Science.gov

Sample records for aerial thermal infrared

  1. Thermal Infrared Inspection of Roof Insulation Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Jung, J.; Sohn, G.; Cohen, M.

    2015-08-01

    UAVs equipped with high-resolution thermal cameras provide an excellent investigative tool used for a multitude of building-specific applications, including roof insulation inspection. We have presented in this study a relative thermographic calibration algorithm and a superpixel Markov Random Field model to address problems in thermal infrared inspection of roof insulation using UAVs. The relative thermographic radiometric calibration algorithm is designed to address the autogain problem of the thermal camera. Results show the algorithm can enhance the contrast between warm and cool areas on the roof surface in thermal images, and produces more constant thermal signatures of different roof insulations or surfaces, which could facilitate both visual interpretation and computer-based thermal anomaly detection. An automatic thermal anomaly detection algorithm based on superpixel Markov Random Field is proposed, which is more computationally efficient than pixel based MRF, and can potentially improve the production throughput capacity and increase the detection accuracy for thermal anomaly detection. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. Toward quantitative aerial thermal infrared thermography for energy conservation in the built environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allinson, David; Medjdoub, Benachir; Wilson, Robin

    2005-03-01

    The UK Home Energy Conservation Act puts a duty on local authorities to develop strategies to improve energy efficiency in all public and private sector housing in order to tackle fuel poverty and reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The City of Nottingham, UK turned to aerial Thermal InfraRed Thermography (TIRT) to try and identify households where energy savings can be made. In this paper, existing literature is reviewed to explain the limitations of aerial TIRT for energy conservation in the built environment and define the techniques required to overcome them. This includes the range of suitable meteorological conditions at the time of the survey, the use of ground truth data, the need to account for all radiation paths and losses when calculating roof surface temperature and the assumptions that must be made when calculating insulation levels. Atmospheric calibration, roof surface emissivity and sky view factor must also be determined by some means and approaches to these problems are reviewed from the wider literature. Error analysis and benchmarking are important if the technique is to be validated and these are discussed with reference to the literature. A methodology for determining the thickness of loft insulation for residential buildings in the city of Nottingham, UK using aerial TIRT data within a GIS software environment is proposed.

  3. Infrared Surveys of Hawaiian Volcanoes: Aerial surveys with infrared imaging radiometer depict volcanic thermal patterns and structural features.

    PubMed

    Fisher, W A; Moxham, R M; Polcyn, F; Landis, G H

    1964-11-01

    Aerial infrared-sensor surveys of Kilauea volcano have depicted the areal extent and the relative intensity of abnormal thermal features in the caldera area of the volcano and along its associated rift zones. Many of these anomalies show correlation with visible steaming and reflect convective transfer of heat to the surface from subterranean sources. Structural details of the volcano, some not evident from surface observation, are also delineated by their thermal abnormalities. Several changes were observed in the patterns of infrared emission during the period of study; two such changes show correlation in location with subsequent eruptions, but the cause-and-effect relationship is uncertain. Thermal anomalies were also observed on the southwest flank of Mauna Loa; images of other volcanoes on the island of Hawaii, and of Haleakala on the island of Maui, revealed no thermal abnormalities. Approximately 25 large springs issuing into the ocean around the periphery of Hawaii have been detected. Infrared emission varies widely with surface texture and composition, suggesting that similar observations may have value for estimating surface conditions on the moon or planets. PMID:17729994

  4. New interpretations of the Fort Clark State Historic Site based on aerial color and thermal infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, Andrew Roland

    The Fort Clark State Historic Site (32ME2) is a well known site on the upper Missouri River, North Dakota. The site was the location of two Euroamerican trading posts and a large Mandan-Arikara earthlodge village. In 2004, Dr. Kenneth L. Kvamme and Dr. Tommy Hailey surveyed the site using aerial color and thermal infrared imagery collected from a powered parachute. Individual images were stitched together into large image mosaics and registered to Wood's 1993 interpretive map of the site using Adobe Photoshop. The analysis of those image mosaics resulted in the identification of more than 1,500 archaeological features, including as many as 124 earthlodges.

  5. Infrared film for aerial photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, William H.

    1979-01-01

    Considerable interest has developed recently in the use of aerial photographs for agricultural management. Even the simplest hand-held aerial photographs, especially those taken with color infrared film, often provide information not ordinarily available through routine ground observation. When fields are viewed from above, patterns and variations become more apparent, often allowing problems to be spotted which otherwise may go undetected.

