal imagery; Global positioning; Oil-spill monitoring; Tracking beacon PMID:9732519

  9. Management applications for thermal IR imagery of lake processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, J. M.; Haynes, R. B.

    1971-01-01

    A thermal infrared scanning program was conducted in the Lake Ontario Basin region in an effort to determine: (1) limonologic data that could be collected by remote sensing techniques, and (2) local interest in and routine use of such data in water management programs. Difficulties encountered in the development of an infrared survey program in New York suggest that some of the major obstacles to acceptance of remotely sensed data for routine use are factors of psychology rather than technology. Also, terminology used should suit the measurement technique in order to encourage acceptance of the surface thermal data obtained.

  10. Automatic identification of agricultural terraces through object-oriented analysis of very high resolution DSMs and multispectral imagery obtained from an unmanned aerial vehicle.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Varela, R A; Zarco-Tejada, P J; Angileri, V; Loudjani, P

    2014-02-15

    Agricultural terraces are features that provide a number of ecosystem services. As a result, their maintenance is supported by measures established by the European Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). In the framework of CAP implementation and monitoring, there is a current and future need for the development of robust, repeatable and cost-effective methodologies for the automatic identification and monitoring of these features at farm scale. This is a complex task, particularly when terraces are associated to complex vegetation cover patterns, as happens with permanent crops (e.g. olive trees). In this study we present a novel methodology for automatic and cost-efficient identification of terraces using only imagery from commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) cameras on board unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Using state-of-the-art computer vision techniques, we generated orthoimagery and digital surface models (DSMs) at 11 cm spatial resolution with low user intervention. In a second stage, these data were used to identify terraces using a multi-scale object-oriented classification method. Results show the potential of this method even in highly complex agricultural areas, both regarding DSM reconstruction and image classification. The UAV-derived DSM had a root mean square error (RMSE) lower than 0.5 m when the height of the terraces was assessed against field GPS data. The subsequent automated terrace classification yielded an overall accuracy of 90% based exclusively on spectral and elevation data derived from the UAV imagery. PMID:24473345

  11. [Retrieval of crown closure of moso bamboo forest using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) remotely sensed imagery based on geometric-optical model].

    PubMed

    Wang, Cong; Du, Hua-qiang; Zhou, Guo-mo; Xu, Xiao-jun; Sun, Shao-bo; Gao, Guo-long

    2015-05-01

    This research focused on the application of remotely sensed imagery from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with high spatial resolution for the estimation of crown closure of moso bamboo forest based on the geometric-optical model, and analyzed the influence of unconstrained and fully constrained linear spectral mixture analysis (SMA) on the accuracy of the estimated results. The results demonstrated that the combination of UAV remotely sensed imagery and geometric-optical model could, to some degrees, achieve the estimation of crown closure. However, the different SMA methods led to significant differentiation in the estimation accuracy. Compared with unconstrained SMA, the fully constrained linear SMA method resulted in higher accuracy of the estimated values, with the coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.63 at 0.01 level, against the measured values acquired during the field survey. Root mean square error (RMSE) of approximate 0.04 was low, indicating that the usage of fully constrained linear SMA could bring about better results in crown closure estimation, which was closer to the actual condition in moso bamboo forest. PMID:26571671

  12. Forest Inventory Attribute Estimation Using Airborne Laser Scanning, Aerial Stereo Imagery, Radargrammetry and Interferometry-Finnish Experiences of the 3d Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holopainen, M.; Vastaranta, M.; Karjalainen, M.; Karila, K.; Kaasalainen, S.; Honkavaara, E.; Hyyppä, J.

    2015-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) remote sensing has enabled detailed mapping of terrain and vegetation heights. Consequently, forest inventory attributes are estimated more and more using point clouds and normalized surface models. In practical applications, mainly airborne laser scanning (ALS) has been used in forest resource mapping. The current status is that ALS-based forest inventories are widespread, and the popularity of ALS has also raised interest toward alternative 3D techniques, including airborne and spaceborne techniques. Point clouds can be generated using photogrammetry, radargrammetry and interferometry. Airborne stereo imagery can be used in deriving photogrammetric point clouds, as very-high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data are used in radargrammetry and interferometry. ALS is capable of mapping both the terrain and tree heights in mixed forest conditions, which is an advantage over aerial images or SAR data. However, in many jurisdictions, a detailed ALS-based digital terrain model is already available, and that enables linking photogrammetric or SAR-derived heights to heights above the ground. In other words, in forest conditions, the height of single trees, height of the canopy and/or density of the canopy can be measured and used in estimation of forest inventory attributes. In this paper, first we review experiences of the use of digital stereo imagery and spaceborne SAR in estimation of forest inventory attributes in Finland, and we compare techniques to ALS. In addition, we aim to present new implications based on our experiences.

  13. Irrigation system management assisted by thermal imagery and spatial statistics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal imaging has the potential to assist with many aspects of irrigation management including scheduling water application, detecting leaky irrigation canals, and gauging the overall effectiveness of water distribution networks used in furrow irrigation. Many challenges exist for the use of therm...

  14. Studies of planetary boundary layer by infrared thermal imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Albina, Bogdan; Dimitriu, Dan Gheorghe Gurlui, Silviu Octavian; Cazacu, Marius Mihai; Timofte, Adrian

    2014-11-24

    The IR camera is a relatively novel device for remote sensing of atmospheric thermal processes from the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) based on measurements of the infrared radiation. Infrared radiation is energy radiated by the motion of atoms and molecules on the surface of aerosols, when their temperature is more than absolute zero. The IR camera measures directly the intensity of radiation emitted by aerosols which is converted by an imaging sensor into an electric signal, resulting a thermal image. Every image pixel that corresponds to a specific radiance is pre-processed to identify the brightness temperature. The thermal infrared imaging radiometer used in this study, NicAir, is a precision radiometer developed by Prata et al. The device was calibrated for the temperature range of 270–320 K and using a calibration table along with image processing software, important information about variations in temperature can be extracted from acquired IR images. The PBL is the lowest layer of the troposphere where the atmosphere interacts with the ground surfaces. The importance of PBL lies in the fact that it provides a finite but varying volume in which pollutants can disperse. The aim of this paper is to analyze the PBL altitude and thickness variations over Iasi region using the IR imaging camera as well as its behavior from day to night and thermal processes occurring in PBL.

  15. Monitoring large enrichment plants using thermal imagery from commercial satellites: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Adam Bernstein

    2000-05-01

    Thermal imagery from commercial satellites is an interesting candidate technology for use as a verification tool for the purpose of monitoring certain types of fissile material production sites. Examples of its potential treaty applications include the Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty (FMCT) or a Fissile Material Production Moratorium. To help determine the capabilities and limitations of such imagery as a monitoring tool, the author has examined archived LANDSAT-5 images of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, a large US uranium-enrichment facility in Ohio. This analysis indicates that large-scale gaseous diffusion plants can very likely be recognized as operational with thermal imagery throughout most of the year in clear weather conditions. It may also be possible to identify certain other large-scale qualitative changes in operations, such as the shut-down of a single process building in a plant, by a comparison of its temperature with the temperatures of neighboring operational process buildings. However, uncertainties in the current data set prevent a definitive conclusion regarding the latter capability. This study identifies intrinsic weaknesses, including vulnerability to countermeasures, that prevent thermal imagery from satellites from being a robust standalone verification tool, even for very large enrichment plants. Nonetheless, the imagery may be useful as a trigger for an on-site inspection, to alert and train inspectors prior to an inspection, and possibly to reduce the frequency of on-site inspections required at a given site. It could have some immediate utility for monitoring the two large gaseous diffusion plants the US and the French plant at Tricastin, and possibly for determining the operational status of two gaseous diffusion plants in China as well--a total of five plants worldwide. The ease of acquisition and modest cost of thermal commercial imagery further increase its attractiveness as a verification tool. In addition to these basic

  16. Underestimation of Deep Convective Cloud Tops by Thermal Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Steven C.; Chae, Jung-Hyo; Minnis, Patrick; McGill, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    The most common method of ascertaining cloud heights from space is from thermal brightness temperatures. Deep cumulus clouds of high water content are expected to radiate as black bodies. Here, cloud tops are estimated from several sensors: GOES-8, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the Moderate resolution Imaging Sensor (MISR), and the Goddard Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL), all collected during the CRYSTAL Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE). Thermally derived cloud tops are consistently approx. 1km too low compared with independent measurements, no matter how thick the clouds are, even when the finite optical extinctions near cloud top and in thin overlying cirrus are taken into account. The bias appears to get worse for the tallest clouds. Cloud material is often present 2 km or more above the apparent cloud top. This mysterious discrepancy appears to be satellite-independent.

  17. Thermal/structural/optical integrated design for optical sensor mounted on unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Gaopeng; Yang, Hongtao; Mei, Chao; Wu, Dengshan; Shi, Kui

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of science and technology and the promotion of many local wars in the world, altitude optical sensor mounted on unmanned aerial vehicle is more widely applied in the airborne remote sensing, measurement and detection. In order to obtain high quality image of the aero optical remote sensor, it is important to analysis its thermal-optical performance on the condition of high speed and high altitude. Especially for the key imaging assembly, such as optical window, the temperature variation and temperature gradient can result in defocus and aberrations in optical system, which will lead to the poor quality image. In order to improve the optical performance of a high speed aerial camera optical window, the thermal/structural/optical integrated design method is developed. Firstly, the flight environment of optical window is analyzed. Based on the theory of aerodynamics and heat transfer, the convection heat transfer coefficient is calculated. The temperature distributing of optical window is simulated by the finite element analysis software. The maximum difference in temperature of the inside and outside of optical window is obtained. Then the deformation of optical window under the boundary condition of the maximum difference in temperature is calculated. The optical window surface deformation is fitted in Zernike polynomial as the interface, the calculated Zernike fitting coefficients is brought in and analyzed by CodeV Optical Software. At last, the transfer function diagrams of the optical system on temperature field are comparatively analyzed. By comparing and analyzing the result, it can be obtained that the optical path difference caused by thermal deformation of the optical window is 138.2 nm, which is under PV ≤1 4λ . The above study can be used as an important reference for other optical window designs.

  18. Characterization of Shrubland-Atmosphere Interactions through Use of the Eddy Covariance Method, Distributed Footprint Sampling, and Imagery from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, C.; Vivoni, E. R.; Pierini, N.; Robles-Morua, A.; Rango, A.; Laliberte, A.; Saripalli, S.

    2012-12-01

    Ecohydrological dynamics can be evaluated from field observations of land-atmosphere states and fluxes, including water, carbon, and energy exchanges measured through the eddy covariance method. In heterogeneous landscapes, the representativeness of these measurements is not well understood due to the variable nature of the sampling footprint and the mixture of underlying herbaceous, shrub, and soil patches. In this study, we integrate new field techniques to understand how ecosystem surface states are related to turbulent fluxes in two different semiarid shrubland settings in the Jornada (New Mexico) and Santa Rita (Arizona) Experimental Ranges. The two sites are characteristic of Chihuahuan (NM) and Sonoran (AZ) Desert mixed-shrub communities resulting from woody plant encroachment into grassland areas. In each study site, we deployed continuous soil moisture and soil temperature profile observations at twenty sites around an eddy covariance tower after local footprint estimation revealed the optimal sensor network design. We then characterized the tower footprint through terrain and vegetation analyses derived at high resolution (<1 m) from imagery obtained from a fixed-wing and rotary-wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). Our analysis focuses on the summertime land-atmosphere states and fluxes during which each ecosystem responded differentially to the North American monsoon. We found that vegetation heterogeneity induces spatial differences in soil moisture and temperature that are important to capture when relating these states to the eddy covariance flux measurements. Spatial distributions of surface states at different depths reveal intricate patterns linked to vegetation cover that vary between the two sites. Furthermore, single site measurements at the tower are insufficient to capture the footprint conditions and their influence on turbulent fluxes. We also discuss techniques for aggregating the surface states based upon the vegetation and soil

  19. Data fusion of extremely high resolution aerial imagery and LiDAR data for automated railroad centre line reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beger, Reinhard; Gedrange, Claudia; Hecht, Robert; Neubert, Marco

    2011-12-01

    The quality of remotely sensed data in regards of accuracy and resolution has considerably improved in recent years. Very small objects are detectable by means of imaging and laser scanning, yet there are only few studies to use such data for large scale mapping of railroad infrastructure.In this paper, an approach is presented that integrates extremely high resolution ortho-imagery and dense airborne laser scanning point clouds. These data sets are used to reconstruct railroad track centre lines. A feature level data fusion is carried out in order to combine the advantages of both data sets and to achieve a maximum of accuracy and completeness.The workflow consists of three successive processing steps. First, object-based image analysis is used to derive a railroad track mask from ortho-imagery. This spatial location information is then combined with the height information to classify the laser points. Lastly, the location of railroad track centre lines from these classified points were approximated using a feature extraction method based on an adapted random sample consensus algorithm. This workflow is tested on two railroad sections and was found to deliver very accurate results in a quickly and highly automated manner.

  20. Thermal Analysis on Cryogenic Liquid Hydrogen Tank on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen; Harpster, George; Hunter, James

    2007-01-01

    Thermal analyses are performed on the liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank designed for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) powered by solar arrays and a regenerative proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. A 14-day cruise mission at a 65,000 ft altitude is considered. Thermal analysis provides the thermal loads on the tank system and the boiling-off rates of LH2. Different approaches are being considered to minimize the boiling-off rates of the LH2. It includes an evacuated multilayer insulation (MLI) versus aerogel insulation on the LH2 tank and aluminum versus stainless steel spacer rings between the inner and outer tank. The resulting boil-off rates of LH2 provided by the one-dimensional model and three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) on the tank system are presented and compared to validate the results of the three-dimensional FEA. It concludes that heat flux through penetrations by conduction is as significant as that through insulation around the tank. The tank system with MLI insulation and stainless steel spacer rings result in the lowest boiling-off rate of LH2.

  1. A semantic approach to the efficient integration of interactive and automatic target recognition systems for the analysis of complex infrastructure from aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, A.; Peinsipp-Byma, E.

    2008-04-01

    The analysis of complex infrastructure from aerial imagery, for instance a detailed analysis of an airfield, requires the interpreter, besides to be familiar with the sensor's imaging characteristics, to have a detailed understanding of the infrastructure domain. The required domain knowledge includes knowledge about the processes and functions involved in the operation of the infrastructure, the potential objects used to provide those functions and their spatial and functional interrelations. Since it is not possible yet to provide reliable automatic object recognition (AOR) for the analysis of such complex scenes, we developed systems to support a human interpreter with either interactive approaches, able to assist the interpreter with previously acquired expert knowledge about the domain in question, or AOR methods, capable of detecting, recognizing or analyzing certain classes of objects for certain sensors. We believe, to achieve an optimal result at the end of an interpretation process in terms of efficiency and effectivity, it is essential to integrate both interactive and automatic approaches to image interpretation. In this paper we present an approach inspired by the advancing semantic web technology to represent domain knowledge, the capabilities of available AOR modules and the image parameters in an explicit way. This enables us to seamlessly extend an interactive image interpretation environment with AOR modules in a way that we can automatically select suitable AOR methods for the current subtask, focus them on an appropriate area of interest and reintegrate their results into the environment.

  2. Training set size, scale, and features in Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis of very high resolution unmanned aerial vehicle imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lei; Cheng, Liang; Li, Manchun; Liu, Yongxue; Ma, Xiaoxue

    2015-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) has been used increasingly for natural resource applications in recent years due to their greater availability and the miniaturization of sensors. In addition, Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) has received more attention as a novel paradigm for remote sensing earth observation data. However, GEOBIA generates some new problems compared with pixel-based methods. In this study, we developed a strategy for the semi-automatic optimization of object-based classification, which involves an area-based accuracy assessment that analyzes the relationship between scale and the training set size. We found that the Overall Accuracy (OA) increased as the training set ratio (proportion of the segmented objects used for training) increased when the Segmentation Scale Parameter (SSP) was fixed. The OA increased more slowly as the training set ratio became larger and a similar rule was obtained according to the pixel-based image analysis. The OA decreased as the SSP increased when the training set ratio was fixed. Consequently, the SSP should not be too large during classification using a small training set ratio. By contrast, a large training set ratio is required if classification is performed using a high SSP. In addition, we suggest that the optimal SSP for each class has a high positive correlation with the mean area obtained by manual interpretation, which can be summarized by a linear correlation equation. We expect that these results will be applicable to UAV imagery classification to determine the optimal SSP for each class.

  3. Use of airborne thermal imagery to detect and monitor inshore oil spill residues during darkness hours

    SciTech Connect

    Grierson, I.T.

    1998-11-01

    Trials were conducted using an airborne video system operating in the visible, near-infrared, and thermal wavelengths to detect two known oil spill releases during darkness at a distance of 10 nautical miles from the shore in St. Vincent`s Gulf, South Australia. The oil spills consisted of two 20-liter samples released at 2-h intervals, one sample consisted of paraffinic neutral material and the other of automotive diesel oil. A tracking buoy was sent overboard in conjunction with the release of sample 1, and its movement monitored by satellite relay. Both oil residues were overflown by a light aircraft equipped with thermal, visible, and infrared imagers at a period of approximately 1 h after the release of the second oil residue. Trajectories of the oil residue releases were also modeled and the results compared to those obtained by the airborne video and the tracking buoy. Airborne imagery in the thermal wavelengths successfully located and mapped both oil residue samples during nighttime conditions. Results from the trial suggest that the most advantageous technique would be the combined use of the tracking beacon to obtain an approximate location of the oil spill and the airborne imagery to ascertain its extent and characteristics.

  4. Cold climate mapping using satellite high resolution thermal imagery. [weather forecasting improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartholic, J. F.; Sutherland, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    In an attempt to improve cold climate mapping and freeze forecasting techniques, thermal imagery from the NOAA-2 and -3 satellites and the Synchronous Meteorological Satellite (SMS) were obtained and analyzed. Enhanced image transparencies showed detailed temperature patterns over the peninsula of Florida. The analysis was superior to hand-drawn isotherms drawn from the 300 to 500 thermograph stations presently in use. Satellite data on several cold nights with similar synoptic conditions showed that similar cold patterns existed. Thus, cold climate mapping is possible.

  5. Thermal surveillance of volcanoes of the Cascade Range utilizing ERTS DCP systems and imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, J. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Successful installation of DCP sets at Mt. Baker volcano and at Mt. St. Helens volcano, Washington, completed the installation phase of experiment SR 251. Aerial IR scanner missions over the Cascade volcanoes were completed with a mission April 29th which provided thermographic IR images of Glacier Peak, Mt. Baker, Mt. St. Helens, Mt. Rainier, and Mt. Adams. Earlier repetitive coverage had obtained IR images depicting thermal anomalies of Lassen Volcanic National Park, Shasta, Crater Lake, and the northern Cascades. The April 29th mission and subsequent ground reconnaissance yielded new information on 48 heretofore unreported pinpoint radiation anomalies, of possible fumarolic origin, on the flanks of Mt. Rainier and several new thermal points on Mt. Baker. Cartographic plots of these anomalies, in conjunction with surface temperature and other data obtained as a result of experiment SR 251 will permit estimation of radiation heat loss during the repose periods of the host volcanoes.

  6. A fast and mobile system for registration of low-altitude visual and thermal aerial images using multiple small-scale UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahyanejad, Saeed; Rinner, Bernhard

    2015-06-01

    The use of multiple small-scale UAVs to support first responders in disaster management has become popular because of their speed and low deployment costs. We exploit such UAVs to perform real-time monitoring of target areas by fusing individual images captured from heterogeneous aerial sensors. Many approaches have already been presented to register images from homogeneous sensors. These methods have demonstrated robustness against scale, rotation and illumination variations and can also cope with limited overlap among individual images. In this paper we focus on thermal and visual image registration and propose different methods to improve the quality of interspectral registration for the purpose of real-time monitoring and mobile mapping. Images captured by low-altitude UAVs represent a very challenging scenario for interspectral registration due to the strong variations in overlap, scale, rotation, point of view and structure of such scenes. Furthermore, these small-scale UAVs have limited processing and communication power. The contributions of this paper include (i) the introduction of a feature descriptor for robustly identifying corresponding regions of images in different spectrums, (ii) the registration of image mosaics, and (iii) the registration of depth maps. We evaluated the first method using a test data set consisting of 84 image pairs. In all instances our approach combined with SIFT or SURF feature-based registration was superior to the standard versions. Although we focus mainly on aerial imagery, our evaluation shows that the presented approach would also be beneficial in other scenarios such as surveillance and human detection. Furthermore, we demonstrated the advantages of the other two methods in case of multiple image pairs.

  7. Analysis of Biophysical Mechanisms of Gilgai Microrelief Formation in Dryland Swelling Soils Using Ultra-High Resolution Aerial Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krell, N.; DeCarlo, K. F.; Caylor, K. K.

    2015-12-01

    Microrelief formations ("gilgai"), which form due to successive wetting-drying cycles typical of swelling soils, provide ecological hotspots for local fauna and flora, including higher and more robust vegetative growth. The distribution of these gilgai suggests a remarkable degree of regularity. However, it is unclear to what extent the mechanisms that drive gilgai formation are physical, such as desiccation-induced fracturing, or biological in nature, namely antecedent vegetative clustering. We investigated gilgai genesis and pattern formation in a 100 x 100 meter study area with swelling soils in a semiarid grassland at the Mpala Research Center in central Kenya. Our ongoing experiment is composed of three 9m2 treatments: we removed gilgai and limited vegetative growth by herbicide application in one plot, allowed for unrestricted seed dispersal in another, and left gilgai unobstructed in a control plot. To estimate the spatial frequencies of the repeating patterns of gilgai, we obtained ultra-high resolution (0.01-0.03m/pixel) images with an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) from which digital elevation models were also generated. Geostatistical analyses using wavelet and fourier methods in 1- and 2-dimensions were employed to characterize gilgai size and distribution. Preliminary results support regular spatial patterning across the gilgaied landscape and heterogeneities may be related to local soil properties and biophysical influences. Local data on gilgai and fracture characteristics suggest that gilgai form at characteristic heights and spacing based on fracture morphology: deep, wide cracks result in large, highly vegetated mounds whereas shallow cracks, induced by animal trails, are less correlated with gilgai size and shape. Our experiments will help elucidate the links between shrink-swell processes and gilgai-vegetation patterning in high activity clay soils and advance our understanding of the mechanisms of gilgai formation in drylands.

  8. Use of thermal-infrared imagery in ground-water investigations in Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boettcher, A. J.; Haralick, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    Thermal infrared imagery was used to locate ground-water inflow along three streams and one lake in Montana. The thermal scanner used in May 1972, March 1973, and November 1975 was mounted in a twin-engined aircraft. On the 1973 and 1975 flights, the data were recorded in an analog format on magnetic tape in flight, later were converted to digital format, and were computer processed using an assignment of patterns to indicate differences in water temperature. Output from the image processing program was converted to a temperature map having an isotherm spacing of 0.5 C. Computerization was found to be the most efficient method to manipulate data from lakes, large rivers, and narrow sinuous streams.

  9. An Automated Approach to Agricultural Tile Drain Detection and Extraction Utilizing High Resolution Aerial Imagery and Object-Based Image Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansen, Richard A.

    Subsurface drainage from agricultural fields in the Maumee River watershed is suspected to adversely impact the water quality and contribute to the formation of harmful algal blooms (HABs) in Lake Erie. In early August of 2014, a HAB developed in the western Lake Erie Basin that resulted in over 400,000 people being unable to drink their tap water due to the presence of a toxin from the bloom. HAB development in Lake Erie is aided by excess nutrients from agricultural fields, which are transported through subsurface tile and enter the watershed. Compounding the issue within the Maumee watershed, the trend within the watershed has been to increase the installation of tile drains in both total extent and density. Due to the immense area of drained fields, there is a need to establish an accurate and effective technique to monitor subsurface farmland tile installations and their associated impacts. This thesis aimed at developing an automated method in order to identify subsurface tile locations from high resolution aerial imagery by applying an object-based image analysis (OBIA) approach utilizing eCognition. This process was accomplished through a set of algorithms and image filters, which segment and classify image objects by their spectral and geometric characteristics. The algorithms utilized were based on the relative location of image objects and pixels, in order to maximize the robustness and transferability of the final rule-set. These algorithms were coupled with convolution and histogram image filters to generate results for a 10km2 study area located within Clay Township in Ottawa County, Ohio. The eCognition results were compared to previously collected tile locations from an associated project that applied heads-up digitizing of aerial photography to map field tile. The heads-up digitized locations were used as a baseline for the accuracy assessment. The accuracy assessment generated a range of agreement values from 67.20% - 71.20%, and an average

  10. Urban thermal environment and its biophysical parameters derived from satellite remote sensing imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, Maria A.; Savastru, Roxana S.; Savastru, Dan M.; Tautan, Marina N.; Baschir, Laurentiu V.

    2013-10-01

    In frame of global warming, the field of urbanization and urban thermal environment are important issues among scientists all over the world. This paper investigated the influences of urbanization on urban thermal environment as well as the relationships of thermal characteristics to other biophysical variables in Bucharest metropolitan area of Romania based on satellite remote sensing imagery Landsat TM/ETM+, time series MODIS Terra/Aqua data and IKONOS acquired during 1990 - 2012 period. Vegetation abundances and percent impervious surfaces were derived by means of linear spectral mixture model, and a method for effectively enhancing impervious surface has been developed to accurately examine the urban growth. The land surface temperature (Ts), a key parameter for urban thermal characteristics analysis, was also retrieved from thermal infrared band of Landsat TM/ETM+, from MODIS Terra/Aqua datasets. Based on these parameters, the urban growth, urban heat island effect (UHI) and the relationships of Ts to other biophysical parameters have been analyzed. Results indicated that the metropolitan area ratio of impervious surface in Bucharest increased significantly during two decades investigated period, the intensity of urban heat island and heat wave events being most significant. The correlation analyses revealed that, at the pixel-scale, Ts possessed a strong positive correlation with percent impervious surfaces and negative correlation with vegetation abundances at the regional scale, respectively. This analysis provided an integrated research scheme and the findings can be very useful for urban ecosystem modeling.

  11. Use of Aerial high resolution visible imagery to produce large river bathymetry: a multi temporal and spatial study over the by-passed Upper Rhine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béal, D.; Piégay, H.; Arnaud, F.; Rollet, A.; Schmitt, L.

    2011-12-01

    Aerial high resolution visible imagery allows producing large river bathymetry assuming that water depth is related to water colour (Beer-Bouguer-Lambert law). In this paper we aim at monitoring Rhine River geometry changes for a diachronic study as well as sediment transport after an artificial injection (25.000 m3 restoration operation). For that a consequent data base of ground measurements of river depth is used, built on 3 different sources: (i) differential GPS acquisitions, (ii) sounder data and (iii) lateral profiles realized by experts. Water depth is estimated using a multi linear regression over neo channels built on a principal component analysis over red, green and blue bands and previously cited depth data. The study site is a 12 km long reach of the by-passed section of the Rhine River that draws French and German border. This section has been heavily impacted by engineering works during the last two centuries: channelization since 1842 for navigation purposes and the construction of a 45 km long lateral canal and 4 consecutive hydroelectric power plants of since 1932. Several bathymetric models are produced based on 3 different spatial resolutions (6, 13 and 20 cm) and 5 acquisitions (January, March, April, August and October) since 2008. Objectives are to find the optimal spatial resolution and to characterize seasonal effects. Best performances according to the 13 cm resolution show a 18 cm accuracy when suspended matters impacted less water transparency. Discussions are oriented to the monitoring of the artificial reload after 2 flood events during winter 2010-2011. Bathymetric models produced are also useful to build 2D hydraulic model's mesh.

  12. Estimating wave energy dissipation in the surf zone using thermal infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carini, Roxanne J.; Chickadel, C. Chris; Jessup, Andrew T.; Thomson, Jim

    2015-06-01

    Thermal infrared (IR) imagery is used to quantify the high spatial and temporal variability of dissipation due to wave breaking in the surf zone. The foam produced in an actively breaking crest, or wave roller, has a distinct signature in IR imagery. A retrieval algorithm is developed to detect breaking waves and extract wave roller length using measurements taken during the Surf Zone Optics 2010 experiment at Duck, NC. The remotely derived roller length and an in situ estimate of wave slope are used to estimate dissipation due to wave breaking by means of the wave-resolving model by Duncan (1981). The wave energy dissipation rate estimates show a pattern of increased breaking during low tide over a sand bar, consistent with in situ turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate estimates from fixed and drifting instruments over the bar. When integrated over the surf zone width, these dissipation rate estimates account for 40-69% of the incoming wave energy flux. The Duncan (1981) estimates agree with those from a dissipation parameterization by Janssen and Battjes (2007), a wave energy dissipation model commonly applied within nearshore circulation models.

  13. Mapping daily water use and vegetation stress at field to global scales using multi-satellite thermal infrared imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Satellite retrievals of land-surface temperature (LST) derived from thermal infrared (TIR) imagery have proven to have significant value in constraining diagnostic models of surface energy balance and evapotranspiration (ET). A multi-scale ET retrieval system has been developed, built upon the Two-...

  14. The Use of Meteorlogical Data to Improve Contrail Detection in Thermal Imagery over Ireland.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whelan, Gillian M.; Cawkwell, Fiona; Mannstein, Hermann; Minnis, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Aircraft induced contrails have been found to have a net warming influence on the climate system, with strong regional dependence. Persistent linear contrails are detectable in 1 Km thermal imagery and, using an automated Contrail Detection Algorithm (CDA), can be identified on the basis of their different properties at the 11 and 12 m w av.el enTgthshe algorithm s ability to distinguish contrails from other linear features depends on the sensitivity of its tuning parameters. In order to keep the number of false identifications low, the algorithm imposes strict limits on contrail size, linearity and intensity. This paper investigates whether including additional information (i.e. meteorological data) within the CDA may allow for these criteria to be less rigorous, thus increasing the contrail-detection rate, without increasing the false alarm rate.

  15. Colour-the-INSight: combining a direct view rifle sight with fused intensified and thermal imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogervorst, M. A.; Jansen, C.; Toet, A.; Bijl, P.; Bakker, P.; Hiddema, A. C.; van Vliet, S. F.

    2012-06-01

    We present the design and evaluation of a new demonstrator rifle sight viewing system containing direct view, red aim point and fusion of an (uncooled, LWIR) thermal sensor with a digital image intensifier. Our goal is to create a system that performs well under a wide variety of (weather) conditions during daytime and nighttime and combines the advantages of the various sensor systems. A real-time colour image with salient hot targets is obtained from the night vision sensors by implementing the Colour-the-Night fusion method (Hogervorst & Toet, 2010) on the on-board processor. The prototype system was evaluated in a series of field trials with military observers performing detection and identification tasks. The tests showed that during daytime the addition of a thermal image to direct vision is advantageous, e.g. for the detection of hot targets. At nighttime, the fusion of thermal and image intensified imagery results in increased situational awareness and improved detection of (hot) targets. For identification of small (handheld) objects, the technology needs to be further refined.

  16. Thermal Resistances in the Everest Area derived from Satellite Imagery using a Nonlinear Energy Balance Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rounce, D.; McKinney, D. C.

    2013-12-01

    Debris cover has a large impact on sub-debris ablation rates and glacier evolution. A thin debris layer may enhance ablation by reducing albedo increasing radiation absorption, while thicker debris insulates the glacier causing ablation to decrease. Debris thickness, thermal conductivity, and meteorological conditions may be measured in the field, but they require extensive fieldwork (Brock et al., 2010; Nicholson and Benn, 2012). This has forced many simplifications and assumptions in models. Satellite imagery combined with an energy balance model has been used with to extract information about debris cover remotely (Nakawo and Rana, 1999; Zhang et al., 2011). The spatial distribution of thermal resistances derived from these studies have agreed well with field values; however, the values were considerably lower than the field values. The difference has been attributed to the mixed pixel effect. Foster et al. (2012) developed an energy balance model that agrees well with debris thickness measured in the field. The model requires knowledge of the thermal conductivity and utilizes a relationship between air and surface temperature to lower sensible heat fluxes. We derive thermal resistances of debris-covered glaciers from satellite imagery in the Everest area. Previous satellite studies have assumed a linear debris temperature gradient, which is valid for time periods of 24 hours or greater (Nicholson and Benn, 2006); however, gradients during the day are nonlinear (Nicholson and Benn, 2006; Reid and Brock, 2010). Landsat 7 imagery is used to account for the non-linear gradient, using the ratio of temperature gradient in the upper 10cm versus the entire debris thickness. These values are derived from temperature profiles on Ngozumpa Glacier (Nicholson, 2004). Meteorological data are obtained from the Pyramid Station. The derived thermal resistances agree well with those found on debris-covered glaciers in the Everest region. Brock, B., Mihalcea, C., Kirkbride, M

  17. Near infrared-red models for the remote estimation of chlorophyll- a concentration in optically complex turbid productive waters: From in situ measurements to aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurlin, Daniela

    Today the water quality of many inland and coastal waters is compromised by cultural eutrophication in consequence of increased human agricultural and industrial activities and remote sensing is widely applied to monitor the trophic state of these waters. This study explores near infrared-red models for the remote estimation of chlorophyll-a concentration in turbid productive waters and compares several near infrared-red models developed within the last 35 years. Three of these near infrared-red models were calibrated for a dataset with chlorophyll-a concentrations from 2.3 to 81.2 mg m -3 and validated for independent and statistically significantly different datasets with chlorophyll-a concentrations from 4.0 to 95.5 mg m-3 and 4.0 to 24.2 mg m-3 for the spectral bands of the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) and Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The developed MERIS two-band algorithm estimated chlorophyll-a concentrations from 4.0 to 24.2 mg m-3, which are typical for many inland and coastal waters, very accurately with a mean absolute error 1.2 mg m-3. These results indicate a high potential of the simple MERIS two-band algorithm for the reliable estimation of chlorophyll-a concentration without any reduction in accuracy compared to more complex algorithms, even though more research seems required to analyze the sensitivity of this algorithm to differences in the chlorophyll-a specific absorption coefficient of phytoplankton. Three near infrared-red models were calibrated and validated for a smaller dataset of atmospherically corrected multi-temporal aerial imagery collected by the hyperspectral airborne imaging spectrometer for applications (AisaEAGLE). The developed algorithms successfully captured the spatial and temporal variability of the chlorophyll-a concentrations and estimated chlorophyll- a concentrations from 2.3 to 81.2 mg m-3 with mean absolute errors from 4.4 mg m-3 for the AISA two band algorithm to 5.2 mg m-3

  18. Characterisation of recently retrieved aerial photographs of Ethiopia (1935-1941) and their fusion with current remotely sensed imagery for retrospective geomorphological analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyssen, Jan; Gebremeskel, Gezahegne; Mohamed, Sultan; Petrie, Gordon; Seghers, Valérie; Meles Hadgu, Kiros; De Maeyer, Philippe; Haile, Mitiku; Frankl, Amaury

    2013-04-01

    8281 assemblages of aerial photographs (APs) acquired by the 7a Sezione Topocartografica during the Italian occupation of Ethiopia (1935-1941) have recently been discovered, scanned and organised. The oldest APs of the country that are known so far were taken in the period 1958-1964. The APs of the 1930s were analysed for their technical characteristics, scale, flight lines, coverage, use in topographic mapping, and potential future uses. The APs over Ethiopia in 1935-1941 are presented as assemblages on approx. 50 cm x 20 cm cardboard tiles, each holding a label, one nadir-pointing photograph flanked by two low-oblique photographs and one high-oblique photograph. The four APs were exposed simultaneously and were taken across the flight line; the high-oblique photograph is presented alternatively at left and at right; there is approx. 60% overlap between subsequent sets of APs. One of Santoni's glass plate multi-cameras was used, with focal length of 178 mm, flight height at 4000-4500 m a.s.l., which results in an approximate scale of 1:11 500 for the central photograph and 1:16 000 to 1:18 000 for the low-oblique APs. The surveyors oriented themselves with maps of Ethiopia at 1:400 000 scale, compiled in 1934. The flights present a dense AP coverage of Northern Ethiopia, where they were acquired in the context of upcoming battles with the Ethiopian army. Several flights preceded the later advance of the Italian army southwards towards the capital Addis Ababa. Further flights took place in central Ethiopia for civilian purposes. As of 1936, the APs were used to prepare highly detailed topographic maps at 1:100 000 scale. These APs (1935-1941) together with APs of 1958-1964, 1994 and recent high-resolution satellite imagery are currently being used in spatially explicit change studies of land cover, land management and (hydro)geomorphology in Ethiopia over a time span of almost 80 years, the first results of which will be presented.

  19. Comparison of the inversion periods for MidIR and LWIR polarimetric and conventional thermal imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felton, M.; Gurton, K. P.; Pezzaniti, J. L.; Chenault, D. B.; Roth, L. E.

    2010-04-01

    We report the results of a diurnal study in which radiometrically calibrated polarimetric and conventional thermal imagery are recorded in the MidIR and LWIR to identify and compare the respective time periods in which minimum target contrast is achieved. The MidIR polarimetric sensor is based on a division-of-aperture approach and has a 640x512 InSb focal-plane array, while the LWIR polarimetric sensor uses a spinning achromatic retarder to perform the polarimetric filtering and has a 324x256 microbolometer focal-plane array. The images used in this study include the S0 and S1 Stokes images of a scene containing a military vehicle and the natural background. In addition, relevant meteorological parameters measured during the test period include air temperature, ambient loading in the LWIR, relative humidity, cloud cover, height, and density. The data shows that the chief factors affecting polarimetric contrast in both wavebands are the amount of thermal emission from the objects in the scene and the abundance of MidIR and LWIR sources in the optical background. In particular, it has been observed that the MidIR polarimetric contrast was positively correlated to the presence of MidIR sources in the optical background, while the LWIR polarimetric contrast was negatively correlated to the presence of LWIR sources in the optical background.

  20. Integration of thermal and hyperspectral VNIR imagery for architectural and artistic heritage analysis and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalli, Rosa Maria; Masini, Nicola; Pascucci, Simone; Palombo, Angelo; Pignatti, Stefano

    2010-05-01

    The application of integrated hyperspectral VNIR and thermal data for analyzing and monitoring the architectural and artistic heritage status is becoming a remarkable tool to be combined with other non-destructive techniques (e.g. GPR), and prior to destructive checking, in order to extract appropriate information and make useful decisions [1]. As the analysis of some kind of damages (e.g. water infiltrations) or alterations is not always fulfilled with visible and thermographic imagery, the proposed study aims at integrating hyperspectral reflectances and temperature and apparent thermal inertia behaviours. Hyperspectral data is able to discriminate materials on the basis of their different patterns of wavelength-specific absorption; in fact, they are successfully used for identifying minerals and rocks, as well as detecting soil properties including moisture, organic content and salinity [2]. Moreover, the potential to find out alterations or damages and monitoring them through non-destructive sensors is particularly appreciated in structural analysis for restoration works such as water infiltrations in outdoor cultural assets and moisture penetration in a wall that is a major source of paint alteration [3, 4]. The jointly use of the reflective and infrared (emitted, absorbed, reflected and transmitted) radiation for this research study is encouraged by the technical and operative characteristics of the observation systems at disposal that can provide high spectral resolution and high-frequency images with low Ne?R e Ne?T values and able to observe the variables and physical and optical parameters in quasi real-time and connected to the cultural heritage status. The following portable field instruments are used for this study: (a) HYSPEX hyperspectral scanner working in the VNIR (0.4-1.0μm) spectral region, which is an imaging spectrometer with a very high spectral and spatial resolution, (b) 2 FLIR SC7000 Thermal cams working in the MWIR (3-5 micron) and LWIR

  1. Integration of thermal and hyperspectral VNIR imagery for architectural and artistic heritage analysis and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalli, Rosa Maria; Masini, Nicola; Pascucci, Simone; Palombo, Angelo; Pignatti, Stefano

    2010-05-01

    The application of integrated hyperspectral VNIR and thermal data for analyzing and monitoring the architectural and artistic heritage status is becoming a remarkable tool to be combined with other non-destructive techniques (e.g. GPR), and prior to destructive checking, in order to extract appropriate information and make useful decisions [1]. As the analysis of some kind of damages (e.g. water infiltrations) or alterations is not always fulfilled with visible and thermographic imagery, the proposed study aims at integrating hyperspectral reflectances and temperature and apparent thermal inertia behaviours. Hyperspectral data is able to discriminate materials on the basis of their different patterns of wavelength-specific absorption; in fact, they are successfully used for identifying minerals and rocks, as well as detecting soil properties including moisture, organic content and salinity [2]. Moreover, the potential to find out alterations or damages and monitoring them through non-destructive sensors is particularly appreciated in structural analysis for restoration works such as water infiltrations in outdoor cultural assets and moisture penetration in a wall that is a major source of paint alteration [3, 4]. The jointly use of the reflective and infrared (emitted, absorbed, reflected and transmitted) radiation for this research study is encouraged by the technical and operative characteristics of the observation systems at disposal that can provide high spectral resolution and high-frequency images with low Ne?R e Ne?T values and able to observe the variables and physical and optical parameters in quasi real-time and connected to the cultural heritage status. The following portable field instruments are used for this study: (a) HYSPEX hyperspectral scanner working in the VNIR (0.4-1.0μm) spectral region, which is an imaging spectrometer with a very high spectral and spatial resolution, (b) 2 FLIR SC7000 Thermal cams working in the MWIR (3-5 micron) and LWIR

  2. Spatial resolution effects on the assessment of evapotranspiration in olive orchards using high resolution thermal imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Cristina; Zarco-Tejada, Pablo J.; Lorite, Ignacio J.; Allen, Richard G.

    2013-04-01

    The use of remote sensing techniques for estimating surface energy balance and water consumption has significantly improved the characterization of the agricultural systems by determining accurate information about crop evapotranspiration and stress, mainly for extensive crops. However the use of these methodologies for woody crops has been low due to the difficulty in the accurate characterization of these crops, mainly caused by a coarse resolution of the imagery provided by the most widely used satellites (such as Landsat 5 and 7). The coarse spatial resolution provided by these satellite sensors aggregates into a single pixel the tree crown, sunlit and shaded soil components. These surfaces can each exhibit huge differences in temperature, albedo and vegetation indexes calculated in the visible, near infrared and short-wave infrared regions. Recent studies have found that the use of energy balance approaches can provide useful results for non-homogeneous crops (Santos et al., 2012) but detailed analysis is required to determine the effect of the spatial resolution and the aggregation of the scene components in these heterogeneous canopies. In this study a comparison between different spatial resolutions has been conducted using images from Landsat 7 (with thermal resolution of 60m) and from an airborne thermal (with resolution of 80 cm) flown over olive orchards at different dates coincident with the Landsat overpass. The high resolution thermal imagery was resampled at different scales to generate images with spatial resolution ranging from 0.8 m up to 120m (thermal resolution for Landsat 5 images). The selection of the study area was made to avoid those areas with missing Landsat 7 data caused by SLC-off gaps. The selected area has a total area of around 2500 ha and is located in Southern Spain, in the province of Malaga. The selected area is mainly cultivated with olive orchards with different crop practices (rainfed, irrigated, high density, young and adult

  3. Spatiotemporal Evaluation of Nocturnal Cold Air Drainage Over a Simple Slope Using Thermal Infrared Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikani, V.; Chokmani, K.; Fathollahi, L.; Granberg, H.; Fournier, R.