  6. Wildlife Multispecies Remote Sensing Using Visible and Thermal Infrared Imagery Acquired from AN Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (uav)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrétien, L.-P.; Théau, J.; Ménard, P.

    2015-08-01

    Wildlife aerial surveys require time and significant resources. Multispecies detection could reduce costs to a single census for species that coexist spatially. Traditional methods are demanding for observers in terms of concentration and are not adapted to multispecies censuses. The processing of multispectral aerial imagery acquired from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) represents a potential solution for multispecies detection. The method used in this study is based on a multicriteria object-based image analysis applied on visible and thermal infrared imagery acquired from a UAV. This project aimed to detect American bison, fallow deer, gray wolves, and elks located in separate enclosures with a known number of individuals. Results showed that all bison and elks were detected without errors, while for deer and wolves, 0-2 individuals per flight line were mistaken with ground elements or undetected. This approach also detected simultaneously and separately the four targeted species even in the presence of other untargeted ones. These results confirm the potential of multispectral imagery acquired from UAV for wildlife census. Its operational application remains limited to small areas related to the current regulations and available technology. Standardization of the workflow will help to reduce time and expertise requirements for such technology.

  7. Surface Temperature Mapping of the University of Northern Iowa Campus Using High Resolution Thermal Infrared Aerial Imageries

    PubMed Central

    Savelyev, Alexander; Sugumaran, Ramanathan

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this project was to map the surface temperature of the University of Northern Iowa campus using high-resolution thermal infrared aerial imageries. A thermal camera with a spectral bandwidth of 3.0-5.0 μm was flown at the average altitude of 600 m, achieving ground resolution of 29 cm. Ground control data was used to construct the pixel- to-temperature conversion model, which was later used to produce temperature maps of the entire campus and also for validation of the model. The temperature map then was used to assess the building rooftop conditions and steam line faults in the study area. Assessment of the temperature map revealed a number of building structures that may be subject to insulation improvement due to their high surface temperatures leaks. Several hot spots were also identified on the campus for steam pipelines faults. High-resolution thermal infrared imagery proved highly effective tool for precise heat anomaly detection on the campus, and it can be used by university facility services for effective future maintenance of buildings and grounds.

  8. Mass and heat flux balance of La Soufrière volcano (Guadeloupe) from aerial infrared thermal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudin, Damien; Beauducel, François; Coutant, Olivier; Delacourt, Christophe; Richon, Patrick; de Chabalier, Jean-Bernard; Hammouya, Gilbert

    2016-06-01

    La Soufrière of Guadeloupe is an active volcano of Lesser Antilles that is closely monitored due to a high eruptive hazard potential. Since 1992 it exhibits a medium-level but sustained background hydrothermal activity with low-energy and shallow seismicity, hot springs temperature increase and high flux acidic gas fumaroles at the summit. The problem of estimating the heat balance and quantifying the evolution of hydrothermal activity has become a key challenge for surveillance. This work is the first attempt of a global mapping and quantification of La Soufrière thermal activity performed in February 2010 using aerial thermal infrared imagery. After instrument calibration and data processing, we present a global map of thermal anomalies allowing to spot the main active sites: the summit area (including the fumaroles of Tarissan Pit and South Crater), the Ty Fault fumarolic zone, and the hot springs located at the vicinity of the dome. In a second step, we deduce the mass and the energy fluxes released by the volcano. In particular, we propose a simple model of energy balance to estimate the mass flux of the summit fumaroles from their brightness temperature and size. In February 2010, Tarissan Pit had a 22.8 ± 8.1 kg s -1 flux (1970 ± 704 tons day -1), while South Crater vents had a total of 19.5 ± 4.0 kg s -1 (1687 ± 348 tons day -1). Once converted into energy flux, summit fumaroles represent 98% of the 106 ± 30 MW released by the volcano, the 2% remaining being split between the hot springs and the thermal anomalies at the summit and at the Ty Fault fumarolic zone. These values are in the high range of the previous estimations, highlighting the short-term variability of the expelled fluxes. Such a heat flux requires the cooling of 1500 m 3 of magma per day, in good agreement with previous geochemical studies.

  9. Aerial infrared surveys of Reykjanes and Torfajökull thermal areas, Iceland, with a section on cost of exploration surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pálmason, G.; Friedman, J.D.; Williams, R.S., Jr.; Jónsson, J.; Saemundsson, K.

    1970-01-01

    In 1966 and 1968 aerial infrared surveys were conducted over 10 of 13 high-temperature thermal areas in Iceland. The surveys were made with an airborne scanner system, utilizing radiation in the 4.5–5.5 μm wavelength band. Supplementary ground geological studies were made in the Reykjanes and Torfajökull thermal areas to interpret features depicted on the infrared imagery and to relate zones of high heat flux to tectonic structure. In the Reykjanes area in southwestern Iceland a shallow ground temperature map was prepared for temperatures at a depth of 0.5 meters; comparison of this map with the infrared imagery reveals some striking similarities. It appears that aerial infrared surveys outline the surface thermal patterns of high-temperature areas and aid in relating these patterns to possible geological structures controlling the upflow of hot water. Amplitude-slicing techniques applied to the magnetically taped airborne scanner data permit an estimate to be made of the natural heat output on the basis of size of area and specific radiance. In addition to their value in preliminary studies of high-temperature areas, infrared surveys conducted at regular intervals over thermal area under exploitation can provide valuable data on changes that occur in surface manifestations with time.

  10. SURVEYING THERMALLY-DEFOLIATED COTTON PLOTS WITH COLOR-INFRARED AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers can use heated air (thermal defoliation) as a nonchemical alternative for terminating cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) growth and for preparing it for harvest, making this technique ideal for cotton grown in sustainable systems. For large cotton fields, growers need assistance in examining ...

  11. Evaluating the Sensitivity of an Unmanned Thermal Infrared Aerial System to Detect Water Stress in a Cotton Canopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Airborne thermal infrared (TIR) imagery is a promising and innovative tool for assessing canopy response to a range of stressors. However, the expense associated with acquiring imagery for agricultural management is often cost-prohibitive. The objective of this study was to evaluate a less expensi...

  12. Evaluation of aerial thermal infrared remote sensing to identify groundwater-discharge zones in the Meduxnekeag River, Houlton, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Culbertson, Charles W.; Huntington, Thomas G.; Caldwell, James M.; O'Donnell, Cara

    2014-01-01

    Residents of the area near Houlton, Maine, have observed seasonal episodic blooms of algae and documented elevated concentrations of fecal-coliform bacteria and inorganic nutrients and low dissolved oxygen concentrations in the Meduxnekeag River. Although point and nonpoint sources of urban and agricultural runoff likely contribute to water-quality impairment, the role of shallow groundwater inflows in delivering such contaminants to the Meduxnekeag River has not been well understood. To provide information about possible groundwater inflows to the river, airborne thermal infrared videography was evaluated as a means to identify and classify thermal anomalies in a 25-mile reach of the mainstem and tributaries of the Meduxnekeag River near Houlton, Maine. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Houlton Band of Maliseet Indians, collected thermal infrared images from a single-engine, fixed-wing aircraft during flights on December 3–4, 2003, and November 26, 2004. Eleven thermal anomalies were identified on the basis of data from the December 2003 flight and 17 from the November 2004 flight, which covered the same reaches of stream. Following image analysis, characterization, and prioritization, the georeferenced infrared images of the thermal anomalies were compared to features on topographic maps of the study area. The mapped anomalies were used to direct observations on the ground to confirm discharge locations and types of inflow. The variations in grayscale patterns on the images were thus confirmed as representing shallow groundwater-discharge zones (seeps), outfalls of treated wastewater, or ditches draining runoff from impervious surfaces.

  13. Aerial Infrared Photos for Citrus Growers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blazquez, C. H.; Horn, F. W. J.

    1982-01-01

    Handbook advises on benefits and methods of aerial photography with color infrared film. Interpretation of photographs is discussed in detail. Necessary equipment for interpretation is described--light table, magnifying lenses, and microfiche viewers, for example. Advice is given on rating tree condition; identifying effects of diseases, insects, and nematodes; and evaluating effects of soil, water, and weather.

  14. Aerial color infrared photography applications to citriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blazquez, C. H.; Horn, F. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Results of a one-year experimental study on the use of aerial color infrared photography in citrus grove management are presented. It is found that the spring season, when trees are in flush (have young leaves), is the best season to photograph visible differences between healthy and diseased trees. It is also shown that the best photography can be obtained with a 12-in. focal length lens. The photographic scale that allowed good photo interpretation with simple inexpensive equipment was 1 in. = 330 ft. The use of a window-overlay transparency method allowed rapid photo interpretation and data recording in computer-compatible forms. Aerial color infrared photography carried out during the spring season revealed a more accurate status of tree condition than visual inspection.

  15. D Surface Generation from Aerial Thermal Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodaei, B.; Samadzadegan, F.; Dadras Javan, F.; Hasani, H.