    2016-06-01

    Measurements of climatic processes such as cold air drainage flows are problematic over mountainous areas. Observation of cold air drainage is not available in the existing observation network and it requires a special methodology. The main objective of this study was to characterize the cold air drainage over regions with a slope. A high resolution infrared camera, a meteorological station and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) were used. The specific objective was to derive nocturnal cold air drainage velocity over the slope. To address these objectives, a number of infrared measurement campaigns were conducted during calm and clear sky conditions over an agricultural zone (blackcurrant farm) in Canada. Using thermal infrared images, the nocturnal surface temperature gradient were computed in hourly basis. The largest gradient magnitudes were found between 17h -20h. The cooling rates at basin area were two times higher in comparison to the magnitudes observed within slope area. The image analysis illustrated this considerable temperature gradient of the basin may be partly due to transport of cold air drainage into the basin from the slope. The results show that thermal imagery can be used to characterize and understand the microclimate related to the occurrence of radiation frost in the agricultural field. This study provided the opportunity to track the cold air drainage flow and pooling of cold air in low lying areas. The infrared analysis demonstrated that nocturnal drainage flow displayed continuous variation in terms of space and time in response to microscale slope heterogeneities. In addition, the analysis highlighted the periodic aspect for cold air drainage flow.

  4. Developing HEAT Scores with H-Res Thermal Imagery to Support Urban Energy Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemachandran, Bharanidharan

    As part of The Calgary Community GHG Reduction Plan (2009) The City is seeking an implementation strategy to reduce GHGs and promote low-carbon living, with a focus on improving urban energy efficiency. The most cited obstacle to energy efficiency improvements is the lack of interest from consumers (CUI, 2008). However, Darby (2006) has shown that effective feedback significantly reduces energy consumption. To exploit these findings, the HEAT (Heat Energy Assessment Technologies) Geoweb project integrates high-resolution (H-Res) airborne thermal imagery (TABI 1800) to provide unique energy efficiency feedback to Calgary homeowners in the form of interactive HEAT Maps and Hot Spots (Hay et al., 2011). As a part of the HEAT Phase II program, the goal of this research is to provide enhanced feedback support for urban energy efficiency by meeting two key objectives: (i) develop an appropriate method to define HEAT Scores using TABI 1800 imagery that allows for the comparison of waste heat of one or more houses with all other mapped houses in the community and city, and (ii) develop a multi-scale interactive Geoweb interface that displays the HEAT Scores at City, Community and Residential scales. To achieve these goals, we describe the evolution of three novel HEAT Score techniques based on: (i) a Standardized Score, (ii) the WUFIRTM model and Logistic Regression and (iii ) a novel criteria weighted method that considers: (a) heat transfer through different roofing materials, (b) local climatic conditions and (c) house age and living area attributes. Furthermore, (d) removing or adding houses to analysis based on this 3rd technique, does not affect the HEAT Score of other houses and (e) HEAT Scores can be compared within and across different cities. We also describe how HEAT Scores are incorporated within the HEAT Geoweb architecture. It is envisioned that HEAT Scores will promote energy efficiency among homeowners and urban city planners, as they will quantify and

  5. Seeing is believing I: The use of thermal sensing from satellite imagery to predict crop yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    B, Potgieter A.; D, Rodriguez; B, Power; J, Mclean; P, Davis

    2014-02-01

    Volatility in crop production has been part of the Australian environment since cropping began with the arrival of the first European settlers. Climate variability is the main factor affecting crop production at national, state and local scales. At field level spatial patterns on yield production are also determined by spatially changing soil properties in interaction with seasonal climate conditions and weather patterns at critical stages in the crop development. Here we used a combination of field level weather records, canopy characteristics, and satellite information to determine the spatial performance of a large field of wheat. The main objective of this research is to determine the ability of remote sensing technologies to capture yield losses due to water stress at the canopy level. The yield, canopy characteristics (i.e. canopy temperature and ground cover) and seasonal conditions of a field of wheat (~1400ha) (-29.402° South and 149.508°, New South Wales, Australia) were continuously monitored during the winter of 2011. Weather and crop variables were continuously monitored by installing three automatic weather stations in a transect covering different positions and soils in the landscape. Weather variables included rainfall, minimum and maximum temperatures and relative humidity, and crop characteristics included ground cover and canopy temperature. Satellite imagery Landsat TM 5 and 7 was collected at five different stages in the crop cycle. Weather variables and crop characteristics were used to calculate a crop stress index (CSI) at point and field scale (39 fields). Field data was used to validate a spatial satellite image derived index. Spatial yield data was downloaded from the harvester at the different locations in the field. We used the thermal band (land surface temperature, LST) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) bands from the MODIS (250 m for visible bands and 1km for thermal band) and a derived EVI from Landsat TM 7 (25 m for visible and

  6. Absolute High-Precision Localisation of an Unmanned Ground Vehicle by Using Real-Time Aerial Video Imagery for Geo-referenced Orthophoto Registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhnert, Lars; Ax, Markus; Langer, Matthias; Nguyen van, Duong; Kuhnert, Klaus-Dieter

    This paper describes an absolute localisation method for an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) if GPS is unavailable for the vehicle. The basic idea is to combine an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to the ground vehicle and use it as an external sensor platform to achieve an absolute localisation of the robotic team. Beside the discussion of the rather naive method directly using the GPS position of the aerial robot to deduce the ground robot's position the main focus of this paper lies on the indirect usage of the telemetry data of the aerial robot combined with live video images of an onboard camera to realise a registration of local video images with apriori registered orthophotos. This yields to a precise driftless absolute localisation of the unmanned ground vehicle. Experiments with our robotic team (AMOR and PSYCHE) successfully verify this approach.

  7. Land cover/use mapping using multi-band imageries captured by Cropcam Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Autopilot (UAV) over Penang Island, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuyi, Tan; Boon Chun, Beh; Mat Jafri, Mohd Zubir; Hwee San, Lim; Abdullah, Khiruddin; Mohammad Tahrin, Norhaslinda

    2012-11-01

    The problem of difficulty in obtaining cloud-free scene at the Equatorial region from satellite platforms can be overcome by using airborne imagery. Airborne digital imagery has proved to be an effective tool for land cover studies. Airborne digital camera imageries were selected in this present study because of the airborne digital image provides higher spatial resolution data for mapping a small study area. The main objective of this study is to classify the RGB bands imageries taken from a low-altitude Cropcam UAV for land cover/use mapping over USM campus, penang Island, Malaysia. A conventional digital camera was used to capture images from an elevation of 320 meter on board on an UAV autopilot. This technique was cheaper and economical compared with other airborne studies. The artificial neural network (NN) and maximum likelihood classifier (MLC) were used to classify the digital imageries captured by using Cropcam UAV over USM campus, Penang Islands, Malaysia. The supervised classifier was chosen based on the highest overall accuracy (<80%) and Kappa statistic (<0.8). The classified land cover map was geometrically corrected to provide a geocoded map. The results produced by this study indicated that land cover features could be clearly identified and classified into a land cover map. This study indicates the use of a conventional digital camera as a sensor on board on an UAV autopilot can provide useful information for planning and development of a small area of coverage.

  8. Infrared Surveys of Hawaiian Volcanoes: Aerial surveys with infrared imaging radiometer depict volcanic thermal patterns and structural features.

    PubMed

    Fisher, W A; Moxham, R M; Polcyn, F; Landis, G H

    1964-11-01

    Aerial infrared-sensor surveys of Kilauea volcano have depicted the areal extent and the relative intensity of abnormal thermal features in the caldera area of the volcano and along its associated rift zones. Many of these anomalies show correlation with visible steaming and reflect convective transfer of heat to the surface from subterranean sources. Structural details of the volcano, some not evident from surface observation, are also delineated by their thermal abnormalities. Several changes were observed in the patterns of infrared emission during the period of study; two such changes show correlation in location with subsequent eruptions, but the cause-and-effect relationship is uncertain. Thermal anomalies were also observed on the southwest flank of Mauna Loa; images of other volcanoes on the island of Hawaii, and of Haleakala on the island of Maui, revealed no thermal abnormalities. Approximately 25 large springs issuing into the ocean around the periphery of Hawaii have been detected. Infrared emission varies widely with surface texture and composition, suggesting that similar observations may have value for estimating surface conditions on the moon or planets. PMID:17729994

  9. Measured comparison of the inversion periods for polarimetric and conventional thermal long-wave IR (LWIR) imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felton, M.; Gurton, K. P.; Roth, L. E.; Pezzaniti, J. L.; Chenault, D. B.

    2009-08-01

    We report the results of a multi-day diurnal study in which radiometrically calibrated polarimetric and conventional thermal imagery is recorded in the LWIR to identify/compare the respective time periods in which minimum target contrast is achieved, e.g., thermal inversion periods are typically experienced during dusk and dawn. Imagery is recorded with a polarimetric IR sensor employing a 324x256 microbolometer array using a spinning achromatic retarder to perform the polarimetric filtering. The images used in this study include the S0, normalized S1, and normalized S2 Stokes images and the degree of linear polarization (DOLP) images of a scene containing military vehicles and the natural background. In addition, relevant meteorological parameters measured during the test period include air temperature, ambient loading in the LWIR, relative humidity, and cloud cover, height and density. The data shows that the chief factors affecting polarimetric contrast are the amount of thermal emission from the objects in the scene and the abundance of LWIR sources in the optical background. In addition, we found that contrast between targets and background within polarimetric images often remains relatively high during periods of low thermal contrast.

  10. The ASPRS Digital Imagery Product Guideline Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert; Kuper, Philip; Stanley, Thomas; Mondello, Charles

    2001-01-01

    The American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) Primary Data Acquisition Division is developing a Digital Imagery Product Guideline in conjunction with NASA, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA), academia, and industry. The goal of the guideline is to offer providers and users of digital imagery a set of recommendatons analogous those defined by the ASPRS Aerial Photography 1995 Draft Standard for film-based imagery. This article offers a general outline and description of the Digital Imagery Product Guideline and Digital Imagery Tutorial/Reference documents for defining digital imagery requirements.

  11. Thermal resistances in the Everest Area (Nepal Himalaya) derived from satellite imagery using a nonlinear energy balance model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rounce, D. R.; McKinney, D. C.

    2014-01-01

    Debris thickness is an important characteristic of many debris-covered glaciers in the Everest region of the Himalayas. The debris thickness controls the melt rates of the glaciers, which has large implications for hydrologic models, the glaciers response to climate change, and the development of glacial lakes. Despite its importance, there is little knowledge of how the debris thickness varies over these glaciers. This paper uses an energy balance model in conjunction with Landsat7 ETM+ satellite imagery to derive thermal resistances, which is the debris thickness divided by the thermal conductivity. The developed model accounts for the nonlinear temperature gradient in the debris cover to derive accurate thermal resistances. Fieldwork performed on Lhotse Shar/Imja glacier in September 2013 was used to validate the satellite-derived thermal resistances. Results indicate that accounting for the nonlinear temperature gradient is crucial. Furthermore, correcting the incoming shortwave radiation term for the effects of topography and including the turbulent heat fluxes is imperative to derive accurate thermal resistances. Since the topographic correction is important, the model will improve with the quality of the DEM. The main limitation of this work is the poor resolution (60 m) of the satellite's thermal band. The derived thermal resistances are accurate at this resolution, but are unable to derive trends related to slope and aspect on a finer scale. Nonetheless, the study finds this model derives accurate thermal resistances on this scale and is transferable to other debris-covered glaciers in the Everest region.

  12. Estimating seasonal changes of land cover, surface wetness and latent heat flux of wet polygonal tundra (Samoylov Island, Lena-Delta, Siberia) with high-resolution aerial and hyperspectral CHRIS Proba satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muster, S.; Langer, M.; Boike, J.

    2009-12-01

    Vegetation cover, land cover and surface wetness are few of the many factors exerting control on the partitioning of energy to latent, sensible and ground heat flux. Spatial estimates of these factors can be inferred from remote sensing data. The fractionated polygonal tundra landscape of Samoylov Island of wet and dry surfaces induces strong spatial variations of resistance to evapotranspiration. The development of low-centered ice-wedge polygons results in a prominent microrelief that is the most important factor for small-scale differences in vegetation type and near surface soil moisture. Depressed polygon centers alternate with elevated polygon rims with elevation differences of up to 0.5 m over a few meters distance. In the depressed polygon centers, drainage is strongly impeded due to the underlying permafrost resulting in water-saturated soils or small ponds. A process-based understanding of the surface energy balance, however, needs to consider both the temporal and the spatial variations of the surface. In the course of the summer season, the surface wetness changes significantly since the water table falls about 5 cm below the surface. This change in surface wetness is likely to be associated with changing evapotranspiration rates. We consider the effect of seasonal changes in land cover, vegetation cover and surface wetness on latent heat flux by investigating a time-series of high-resolution aerial and hyperspectral satellite imagery and comparing them to ground-based measurements of near-surface soil moisture and latent heat flux. Two sets of aerial images from August 15 and September 11, 2008 in the VNIR provide detailed information of the polygonal landscape with a resolution of 0.3m. CHRIS Proba imagery provides hyperspectral data with 18 spectral bands in the VNIR range (400 - 1050 nm) and a resolution of 17 m. Acquisition dates are June 21, July 23 and September 10, 2008. Daily point-based measurements of near-surface soil moisture and latent

  13. Thermal/structural/optical integrated design for optical window of a high-speed aerial optical camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Gaopeng; Yang, Hongtao; Mei, Chao; Shi, Kui; Wu, Dengshan; Qiao, Mingrui

    2015-10-01

    In order to obtain high quality image of the aero optical remote sensor, it is important to analysis its thermal-optical performance on the condition of high speed and high altitude. Especially for the key imaging assembly, such as optical window, the temperature variation and temperature gradient can result in defocus and aberrations in optical system, which will lead to the poor quality image. In order to improve the optical performance of a high speed aerial camera optical window, the thermal/structural/optical integrated design method is developed. Firstly, the flight environment of optical window is analyzed. Based on the theory of aerodynamics and heat transfer, the convection heat transfer coefficient is calculated. The temperature distributing of optical window is simulated by the finite element analysis software. The maximum difference in temperature of the inside and outside of optical window is obtained. Then the deformation of optical window under the boundary condition of the maximum difference in temperature is calculated. The optical window surface deformation is fitted in Zernike polynomial as the interface, the calculated Zernike fitting coefficients is brought in and analyzed by CodeV Optical Software. At last, the transfer function diagrams of the optical system on temperature field are comparatively analyzed. By comparing and analyzing the result, it can be obtained that the optical path difference caused by thermal deformation of the optical window is 149.6 nm, which is under PV <=1 4λ .The simulation result meets the requirements of optical design very well. The above study can be used as an important reference for other optical window designs.

  14. SURVEYING THERMALLY-DEFOLIATED COTTON PLOTS WITH COLOR-INFRARED AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers can use heated air (thermal defoliation) as a nonchemical alternative for terminating cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) growth and for preparing it for harvest, making this technique ideal for cotton grown in sustainable systems. For large cotton fields, growers need assistance in examining ...

  15. Thermal anomaly mapping from night MODIS imagery of USA, a tool for environmental assessment.

    PubMed

    Miliaresis, George Ch

    2013-02-01

    A method is presented for elevation, latitude and longitude decorrelation stretch of multi-temporal MODIS MYD11C3 imagery (monthly average night land surface temperature (LST) across USA and Mexico). Multiple linear regression analysis of principal components images (PCAs) quantifies the variance explained by elevation (H), latitude (LAT), and longitude (LON). The multi-temporal LST imagery is reconstructed from the residual images and selected PCAs by taking into account the portion of variance that is not related to H, LAT, LON. The reconstructed imagery presents the magnitude the standardized LST value per pixel deviates from the H, LAT, LON predicted. LST anomaly is defined as a region that presents either positive or negative reconstructed LST value. The environmental assessment of USA indicated that only for the 25 % of the study area (Mississippi drainage basin), the LST is predicted by the H, LAT, LON. Regions with milled climatic pattern were identified in the West Coast while the coldest climatic pattern is observed for Mid USA. Positive season invariant LST anomalies are identified in SW (Arizona, Sierra Nevada, etc.) and NE USA. PMID:22565599

  16. Automatic vehicle detection based on automatic histogram-based fuzzy C-means algorithm and perceptual grouping using very high-resolution aerial imagery and road vector data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffarian, Saman; Gökaşar, Ilgın

    2016-01-01

    This study presents an approach for the automatic detection of vehicles using very high-resolution images and road vector data. Initially, road vector data and aerial images are integrated to extract road regions. Then, the extracted road/street region is clustered using an automatic histogram-based fuzzy C-means algorithm, and edge pixels are detected using the Canny edge detector. In order to automatically detect vehicles, we developed a local perceptual grouping approach based on fusion of edge detection and clustering outputs. To provide the locality, an ellipse is generated using characteristics of the candidate clusters individually. Then, ratio of edge pixels to nonedge pixels in the corresponding ellipse is computed to distinguish the vehicles. Finally, a point-merging rule is conducted to merge the points that satisfy a predefined threshold and are supposed to denote the same vehicles. The experimental validation of the proposed method was carried out on six very high-resolution aerial images that illustrate two highways, two shadowed roads, a crowded narrow street, and a street in a dense urban area with crowded parked vehicles. The evaluation of the results shows that our proposed method performed 86% and 83% in overall correctness and completeness, respectively.

  17. Automatic Detection of Regions in Spinach Canopies Responding to Soil Moisture Deficit Using Combined Visible and Thermal Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Shan-e-Ahmed; Smith, Hazel K.; Clarkson, Graham J. J.; Taylor, Gail; Thompson, Andrew J.; Clarkson, John; Rajpoot, Nasir M.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal imaging has been used in the past for remote detection of regions of canopy showing symptoms of stress, including water deficit stress. Stress indices derived from thermal images have been used as an indicator of canopy water status, but these depend on the choice of reference surfaces and environmental conditions and can be confounded by variations in complex canopy structure. Therefore, in this work, instead of using stress indices, information from thermal and visible light imagery was combined along with machine learning techniques to identify regions of canopy showing a response to soil water deficit. Thermal and visible light images of a spinach canopy with different levels of soil moisture were captured. Statistical measurements from these images were extracted and used to classify between canopies growing in well-watered soil or under soil moisture deficit using Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Gaussian Processes Classifier (GPC) and a combination of both the classifiers. The classification results show a high correlation with soil moisture. We demonstrate that regions of a spinach crop responding to soil water deficit can be identified by using machine learning techniques with a high accuracy of 97%. This method could, in principle, be applied to any crop at a range of scales. PMID:24892284

  18. Automatic detection of regions in spinach canopies responding to soil moisture deficit using combined visible and thermal imagery.

    PubMed

    Raza, Shan-e-Ahmed; Smith, Hazel K; Clarkson, Graham J J; Taylor, Gail; Thompson, Andrew J; Clarkson, John; Rajpoot, Nasir M

    2014-01-01

    Thermal imaging has been used in the past for remote detection of regions of canopy showing symptoms of stress, including water deficit stress. Stress indices derived from thermal images have been used as an indicator of canopy water status, but these depend on the choice of reference surfaces and environmental conditions and can be confounded by variations in complex canopy structure. Therefore, in this work, instead of using stress indices, information from thermal and visible light imagery was combined along with machine learning techniques to identify regions of canopy showing a response to soil water deficit. Thermal and visible light images of a spinach canopy with different levels of soil moisture were captured. Statistical measurements from these images were extracted and used to classify between canopies growing in well-watered soil or under soil moisture deficit using Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Gaussian Processes Classifier (GPC) and a combination of both the classifiers. The classification results show a high correlation with soil moisture. We demonstrate that regions of a spinach crop responding to soil water deficit can be identified by using machine learning techniques with a high accuracy of 97%. This method could, in principle, be applied to any crop at a range of scales. PMID:24892284

  19. Quality Assessment of Building Textures Extracted from Oblique Airborne Thermal Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwaszczuk, D.; Stilla, U.

    2016-06-01

    Thermal properties of the building hull became an important topic of the last decade. Combining the thermal data with building models makes it possible to analyze thermal data in a 3D scene. In this paper we combine thermal images with 3D building models by texture mapping. We present a method for texture extraction from oblique airborne thermal infrared images. We put emphasis on quality assessment of these textures and evaluation of their usability for thermal inspections. The quality measures used for assessment are divided to resolution, occlusion and matching quality.

  20. Feasibility of using multiplexed SLAR imagery for water resources management and mapping vegetation communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, B.; Shuchman, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    A two-wavelength (X band and L band) multiplexed synthetic aperture side-looking airborne radar (SLAR), providing parallel- and cross-polarized images, has been tested for application in mapping vegetation and water resources. Indications of the relative heights, densities, surface roughness and other parameters provided by the multiplexed radar imagery can be used to differentiate and map various types of vegetation. The multiplexed SLAR is superior to thermal IR imagery and aerial photography for determining heights of vegetation and water-land boundaries.

  1. Determination of points of entry for potential contaminants into limestone aquifers using thermal infrared imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, F. L.

    1974-01-01

    Lineations were identified involving the application of ERTS imagery to geologic and hydrologic problems. Interpretation of the southwest Madison County area is discussed. The tracing of the Beech Grove lineament to the northern boundary of Madison County, Alabama raises the question of its relationship to the trend of lineations in southwestern Madison County. The use of thermography as an indication of soil moisture is reviewed. The effect of soil moisture on surface temperature and the relationship between soil moisture and ground water are examined.

  2. A RESEARCH PLAN FOR THE USE OF THERMAL AVHRR IMAGERY TO STUDY ANNUAL AND SEASONAL MEAN SURFACE TEMPERATURES FOR LARGE LAKES IN NORTH AMERICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface and vertical temperature data will be obtained from several large lakes With surface areas large enough to be effectively sampled with AVHRR imagery. Yearly and seasonal patterns of surface and whole water column thermal values will be compared to estimates of surface tem...

  3. A method for quantification of gas plumes in thermal hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messinger, David W.

    2005-06-01

    Several commercial and environmental applications require the detection and quantification of gaseous plumes from airborne platforms. Unlike active LIDAR imaging in a DIAL system, the signal received by a passive sensor depends not only on the gas concentration pathlength, but the temperature contrast between the gas column and the background as well. Further complicating the problem, the at-sensor radiance is a function of a non-linear combination of the gas concentration and temperature, both inherently unknown. A method is presented to estimate the gas concentration pathlength and temperature from LWIR Hyperspectral Imagery (HSI) without any assumptions about the gas properties or background radiance. A non-linear model is fit to the data using a Levenberg-Marquardt fitting procedure. This technique requires only a priori knowledge of the gas species present in the pixel of interest to reduce the complexity of the model. The resulting concentration pathlength and temperature are reported on a per-pixel basis. Results are shown for application to synthetic imagery created with the DIRSIG simulation. Concentration pathlength results are promising for a gas with strong, moderately broad features (Freon) but less so for a gas with weaker, narrow features (NH3). In neither case is the solution to the gas temperature satisfactory. This is further demonstrated through examination of the residual space in which the minimization is performed where it is shown that a unique minimum is not present in the space.

  4. Quantifying stream thermal regimes at multiple scales: Combining thermal infrared imagery and stationary stream temperature data in a novel modeling framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vatland, Shane J.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Poole, Geoffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    Accurately quantifying stream thermal regimes can be challenging because stream temperatures are often spatially and temporally heterogeneous. In this study, we present a novel modeling framework that combines stream temperature data sets that are continuous in either space or time. Specifically, we merged the fine spatial resolution of thermal infrared (TIR) imagery with hourly data from 10 stationary temperature loggers in a 100 km portion of the Big Hole River, MT, USA. This combination allowed us to estimate summer thermal conditions at a relatively fine spatial resolution (every ˜100 m of stream length) over a large extent of stream (˜100 km of stream) during the warmest part of the summer. Rigorous evaluation, including internal validation, external validation with spatially continuous instream temperature measurements collected from a Langrangian frame of reference, and sensitivity analyses, suggests the model was capable of accurately estimating longitudinal patterns in summer stream temperatures for this system (validation RMSEs < 1°C). Results revealed considerable spatial and temporal heterogeneity in summer stream temperatures and highlighted the value of assessing thermal regimes at relatively fine spatial and temporal scales. Preserving spatial and temporal variability and structure in abiotic stream data provides a critical foundation for understanding the dynamic, multiscale habitat needs of mobile stream organisms. Similarly, enhanced understanding of spatial and temporal variation in dynamic water quality attributes, including temporal sequence and spatial arrangement, can guide strategic placement of monitoring equipment that will subsequently capture variation in environmental conditions directly pertinent to research and management objectives.

  5. Characterising Upland Swamps Using Object-Based Classification Methods and Hyper-Spatial Resolution Imagery Derived from AN Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechner, A. M.; Fletcher, A.; Johansen, K.; Erskine, P.

    2012-07-01

    Subsidence, resulting from underground coal mining can alter the structure of overlying rock formations changing hydrological conditions and potentially effecting ecological communities found on the surface. Of particular concern are impacts to endangered and/or protected swamp communities and swamp species sensitive to changes in hydrologic conditions. This paper describes a monitoring approach that uses UAVs with modified digital cameras and object-based image analysis methods to characterise swamp landcover on the Newnes plateau in the Blue Mountains near Sydney, Australia. The characterisation of swamp spatial distribution is key to identifying long term changes in swamp condition. In this paper we describe i) the characteristics of the UAV and the sensor, ii) the pre-processing of the remote sensing data with sub-decimeter pixel size to derive visible and near infrared multispectral imagery and a digital surface model (DSM), and iii) the application of object-based image analysis in eCognition using the multi-spectral data and DSM to map swamp extent. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of the potential application of remote sensing data derived from UAVs to conduct environmental monitoring.

  6. Physical controls and patterns of recruitment on the Drôme River (SE France): An analysis based on a chronosequence of high resolution aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piegay, H.; Stella, J. C.; Raepple, B.

    2014-12-01

    Along with the recent recognition of the role of vegetation in influencing channel hydraulics, and thus fluvial morphology comes the need for scientific research on vegetation recruitment and its control factors. Flood disturbance is known to create a suitable physical template for the establishment of woody pioneers. Sapling recruitment patterns and underlying physical controls were investigated on a 5 km braided reach of the Drôme River in South-eastern France, following the 2003 50-year flood event. The approach was based on the analysis of a chronosequence of high resolution aerial images acquired yearly between 2005 and 2011, complemented by airborne LiDAR data and field observations. The study highlights how physical complexity induced by natural variations in hydro-climatic and consequently hydro-geomorphic conditions facilitates variable patterns of recruitment. The initial post-flood vegetative units, which covered up to 10% of the total active channel area in 2005, was seen to double within six years. The variability of hydro-climatic conditions was reflected in the temporal and spatial patterns of recruitment, with a pronounced peak of vegetation expansion in 2007 and a decreasing trend following higher flows in 2009. Recruitment was further seen to be sustained in a variety of geomorphic units, which showed different probabilities and patterns of recruitment. Active channels were the prominent geomorphic unit in terms of total biomass development, while in-channel wood units showed the highest probability for recruitment. Vegetation recruitment understanding is becoming crucial for predicting fluvial system evolution in different hydroclimatic contexts. Applied, these findings may contribute to improve efforts made in the field of flood risk management, as well as restoration planning.

  7. Repeat, Low Altitude Measurements of Vegetation Status and Biomass Using Manned Aerial and UAS Imagery in a Piñon-Juniper Woodland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krofcheck, D. J.; Lippitt, C.; Loerch, A.; Litvak, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Measuring the above ground biomass of vegetation is a critical component of any ecological monitoring campaign. Traditionally, biomass of vegetation was measured with allometric-based approach. However, it is also time-consuming, labor-intensive, and extremely expensive to conduct over large scales and consequently is cost-prohibitive at the landscape scale. Furthermore, in semi-arid ecosystems characterized by vegetation with inconsistent growth morphologies (e.g., piñon-juniper woodlands), even ground-based conventional allometric approaches are often challenging to execute consistently across individuals and through time, increasing the difficulty of the required measurements and consequently the accuracy of the resulting products. To constrain the uncertainty associated with these campaigns, and to expand the extent of our measurement capability, we made repeat measurements of vegetation biomass in a semi-arid piñon-juniper woodland using structure-from-motion (SfM) techniques. We used high-spatial resolution overlapping aerial images and high-accuracy ground control points collected from both manned aircraft and multi-rotor UAS platforms, to generate digital surface model (DSM) for our experimental region. We extracted high-precision canopy volumes from the DSM and compared these to the vegetation allometric data, s to generate high precision canopy volume models. We used these models to predict the drivers of allometric equations for Pinus edulis and Juniperous monosperma (canopy height, diameter at breast height, and root collar diameter). Using this approach, we successfully accounted for the carbon stocks in standing live and standing dead vegetation across a 9 ha region, which contained 12.6 Mg / ha of standing dead biomass, with good agreement to our field plots. Here we present the initial results from an object oriented workflow which aims to automate the biomass estimation process of tree crown delineation and volume calculation, and partition

  8. Design and modeling of spectral-thermal unmixing targets for airborne hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clare, Phil

    2006-05-01

    Techniques to determine the proportions of constituent materials within a single pixel spectrum are well documented in the reflective (0.4-2.5μm) domain. The same capability is also desirable for the thermal (7-14μm) domain, but is complicated by the thermal contributions to the measured spectral radiance. Atmospheric compensation schemes for the thermal domain have been described along with methods for estimating the spectral emissivity from a spectral radiance measurement and hence the next stage to be tackled is the unmixing of thermal spectral signatures. In order to pursue this goal it is necessary to collect data of well-calibrated targets which will expose the limits of the available techniques and enable more robust methods to be designed. This paper describes the design of a set of ground targets for an airborne hyperspectral imager, which will test the effectiveness of available methods. The set of targets include panels to explore a number of difficult scenarios such as isothermal (different materials at identical temperature), isochromal (identical materials, but at differing temperatures), thermal adjacency and thermal point sources. Practical fabrication issues for heated targets and selection of appropriate materials are described. Mathematical modelling of the experiments has enabled prediction of at-sensor measured radiances which are used to assess the design parameters. Finally, a number of useful lessons learned during the fielding of these actual targets are presented to assist those planning future trials of thermal hyperspectral sensors.

  9. Use of High Temporal Resolution Thermal Imagery of Karymsky's Volcanic Plume to Constrain Volcanic Activity and Elucidate Vent Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, T. M.; Dehn, J.; Belousov, A.; Fee, D.; Buurman, H.; Grapenthin, R.; Ushakov, S.

    2011-12-01

    Analysis of high temporal resolution thermal imagery of the volcanic plume from Karymsky volcano, Kamchatka, Russia, was performed to characterize the activity and elucidate vent processes observed during a field campaign from 21 through 26 July 2008. Observed emission styles ranged from explosive eruptions, gas jetting, gas puffing, passive degassing, to absent degassing. These styles can be broadly categorized according to the thermal data. Specifically, we interpret: (1) apparent temperatures in excess of 120°C to indicate eruption of juvenile material; (2) exponential trends between maximum apparent temperature and radiation above background values to indicate degassing or explosive eruptions; (3) flat and/or flat-exponential hybrid trends between maximum apparent temperature and radiation to indicate absent degassing and/or gas puffing, or a transition between degassing and absent degassing; and (4) strong periodicity identified by inspection or through power spectral density analysis of timeseries data to indicate gas puffing. Based on our thermal observations we propose that these styles of volcanic emissions are primarily controlled by shallow vent processes, with the range of emission styles reflecting a continuum between open and closed vent activity. Specifically, we propose that (1) periods of absent degassing indicate vent sealing; (2) periods of gas puffing indicate cyclic behavior between partial vent sealing and vent fracturing; and (3) passive degassing, gas jetting, and continuous eruption all indicate open vent conditions. We suggest that secondary influences by magma recharge and gas exsolution processes may contribute to variations in degassing style under open vent conditions. These results suggest that trends in thermal timeseries data, such as maximum apparent temperature and radiation, can be used to quantitatively characterize volcanic activity and may help constrain vent processes at active volcanoes.

  10. Aerial Explorers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg; Ippolito, Corey

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents recent results from a mission architecture study of planetary aerial explorers. In this study, several mission scenarios were developed in simulation and evaluated on success in meeting mission goals. This aerial explorer mission architecture study is unique in comparison with previous Mars airplane research activities. The study examines how aerial vehicles can find and gain access to otherwise inaccessible terrain features of interest. The aerial explorer also engages in a high-level of (indirect) surface interaction, despite not typically being able to takeoff and land or to engage in multiple flights/sorties. To achieve this goal, a new mission paradigm is proposed: aerial explorers should be considered as an additional element in the overall Entry, Descent, Landing System (EDLS) process. Further, aerial vehicles should be considered primarily as carrier/utility platforms whose purpose is to deliver air-deployed sensors and robotic devices, or symbiotes, to those high-value terrain features of interest.

  11. Long-term coastal-polynya dynamics in the southern Weddell Sea from MODIS thermal-infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, S.; Willmes, S.; Heinemann, G.

    2015-11-01

    Based upon thermal-infrared satellite imagery in combination with ERA-Interim atmospheric reanalysis data, we derive long-term polynya characteristics such as polynya area, thin-ice thickness distribution, and ice-production rates for a 13-year investigation period (2002-2014) for the austral winter (1 April to 30 September) in the Antarctic southern Weddell Sea. All polynya parameters are derived from daily cloud-cover corrected thin-ice thickness composites. The focus lies on coastal polynyas which are important hot spots for new-ice formation, bottom-water formation, and heat/moisture release into the atmosphere. MODIS has the capability to resolve even very narrow coastal polynyas. Its major disadvantage is the sensor limitation due to cloud cover. We make use of a newly developed and adapted spatial feature reconstruction scheme to account for cloud-covered areas. We find the sea-ice areas in front of the Ronne and Brunt ice shelves to be the most active with an annual average polynya area of 3018 ± 1298 and 3516 ± 1420 km2 as well as an accumulated volume ice production of 31 ± 13 and 31 ± 12 km3, respectively. For the remaining four regions, estimates amount to 421 ± 294 km2 and 4 ± 3 km3 (Antarctic Peninsula), 1148 ± 432 km2 and 12 ± 5 km3 (iceberg A23A), 901 ± 703 km2 and 10 ± 8 km3 (Filchner Ice Shelf), as well as 499 ± 277 km2 and 5 ± 2 km3 (Coats Land). Our findings are discussed in comparison to recent studies based on coupled sea-ice/ocean models and passive-microwave satellite imagery, each investigating different parts of the southern Weddell Sea.

  12. Long-term coastal-polynya dynamics in the Southern Weddell Sea from MODIS thermal-infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, S.; Willmes, S.; Heinemann, G.

    2015-07-01

    Based upon high-resolution thermal-infrared Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite imagery in combination with ERA-Interim atmospheric reanalysis data, we derived long-term polynya parameters such as polynya area, thin-ice thickness distribution and ice-production rates from daily cloud-cover corrected thin-ice thickness composites. Our study is based on a thirteen year investigation period (2002-2014) for the austral winter (1 April to 30 September) in the Antarctic Southern Weddell Sea. The focus lies on coastal polynyas which are important hot spots for new-ice formation, bottom-water formation and heat/moisture release into the atmosphere. MODIS has the capability to resolve even very narrow coastal polynyas. Its major disadvantage is the sensor limitation due to cloud cover. We make use of a newly developed and adapted spatial feature reconstruction scheme to account for cloud-covered areas. We find the sea-ice areas in front of Ronne and Brunt Ice Shelf to be the most active with an annual average polynya area of 3018 ± 1298 and 3516 ± 1420 km2 as well as an accumulated volume ice production of 31 ± 13 and 31 ± 12 km3, respectively. For the remaining four regions, estimates amount to 421 ± 294 km2 and 4 ± 3 km3 (Antarctic Peninsula), 1148 ± 432 km2 and 12 ± 5 km3 (Iceberg A23A), 901 ± 703 km2 and 10 ± 8 km3 (Filchner Ice Shelf) as well as 499 ± 277 km2 and 5 ± 2 km3 (Coats Land). Our findings are discussed in comparison to recent studies based on coupled sea-ice/ocean models and passive-microwave satellite imagery, each investigating different parts of the Southern Weddell Sea.

  13. Automated imagery orthorectification pilot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Johnson, Brad; McMahon, Joe

    2009-10-01

    Automated orthorectification of raw image products is now possible based on the comprehensive metadata collected by Global Positioning Systems and Inertial Measurement Unit technology aboard aircraft and satellite digital imaging systems, and based on emerging pattern-matching and automated image-to-image and control point selection capabilities in many advanced image processing systems. Automated orthorectification of standard aerial photography is also possible if a camera calibration report and sufficient metadata is available. Orthorectification of historical imagery, for which only limited metadata was available, was also attempted and found to require some user input, creating a semi-automated process that still has significant potential to reduce processing time and expense for the conversion of archival historical imagery into geospatially enabled, digital formats, facilitating preservation and utilization of a vast archive of historical imagery. Over 90 percent of the frames of historical aerial photos used in this experiment were successfully orthorectified to the accuracy of the USGS 100K base map series utilized for the geospatial reference of the archive. The accuracy standard for the 100K series maps is approximately 167 feet (51 meters). The main problems associated with orthorectification failure were cloud cover, shadow and historical landscape change which confused automated image-to-image matching processes. Further research is recommended to optimize automated orthorectification methods and enable broad operational use, especially as related to historical imagery archives.

  14. Aerial videotape mapping of coastal geomorphic changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Debusschere, Karolien; Penland, Shea; Westphal, Karen A.; Reimer, P. Douglas; McBride, Randolph A.

    1991-01-01

    An aerial geomorphic mapping system was developed to examine the spatial and temporal variability in the coastal geomorphology of Louisiana. Between 1984 and 1990 eleven sequential annual and post-hurricane aerial videotape surveys were flown covering periods of prolonged fair weather, hurricane impacts and subsequent post-storm recoveries. A coastal geomorphic classification system was developed to map the spatial and temporal geomorphic changes between these surveys. The classification system is based on 10 years of shoreline monitoring, analysis of aerial photography for 1940-1989, and numerous field surveys. The classification system divides shorelines into two broad classes: natural and altered. Each class consists of several genetically linked categories of shorelines. Each category is further subdivided into morphologic types on the basis of landform relief, elevation, habitat type, vegetation density and type, and sediment characteristics. The classification is used with imagery from the low-altitude, high-resolution aerial videotape surveys to describe and quantify the longshore and cross-shore geomorphic, sedimentologic, and vegetative character of Louisiana's shoreline systems. The mapping system makes it possible to delineate and map detailed geomorphic habitat changes at a resolution higher than that of conventional vertical aerial photography. Morphologic units are mapped parallel to the regional shoreline from the aerial videotape imagery onto the base maps at a scale of 1:24,000. The base maps were constructed from vertical aerial photography concurrent with the data of the video imagery.

  15. Thermal surveillance of volcanoes of the Cascade Range and Iceland utilizing ERTS DCP systems and imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, J. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Significant results of the thermal surveillance of volcanoes experiment during 1972 included the design, construction, emplacement, and successful operation at volcanic sites in the Cascade Range, North America and on Surtsey, Iceland, of automated thermistor arrays which transmit ground and fumarole temperatures via the ERTS-1 data communication system to Goddard Space Flight Center. Temperature, radiance, and anomalous heat flow variations are being plotted by a U.S. Geological Survey IBM 360/65 computer program to show daily fluctuations at each of the sites. Results are being compiled in conjunction with NASA and USGS aircraft infrared survey data to provide thermal energy yield estimates during the current repose period of several Cascade Range volcanic systems. ERTS-1 MSS images have provided new information on the extent of structural elements controlling thermal emission at Lassen Volcanic National Park.

  16. Use of thermal infrared and colour infrared imagery to detect crop moisture stress. [Alberta, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, R. C.; Clark, N. F.; Cihlar, J. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. In the presence of variable plant cover (primarily percent cover) and variable available water content, the remotely sensed apparent temperatures correlate closely with plant cover and poorly with soil water. To the extent that plant cover is not systematically related to available soil water, available water in the root zone values may not be reliably predicted from the thermal infrared data. On the other hand, if plant cover is uniform and the soil surface is shown in a minor way, the thermal data indicate plant stress and consequently available water in the soil profile.

  17. Very high resolution airborne imagery for characterising spatial and temporal thermal patterns of braided rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wawrzyniak, V.; Piégay, H.; Allemand, P.; Grandjean, P.

    2011-12-01

    At the catchment scale water temperature is influenced by geographical factors, but at the reach scale superficial and groundwater hydrology and channel geometry strongly affect thermal patterns. During the last 30 years, studies have been pointed out the significance and complexity of water exchanges between the channel and the hyporheic and phreatic zones. These surface-subsurface water exchanges influence water temperature patterns. Braided rivers present particular thermal conditions with very high spatial water temperature variability. This high thermal variability is difficult to comprehend using only in situ measurements and so thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing is particularly suited to assessing the thermal patterns associated with these rivers. The aims of this study are to evaluate temperature patterns of nine braided reaches at very high spatial resolution (~20 cm) and to link temperature and water-body types. We hypothesized that river type has an influence of the spatial patterns of water temperature and that the patterns change through the day. All reaches are located in France, in the Rhône catchment. The nine reaches were selected based on high aquatic habitat diversities and are located in three regional areas: the massif des Écrins, the Rhône valley, and south Alps. They are about 1 km long. We have three distinct temporal approaches. The first one is a multi-site approach which proposes one survey of each site during summers 2010 or 2011. Three reaches were selected for the second phase (a multi-annual analysis and were therefore imaged both in summers 2010 and 2011. The last phase is an intra-day survey of two reaches with several flights at different times of day. This presentation focuses on the last approach with two reaches of the Drôme and Drac Noir rivers. To observe the evolution of the thermal patterns of these two reaches through the day, four flights within a day were realized during summer 2011 for both sites. The Drôme reach

  18. How Many Hippos (homhip): Algorithm for Automatic Counts of Animals with Infra-Red Thermal Imagery from Uav

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhoest, S.; Linchant, J.; Quevauvillers, S.; Vermeulen, C.; Lejeune, P.

    2015-08-01

    The common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius L.) is part of the animal species endangered because of multiple human pressures. Monitoring of species for conservation is then essential, and the development of census protocols has to be chased. UAV technology is considering as one of the new perspectives for wildlife survey. Indeed, this technique has many advantages but its main drawback is the generation of a huge amount of data to handle. This study aims at developing an algorithm for automatic count of hippos, by exploiting thermal infrared aerial images acquired from UAV. This attempt is the first known for automatic detection of this species. Images taken at several flight heights can be used as inputs of the algorithm, ranging from 38 to 155 meters above ground level. A Graphical User Interface has been created in order to facilitate the use of the application. Three categories of animals have been defined following their position in water. The mean error of automatic counts compared with manual delineations is +2.3% and shows that the estimation is unbiased. Those results show great perspectives for the use of the algorithm in populations monitoring after some technical improvements and the elaboration of statistically robust inventories protocols.

  19. Lava effusion rates from hand-held thermal infrared imagery: an example from the June 2003 effusive activity at Stromboli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Andrew; Dehn, Jon; Patrick, Matt; Calvari, Sonia; Ripepe, Maurizio; Lodato, Luigi

    2005-12-01

    A safe, easy and rapid method to calculate lava effusion rates using hand-held thermal image data was developed during June 2003 at Stromboli Volcano (Italy). We used a Forward Looking Infrared Radiometer (FLIR) to obtain images of the active lava flow field on a daily basis between May 31 and June 16, 2003. During this time the flow field geometry and size (where flows typically a few hundred meters long were emplaced on a steep slope) meant that near-vertical images of the whole flow field could be captured in a single image obtained from a helicopter hovering, at an altitude of 750 m and ˜1 km off shore. We used these images to adapt a thermally based effusion rate method, previously applied to low and high spatial resolution satellite data, to allow automated extraction of effusion rates from the hand-held thermal infrared imagery. A comparison between a thermally-derived (0.23 0.87 m3 s-1) and dimensionally-derived effusion rate (0.56 m3 s-1) showed that the thermally-derived range was centered on the expected value. Over the measurement period, the mean effusion rate was 0.38±0.25 m3 s-1, which is similar to that obtained during the 1985 86 effusive eruption and the time-averaged supply rate calculated for normal (non-effusive) Strombolian activity. A short effusive pulse, reaching a peak of ˜1.2 m3 s-1, was recorded on June 3, 2003. One explanation of such a peak would be an increase in driving pressure due to an increase in the height of the magma contained in the central column. We estimate that this pulse would require the magma column to attain a height of ˜190 m above the effusive vent, which is approximately the elevation difference between the vent and the floor of the NE crater. Our approach gives an easy-to-apply method that has the potential to provide effusion rate time series with a high temporal resolution.