    2015-12-01

    Aerial thermal imagery has been recently applied to quantitative analysis of several scenes. For the mapping purpose based on aerial thermal imagery, high accuracy photogrammetric process is necessary. However, due to low geometric resolution and low contrast of thermal imaging sensors, there are some challenges in precise 3D measurement of objects. In this paper the potential of thermal video in 3D surface generation is evaluated. In the pre-processing step, thermal camera is geometrically calibrated using a calibration grid based on emissivity differences between the background and the targets. Then, Digital Surface Model (DSM) generation from thermal video imagery is performed in four steps. Initially, frames are extracted from video, then tie points are generated by Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) algorithm. Bundle adjustment is then applied and the camera position and orientation parameters are determined. Finally, multi-resolution dense image matching algorithm is used to create 3D point cloud of the scene. Potential of the proposed method is evaluated based on thermal imaging cover an industrial area. The thermal camera has 640×480 Uncooled Focal Plane Array (UFPA) sensor, equipped with a 25 mm lens which mounted in the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The obtained results show the comparable accuracy of 3D model generated based on thermal images with respect to DSM generated from visible images, however thermal based DSM is somehow smoother with lower level of texture. Comparing the generated DSM with the 9 measured GCPs in the area shows the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) value is smaller than 5 decimetres in both X and Y directions and 1.6 meters for the Z direction.

  16. Thermal infrared scene simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Warnick, J.S.; Shor, E.; Schott, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The complexity and interplay between the thermodynamic and radiometric phenomena associated with longwave infrared (LWIR) images make the analyses of these images quite difficult and the development of algorithms for image analysis quite complex. This image analysis process is further complicated when the algorithms are part of a real-time targeting, tracking, or positioning system because the sensor's electro-optical system can have a significant and variable impact on the image. As a result, it is often desirable to perform evaluations of fully packaged thermal infrared imaging systems against dynamic scenes. The high cost of field testing these systems prohibits this approach in all but the research and development and early engineering stages. Even in the research and development stage the scenarios required for full system testing are often difficult to acquire. These factors have led to the search for a capability to produce a synthetically generated, self-emitting thermal infrared scene which can be dynamically updated. Sensors or algorithms exposed to this simulator could then be tested in an end-to-end (buttoned up) configuration to evaluate system performance in as close to a real world scenario as practical. One major goal of this effort was to assemble and test the performance characteristics of a system for generating dynamic self-emitting scenes. The system consisted of an argon laser source, a spatial light modulator to generate a brightness image and a two-dimensional visible-to-infrared transducer to convert the monochromatic laser energy into a broad band self-emitting thermal infrared image. 61 refs., 32 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Infrared microsensor payload for miniature unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrzewa, Joseph; Meyer, William H.; Laband, Stan; Terre, William A.; Petrovich, Peter; Swanson, Kyle; Sundra, Carrie; Sener, Ward; Wilmott, Jay

    2003-09-01

    Miniature unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are a category of aircraft small enough to be transported, launched, operated, and retrieved by a crew of one or two. The concept is not new, having been in limited use by the U.S. military over the past fifteen years, but interest in potential applications is growing as size and cost of the vehicles come down. An application that is particularly significant to the military and law-enforcement agencies is remote reconnaissance, with one or more onboard sensors transmitting data back to the operator(s) in real time. Typically, a miniature UAV is capable of flying a pre-programmed route autonomously, with manual override as an option. At the conclusion of the mission, the vehicle returns for landing, after which it can be quickly disassembled and stowed until its next use. Thermal imaging extends the utility of miniature UAVs to operations in complete darkness and limited visibility, but historically thermal imagers have been too large and heavy for this application. That changed in 1999 with the introduction of Indigo System's AlphaTM camera, which established a new class of thermal imaging product termed the infrared "microsensor". Substantially smaller and lighter than any other infrared imaging product available at the time, AlphaTMwas the first camera that could be readily packaged into the nose of a miniature UAV. Its low power consumption was also a key enabling feature. Building upon the success of AlphaTM, Indigo then took the microsensor class a step further with its OmegaTM camera, which broke all the records established by AlphaTM for small size, weight, and power. OmegaTM has been successfully integrated into several miniature UAVs, including AeroVironment's Pointer and Raven, as well as the Snake Eye UAV manufactured by BAI Aerosystems. Aspects of the OmegaTM design that have led to its utility on these and other platforms are described, and future prospects for even smaller microsensors are discussed.