  20. Interpretation of TIMS imagery using laboratory thermal emission spectroscopy: Application to geological mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Ruff, S.W.

    1996-11-01

    A portion of the southern Granite Wash Mountains in west-central Arizona has been mapped with the benefit of image data from the Thermal Infrared Multi-spectral Scanner and laboratory spectroscopy. Data from the TIMS instrument have provided a dramatic view of the well exposed Paleozoic section. One of the units within the section, the Supai Formation, displays significant color heterogeneity in the image. Examination in the field did not identify all of the minerals responsible for the various colors. A suite of rock samples from the area was examined in the lab using high spectral resolution thermal emission spectroscopy. The results establish the identity of the minerals and their relationship to image colors, thus demonstrating the power of combining laboratory analysis with remote sensing. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Visibility of road hazards in thermal, visible, and sensor-fused night-time imagery.

    PubMed

    McCarley, J S; Krebs, W K

    2000-10-01

    Sensor fusion combines the output of multiple imaging sensors within a single composite display. Ideally, a fused image will retain important spatial information provided by individual input images, and will convey useful spatial or chromatic emergent information derived from the contrast between input images. The present experiment assessed the potential benefits of sensor fusion as a method of enhancing drivers' night-time detection of road hazards. Observers were asked to detect a pedestrian within thermal and visible images of a night-time scene, and within chromatic and achromatic renderings created by sensor fusion of grayscale thermal and visible images. Results indicated that fusion can both improve spatial image content, and can effectively embellish spatial content with emergent chromatic information. The benefits of both sensor fusion and of color rendering, however, were inconsistent, varying substantially with quality of input images submitted for fusion. PMID:11059466

  2. Face detection in thermal imagery using an Open Source Computer Vision library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Somboonkaew, Armote

    2009-05-01

    This paper studies the use of a combination of Haar-like features and a cascade of boosted tree classifiers embedded in a widely used OpenCV for face detection in thermal images. With 2013 positive and 2020 negative 320×240-pixel thermal images for 20 training stages on three window sizes of 20×20, 24×24, and 30×30 pixels, our experiment shows that these three windows offer similar hit and false alarm rates at the end of the training section. Larger windows also spend much more time to train. During our testing, the 30×30-pixel window provides measured best hit and false rejection/acceptation rates of 93.4% and 6.6%, respectively, with a measured slowest detection speed of 19.6 ms. A 5-ms improvement in the measured detection speed with a slightly lower hit rate of 92.1% is accomplished by using the 24×24-pixel window. These results verify that the combination of Haar-like features and a cascade of boosted tree classifiers is a promising technique for face detection application in thermal images.

  3. Use of thermal and visible imagery for estimating crop water status of irrigated grapevine.

    PubMed

    Möller, M; Alchanatis, V; Cohen, Y; Meron, M; Tsipris, J; Naor, A; Ostrovsky, V; Sprintsin, M; Cohen, S

    2007-01-01

    Achieving high quality wine grapes depends on the ability to maintain mild to moderate levels of water stress in the crop during the growing season. This study investigates the use of thermal imaging for monitoring water stress. Experiments were conducted on a wine-grape (Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot) vineyard in northern Israel. Irrigation treatments included mild, moderate, and severe stress. Thermal and visible (RGB) images of the crop were taken on four days at midday with a FLIR thermal imaging system and a digital camera, respectively, both mounted on a truck-crane 15 m above the canopy. Aluminium crosses were used to match visible and thermal images in post-processing and an artificial wet surface was used to estimate the reference wet temperature (T(wet)). Monitored crop parameters included stem water potential (Psi(stem)), leaf conductance (g(L)), and leaf area index (LAI). Meteorological parameters were measured at 2 m height. CWSI was highly correlated with g(L) and moderately correlated with Psi(stem). The CWSI-g(L) relationship was very stable throughout the season, but for that of CWSI-Psi(stem) both intercept and slope varied considerably. The latter presumably reflects the non-direct nature of the physiological relationship between CWSI and Psi(stem). The highest R(2) for the CWSI to g(L) relationship, 0.91 (n=12), was obtained when CWSI was computed using temperatures from the centre of the canopy, T(wet) from the artificial wet surface, and reference dry temperature from air temperature plus 5 degrees C. Using T(wet) calculated from the inverted Penman-Monteith equation and estimated from an artificially wetted part of the canopy also yielded crop water-stress estimates highly correlated with g(L) (R(2)=0.89 and 0.82, respectively), while a crop water-stress index using 'theoretical' reference temperatures computed from climate data showed significant deviations in the late season. Parameter variability and robustness of the different CWSI estimates

  4. Stress indicators based on airborne thermal imagery for field phenotyping a heterogeneous tree population for response to water constraints

    PubMed Central

    Virlet, Nicolas; Lebourgeois, Valentine; Martinez, Sébastien; Costes, Evelyne; Labbé, Sylvain; Regnard, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    As field phenotyping of plant response to water constraints constitutes a bottleneck for breeding programmes, airborne thermal imagery can contribute to assessing the water status of a wide range of individuals simultaneously. However, the presence of mixed soil–plant pixels in heterogeneous plant cover complicates the interpretation of canopy temperature. Moran’s Water Deficit Index (WDI = 1–ETact/ETmax), which was designed to overcome this difficulty, was compared with surface minus air temperature (T s–T a) as a water stress indicator. As parameterization of the theoretical equations for WDI computation is difficult, particularly when applied to genotypes with large architectural variability, a simplified procedure based on quantile regression was proposed to delineate the Vegetation Index–Temperature (VIT) scatterplot. The sensitivity of WDI to variations in wet and dry references was assessed by applying more or less stringent quantile levels. The different stress indicators tested on a series of airborne multispectral images (RGB, near-infrared, and thermal infrared) of a population of 122 apple hybrids, under two irrigation regimes, significantly discriminated the tree water statuses. For each acquisition date, the statistical method efficiently delineated the VIT scatterplot, while the limits obtained using the theoretical approach overlapped it, leading to inconsistent WDI values. Once water constraint was established, the different stress indicators were linearly correlated to the stem water potential among a tree subset. T s–T a showed a strong sensitivity to evaporative demand, which limited its relevancy for temporal comparisons. Finally, the statistical approach of WDI appeared the most suitable for high-throughput phenotyping. PMID:25080086

  5. Stress indicators based on airborne thermal imagery for field phenotyping a heterogeneous tree population for response to water constraints.

    PubMed

    Virlet, Nicolas; Lebourgeois, Valentine; Martinez, Sébastien; Costes, Evelyne; Labbé, Sylvain; Regnard, Jean-Luc

    2014-10-01

    As field phenotyping of plant response to water constraints constitutes a bottleneck for breeding programmes, airborne thermal imagery can contribute to assessing the water status of a wide range of individuals simultaneously. However, the presence of mixed soil-plant pixels in heterogeneous plant cover complicates the interpretation of canopy temperature. Moran's Water Deficit Index (WDI = 1-ETact/ETmax), which was designed to overcome this difficulty, was compared with surface minus air temperature (T s-T a) as a water stress indicator. As parameterization of the theoretical equations for WDI computation is difficult, particularly when applied to genotypes with large architectural variability, a simplified procedure based on quantile regression was proposed to delineate the Vegetation Index-Temperature (VIT) scatterplot. The sensitivity of WDI to variations in wet and dry references was assessed by applying more or less stringent quantile levels. The different stress indicators tested on a series of airborne multispectral images (RGB, near-infrared, and thermal infrared) of a population of 122 apple hybrids, under two irrigation regimes, significantly discriminated the tree water statuses. For each acquisition date, the statistical method efficiently delineated the VIT scatterplot, while the limits obtained using the theoretical approach overlapped it, leading to inconsistent WDI values. Once water constraint was established, the different stress indicators were linearly correlated to the stem water potential among a tree subset. T s-T a showed a strong sensitivity to evaporative demand, which limited its relevancy for temporal comparisons. Finally, the statistical approach of WDI appeared the most suitable for high-throughput phenotyping. PMID:25080086

  6. Aerial thermography for energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Thermal infrared scanning from an aircraft is a convenient and commercially available means for determining relative rates of energy loss from building roofs. The need to conserve energy as fuel costs makes the mass survey capability of aerial thermography an attractive adjunct to community energy awareness programs. Background information on principles of aerial thermography is presented. Thermal infrared scanning systems, flight and environmental requirements for data acquisition, preparation of thermographs for display, major users and suppliers of thermography, and suggested specifications for obtaining aerial scanning services were reviewed.

  7. DMSP-SSM/1 NASA algorithm validation using primarily LANDSAT and secondarily DMSP and/or AVHRR visible and thermal infrared satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, K.; Barry, R.; Schweiger, A.

    1988-01-01

    The approach to the DMSP SSMI (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program; Special Sensor Microwave Imager) sea-ice validation effort is to demonstrate a quantitative relationship between the SSMI-derived sea ice parameters and those same parameters derived from other data sets including visible and infrared satellite imagery, aerial photographic and high-resolution microwave aircraft imagery. The question to be addressed is to what accuracy (relative to these other observations) can the following ice parameters be determined: (1) position of the ice boundary; (2) total sea ice concentration; and (3) multiyear sea ice concentration. Specific tasks include: (1) a study of the interrelationship of surface information content and sensor spatial and spectral resolution in order to establish relationships between ice surface features and the manner in which they are expressed in the satellite observations; and (2) apply these relationships to map the sea ice features which can be used to evaluate NASA's proposed SSM/1 sea ice algorithms. Other key points to be addressed include the accuracy to which these parameters can be determined in different regions (marginal ice zone such as Bering Sea, Arctic ocean, such as Beaufort Sea); the accuracy of these parameters for different seasons; the accuracy of the algorithms weather filter under different weather conditions; and the effectiveness of the 85.5 GHz channels to locate the ice edge.

  8. Simultaneous measurements of skin sea surface temperature and sea surface emissivity from a single thermal imagery.

    PubMed

    Yoshimori, Kyu; Tamba, Sumio; Yokoyama, Ryuzo

    2002-08-20

    A novel method, to our knowledge, to measure simultaneously the thermal emissivity and skin temperature of a sea surface has been developed. The proposed method uses an infrared image that includes a sea surface and a reference object located near the surface. By combining this image with sky radiation temperature, we retrieve both skin sea surface temperature and sea surface emissivity from the single infrared image. Because the method requires no knowledge of thermal radiative properties of actual sea surfaces, it can be used even for a contaminated sea surface whose emissivity is hard to determine theoretically, e.g., oil slicks or slicks produced by biological wastes. Experimental results demonstrate that the estimated emissivity agrees with the theoretical prediction and, also, the recovered temperature distribution of skin sea surface has no appreciable high-temperature area that is due to reflection of the reference object. The method allows the acquisition of match-up data of radiometric sea surface temperatures that precisely correspond to the satellite observable data. PMID:12206200

  9. Object detection utilizing a linear retrieval algorithm for thermal infrared imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, M.S.

    1996-11-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) spectroscopy and remote sensing have been proven to be extremely valuable tools for mineralogic discrimination. One technique for sub-pixel detection and data reduction, known as a spectral retrieval or unmixing algorithm, will prove useful in the analysis of data from scheduled TIR orbital instruments. This study represents the first quantitative attempt to identify the limits of the model, specifically concentrating on the TIR. The algorithm was written and applied to laboratory data, testing the effects of particle size, noise, and multiple endmembers, then adapted to operate on airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner data of the Kelso Dunes, CA, Meteor Crater, AZ, and Medicine Lake Volcano, CA. Results indicate that linear spectral unmixmg can produce accurate endmember detection to within an average of 5%. In addition, the effects of vitrification and textural variations were modeled. The ability to predict mineral or rock abundances becomes extremely useful in tracking sediment transport, decertification, and potential hazard assessment in remote volcanic regions. 26 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Integration of airborne optical and thermal imagery for archaeological subsurface structures detection: the Arpi case study (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassani, C.; Cavalli, R. M.; Fasulli, L.; Palombo, A.; Pascucci, S.; Santini, F.; Pignatti, S.

    2009-04-01

    The application of Remote Sensing data for detecting subsurface structures is becoming a remarkable tool for the archaeological observations to be combined with the near surface geophysics [1, 2]. As matter of fact, different satellite and airborne sensors have been used for archaeological applications, such as the identification of spectral anomalies (i.e. marks) related to the buried remnants within archaeological sites, and the management and protection of archaeological sites [3, 5]. The dominant factors that affect the spectral detectability of marks related to manmade archaeological structures are: (1) the spectral contrast between the target and background materials, (2) the proportion of the target on the surface (relative to the background), (3) the imaging system characteristics being used (i.e. bands, instrument noise and pixel size), and (4) the conditions under which the surface is being imaged (i.e. illumination and atmospheric conditions) [4]. In this context, just few airborne hyperspectral sensors were applied for cultural heritage studies, among them the AVIRIS (Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer), the CASI (Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager), the HyMAP (Hyperspectral MAPping) and the MIVIS (Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer). Therefore, the application of high spatial/spectral resolution imagery arise the question on which is the trade off between high spectral and spatial resolution imagery for archaeological applications and which spectral region is optimal for the detection of subsurface structures. This paper points out the most suitable spectral information useful to evaluate the image capability in terms of spectral anomaly detection of subsurface archaeological structures in different land cover contexts. In this study, we assess the capability of MIVIS and CASI reflectances and of ATM and MIVIS emissivities (Table 1) for subsurface archaeological prospection in different sites of the Arpi

  11. Volcanic plume and bomb field masses from thermal infrared camera imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, A. J. L.; Delle Donne, D.; Dehn, J.; Ripepe, M.; Worden, A. K.

    2013-03-01

    Masses erupted during normal explosions at Stromboli volcano (Italy) are notoriously difficult to measure. We present a method that uses thermal infrared video for cooling bomb fields to obtain the total power emitted by all hot particles emitted during an explosion. A given mass of magma (M) will emit a finite amount of thermal power, defined by M cp(Te-T0), cp and Te being magma specific heat capacity and temperature, and T0 being ambient temperature. We use this relation to convert the total power emitted by the bomb field to the mass required to generate that power. To do this we extract power flux curves for the field and integrate this through time to obtain total power (E). This is used to estimate mass (Q) in Q=E/cp(Te-T0). When applied to individual bombs we obtain masses of between 1 and 9 kg per bomb, or a volume of 970 and 6500 cm3. These volumes equate to spheres with diameters 12 and 27 cm. For the entire bomb field we obtain volumes of 7-28 m3. We calculate masses for 32 eruptions and obtain typical bomb masses of between 103 and 104 kg per eruption. In addition, we estimate that between 102 and 103 kg of gas and ash are emitted as part of a mixed plume of bombs, gas and ash. We identify two types of eruption on the basis of the erupted bomb masses and the ratio of the plume's gas-and-ash component to the bomb component. The first type is bomb-dominated, is characterized by bomb masses of 104 kg and has ash-gas/ bomb ratios of ˜0.02. The second type is ash-and-gas dominated, is characterized by erupted bomb masses of 103 kg and has ash-gas/bomb ratios of around one, and as high as two. There is no correlation between the quantity of bombs and quantity of gas-ash erupted. In addition, while source pressure for each explosion correlates with the quantity of gas and ash erupted, the mass of bombs emitted varies independently of pressure.

  12. Advanced surveillance systems: combining video and thermal imagery for pedestrian detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torresan, Helene; Turgeon, Benoit; Ibarra-Castanedo, Clemente; Hebert, Patrick; Maldague, Xavier P.

    2004-04-01

    In the current context of increased surveillance and security, more sophisticated surveillance systems are needed. One idea relies on the use of pairs of video (visible spectrum) and thermal infrared (IR) cameras located around premises of interest. To automate the system, a dedicated image processing approach is required, which is described in the paper. The first step in the proposed study is to collect a database of known scenarios both indoor and outdoor with a few pedestrians. These image sequences (video and TIR) are synchronized, geometrically corrected and temperature calibrated. The next step is to develop a segmentation strategy to extract the regions of interest (ROI) corresponding to pedestrians in the images. The retained strategy exploits the motion in the sequences. Next, the ROIs are grouped from image to image separately for both video and TIR sequences before a fusion algorithm proceeds to track and detect humans. This insures a more robust performance. Finally, specific criteria of size and temperature relevant to humans are introduced as well. Results are presented for a few typical situations.

  13. Real-time people and vehicle detection from UAV imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaszczak, Anna; Breckon, Toby P.; Han, Jiwan

    2011-01-01

    A generic and robust approach for the real-time detection of people and vehicles from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is an important goal within the framework of fully autonomous UAV deployment for aerial reconnaissance and surveillance. Here we present an approach for the automatic detection of vehicles based on using multiple trained cascaded Haar classifiers with secondary confirmation in thermal imagery. Additionally we present a related approach for people detection in thermal imagery based on a similar cascaded classification technique combining additional multivariate Gaussian shape matching. The results presented show the successful detection of vehicle and people under varying conditions in both isolated rural and cluttered urban environments with minimal false positive detection. Performance of the detector is optimized to reduce the overall false positive rate by aiming at the detection of each object of interest (vehicle/person) at least once in the environment (i.e. per search patter flight path) rather than every object in each image frame. Currently the detection rate for people is ~70% and cars ~80% although the overall episodic object detection rate for each flight pattern exceeds 90%.

  14. Effect of Background Emissivity on Gas Detection in Thermal Hyperspectral Imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, Stephen J.; Tardiff, Mark F.; Chilton, Lawrence K.; Metoyer, Candace N.

    2008-10-02

    Detecting and identifying weak gaseous plumes using thermal imaging data is complicated by many factors. These include variability due to atmosphere, ground and plume temper- ature, and background clutter. This paper presents an analysis of one formulation of the physics-based radiance model, which describes at-sensor observed radiance. The background emissivity and plume/ground temperatures are isolated, and their effects on net chemical signal are described. This analysis shows that the plume’s physical state, emission or absorption, is directly dependent on the background emissivity. It then describes what conditions on the background emissivity have inhibiting effects on the net chemical signal. These claims are illustrated by analyzing synthetic hyperspectral imaging data with the Adaptive Matched Filter using four chemicals and three distinct background emissivities. Two chemicals (Carbontetrachloride and Tetraflourosilane) in the analysis had a very strong relationship with the background emissivities: they exhibited absorbance over a small range of wavenumbers and the background emissivities showed a consistent ordering at these wavenumbers. Analysis of simulated hyperspectral images containing these chemicals showed complete agreement with the analysis of the physics-based model that described when the background emissivities would have inhibiting effects on gas detection. The other chemicals considered (Ammonia and Tributylphosphate) exhibited very complex absorbance structure across the longwave infrared spectrum. Analysis of images containing these chemicals revealed that the the analysis of the physics-based model did not hold completely for these complex chemicals but did suggest that gas detection was dominated by their dominant absorbance features. These results provide some explanation of the effect of the background emissivity on gas detection and a more general exploration of gas absorbance/background emissivity variability and their effects on

  15. Unmanned aerial vehicles for rangeland mapping and monitoring: a comparison of two systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerial photography from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) bridges the gap between ground-based observations and remotely sensed imagery from aerial and satellite platforms. UAVs can be deployed quickly and repeatedly, are less costly and safer than piloted aircraft, and can obtain very high-resolution...

  16. "A" Is for Aerial Maps and Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Reese H.; Delahunty, Tina

    2007-01-01

    The technology of satellite imagery and remote sensing adds a new dimension to teaching and learning about maps with elementary school children. Just a click of the mouse brings into view some images of the world that could only be imagined a generation ago. Close-up aerial pictures of the school and neighborhood quickly catch the interest of…

  17. Use of Kendall's coefficient of concordance to assess agreement among observers of very high resolution imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ground-based vegetation monitoring methods are expensive, time-consuming, and limited in sample-size. Aerial imagery is appealing to managers because of the reduced time and expense and the increase in sample size. One challenge of aerial imagery is detecting differences among observers of the sam...

  18. Using Airborne and Satellite Imagery to Distinguish and Map Black Mangrove

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reports the results of studies evaluating color-infrared (CIR) aerial photography, CIR aerial true digital imagery, and high resolution QuickBird multispectral satellite imagery for distinguishing and mapping black mangrove [Avicennia germinans (L.) L.] populations along the lower Texas g...

  19. Incorporation of texture, intensity, hue, and saturation for rangeland monitoring with unmanned aircraft imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerial photography acquired with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has great potential for incorporation into rangeland health monitoring protocols, and object-based image analysis is well suited for this hyperspatial imagery. A major drawback, however, is the low spectral resolution of the imagery, b...

  20. Using airborne thermal infrared imagery and helicopter EM conductivity to locate mine pools and discharges in the Kettle Creek watershed, north-central Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Love, E.; Hammack, R.; Harbert, W.; Sams, J.; Veloski, G.; Ackman, T.

    2005-12-01

    The Kettle Creek watershed contains 50-100-year-old surface and underground coal mines that are a continuing source of acid mine drainage (AMD). To characterize the mining-altered hydrology of this watershed, an airborne reconnaissance was conducted in 2002 using airborne thermal infrared imagery (TIR) and helicopter-mounted electromagnetic (HEM) surveys. TIR uses the temperature differential between surface water and groundwater to locate areas where groundwater emerges at the surface. TIR anomalies located in the survey included seeps and springs, as well as mine discharges. In a follow-up ground investigation, hand-held GPS units were used to locate 103 of the TIR anomalies. Of the sites investigated, 26 correlated with known mine discharges, whereas 27 were previously unknown. Seven known mine discharges previously obscured from TIR imagery were documented. HEM surveys were used to delineate the groundwater table and also to locate mine pools, mine discharges, and groundwater recharge zones. These surveys located 12 source regions and flow paths for acidic, metal-containing (conductive) mine drainage; areas containing acid-generating mine spoil; and areas of groundwater recharge and discharge, as well as identifying potential mine discharges previously obscured from TIR imagery by nondeciduous vegetation. Follow-up ground-based electromagnetic surveys verified the results of the HEM survey. Our study suggests that airborne reconnaissance can make the remediation of large watersheds more efficient by focusing expensive ground surveys on small target areas.

  1. Using airborne thermal infrared imagery and helicopter EM conductivity to locate mine pools and discharges in the Kettle Creek watershed, north-central Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Love, E.; Hammack, R.W.; Harbert, W.P.; Sams, J.I.; Veloski, G.A.; Ackman, T.E.

    2005-11-01

    The Kettle Creek watershed contains 50–100-year-old surface and underground coal mines that are a continuing source of acid mine drainage (AMD). To characterize the mining-altered hydrology of this watershed, an airborne reconnaissance was conducted in 2002 using airborne thermal infrared imagery (TIR) and helicopter-mounted electromagnetic (HEM) surveys. TIR uses the temperature differential between surface water and groundwater to locate areas where groundwater emerges at the surface. TIR anomalies located in the survey included seeps and springs, as well as mine discharges. In a follow-up ground investigation, hand-held GPS units were used to locate 103 of the TIR anomalies. Of the sites investigated, 26 correlated with known mine discharges, whereas 27 were previously unknown. Seven known mine discharges previously obscured from TIR imagery were documented. HEM surveys were used to delineate the groundwater table and also to locate mine pools, mine discharges, and groundwater recharge zones. These surveys located 12 source regions and flow paths for acidic, metal-containing (conductive) mine drainage; areas containing acid-generating mine spoil; and areas of groundwater recharge and discharge, as well as identifying potential mine discharges previously obscured from TIR imagery by nondeciduous vegetation. Follow-up ground-based electromagnetic surveys verified the results of the HEM survey. Our study suggests that airborne reconnaissance can make the remediation of large watersheds more efficient by focusing expensive ground surveys on small target areas.

  2. Heat flux measurement from vertical temperature profile and thermal infrared imagery in low-flux fumarolic zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudin, Damien; Finizola, Anthony; Beauducel, François; Brothelande, Elodie; Allemand, Pascal; Delacourt, Christophe; Delcher, Eric; Peltier, Aline

    2014-05-01

    Hydrothermal systems are associated to most of the dormant volcanoes. Heat is transported by steam from the hot magma body in the connected porosity and the fissures of the rock to the surface. If the flux is low enough (<500 W/m²), the steam mainly condensates in the soil close to surface, and a significant proportion of the heat is transported to the surface by conduction, producing a gradient of temperature and a thermal anomaly detectable at the surface. Detecting and monitoring these fluxes is crucial for hazard management, since it reflects the state of the magma body in depth. In order to quantify this flux two methods are considered. First, a vertical profile of temperature is measured by a series of thermocouples, and the conducted flux is estimated thanks to the Fourier law. Secondly, a more recent method uses the thermal infrared imagery to monitor the surface temperature anomaly (STA) between the studied zone and an equivalent zone not affected by the geothermal flux. The heat flux from the soil to the atmosphere is computed as the sum of (1) the radiative flux, (2) the sensible flux and (3) the residual steam flux. These two methods are complementary and have an equivalent uncertainty of approximately 20%, which would allow to track the major changes in the hydrothermal system. However, the surface and sub-surface temperatures are strongly influenced by the climate. For instance, it has been widely demonstrated that the surface temperature dramatically decreases after a rainfall. In order to estimate the reliability of the measurements, a numerical model simulating the evolution of the subsurface temperature in low flux fumarolic zone has been built. In depth, the heat can be transported either by conduction, or by the rising steam, or by condensed water. In surface, both the radiative flux and the sensible flux (convection of the atmosphere) are taken into account. This model allows to estimate the changes of temperature due to a variation of solar

  3. A New Method for the Detection of Heat/Water Stress in Irrigated Cotton Using Thermal Imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of aerially-acquired canopy-to-air temperature differences (CATD) for crop water management in humid subtropical climates has been demonstrated to be especially problematic. The small differences in canopy-to-air temperature that occur when the crop begins to show signs of stress are difficult t...

  4. High-resolution spatial patterns of Soil Organic Carbon content derived from low-altitude aerial multi-band imagery on the Broadbalk Wheat Experiment at Rothamsted,UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldana Jague, Emilien; Goulding, Keith; Heckrath, Goswin; Macdonald, Andy; Poulton, Paul; Stevens, Antoine; Van Wesemael, Bas; Van Oost, Kristof

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic C (SOC) contents in arable landscapes change as a function of management, climate and topography (Johnston et al, 2009). Traditional methods to measure soil C stocks are labour intensive, time consuming and expensive. Consequently, there is a need for developing low-cost methods for monitoring SOC contents in agricultural soils. Remote sensing methods based on multi-spectral images may help map SOC variation in surface soils. Recently, the costs of both Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and multi-spectral cameras have dropped dramatically, opening up the possibility for more widespread use of these tools for SOC mapping. Long-term field experiments with distinct SOC contents in adjacent plots, provide a very useful resource for systematically testing remote sensing approaches for measuring SOC. This study focusses on the Broadbalk Wheat Experiment at Rothamsted (UK). The Broadbalk experiment started in 1843. It is widely acknowledged to be the oldest continuing agronomic field experiment in the world. The initial aim of the experiment was to test the effects of different organic manures and inorganic fertilizers on the yield of winter wheat. The experiment initially contained 18 strips, each about 320m long and 6m wide, separated by paths of 1.5-2.5m wide. The strips were subsequently divided into ten sections (>180 plots) to test the effects of other factors (crop rotation, herbicides, pesticides etc.). The different amounts and combinations of mineral fertilisers (N,P,K,Na & Mg) and Farmyard Manure (FYM) applied to these plots for over 160 years has resulted in very different SOC contents in adjacent plots, ranging between 0.8% and 3.5%. In addition to large inter-plot variability in SOC there is evidence of within-plot trends related to the use of discard areas between plots and movement of soil as a result of ploughing. The objectives of this study are (i) to test whether low-altitude multi-band imagery can be used to accurately predict spatial

  5. Measured comparison of the crossover periods for mid- and long-wave IR (MWIR and LWIR) polarimetric and conventional thermal imagery.

    PubMed

    Felton, M; Gurton, K P; Pezzaniti, J L; Chenault, D B; Roth, L E

    2010-07-19

    We report the results of a multi-day diurnal study in which polarimetric and conventional thermal imagery is recorded in the mid- and long-wave IR to identify and compare the respective time periods in which minimum target contrast is achieved. The data shows that the chief factors affecting polarimetric contrast in both wavebands are the amount of thermal emission from the objects in the scene and the abundance of MWIR and LWIR sources in the optical background. In particular, it has been observed that the MWIR polarimetric contrast was positively correlated to the presence of MWIR sources in the optical background, while the LWIR polarimetric contrast was negatively correlated to the presence of LWIR sources in the optical background. PMID:20720953

  6. AERIAL MEASUREMENTS OF CONVECTION CELL ELEMENTS IN HEATED LAKES

    SciTech Connect

    Villa-Aleman, E; Saleem Salaymeh, S; Timothy Brown, T; Alfred Garrett, A; Malcolm Pendergast, M; Linda Nichols, L

    2007-12-19

    Power plant-heated lakes are characterized by a temperature gradient in the thermal plume originating at the discharge of the power plant and terminating at the water intake. The maximum water temperature discharged by the power plant into the lake depends on the power generated at the facility and environmental regulations on the temperature of the lake. Besides the observed thermal plume, cloud-like thermal cells (convection cell elements) are also observed on the water surface. The size, shape and temperature of the convection cell elements depends on several parameters such as the lake water temperature, wind speed, surfactants and the depth of the thermocline. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Clemson University are collaborating to determine the applicability of laboratory empirical correlations between surface heat flux and thermal convection intensity. Laboratory experiments at Clemson University have demonstrated a simple relationship between the surface heat flux and the standard deviation of temperature fluctuations. Similar results were observed in the aerial thermal imagery SRNL collected at different locations along the thermal plume and at different elevations. SRNL will present evidence that the results at Clemson University are applicable to cooling lakes.

  7. Aerial measurements of convection cell elements in heated lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa-Aleman, E.; Salaymeh, S. R.; Brown, T. B.; Garrett, A. J.; Nichols, L. S.; Pendergast, M. M.

    2008-03-01

    Power plant-heated lakes are characterized by a temperature gradient in the thermal plume originating at the discharge of the power plant and terminating at the water intake. The maximum water temperature discharged by the power plant into the lake depends on the power generated at the facility and environmental regulations on the temperature of the lake. Besides the observed thermal plume, cloud-like thermal cells (convection cell elements) are also observed on the water surface. The size, shape and temperature of the convection cell elements depends on several parameters such as the lake water temperature, wind speed, surfactants and the depth of the thermocline. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Clemson University are collaborating to determine the applicability of laboratory empirical correlations between surface heat flux and thermal convection intensity. Laboratory experiments at Clemson University have demonstrated a simple relationship between the surface heat flux and the standard deviation of temperature fluctuations. Similar results were observed in the aerial thermal imagery SRNL collected at different locations along the thermal plume and at different elevations. SRNL will present evidence that the results at Clemson University are applicable to cooling lakes.

  8. Draper Laboratory small autonomous aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBitetto, Paul A.; Johnson, Eric N.; Bosse, Michael C.; Trott, Christian A.

    1997-06-01

    The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc. and students from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Boston University have cooperated to develop an autonomous aerial vehicle that won the 1996 International Aerial Robotics Competition. This paper describes the approach, system architecture and subsystem designs for the entry. This entry represents a combination of many technology areas: navigation, guidance, control, vision processing, human factors, packaging, power, real-time software, and others. The aerial vehicle, an autonomous helicopter, performs navigation and control functions using multiple sensors: differential GPS, inertial measurement unit, sonar altimeter, and a flux compass. The aerial transmits video imagery to the ground. A ground based vision processor converts the image data into target position and classification estimates. The system was designed, built, and flown in less than one year and has provided many lessons about autonomous vehicle systems, several of which are discussed. In an appendix, our current research in augmenting the navigation system with vision- based estimates is presented.

  9. Trends in quantitative aerial thermography

    SciTech Connect

    Schott, J.R.; Wilkinson, E.P.

    1983-06-01

    Recent improvements in aerial thermographic techniques, particularly in achievable spatial resolution and noise equivalent temperature variation, have enabled the use of thermography in a more objective fashion. Interpretation of the information contained in thermograms has also been improved through the use of certain techniques accounting for roof material type (emissivity), background effects, and atmospheric variables. With current methods, roof surface temperature from aerial imagery can be measured to within 1.8/sup 0/F (1.0/sup 0/C) of the actual temperature. These advances in thermogram analysis have opened the door for potential direct measurement of rooftop heat-loss levels from thermogram data. Ultimately, it is felt that this type of information would make it feasible to direct intensive energy-conservation efforts toward a smaller population, where the need and cost benefits will be the greatest.

  10. Evaluation of aerial thermal infrared remote sensing to identify groundwater-discharge zones in the Meduxnekeag River, Houlton, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Culbertson, Charles W.; Huntington, Thomas G.; Caldwell, James M.; O'Donnell, Cara

    2014-01-01

    Residents of the area near Houlton, Maine, have observed seasonal episodic blooms of algae and documented elevated concentrations of fecal-coliform bacteria and inorganic nutrients and low dissolved oxygen concentrations in the Meduxnekeag River. Although point and nonpoint sources of urban and agricultural runoff likely contribute to water-quality impairment, the role of shallow groundwater inflows in delivering such contaminants to the Meduxnekeag River has not been well understood. To provide information about possible groundwater inflows to the river, airborne thermal infrared videography was evaluated as a means to identify and classify thermal anomalies in a 25-mile reach of the mainstem and tributaries of the Meduxnekeag River near Houlton, Maine. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Houlton Band of Maliseet Indians, collected thermal infrared images from a single-engine, fixed-wing aircraft during flights on December 3–4, 2003, and November 26, 2004. Eleven thermal anomalies were identified on the basis of data from the December 2003 flight and 17 from the November 2004 flight, which covered the same reaches of stream. Following image analysis, characterization, and prioritization, the georeferenced infrared images of the thermal anomalies were compared to features on topographic maps of the study area. The mapped anomalies were used to direct observations on the ground to confirm discharge locations and types of inflow. The variations in grayscale patterns on the images were thus confirmed as representing shallow groundwater-discharge zones (seeps), outfalls of treated wastewater, or ditches draining runoff from impervious surfaces.

  11. Operational applications of NOAA-VHRR imagery in Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seifert, R. D.; Carlson, R. F.; Kane, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    Near-real time operational applications of NOAA satellite enhanced thermal infrared imagery to snow monitoring for river flood forecasts, and a photographic overlay technique of imagery to enhance snowcover are presented. Ground truth comparisons show a thermal accuracy of approximately + or - 1 C for detection of surface radiative temperatures. The application of NOAA imagery to flood mapping is also presented.

  12. The availability of local aerial photography in southern California. [for solution of urban planning problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, W., III; Sledge, B.; Paul, C. K.; Landini, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Some of the major photography and photogrammetric suppliers and users located in Southern California are listed. Recent trends in aerial photographic coverage of the Los Angeles basin area are also noted, as well as the uses of that imagery.

  13. Initial coastal zone color scanner imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, H. R.; Clark, D. K.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristics of the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner are presented and the atmospheric correction and bio-optical algorithms are reviewed. Comparison of imagery before and after atmospheric correction shows that water features such as color fronts and small scale eddies can be retrieved even through a hazy and horizontally inhomogeneous atmosphere. Imagery is also presented to show that features revealed in color are sometimes completely absent from simultaneous thermal imagery implying that color and thermal imagery can provide complementary rather than redundant information.

  14. Developing a semi/automated protocol to post-process large volume, High-resolution airborne thermal infrared (TIR) imagery for urban waste heat mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Mir Mustafizur

    In collaboration with The City of Calgary 2011 Sustainability Direction and as part of the HEAT (Heat Energy Assessment Technologies) project, the focus of this research is to develop a semi/automated 'protocol' to post-process large volumes of high-resolution (H-res) airborne thermal infrared (TIR) imagery to enable accurate urban waste heat mapping. HEAT is a free GeoWeb service, designed to help Calgary residents improve their home energy efficiency by visualizing the amount and location of waste heat leaving their homes and communities, as easily as clicking on their house in Google Maps. HEAT metrics are derived from 43 flight lines of TABI-1800 (Thermal Airborne Broadband Imager) data acquired on May 13--14, 2012 at night (11:00 pm--5:00 am) over The City of Calgary, Alberta (˜825 km 2) at a 50 cm spatial resolution and 0.05°C thermal resolution. At present, the only way to generate a large area, high-spatial resolution TIR scene is to acquire separate airborne flight lines and mosaic them together. However, the ambient sensed temperature within, and between flight lines naturally changes during acquisition (due to varying atmospheric and local micro-climate conditions), resulting in mosaicked images with different temperatures for the same scene components (e.g. roads, buildings), and mosaic join-lines arbitrarily bisect many thousands of homes. In combination these effects result in reduced utility and classification accuracy including, poorly defined HEAT Metrics, inaccurate hotspot detection and raw imagery that are difficult to interpret. In an effort to minimize these effects, three new semi/automated post-processing algorithms (the protocol) are described, which are then used to generate a 43 flight line mosaic of TABI-1800 data from which accurate Calgary waste heat maps and HEAT metrics can be generated. These algorithms (presented as four peer-reviewed papers)---are: (a) Thermal Urban Road Normalization (TURN)---used to mitigate the microclimatic

  15. Aerial Scene Recognition using Efficient Sparse Representation

    SciTech Connect

    Cheriyadat, Anil M

    2012-01-01

    Advanced scene recognition systems for processing large volumes of high-resolution aerial image data are in great demand today. However, automated scene recognition remains a challenging problem. Efficient encoding and representation of spatial and structural patterns in the imagery are key in developing automated scene recognition algorithms. We describe an image representation approach that uses simple and computationally efficient sparse code computation to generate accurate features capable of producing excellent classification performance using linear SVM kernels. Our method exploits unlabeled low-level image feature measurements to learn a set of basis vectors. We project the low-level features onto the basis vectors and use simple soft threshold activation function to derive the sparse features. The proposed technique generates sparse features at a significantly lower computational cost than other methods~\\cite{Yang10, newsam11}, yet it produces comparable or better classification accuracy. We apply our technique to high-resolution aerial image datasets to quantify the aerial scene classification performance. We demonstrate that the dense feature extraction and representation methods are highly effective for automatic large-facility detection on wide area high-resolution aerial imagery.

  16. Correlation between the number of spatial, thermal, and total cues in LWIR imagery and probability of identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brickell, Matthew; Edwards, Timothy; Halford, Carl; Dennen, Kevin

    2007-04-01

    A human perception test has been conducted to determine the correlation between observer response and the number of spatial cues without thermal attributes, thermal cues, and total cues in an image. The experiment used the NVESD 12 target LWIR tracked vehicle image set. Various levels of Gaussian blur were applied to twelve aspects of the twelve targets in order to reduce both the number of resolvable cycles and the number of observable thermal and spatial cues. The author then counted every observable thermal and spatial cue in each of the processed images. A thermal cue was defined as either a hot spot or a cool spot. Typically, hot spots are produced by a vehicle's engine or exhaust. Cool spots are features such as air intakes and trim vanes. Spatial cues included characteristics such as barrel length, turret size, and number of wheels. The results of a 12 alternative forced choice identification perception test were analyzed to determine the correlation coefficients between probability of identification and the number of thermal, spatial, and total cues. The results show that the number of spatial cues in an image was strongly correlated with observer performance.

  17. Rethinking the longitudinal stream temperature paradigm: region-wide comparison of thermal infrared imagery reveals unexpected complexity of river temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fullerton, Aimee H.; Torgersen, Christian; Lawler, Joshua J.; Faux, Russell N.; Steel, E. Ashley; Beechie, Timothy J.; Ebersole, Joseph L.; Leibowitz, Scott J.

    2015-01-01

    Prevailing theory suggests that stream temperature warms asymptotically in a downstream direction, beginning at the temperature of the source in the headwaters and leveling off downstream as it converges to match meteorological conditions. However, there have been few empirical examples of longitudinal patterns of temperature in large rivers due to a paucity of data. We constructed longitudinal thermal profiles (temperature versus distance) for 53 rivers in the Pacific Northwest (USA) using an extensive dataset of remotely sensed summertime river temperatures and classified each profile into one of five patterns of downstream warming: asymptotic (increasing then flattening), linear (increasing steadily), uniform (not changing), parabolic (increasing then decreasing), or complex (not fitting other classes). We evaluated (1) how frequently profiles warmed asymptotically downstream as expected, and (2) whether relationships between river temperature and common hydroclimatic variables differed by profile class. We found considerable diversity in profile shape, with 47% of rivers warming asymptotically, and 53% having alternative profile shapes. Water temperature did not warm substantially over the course of the river for coastal parabolic and uniform profiles, and for some linear and complex profiles. Profile classes showed no clear geographical trends. The degree of correlation between river temperature and hydroclimatic variables differed among profile classes, but there was overlap among classes. Water temperature in rivers with asymptotic or parabolic profiles was positively correlated with August air temperature, tributary temperature and velocity, and negatively correlated with elevation, August precipitation, gradient, and distance upstream. Conversely, associations were less apparent in rivers with linear, uniform, or complex profiles. Factors contributing to the unique shape of parabolic profiles differed for coastal and inland rivers, where downstream cooling

  18. Spatial heterogeneity in geothermally-influenced lakes derived from atmospherically corrected Landsat thermal imagery and three-dimensional hydrodynamic modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, Mathew G.; Hamilton, David P.; Trolle, Dennis; Muraoka, Kohji; McBride, Christopher

    2016-08-01

    Atmospheric correction of Landsat 7 thermal data was carried out for the purpose of retrieval of lake skin water temperature in Rotorua lakes, and Lake Taupo, North Island, New Zealand. The effect of the atmosphere was modelled using four sources of atmospheric profile data as input to the MODerate resolution atmospheric TRANsmission (MODTRAN) radiative transfer model. The retrieved skin water temperatures were validated using a high-frequency temperature sensor deployed from a monitoring buoy at the water surface of Lake Rotorua. The most accurate atmospheric correction method was with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) atmospheric profile data (root-mean-square-error, RMSE, 0.48 K), followed by radiosonde (0.52 K), Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Level 3 (0.54 K), and the NASA atmospheric correction parameter calculator (0.94 K). Retrieved water temperature was used for assessing spatial heterogeneity and accuracy of surface water temperature simulated with a three-dimensional (3-D) hydrodynamic model of Lake Rotoehu, located approximately 20 km east of Lake Rotorua. This comparison indicated that the model was suitable for reproducing the dominant horizontal variations in surface water temperature in the lake. This study demonstrated the potential of accurate satellite-based thermal monitoring to validate temperature outputs from 3-D hydrodynamic model simulations. It also provided atmospheric correction options for local and global applications of Landsat thermal data.

  19. Unmanned aerial systems for forest reclamation monitoring: throwing balloons in the air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Rita; Vaz, Eric; Panagopoulos, Thomas; Guerrero, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Wildfires are a recurrent phenomenon in Mediterranean landscapes, deteriorating environment and ecosystems, calling out for adequate land management. Monitoring burned areas enhances our abilities to reclaim them. Remote sensing has become an increasingly important tool for environmental assessment and land management. It is fast, non-intrusive, and provides continuous spatial coverage. This paper reviews remote sensing methods, based on space-borne, airborne or ground-based multispectral imagery, for monitoring the biophysical properties of forest areas for site specific management. The usage of satellite imagery for land use management has been frequent in the last decades, it is of great use to determine plants health and crop conditions, allowing a synergy between the complexity of environment, anthropogenic landscapes and multi-temporal understanding of spatial dynamics. Aerial photography increments on spatial resolution, nevertheless it is heavily dependent on airborne availability as well as cost. Both these methods are required for wide areas management and policy planning. Comprising an active and high resolution imagery source, that can be brought at a specific instance, reducing cost while maintaining locational flexibility is of utmost importance for local management. In this sense, unmanned aerial vehicles provide maximum flexibility with image collection, they can incorporate thermal and multispectral sensors, however payload and engine operation time limit flight time. Balloon remote sensing is becoming increasingly sought after for site specific management, catering rapid digital analysis, permitting greater control of the spatial resolution as well as of datasets collection in a given time. Different wavelength sensors may be used to map spectral variations in plant growth, monitor water and nutrient stress, assess yield and plant vitality during different stages of development. Proximity could be an asset when monitoring forest plants vitality

  20. The 2011 Cerro Hudson volcano eruption (Southern Andes, Chile): Pre-eruptive inflation and hot spots observed with InSAR and thermal imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, F.; Pritchard, M. E.; Lohman, R. B.

    2013-12-01

    or pre-eruptive hotspots, higher resolution ASTER thermal imagery, show that there were hot spots at least four months before the eruption with temperatures 7-8 K above background. Hotspots are observed in the caldera in 2005 and 2006 that are not related to eruption, but we suspect these hotspots might be due to bare rock surrounded by snow. There is no InSAR data in the months immediately preceding the eruption, but the existence of a signal in the ASTER thermal images may indicate an increase in geothermal activity that could have been used to forecast the eruption. Thus, more frequent acquisitions are required for both ASTER and SAR imagery to be useful as real time monitoring methods in isolated but highly active volcanoes like Cerro Hudson.

  1. Aerial radiation surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Jobst, J.

    1980-01-01

    A recent aerial radiation survey of the surroundings of the Vitro mill in Salt Lake City shows that uranium mill tailings have been removed to many locations outside their original boundary. To date, 52 remote sites have been discovered within a 100 square kilometer aerial survey perimeter surrounding the mill; 9 of these were discovered with the recent aerial survey map. Five additional sites, also discovered by aerial survey, contained uranium ore, milling equipment, or radioactive slag. Because of the success of this survey, plans are being made to extend the aerial survey program to other parts of the Salt Lake valley where diversions of Vitro tailings are also known to exist.

  2. Orthorectification, mosaicking, and analysis of sub-decimeter resolution UAV imagery for rangeland monitoring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) offer an attractive platform for acquiring imagery for rangeland monitoring. UAVs can be deployed quickly and repeatedly, and they can obtain sub-decimeter resolution imagery at lower image acquisition costs than with piloted aircraft. Low flying heights result in ima...

  3. Mapping Irrigated Areas in the Tunisian Semi-Arid Context with Landsat Thermal and VNIR Data Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivalland, Vincent; Drissi, Hsan; Simonneaux, Vincent; Tardy, Benjamin; Boulet, Gilles

    2016-04-01

    Our study area is the Merguellil semi-arid irrigated plain in Tunisia, where the water resource management is an important stake for governmental institutions, farmer communities and more generally for the environment. Indeed, groundwater abstraction for irrigation is the primary cause of aquifer depletion. Moreover, unregistered pumping practices are widespread and very difficult to survey by authorities. Thus, the identification of areas actually irrigated in the whole plain is of major interest. In order to map the irrigated areas, we tried out a methodology based on the use of Landsat 7 and 8 Land Surface Temperature (LST) data issued from atmospherically corrected thermal band using the LANDARTs Tool jointly with the NDVI vegetation indices obtained from visible ane near infrared (VNIR) bands. For each Landsat acquisition during the years 2012 to 2014, we computed a probability of irrigation based on the location of the pixel in the NDVI - LST space. Basically for a given NDVI value, the cooler the pixel the higher its probability to be irrigated is. For each date, pixels were classified in seven bins of irrigation probability ranges. Pixel probabilities for each date were then summed over the study period resulting in a probability map of irrigation. Comparison with ground data shows a consistent identification of irrigated plots and supports the potential operational interest of the method. However, results were hampered by the low Landsat LST data availability due to clouds and the inadequate revisit frequency of the sensor.

  4. ERTS imagery for ground-water investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Gerald K.; Deutsch, Morris

    1975-01-01

    ERTS imagery offers the first opportunity to apply moderately high-resolution satellite data to the nationwide study of water resources. This imagery is both a tool and a form of basic data. Like other tools and basic data, it should be considered for use in ground-water investigations. The main advantage of its use will be to reduce the need for field work. In addition, however, broad regional features may be seen easily on ERTS imagery, whereas they would be difficult or impossible to see on the ground or on low-altitude aerial photographs. Some present and potential uses of ERTS imagery are to locate new aquifers, to study aquifer recharge and discharge, to estimate ground-water pumpage for irrigation, to predict the location and type of aquifer management problems, and to locate and monitor strip mines which commonly are sources for acid mine drainage. In many cases, boundaries which are gradational on the ground appear to be sharp on ERTS imagery. Initial results indicate that the accuracy of maps produced from ERTS imagery is completely adequate for some purposes.

  5. Characterization of volcanic activity using observations of infrasound, volcanic emissions, and thermal imagery at Karymsky Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, T.; Fee, D.; Prata, F.

    2012-04-01

    Karymsky Volcano is one of the most active and dynamic volcanoes in Kamchatka, with activity ranging from vigorous degassing, frequent ash emissions, and apparent vent sealing, all punctuated by daily to weekly explosive magmatic eruptions. Recent studies have highlighted the strengths in using complementary infrasound measurements and remote volcanic emission measurements to characterize volcanic activity, with the potential to discriminate emission-type, approximate ash-cloud height, and estimate SO2 emission mass. Here we use coincident measurements of infrasound, SO2, ash, and thermal radiation collected over a ten day period at Karymsky Volcano in August 2011 to characterize the observed activity and elucidate vent processes. The ultimate goal of this project is to enable different types of volcanic activity to be identified using only infrasound data, which would significantly improve our ability to continuously monitor remote volcanoes. Four types of activity were observed. Type 1 activity is characterized by discrete ash emissions occurring every 1 - 5 minutes that either jet or roil out of the vent, by plumes from 500 - 1500 m (above vent) altitudes, and by impulsive infrasonic onsets. Type 2 activity is characterized by periodic pulses of gas emission, little or no ash, low altitude (100 - 200 m) plumes, and strong audible jetting or roaring. Type 3 activity is characterized by sustained emissions of ash and gas, with multiple pulses lasting from ~1 - 3 minutes, and by plumes from 300 - 1500 m. Type 4 activity is characterized by periods of relatively long duration (~30 minutes to >1 hour) quiescence, no visible plume and weak SO2 emissions at or near the detection limit, followed by an explosive, magmatic eruption, producing ash-rich plumes to >2000 m, and centimeter to meter (or greater) sized pyroclastic bombs that roll down the flanks of the edifice. Eruption onset is accompanied by high-amplitude infrasound and occasionally visible shock

  6. Evaluation of a surface energy balance method based on optical and thermal satellite imagery to estimate root-zone soil moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alburn, Nathan E.

    Various remote-sensing methods are available to estimate soil moisture, but few address the fine spatial resolutions (e.g., 30 m grid cells) and root-zone depth requirements of agricultural and other similar applications. One approach that has been previously proposed to estimate fine-resolution soil moisture is to first estimate the evaporative fraction from an energy balance that is inferred from optical and thermal remote-sensing images (e.g., using the ReSET algorithm) and then estimate soil moisture through an empirical relationship to evaporative fraction. A similar approach has also been proposed to estimate the degree of saturation. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate these methods for estimating soil moisture and degree of saturation, particularly for a semiarid grassland with relatively dry conditions. Soil moisture was monitored at twenty-eight field locations in southeastern Colorado with herbaceous vegetation during the summer months of three years. In-situ soil moisture and degree of saturation observations are compared with estimates calculated from Landsat imagery using the ReSET algorithm. The in-situ observations suggest that the empirical relationships with evaporative fraction that have been proposed in previous studies typically provide overestimates of soil moisture and degree of saturation in this region. However, calibrated functions produce estimates with an accuracy that may be adequate for various applications. The estimates produced by this approach are more reliable for degree of saturation than for soil moisture, and the method is more successful at identifying temporal variability than spatial variability in degree of saturation for this region.

  7. Better sensors = better imagery = better outputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The photogrammetric workflow has traditionally relied upon the use of high quality metric cameras that enable the acquisition of good quality imagery, from which outputs with a well constrained geometry can be obtained. However with the proliferation of low altitude aerial photography from a range of platforms, the quality of sensor itself has largely become of secondary importance in order to reduce weight and minimise cost. These instruments are often "off-the-shelf" consumer digital cameras, not designed for either aerial photography or photogrammetry. This imposes limitations upon the quality of imagery that can be collected and outputs subsequently produced. Photogrammetric techniques such as a self-calibrating bundle adjustment or Structure from Motion allow the use of "less stable" imagery. Yet at the simplest level, the better the sensor, the better the imagery, the better the output. Where analysis and the validity of scientific conclusions are dependent upon the quality of outputs it is critical that consideration is given to the choice of sensor - the wide availability and application of UAVs across disciplines means that users may not be aware of such choices and their implications. This presentation is designed to stimulate discussion around the use of consumer cameras with a focus upon the exposure triangle of ISO-aperture-shutter speed and how this is related to dynamic range and the signal-to-noise ratio. A further important factor is understanding the ground resolution element in terms of resolution, focal length, sensor size (crop factor) and height.

  8. Utility of a scanning densitometer in analyzing remotely sensed imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dooley, J. T.

    1976-01-01

    The utility of a scanning densitometer for analyzing imagery in the NASA Lewis Research Center's regional remote sensing program was evaluated. Uses studied include: (1) quick-look screening of imagery by means of density slicing, magnification, color coding, and edge enhancement; (2) preliminary category classification of both low- and high-resolution data bases; and (3) quantitative measurement of the extent of features within selected areas. The densitometer was capable of providing fast, convenient, and relatively inexpensive preliminary analysis of aerial and satellite photography and scanner imagery involving land cover, water quality, strip mining, and energy conservation.

  9. Environmental waste site characterization utilizing aerial photographs, remote sensing, and surface geophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, P.; Van Eeckhout, E.; Rofer, C.; Baldridge, S.; Ferguson, J.; Jiracek, G.; Balick, L.; Josten, N.; Carpenter, M.

    1996-04-18

    Six different techniques were used to delineate 40 year old trench boundary at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Data from historical aerial photographs, a magnetic gradient survey, airborne multispectral and thermal infra-red imagery, seismic refraction, DC resistivity, and total field magnetometry were utilized in this process. Each data set indicated a southern and northern edge for the trench. Average locations and 95% confidence limits for each edge were determined along a survey line perpendicular to the trench. Trench edge locations were fairly consistent among all six techniques. Results from a modeling effort performed with the total magnetic field data was the least consistent. However, each method provided unique and complementary information, and the integration of all this information led to a more complete characterization of the trench boundaries and contents.

  10. Aerial Image Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, Robert E.

    1987-09-01

    Aerial images produce the best stereoscopic images of the viewed world. Despite the fact that every optic in existence produces an aerial image, few persons are aware of their existence and possible uses. Constant reference to the eye and other optical systems have produced a psychosis of design that only considers "focal planes" in the design and analysis of optical systems. All objects in the field of view of the optical device are imaged by the device as an aerial image. Use of aerial images in vision and visual display systems can provide a true stereoscopic representation of the viewed world. This paper discusses aerial image systems - their applications and designs and presents designs and design concepts that utilize aerial images to obtain superior visual displays, particularly with application to visual simulation.

  11. Combining Human Computing and Machine Learning to Make Sense of Big (Aerial) Data for Disaster Response.

    PubMed

    Ofli, Ferda; Meier, Patrick; Imran, Muhammad; Castillo, Carlos; Tuia, Devis; Rey, Nicolas; Briant, Julien; Millet, Pauline; Reinhard, Friedrich; Parkan, Matthew; Joost, Stéphane

    2016-03-01

    Aerial imagery captured via unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is playing an increasingly important role in disaster response. Unlike satellite imagery, aerial imagery can be captured and processed within hours rather than days. In addition, the spatial resolution of aerial imagery is an order of magnitude higher than the imagery produced by the most sophisticated commercial satellites today. Both the United States Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the European Commission's Joint Research Center (JRC) have noted that aerial imagery will inevitably present a big data challenge. The purpose of this article is to get ahead of this future challenge by proposing a hybrid crowdsourcing and real-time machine learning solution to rapidly process large volumes of aerial data for disaster response in a time-sensitive manner. Crowdsourcing can be used to annotate features of interest in aerial images (such as damaged shelters and roads blocked by debris). These human-annotated features can then be used to train a supervised machine learning system to learn to recognize such features in new unseen images. In this article, we describe how this hybrid solution for image analysis can be implemented as a module (i.e., Aerial Clicker) to extend an existing platform called Artificial Intelligence for Disaster Response (AIDR), which has already been deployed to classify microblog messages during disasters using its Text Clicker module and in response to Cyclone Pam, a category 5 cyclone that devastated Vanuatu in March 2015. The hybrid solution we present can be applied to both aerial and satellite imagery and has applications beyond disaster response such as wildlife protection, human rights, and archeological exploration. As a proof of concept, we recently piloted this solution using very high-resolution aerial photographs of a wildlife reserve in Namibia to support rangers with their wildlife conservation efforts (SAVMAP project, http://lasig.epfl.ch/savmap ). The

  12. Use of geostationary satellite imagery in optical and thermal bands for the estimation of soil moisture status and land evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghilain, N.; Arboleda, A.; Gellens-Meulenberghs, F.

    2009-04-01

    For water and agricultural management, there is an increasing demand to monitor the soil water status and the land evapotranspiration. In the framework of the LSA-SAF project (http://landsaf.meteo.pt), we are developing an energy balance model forced by remote sensing products, i.e. radiation components and vegetation parameters, to monitor in quasi real-time the evapotranspiration rate over land (Gellens-Meulenberghs et al, 2007; Ghilain et al, 2008). The model is applied over the full MSG disk, i.e. including Europe and Africa. Meteorological forcing, as well as the soil moisture status, is provided by the forecasts of the ECMWF model. Since soil moisture is computed by a forecast model not dedicated to the monitoring of the soil water status, inadequate soil moisture input can occur, and can cause large effects on evapotranspiration rates, especially over semi-arid or arid regions. In these regions, a remotely sensed-based method for the soil moisture retrieval can therefore be preferable, to avoid too strong dependency in ECMWF model estimates. Among different strategies, remote sensing offers the advantage of monitoring large areas. Empirical methods of soil moisture assessment exist using remotely sensed derived variables either from the microwave bands or from the thermal bands. Mainly polar orbiters are used for this purpose, and little attention has been paid to the new possibilities offered by geosynchronous satellites. In this contribution, images of the SEVIRI instrument on board of MSG geosynchronous satellites are used. Dedicated operational algorithms were developed for the LSA-SAF project and now deliver images of land surface temperature (LST) every 15-minutes (Trigo et al, 2008) and vegetations indices (leaf area index, LAI; fraction of vegetation cover, FVC; fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation, FAPAR) every day (Garcia-Haro et al, 2005) over Africa and Europe. One advantage of using products derived from geostationary

  13. Use of geostationary satellite imagery in optical and thermal bands for the estimation of soil moisture status and land evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghilain, N.; Arboleda, A.; Gellens-Meulenberghs, F.

    2009-04-01

    For water and agricultural management, there is an increasing demand to monitor the soil water status and the land evapotranspiration. In the framework of the LSA-SAF project (http://landsaf.meteo.pt), we are developing an energy balance model forced by remote sensing products, i.e. radiation components and vegetation parameters, to monitor in quasi real-time the evapotranspiration rate over land (Gellens-Meulenberghs et al, 2007; Ghilain et al, 2008). The model is applied over the full MSG disk, i.e. including Europe and Africa. Meteorological forcing, as well as the soil moisture status, is provided by the forecasts of the ECMWF model. Since soil moisture is computed by a forecast model not dedicated to the monitoring of the soil water status, inadequate soil moisture input can occur, and can cause large effects on evapotranspiration rates, especially over semi-arid or arid regions. In these regions, a remotely sensed-based method for the soil moisture retrieval can therefore be preferable, to avoid too strong dependency in ECMWF model estimates. Among different strategies, remote sensing offers the advantage of monitoring large areas. Empirical methods of soil moisture assessment exist using remotely sensed derived variables either from the microwave bands or from the thermal bands. Mainly polar orbiters are used for this purpose, and little attention has been paid to the new possibilities offered by geosynchronous satellites. In this contribution, images of the SEVIRI instrument on board of MSG geosynchronous satellites are used. Dedicated operational algorithms were developed for the LSA-SAF project and now deliver images of land surface temperature (LST) every 15-minutes (Trigo et al, 2008) and vegetations indices (leaf area index, LAI; fraction of vegetation cover, FVC; fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation, FAPAR) every day (Garcia-Haro et al, 2005) over Africa and Europe. One advantage of using products derived from geostationary

  14. Auditory Imagery: Empirical Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Timothy L.

    2010-01-01

    The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d)…

  15. SAR imagery of the Grand Banks (Newfoundland) pack ice pack and its relationship to surface features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argus, S. D.; Carsey, F. D.

    1988-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data and aerial photographs were obtained over pack ice off the East Coast of Canada in March 1987 as part of the Labrador Ice Margin Experiment (LIMEX) pilot project. Examination of this data shows that although the pack ice off the Canadian East Coast appears essentially homogeneous to visible light imagery, two clearly defined zones of ice are apparent on C-band SAR imagery. To identify factors that create the zones seen on the radar image, aerial photographs were compared to the SAR imagery. Floe size data from the aerial photographs was compared to digital number values taken from SAR imagery of the same ice. The SAR data of the inner zone acquired three days apart over the melt period was also examined. The studies indicate that the radar response is governed by floe size and meltwater distribution.

  16. Aerial imagery and structure-from-motion based DEM reconstruction of region-sized areas (Sierra Arana, Spain and Namur Province, Belgium) using an high-altitude drifting balloon platform.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlet, Christian; María Mateos, Rosa; Azañón, Jose Miguel; Perez, José Vicente; Vanbrabant, Yves

    2015-04-01

    different elevations. A 1m/pixel ground resolution set covering an area of about 200km² and mapping the eastern part of the Sierra Arana (Andalucía, Spain) includes a kartsic field directly to the south-east of the ridge and the cliffs of the "Riscos del Moro". A 4m/pixel ground resolution set covering an area of about 900km² includes the landslide active Diezma region (Andalucía, Spain) and the water reserve of Francisco Abellan lake. The third set has a 3m/pixel ground resolution, covers about 100km² and maps the Famennian rocks formations, known as part of "La Calestienne", outcropping near Beauraing and Rochefort in the Namur Province (Belgium). The DEM and orthophoto's have been referenced using ground control points from satellite imagery (Spain, Belgium) and DPGS (Belgium). The quality of produced DEM were then evaluated by comparing the level and accuracy of details and surface artefacts between available topographic data (SRTM- 30m/pixel, topographic maps) and the three Stratochip sets. This evaluation showed that the models were in good correlation with existing data, and can be readily be used in geomorphology, structural and natural hazard studies.

  17. Aerial photographic reproductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1975-01-01

    The National Cartographic Information Center of the U.S. Geological Survey maintains records of aerial photographic coverage of the United States and its Territories, based on reports from other Federal agencies as well as State governmental agencies and commercial companies. From these records, the Center furnishes data to prospective purchasers on available photography and the agency holding the aerial film.

  18. Review of the SAFARI 2000 RC-10 Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Jeff; Shelton, Gary; Annegarn, Harrold; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This presentation will review the aerial photography collected by the NASA ER-2 aircraft during the SAFARI (Southern African Regional Science Initiative) year 2000 campaign. It will include specifications on the camera and film, and will show examples of the imagery. It will also detail the extent of coverage, and the procedures to obtain film products from the South African government. Also included will be some sample applications of aerial photography for various environmental applications, and its use in augmenting other SAFARI data sets.

  19. Preliminary assessment of aerial photography techniques for canvasback population analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munro, R.E.; Trauger, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    Recent intensive research on the canvasback has focused attention on the need for more precise estimates of population parameters. During the 1972-75 period, various types of aerial photographing equipment were evaluated to determine the problems and potentials for employing these techniques in appraisals of canvasback populations. The equipment and procedures available for automated analysis of aerial photographic imagery were also investigated. Serious technical problems remain to be resolved, but some promising results were obtained. Final conclusions about the feasibility of operational implementation await a more rigorous analysis of the data collected.

  20. Pricise Target Geolocation and Tracking Based on Uav Video Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinpoor, H. R.; Samadzadegan, F.; Dadrasjavan, F.

    2016-06-01

    There is an increasingly large number of applications for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) from monitoring, mapping and target geolocation. However, most of commercial UAVs are equipped with low-cost navigation sensors such as C/A code GPS and a low-cost IMU on board, allowing a positioning accuracy of 5 to 10 meters. This low accuracy cannot be used in applications that require high precision data on cm-level. This paper presents a precise process for geolocation of ground targets based on thermal video imagery acquired by small UAV equipped with RTK GPS. The geolocation data is filtered using an extended Kalman filter, which provides a smoothed estimate of target location and target velocity. The accurate geo-locating of targets during image acquisition is conducted via traditional photogrammetric bundle adjustment equations using accurate exterior parameters achieved by on board IMU and RTK GPS sensors, Kalman filtering and interior orientation parameters of thermal camera from pre-flight laboratory calibration process. The results of this study compared with code-based ordinary GPS, indicate that RTK observation with proposed method shows more than 10 times improvement of accuracy in target geolocation.

  1. Unmanned aerial optical systems for spatial monitoring of Antarctic mosses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucieer, Arko; Turner, Darren; Veness, Tony; Malenovsky, Zbynek; Harwin, Stephen; Wallace, Luke; Kelcey, Josh; Robinson, Sharon

    2013-04-01

    The Antarctic continent has experienced major changes in temperature, wind speed and stratospheric ozone levels during the last 50 years. In a manner similar to tree rings, old growth shoots of Antarctic mosses, the only plants on the continent, also preserve a climate record of their surrounding environment. This makes them an ideal bio-indicator of the Antarctic climate change. Spatially extensive ground sampling of mosses is laborious and time limited due to the short Antarctic growing season. Obviously, there is a need for an efficient method to monitor spatially climate change induced stress of the Antarctic moss flora. Cloudy weather and high spatial fragmentation of the moss turfs makes satellite imagery unsuitable for this task. Unmanned aerial systems (UAS), flying at low altitudes and collecting image data even under a full overcast, can, however, overcome the insufficiency of satellite remote sensing. We, therefore, developed scientific UAS, consisting of a remote-controlled micro-copter carrying on-board different remote sensing optical sensors, tailored to perform fast and cost-effective mapping of Antarctic flora at ultra-high spatial resolution (1-10 cm depending on flight altitude). A single lens reflex (SLR) camera carried by UAS acquires multi-view aerial photography, which processed by the Structure from Motion computer vision algorithm provides an accurate three-dimensional digital surface model (DSM) at ultra-high spatial resolution. DSM is the key input parameter for modelling a local seasonal snowmelt run-off, which provides mosses with the vital water supply. A lightweight multispectral camera on-board of UVS is collecting images of six selected spectral wavebands with the full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) of 10 nm. The spectral bands can be used to compute various vegetation optical indices, e.g. Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) or Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI), assessing the actual physiological state of polar vegetation. Recently

  2. Learning Scene Categories from High Resolution Satellite Image for Aerial Video Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cheriyadat, Anil M

    2011-01-01

    Automatic scene categorization can benefit various aerial video processing applications. This paper addresses the problem of predicting the scene category from aerial video frames using a prior model learned from satellite imagery. We show that local and global features in the form of line statistics and 2-D power spectrum parameters respectively can characterize the aerial scene well. The line feature statistics and spatial frequency parameters are useful cues to distinguish between different urban scene categories. We learn the scene prediction model from highresolution satellite imagery to test the model on the Columbus Surrogate Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (CSUAV) dataset ollected by high-altitude wide area UAV sensor platform. e compare the proposed features with the popular Scale nvariant Feature Transform (SIFT) features. Our experimental results show that proposed approach outperforms te SIFT model when the training and testing are conducted n disparate data sources.

  3. Efficient pedestrian detection from aerial vehicles with object proposals and deep convolutional neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minnehan, Breton; Savakis, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    As Unmanned Aerial Systems grow in numbers, pedestrian detection from aerial platforms is becoming a topic of increasing importance. By providing greater contextual information and a reduced potential for occlusion, the aerial vantage point provided by Unmanned Aerial Systems is highly advantageous for many surveillance applications, such as target detection, tracking, and action recognition. However, due to the greater distance between the camera and scene, targets of interest in aerial imagery are generally smaller and have less detail. Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN's) have demonstrated excellent object classification performance and in this paper we adopt them to the problem of pedestrian detection from aerial platforms. We train a CNN with five layers consisting of three convolution-pooling layers and two fully connected layers. We also address the computational inefficiencies of the sliding window method for object detection. In the sliding window configuration, a very large number of candidate patches are generated from each frame, while only a small number of them contain pedestrians. We utilize the Edge Box object proposal generation method to screen candidate patches based on an "objectness" criterion, so that only regions that are likely to contain objects are processed. This method significantly reduces the number of image patches processed by the neural network and makes our classification method very efficient. The resulting two-stage system is a good candidate for real-time implementation onboard modern aerial vehicles. Furthermore, testing on three datasets confirmed that our system offers high detection accuracy for terrestrial pedestrian detection in aerial imagery.

  4. Interpretation of high-resolution imagery for detecting vegetation cover composition change after fuels reduction treatments in woodlands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of very high resolution (VHR; ground sampling distances < ~5cm) aerial imagery to estimate site vegetation cover and to detect changes from management has been well documented. However, as the purpose of monitoring is to document change over time, the ability to detect changes from imagery a...

  5. Small UAV-Acquired, High-resolution, Georeferenced Still Imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan Hruska

    2005-09-01

    Currently, small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are primarily used for capturing and down-linking real-time video. To date, their role as a low-cost airborne platform for capturing high-resolution, georeferenced still imagery has not been fully utilized. On-going work within the Unmanned Vehicle Systems Program at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is attempting to exploit this small UAV-acquired, still imagery potential. Initially, a UAV-based still imagery work flow model was developed that includes initial UAV mission planning, sensor selection, UAV/sensor integration, and imagery collection, processing, and analysis. Components to support each stage of the work flow are also being developed. Critical to use of acquired still imagery is the ability to detect changes between images of the same area over time. To enhance the analysts’ change detection ability, a UAV-specific, GIS-based change detection system called SADI or System for Analyzing Differences in Imagery is under development. This paper will discuss the associated challenges and approaches to collecting still imagery with small UAVs. Additionally, specific components of the developed work flow system will be described and graphically illustrated using varied examples of small UAV-acquired still imagery.

  6. BOREAS Level-0 C-130 Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominguez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), C-130 and other aerial photography was collected to provide finely detailed and spatially extensive documentation of the condition of the primary study sites. The NASA C-130 Earth Resources aircraft can accommodate two mapping cameras during flight, each of which can be fitted with 6- or 12-inch focal-length lenses and black-and-white, natural-color, or color-IR film, depending upon requirements. Both cameras were often in operation simultaneously, although sometimes only the lower resolution camera was deployed. When both cameras were in operation, the higher resolution camera was often used in a more limited fashion. The acquired photography covers the period of April to September 1994. The aerial photography was delivered as rolls of large format (9 x 9 inch) color transparency prints, with imagery from multiple missions (hundreds of prints) often contained within a single roll. A total of 1533 frames were collected from the C-130 platform for BOREAS in 1994. Note that the level-0 C-130 transparencies are not contained on the BOREAS CD-ROM set. An inventory file is supplied on the CD-ROM to inform users of all the data that were collected. Some photographic prints were made from the transparencies. In addition, BORIS staff digitized a subset of the tranparencies and stored the images in JPEG format. The CD-ROM set contains a small subset of the collected aerial photography that were the digitally scanned and stored as JPEG files for most tower and auxiliary sites in the NSA and SSA. See Section 15 for information about how to acquire additional imagery.

  7. Daytime multispectral scanner aerial surveys of the Oak Ridge Reservation, 1992--1994: Overview of data processing and analysis by the Environmental Restoration Remote Sensing Program, Fiscal year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Smyre, J.L.; Hodgson, M.E.; Moll, B.W.; King, A.L.; Cheng, Yang

    1995-11-01

    Environmental Restoration (ER) Remote Sensing and Special Surveys Program was in 1992 to apply the benefits of remote sensing technologies to Environmental Restoration Management (ERWM) programs at all of the five United States Department of Energy facilities operated and managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (now Lockheed Martin Energy Systems)-the three Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) facilities, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS)-and adjacent off-site areas. The Remote Sensing Program includes the management of routine and special surveys at these sites, application of state-of-the-art remote sensing and geophysical technologies, and data transformation, integration, and analyses required to make the information valuable to ER. Remotely-sensed data collected of the ORR include natural color and color infrared (IR) aerial photography, 12-band multispectral scanner imagery, predawn thermal IR sensor imagery, magnetic and electromagnetic geophysical surveys, and gamma radiological data.

  8. Use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for urban tree inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Brian A.

    In contrast to standard aerial imagery, unmanned aerial systems (UAS) utilize recent technological advances to provide an affordable alternative for imagery acquisition. Increased value can be realized through clarity and detail providing higher resolution (2-5 cm) over traditional products. Many natural resource disciplines such as urban forestry will benefit from UAS. Tree inventories for risk assessment, biodiversity, planning, and design can be efficiently achieved with the UAS. Recent advances in photogrammetric processing have proved automated methods for three dimensional rendering of aerial imagery. Point clouds can be generated from images providing additional benefits. Association of spatial locational information within the point cloud can be used to produce elevation models i.e. digital elevation, digital terrain and digital surface. Taking advantage of this point cloud data, additional information such as tree heights can be obtained. Several software applications have been developed for LiDAR data which can be adapted to utilize UAS point clouds. This study examines solutions to provide tree inventory and heights from UAS imagery. Imagery taken with a micro-UAS was processed to produce a seamless orthorectified image. This image provided an accurate way to obtain a tree inventory within the study boundary. Utilizing several methods, tree height models were developed with variations in spatial accuracy. Model parameters were modified to offset spatial inconsistencies providing statistical equality of means. Statistical results (p = 0.756) with a level of significance (α = 0.01) between measured and modeled tree height means resulted with 82% of tree species obtaining accurate tree heights. Within this study, the UAS has proven to be an efficient tool for urban forestry providing a cost effective and reliable system to obtain remotely sensed data.

  9. Fusion of information from optical, thermal, multispectral imagery and geologic/topographic products to detect underground detonations (video). Audio-Visual (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The video documents the results of a Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR-Phase II) project conducted for DARPA focusing on the use of all-source overhead remote sensor imagery for monitoring underground nuclear tests and related activities. The documentation includes: (1) the main unclassified body of the report; (2) a separate ground truth Annex; and (3) a separate classified Annex. Autometric's approach was to investigate the exploitation potential of the various sensors, especially the fusion of products from them in combination with each other and other available collateral data. This approach featured empirical analyses of multisensor/multispectral imagery and collateral data collected before, during, and after an actual underground nuclear test (named 'BEXAR'). Advanced softcopy digital image processing and hardcopy image interpretation techniques were investigated for the research. These included multispectral (Landsat, SPOT), hyperspectral, and subpixel analyses; stereoscopic and monoscopic information extraction; multisensor fusion processes; end-to-end exploitation workstation concept development; and innovative change detection methodologies.

  10. Updating Maps Using High Resolution Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alrajhi, Muhamad; Shahzad Janjua, Khurram; Afroz Khan, Mohammad; Alobeid, Abdalla

    2016-06-01

    Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is one of the most dynamic countries of the world. We have witnessed a very rapid urban development's which are altering Kingdom's landscape on daily basis. In recent years a substantial increase in urban populations is observed which results in the formation of large cities. Considering this fast paced growth, it has become necessary to monitor these changes, in consideration with challenges faced by aerial photography projects. It has been observed that data obtained through aerial photography has a lifecycle of 5-years because of delay caused by extreme weather conditions and dust storms which acts as hindrances or barriers during aerial imagery acquisition, which has increased the costs of aerial survey projects. All of these circumstances require that we must consider some alternatives that can provide us easy and better ways of image acquisition in short span of time for achieving reliable accuracy and cost effectiveness. The approach of this study is to conduct an extensive comparison between different resolutions of data sets which include: Orthophoto of (10 cm) GSD, Stereo images of (50 cm) GSD and Stereo images of (1 m) GSD, for map updating. Different approaches have been applied for digitizing buildings, roads, tracks, airport, roof level changes, filling stations, buildings under construction, property boundaries, mosques buildings and parking places.

  11. Provisional maps of thermal areas in Yellowstone National Park, based on satellite thermal infrared imaging and field observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Heasler, Henry; Jaworowski, Cheryl; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.

    2014-01-01

    Maps that define the current distribution of geothermally heated ground are useful toward setting a baseline for thermal activity to better detect and understand future anomalous hydrothermal and (or) volcanic activity. Monitoring changes in the dynamic thermal areas also supports decisions regarding the development of Yellowstone National Park infrastructure, preservation and protection of park resources, and ensuring visitor safety. Because of the challenges associated with field-based monitoring of a large, complex geothermal system that is spread out over a large and remote area, satellite-based thermal infrared images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) were used to map the location and spatial extent of active thermal areas, to generate thermal anomaly maps, and to quantify the radiative component of the total geothermal heat flux. ASTER thermal infrared data acquired during winter nights were used to minimize the contribution of solar heating of the surface. The ASTER thermal infrared mapping results were compared to maps of thermal areas based on field investigations and high-resolution aerial photos. Field validation of the ASTER thermal mapping is an ongoing task. The purpose of this report is to make available ASTER-based maps of Yellowstone’s thermal areas. We include an appendix containing the names and characteristics of Yellowstone’s thermal areas, georeferenced TIFF files containing ASTER thermal imagery, and several spatial data sets in Esri shapefile format.

  12. Yield mapping of high-biomass sorghum with aerial imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To reach the goals laid out by the U.S. Government for displacing fossil fuels with biofuels, agricultural production of dedicated biomass crops is required. High-biomass sorghum is advantageous across wide regions because it requires less water per unit dry biomass and can produce very high biomass...

  13. High-biomass sorghum yield estimate with aerial imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract. To reach the goals laid out by the U.S. Government for displacing fossil fuels with biofuels, agricultural production of dedicated biomass crops is required. High-biomass sorghum is advantageous across wide regions because it requires less water per unit dry biomass and can produce very hi...

  14. A Morphology Independent Methodology for Quantifying River Planform Change and Characteristics from Remotely Sensed Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowland, J. C.; Gangodagamage, C.; Shelef, E.; Pope, P. A.; Brumby, S. P.; Wilson, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    The ready availability of remotely sensed imagery offers the potential to examine river dynamics and planform characteristics at global scales. The Landsat archive currently offers the greatest spatial and temporal coverage of the entire globe. However, at 30 meter multispectral resolution detailed and accurate examination of planform changes using Landsat imagery is restricted to intermediate (~ 500 m wide) to very large (~ 1 km wide) rivers or smaller rivers with very high rates of change. Many of these larger river systems exhibit multi-threaded or braided channel patterns that present significant challenges for many of the existing methodologies for quantifying changes developed for single threaded meandering river systems. In order to examine planform changes in river systems across all scales and morphologies we developed a set of algorithms for quantifying river mobility and planform attributes using raster-based river masks extracted from remotely sensed data. Unlike many prior methodologies for measuring river migration and erosion that rely on changes in the position of river channel centerlines, our methods adopt river banks as a frame of reference for quantifying change. The choice of a bank-centric reference frame was motivated by both a primary interest in the spatial and temporal patterns of bank change and the significant challenge of extracting and comparing channel centerlines in multi-threaded systems. Unlike prior vector-based analysis of river channels, our analysis retains a raster-based representation of the river from the original imagery source. At each bank pixel, our algorithms compute linear rates of bank change, local channel width, bank curvature, and bank aspect (used for examination of the influence of thermal processes such as freeze thaw and permafrost influence). The spatially distributed measurements are also aggregated along equally spaced river segments to examine spatial patterns in erosion/accretion rates, and channel widths

  15. Aerial Photography Summary Record System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1998-01-01

    The Aerial Photography Summary Record System (APSRS) describes aerial photography projects that meet specified criteria over a given geographic area of the United States and its territories. Aerial photographs are an important tool in cartography and a number of other professions. Land use planners, real estate developers, lawyers, environmental specialists, and many other professionals rely on detailed and timely aerial photographs. Until 1975, there was no systematic approach to locate an aerial photograph, or series of photographs, quickly and easily. In that year, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) inaugurated the APSRS, which has become a standard reference for users of aerial photographs.

  16. Aerial thermography in archaeological prospection: Applications & processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cool, Autumn Chrysantha

    Aerial thermography is one of the least utilized archaeological prospection methods, yet it has great potential for detecting anthropogenic anomalies. Thermal infrared radiation is absorbed and reemitted at varying rates by all objects on and within the ground depending upon their density, composition, and moisture content. If an area containing archaeological features is recorded at the moment when their thermal signatures most strongly contrast with that of the surrounding matrix, they can be visually identified in thermal images. Research conducted in the 1960s and 1970s established a few basic rules for conducting thermal survey, but the expense associated with the method deterred most archaeologists from using this technology. Subsequent research was infrequent and almost exclusively appeared in the form of case studies. However, as the current proliferation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and compact thermal cameras draws renewed attention to aerial thermography as an attractive and exciting form of survey, it is appropriate and necessary to reevaluate our approach. In this thesis I have taken a two-pronged approach. First, I built upon the groundwork of earlier researchers and created an experiment to explore the impact that different environmental and climatic conditions have on the success or failure of thermal imaging. I constructed a test site designed to mimic a range of archaeological features and imaged it under a variety of conditions to compare and contrast the results. Second, I explored a new method for processing thermal data that I hope will lead to a means of reducing noise and increasing the clarity of thermal images. This step was done as part of a case study so that the effectiveness of the processing method could be evaluated by comparison with the results of other geophysical surveys.

  17. Aerial measurement of heat loss: Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    The purpose of the program described was to develop techniques to reduce or eliminate some of the variables associated with thermogram analysis in order to provide more objective interpretation of the data collected with greater potential for accuracy. A procedure is given for measuring temperature which accounts for atmospheric, background, and differential emissivity effects. The residual error was found to be 1.0/sup 0/C. A technique was then identified and developed for determining heat loss lovels from roof top surface temperature data. A thermal integrity factor was defined as a function of insulation level and thermostat setting. Comparing these thermal integrity factors with aerial thermography data indicates that aerial thermography can be used to objectively and confidently define heat loss levels from building roofs. (LEW)

  18. Within-field Corn Nitrogen Response Related to Aerial Photograph Color

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision agriculture management of nitrogen (N) using aerial imagery of corn [Zea mays L.] canopy color has been a proposed strategy to understand crop N health and base within-season N fertilizer application rates. The objective of this study was to evaluate at field scale the relationship between...

  19. Comparative Assessment of Very High Resolution Satellite and Aerial Orthoimagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrafiotis, P.; Georgopoulos, A.

    2015-03-01

    This paper aims to assess the accuracy and radiometric quality of orthorectified high resolution satellite imagery from Pleiades-1B satellites through a comparative evaluation of their quantitative and qualitative properties. A Pleiades-B1 stereopair of high resolution images taken in 2013, two adjacent GeoEye-1 stereopairs from 2011 and aerial orthomosaic (LSO) provided by NCMA S.A (Hellenic Cadastre) from 2007 have been used for the comparison tests. As control dataset orthomosaic from aerial imagery provided also by NCMA S.A (0.25m GSD) from 2012 was selected. The process for DSM and orthoimage production was performed using commercial digital photogrammetric workstations. The two resulting orthoimages and the aerial orthomosaic (LSO) were relatively and absolutely evaluated for their quantitative and qualitative properties. Test measurements were performed using the same check points in order to establish their accuracy both as far as the single point coordinates as well as their distances are concerned. Check points were distributed according to JRC Guidelines for Best Practice and Quality Checking of Ortho Imagery and NSSDA standards while areas with different terrain relief and land cover were also included. The tests performed were based also on JRC and NSSDA accuracy standards. Finally, tests were carried out in order to assess the radiometric quality of the orthoimagery. The results are presented with a statistical analysis and they are evaluated in order to present the merits and demerits of the imaging sensors involved for orthoimage production. The results also serve for a critical approach for the usability and cost efficiency of satellite imagery for the production of Large Scale Orthophotos.

  20. Aerial Explorers and Robotic Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg

    2004-01-01

    A unique bio-inspired approach to autonomous aerial vehicle, a.k.a. aerial explorer technology is discussed. The work is focused on defining and studying aerial explorer mission concepts, both as an individual robotic system and as a member of a small robotic "ecosystem." Members of this robotic ecosystem include the aerial explorer, air-deployed sensors and robotic symbiotes, and other assets such as rovers, landers, and orbiters.

  1. Landscape-scale geospatial research utilizing low elevation aerial photography generated with commercial unmanned aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipo, C. P.; Lee, C.; Wechsler, S.

    2012-12-01

    With the ability to generate on demand high-resolution imagery across landscapes, unmanned aerial systems (UAS) are increasingly become the tools of choice for geospatial researchers. At CSULB, we have implemented a number of aerial systems in order to conduct archaeological, vegetation and terrain analyses. The platforms include the commercially available X100 by Gatewing, a hobby based aircraft, kites, and tethered blimps. From our experience, each platform has advantages and disadvantages n applicability int eh field and derived imagery. The X100, though comparatively more costly, produces images with excellent coverage of areas of interest and can fly in a wide range of weather conditions. The hobby plane solutions are low-cost and flexible in their configuration but their relative lightweight makes them difficult to fly in windy conditions and the sets of images produced can widely vary. The tethered blimp has a large payload and can fly under many conditions but its ability to systematically cover large areas is very limited. Kites are extremely low-cost but have similar limitations to blimps for area coverage and limited payload capabilities. Overall, we have found the greatest return for our investment from the Gatewing X100, despite its relatively higher cost, due to the quality of the images produced. Developments in autopilots, however, may improve the hobby aircraft solution and allow X100 like products to be produced in the near future. Results of imagery and derived products from these UAS missions will be presented and evaluated. Assessment of the viability of these UAS-products will inform the research community of their applicability to a range of applications, and if viable, could provide a lower cost alternative to other image acquisition methods.

  2. Aerial photographic reproductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1971-01-01

    Geological Survey vertical aerial photography is obtained primarily for topographic and geologic mapping. Reproductions from this photography are usually satisfactory for general use. Because reproductions are not stocked, but are custom processed for each order, they cannot be returned for credit or refund.