  18. Landsat and Thermal Infrared Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, Terry; Barsi, Julia; Jhabvala, Murzy; Reuter, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to describe the collection of thermal images by Landsat sensors already on orbit and to introduce the new thermal sensor to be launched in 2013. The chapter describes the thematic mapper (TM) and enhanced thematic mapper plus (ETM+) sensors, the calibration of their thermal bands, and the design and prelaunch calibration of the new thermal infrared sensor (TIRS).

  19. Aerial infrared surveys in the investigation of geothermal and volcanic heat sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1995-01-01

    This factsheet briefly summarizes and clarifies the application of aerial infrared surveys in geophysical exploration for geothermal energy sources and environmental monitoring for potential volcanic hazards.

  20. Uncooled infrared development for small unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitt, Timothy S.; Wood, Sam B.; Waddle, Caleb E.; Edwards, William D.; Yeske, Ben S.

    2010-04-01

    The US Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) is developing a micro-uncooled infrared (IR) capability for small unmanned aerial systems (SUAS). In 2007, AMRDEC procured several uncooled microbolometers for lab and field test evaluations, and static tower tests involving specific target sets confirmed initial modeling and simulation predictions. With these promising results, AMRDEC procured two captive flight test (CFT) vehicles and, in 2008, completed numerous captive flights to capture imagery with the micro-uncooled infrared sensors. Several test configurations were used to build a comprehensive data set. These configurations included variations in look-down angles, fields of view (FOV), environments, altitudes, and target scenarios. Data collected during these field tests is also being used to develop human tracking algorithms and image stabilization software by other AMRDEC personnel. Details of these ongoing efforts will be presented in this paper and will include: 1) onboard digital data recording capabilities; 2) analog data links for visual verification of imagery; 3) sensor packaging and design; which include both infrared and visible cameras; 4) field test and data collection results; 5) future plans; 6) potential applications. Finally, AMRDEC has recently acquired a 17 μm pitch detector array. The paper will include plans to test both 17 μm and 25 μm microbolometer technologies simultaneously in a side-by-side captive flight comparison.

  1. Applications of thermal infrared imagery for energy conservation and environmental surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carney, J. R.; Vogel, T. C.; Howard, G. E., Jr.; Love, E. R.

    1977-01-01

    The survey procedures, developed during the winter and summer of 1976, employ color and color infrared aerial photography, thermal infrared imagery, and a handheld infrared imaging device. The resulting imagery was used to detect building heat losses, deteriorated insulation in built-up type building roofs, and defective underground steam lines. The handheld thermal infrared device, used in conjunction with the aerial thermal infrared imagery, provided a method for detecting and locating those roof areas that were underlain with wet insulation. In addition, the handheld infrared device was employed to conduct a survey of a U.S. Army installation's electrical distribution system under full operating loads. This survey proved to be cost effective procedure for detecting faulty electrical insulators and connections that if allowed to persist could have resulted in both safety hazards and loss in production.

  2. Using aerial infrared thermography to detect utility theft of service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockton, Gregory R.; Lucas, R. Gillem

    2012-06-01

    Natural gas and electric utility companies, public utility commissions, consumer advocacy groups, city governments, state governments and the federal government United States continue to turn a blind eye towards utility energy theft of service which we conservatively estimate is in excess of 10 billion a year. Why? Many in the United States have exhausted their unemployment benefits. The amounts for federal funding for low income heating assistance programs (LIHEAP) funds were cut by nearly 40% for 2012 to 3.02 billion. "At peak funding ($5.1 billion in 2009), the program was national in scale but still only had enough resources to support roughly 1/4 of the eligible households.i" Contributions to charities are down and the number of families below the poverty line who are unable to pay to heat their houses continues to rise. Many of the less fortunate in our society now consider theft and fraud to be an attractive option for their supply of natural gas and/or electricity. A record high mild winter in 2011-2012 coupled with 10-year low natural gas prices temporarily obscured the need for low income heating assistance programs (LIHEAPs) from the news and federal budgets, but cold winters will return. The proliferation of smart meters and automated meter infrastructures across our nation can do little to detect energy theft because the thieves can simply by-pass the meters, jumper around the meters and/or steal meters from abandoned houses and use them. Many utility systems were never set-up to stop these types of theft. Even with low-cost per identified thief method using aerial infrared thermography, utilities continue to ignore theft detection.

  3. Can reliable sage-grouse lek counts be obtained using aerial infrared technology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillette, Gifford L.; Coates, Peter S.; Petersen, Steven; Romero, John P.