  3. Aerial of the VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Even in this aerial view at KSC, the Vehicle Assembly Building is imposing. In front of it is the Launch Control Center. In the background is the Rotation/Processing Facility, next to the Banana Creek. In the foreground is the Saturn Causeway that leads to Launch Pads 39A and 39B.

  4. Aerial Perspective Artistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a lesson centering on aerial perspective artistry of students and offers suggestions on how art teachers should carry this project out. This project serves to develop students' visual perception by studying reproductions by famous artists. This lesson allows one to imagine being lured into a landscape capable of captivating…

  5. A comparison of real and simulated airborne multisensor imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloechl, Kevin; De Angelis, Chris; Gartley, Michael; Kerekes, John; Nance, C. Eric

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a methodology and results for the comparison of simulated imagery to real imagery acquired with multiple sensors hosted on an airborne platform. The dataset includes aerial multi- and hyperspectral imagery with spatial resolutions of one meter or less. The multispectral imagery includes data from an airborne sensor with three-band visible color and calibrated radiance imagery in the long-, mid-, and short-wave infrared. The airborne hyperspectral imagery includes 360 bands of calibrated radiance and reflectance data spanning 400 to 2450 nm in wavelength. Collected in September 2012, the imagery is of a park in Avon, NY, and includes a dirt track and areas of grass, gravel, forest, and agricultural fields. A number of artificial targets were deployed in the scene prior to collection for purposes of target detection, subpixel detection, spectral unmixing, and 3D object recognition. A synthetic reconstruction of the collection site was created in DIRSIG, an image generation and modeling tool developed by the Rochester Institute of Technology, based on ground-measured reflectance data, ground photography, and previous airborne imagery. Simulated airborne images were generated using the scene model, time of observation, estimates of the atmospheric conditions, and approximations of the sensor characteristics. The paper provides a comparison between the empirical and simulated images, including a comparison of achieved performance for classification, detection and unmixing applications. It was found that several differences exist due to the way the image is generated, including finite sampling and incomplete knowledge of the scene, atmospheric conditions and sensor characteristics. The lessons learned from this effort can be used in constructing future simulated scenes and further comparisons between real and simulated imagery.

  6. Assessment of Photogrammetric Mapping Accuracy Based on Variation Flying Altitude Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udin, W. S.; Ahmad, A.

    2014-02-01

    Photogrammetry is the earliest technique used to collect data for topographic mapping. The recent development in aerial photogrammetry is the used of large format digital aerial camera for producing topographic map. The aerial photograph can be in the form of metric or non-metric imagery. The cost of mapping using aerial photogrammetry is very expensive. In certain application, there is a need to map small area with limited budget. Due to the development of technology, small format aerial photogrammetry technology has been introduced and offers many advantages. Currently, digital map can be extracted from digital aerial imagery of small format camera mounted on light weight platform such as unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). This study utilizes UAV system for large scale stream mapping. The first objective of this study is to investigate the use of light weight rotary-wing UAV for stream mapping based on different flying height. Aerial photograph were acquired at 60% forward lap and 30% sidelap specifications. Ground control points and check points were established using Total Station technique. The digital camera attached to the UAV was calibrated and the recovered camera calibration parameters were then used in the digital images processing. The second objective is to determine the accuracy of the photogrammetric output. In this study, the photogrammetric output such as stereomodel in three dimensional (3D), contour lines, digital elevation model (DEM) and orthophoto were produced from a small stream of 200m long and 10m width. The research output is evaluated for planimetry and vertical accuracy using root mean square error (RMSE). Based on the finding, sub-meter accuracy is achieved and the RMSE value decreases as the flying height increases. The difference is relatively small. Finally, this study shows that UAV is very useful platform for obtaining aerial photograph and subsequently used for photogrammetric mapping and other applications.

  7. Locating inputs of freshwater to Lynch Cove, Hood Canal, Washington, using aerial infrared photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheibley, Rich W.; Josberger, Edward G.; Chickadel, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The input of freshwater and associated nutrients into Lynch Cove and lower Hood Canal (fig. 1) from sources such as groundwater seeps, small streams, and ephemeral creeks may play a major role in the nutrient loading and hydrodynamics of this low dissolved-oxygen (hypoxic) system. These disbursed sources exhibit a high degree of spatial variability. However, few in-situ measurements of groundwater seepage rates and nutrient concentrations are available and thus may not represent adequately the large spatial variability of groundwater discharge in the area. As a result, our understanding of these processes and their effect on hypoxic conditions in Hood Canal is limited. To determine the spatial variability and relative intensity of these sources, the U.S. Geological Survey Washington Water Science Center collaborated with the University of Washington Applied Physics Laboratory to obtain thermal infrared (TIR) images of the nearshore and intertidal regions of Lynch Cove at or near low tide. In the summer, cool freshwater discharges from seeps and streams, flows across the exposed, sun-warmed beach, and out on the warm surface of the marine water. These temperature differences are readily apparent in aerial thermal infrared imagery that we acquired during the summers of 2008 and 2009. When combined with co-incident video camera images, these temperature differences allow identification of the location, the type, and the relative intensity of the sources.

  8. Processing of SeaMARC swath sonar imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Pratson, L.; Malinverno, A.; Edwards, M.; Ryan, W. )

    1990-05-01

    Side-scan swath sonar systems have become an increasingly important means of mapping the sea floor. Two such systems are the deep-towed, high-resolution SeaMARC I sonar, which has a variable swath width of up to 5 km, and the shallow-towed, lower-resolution SeaMARC II sonar, which has a swath width of 10 km. The sea-floor imagery of acoustic backscatter output by the SeaMARC sonars is analogous to aerial photographs and airborne side-looking radar images of continental topography. Geologic interpretation of the sea-floor imagery is greatly facilitated by image processing. Image processing of the digital backscatter data involves removal of noise by median filtering, spatial filtering to remove sonar scans of anomalous intensity, across-track corrections to remove beam patterns caused by nonuniform response of the sonar transducers to changes in incident angle, and contrast enhancement by histogram equalization to maximize the available dynamic range. Correct geologic interpretation requires submarine structural fabrics to be displayed in their proper locations and orientations. Geographic projection of sea-floor imagery is achieved by merging the enhanced imagery with the sonar vehicle navigation and correcting for vehicle attitude. Co-registration of bathymetry with sonar imagery introduces sea-floor relief and permits the imagery to be displayed in three-dimensional perspectives, furthering the ability of the marine geologist to infer the processes shaping formerly hidden subsea terrains.

  9. Demonstrating Acquisition of Real-Time Thermal Data Over Fires Utilizing UAVs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrosia, Vincent G.; Wegener, Steven S.; Brass, James A.; Buechel, Sally W.; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A disaster mitigation demonstration, designed to integrate remote-piloted aerial platforms, a thermal infrared imaging payload, over-the-horizon (OTH) data telemetry and advanced image geo-rectification technologies was initiated in 2001. Project FiRE incorporates the use of a remotely piloted Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV), thermal imagery, and over-the-horizon satellite data telemetry to provide geo-corrected data over a controlled burn, to a fire management community in near real-time. The experiment demonstrated the use of a thermal multi-spectral scanner, integrated on a large payload capacity UAV, distributing data over-the-horizon via satellite communication telemetry equipment, and precision geo-rectification of the resultant data on the ground for data distribution to the Internet. The use of the UAV allowed remote-piloted flight (thereby reducing the potential for loss of human life during hazardous missions), and the ability to "finger and stare" over the fire for extended periods of time (beyond the capabilities of human-pilot endurance). Improved bit-rate capacity telemetry capabilities increased the amount, structure, and information content of the image data relayed to the ground. The integration of precision navigation instrumentation allowed improved accuracies in geo-rectification of the resultant imagery, easing data ingestion and overlay in a GIS framework. We focus on these technological advances and demonstrate how these emerging technologies can be readily integrated to support disaster mitigation and monitoring strategies regionally and nationally.

  10. Forestry, geology and hydrological investigations from ERTS-1 imagery in two areas of Ecuador, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, N. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. In the Oriente area, well-drained forests containing commercially valuable hardwoods can be recognized confidently and delineated quickly on the ERTS imagery. In the tropical rainforest, ERTS can provide an abundance of inferential information about large scale geologic structures. ERTS imagery is better than normal aerial photography for recognizing linears. The imagery is particularly useful for updating maps of the distributary system of the Guagas River Basin and of any other river with a similarly rapid changing channel pattern.

  11. Applicability of ERTS-1 imagery to the study of suspended sediment and aquatic fronts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V.; Srna, R.; Treasure, W.; Otley, M.

    1973-01-01

    Imagery from three successful ERTS-1 passes over the Delaware Bay and Atlantic Coastal Region have been evaluated to determine visibility of aquatic features. Data gathered from ground truth teams before and during the overflights, in conjunction with aerial photographs taken at various altitudes, were used to interpret the imagery. The overpasses took place on August 16, October 10, 1972, and January 26, 1973, with cloud cover ranging from about zero to twenty percent. (I.D. Nos. 1024-15073, 1079-15133, and 1187-15140). Visual inspection, density slicing and multispectral analysis of the imagery revealed strong suspended sediment patterns and several distinct types of aquatic interfaces or frontal systems.

  12. Automatic Building Extraction and Roof Reconstruction in 3k Imagery Based on Line Segments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhn, A.; Tian, J.; Kurz, F.

    2016-06-01

    We propose an image processing workflow to extract rectangular building footprints using georeferenced stereo-imagery and a derivative digital surface model (DSM) product. The approach applies a line segment detection procedure to the imagery and subsequently verifies identified line segments individually to create a footprint on the basis of the DSM. The footprint is further optimized by morphological filtering. Towards the realization of 3D models, we decompose the produced footprint and generate a 3D point cloud from DSM height information. By utilizing the robust RANSAC plane fitting algorithm, the roof structure can be correctly reconstructed. In an experimental part, the proposed approach has been performed on 3K aerial imagery.

  13. A qualitative evaluation of Landsat imagery of Australian rangelands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graetz, R.D.; Carneggie, David M.; Hacker, R.; Lendon, C.; Wilcox, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    The capability of multidate, multispectral ERTS-1 imagery of three different rangeland areas within Australia was evaluated for its usefulness in preparing inventories of rangeland types, assessing on a broad scale range condition within these rangeland types, and assessing the response of rangelands to rainfall events over large areas. For the three divergent rangeland test areas, centered on Broken W, Alice Springs and Kalgoorlie, detailed interpretation of the imagery only partially satisfied the information requirements set. It was most useful in the Broken Hill area where fenceline contrasts in range condition were readily visible. At this and the other sites an overstorey of trees made interpretation difficult. Whilst the low resolution characteristics and the lack of stereoscopic coverage hindered interpretation it was felt that this type of imagery with its vast coverage, present low cost and potential for repeated sampling is a useful addition to conventional aerial photography for all rangeland types.

  14. AERIAL RADIOLOGICAL SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, A.E.

    1997-06-09

    Measuring terrestrial gamma radiation from airborne platforms has proved to be a useful method for characterizing radiation levels over large areas. Over 300 aerial radiological surveys have been carried out over the past 25 years including U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, commercial nuclear power plants, Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program/Uranium Mine Tailing Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP/UMTRAP) sites, nuclear weapons test sites, contaminated industrial areas, and nuclear accident sites. This paper describes the aerial measurement technology currently in use by the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) for routine environmental surveys and emergency response activities. Equipment, data-collection and -analysis methods, and examples of survey results are described.

  15. Heat flux measurement from thermal infrared imagery in low-flux fumarolic zones: Example of the Ty fault (La Soufrière de Guadeloupe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudin, Damien; Beauducel, François; Allemand, Pascal; Delacourt, Christophe; Finizola, Anthony

    2013-11-01

    Monitoring the geothermal flux of a dormant volcano is necessary both for hazard assessment and for studying hydrothermal systems. Heat from a magma body located at depth is transported by steam to the surface, where it is expelled in fumaroles if the heat flow exceeds 500 W/m2. If the heat flow is lower than 500 W/m2, steam mainly condensates in the soil close to surface and produces a thermal anomaly detectable at the surface. In this study, we propose a method to quantify low heat fluxes from temperature anomalies measured at the surface by a thermal infrared camera. Once corrected from the atmospheric and surface effects, thermal infrared images are used to compute (1) the excess of radiative flux, (2) the excess of sensible flux and (3) the steam flux from the soil to the atmosphere. These calculations require measurements of atmospheric parameters (temperature, wind velocity and humidity) and estimations of surface parameters (roughness and emissivity). This method has been tested on a low-flux fumarolic zone of the Soufrière volcano (Guadeloupe Island — Lesser Antilles), and compared to a flux estimation realized from the thermal gradient measurements into the soil. The two methods show a good agreement and a similar precision (267 ± 46 W/m2 for the thermal infrared method, and 275 ± 50 W/m2 for the vertical temperature gradient method), if surface roughness is well calibrated.

  16. Multistage, Multiband and sequential imagery to identify and quantify non-forest vegetation resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driscoll, R. S.

    1971-01-01

    Analysis and recognition processing of multispectral scanner imagery for plant community classification and interpretations of various film-filter-scale aerial photographs are reported. Data analyses and manuscript preparation of research on microdensitometry for plant community and component identification and remote estimates of biomass are included.

  17. Mapping Broom Snakeweed Through Image Analysis of Color-infrared Photography and Digital Imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted on a south Texas rangeland area to evaluate aerial color-infrared (CIR) photography and CIR digital imagery combined with unsupervised image analysis techniques to map broom snakeweed [Gutierrezia sarothrae (Pursh.) Britt. and Rusby]. Accuracy assessments performed on compute...

  18. Multisensor data fusion of remotely sensed imagery for crop field mapping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A wide variety of remote sensing data from airborne and satellite platforms is available for site-specific management in agricultural application and production. Aerial imaging system may offer less expensive and high spatial resolution imagery with Near Infra-Red, Red, Green and Blue spectral waveb...

  19. Prediction of senescent rangeland canopy structural attributes with airborne hyperspectral imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canopy structural and chemical data are needed for senescent, mixed-grass prairie landscapes in autumn, yet models driven by image data are lacking for rangelands dominated by non-photosynthetically active vegetation (NPV). Here, we report how aerial hyperspectral imagery might be modeled to predic...

  20. Imagery Integration Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calhoun, Tracy; Melendrez, Dave

    2014-01-01

    The Human Exploration Science Office (KX) provides leadership for NASA's Imagery Integration (Integration 2) Team, an affiliation of experts in the use of engineering-class imagery intended to monitor the performance of launch vehicles and crewed spacecraft in flight. Typical engineering imagery assessments include studying and characterizing the liftoff and ascent debris environments; launch vehicle and propulsion element performance; in-flight activities; and entry, landing, and recovery operations. Integration 2 support has been provided not only for U.S. Government spaceflight (e.g., Space Shuttle, Ares I-X) but also for commercial launch providers, such as Space Exploration Technologies Corporation (SpaceX) and Orbital Sciences Corporation, servicing the International Space Station. The NASA Integration 2 Team is composed of imagery integration specialists from JSC, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), who have access to a vast pool of experience and capabilities related to program integration, deployment and management of imagery assets, imagery data management, and photogrammetric analysis. The Integration 2 team is currently providing integration services to commercial demonstration flights, Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1), and the Space Launch System (SLS)-based Exploration Missions (EM)-1 and EM-2. EM-2 will be the first attempt to fly a piloted mission with the Orion spacecraft. The Integration 2 Team provides the customer (both commercial and Government) with access to a wide array of imagery options - ground-based, airborne, seaborne, or vehicle-based - that are available through the Government and commercial vendors. The team guides the customer in assembling the appropriate complement of imagery acquisition assets at the customer's facilities, minimizing costs associated with market research and the risk of purchasing inadequate assets. The NASA Integration 2 capability simplifies the process of securing one

  1. Auditory imagery: empirical findings.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Timothy L

    2010-03-01

    The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d) auditory imagery's relationship to perception and memory (detection, encoding, recall, mnemonic properties, phonological loop), and (e) individual differences in auditory imagery (in vividness, musical ability and experience, synesthesia, musical hallucinosis, schizophrenia, amusia) are considered. It is concluded that auditory imagery (a) preserves many structural and temporal properties of auditory stimuli, (b) can facilitate auditory discrimination but interfere with auditory detection, (c) involves many of the same brain areas as auditory perception, (d) is often but not necessarily influenced by subvocalization, (e) involves semantically interpreted information and expectancies, (f) involves depictive components and descriptive components, (g) can function as a mnemonic but is distinct from rehearsal, and (h) is related to musical ability and experience (although the mechanisms of that relationship are not clear). PMID:20192565

  2. Aerial thermography studies of power plant heated lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Villa-Aleman, E.

    2000-01-26

    Remote sensing temperature measurements of water bodies is complicated by the temperature differences between the true surface or skin water and the bulk water below. Weather conditions control the reduction of the skin temperature relative to the bulk water temperature. Typical skin temperature depressions range from a few tenths of a degree Celsius to more than one degree. In this research project, the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) used aerial thermography and surface-based meteorological and water temperature measurements to study a power plant cooling lake in South Carolina. Skin and bulk water temperatures were measured simultaneously for imagery calibration and to produce a database for modeling of skin temperature depressions as a function of weather and bulk water temperatures. This paper will present imagery that illustrates how the skin temperature depression was affected by different conditions in several locations on the lake and will present skin temperature modeling results.

  3. Synthesis of imagery with high spatial and spectral resolution from multiple image sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filiberti, Daniel P.; Marsh, Stuart E.; Schowengerdt, Robert A.

    1994-08-01

    We demonstrate how a realistic scene with high spatial and spectral resolution can be synthesized from color aerial photography and AVIRIS hyperspectral imagery. A review of techniques for image fusion is first presented. Image processing techniques were developed to extract a digital elevation model from stereo aerial photography in order to correct temporal shading differences between two image sets and to fuse aerial photography with AVIRIS imagery. A unique contribution is the explicit inclusion of corrections for topography and differing solar angles in fusion process. Color infrared photography and an AVIRIS image from a site near Cuprite, Nevada, were used as a test of an improved high-frequency modulation technique for the creation of hybrid images. Comparison of spectra extracted from the synthesized image with library spectra demonstrated that our methodology successfully preserved the spectral signatures of the ground surface.

  4. Organizing motor imageries.

    PubMed

    Hanakawa, Takashi

    2016-03-01

    Over the last few decades, motor imagery has attracted the attention of researchers as a prototypical example of 'embodied cognition' and also as a basis for neuro-rehabilitation and brain-machine interfaces. The current definition of motor imagery is widely accepted, but it is important to note that various abilities rather than a single cognitive entity are dealt with under a single term. Here, motor imagery has been characterized based on four factors: (1) motor control, (2) explicitness, (3) sensory modalities, and (4) agency. Sorting out these factors characterizing motor imagery may explain some discrepancies and variability in the findings from previous studies and will help to optimize a study design in accordance with the purpose of each study in the future. PMID:26602980

  5. MISR Field Campaign Imagery

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-07-23

      MISR Support of Field Campaigns Aerosol Arctic Research of the Composition of the ... Daily ARCTAS Aerosol Polar Imagery ​Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study ( GoMACCS ) ​July - ...

  6. Aerial Video Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    When Michael Henry wanted to start an aerial video service, he turned to Johnson Space Center for assistance. Two NASA engineers - one had designed and developed TV systems in Apollo, Skylab, Apollo- Soyuz and Space Shuttle programs - designed a wing-mounted fiberglass camera pod. Camera head and angles are adjustable, and the pod is shaped to reduce vibration. The controls are located so a solo pilot can operate the system. A microprocessor displays latitude, longitude, and bearing, and a GPS receiver provides position data for possible legal references. The service has been successfully utilized by railroads, oil companies, real estate companies, etc.

  7. Exploration applications of satellite imagery in mature basins - A summation

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Z. )

    1991-08-01

    A series of examples supported by surface and subsurface controls illustrates procedures used to integrate satellite imagery interpretation into a conventional exploration program, and the potential contribution of such an approach to the recognition of new hydrocarbon plays in mature basins. Integrated analysis of satellite imagery data consists of four major steps. The first step focuses on the recognition of style, trend, and timing of deformation of exposed structures located at the basin interior or around its margins. This information is obtained through an integrated analysis of satellite imagery data, stereo aerial photography, surface geological mapping, and field observations. The second step consists of integrating the satellite imagery with gravity and magnetic data to recognize obscured and/or buried structures. The third step involves the analysis of available seismic data which is specifically processes to enhance subtle basement topography in order to determine influences on reservoir quality. In the fourth step, subsurface structure, isopach, show, and pool maps derived from available well information are integrated into the structural interpretation. These four analytical steps are demonstrated with examples form the Powder River basin, Western Canada basin, Paris basin, and Central basin platform of west Texas. In all of these highly mature basins, it is easy to demonstrate that (1) hydrocarbon migration and accumulation was largely controlled by subtle basement structures, and (2) these structures can be detected through the integrated analysis of satellite imagery.

  8. FINDINGS ON THE USE OF LANDSAT-3 RETURN BEAM VIDICON IMAGERY FOR DETECTING LAND USE AND LAND COVER CHANGES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milazzo, Valerie A.

    1983-01-01

    The spatial resolution of imagery from the return beam vidicon (RBV) camera aboard the Landsat-3 satellite suggested that such data might prove useful in inspecting land use and land cover maps. In this study, a 1972 land use and land cover map derived from aerial photographs is compared with a 1978 Landsat RBV image to delineate areas of change. Findings indicate RBV imagery useful in establishing the fact of change and in identifying gross category changes.

  9. Comparison of ID performance using real and synthetic imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Eddie L.; Edwards, Timothy C.; Miller, Brian; Hodgkin, Van A.

    2002-07-01

    Recent experiments performed at the U.S. Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) provide significant insight into the validation of synthetic imagery for use in human perception experiments. This paper documents the procedures and results of target identification (ID) experiments using real and synthetic thermal imagery. Real imagery representing notional first generation and advanced scanning sensor systems was obtained. Parameters derived from the sensor data were used to generate synthetic imagery using the NVESD Paint the Night simulation. Both image sets were then used in a target identification experiment with trained human observers. Perception test results were analyzed and compared with metrics derived from the imagery. Several parameters missing from the original truth data were found to correlate with differences in the perception data. Synthetic data were regenerated using these additional parameters. A subsequent perception experiment confirmed the importance of these parameters, and a good match was obtained between real and synthetic imagery. While the techniques used in this series of experiments do not constitute a definitive method for validating synthetic imagery, they point to some important observations on validation. The main observation is that both target and local background characteristics must be sufficiently specified in the truth data in order to obtain good agreement between synthetic and real data. The paper concludes with suggestions as to the level of detail necessary for truth data when using synthetic imagery in perception experiments.

  10. Photogrammetry of the Viking Lander imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. S. C.; Schafer, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of photogrammetric mapping which uses Viking Lander photography as its basis is solved in two ways: (1) by converting the azimuth and elevation scanning imagery to the equivalent of a frame picture, using computerized rectification; and (2) by interfacing a high-speed, general-purpose computer to the analytical plotter employed, so that all correction computations can be performed in real time during the model-orientation and map-compilation process. Both the efficiency of the Viking Lander cameras and the validity of the rectification method have been established by a series of pre-mission tests which compared the accuracy of terrestrial maps compiled by this method with maps made from aerial photographs. In addition, 1:10-scale topographic maps of Viking Lander sites 1 and 2 having a contour interval of 1.0 cm have been made to test the rectification method.

  11. Infrared film for aerial photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, William H.

    1979-01-01

    Considerable interest has developed recently in the use of aerial photographs for agricultural management. Even the simplest hand-held aerial photographs, especially those taken with color infrared film, often provide information not ordinarily available through routine ground observation. When fields are viewed from above, patterns and variations become more apparent, often allowing problems to be spotted which otherwise may go undetected.

  12. AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY AND LEGAL APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aerial photographic interpretation is the process of examining objects on aerial photographs and determining their significance. t is often defined as both art and science because the process, and the quality of the derived information, is often a qualitative nature and much depe...

  13. Multiscale assessment of green leaf area in a semi-arid rangeland with a small unmanned aerial vehicle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spatial variability in green leaf cover of a western rangeland was studied by comparing field measurements on 50 m crossed transects to aerial and satellite imagery. The normalized difference vegetation index was calculated for multiple 2 cm resolution images collected over the field transects with ...

  14. Environmental studies of Iceland with ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. S., Jr.; Boovarsson, A.; Frioriksson, S.; Thorsteinsson, I.; Palmason, G.; Rist, S.; Saemundsson, K.; Sigtryggsson, H.; Thorarinsson, S.

    1974-01-01

    Imagery from the ERTS-1 satellite can be used to study geological and geophysical phenomena which are important in relation to Iceland's natural resources. Multispectral scanner (MSS) imagery can be used to map areas of altered ground, intense thermal emission, fallout from volcanic eruptions, lava flows, volcanic geomorphology, erosion or build-up of land, snow cover, the areal extent of glaciers and ice caps, etc. At least five distinct vegetation types and barren areas can be mapped using MSS false-color composites. Stereoscopic coverage of iceland by side-lapping ERTS imagery permits precise analysis of various natural phenomena.

  15. Measuring creative imagery abilities

    PubMed Central

    Jankowska, Dorota M.; Karwowski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Over the decades, creativity and imagination research developed in parallel, but they surprisingly rarely intersected. This paper introduces a new theoretical model of creative visual imagination, which bridges creativity and imagination research, as well as presents a new psychometric instrument, called the Test of Creative Imagery Abilities (TCIA), developed to measure creative imagery abilities understood in accordance with this model. Creative imagination is understood as constituted by three interrelated components: vividness (the ability to create images characterized by a high level of complexity and detail), originality (the ability to produce unique imagery), and transformativeness (the ability to control imagery). TCIA enables valid and reliable measurement of these three groups of abilities, yielding the general score of imagery abilities and at the same time making profile analysis possible. We present the results of nine studies on a total sample of more than 1700 participants, showing the factor structure of TCIA using confirmatory factor analysis, as well as provide data confirming this instrument's validity and reliability. The availability of TCIA for interested researchers may result in new insights and possibilities of integrating the fields of creativity and imagination science. PMID:26539140

  16. Measuring creative imagery abilities.

    PubMed

    Jankowska, Dorota M; Karwowski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Over the decades, creativity and imagination research developed in parallel, but they surprisingly rarely intersected. This paper introduces a new theoretical model of creative visual imagination, which bridges creativity and imagination research, as well as presents a new psychometric instrument, called the Test of Creative Imagery Abilities (TCIA), developed to measure creative imagery abilities understood in accordance with this model. Creative imagination is understood as constituted by three interrelated components: vividness (the ability to create images characterized by a high level of complexity and detail), originality (the ability to produce unique imagery), and transformativeness (the ability to control imagery). TCIA enables valid and reliable measurement of these three groups of abilities, yielding the general score of imagery abilities and at the same time making profile analysis possible. We present the results of nine studies on a total sample of more than 1700 participants, showing the factor structure of TCIA using confirmatory factor analysis, as well as provide data confirming this instrument's validity and reliability. The availability of TCIA for interested researchers may result in new insights and possibilities of integrating the fields of creativity and imagination science. PMID:26539140

  17. A temporal and ecological analysis of the Huntington Beach Wetlands through an unmanned aerial system remote sensing perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafiq, Talha

    Wetland monitoring and preservation efforts have the potential to be enhanced with advanced remote sensing acquisition and digital image analysis approaches. Progress in the development and utilization of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) as remote sensing platforms has offered significant spatial and temporal advantages over traditional aerial and orbital remote sensing platforms. Photogrammetric approaches to generate high spatial resolution orthophotos of UAV acquired imagery along with the UAV's low-cost and temporally flexible characteristics are explored. A comparative analysis of different spectral based land cover maps derived from imagery captured using UAV, satellite, and airplane platforms provide an assessment of the Huntington Beach Wetlands. This research presents a UAS remote sensing methodology encompassing data collection, image processing, and analysis in constructing spectral based land cover maps to augment the efforts of the Huntington Beach Wetlands Conservancy by assessing ecological and temporal changes at the Huntington Beach Wetlands.

  18. Ultramap v3 - a Revolution in Aerial Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitinger, B.; Sormann, M.; Zebedin, L.; Schachinger, B.; Hoefler, M.; Tomasi, R.; Lamperter, M.; Gruber, B.; Schiester, G.; Kobald, M.; Unger, M.; Klaus, A.; Bernoegger, S.; Karner, K.; Wiechert, A.; Ponticelli, M.; Gruber, M.

    2012-07-01

    In the last years, Microsoft has driven innovation in the aerial photogrammetry community. Besides the market leading camera technology, UltraMap has grown to an outstanding photogrammetric workflow system which enables users to effectively work with large digital aerial image blocks in a highly automated way. Best example is the project-based color balancing approach which automatically balances images to a homogeneous block. UltraMap V3 continues innovation, and offers a revolution in terms of ortho processing. A fully automated dense matching module strives for high precision digital surface models (DSMs) which are calculated either on CPUs or on GPUs using a distributed processing framework. By applying constrained filtering algorithms, a digital terrain model can be derived which in turn can be used for fully automated traditional ortho texturing. By having the knowledge about the underlying geometry, seamlines can be generated automatically by applying cost functions in order to minimize visual disturbing artifacts. By exploiting the generated DSM information, a DSMOrtho is created using the balanced input images. Again, seamlines are detected automatically resulting in an automatically balanced ortho mosaic. Interactive block-based radiometric adjustments lead to a high quality ortho product based on UltraCam imagery. UltraMap v3 is the first fully integrated and interactive solution for supporting UltraCam images at best in order to deliver DSM and ortho imagery.

  19. Mapping and Characterizing Selected Canopy Tree Species at the Angkor World Heritage Site in Cambodia Using Aerial Data

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Minerva; Evans, Damian; Tan, Boun Suy; Nin, Chan Samean

    2015-01-01

    At present, there is very limited information on the ecology, distribution, and structure of Cambodia’s tree species to warrant suitable conservation measures. The aim of this study was to assess various methods of analysis of aerial imagery for characterization of the forest mensuration variables (i.e., tree height and crown width) of selected tree species found in the forested region around the temples of Angkor Thom, Cambodia. Object-based image analysis (OBIA) was used (using multiresolution segmentation) to delineate individual tree crowns from very-high-resolution (VHR) aerial imagery and light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data. Crown width and tree height values that were extracted using multiresolution segmentation showed a high level of congruence with field-measured values of the trees (Spearman’s rho 0.782 and 0.589, respectively). Individual tree crowns that were delineated from aerial imagery using multiresolution segmentation had a high level of segmentation accuracy (69.22%), whereas tree crowns delineated using watershed segmentation underestimated the field-measured tree crown widths. Both spectral angle mapper (SAM) and maximum likelihood (ML) classifications were applied to the aerial imagery for mapping of selected tree species. The latter was found to be more suitable for tree species classification. Individual tree species were identified with high accuracy. Inclusion of textural information further improved species identification, albeit marginally. Our findings suggest that VHR aerial imagery, in conjunction with OBIA-based segmentation methods (such as multiresolution segmentation) and supervised classification techniques are useful for tree species mapping and for studies of the forest mensuration variables. PMID:25902148

  20. Mapping and characterizing selected canopy tree species at the Angkor World Heritage site in Cambodia using aerial data.

    PubMed

    Singh, Minerva; Evans, Damian; Tan, Boun Suy; Nin, Chan Samean

    2015-01-01

    At present, there is very limited information on the ecology, distribution, and structure of Cambodia's tree species to warrant suitable conservation measures. The aim of this study was to assess various methods of analysis of aerial imagery for characterization of the forest mensuration variables (i.e., tree height and crown width) of selected tree species found in the forested region around the temples of Angkor Thom, Cambodia. Object-based image analysis (OBIA) was used (using multiresolution segmentation) to delineate individual tree crowns from very-high-resolution (VHR) aerial imagery and light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data. Crown width and tree height values that were extracted using multiresolution segmentation showed a high level of congruence with field-measured values of the trees (Spearman's rho 0.782 and 0.589, respectively). Individual tree crowns that were delineated from aerial imagery using multiresolution segmentation had a high level of segmentation accuracy (69.22%), whereas tree crowns delineated using watershed segmentation underestimated the field-measured tree crown widths. Both spectral angle mapper (SAM) and maximum likelihood (ML) classifications were applied to the aerial imagery for mapping of selected tree species. The latter was found to be more suitable for tree species classification. Individual tree species were identified with high accuracy. Inclusion of textural information further improved species identification, albeit marginally. Our findings suggest that VHR aerial imagery, in conjunction with OBIA-based segmentation methods (such as multiresolution segmentation) and supervised classification techniques are useful for tree species mapping and for studies of the forest mensuration variables. PMID:25902148

  1. Imagery analysis and the need for standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Barbara G.

    2014-09-01

    While efforts within the optics community focus on the development of high-quality systems and data products, comparatively little attention is paid to their use. Our standards for verification and validation are high; but in some user domains, standards are either lax or do not exist at all. In forensic imagery analysis, for example, standards exist to judge image quality, but do not exist to judge the quality of an analysis. In litigation, a high quality analysis is by default the one performed by the victorious attorney's expert. This paper argues for the need to extend quality standards into the domain of imagery analysis, which is expected to increase in national visibility and significance with the increasing deployment of unmanned aerial vehicle—UAV, or "drone"—sensors in the continental U. S.. It argues that like a good radiometric calibration, made as independent of the calibrated instrument as possible, a good analysis should be subject to standards the most basic of which is the separation of issues of scientific fact from analysis results.

  2. AERIAL MEASURING SYSTEM IN JAPAN

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, Craig; Colton, David

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Agency’s Aerial Measuring System deployed personnel and equipment to partner with the U.S. Air Force in Japan to conduct multiple aerial radiological surveys. These were the first and most comprehensive sources of actionable information for U.S. interests in Japan and provided early confirmation to the government of Japan as to the extent of the release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Generation Station. Many challenges were overcome quickly during the first 48 hours; including installation and operation of Aerial Measuring System equipment on multiple U.S. Air Force Japan aircraft, flying over difficult terrain, and flying with talented pilots who were unfamiliar with the Aerial Measuring System flight patterns. These all combined to make for a dynamic and non-textbook situation. In addition, the data challenges of the multiple and on-going releases, and integration with the Japanese government to provide valid aerial radiological survey products that both military and civilian customers could use to make informed decisions, was extremely complicated. The Aerial Measuring System Fukushima response provided insight in addressing these challenges and gave way to an opportunity for the expansion of the Aerial Measuring System’s mission beyond the borders of the US.

  3. Ground-Cover Measurements: Assessing Correlation Among Aerial and Ground-Based Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, D. Terrance; Cox, Samuel E.; Meikle, Tim; Zuuring, Hans R.

    2008-12-01

    Wyoming’s Green Mountain Common Allotment is public land providing livestock forage, wildlife habitat, and unfenced solitude, amid other ecological services. It is also the center of ongoing debate over USDI Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM) adjudication of land uses. Monitoring resource use is a BLM responsibility, but conventional monitoring is inadequate for the vast areas encompassed in this and other public-land units. New monitoring methods are needed that will reduce monitoring costs. An understanding of data-set relationships among old and new methods is also needed. This study compared two conventional methods with two remote sensing methods using images captured from two meters and 100 meters above ground level from a camera stand (a ground, image-based method) and a light airplane (an aerial, image-based method). Image analysis used SamplePoint or VegMeasure software. Aerial methods allowed for increased sampling intensity at low cost relative to the time and travel required by ground methods. Costs to acquire the aerial imagery and measure ground cover on 162 aerial samples representing 9000 ha were less than 3000. The four highest correlations among data sets for bare ground—the ground-cover characteristic yielding the highest correlations (r)—ranged from 0.76 to 0.85 and included ground with ground, ground with aerial, and aerial with aerial data-set associations. We conclude that our aerial surveys are a cost-effective monitoring method, that ground with aerial data-set correlations can be equal to, or greater than those among ground-based data sets, and that bare ground should continue to be investigated and tested for use as a key indicator of rangeland health.

  4. Gypsy moth defoliation assessment: Forest defoliation in detectable from satellite imagery. [New England, New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, H. J. (Principal Investigator); Rohde, W. G.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery obtained over eastern Pennsylvania during July 1973, indicates that forest defoliation is detectable from satellite imagery and correlates well with aerial visual survey data. It now appears that two damage classes (heavy and moderate-light) and areas of no visible defoliation can be detected and mapped from properly prepared false composite imagery. In areas where maple is the dominant species or in areas of small woodlots interspersed with agricultural areas, detection and subsequent mapping is more difficult.

  5. Low-altitude aerial color digital photographic survey of the San Andreas Fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lynch, David K.; Hudnut, Kenneth W.; Dearborn, David S.P.

    2010-01-01

    Ever since 1858, when Gaspard-Félix Tournachon (pen name Félix Nadar) took the first aerial photograph (Professional Aerial Photographers Association 2009), the scientific value and popular appeal of such pictures have been widely recognized. Indeed, Nadar patented the idea of using aerial photographs in mapmaking and surveying. Since then, aerial imagery has flourished, eventually making the leap to space and to wavelengths outside the visible range. Yet until recently, the availability of such surveys has been limited to technical organizations with significant resources. Geolocation required extensive time and equipment, and distribution was costly and slow. While these situations still plague older surveys, modern digital photography and lidar systems acquire well-calibrated and easily shared imagery, although expensive, platform-specific software is sometimes still needed to manage and analyze the data. With current consumer-level electronics (cameras and computers) and broadband internet access, acquisition and distribution of large imaging data sets are now possible for virtually anyone. In this paper we demonstrate a simple, low-cost means of obtaining useful aerial imagery by reporting two new, high-resolution, low-cost, color digital photographic surveys of selected portions of the San Andreas fault in California. All pictures are in standard jpeg format. The first set of imagery covers a 92-km-long section of the fault in Kern and San Luis Obispo counties and includes the entire Carrizo Plain. The second covers the region from Lake of the Woods to Cajon Pass in Kern, Los Angeles, and San Bernardino counties (151 km) and includes Lone Pine Canyon soon after the ground was largely denuded by the Sheep Fire of October 2009. The first survey produced a total of 1,454 oblique digital photographs (4,288 x 2,848 pixels, average 6 Mb each) and the second produced 3,762 nadir images from an elevation of approximately 150 m above ground level (AGL) on the

  6. The Imagery-Creativity Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels-McGhee, Susan; Davis, Gary A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews historical highlights of the imagery-creativity connection, including early and contemporary accounts, along with notable examples of imagery in the creative process. It also looks at cross-modal imagery (synesthesia), a model of image-based creativity and the creative process, and implications for strengthening creativity by…

  7. Aerial surveys adjusted by ground surveys to estimate area occupied by black-tailed prairie dog colonies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sidle, John G.; Augustine, David J.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Miller, Sterling D.; Cully, Jack F., Jr.; Reading, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    Aerial surveys using line-intercept methods are one approach to estimate the extent of prairie dog colonies in a large geographic area. Although black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) construct conspicuous mounds at burrow openings, aerial observers have difficulty discriminating between areas with burrows occupied by prairie dogs (colonies) versus areas of uninhabited burrows (uninhabited colony sites). Consequently, aerial line-intercept surveys may overestimate prairie dog colony extent unless adjusted by an on-the-ground inspection of a sample of intercepts. We compared aerial line-intercept surveys conducted over 2 National Grasslands in Colorado, USA, with independent ground-mapping of known black-tailed prairie dog colonies. Aerial line-intercepts adjusted by ground surveys using a single activity category adjustment overestimated colonies by ≥94% on the Comanche National Grassland and ≥58% on the Pawnee National Grassland. We present a ground-survey technique that involves 1) visiting on the ground a subset of aerial intercepts classified as occupied colonies plus a subset of intercepts classified as uninhabited colony sites, and 2) based on these ground observations, recording the proportion of each aerial intercept that intersects a colony and the proportion that intersects an uninhabited colony site. Where line-intercept techniques are applied to aerial surveys or remotely sensed imagery, this method can provide more accurate estimates of black-tailed prairie dog abundance and trends

  8. Photocopy of aerial photograph, Pacific Air Industries, Flight 123V, June ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of aerial photograph, Pacific Air Industries, Flight 123V, June 29, 1960 (University of California, Santa Barbara, Map and Imagery Collection) PORTION OF IRVINE RANCH SHOWING SITE CA-2275-A IN LOWER LEFT QUADRANT AND SITE CA-2275-B IN UPPER RIGHT QUADRANT (see separate photograph index for 2275-B) - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  9. LDCM Preliminary Thermal Trades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert; Pagnutti, Mary; Blonski, Slawomir; Spruce, Joe

    2001-01-01

    The expected cost of adding thermal bands to the next generation Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) could be significant. This viewgraph presentation investigates both traditional cooled cross-track scanners and new architectures (cooled and uncooled) which could enable a low cost thermal capability. The presentation includes surveys of applications of Landsat thermal data and the architecture of thermal instruments. It also covers new thermal architecture sensor trades, ALI Architecture with Uncooled TIR Detectors, and simulated thermal imagery.

  10. Oblique Aerial Photography Tool for Building Inspection and Damage Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murtiyoso, A.; Remondino, F.; Rupnik, E.; Nex, F.; Grussenmeyer, P.

    2014-11-01

    Aerial photography has a long history of being employed for mapping purposes due to some of its main advantages, including large area imaging from above and minimization of field work. Since few years multi-camera aerial systems are becoming a practical sensor technology across a growing geospatial market, as complementary to the traditional vertical views. Multi-camera aerial systems capture not only the conventional nadir views, but also tilted images at the same time. In this paper, a particular use of such imagery in the field of building inspection as well as disaster assessment is addressed. The main idea is to inspect a building from four cardinal directions by using monoplotting functionalities. The developed application allows to measure building height and distances and to digitize man-made structures, creating 3D surfaces and building models. The realized GUI is capable of identifying a building from several oblique points of views, as well as calculates the approximate height of buildings, ground distances and basic vectorization. The geometric accuracy of the results remains a function of several parameters, namely image resolution, quality of available parameters (DEM, calibration and orientation values), user expertise and measuring capability.

  11. Unmanned aerial systems for photogrammetry and remote sensing: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colomina, I.; Molina, P.

    2014-06-01

    We discuss the evolution and state-of-the-art of the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) in the field of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (PaRS). UAS, Remotely-Piloted Aerial Systems, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles or simply, drones are a hot topic comprising a diverse array of aspects including technology, privacy rights, safety and regulations, and even war and peace. Modern photogrammetry and remote sensing identified the potential of UAS-sourced imagery more than thirty years ago. In the last five years, these two sister disciplines have developed technology and methods that challenge the current aeronautical regulatory framework and their own traditional acquisition and processing methods. Navety and ingenuity have combined off-the-shelf, low-cost equipment with sophisticated computer vision, robotics and geomatic engineering. The results are cm-level resolution and accuracy products that can be generated even with cameras costing a few-hundred euros. In this review article, following a brief historic background and regulatory status analysis, we review the recent unmanned aircraft, sensing, navigation, orientation and general data processing developments for UAS photogrammetry and remote sensing with emphasis on the nano-micro-mini UAS segment.

  12. Applications of Landsat imagery to a coastal inlet stability study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Y.-H.

    1981-01-01

    Polcyn and Lyzenga (1975) and Middleton and Barber (1976) have demonstrated that it is possible to correlate the radiance values of a multispectral imagery, such as Landsat imagery, with the depth related information. The present study is one more example of such an effort. Two sets of Landsat magnetic tape were obtained and displayed on the screen of an Image-100 computer. Spectral analysis was performed to produce various signatures, their extent, and location. Subsequent ground truth observations and measurements were gathered by means of hydrographic surveys and low altitude aerial photographs for interpretation and calibration of the Landsat data. Finally, a coastal engineering assessment based on the Landsat data was made. Recommendations regarding the navigational canal alignment and dredging practice are presented in the light of inlet stability.

  13. Height Gradient Approach for Occlusion Detection in Uav Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, H. C.; Habib, A. F.; Dal Poz, A. P.; Galo, M.

    2015-08-01

    The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) significantly increased in the last years. It is used for several different applications, such as mapping, publicity, security, natural disasters assistance, environmental monitoring, 3D building model generation, cadastral survey, etc. The imagery obtained by this kind of system has a great potential. To use these images in true orthophoto generation projects related to urban scenes or areas where buildings are present, it is important to consider the occlusion caused by surface height variation, platform attitude, and perspective projection. Occlusions in UAV imagery are usually larger than in conventional airborne dataset due to the low-altitude and excessive change in orientation due to the low-weight and wind effects during the flight mission. Therefore, this paper presents a method for occlusion detection together with some obtained results for images acquired by a UAV platform. The proposed method shows potential in occlusion detection and true orthophoto generation.

  14. Aerial-Photointerpretation of landslides along the Ohio and Mississippi rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Su, W.-J.; Stohr, C.

    2000-01-01

    A landslide inventory was conducted along the Ohio and Mississippi rivers in the New Madrid Seismic Zone of southern Illinois, between the towns of Olmsted and Chester, Illinois. Aerial photography and field reconnaissance identified 221 landslides of three types: rock/debris falls, block slides, and undifferentiated rotational/translational slides. Most of the landslides are small- to medium-size, ancient rotational/translational features partially ob-scured by vegetation and modified by weathering. Five imagery sources were interpreted for landslides: 1:250,000-scale side-looking airborne radar (SLAR); 1:40,000-scale, 1:20,000-scale, 1:6,000-scale, black and white aerial photography; and low altitude, oblique 35-mm color photography. Landslides were identified with three levels of confidence on the basis of distinguishing characteristics and ambiguous indicators. SLAR imagery permitted identification of a 520 hectare mega-landslide which would not have been identified on medium-scale aerial photography. The leaf-off, 35-mm color, oblique photography provided the best imagery for confident interpretation of detailed features needed for smaller landslides.

  15. Classification of wetlands vegetation using small scale color infrared imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, F. S. L.

    1975-01-01

    A classification system for Chesapeake Bay wetlands was derived from the correlation of film density classes and actual vegetation classes. The data processing programs used were developed by the Laboratory for the Applications of Remote Sensing. These programs were tested for their value in classifying natural vegetation, using digitized data from small scale aerial photography. Existing imagery and the vegetation map of Farm Creek Marsh were used to determine the optimal number of classes, and to aid in determining if the computer maps were a believable product.

  16. Modeling aerial refueling operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Allen B., III

    Aerial Refueling (AR) is the act of offloading fuel from one aircraft (the tanker) to another aircraft (the receiver) in mid flight. Meetings between tanker and receiver aircraft are referred to as AR events and are scheduled to: escort one or more receivers across a large body of water; refuel one or more receivers; or train receiver pilots, tanker pilots, and boom operators. In order to efficiently execute the Aerial Refueling Mission, the Air Mobility Command (AMC) of the United States Air Force (USAF) depends on computer models to help it make tanker basing decisions, plan tanker sorties, schedule aircraft, develop new organizational doctrines, and influence policy. We have worked on three projects that have helped AMC improve its modeling and decision making capabilities. Optimal Flight Planning. Currently Air Mobility simulation and optimization software packages depend on algorithms which iterate over three dimensional fuel flow tables to compute aircraft fuel consumption under changing flight conditions. When a high degree of fidelity is required, these algorithms use a large amount of memory and CPU time. We have modeled the rate of aircraft fuel consumption with respect to AC GrossWeight, Altitude and Airspeed. When implemented, this formula will decrease the amount of memory and CPU time needed to compute sortie fuel costs and cargo capacity values. We have also shown how this formula can be used in optimal control problems to find minimum costs flight plans. Tanker Basing Demand Mismatch Index. Since 1992, AMC has relied on a Tanker Basing/AR Demand Mismatch Index which aggregates tanker capacity and AR demand data into six regions. This index was criticized because there were large gradients along regional boundaries. Meanwhile tankers frequently cross regional boundaries to satisfy the demand for AR support. In response we developed continuous functions to score locations with respect to their proximity to demand for AR support as well as their

  17. A study of the effects of degraded imagery on tactical 3D model generation using structure-from-motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolick, Leslie; Harguess, Josh

    2016-05-01

    An emerging technology in the realm of airborne intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) systems is structure-from-motion (SfM), which enables the creation of three-dimensional (3D) point clouds and 3D models from two-dimensional (2D) imagery. There are several existing tools, such as VisualSFM and open source project OpenSfM, to assist in this process, however, it is well-known that pristine imagery is usually required to create meaningful 3D data from the imagery. In military applications, such as the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for surveillance operations, imagery is rarely pristine. Therefore, we present an analysis of structure-from-motion packages on imagery that has been degraded in a controlled manner.

  18. Circumpolar polynya characteristics in the Arctic between 2002/2003 and 2014/2015 as derived from MODIS thermal infrared imagery and ERA-Interim reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preußer, Andreas; Willmes, Sascha; Heinemann, Günther; Paul, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    In this pan-Arctic study, high-resolution MODIS thermal infrared satellite data are used to infer spatial and temporal characteristics of 16 prominent coastal polynya regions and leads over the entire Arctic basin. Thin-ice thickness distributions (≤ 20cm) are calculated from MODIS ice-surface temperatures swath-data (MOD/MYD29), combined with ECMWF ERA-Interim atmospheric reanalysis data in an energy balance model for the last 13 winter-seasons (2002/2003 to 2014/2015; November to March). From all available swath-data, (quasi-) daily thin-ice thickness composites are computed in order to derive valuable quantities such as polynya area and total thermodynamic ice production. Two different cloud-cover correction schemes are applied to account for cloud and data gaps in the MODIS composites. During the investigated period, the average total wintertime accumulated ice production in all 16 polynya regions is estimated with about 1481 ± 262 km³, plus an additional 65 ± 59 km³ if leads in the central Arctic Ocean are taken into consideration. The largest contributions originate from the Kara Sea region and the North Water polynya (both ~19%) as well as scattered smaller polynyas in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (all combined ~15%), while other well-known sites of polynya formation (Laptev Sea, Chukchi Sea) show smaller contributions with around 2-7%. Compared to another recently published pan-Arctic polynya study using coarser resolution passive microwave remote sensing data, our estimates are considerably larger due to distinct differences regarding the observed winter-period and applied polynya masks/reference areas. In addition, the use of high-resolution MODIS data increases the capability to resolve small scale (> 2km) thin-ice features such as leads, which therefore contribute to our ice production estimates. Despite the short record of 13 winter-seasons, positive trends in ice production can be detected for some regions of the eastern Arctic (most

  19. The high resolution topographic evolution of an active retrogressive thaw slump compiled from a decade of photography, ground surveys, laser scans and satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosby, B. T.; Barnhart, T. B.; Rowland, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing imagery has enables the temporal reconstruction of thermal erosion features including lakes, shorelines and hillslope failures in remote Arctic locations, yet these planar data limit analysis to lines and areas. This study explores the application of varying techniques to reconstruct the three dimensional evolution of a single thermal erosion feature using a mixture of opportunistic oblique photos, ground surveys and satellite imagery. At the Selawik River retrogressive thaw slump in northwest Alaska, a bush plane collected oblique aerial photos when the feature was first discovered in 2004 and in subsequent years. These images were recently processed via Structure from Motion to generate georeferenced point clouds for the years prior to the initiation of our research. High resolution ground surveys in 2007, 2009 and 2010 were completed using robotic total station. Terrestrial laser scans (TLS) were collected in the summers of 2011 and 2012. Analysis of stereo satellite imagery from 2012 and 2015 enable continued monitoring of the feature after ground campaigns ended. As accurate coregistraion between point clouds is vital to topographic change detection, all prior and subsequent datasets were georeferenced to stable features observed in the 2012 TLS scan. Though this coregistration introduces uncertainty into each image, the magnitudes of uncertainty are significantly smaller than the topographic changes detected. Upslope retreat of the slump headwall generally decreases over time as the slump floor progresses from a highly dissected gully topography to a low relief, earthflow dominated depositional plane. The decreasing slope of the slump floor diminishes transport capacity, resulting in the progressive burial of the slump headwall, thus decreasing headwall retreat rates. This self-regulation of slump size based on feature relief and transport capacity suggests a capacity to predict the maximum size a given feature can expand to before

  20. Optimizing view/illumination geometry for terrestrial features using Space Shuttle and aerial polarimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israel, Steven A.; Holly, Mark H.; Whitehead, Victor S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes to relationship of polarimetric observations from orbital and aerial platforms and the determination optimum sun-target-sensor geometry. Polarimetric observations were evaluated for feature discrimination. The Space Shuttle experiment was performed using two boresighted Hasselblad 70 mm cameras with identical settings with linear polarizing filters aligned orthogonally about the optic axis. The aerial experiment was performed using a single 35 mm Nikon FE2 and rotating the linear polarizing filter 90 deg to acquire both minimum and maximum photographs. Characteristic curves were created by covertype and waveband for both aerial and Space Shuttle imagery. Though significant differences existed between the two datasets, the observed polarimetric signatures were unique and separable.

  1. Digital reproduction of historical aerial photographic prints for preserving a deteriorating archive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luman, D.E.; Stohr, C.; Hunt, L.

    1997-01-01

    Aerial photography from the 1920s and 1930s is a unique record of historical information used by government agencies, surveyors, consulting scientists and engineers, lawyers, and individuals for diverse purposes. Unfortunately, the use of the historical aerial photographic prints has resulted in their becoming worn, lost, and faded. Few negatives exist for the earliest photography. A pilot project demonstrated that high-quality, precision scanning of historical aerial photography is an appealing alternative to traditional methods for reproduction. Optimum sampling rate varies from photograph to photograph, ranging between 31 and 42 ??m/pixel for the USDA photographs tested. Inclusion of an index, such as a photomosaic or gazetteer, and ability to view the imagery promptly upon request are highly desirable.

  2. Sediment Sampling in Estuarine Mudflats with an Aerial-Ground Robotic Team.

    PubMed

    Deusdado, Pedro; Guedes, Magno; Silva, André; Marques, Francisco; Pinto, Eduardo; Rodrigues, Paulo; Lourenço, André; Mendonça, Ricardo; Santana, Pedro; Corisco, José; Almeida, Susana Marta; Portugal, Luís; Caldeira, Raquel; Barata, José; Flores, Luis

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a robotic team suited for bottom sediment sampling and retrieval in mudflats, targeting environmental monitoring tasks. The robotic team encompasses a four-wheel-steering ground vehicle, equipped with a drilling tool designed to be able to retain wet soil, and a multi-rotor aerial vehicle for dynamic aerial imagery acquisition. On-demand aerial imagery, properly fused on an aerial mosaic, is used by remote human operators for specifying the robotic mission and supervising its execution. This is crucial for the success of an environmental monitoring study, as often it depends on human expertise to ensure the statistical significance and accuracy of the sampling procedures. Although the literature is rich on environmental monitoring sampling procedures, in mudflats, there is a gap as regards including robotic elements. This paper closes this gap by also proposing a preliminary experimental protocol tailored to exploit the capabilities offered by the robotic system. Field trials in the south bank of the river Tagus' estuary show the ability of the robotic system to successfully extract and transport bottom sediment samples for offline analysis. The results also show the efficiency of the extraction and the benefits when compared to (conventional) human-based sampling. PMID:27618060

  3. The Potential of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Large Scale Mapping of Coastal Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darwin, N.; Ahmad, A.; Zainon, O.

    2014-02-01

    Many countries in the tropical region are covered with cloud for most of the time, hence, it is difficult to get clear images especially from high resolution satellite imagery. Aerial photogrammetry can be used but most of the time the cloud problem still exists. Today, this problem could be solved using a system known as unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) where the aerial images can be acquired at low altitude and the system can fly under the cloud. The UAV system could be used in various applications including mapping coastal area. The UAV system is equipped with an autopilot system and automatic method known as autonomous flying that can be utilized for data acquisition. To achieve high resolution imagery, a compact digital camera of high resolution was used to acquire the aerial images at an altitude. In this study, the UAV system was employed to acquire aerial images of a coastal simulation model at low altitude. From the aerial images, photogrammetric image processing was executed to produce photogrammetric outputs such a digital elevation model (DEM), contour line and orthophoto. In this study, ground control point (GCP) and check point (CP) were established using conventional ground surveying method (i.e total station). The GCP is used for exterior orientation in photogrammetric processes and CP for accuracy assessment based on Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). From this study, it was found that the UAV system can be used for large scale mapping of coastal simulation model with accuracy at millimeter level. It is anticipated that the same system could be used for large scale mapping of real coastal area and produces good accuracy. Finally, the UAV system has great potential to be used for various applications that require accurate results or products at limited time and less man power.

  4. Overall evaluation of LANDSAT (ERTS) follow on imagery for cartographic application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colvocoresses, A. P. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. LANDSAT imagery can be operationally applied to the revision of nautical charts. The imagery depicts shallow seas in a form that permits accurate planimetric image mapping of features to 20 meters of depth where the conditions of water clarity and bottom reflection are suitable. LANDSAT data also provide an excellent simulation of the earth's surface, for such applications as aeronautical charting and radar image correlation in aircraft and aircraft simulators. Radiometric enhancement, particularly edge enhancement, a technique only marginally successful with aerial photographs has proved to be high value when applied to LANDSAT data.

  5. Edge-Based Registration for Airborne Imagery and LIDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L. C.; Lo, C. Y.

    2012-07-01

    Aerial imagery and LIDAR points are two important data sources for building reconstruction in a geospatial area. Aerial imagery implies building contours with planimetric features; LIDAR data explicitly represent building geometries using three-dimensional discrete point clouds. Data integration may take advantage of merits from two data sources in building reconstruction and change detection. However, heterogeneous data may contain a relative displacement because of different sensors and the capture time. To reduce this displacement, data registration should be an essential step. Therefore, this investigation proposes an edge-based approach to register these two data sets in three parts: (1) data preprocessing; (2) feature detection; and (3) data registration. The first step rasterizes laser point clouds into a pseudo-grid digital surface model (PDSM), which describes the relief with the original elevation information. The second step implements topological analyses to detect image edges and three-dimensional structure lines from the aerial image and PDSM. These detected features provide the initial positions of building shapes for registration. The third part registers these two data sets in Hough space to compensate for the displacement. Because each building may have prominent geometric structures, the proposed scheme transforms these two groups of edges, and estimates the correspondence by the Hough distribution. The following procedure then iteratively compares two groups of Hough patterns, which are from an aerial image and LIDAR data. This iterative procedure stops when the displacement is within a threshold. The test area is located in Taipei City, Taiwan. DMC system captured the aerial image with 18-cm spatial resolution. The LIDAR data were scanned with a 10-point density per square meter using the Leica ALS50 system. This study proposed a 50 cm spatial resolution of PDSM, which is slightly larger than the point spacing. The experiment selected two

  6. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  7. Mapping Urban Ecosystem Services Using High Resolution Aerial Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilant, A. N.; Neale, A.; Wilhelm, D.

    2010-12-01

    Ecosystem services (ES) are the many life-sustaining benefits we receive from nature: e.g., clean air and water, food and fiber, cultural-aesthetic-recreational benefits, pollination and flood control. The ES concept is emerging as a means of integrating complex environmental and economic information to support informed environmental decision making. The US EPA is developing a web-based National Atlas of Ecosystem Services, with a component for urban ecosystems. Currently, the only wall-to-wall, national scale land cover data suitable for this analysis is the National Land Cover Data (NLCD) at 30 m spatial resolution with 5 and 10 year updates. However, aerial photography is acquired at higher spatial resolution (0.5-3 m) and more frequently (1-5 years, typically) for most urban areas. Land cover was mapped in Raleigh, NC using freely available USDA National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP) with 1 m ground sample distance to test the suitability of aerial photography for urban ES analysis. Automated feature extraction techniques were used to extract five land cover classes, and an accuracy assessment was performed using standard techniques. Results will be presented that demonstrate applications to mapping ES in urban environments: greenways, corridors, fragmentation, habitat, impervious surfaces, dark and light pavement (urban heat island). Automated feature extraction results mapped over NAIP color aerial photograph. At this scale, we can look at land cover and related ecosystem services at the 2-10 m scale. Small features such as individual trees and sidewalks are visible and mappable. Classified aerial photo of Downtown Raleigh NC Red: impervious surface Dark Green: trees Light Green: grass Tan: soil

  8. A thermal scanning study of coastal upwelling in Lake Superior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarpace, F. L.; Green, T., III; Madding, R. P.

    1979-01-01

    The use of a thermal scanner to monitor the time evolution of the thermal structure of the coastal waters in Lake Superior during an upwelling event is described. Mosaics of thermal imagery from ten different times are described. Qualitative descriptions of the imagery give insight into the upwelling event. Recommendations for future use of a thermal scanner to monitor an upwelling event are discussed.

  9. Reconstructing Holocene Glacier Changes in West Greenland From Multispectral ASTER Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, K.; Csatho, B.; van der Veen, C. J.; Ahn, Y.

    2006-12-01

    To understand the mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet and to identify mechanisms controlling that balance and Greenland's contribution to future changes in global sea level, it is crucial to construct longer temporal records, reaching back to the Little Ice Age (LIA) or beyond. The primary objectives of this project are to develop procedures for mapping glacial trimlines, marking maximum glacier extent during the LIA, and terminal moraines indicating earlier advanced terminus positions, in central west Greenland using multispectral ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) images. The motivation for using satellite imagery for mapping glacial-geological features is the greater spatial coverage that can be achieved, as opposed to the traditional method of field mapping in restricted areas. ASTER imagery provides spectral bands spanning from the visible to the thermal infrared bands, including two stereo bands, enabling us to map the spectral properties of the Earth's surface as well as to obtain surface topography. This poster presents examples of mapping the 3D shapes of glacial geomorphological features using supervised classification, visual interpretation and advanced pattern recognition methods, and results of the volume change computation and interpretation, focusing on the Jakobshavn drainage basin. For trimline mapping, a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was generated from the stereo bands of the same data set, followed by orthorectification using Ground Control Points (GCPs) and checkpoints extracted from stereo aerial photographs and digital maps. Surface reflectance was estimated from the raw DN values by applying the Empirical Line Correction model for atmospheric effects. Maximum likelihood classification, in supervised mode, was applied to distinguish different land cover types. Classification of the ASTER image with nine non-thermal bands provides a good discrimination between the exposed fresh rock surfaces, moraines of

  10. Aerial camera auto focusing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuan; Lan, Gongpu; Gao, Xiaodong; Liang, Wei

    2012-10-01

    Before the aerial photographic task, the cameras focusing work should be performed at first to compensate the defocus caused by the changes of the temperature, pressure etc. A new method of aerial camera auto focusing is proposed through traditional photoelectric self-collimation combined with image processing method. Firstly, the basic principles of optical self-collimation and image processing are introduced. Secondly, the limitations of the two are illustrated and the benefits of the new method are detailed. Then the basic principle, the system composition and the implementation of this new method are presented. Finally, the data collection platform is set up reasonably and the focus evaluation function curve is draw. The results showed that: the method can be used in the Aerial camera focusing field, adapt to the aviation equipment trends of miniaturization and lightweight .This paper is helpful to the further work of accurate and automatic focusing.

  11. Preliminary Results from the Portable Imagery Quality Assessment Test Field (PIQuAT) of Uav Imagery for Imagery Reconnaissance Purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabrowski, R.; Orych, A.; Jenerowicz, A.; Walczykowski, P.

    2015-08-01

    The article presents a set of initial results of a quality assessment study of 2 different types of sensors mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle, carried out over an especially designed and constructed test field. The PIQuAT (Portable Imagery Quality Assessment Test Field) field had been designed especially for the purposes of determining the quality parameters of UAV sensors, especially in terms of the spatial, spectral and radiometric resolutions and chosen geometric aspects. The sensor used include a multispectral framing camera and a high-resolution RGB sensor. The flights were conducted from a number of altitudes ranging from 10 m to 200 m above the test field. Acquiring data at a number of different altitudes allowed the authors to evaluate the obtained results and check for possible linearity of the calculated quality assessment parameters. The radiometric properties of the sensors were evaluated from images of the grayscale target section of the PIQuAT field. The spectral resolution of the imagery was determined based on a number of test samples with known spectral reflectance curves. These reference spectral reflectance curves were then compared with spectral reflectance coefficients at the wavelengths registered by the miniMCA camera. Before conducting all of these experiments in field conditions, the interior orientation parameters were calculated for the MiniMCA and RGB sensor in laboratory conditions. These parameters include: the actual pixel size on the detector, distortion parameters, calibrated focal length (CFL) and the coordinates of the principal point of autocollimation (miniMCA - for each of the six channels separately.

  12. Kinesthetic imagery of musical performance.

    PubMed

    Lotze, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Musicians use different kinds of imagery. This review focuses on kinesthetic imagery, which has been shown to be an effective complement to actively playing an instrument. However, experience in actual movement performance seems to be a requirement for a recruitment of those brain areas representing movement ideation during imagery. An internal model of movement performance might be more differentiated when training has been more intense or simply performed more often. Therefore, with respect to kinesthetic imagery, these strategies are predominantly found in professional musicians. There are a few possible reasons as to why kinesthetic imagery is used in addition to active training; one example is the need for mental rehearsal of the technically most difficult passages. Another reason for mental practice is that mental rehearsal of the piece helps to improve performance if the instrument is not available for actual training as is the case for professional musicians when they are traveling to various appearances. Overall, mental imagery in musicians is not necessarily specific to motor, somatosensory, auditory, or visual aspects of imagery, but integrates them all. In particular, the audiomotor loop is highly important, since auditory aspects are crucial for guiding motor performance. All these aspects result in a distinctive representation map for the mental imagery of musical performance. This review summarizes behavioral data, and findings from functional brain imaging studies of mental imagery of musical performance. PMID:23781196

  13. Dynamics of aerial target pursuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, S.

    2015-12-01

    During pursuit and predation, aerial species engage in multitasking behavior that involve simultaneous target detection, tracking, decision-making, approach and capture. The mobility of the pursuer and the target in a three dimensional environment during predation makes the capture task highly complex. Many researchers have studied and analyzed prey capture dynamics in different aerial species such as insects and bats. This article focuses on reviewing the capture strategies adopted by these species while relying on different sensory variables (vision and acoustics) for navigation. In conclusion, the neural basis of these capture strategies and some applications of these strategies in bio-inspired navigation and control of engineered systems are discussed.

  14. A Methodological Intercomparison of Topographic and Aerial Photographic Habitat Survey Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangen, S. G.; Wheaton, J. M.; Bouwes, N.

    2011-12-01

    A severe decline in Columbia River salmonid populations and subsequent Federal listing of subpopulations has mandated both the monitoring of populations and evaluation of the status of available habitat. Numerous field and analytical methods exist to assist in the quantification of the abundance and quality of in-stream habitat for salmonids. These methods range from field 'stick and tape' surveys to spatially explicit topographic and aerial photographic surveys from a mix of ground-based and remotely sensed airborne platforms. Although several previous studies have assessed the quality of specific individual survey methods, the intercomparison of competing techniques across a diverse range of habitat conditions (wadeable headwater channels to non-wadeable mainstem channels) has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we seek to enumerate relative quality (i.e. accuracy, precision, extent) of habitat metrics and inventories derived from an array of ground-based and remotely sensed surveys of varying degrees of sophistication, as well as quantify the effort and cost in conducting the surveys. Over the summer of 2010, seven sample reaches of varying habitat complexity were surveyed in the Lemhi River Basin, Idaho, USA. Complete topographic surveys were attempted at each site using rtkGPS, total station, ground-based LiDaR and traditional airborne LiDaR. Separate high spatial resolution aerial imagery surveys were acquired using a tethered blimp, a drone UAV, and a traditional fixed-wing aircraft. Here we also developed a relatively simplistic methodology for deriving bathymetry from aerial imagery that could be readily employed by instream habitat monitoring programs. The quality of bathymetric maps derived from aerial imagery was compared with rtkGPS topographic data. The results are helpful for understanding the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches in specific conditions, and how a hybrid of data acquisition methods can be used to build a more complete

  15. Identification of irrigated crop types from ERTS-1 density contour maps and color infrared aerial photography. [Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrs, R. W.; Evans, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The crop types of a Great Plains study area were mapped from color infrared aerial photography. Each field was positively identified from field checks in the area. Enlarged (50x) density contour maps were constructed from three ERTS-1 images taken in the summer of 1973. The map interpreted from the aerial photography was compared to the density contour maps and the accuracy of the ERTS-1 density contour map interpretations were determined. Changes in the vegetation during the growing season and harvest periods were detectable on the ERTS-1 imagery. Density contouring aids in the detection of such charges.

  16. Airborne Hyperspectral Imagery for the Detection of Agricultural Crop Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassady, Philip E.; Perry, Eileen M.; Gardner, Margaret E.; Roberts, Dar A.

    2001-01-01

    Multispectral digital imagery from aircraft or satellite is presently being used to derive basic assessments of crop health for growers and others involved in the agricultural industry. Research indicates that narrow band stress indices derived from hyperspectral imagery should have improved sensitivity to provide more specific information on the type and cause of crop stress, Under funding from the NASA Earth Observation Commercial Applications Program (EOCAP) we are identifying and evaluating scientific and commercial applications of hyperspectral imagery for the remote characterization of agricultural crop stress. During the summer of 1999 a field experiment was conducted with varying nitrogen treatments on a production corn-field in eastern Nebraska. The AVIRIS (Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer) hyperspectral imager was flown at two critical dates during crop development, at two different altitudes, providing images with approximately 18m pixels and 3m pixels. Simultaneous supporting soil and crop characterization included spectral reflectance measurements above the canopy, biomass characterization, soil sampling, and aerial photography. In this paper we describe the experiment and results, and examine the following three issues relative to the utility of hyperspectral imagery for scientific study and commercial crop stress products: (1) Accuracy of reflectance derived stress indices relative to conventional measures of stress. We compare reflectance-derived indices (both field radiometer and AVIRIS) with applied nitrogen and with leaf level measurement of nitrogen availability and chlorophyll concentrations over the experimental plots (4 replications of 5 different nitrogen levels); (2) Ability of the hyperspectral sensors to detect sub-pixel areas under crop stress. We applied the stress indices to both the 3m and 18m AVIRIS imagery for the entire production corn field using several sub-pixel areas within the field to compare the relative

  17. AERIAL OF VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING & SURROUNDING AREA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    AERIAL OF VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING & SURROUNDING AREA KSC-377C-0082.41 116-KSC-377C-82.41, P-15877, ARCHIVE-04151 Aerial view - Shuttle construction progress - VAB and Orbiter Processing Facilities - direction northwest.

  18. Assessing the Impacts of US Landfall Hurricanes in 2012 using Aerial Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevington, John S.

    2013-04-01

    Remote sensing has become a widely-used technology for assessing and evaluating the extent and severity of impacts of natural disasters worldwide. Optical and radar data collected by air- and space-borne sensors have supported humanitarian and economic decision-making for over a decade. Advances in image spatial resolution and pre-processing speeds have meant images with centimetre spatial resolution are now available for analysis within hours following severe disaster events. This paper offers a retrospective view on recent large-scale responses to two of the major storms from the 2012 Atlantic hurricane season: Hurricane Isaac and post-tropical cyclone ("superstorm") Sandy. Although weak on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane wind scale, these slow-moving storms produced intense rainfall and coastal storm surges in the order of several metres in the Louisiana and Mississippi Gulf Coast (Isaac), and the Atlantic Seaboard (Sandy) of the United States. Data were generated for both events through interpretation of a combination of two types of aerial imagery: high spatial resolution optical imagery captured by fixed aerial sensors deployed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and digital single lens reflex (DSLR) images captured by volunteers from the US Civil Air Patrol (CAP). Imagery for these events were collected over a period of days following the storms' landfall in the US, with availability of aerial data far outweighing the sub-metre satellite imagery. The imagery described were collected as vertical views (NOAA) and oblique views (CAP) over the whole affected coastal and major riverine areas. A network of over 150 remote sensing experts systematically and manually processed images through visual interpretation, culminating in hundreds of thousands of individual properties identified as damaged or destroyed by wind or surge. A discussion is presented on the challenges of responding at such a fine level of spatial granularity for coastal

  19. Aerial view of Launch Complex 39

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In this aerial view looking south can be seen Launch Complex (LC) 39 area, where assembly, checkout and launch of the Space Shuttle Orbiter and its External Tank and twin Solid Rocket Boosters take place. Central to the complex is the tallest building at the center, the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). To the immediate left, from top to bottom, are the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) High Bay 3 and new engine shop (north side), OPF Modular Office Building, Thermal Protection System Facility, and a crawler-transporter (to its left). In front of the VAB are OPF 1 and OPF 2. At right is the Processing Control Center. West of OPF 3 is the Mobile Launch Platform. In the upper left corner is Launch Pad B; at the far right is the turn basin, with the Press Site located just below it to the right.

  20. Standardized rendering from IR surveillance motion imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokoski, F. J.

    2014-06-01

    Government agencies, including defense and law enforcement, increasingly make use of video from surveillance systems and camera phones owned by non-government entities.Making advanced and standardized motion imaging technology available to private and commercial users at cost-effective prices would benefit all parties. In particular, incorporating thermal infrared into commercial surveillance systems offers substantial benefits beyond night vision capability. Face rendering is a process to facilitate exploitation of thermal infrared surveillance imagery from the general area of a crime scene, to assist investigations with and without cooperating eyewitnesses. Face rendering automatically generates greyscale representations similar to police artist sketches for faces in surveillance imagery collected from proximate locations and times to a crime under investigation. Near-realtime generation of face renderings can provide law enforcement with an investigation tool to assess witness memory and credibility, and integrate reports from multiple eyewitnesses, Renderings can be quickly disseminated through social media to warn of a person who may pose an immediate threat, and to solicit the public's help in identifying possible suspects and witnesses. Renderings are pose-standardized so as to not divulge the presence and location of eyewitnesses and surveillance cameras. Incorporation of thermal infrared imaging into commercial surveillance systems will significantly improve system performance, and reduce manual review times, at an incremental cost that will continue to decrease. Benefits to criminal justice would include improved reliability of eyewitness testimony and improved accuracy of distinguishing among minority groups in eyewitness and surveillance identifications.

  1. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... lift, except in case of emergency. (x) Climbers shall not be worn while performing work from an aerial... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aerial lifts. 1926.453 Section 1926.453 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Scaffolds § 1926.453 Aerial lifts. (a)...

  2. Interactive projection for aerial dance using depth sensing camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubnov, Tammuz; Seldess, Zachary; Dubnov, Shlomo

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes an interactive performance system for oor and Aerial Dance that controls visual and sonic aspects of the presentation via a depth sensing camera (MS Kinect). In order to detect, measure and track free movement in space, 3 degree of freedom (3-DOF) tracking in space (on the ground and in the air) is performed using IR markers. Gesture tracking and recognition is performed using a simpli ed HMM model that allows robust mapping of the actor's actions to graphics and sound. Additional visual e ects are achieved by segmentation of the actor body based on depth information, allowing projection of separate imagery on the performer and the backdrop. Artistic use of augmented reality performance relative to more traditional concepts of stage design and dramaturgy are discussed.

  3. Aerial detection of leaf senescence for a geobotanical study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwaller, M.; Tkach, S. J.

    1986-01-01

    A geobotanical investigation based on the detection of premature leaf senescence was conducted in an area of predominantly chalcocite mineralization of the Keweenaw Peninsula in Michigan's Upper Peninsula. Spectrophotometric measurements indicated that the region from 600 to 700 nm captures the rise in red reflectance characteristic of senescent leaves. Observations at other wavelengths do not distinguish between senescent and green leaves as clearly and unequivocably as observations at these wavelengths. Small format black and white aerial photographs filtered for the red band (600 to 700 nm) and Thematic Mapper Simulator imagery were collected during the period of fall senescence in the study area. Soil samples were collected from two areas identified by leaf senescence and from two additional sites where the leaf canopy was still green. Geochemical analysis revealed that the sites characterized by premature leaf senescence had a significantly higher median soil copper concentration than the other two areas.

  4. Imagery of pineal tumors.

    PubMed

    Deiana, G; Mottolese, C; Hermier, M; Louis-Tisserand, G; Berthezene, Y

    2015-01-01

    Pineal tumors are rare and include a large variety of entities. Germ cell tumors are relatively frequent and often secreting lesions. Pineal parenchymal tumors include pineocytomas, pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation, pineoblastomas and papillary tumors of the pineal region. Other lesions including astrocytomas and meningiomas as well as congenital malformations i.e. benign cysts, lipomas, epidermoid and dermoid cysts, which can also arise from the pineal region. Imagery is often non-specific but detailed analysis of the images compared with the hormone profile can narrow the spectrum of possible diagnosis. PMID:25676911

  5. The use of historical imagery in the remediation of an urban hazardous waste site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slonecker, E.T.

    2011-01-01

    The information derived from the interpretation of historical aerial photographs is perhaps the most basic multitemporal application of remote-sensing data. Aerial photographs dating back to the early 20th century can be extremely valuable sources of historical landscape activity. In this application, imagery from 1918 to 1927 provided a wealth of information about chemical weapons testing, storage, handling, and disposal of these hazardous materials. When analyzed by a trained photo-analyst, the 1918 aerial photographs resulted in 42 features of potential interest. When compared with current remedial activities and known areas of contamination, 33 of 42 or 78.5% of the features were spatially correlated with areas of known contamination or other remedial hazardous waste cleanup activity.

  6. Reconnaissance mapping from aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeden, H. A.; Bolling, N. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Engineering soil and geology maps were successfully made from Pennsylvania aerial photographs taken at scales from 1:4,800 to 1:60,000. The procedure involved a detailed study of a stereoscopic model while evaluating landform, drainage, erosion, color or gray tones, tone and texture patterns, vegetation, and cultural or land use patterns.

  7. Mapping Forest Edge Using Aerial Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLean, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    Slightly more than 60% of Massachusetts is covered with forest and this land cover type is invaluable for the protection and maintenance of our natural resources and is a carbon sink for the state. However, Massachusetts is currently experiencing a decline in forested lands, primarily due to the expansion of human development (Thompson et al., 2011). Of particular concern is the loss of "core areas" or the areas within forests that are not influenced by other land cover types. These areas are of significant importance to native flora and fauna, since they generally are not subject to invasion by exotic species and are more resilient to the effects of climate change (Campbell et al., 2009). However, the expansion of development has reduced the amount of this core area, but the exact amount is still unknown. Current methods of estimating core area are not particularly precise, since edge, or the area of the forest that is most influenced by other land cover types, is quite variable and situation dependent. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to devise a new method for identifying areas that could qualify as "edge" within the Harvard Forest, in Petersham MA, using new remote sensing techniques. We sampled along eight transects perpendicular to the edge of an abandoned golf course within the Harvard Forest property. Vegetation inventories as well as Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) at different heights within the canopy were used to determine edge depth. These measurements were then compared with small-footprint waveform aerial LiDAR datasets and imagery to model edge depths within Harvard Forest.

  8. Automated Verification of Spatial Resolution in Remotely Sensed Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bruce; Ryan, Robert; Holekamp, Kara; Vaughn, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Image spatial resolution characteristics can vary widely among sources. In the case of aerial-based imaging systems, the image spatial resolution characteristics can even vary between acquisitions. In these systems, aircraft altitude, speed, and sensor look angle all affect image spatial resolution. Image spatial resolution needs to be verified with estimators that include the ground sample distance (GSD), the modulation transfer function (MTF), and the relative edge response (RER), all of which are key components of image quality, along with signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and dynamic range. Knowledge of spatial resolution parameters is important to determine if features of interest are distinguishable in imagery or associated products, and to develop image restoration algorithms. An automated Spatial Resolution Verification Tool (SRVT) was developed to rapidly determine the spatial resolution characteristics of remotely sensed aerial and satellite imagery. Most current methods for assessing spatial resolution characteristics of imagery rely on pre-deployed engineered targets and are performed only at selected times within preselected scenes. The SRVT addresses these insufficiencies by finding uniform, high-contrast edges from urban scenes and then using these edges to determine standard estimators of spatial resolution, such as the MTF and the RER. The SRVT was developed using the MATLAB programming language and environment. This automated software algorithm assesses every image in an acquired data set, using edges found within each image, and in many cases eliminating the need for dedicated edge targets. The SRVT automatically identifies high-contrast, uniform edges and calculates the MTF and RER of each image, and when possible, within sections of an image, so that the variation of spatial resolution characteristics across the image can be analyzed. The automated algorithm is capable of quickly verifying the spatial resolution quality of all images within a data

  9. Utility of hyperspectral imagery for seagrass mapping in Tampa Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, P. R.

    2006-12-01

    Tampa Bay has lost significant amounts of seagrass as the result of declines in water clarity. Of the 16,300 ha of seagrass present in 1950, only 8800 ha remained in 1982. However, since the mid 1980's, a concerted effort has been made to improve Tampa Bay water quality, and seagrass cover increased to 10500 ha in 2002. This project was undertaken to determine whether hyperspectral imagery can be used to 1) replace traditional seagrass mapping methods and 2) distinguish between seagrasses and macroalgae such as Caulerpa prolifera. Hyperspectral imagery of the shoreline of Tampa Bay was acquired in May 2005, using the AISA hyperspectral sensor flown on an aircraft at an altitude of 1500 m. For seagrass mapping tests, a study area near Apollo Beach, Florida was selected for analysis. The area was selected because it contains a number of features which make seagrass classification from natural color aerial photographs extremely difficult: variable water depth, CDOM, and mixed seagrass/algal species composition. Classification accuracy was assessed using confusion matrices based on a separate group of 155 data points selected haphazardly throughout the image. Unsupervised classification by the Isodata method using all 90 spectral bands between 394 and 803 nm resulted in poor classification accuracy. However, first derivative spectra identified six key wavelengths with potential for habitat classification (770, 759, 717, 688, 589, and 492 nm). Minimum distance classification based on these six wavelengths improved overall classification accuracy to 95 percent. The prospect of replacing manual interpretation of aerial photography with supervised classification of hyperspectral imagery seems very feasible. With some additional testing, the technique may become the operational standard for seagrass mapping in Tampa Bay.

  10. Photogrammetric Measurements in Fixed Wing Uav Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gülch, E.

    2012-07-01

    Several flights have been undertaken with PAMS (Photogrammetric Aerial Mapping System) by Germap, Germany, which is briefly introduced. This system is based on the SmartPlane fixed-wing UAV and a CANON IXUS camera system. The plane is equipped with GPS and has an infrared sensor system to estimate attitude values. A software has been developed to link the PAMS output to a standard photogrammetric processing chain built on Trimble INPHO. The linking of the image files and image IDs and the handling of different cases with partly corrupted output have to be solved to generate an INPHO project file. Based on this project file the software packages MATCH-AT, MATCH-T DSM, OrthoMaster and OrthoVista for digital aerial triangulation, DTM/DSM generation and finally digital orthomosaik generation are applied. The focus has been on investigations on how to adapt the "usual" parameters for the digital aerial triangulation and other software to the UAV flight conditions, which are showing high overlaps, large kappa angles and a certain image blur in case of turbulences. It was found, that the selected parameter setup shows a quite stable behaviour and can be applied to other flights. A comparison is made to results from other open source multi-ray matching software to handle the issue of the described flight conditions. Flights over the same area at different times have been compared to each other. The major objective was here to see, on how far differences occur relative to each other, without having access to ground control data, which would have a potential for applications with low requirements on the absolute accuracy. The results show, that there are influences of weather and illumination visible. The "unusual" flight pattern, which shows big time differences for neighbouring strips has an influence on the AT and DTM/DSM generation. The results obtained so far do indicate problems in the stability of the camera calibration. This clearly requests a usage of GCPs for all

  11. Aspects of dem Generation from Uas Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiwe, A.; Gehrke, R.; Spreckels, V.; Schlienkamp, A.

    2013-08-01

    Since a few years, micro UAS (unmanned aerial systems) with vertical take off and landing capabilities like quadro- or octocopter are used as sensor platform for Aerophotogrammetry. Since the restricted payload of micro UAS with a total weight up of 5 kg (payload only up to 1.5 kg), these systems are often equipped with small format cameras. These cameras can be classified as amateur cameras and it is often the case, that these systems do not meet the requirements of a geometric stable camera for photogrammetric measurement purposes. However, once equipped with a suitable camera system, an UAS is an interesting alternative to expensive manned flights for small areas. The operating flight height of the above described UAS is about 50 up to 150 meters above ground level. This low flight height lead on the one hand to a very high spatial resolution of the aerial imagery. Depending on the cameras focal length and the sensor's pixel size, the ground sampling distance (GSD) is usually about 1 up to 5 cm. This high resolution is useful especially for the automatic generation of homologous tie-points, which are a precondition for the image alignment (bundle block adjustment). On the other hand, the image scale depends on the object's height and the UAV operating height. Objects like mine heaps or construction sites show high variations of the object's height. As a result, operating the UAS with a constant flying height will lead to high variations in the image scale. For some processing approaches this will lead to problems e.g. the automatic tie-point generation in stereo image pairs. As precondition to all DEM generating approaches, first of all a geometric stable camera, sharp images are essentially. Well known calibration parameters are necessary for the bundle adjustment, to control the exterior orientations. It can be shown, that a simultaneous on site camera calibration may lead to misaligned aerial images. Also, the success rate of an automatic tie-point generation

  12. Imagery Rescripting for Personality Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arntz, Arnoud

    2011-01-01

    Imagery rescripting is a powerful technique that can be successfully applied in the treatment of personality disorders. For personality disorders, imagery rescripting is not used to address intrusive images but to change the implicational meaning of schemas and childhood experiences that underlie the patient's problems. Various mechanisms that may…

  13. Visual Imagery without Visual Perception?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertolo, Helder

    2005-01-01

    The question regarding visual imagery and visual perception remain an open issue. Many studies have tried to understand if the two processes share the same mechanisms or if they are independent, using different neural substrates. Most research has been directed towards the need of activation of primary visual areas during imagery. Here we review…

  14. Guided Imagery in Career Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, William C.; Eddy, John

    1982-01-01

    Suggests guided imagery can stimulate clients to become more aware of the role of personal values, attitudes, and beliefs in career decision making. Presents guidelines, examples, and implications to enable rehabilitation counselors to use guided imagery exercises in career counseling. (Author)

  15. U. S. Department of Energy Aerial Measuring Systems

    SciTech Connect

    J. J. Lease

    1998-10-01

    The Aerial Measuring Systems (AMS) is an aerial surveillance system. This system consists of remote sensing equipment to include radiation detectors; multispectral, thermal, radar, and laser scanners; precision cameras; and electronic imaging and still video systems. This equipment, in varying combinations, is mounted in an airplane or helicopter and flown at different heights in specific patterns to gather various types of data. This system is a key element in the US Department of Energy's (DOE) national emergency response assets. The mission of the AMS program is twofold--first, to respond to emergencies involving radioactive materials by conducting aerial surveys to rapidly track and map the contamination that may exist over a large ground area and second, to conduct routinely scheduled, aerial surveys for environmental monitoring and compliance purposes through the use of credible science and technology. The AMS program evolved from an early program, begun by a predecessor to the DOE--the Atomic Energy Commission--to map the radiation that may have existed within and around the terrestrial environments of DOE facilities, which produced, used, or stored radioactive materials.

  16. Satellite Imagery Assisted Road-Based Visual Navigation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkova, A.; Gibbens, P. W.

    2016-06-01

    There is a growing demand for unmanned aerial systems as autonomous surveillance, exploration and remote sensing solutions. Among the key concerns for robust operation of these systems is the need to reliably navigate the environment without reliance on global navigation satellite system (GNSS). This is of particular concern in Defence circles, but is also a major safety issue for commercial operations. In these circumstances, the aircraft needs to navigate relying only on information from on-board passive sensors such as digital cameras. An autonomous feature-based visual system presented in this work offers a novel integral approach to the modelling and registration of visual features that responds to the specific needs of the navigation system. It detects visual features from Google Earth* build a feature database. The same algorithm then detects features in an on-board cameras video stream. On one level this serves to localise the vehicle relative to the environment using Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping (SLAM). On a second level it correlates them with the database to localise the vehicle with respect to the inertial frame. The performance of the presented visual navigation system was compared using the satellite imagery from different years. Based on comparison results, an analysis of the effects of seasonal, structural and qualitative changes of the imagery source on the performance of the navigation algorithm is presented. * The algorithm is independent of the source of satellite imagery and another provider can be used

  17. Validation of Land Cover Maps Utilizing Astronaut Acquired Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, John E.; Gebelein, Jennifer

    1999-01-01

    This report is produced in accordance with the requirements outlined in the NASA Research Grant NAG9-1032 titled "Validation of Land Cover Maps Utilizing Astronaut Acquired Imagery". This grant funds the Remote Sensing Research Unit of the University of California, Santa Barbara. This document summarizes the research progress and accomplishments to date and describes current on-going research activities. Even though this grant has technically expired, in a contractual sense, work continues on this project. Therefore, this summary will include all work done through and 5 May 1999. The principal goal of this effort is to test the accuracy of a sub-regional portion of an AVHRR-based land cover product. Land cover mapped to three different classification systems, in the southwestern United States, have been subjected to two specific accuracy assessments. One assessment utilizing astronaut acquired photography, and a second assessment employing Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery, augmented in some cases, high aerial photography. Validation of these three land cover products has proceeded using a stratified sampling methodology. We believe this research will provide an important initial test of the potential use of imagery acquired from Shuttle and ultimately the International Space Station (ISS) for the operational validation of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) land cover products.

  18. Evaluating large scale orthophotos derived from high resolution satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannou, Maria Teresa; Georgopoulos, Andreas

    2013-08-01

    For the purposes of a research project, for the compilation of the archaeological and environmental digital map of the island of Antiparos, the production of updated large scale orthophotos was required. Hence suitable stereoscopic high resolution satellite imagery was acquired. Two Geoeye-1 stereopairs were enough to cover this small island of the Cyclades complex in the central Aegean. For the orientation of the two stereopairs numerous ground control points were determined using GPS observations. Some of them would also serve as check points. The images were processed using commercial stereophotogrammetric software suitable to process satellite stereoscopic imagery. The results of the orientations are evaluated and the digital terrain model was produced using automated and manual procedures. The DTM was checked both internally and externally with comparison to other available DTMs. In this paper the procedures for producing the desired orthophotography are critically presented and the final result is compared and evaluated for its accuracy, completeness and efficiency. The final product is also compared against the orthophotography produced by Ktimatologio S.A. using aerial images in 2007. The orthophotography produced has been evaluated metrically using the available check points, while qualitative evaluation has also been performed. The results are presented and a critical approach for the usability of satellite imagery for the production of large scale orthophotos is attempted.

  19. Enhancement of low-contrast curvilinear features in imagery.

    PubMed

    Carlotto, Mark J

    2007-01-01

    A new method is described for enhancing low-contrast curvilinear features in imagery that combines directional filtering with Fischler, Tenenbaum and Wolf's F* algorithm for computing minimum cost paths. The method exploits a phenomenon called "the stability of lines over angle." The idea is that when a directionally filtered image contains a line plus noise, minimum cost paths tend to be aligned in the direction of the line with random jumps between parallel paths. When the input image contains noise only, the direction of minimum cost paths resemble random walks with drift. As the direction of the filter changes, minimum cost paths that follow true features persist and are more stable over angle than those that follow noise. Adding them up in an accumulator array over angle produces a larger number of votes along signal paths than along noise paths. This provides a means for enhancing trajectories of low-contrast features. Several examples illustrate the enhancement of forest trails in USGS aerial imagery, linear features on Mars, and roads in synthetic aperture radar imagery. PMID:17283780

  20. Application of ERTS imagery in estimating the environmental impact of a freeway through the Knysna area of South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, D. T.; Gilbertson, B.

    1974-01-01

    In the coastal areas north-east and south-west of Knysna, South Africa lie natural forests, lakes and lagoons highly regarded by many for their aesthetic and ecological richness. A freeway construction project has given rise to fears of the degradation or destruction of these natural features. The possibility was investigated of using ERTS imagery to estimate the environmental impact of the freeway and found that: (1) All threatened features could readily be identified on the imagery. (2) It was possible within a short time to provide an area estimate of damage to indigenous forest. (3) In several important respects the imagery has advantages over maps and aerial photos for this type of work. (4) The imagery will enable monitoring of the actual environmental impact of the freeway when completed.

  1. An Antarctic Time Capsule: Compiling and Hosting 60 years of USGS Antarctic Aerial Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niebuhr, S.; Child, S.; Porter, C.; Herried, B.; Morin, P. J.

    2010-12-01

    The Antarctic Geospatial Information Center (AGIC) and the US Geologic Survey (USGS) collaborated to scan, archive, and make available 330,000 trimetrogon aerial (TMA) photos from 1860 flight lines taken over Antarctica from 1946 to 2000. Staff at USGS scanned them at 400 dpi and 1024 dpi resolution. To geolocate them, AGIC digitized the flight line maps, added relevant metadata including flight line altitude, camera type, and focal length, and approximated geographic centers for each photo. Both USGS and AGIC host the medium resolution air photos online, and are adding high resolution scans as they become available. The development of these metadata allowed AGIC to create a web-based flight line and aerial photo browsing application to facilitate the searching process. The application allows the user to browse through air photos and flight lines by location with links to full resolution preview images and to image downloads. AGIC has also orthorectified selected photos of facilities and areas of high scientific interest and are making them available online. This includes a time series showing significant change in several glaciers and lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys over 50 years and a series illustrating how McMurdo Station has changed. For the first time, this collection of historical imagery over a swiftly changing continent are readily available to the Antarctic scientific community (www.agic.umn.edu/imagery/aerial).

  2. Mapping with MAV: Experimental Study on the Contribution of Absolute and Relative Aerial Position Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skaloud, J.; Rehak, M.; Lichti, D.

    2014-03-01

    This study highlights the benefit of precise aerial position control in the context of mapping using frame-based imagery taken by small UAVs. We execute several flights with a custom Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) octocopter over a small calibration field equipped with 90 signalized targets and 25 ground control points. The octocopter carries a consumer grade RGB camera, modified to insure precise GPS time stamping of each exposure, as well as a multi-frequency/constellation GNSS receiver. The GNSS antenna and camera are rigidly mounted together on a one-axis gimbal that allows control of the obliquity of the captured imagery. The presented experiments focus on including absolute and relative aerial control. We confirm practically that both approaches are very effective: the absolute control allows omission of ground control points while the relative requires only a minimum number of control points. Indeed, the latter method represents an attractive alternative in the context of MAVs for two reasons. First, the procedure is somewhat simplified (e.g. the lever-arm between the camera perspective and antenna phase centers does not need to be determined) and, second, its principle allows employing a single-frequency antenna and carrier-phase GNSS receiver. This reduces the cost of the system as well as the payload, which in turn increases the flying time.

  3. Use of an Unmanned Aerial system for Site-Specific Management of Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing is a promising technology for site-specific management of in situ crop stress. In particular, compared to reflective regions of the spectrum, thermal infrared imagery is a more direct metric of crop response. However, in practice the expense associated with acquiring thermal infrare...

  4. Uncooled infrared development for small unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitt, Timothy S.; Wood, Sam B.; Waddle, Caleb E.; Edwards, William D.; Yeske, Ben S.

    2010-04-01

    The US Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) is developing a micro-uncooled infrared (IR) capability for small unmanned aerial systems (SUAS). In 2007, AMRDEC procured several uncooled microbolometers for lab and field test evaluations, and static tower tests involving specific target sets confirmed initial modeling and simulation predictions. With these promising results, AMRDEC procured two captive flight test (CFT) vehicles and, in 2008, completed numerous captive flights to capture imagery with the micro-uncooled infrared sensors. Several test configurations were used to build a comprehensive data set. These configurations included variations in look-down angles, fields of view (FOV), environments, altitudes, and target scenarios. Data collected during these field tests is also being used to develop human tracking algorithms and image stabilization software by other AMRDEC personnel. Details of these ongoing efforts will be presented in this paper and will include: 1) onboard digital data recording capabilities; 2) analog data links for visual verification of imagery; 3) sensor packaging and design; which include both infrared and visible cameras; 4) field test and data collection results; 5) future plans; 6) potential applications. Finally, AMRDEC has recently acquired a 17 μm pitch detector array. The paper will include plans to test both 17 μm and 25 μm microbolometer technologies simultaneously in a side-by-side captive flight comparison.

  5. Evaluation of SPOT imagery data

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Z.; Brovey, R.L.; Merembeck, B.F.; Hopkins, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    SPOT, the French satellite imaging system that became operational in April 1986, provides two major advances in satellite imagery technology: (1) a significant increase in spatial resolution of the data to 20 m multispectral and 10 m panchromatic, and (2) stereoscopic capabilities. The structural and stratigraphic mapping capabilities of SPOT data and compare favorably with those of other available space and airborne remote sensing data. In the Rhine graben and Jura Mountains, strike and dip of folded strata can be determined using SPOT stereoscopic imagery, greatly improving the ability to analyze structures in complex areas. The increased spatial resolution also allows many features to be mapped that are not visible on thematic mapper (TM) imagery. In the San Rafael swell, Utah, TM spectral data were combined with SPOT spatial data to map lithostratigraphic units of the exposed Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks. SPOT imagery provides information on attitude, geometry, and geomorphic expressions of key marker beds that is not available on TM imagery. Over the Central Basin platform, west Texas, SPOT imagery, compared to TM imagery, provided more precise information on the configuration of outcropping beds and drainage patterns that reflect the subtle surface expression of buried structures.

  6. The influence of topographic structures on night-time surface temperatures: Evaluation of a satellite thermal image of the upper Rhine plain and the surrounding highlands. [Germany and Switzerland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gossmann, H. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Satellite data supplied the same information as aerial IR registrations with corresponding averaging for all studies requiring a survey of the thermal pattern within an area measuring 10 km x 10 km ore more, provided that sufficiently precise control points could be established for the purpose of geometric rectification in the surroundings of the area observed. Satellite thermal data are more comprehensive than aircraft data for studies on a regional, rather than a local scale, since airborne images often obscure the basic correlation in thermal patterns because of a variety of irrelevant topographical detail. The satellite data demonstrate the dependence of surface temperature on relief more clearly than comparable airborne imagery.

  7. Proceedings of the 2004 High Spatial Resolution Commercial Imagery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Topics covered include: NASA Applied Sciences Program; USGS Land Remote Sensing: Overview; QuickBird System Status and Product Overview; ORBIMAGE Overview; IKONOS 2004 Calibration and Validation Status; OrbView-3 Spatial Characterization; On-Orbit Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) Measurement of QuickBird; Spatial Resolution Characterization for QuickBird Image Products 2003-2004 Season; Image Quality Evaluation of QuickBird Super Resolution and Revisit of IKONOS: Civil and Commercial Application Project (CCAP); On-Orbit System MTF Measurement; QuickBird Post Launch Geopositional Characterization Update; OrbView-3 Geometric Calibration and Geopositional Accuracy; Geopositional Statistical Methods; QuickBird and OrbView-3 Geopositional Accuracy Assessment; Initial On-Orbit Spatial Resolution Characterization of OrbView-3 Panchromatic Images; Laboratory Measurement of Bidirectional Reflectance of Radiometric Tarps; Stennis Space Center Verification and Validation Capabilities; Joint Agency Commercial Imagery Evaluation (JACIE) Team; Adjacency Effects in High Resolution Imagery; Effect of Pulse Width vs. GSD on MTF Estimation; Camera and Sensor Calibration at the USGS; QuickBird Geometric Verification; Comparison of MODTRAN to Heritage-based Results in Vicarious Calibration at University of Arizona; Using Remotely Sensed Imagery to Determine Impervious Surface in Sioux Falls, South Dakota; Estimating Sub-Pixel Proportions of Sagebrush with a Regression Tree; How Do YOU Use the National Land Cover Dataset?; The National Map Hazards Data Distribution System; Recording a Troubled World; What Does This-Have to Do with This?; When Can a Picture Save a Thousand Homes?; InSAR Studies of Alaska Volcanoes; Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) Data Products; Improving Access to the USGS Aerial Film Collections: High Resolution Scanners; Improving Access to the USGS Aerial Film Collections: Phoenix Digitizing System Product Distribution; System and Product Characterization: Issues Approach

  8. Aerial Photographs and Satellite Images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1997-01-01

    Photographs and other images of the Earth taken from the air and from space show a great deal about the planet's landforms, vegetation, and resources. Aerial and satellite images, known as remotely sensed images, permit accurate mapping of land cover and make landscape features understandable on regional, continental, and even global scales. Transient phenomena, such as seasonal vegetation vigor and contaminant discharges, can be studied by comparing images acquired at different times. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), which began using aerial photographs for mapping in the 1930's, archives photographs from its mapping projects and from those of some other Federal agencies. In addition, many images from such space programs as Landsat, begun in 1972, are held by the USGS. Most satellite scenes can be obtained only in digital form for use in computer-based image processing and geographic information systems, but in some cases are also available as photographic products.

  9. Learner Generated versus Instructor Induced Visual Imagery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenze, James S.

    The concepts of imagery, mathemagenic behaviors, and generative imagery are reviewed; and the learner's use of visual imagery is discussed. Several studies have supported the idea that imagery is an active mental process that gives birth to learning. The concept of mathemagenic control or manipulation is of interest to the instructional designer.…

  10. Aerial robotic data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Hayes, D.W.; Pendergast, M.M.; Corban, J.E.

    1993-12-31

    A small, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), equipped with sensors for physical and chemical measurements of remote environments, is described. A miniature helicopter airframe is used as a platform for sensor testing and development. The sensor output is integrated with the flight control system for real-time, interactive, data acquisition and analysis. Pre-programmed flight missions will be flown with several sensors to demonstrate the cost-effective surveillance capabilities of this new technology.

  11. Imagery mismatch negativity in musicians.

    PubMed

    Herholz, Sibylle C; Lappe, Claudia; Knief, Arne; Pantev, Christo

    2009-07-01

    The present study investigated musical imagery in musicians and nonmusicians by means of magnetoencephalography (MEG). We used a new paradigm in which subjects had to continue familiar melodies in their mind and then judged if a further presented tone was a correct continuation of the melody. Incorrect tones elicited an imagery mismatch negativity (iMMN) in musicians but not in nonmusicians. This finding suggests that the MMN component can be based on an imagined instead of a sensory memory trace and that imagery of music is modulated by musical expertise. PMID:19673775

  12. Use of High-Resolution Multispectral Imagery to Estimate Chlorophyll and Plant Nitrogen in Oats (Avena sativa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ELarab, M.; Ticlavilca, A. M.; Torres-Rua, A. F.; Maslova, I.; McKee, M.

    2013-12-01

    Precision agriculture requires high spatial resolution in the application of the inputs to agricultural production. This requires that actionable information about crop and field status be acquired at the same high spatial resolution and at a temporal frequency appropriate for timely responses. In this study, high-resolution imagery was obtained through the use of a small, unmanned aerial vehicle, called AggieAirTM, that provides spatial resolution as fine as 6 cm. Simultaneously with AggieAir flights, intensive ground sampling was conducted at precisely determined locations for plant chlorophyll, plant nitrogen, and other parameters. This study investigated the spectral signature of a crop of oats (Avena sativa) and formulated machine learning regression models of reflectance response between the multi-spectral bands available from AggieAir (red, green, blue, near infrared, and thermal), plant chlorophyll and plant nitrogen. We tested two, separate relevance vector machines (RVM) and a single multivariate relevance vector machine (MVRVM) to develop the linkages between the remotely sensed data and plant chlorophyll and nitrogen at approximately 15-cm resolution. The results of this study are presented, including a statistical evaluation of the performance of the different models and a comparison of the RVM modeling methods against more traditional approaches that have been used for estimation of plant chlorophyll and nitrogen.

  13. Use of High-Resolution Multispectral Imagery to Estimate Soil and Plant Nitrogen in Oats (Avena sativa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ELarab, M.; Ticlavilca, A. M.; Torres-Rua, A. F.; McKee, M.

    2014-12-01

    Precision agriculture requires high spatial resolution in the application of the inputs to agricultural production. This requires that actionable information about crop and field status be acquired at the same high spatial resolution and at a temporal frequency appropriate for timely responses. In this study, high-resolution imagery was obtained through the use of a small, unmanned aerial vehicle, called AggieAirTM, which provides spatial resolution as fine as 15 cm. Simultaneously with AggieAir flights, intensive ground sampling was conducted at precisely determined locations for plant and soil nitrogen among other parameters. This study investigated the spectral signature of oats and formulated a machine learning regression model of reflectance response between the multi-spectral bands available from AggieAir (red, green, blue, near infrared, and thermal), plant nitrogen and soil nitrogen. A multivariate relevance vector machine (MVRVM) was used to develop the linkages between the remotely sensed data and plant and soil nitrogen at approximately 15-cm resolution. The results of this study are presented, including a statistical evaluation of the performance of the model.

  14. Telemetry of Aerial Radiological Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    H. W. Clark, Jr.

    2002-10-01

    Telemetry has been added to National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA's) Aerial Measuring System (AMS) Incident Response aircraft to accelerate availability of aerial radiological mapping data. Rapid aerial radiological mapping is promptly performed by AMS Incident Response aircraft in the event of a major radiological dispersal. The AMS airplane flies the entire potentially affected area, plus a generous margin, to provide a quick look at the extent and severity of the event. The primary result of the AMS Incident Response over flight is a map of estimated exposure rate on the ground along the flight path. Formerly, it was necessary to wait for the airplane to land before the map could be seen. Now, while the flight is still in progress, data are relayed via satellite directly from the aircraft to an operations center, where they are displayed and disseminated. This permits more timely utilization of results by decision makers and redirection of the mission to optimize its value. The current telemetry capability can cover all of North America. Extension to a global capability is under consideration.

  15. Airborne multispectral and thermal remote sensing for detecting the onset of crop stress caused by multiple factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yanbo; Thomson, Steven J.

    2010-10-01

    Remote sensing technology has been developed and applied to provide spatiotemporal information on crop stress for precision management. A series of multispectral images over a field planted cotton, corn and soybean were obtained by a Geospatial Systems MS4100 camera mounted on an Air Tractor 402B airplane equipped with Camera Link in a Magma converter box triggered by Terraverde Dragonfly® flight navigation and imaging control software. The field crops were intentionally stressed by applying glyphosate herbicide via aircraft and allowing it to drift near-field. Aerial multispectral images in the visible and near-infrared bands were manipulated to produce vegetation indices, which were used to quantify the onset of herbicide induced crop stress. The vegetation indices normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI) showed the ability to monitor crop response to herbicide-induced injury by revealing stress at different phenological stages. Two other fields were managed with irrigated versus nonirrigated treatments, and those fields were imaged with both the multispectral system and an Electrophysics PV-320T thermal imaging camera on board an Air Tractor 402B aircraft. Thermal imagery indicated water stress due to deficits in soil moisture, and a proposed method of determining crop cover percentage using thermal imagery was compared with a multispectral imaging method. Development of an image fusion scheme may be necessary to provide synergy and improve overall water stress detection ability.

  16. Dynamic aspects of musical imagery.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Andrea R

    2012-04-01

    Auditory imagery can represent many aspects of music, such as the starting pitches of a tune or the instrument that typically plays it. In this paper, I concentrate on more dynamic, or time-sensitive aspects of musical imagery, as demonstrated in two recently published studies. The first was a behavioral study that examined the ability to make emotional judgments about both heard and imagined music in real time. The second was a neuroimaging study on the neural correlates of anticipating an upcoming tune, after hearing a cue tune. That study found activation of several sequence-learning brain areas, some of which varied with the vividness of the anticipated musical memory. Both studies speak to the ways in which musical imagery allows us to judge temporally changing aspects of the represented musical experience. These judgments can be quite precise, despite the complexity of generating the rich internal representations of imagery. PMID:22524360

  17. Simulation of parafoil reconnaissance imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogler, Kent J.; Sutkus, Linas; Troast, Douglas; Kisatsky, Paul; Charles, Alain M.

    1995-08-01

    Reconnaissance from unmanned platforms is currently of interest to DoD and civil sectors concerned with drug trafficking and illegal immigration. Platforms employed vary from motorized aircraft to tethered balloons. One appraoch currently under evaluation deploys a TV camera suspended from a parafoil delivered to the area of interest by a cannon launched projectile. Imagery is then transmitted to a remote monitor for processing and interpretation. This paper presents results of imagery obtained from simulated parafoil flights in which software techniques were developed to process-in image degradation caused by atmospheric obscurants and perturbations in the normal parafoil flight trajectory induced by wind gusts. The approach to capturing continuous motion imagery from captive flight test recordings, the introduction of simulated effects, and the transfer of the processed imagery back to video tape is described.

  18. Imagery: Paintings in the Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Albert R.

    1986-01-01

    Describes using the overlapping areas of relaxation, meditation, hypnosis, and imagery as a counseling technique. Explains the methods in terms of right brain functioning, a capability children use naturally. (ABB)

  19. New Percepts via Mental Imagery?

    PubMed

    Mast, Fred W; Tartaglia, Elisa M; Herzog, Michael H

    2012-01-01

    We are able to extract detailed information from mental images that we were not explicitly aware of during encoding. For example, we can discover a new figure when we rotate a previously seen image in our mind. However, such discoveries are not "really" new but just new "interpretations." In two recent publications, we have shown that mental imagery can lead to perceptual learning (Tartaglia et al., 2009, 2012). Observers imagined the central line of a bisection stimulus for thousands of trials. This training enabled observers to perceive bisection offsets that were invisible before training. Hence, it seems that perceptual learning via mental imagery leads to new percepts. We will argue, however, that these new percepts can occur only within "known" models. In this sense, perceptual learning via mental imagery exceeds new discoveries in mental images. Still, the effects of mental imagery on perceptual learning are limited. Only perception can lead to really new perceptual experience. PMID:23060830

  20. Observation of coral reefs on Ishigaki Island, Japan, using Landsat TM images and aerial photographs

    SciTech Connect

    Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Kayanne, Hajime

    1997-06-01

    Ishigaki Island is located at the southwestern end of Japanese Islands and famous for its fringing coral reefs. More than twenty LANDSAT TM images in twelve years and aerial photographs taken on 1977 and 1994 were used to survey two shallow reefs on this island, Shiraho and Kabira. Intensive field surveys were also conducted in 1995. All satellite images of Shiraho were geometrically corrected and overlaid to construct a multi-date satellite data set. The effects of solar elevation and tide on satellite imagery were studied with this data set. The comparison of aerial and satellite images indicated that significant changes occurred between 1977 and 1984 in Kabira: rapid formation in the western part and decrease in the eastern part of dark patches. The field surveys revealed that newly formed dark patches in the west contain young corals. These results suggest that remote sensing is useful for not only mapping but also monitoring of shallow coral reefs.

  1. Wetland mapping from digitized aerial photography. [Sheboygen Marsh, Sheboygen County, Wisconsin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarpace, F. L.; Quirk, B. K.; Kiefer, R. W.; Wynn, S. L.

    1981-01-01

    Computer assisted interpretation of small scale aerial imagery was found to be a cost effective and accurate method of mapping complex vegetation patterns if high resolution information is desired. This type of technique is suited for problems such as monitoring changes in species composition due to environmental factors and is a feasible method of monitoring and mapping large areas of wetlands. The technique has the added advantage of being in a computer compatible form which can be transformed into any georeference system of interest.

  2. Quantitative analysis of drainage obtained from aerial photographs and RBV/LANDSAT images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Formaggio, A. R.; Epiphanio, J. C. N.; Filho, M. V.

    1981-01-01

    Data obtained from aerial photographs (1:60,000) and LANDSAT return beam vidicon imagery (1:100,000) concerning drainage density, drainage texture, hydrography density, and the average length of channels were compared. Statistical analysis shows that significant differences exist in data from the two sources. The highly drained area lost more information than the less drained area. In addition, it was observed that the loss of information about the number of rivers was higher than that about the length of the channels.

  3. Monitoring black-tailed prairie dog colonies with high-resolution satellite imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sidle, John G.; Johnson, D.H.; Euliss, B.R.; Tooze, M.

    2002-01-01

    The United States Fish and Wildlife Service has determined that the black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) warrants listing as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act. Central to any conservation planning for the black-tailed prairie dog is an appropriate detection and monitoring technique. Because coarse-resolution satellite imagery is not adequate to detect black-tailed prairie dog colonies, we examined the usefulness of recently available high-resolution (1-m) satellite imagery. In 6 purchased scenes of national grasslands, we were easily able to visually detect small and large colonies without using image-processing algorithms. The Ikonos (Space Imaging(tm)) satellite imagery was as adequate as large-scale aerial photography to delineate colonies. Based on the high quality of imagery, we discuss a possible monitoring program for black-tailed prairie dog colonies throughout the Great Plains, using the species' distribution in North Dakota as an example. Monitoring plots could be established and imagery acquired periodically to track the expansion and contraction of colonies.

  4. Classification of a wetland area along the upper Mississippi River with aerial videography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jennings, C.A.; Vohs, P.A.; Dewey, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    We evaluated the use of aerial videography for classifying wetland habitats along the upper Mississippi River and found the prompt availability of habitat feature maps to be the major advantage of the video imagery technique. We successfully produced feature maps from digitized video images that generally agreed with the known distribution and areal coverages of the major habitat types independently identified and quantified with photointerpretation techniques. However, video images were not sufficiently detailed to allow us to consistently discriminate among the classes of aquatic macrophytes present or to quantify their areal coverage. Our inability to consistently distinguish among emergent, floating, and submergent macrophytes from the feature maps may have been related to the structural complexity of the site, to our limited vegetation sampling, and to limitations in video imagery. We expect that careful site selection (i.e., the desired level of resolution is available from video imagery) and additional vegetation samples (e.g., along a transect) will allow improved assignment of spectral values to specific plant types and enhance plant classification from feature maps produced from video imagery.

  5. Pasadena, California Anaglyph with Aerial Photo Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, DC.

    Size: 2.2 km (1.4 miles) x 2.4 km (1.49 miles) Location: 34.16 deg. North lat., 118.16 deg. West lon. Orientation: looking straight down at land Original Data Resolution: SRTM, 30 meters; Aerial Photo, 3 meters. Date Acquired: February 16, 2000 Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA

  6. Enabling high-quality observations of surface imperviousness for water runoff modelling from unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokarczyk, Piotr; Leitao, Joao Paulo; Rieckermann, Jörg; Schindler, Konrad; Blumensaat, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Modelling rainfall-runoff in urban areas is increasingly applied to support flood risk assessment particularly against the background of a changing climate and an increasing urbanization. These models typically rely on high-quality data for rainfall and surface characteristics of the area. While recent research in urban drainage has been focusing on providing spatially detailed rainfall data, the technological advances in remote sensing that ease the acquisition of detailed land-use information are less prominently discussed within the community. The relevance of such methods increase as in many parts of the globe, accurate land-use information is generally lacking, because detailed image data is unavailable. Modern unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) allow acquiring high-resolution images on a local level at comparably lower cost, performing on-demand repetitive measurements, and obtaining a degree of detail tailored for the purpose of the study. In this study, we investigate for the first time the possibility to derive high-resolution imperviousness maps for urban areas from UAV imagery and to use this information as input for urban drainage models. To do so, an automatic processing pipeline with a modern classification method is tested and applied in a state-of-the-art urban drainage modelling exercise. In a real-life case study in the area of Lucerne, Switzerland, we compare imperviousness maps generated from a consumer micro-UAV and standard large-format aerial images acquired by the Swiss national mapping agency (swisstopo). After assessing their correctness, we perform an end-to-end comparison, in which they are used as an input for an urban drainage model. Then, we evaluate the influence which different image data sources and their processing methods have on hydrological and hydraulic model performance. We analyze the surface runoff of the 307 individual sub-catchments regarding relevant attributes, such as peak runoff and volume. Finally, we evaluate the model

  7. A Spherical Aerial Terrestrial Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, Christopher J.

    This thesis focuses on the design of a novel, ultra-lightweight spherical aerial terrestrial robot (ATR). The ATR has the ability to fly through the air or roll on the ground, for applications that include search and rescue, mapping, surveillance, environmental sensing, and entertainment. The design centers around a micro-quadcopter encased in a lightweight spherical exoskeleton that can rotate about the quadcopter. The spherical exoskeleton offers agile ground locomotion while maintaining characteristics of a basic aerial robot in flying mode. A model of the system dynamics for both modes of locomotion is presented and utilized in simulations to generate potential trajectories for aerial and terrestrial locomotion. Details of the quadcopter and exoskeleton design and fabrication are discussed, including the robot's turning characteristic over ground and the spring-steel exoskeleton with carbon fiber axle. The capabilities of the ATR are experimentally tested and are in good agreement with model-simulated performance. An energy analysis is presented to validate the overall efficiency of the robot in both modes of locomotion. Experimentally-supported estimates show that the ATR can roll along the ground for over 12 minutes and cover the distance of 1.7 km, or it can fly for 4.82 minutes and travel 469 m, on a single 350 mAh battery. Compared to a traditional flying-only robot, the ATR traveling over the same distance in rolling mode is 2.63-times more efficient, and in flying mode the system is only 39 percent less efficient. Experimental results also demonstrate the ATR's transition from rolling to flying mode.

  8. Crop identification and acreage measurement utilizing ERTS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonsteen, D. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. The microdensitometer will be used to analyze data acquired by ERTS-1 imagery. The classification programs and software packages have been acquired and are being prepared for use with the information as it is received. Photo and digital tapes have been acquired for coverage of virtually 100 percent of the test site areas. These areas are located in South Dakota, Idaho, Missouri, and Kansas. Hass 70mm color infrared, infrared, black and white high altitude aerial photography of the test sites is available. Collection of ground truth for updating the data base has been completed and a computer program written to count the number of fields and give total acres by size group for the segments in each test site. Results are given of data analysis performed on digitized data from densitometer measurements of fields of corn, sugar, beets, and alfalfa in Kansas.

  9. An augmentative gaze directing framework for multi-spectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Libby

    Modern digital imaging techniques have made the task of imaging more prolic than ever and the volume of images and data available through multi-spectral imaging methods for exploitation is exceeding that which can be solely processed by human beings. The researchers proposed and developed a novel eye movement contingent framework and display system through adaption of the demonstrated technique of subtle gaze direction by presenting modulations within the displayed image. The system sought to augment visual search task performance of aerial imagery by incorporating multi-spectral image processing algorithms to determine potential regions of interest within an image. The exploratory work conducted was to study the feasibility of visual gaze direction with the specic intent of extending this application to geospatial image analysis without need for overt cueing to areas of potential interest and thereby maintaining the benefits of an undirected and unbiased search by an observer.

  10. A review of application studies on Indian lands using NASA aerospace imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woll, A. M.

    1970-01-01

    Three remote sensing projects are being conducted on three different Indian reservations in eastern Arizona. On the Fort Apache Reservation, a multiband thermal and false color sensing of an Englemann spruce beetle infestation is being investigated on Mount Baldy, adjacent to a U.S. Forest Service proposed wilderness area. On the San Carlos Reservation, there is a joint USGS, EROS, and San Carlos tribe project to examine intensively a circular topographic feature noted on the Apollo 9 imagery. On the Papago Reservation, an EROS-funded contract will provide the Papago tribe with a report showing potential mineral areas, by comparing and correlating space imagery with high resolution imagery and aeromagnetic data.

  11. LANL experience with coregistration of MTI imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Paul A.; Theiler, James P.; Galbraith, Amy E.

    2004-01-01

    The fifteen-channel Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) provides accurately calibrated satellite imagery for a variety of scientific and programmatic purposes. To be useful, the calibrated pixels from the individual detectors on the focal plane of this pushbroom sensor must be resampled to a regular grid corresponding to the observed scene on the ground. In the LEVEL1B_R_COREG product, it is required that the pixels from different spectral bands and from different sensor chip assemblies all be coregistered to the same grid. For the LEVEL1B_R_GEO product, it is further required that this grid be georeferenced to the Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system. It is important that an accurate registration is achieved, because most of the higher level products (e.g. ground reflectance) are derived from these LEVEL1B_R products. Initially, a single direct georeferencing approach was pursued for performing the coregistration task. Although this continues to be the primary algorithm for our automated pipeline registration, we found it advantageous to pursue alternative approaches as well. This paper surveys these approaches, and offers lessons learned during the three years we have been addressing the coregistration requirements for MTI imagery at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  12. LANL experience with coregistration of MTI imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Paul A.; Theiler, James P.; Galbraith, Amy E.

    2003-12-01

    The fifteen-channel Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) provides accurately calibrated satellite imagery for a variety of scientific and programmatic purposes. To be useful, the calibrated pixels from the individual detectors on the focal plane of this pushbroom sensor must be resampled to a regular grid corresponding to the observed scene on the ground. In the LEVEL1B_R_COREG product, it is required that the pixels from different spectral bands and from different sensor chip assemblies all be coregistered to the same grid. For the LEVEL1B_R_GEO product, it is further required that this grid be georeferenced to the Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system. It is important that an accurate registration is achieved, because most of the higher level products (e.g. ground reflectance) are derived from these LEVEL1B_R products. Initially, a single direct georeferencing approach was pursued for performing the coregistration task. Although this continues to be the primary algorithm for our automated pipeline registration, we found it advantageous to pursue alternative approaches as well. This paper surveys these approaches, and offers lessons learned during the three years we have been addressing the coregistration requirements for MTI imagery at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  13. Robust adaptive control for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahveci, Nazli E.

    The objective of meeting higher endurance requirements remains a challenging task for any type and size of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). According to recent research studies significant energy savings can be realized through utilization of thermal currents. The navigation strategies followed across thermal regions, however, are based on rather intuitive assessments of remote pilots and lack any systematic path planning approaches. Various methods to enhance the autonomy of UAVs in soaring applications are investigated while seeking guarantees for flight performance improvements. The dynamics of the aircraft, small UAVs in particular, are affected by the environmental conditions, whereas unmodeled dynamics possibly become significant during aggressive flight maneuvers. Besides, the demanded control inputs might have a magnitude range beyond the limits dictated by the control surface actuators. The consequences of ignoring these issues can be catastrophic. Supporting this claim NASA Dryden Flight Research Center reports considerable performance degradation and even loss of stability in autonomous soaring flight tests with the subsequent risk of an aircraft crash. The existing control schemes are concluded to suffer from limited performance. Considering the aircraft dynamics and the thermal characteristics we define a vehicle-specific trajectory optimization problem to achieve increased cross-country speed and extended range of flight. In an environment with geographically dispersed set of thermals of possibly limited lifespan, we identify the similarities to the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) and provide both exact and approximate guidance algorithms for the navigation of automated UAVs. An additional stochastic approach is used to quantify the performance losses due to incorrect thermal data while dealing with random gust disturbances and onboard sensor measurement inaccuracies. One of the main contributions of this research is a novel adaptive control design with

  14. ERTS-1 imagery use in reconnaissance prospecting: Evaluation of commercial utility of ERTS-1 imagery in structural reconnaissance for minerals and petroleum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, D. F.; Thomas, G. E. (Principal Investigator); Kinsman, F. E.; Beatty, D. F.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This study was performed to investigate applications of ERTS-1 imagery in commercial reconnaissance for mineral and hydrocarbon resources. ERTS-1 imagery collected over five areas in North America (Montana; Colorado; New Mexico-West Texas; Superior Province, Canada; and North Slope, Alaska) has been analyzed for data content including linears, lineaments, and curvilinear anomalies. Locations of these features were mapped and compared with known locations of mineral and hydrocarbon accumulations. Results were analyzed in the context of a simple-shear, block-coupling model. Data analyses have resulted in detection of new lineaments, some of which may be continental in extent, detection of many curvilinear patterns not generally seen on aerial photos, strong evidence of continental regmatic fracture patterns, and realization that geological features can be explained in terms of a simple-shear, block-coupling model. The conculsions are that ERTS-1 imagery is of great value in photogeologic/geomorphic interpretations of regional features, and the simple-shear, block-coupling model provides a means of relating data from ERTS imagery to structures that have controlled emplacement of ore deposits and hydrocarbon accumulations, thus providing a basis for a new approach for reconnaissance for mineral, uranium, gas, and oil deposits and structures.

  15. USGS Earth Explorer Client for Co-Discovery of Aerial and Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhenry, R.; Sohre, T.; McKinney, R.; Mentele, T.

    2011-12-01

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation Science (EROS) Center is home to one of the largest civilian collections of images of the Earth's surface. These images are collected from recent satellite platforms such as the Landsat, Terra, Aqua and Earth Observer-1, historical airborne systems such as digital cameras and side-looking radar, and digitized historical aerial photography dating to the 1930's. The aircraft scanners include instruments such as the Advanced Solid State Array Spectrometer (ASAS). Also archived at EROS are specialized collections of aerial images, such as high-resolution orthoimagery, extensive collections over Antarctica, and historical airborne campaigns such as the National Aerial Photography Program (NAPP) and the National High Altitude Photography (NHAP) collections. These collections, as well as digital map data, declassified historical space-based photography, and variety of collections such as the Global Land Survey 2000 (GLS2000) and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) are accessible through the USGS Earth Explorer (EE) client. EE allows for the visual discovery and browse of diverse datasets simultaneously, permitting the co-discovery and selection refinement of both satellite and aircraft imagery. The client, in use for many years was redesigned in 2010 to support requirements for next generation Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) data access and distribution. The redesigned EE is now supported by standards-based, open source infrastructure. EE gives users the capability to search 189 datasets through one interface, including over 8.4 million frames of aerial imagery. Since April 2011, NASA datasets archived at the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) including the MODIS land data products and ASTER Level-1B data products over the U.S. and Territories were made available via the EE client enabling users to co-discover aerial data archived at the USGS EROS along with USGS

  16. Astronomical Methods in Aerial Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beij, K Hilding

    1925-01-01

    The astronomical method of determining position is universally used in marine navigation and may also be of service in aerial navigation. The practical application of the method, however, must be modified and adapted to conform to the requirements of aviation. Much of this work of adaptation has already been accomplished, but being scattered through various technical journals in a number of languages, is not readily available. This report is for the purpose of collecting under one cover such previous work as appears to be of value to the aerial navigator, comparing instruments and methods, indicating the best practice, and suggesting future developments. The various methods of determining position and their application and value are outlined, and a brief resume of the theory of the astronomical method is given. Observation instruments are described in detail. A complete discussion of the reduction of observations follows, including a rapid method of finding position from the altitudes of two stars. Maps and map cases are briefly considered. A bibliography of the subject is appended.

  17. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aerial lifts. 1926.453 Section 1926.453 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Scaffolds § 1926.453 Aerial lifts. (a) General requirements. (1) Unless otherwise provided...

  18. A Classroom Simulation of Aerial Photography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Simon

    1981-01-01

    Explains how a simulation of aerial photography can help students in a college level beginning course on interpretation of aerial photography understand the interrelationships of the airplane, the camera, and the earth's surface. Procedures, objectives, equipment, and scale are discussed. (DB)

  19. BOREAS Level-0 ER-2 Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominquez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), the ER-2 and other aerial photography was collected to provide finely detailed and spatially extensive documentation of the condition of the primary study sites. The ER-2 aerial photography consists of color-IR transparencies collected during flights in 1994 and 1996 over the study areas.

  20. MAPPING NON-INDIGENOUS EELGRASS ZOSTERA JAPONICA, ASSOCIATED MACROALGAE AND EMERGENT AQUATIC VEGETARIAN HABITATS IN A PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARY USING NEAR-INFRARED COLOR AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY AND A HYBRID IMAGE CLASSIFICATION TECHNIQUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted aerial photographic surveys of Oregon's Yaquina Bay estuary during consecutive summers from 1997 through 2001. Imagery was obtained during low tide exposures of intertidal mudflats, allowing use of near-infrared color film to detect and discriminate plant communitie...

  1. Quantifying heat losses using aerial thermography

    SciTech Connect

    Haigh, G.A.; Pritchard, S.E.

    1980-01-01

    A theoretical model is described for calculating flat roof total heat losses and thermal conductances from aerial infrared data. Three empirical methods for estimating convective losses are described. The disagreement between the methods shows that they are prone to large (20%) errors, and that the survey should be carried out in low wind speeds, in order to minimize the effect of these errors on the calculation of total heat loss. The errors associated with knowledge of ground truth data are discussed for a high emissivity roof and three sets of environmental conditions. It is shown that the error in the net radiative loss is strongly dependent on the error in measuring the broad-band radiation incident on the roof. This is minimized for clear skies, but should be measured. Accurate knowledge of roof emissivity and the radiation reflected from the roof is shown to be less important. Simple techniques are described for measuring all three factors. Using these techniques in good conditions it should be possible to measure total heat losses to within 15%.

  2. Monitoring Seabirds and Marine Mammals by Georeferenced Aerial Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemper, G.; Weidauer, A.; Coppack, T.

    2016-06-01

    The assessment of anthropogenic impacts on the marine environment is challenged by the accessibility, accuracy and validity of biogeographical information. Offshore wind farm projects require large-scale ecological surveys before, during and after construction, in order to assess potential effects on the distribution and abundance of protected species. The robustness of site-specific population estimates depends largely on the extent and design of spatial coverage and the accuracy of the applied census technique. Standard environmental assessment studies in Germany have so far included aerial visual surveys to evaluate potential impacts of offshore wind farms on seabirds and marine mammals. However, low flight altitudes, necessary for the visual classification of species, disturb sensitive bird species and also hold significant safety risks for the observers. Thus, aerial surveys based on high-resolution digital imagery, which can be carried out at higher (safer) flight altitudes (beyond the rotor-swept zone of the wind turbines) have become a mandatory requirement, technically solving the problem of distant-related observation bias. A purpose-assembled imagery system including medium-format cameras in conjunction with a dedicated geo-positioning platform delivers series of orthogonal digital images that meet the current technical requirements of authorities for surveying marine wildlife at a comparatively low cost. At a flight altitude of 425 m, a focal length of 110 mm, implemented forward motion compensation (FMC) and exposure times ranging between 1/1600 and 1/1000 s, the twin-camera system generates high quality 16 bit RGB images with a ground sampling distance (GSD) of 2 cm and an image footprint of 155 x 410 m. The image files are readily transferrable to a GIS environment for further editing, taking overlapping image areas and areas affected by glare into account. The imagery can be routinely screened by the human eye guided by purpose-programmed software

  3. Adaptive planning of emergency aerial photogrammetric mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Fuqiang; Zhu, Qing; Zhang, Junxiao; Miao, Shuangxi; Zhou, Xingxia; Cao, Zhenyu

    2015-12-01

    Aiming at the diversity of emergency aerial photogrammetric mission requirements, complex ground and air environmental constraints make the planning mission time-consuming. This paper presents a fast adaptation for the UAV aerial photogrammetric mission planning. First, Building emergency aerial UAVs mission the unified expression of UAVs model and mechanical model of performance parameters in the semantic space make the integrated expression of mission requirements and low altitude environment. Proposed match assessment method which based on resource and mission efficiency. Made the Adaptive match of UAV aerial resources and mission. According to the emergency aerial resource properties, considering complex air-ground environment and mission requirements constraints. Made accurate design of UAV route. Experimental results show, the method scientific and efficient, greatly enhanced the emergency response rate.

  4. Benchmarking High Density Image Matching for Oblique Airborne Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavegn, S.; Haala, N.; Nebiker, S.; Rothermel, M.; Tutzauer, P.

    2014-08-01

    Both, improvements in camera technology and new pixel-wise matching approaches triggered the further development of software tools for image based 3D reconstruction. Meanwhile research groups as well as commercial vendors provide photogrammetric software to generate dense, reliable and accurate 3D point clouds and Digital Surface Models (DSM) from highly overlapping aerial images. In order to evaluate the potential of these algorithms in view of the ongoing software developments, a suitable test bed is provided by the ISPRS/EuroSDR initiative Benchmark on High Density Image Matching for DSM Computation. This paper discusses the proposed test scenario to investigate the potential of dense matching approaches for 3D data capture from oblique airborne imagery. For this purpose, an oblique aerial image block captured at a GSD of 6 cm in the west of Zürich by a Leica RCD30 Oblique Penta camera is used. Within this paper, the potential test scenario is demonstrated using matching results from two software packages, Agisoft PhotoScan and SURE from University of Stuttgart. As oblique images are frequently used for data capture at building facades, 3D point clouds are mainly investigated at such areas. Reference data from terrestrial laser scanning is used to evaluate data quality from dense image matching for several facade patches with respect to accuracy, density and reliability.

  5. Quantifying structural physical habitat attributes using LIDAR and hyperspectral imagery.

    PubMed

    Hall, Robert K; Watkins, Russell L; Heggem, Daniel T; Jones, K Bruce; Kaufmann, Philip R; Moore, Steven B; Gregory, Sandra J

    2009-12-01

    Structural physical habitat attributes include indices of stream size, channel gradient, substrate size, habitat complexity, and riparian vegetation cover and structure. The Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) is designed to assess the status and trends of ecological resources at different scales. High-resolution remote sensing provides unique capabilities in detecting a variety of features and indicators of environmental health and condition. LIDAR is an airborne scanning laser system that provides data on topography, channel dimensions (width, depth), slope, channel complexity (residual pools, volume, morphometric complexity, hydraulic roughness), riparian vegetation (height and density), dimensions of riparian zone, anthropogenic alterations and disturbances, and channel and riparian interaction. Hyperspectral aerial imagery offers the advantage of high spectral and spatial resolution allowing for the detection and identification of riparian vegetation and natural and anthropogenic features at a resolution not possible with satellite imagery. When combined, or fused, these technologies comprise a powerful geospatial data set for assessing and monitoring lentic and lotic environmental characteristics and condition. PMID:19165614

  6. IMPROVING BIOGENIC EMISSION ESTIMATES WITH SATELLITE IMAGERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will review how existing and future applications of satellite imagery can improve the accuracy of biogenic emission estimates. Existing applications of satellite imagery to biogenic emission estimates have focused on characterizing land cover. Vegetation dat...

  7. NOAA's Use of High-Resolution Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hund, Erik

    2007-01-01

    NOAA's use of high-resolution imagery consists of: a) Shoreline mapping and nautical chart revision; b) Coastal land cover mapping; c) Benthic habitat mapping; d) Disaster response; and e) Imagery collection and support for coastal programs.

  8. Suomi NPP VIIRS Imagery evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillger, Donald; Seaman, Curtis; Liang, Calvin; Miller, Steven; Lindsey, Daniel; Kopp, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) combines the best aspects of both civilian and military heritage instrumentation. VIIRS has improved capabilities over its predecessors: a wider swath width and much higher spatial resolution at swath edge. The VIIRS day-night band (DNB) is sensitive to very low levels of visible light and is capable of detecting low clouds, land surface features, and sea ice at night, in addition to light emissions from both man-made and natural sources. Imagery from the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite has been in the checkout process since its launch on 28 October 2011. The ongoing evaluation of VIIRS Imagery helped resolve several imagery-related issues, including missing radiance measurements. In particular, near-constant contrast imagery, derived from the DNB, had a large number of issues to overcome, including numerous missing or blank-fill images and a stray light leakage problem that was only recently resolved via software fixes. In spite of various sensor issues, the VIIRS DNB has added tremendous operational and research value to Suomi NPP. Remarkably, it has been discovered to be sensitive enough to identify clouds even in very low light new moon conditions, using reflected light from the Earth's airglow layer. Impressive examples of the multispectral imaging capabilities are shown to demonstrate its applications for a wide range of operational users. Future members of the Joint Polar Satellite System constellation will also carry and extend the use of VIIRS. Imagery evaluation will continue with these satellites to ensure the quality of imagery for end users.

  9. Automatic Orientation and Mosaicking of Archived Aerial Photography Using Structure from Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, J. A.

    2016-03-01

    Aerial photography has been acquired regularly for topographic mapping since the decade of 1930. In Portugal there are several archives of aerial photos in national mapping institutes, as well as in local authorities, containing a total of nearly one hundred thousand photographs, mainly from the 1940s, 1950s and some from 1930s. These data sets provide important information about the evolution of the territory, for environment and agricultural studies, land planning, and many other examples. There is an interest in making these aerial coverages available in the form of orthorectified mosaics for integration in a GIS. The orthorectification of old photographs may pose several difficulties. Required data about the camera and lens system used, such as the focal distance, fiducial marks coordinates or distortion parameters may not be available, making it difficult to process these data in conventional photogrammetric software. This paper describes an essentially automatic methodology for orientation, orthorectification and mosaic composition of blocks of old aerial photographs, using Agisoft Photoscan structure from motion software. The operation sequence is similar to the processing of UAV imagery. The method was applied to photographs from 1947 and 1958, provided by the Portuguese Army Geographic Institute. The orientation was done with GCPs collected from recent orthophototos and topographic maps. This may be a difficult task, especially in urban areas that went through many changes. Residuals were in general below 1 meter. The agreement of the orthomosaics with recent orthophotos and GIS vector data was in general very good. The process is relatively fast and automatic, and can be considered in the processing of full coverages of old aerial photographs.

  10. Karst Groundwater Hydrologic Analyses Based on Aerial Thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, C. Warren; Keith, A. G.

    2000-01-01

    On February 23, 1999, thermal imagery of Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama was collected using an airborne thermal camera. Ground resolution was I in. Approximately 40 km 2 of thermal imagery in and around Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was analyzed to determine the location of springs for groundwater monitoring. Subsequently, forty-five springs were located ranging in flow from a few ml/sec to approximately 280 liter/sec. Groundwater temperatures are usually near the mean annual surface air temperature. On thermography collected during the winter, springs show up as very warm spots. Many of the new springs were submerged in lakes, streams, or swamps; consequently, flow measurements were difficult. Without estimates of discharge, the impacts of contaminated discharge on surface streams would be difficult to evaluate. An approach to obtaining an estimate was developed using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System (CORMIX). The thermography was queried to obtain a temperature profile down the center of the surface plume. The spring discharge was modeled with CORMIX, and the flow adjusted until the surface temperature profile was matched. The presence of volatile compounds in some of the new springs also allowed MSFC to unravel the natural system of solution cavities of the karst aquifer. Sampling results also showed that two springs on either side of a large creek had the same water source so that groundwater was able to pass beneath the creek.

  11. Infrared photography and imagery in water resources research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinove, Charles J.

    1965-01-01

    Infrared photography has restricted usefulness in general water resources studies but is particularly useful in special problems such as shoreline mapping. Infrared imagery is beginning to be used in water resources studies for the identification of surface and sub surface thermal anomalies as expressed at the surface and the measurement of apparent water surface temperatures. It will attain its maximum usefulness only when interpretation criteria for infrared imagery are fully developed. Several important hydrologic problems to which infrared imagery may be applied are: (1) determination of circulation and cooling of water in power plant cooling ponds, (2) measurement of river temperature and temperature decline downstream from power plants discharging heated water, (3) identification of submarine springs along coasts, and (4) measurement of temperature differences along streams as indicators of effluent seepage of ground water. Although it is possible at this time to identify many features of importance to hydrology by the use of infrared imagery, the task remaining is to develop criteria to show the hydrologic significance of the features.

  12. Oblique Aerial Images and Their Use in Cultural Heritage Documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhle, J.

    2013-07-01

    Oblique images enable three-dimensional (3d) modelling of objects with vertical dimensions. Such imagery is nowadays systematically taken of cities and may easily become available. The documentation of cultural heritage can take advantage of these sources of information. Two new oblique camera systems are presented and characteristics of such images are summarized. A first example uses images of a new multi-camera system for the derivation of orthoimages, façade plots with photo texture, 3d scatter plots, and dynamic 3d models of a historic church. The applied methodology is based on automatically derived point clouds of high density. Each point will be supplemented with colour and other attributes. The problems experienced in these processes and the solutions to these problems are presented. The applied tools are a combination of professional tools, free software, and of own software developments. Special attention is given to the quality of input images. Investigations are carried out on edges in the images. The combination of oblique and nadir images enables new possibilities in the processing. The use of the near-infrared channel besides the red, green, and blue channel of the applied multispectral imagery is also of advantage. Vegetation close to the object of interest can easily be removed. A second example describes the modelling of a monument by means of a non-metric camera and a standard software package. The presented results regard achieved geometric accuracy and image quality. It is concluded that the use of oblique aerial images together with image-based processing methods yield new possibilities of economic and accurate documentation of tall monuments.

  13. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle to Estimate Nitrogen Status of Turfgrasses

    PubMed Central

    Corniglia, Matteo; Gaetani, Monica; Grossi, Nicola; Magni, Simone; Migliazzi, Mauro; Angelini, Luciana; Mazzoncini, Marco; Silvestri, Nicola; Fontanelli, Marco; Raffaelli, Michele; Peruzzi, Andrea; Volterrani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Spectral reflectance data originating from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) imagery is a valuable tool to monitor plant nutrition, reduce nitrogen (N) application to real needs, thus producing both economic and environmental benefits. The objectives of the trial were i) to compare the spectral reflectance of 3 turfgrasses acquired via UAV and by a ground-based instrument; ii) to test the sensitivity of the 2 data acquisition sources in detecting induced variation in N levels. N application gradients from 0 to 250 kg ha-1 were created on 3 different turfgrass species: Cynodon dactylon x transvaalensis (Cdxt) ‘Patriot’, Zoysia matrella (Zm) ‘Zeon’ and Paspalum vaginatum (Pv) ‘Salam’. Proximity and remote-sensed reflectance measurements were acquired using a GreenSeeker handheld crop sensor and a UAV with onboard a multispectral sensor, to determine Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Proximity-sensed NDVI is highly correlated with data acquired from UAV with r values ranging from 0.83 (Zm) to 0.97 (Cdxt). Relating NDVI-UAV with clippings N, the highest r is for Cdxt (0.95). The most reactive species to N fertilization is Cdxt with a clippings N% ranging from 1.2% to 4.1%. UAV imagery can adequately assess the N status of turfgrasses and its spatial variability within a species, so for large areas, such as golf courses, sod farms or race courses, UAV acquired data can optimize turf management. For relatively small green areas, a hand-held crop sensor can be a less expensive and more practical option. PMID:27341674

  14. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle to Estimate Nitrogen Status of Turfgrasses.

    PubMed

    Caturegli, Lisa; Corniglia, Matteo; Gaetani, Monica; Grossi, Nicola; Magni, Simone; Migliazzi, Mauro; Angelini, Luciana; Mazzoncini, Marco; Silvestri, Nicola; Fontanelli, Marco; Raffaelli, Michele; Peruzzi, Andrea; Volterrani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Spectral reflectance data originating from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) imagery is a valuable tool to monitor plant nutrition, reduce nitrogen (N) application to real needs, thus producing both economic and environmental benefits. The objectives of the trial were i) to compare the spectral reflectance of 3 turfgrasses acquired via UAV and by a ground-based instrument; ii) to test the sensitivity of the 2 data acquisition sources in detecting induced variation in N levels. N application gradients from 0 to 250 kg ha-1 were created on 3 different turfgrass species: Cynodon dactylon x transvaalensis (Cdxt) 'Patriot', Zoysia matrella (Zm) 'Zeon' and Paspalum vaginatum (Pv) 'Salam'. Proximity and remote-sensed reflectance measurements were acquired using a GreenSeeker handheld crop sensor and a UAV with onboard a multispectral sensor, to determine Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Proximity-sensed NDVI is highly correlated with data acquired from UAV with r values ranging from 0.83 (Zm) to 0.97 (Cdxt). Relating NDVI-UAV with clippings N, the highest r is for Cdxt (0.95). The most reactive species to N fertilization is Cdxt with a clippings N% ranging from 1.2% to 4.1%. UAV imagery can adequately assess the N status of turfgrasses and its spatial variability within a species, so for large areas, such as golf courses, sod farms or race courses, UAV acquired data can optimize turf management. For relatively small green areas, a hand-held crop sensor can be a less expensive and more practical option. PMID:27341674

  15. Evaluation of Bare Ground on Rangelands using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Robert P. Breckenridge; Maxine Dakins

    2011-01-01

    Attention is currently being given to methods that assess the ecological condition of rangelands throughout the United States. There are a number of different indicators that assess ecological condition of rangelands. Bare Ground is being considered by a number of agencies and resource specialists as a lead indicator that can be evaluated over a broad area. Traditional methods of measuring bare ground rely on field technicians collecting data along a line transect or from a plot. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) provide an alternative to collecting field data, can monitor a large area in a relative short period of time, and in many cases can enhance safety and time required to collect data. In this study, both fixed wing and helicopter UAVs were used to measure bare ground in a sagebrush steppe ecosystem. The data were collected with digital imagery and read using the image analysis software SamplePoint. The approach was tested over seven different plots and compared against traditional field methods to evaluate accuracy for assessing bare ground. The field plots were located on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) site west of Idaho Falls, Idaho in locations where there is very little disturbance by humans and the area is grazed only by wildlife. The comparison of fixed-wing and helicopter UAV technology against field estimates shows good agreement for the measurement of bare ground. This study shows that if a high degree of detail and data accuracy is desired, then a helicopter UAV may be a good platform. If the data collection objective is to assess broad-scale landscape level changes, then the collection of imagery with a fixed-wing system is probably more appropriate.

  16. Agency Video, Audio and Imagery Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grubbs, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation was to inform the ISS International Partners of the new NASA Agency Video, Audio and Imagery Library (AVAIL) website. AVAIL is a new resource for the public to search for and download NASA-related imagery, and is not intended to replace the current process by which the International Partners receive their Space Station imagery products.

  17. Semi-automated analysis of high-resolution aerial images to quantify docks in glacial lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Marcus W.; Vondracek, Bruce; Hatch, Lorin K.; Vinje, Jason

    2013-07-01

    Lake resources can be negatively affected by environmental stressors originating from multiple sources and different spatial scales. Shoreline development, in particular, can negatively affect lake resources through decline in habitat quality, physical disturbance, and impacts on fisheries. The development of remote sensing techniques that efficiently characterize shoreline development in a regional context could greatly improve management approaches for protecting and restoring lake resources. The goal of this study was to develop an approach using high-resolution aerial photographs to quantify and assess docks as indicators of shoreline development. First, we describe a dock analysis workflow that can be used to quantify the spatial extent of docks using aerial images. Our approach incorporates pixel-based classifiers with object-based techniques to effectively analyze high-resolution digital imagery. Second, we apply the analysis workflow to quantify docks for 4261 lakes managed by the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. Overall accuracy of the analysis results was 98.4% (87.7% based on K^) after manual post-processing. The analysis workflow was also 74% more efficient than the time required for manual digitization of docks. These analyses have immediate relevance for resource planning in Minnesota, whereas the dock analysis workflow could be used to quantify shoreline development in other regions with comparable imagery. These data can also be used to better understand the effects of shoreline development on aquatic resources and to evaluate the effects of shoreline development relative to other stressors.

  18. Agricultural Applications and Requirements for Thermal Infrared Scanners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L.

    1971-01-01

    Some of the applications of thermal scanner data in agriculture are presented along with illustrations of some of the factors affecting the temperature of plants, soil, and water. Examples of thermal imagery are included.

  19. Suitability of low cost commercial off-the-shelf aerial platforms and consumer grade digital cameras for small format aerial photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turley, Anthony Allen

    Many research projects require the use of aerial images. Wetlands evaluation, crop monitoring, wildfire management, environmental change detection, and forest inventory are but a few of the applications of aerial imagery. Low altitude Small Format Aerial Photography (SFAP) is a bridge between satellite and man-carrying aircraft image acquisition and ground-based photography. The author's project evaluates digital images acquired using low cost commercial digital cameras and standard model airplanes to determine their suitability for remote sensing applications. Images from two different sites were obtained. Several photo missions were flown over each site, acquiring images in the visible and near infrared electromagnetic bands. Images were sorted and analyzed to select those with the least distortion, and blended together with Microsoft Image Composite Editor. By selecting images taken within minutes apart, radiometric qualities of the images were virtually identical, yielding no blend lines in the composites. A commercial image stitching program, Autopano Pro, was purchased during the later stages of this study. Autopano Pro was often able to mosaic photos that the free Image Composite Editor was unable to combine. Using telemetry data from an onboard data logger, images were evaluated to calculate scale and spatial resolution. ERDAS ER Mapper and ESRI ArcGIS were used to rectify composite images. Despite the limitations inherent in consumer grade equipment, images of high spatial resolution were obtained. Mosaics of as many as 38 images were created, and the author was able to record detailed aerial images of forest and wetland areas where foot travel was impractical or impossible.

  20. The DOE ARM Aerial Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Hubbe, John M.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Mei, Fan; Chand, Duli; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Andrews, Elisabeth; Biraud, S.; McFarquhar, Greg

    2014-05-01

    The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a climate research user facility operating stationary ground sites that provide long-term measurements of climate relevant properties, mobile ground- and ship-based facilities to conduct shorter field campaigns (6-12 months), and the ARM Aerial Facility (AAF). The airborne observations acquired by the AAF enhance the surface-based ARM measurements by providing high-resolution in-situ measurements for process understanding, retrieval-algorithm development, and model evaluation that are not possible using ground- or satellite-based techniques. Several ARM aerial efforts were consolidated into the AAF in 2006. With the exception of a small aircraft used for routine measurements of aerosols and carbon cycle gases, AAF at the time had no dedicated aircraft and only a small number of instruments at its disposal. In this "virtual hangar" mode, AAF successfully carried out several missions contracting with organizations and investigators who provided their research aircraft and instrumentation. In 2009, AAF started managing operations of the Battelle-owned Gulfstream I (G-1) large twin-turboprop research aircraft. Furthermore, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided funding for the procurement of over twenty new instruments to be used aboard the G-1 and other AAF virtual-hangar aircraft. AAF now executes missions in the virtual- and real-hangar mode producing freely available datasets for studying aerosol, cloud, and radiative processes in the atmosphere. AAF is also engaged in the maturation and testing of newly developed airborne sensors to help foster the next generation of airborne instruments.

  1. Unmanned aerial survey of elephants.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Cédric; Lejeune, Philippe; Lisein, Jonathan; Sawadogo, Prosper; Bouché, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The use of a UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System) was tested to survey large mammals in the Nazinga Game Ranch in the south of Burkina Faso. The Gatewing ×100™ equipped with a Ricoh GR III camera was used to test animal reaction as the UAS passed, and visibility on the images. No reaction was recorded as the UAS passed at a height of 100 m. Observations, made on a set of more than 7000 images, revealed that only elephants (Loxodonta africana) were easily visible while medium and small sized mammals were not. The easy observation of elephants allows experts to enumerate them on images acquired at a height of 100 m. We, therefore, implemented an aerial strip sample count along transects used for the annual wildlife foot count. A total of 34 elephants were recorded on 4 transects, each overflown twice. The elephant density was estimated at 2.47 elephants/km(2) with a coefficient of variation (CV%) of 36.10%. The main drawback of our UAS was its low autonomy (45 min). Increased endurance of small UAS is required to replace manned aircraft survey of large areas (about 1000 km of transect per day vs 40 km for our UAS). The monitoring strategy should be adapted according to the sampling plan. Also, the UAS is as expensive as a second-hand light aircraft. However the logistic and flight implementation are easier, the running costs are lower and its use is safer. Technological evolution will make civil UAS more efficient, allowing them to compete with light aircraft for aerial wildlife surveys. PMID:23405088

  2. Unmanned Aerial Survey of Elephants

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Cédric; Lejeune, Philippe; Lisein, Jonathan; Sawadogo, Prosper; Bouché, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The use of a UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System) was tested to survey large mammals in the Nazinga Game Ranch in the south of Burkina Faso. The Gatewing ×100™ equipped with a Ricoh GR III camera was used to test animal reaction as the UAS passed, and visibility on the images. No reaction was recorded as the UAS passed at a height of 100 m. Observations, made on a set of more than 7000 images, revealed that only elephants (Loxodonta africana) were easily visible while medium and small sized mammals were not. The easy observation of elephants allows experts to enumerate them on images acquired at a height of 100 m. We, therefore, implemented an aerial strip sample count along transects used for the annual wildlife foot count. A total of 34 elephants were recorded on 4 transects, each overflown twice. The elephant density was estimated at 2.47 elephants/km2 with a coefficient of variation (CV%) of 36.10%. The main drawback of our UAS was its low autonomy (45 min). Increased endurance of small UAS is required to replace manned aircraft survey of large areas (about 1000 km of transect per day vs 40 km for our UAS). The monitoring strategy should be adapted according to the sampling plan. Also, the UAS is as expensive as a second-hand light aircraft. However the logistic and flight implementation are easier, the running costs are lower and its use is safer. Technological evolution will make civil UAS more efficient, allowing them to compete with light aircraft for aerial wildlife surveys. PMID:23405088

  3. A semi-automated system for plotting and computer cataloging of remote sensing imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnauck, G. E.; Hurd, D. J.; Kroeck, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    Description of a computer-assisted system for plotting and descriptor-cataloging of aerial imagery - an ingredient of the aerial image data handling system of the NASA Earth Resources Aircraft Project (ERAP). The system under consideration uses two graphic tablets linked interactively with a digital computer as input devices for deriving frame coordinates by correlating image points to map points. The various software programs and operating modes facilitate a semiautomatic plotting of an image by selecting two or more points within the image for matching with map details. The computer performs the scaling and orientation transformations for the calculation of the center and corner coordinates of the frame. Twenty five other descriptors for each frame are fed into a computerized data base requiring a minimum operator's time for verification and correction.

  4. A Vegetation Analysis on Horn Island Mississippi, ca. 1940 using Habitat Characteristic Dimensions Derived from Historical Aerial Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeter, G. W.; Carter, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    Guy (Will) Wilburn Jeter Jr., Gregory A. Carter University of Southern Mississippi Geography and Geology Gulf Coast Geospatial Center The over-arching goal of this research is to assess habitat change over a seventy year period to better understand the combined effects of global sea level rise and storm impacts on the stability of Horn Island, MS habitats. Historical aerial photography is often overlooked as a resource for use in determining habitat change. However, the spatial information provided even by black and white imagery can give insight into past habitat composition via textural analysis. This research will evaluate characteristic dimensions; most notably patch size of habitat types using simple geo-statistics and textures of brightness values of historical aerial imagery. It is assumed that each cover type has an identifiable patch size that can be used as a unique classifier of each habitat type. Analytical methods applied to the 1940 imagery were developed using 2010 field data and USDA aerial imagery. Textural moving window methods and basic geo-statistics were used to estimate characteristic dimensions of each cover type in 1940 aerial photography. The moving window texture analysis was configured with multiple window sizes to capture the characteristic dimensions of six habitat types; water, bare sand , dune herb land, estuarine shrub land, marsh land and slash pine woodland. Coefficient of variation (CV), contrast, and entropy texture filters were used to analyze the spatial variability of the 1940 and 2010 imagery. (CV) was used to depict the horizontal variability of each habitat characteristic dimension. Contrast was used to represent the variability of bright versus dark pixel values; entropy was used to show the variation in the slash pine woodland habitat type. Results indicate a substantial increase in marshland habitat relative to other habitat types since 1940. Results also reveal each habitat-type, such as dune herb-land, marsh

  5. Vegetation monitoring using low-altitude, large-scale imagery from radio-controlled drones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quilter, Mark Charles

    As both farmers and range managers are required to manage larger acreage, new methods for vegetation monitoring need to be developed. The methods need to increase information and yield, and at the same time reduce labor requirements and cost. This dissertation discusses how the use of radio controlled aircraft can collect large scale imagery that can be used to monitor vegetation. Several methods are explored which reduce the labor requirements for collecting and recording data. The work demonstrates the effectiveness of these methods and presents details of the procedures used. Many of the techniques have historically been used with aerial photographs and satellite imagery. However, the use of these procedures to collect detailed data at a scale required for vegetation monitoring is new. Image processing procedures are also demonstrated to have promise in changing the way ranges are monitored.

  6. Music, Hemisphere Preference and Imagery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratton, Valerie N.; Zalanowski, Annette H.

    Two experiments were conducted to determine a possible relationship between the right hemisphere, music perception, and mental imagery. The first experiment compared two groups of college students, one of which showed a preference for left hemisphere thinking (n=22) and the other a preference for right hemisphere thinking (n=20), in order to test…

  7. Dialectical Imagery and Postmodern Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Kevin G.

    2006-01-01

    This article suggests utilizing dialectical imagery, as understood by German social philosopher Walter Benjamin, as an additional qualitative data analysis strategy for research into the postmodern condition. The use of images mined from research data may offer epistemological transformative possibilities that will assist in the demystification of…

  8. Cooperative Lander-Surface/Aerial Microflyer Missions for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sarita; Lay, Norman; Hine, Butler; Zornetzer, Steven

    2004-01-01

    Concepts are being investigated for exploratory missions to Mars based on Bioinspired Engineering of Exploration Systems (BEES), which is a guiding principle of this effort to develop biomorphic explorers. The novelty lies in the use of a robust telecom architecture for mission data return, utilizing multiple local relays (including the lander itself as a local relay and the explorers in the dual role of a local relay) to enable ranges 10 to 1,000 km and downlink of color imagery. As illustrated in Figure 1, multiple microflyers that can be both surface or aerially launched are envisioned in shepherding, metamorphic, and imaging roles. These microflyers imbibe key bio-inspired principles in their flight control, navigation, and visual search operations. Honey-bee inspired algorithms utilizing visual cues to perform autonomous navigation operations such as terrain following will be utilized. The instrument suite will consist of a panoramic imager and polarization imager specifically optimized to detect ice and water. For microflyers, particularly at small sizes, bio-inspired solutions appear to offer better alternate solutions than conventional engineered approaches. This investigation addresses a wide range of interrelated issues, including desired scientific data, sizes, rates, and communication ranges that can be accomplished in alternative mission scenarios. The mission illustrated in Figure 1 offers the most robust telecom architecture and the longest range for exploration with two landers being available as main local relays in addition to an ephemeral aerial probe local relay. The shepherding or metamorphic plane are in their dual role as local relays and image data collection/storage nodes. Appropriate placement of the landing site for the scout lander with respect to the main mission lander can allow coverage of extremely large ranges and enable exhaustive survey of the area of interest. In particular, this mission could help with the path planning and risk

  9. Improved seagrass mapping using linear spectral unmixing of aerial photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhrin, Amy V.; Townsend, Philip A.

    2016-03-01

    Mapping of seagrass is challenging, particularly in areas where seagrass cover ranges from extensive, continuous meadows to aggregations of patchy mounds often no more than a meter across. Manual delineation of seagrass habitat polygons through visual photointerpretation of high resolution aerial imagery remains the most widely adopted approach for mapping seagrass extent but polygons often include unvegetated gaps. Although mapped polygon data exist for many estuaries, these are likely insufficient to accurately characterize spatial pattern or estimate area actually occupied by seagrass. We evaluated whether a linear spectral unmixing (LSU) classifier applied to manually-delineated seagrass polygons clipped from digital aerial images could improve mapping of seagrass in North Carolina. Representative seagrass endmembers were chosen directly from images and used to unmix image-clipped polygons, resulting in fraction planes (maps) of the proportion of seagrass present in each image pixel. Thresholding was used to generate seagrass maps for each pixel proportion from 0 (no thresholding, all pixel proportions included) to 1 (only pixels having 100% seagrass) in 0.1 increments. The optimal pixel proportion for identifying seagrass was assessed using Euclidean distance calculated from Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves and overall thematic accuracy calculated from confusion matrices. We assessed overall classifier performance using Kappa statistics and Area Under the (ROC) Curve (AUC). We compared seagrass area calculated from each threshold map to the total area of the corresponding manually-delineated polygon. LSU effectively classified seagrass and performed better than a random classification as indicated by high values for both Kappa statistics (0.72-98) and AUC (0.80-0.99). The LSU classifier effectively distinguished between seagrass and bare substrate resulting in fine-scale seagrass maps with overall thematic accuracies that exceeded our expected

  10. Therman Infrared Imaging In Agriculture Using a Small Unmanned Aerial System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal infrared (TIR) emittance from arable lands shows great promise as a tool to evaluate crop productivity, monitor stress, predict yield and evaluate management alternatives. However, the utility of TIR imagery has been complicated by: 1) infrequent acquisitions, 2) coarse spatial resolution a...

  11. Aerial Terrain Mapping Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahar, K. N.

    2012-08-01

    This paper looks into the latest achievement in the low-cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology in their capacity to map the semi-development areas. The objectives of this study are to establish a new methodology or a new algorithm in image registration during interior orientation process and to determine the accuracy of the photogrammetric products by using UAV images. Recently, UAV technology has been used in several applications such as mapping, agriculture and surveillance. The aim of this study is to scrutinize the usage of UAV to map the semi-development areas. The performance of the low cost UAV mapping study was established on a study area with two image processing methods so that the results could be comparable. A non-metric camera was attached at the bottom of UAV and it was used to capture images at both sites after it went through several calibration steps. Calibration processes were carried out to determine focal length, principal distance, radial lens distortion, tangential lens distortion and affinity. A new method in image registration for a non-metric camera is discussed in this paper as a part of new methodology of this study. This method used the UAV Global Positioning System (GPS) onboard to register the UAV image for interior orientation process. Check points were established randomly at both sites using rapid static Global Positioning System. Ground control points are used for exterior orientation process, and check point is used for accuracy assessment of photogrammetric product. All acquired images were processed in a photogrammetric software. Two methods of image registration were applied in this study, namely, GPS onboard registration and ground control point registration. Both registrations were processed by using photogrammetric software and the result is discussed. Two results were produced in this study, which are the digital orthophoto and the digital terrain model. These results were analyzed by using the root mean square

  12. The Potential Uses of Commercial Satellite Imagery in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Vannoni, M.G.

    1999-06-08

    It became clear during the workshop that the applicability of commercial satellite imagery to the verification of future regional arms control agreements is limited at this time. Non-traditional security topics such as environmental protection, natural resource management, and the development of infrastructure offer the more promising applications for commercial satellite imagery in the short-term. Many problems and opportunities in these topics are regional, or at least multilateral, in nature. A further advantage is that, unlike arms control and nonproliferation applications, cooperative use of imagery in these topics can be done independently of the formal Middle East Peace Process. The value of commercial satellite imagery to regional arms control and nonproliferation, however, will increase during the next three years as new, more capable satellite systems are launched. Aerial imagery, such as that used in the Open Skies Treaty, can also make significant contributions to both traditional and non-traditional security applications but has the disadvantage of requiring access to national airspace and potentially higher cost. There was general consensus that commercial satellite imagery is under-utilized in the Middle East and resources for remote sensing, both human and institutional, are limited. This relative scarcity, however, provides a natural motivation for collaboration in non-traditional security topics. Collaborations between scientists, businesses, universities, and non-governmental organizations can work at the grass-roots level and yield contributions to confidence building as well as scientific and economic results. Joint analysis projects would benefit the region as well as establish precedents for cooperation.

  13. Use of Remote Sensed Imagery to Evaluate Land Cover Change: North Platte River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, G.; Piburn, J.; Rudolph, J.; Tootle, G.; Marks, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    High resolution remote sensed data for land cover classification, such as LiDAR, is often times not readily available in rural areas. For basin-wide and other small-scale projects, proprietary LiDAR collection may not be cost effective and an alternative is found with the use of the National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP). NAIP imagery provides 1-meter resolution aerial imagery for the entire United States, temporally updated on a state by state basis at no charge to the user. NAIP imagery was used to classify forest cover change due to beetle infestation in the roughly 4,000 square-mile North Platte River Basin (NPRB). Using an interactive classification method with an underlying maximum likelihood classification algorithm, it was found that forest cover in the NPRB decreased by approximately 25% from 2005-2006 to 2009. Using focal histograms to refine the classifications to large-scale USGS 7.5 minute quadrangles, the land cover results will be used as parameters in the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) Macroscale Hydrologic Model to estimate how this physical change in land cover affects the riparian system of the NPRB, specifically streamflow response.

  14. Evaluate ERTS imagery for mapping and detection of changes of snowcover on land and on glaciers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, M. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The area of snow cover on land was determined from ERTS-1 imagery. Snow cover in specific drainage basins was measured with the Stanford Research Institute console by electronically superimposing basin outlines on imagery, with video density slicing to measure areas. Snow covered area and snowline altitudes were also determined by enlarging ERTS-1 imagery 1:250,000 and using a transparent map overlay. Under very favorable conditions, snowline altitude was determined to an accuracy of about 60 m. Ability to map snow cover or to determine snowline altitude depends primarily on cloud cover and vegetation and secondarily on slope, terrain roughness, sun angle, radiometric fidelity, and amount of spectral information available. Glacier accumulation area ratios were determined from ERTS-1 imagery. Also, subtle flow structures, undetected on aerial photographs, were visible. Surging glaciers were identified, and the changes resulting from the surge of a large glacier were measured as were changes in tidal glacier termini.

  15. Habitat Mapping and Classification of the Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve using AISA Hyperspectral Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, K.

    2012-12-01

    Habitat mapping and classification provides essential information for land use planning and ecosystem research, monitoring and management. At the Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (GRDNERR), Mississippi, habitat characterization of the Grand Bay watershed will also be used to develop a decision-support tool for the NERR's managers and state and local partners. Grand Bay NERR habitat units were identified using a combination of remotely sensed imagery, aerial photography and elevation data. Airborne Imaging Spectrometer for Applications (AISA) hyperspectral data, acquired 5 and 6 May 2010, was analyzed and classified using ENVI v4.8 and v5.0 software. The AISA system was configured to return 63 bands of digital imagery data with a spectral range of 400 to 970 nm (VNIR), spectral resolution (bandwidth) at 8.76 nm, and 1 m spatial resolution. Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) and Inverse Minimum Noise Fraction were applied to the data prior to using Spectral Angle Mapper ([SAM] supervised) and ISODATA (unsupervised) classification techniques. The resulting class image was exported to ArcGIS 10.0 and visually inspected and compared with the original imagery as well as auxiliary datasets to assist in the attribution of habitat characteristics to the spectral classes, including: National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP) aerial photography, Jackson County, MS, 2010; USFWS National Wetlands Inventory, 2007; an existing GRDNERR habitat map (2004), SAV (2009) and salt panne (2002-2003) GIS produced by GRDNERR; and USACE lidar topo-bathymetry, 2005. A field survey to validate the map's accuracy will take place during the 2012 summer season. ENVI's Random Sample generator was used to generate GIS points for a ground-truth survey. The broad range of coastal estuarine habitats and geomorphological features- many of which are transitional and vulnerable to environmental stressors- that have been identified within the GRDNERR point to the value of the Reserve for

  16. Chosen Aspects of the Production of the Basic Map Using Uav Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedzierski, M.; Fryskowska, A.; Wierzbicki, D.; Nerc, P.

    2016-06-01

    For several years there has been an increasing interest in the use of unmanned aerial vehicles in acquiring image data from a low altitude. Considering the cost-effectiveness of the flight time of UAVs vs. conventional airplanes, the use of the former is advantageous when generating large scale accurate ortophotos. Through the development of UAV imagery, we can update large-scale basic maps. These maps are cartographic products which are used for registration, economic, and strategic planning. On the basis of these maps other cartographic maps are produced, for example maps used building planning. The article presents an assessesment of the usefulness of orthophotos based on UAV imagery to upgrade the basic map. In the research a compact, non-metric camera, mounted on a fixed wing powered by an electric motor was used. The tested area covered flat, agricultural and woodland terrains. The processing and analysis of orthorectification were carried out with the INPHO UASMaster programme. Due to the effect of UAV instability on low-altitude imagery, the use of non-metric digital cameras and the low-accuracy GPS-INS sensors, the geometry of images is visibly lower were compared to conventional digital aerial photos (large values of phi and kappa angles). Therefore, typically, low-altitude images require large along- and across-track direction overlap - usually above 70 %. As a result of the research orthoimages were obtained with a resolution of 0.06 meters and a horizontal accuracy of 0.10m. Digitized basic maps were used as the reference data. The accuracy of orthoimages vs. basic maps was estimated based on the study and on the available reference sources. As a result, it was found that the geometric accuracy and interpretative advantages of the final orthoimages allow the updating of basic maps. It is estimated that such an update of basic maps based on UAV imagery reduces processing time by approx. 40%.

  17. Detection of Tree Crowns Based on Reclassification Using Aerial Images and LIDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talebi, S.; Zarea, A.; Sadeghian, S.; Arefi, H.

    2013-09-01

    Tree detection using aerial sensors in early decades was focused by many researchers in different fields including Remote Sensing and Photogrammetry. This paper is intended to detect trees in complex city areas using aerial imagery and laser scanning data. Our methodology is a hierarchal unsupervised method consists of some primitive operations. This method could be divided into three sections, in which, first section uses aerial imagery and both second and third sections use laser scanners data. In the first section a vegetation cover mask is created in both sunny and shadowed areas. In the second section Rate of Slope Change (RSC) is used to eliminate grasses. In the third section a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) is obtained from LiDAR data. By using DTM and Digital Surface Model (DSM) we would get to Normalized Digital Surface Model (nDSM). Then objects which are lower than a specific height are eliminated. Now there are three result layers from three sections. At the end multiplication operation is used to get final result layer. This layer will be smoothed by morphological operations. The result layer is sent to WG III/4 to evaluate. The evaluation result shows that our method has a good rank in comparing to other participants' methods in ISPRS WG III/4, when assessed in terms of 5 indices including area base completeness, area base correctness, object base completeness, object base correctness and boundary RMS. With regarding of being unsupervised and automatic, this method is improvable and could be integrate with other methods to get best results.

  18. Locating chimpanzee nests and identifying fruiting trees with an unmanned aerial vehicle.

    PubMed

    van Andel, Alexander C; Wich, Serge A; Boesch, Christophe; Koh, Lian Pin; Robbins, Martha M; Kelly, Joseph; Kuehl, Hjalmar S

    2015-10-01

    Monitoring of animal populations is essential for conservation management. Various techniques are available to assess spatiotemporal patterns of species distribution and abundance. Nest surveys are often used for monitoring great apes. Quickly developing technologies, including unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can be used to complement these ground-based surveys, especially for covering large areas rapidly. Aerial surveys have been used successfully to detect the nests of orang-utans. It is unknown if such an approach is practical for African apes, which usually build their nests at lower heights, where they might be obscured by forest canopy. In this 2-month study, UAV-derived aerial imagery was used for two distinct purposes: testing the detectability of chimpanzee nests and identifying fruiting trees used by chimpanzees in Loango National Park (Gabon). Chimpanzee nest data were collected through two approaches: we located nests on the ground and then tried to detect them in UAV photos and vice versa. Ground surveys were conducted using line transects, reconnaissance trails, and opportunistic sampling during which we detected 116 individual nests in 28 nest groups. In complementary UAV images we detected 48% of the individual nests (68% of nest groups) in open coastal forests and 8% of individual nests (33% of nest groups) in closed canopy inland forests. The key factor for nest detectability in UAV imagery was canopy openness. Data on fruiting trees were collected from five line transects. In 122 UAV images 14 species of trees (N = 433) were identified, alongside 37 tree species (N = 205) in complementary ground surveys. Relative abundance of common tree species correlated between ground and UAV surveys. We conclude that UAVs have great potential as a rapid assessment tool for detecting chimpanzee presence in forest with open canopy and assessing fruit tree availability. UAVs may have limited applicability for nest detection in closed canopy forest. PMID

  19. High-quality observation of surface imperviousness for urban runoff modelling using UAV imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokarczyk, P.; Leitao, J. P.; Rieckermann, J.; Schindler, K.; Blumensaat, F.

    2015-01-01

    Modelling rainfall-runoff in urban areas is increasingly applied to support flood risk assessment particularly against the background of a changing climate and an increasing urbanization. These models typically rely on high-quality data for rainfall and surface characteristics of the area. While recent research in urban drainage has been focusing on providing spatially detailed rainfall data, the technological advances in remote sensing that ease the acquisition of detailed land-use information are less prominently discussed within the community. The relevance of such methods increase as in many parts of the globe, accurate land-use information is generally lacking, because detailed image data is unavailable. Modern unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) allow acquiring high-resolution images on a local level at comparably lower cost, performing on-demand repetitive measurements, and obtaining a degree of detail tailored for the purpose of the study. In this study, we investigate for the first time the possibility to derive high-resolution imperviousness maps for urban areas from UAV imagery and to use this information as input for urban drainage models. To do so, an automatic processing pipeline with a modern classification method is tested and applied in a state-of-the-art urban drainage modelling exercise. In a real-life case study in the area of Lucerne, Switzerland, we compare imperviousness maps generated from a consumer micro-UAV and standard large-format aerial images acquired by the Swiss national mapping agency (swisstopo). After assessing their correctness, we perform an end-to-end comparison, in which they are used as an input for an urban drainage model. Then, we evaluate the influence which different image data sources and their processing methods have on hydrological and hydraulic model performance. We analyze the surface runoff of the 307 individual subcatchments regarding relevant attributes, such as peak runoff and volume. Finally, we evaluate the model

  20. Bears Show a Physiological but Limited Behavioral Response to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Ditmer, Mark A; Vincent, John B; Werden, Leland K; Tanner, Jessie C; Laske, Timothy G; Iaizzo, Paul A; Garshelis, David L; Fieberg, John R

    2015-08-31

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have the potential to revolutionize the way research is conducted in many scientific fields. UAVs can access remote or difficult terrain, collect large amounts of data for lower cost than traditional aerial methods, and facilitate observations of species that are wary of human presence. Currently, despite large regulatory hurdles, UAVs are being deployed by researchers and conservationists to monitor threats to biodiversity, collect frequent aerial imagery, estimate population abundance, and deter poaching. Studies have examined the behavioral responses of wildlife to aircraft (including UAVs), but with the widespread increase in UAV flights, it is critical to understand whether UAVs act as stressors to wildlife and to quantify that impact. Biologger technology allows for the remote monitoring of stress responses in free-roaming individuals, and when linked to locational information, it can be used to determine events or components of an animal's environment that elicit a physiological response not apparent based on behavior alone. We assessed effects of UAV flights on movements and heart rate responses of free-roaming American black bears. We observed consistently strong physiological responses but infrequent behavioral changes. All bears, including an individual denned for hibernation, responded to UAV flights with elevated heart rates, rising as much as 123 beats per minute above the pre-flight baseline. It is important to consider the additional stress on wildlife from UAV flights when developing regulations and best scientific practices. PMID:26279232