    2013-01-01

    More effective methods for counting greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are needed to better assess population trends through enumeration or location of new leks. We describe an aerial infrared technique for conducting sage-grouse lek counts and compare this method with conventional ground-based lek count methods. During the breeding period in 2010 and 2011, we surveyed leks from fixed-winged aircraft using cryogenically cooled mid-wave infrared cameras and surveyed the same leks on the same day from the ground following a standard lek count protocol. We did not detect significant differences in lek counts between surveying techniques. These findings suggest that using a cryogenically cooled mid-wave infrared camera from an aerial platform to conduct lek surveys is an effective alternative technique to conventional ground-based methods, but further research is needed. We discuss multiple advantages to aerial infrared surveys, including counting in remote areas, representing greater spatial variation, and increasing the number of counted leks per season. Aerial infrared lek counts may be a valuable wildlife management tool that releases time and resources for other conservation efforts. Opportunities exist for wildlife professionals to refine and apply aerial infrared techniques to wildlife monitoring programs because of the increasing reliability and affordability of this technology.

  4. Locating inputs of freshwater to Lynch Cove, Hood Canal, Washington, using aerial infrared photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheibley, Rich W.; Josberger, Edward G.; Chickadel, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The input of freshwater and associated nutrients into Lynch Cove and lower Hood Canal (fig. 1) from sources such as groundwater seeps, small streams, and ephemeral creeks may play a major role in the nutrient loading and hydrodynamics of this low dissolved-oxygen (hypoxic) system. These disbursed sources exhibit a high degree of spatial variability. However, few in-situ measurements of groundwater seepage rates and nutrient concentrations are available and thus may not represent adequately the large spatial variability of groundwater discharge in the area. As a result, our understanding of these processes and their effect on hypoxic conditions in Hood Canal is limited. To determine the spatial variability and relative intensity of these sources, the U.S. Geological Survey Washington Water Science Center collaborated with the University of Washington Applied Physics Laboratory to obtain thermal infrared (TIR) images of the nearshore and intertidal regions of Lynch Cove at or near low tide. In the summer, cool freshwater discharges from seeps and streams, flows across the exposed, sun-warmed beach, and out on the warm surface of the marine water. These temperature differences are readily apparent in aerial thermal infrared imagery that we acquired during the summers of 2008 and 2009. When combined with co-incident video camera images, these temperature differences allow identification of the location, the type, and the relative intensity of the sources.

  5. Differential thermal infrared imaging for environmental inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merla, Arcangelo; Di Donato, Luigi; Di Fazio, Micaela; Greco, Pasquale; Rainone, Mario L.

    2014-01-01

    Aerial differential thermal imaging has been proposed to characterize the ground temperature distribution of two solid waste landfills. The differential approach permitted detection of regions with thermal abnormalities potentially associated with either biogas leakage and migration or improper landfill settlement and management. Methods, results, limits, and potentialities of the proposed approach are discussed.

  6. A Thermal Infrared Cloud Mapper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallama, A.; Degnan, J. J.

    2001-12-01

    A thermal infrared imager for mapping the changing cloud cover over a ground based observing site has been developed. There are two main components to our instrument. One is a commercially made uncooled 10 micron thermal infrared detector that outputs a 120x120 pixel thermogram. The other is a convex electroplated reflector, which is situated beneath the detector and in its field of view. The resulting image covers the sky from zenith down to about 10 degrees elevation. The self-reflection of the camera and supporting vanes is removed by interpolation. Atmospheric transparency is distinguished by the difference between the sky temperature and the ambient air temperature. Clear sky is indicated by pixels having a difference of about 20 degrees C or more. The qualitative results 'clear, haze and cloud' have proven to be very reliable during two years of development and testing. Quantitative information, such as the extinction coefficient, is also available though it is not exact. The uncertainty is probably due to variability of the lapse rate under different atmospheric conditions. Software has been written for PC/DOS and VME/LynxOS (similar to Linux) systems in the C programming language. Functionality includes serial communication with the detector, analysis of the thermogram, mapping of cloud cover, data display, and file I/O. The main elements of cost in this system were for the thermal infrared detector and for the machining of an 18-inch diameter stainless steel mandrel. The latter is needed to produce an electroplated reflector. We have had good success with the gold and rhodium reflectors that have been generated. The reflectors themselves are relatively inexpensive now that the mandrel is available.

  7. NEAR INFRARED AERIAL PHOTO-DETECTION OF ZOSTERA JAPONICA COMMUNITIES IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARINE INTERTIDAL HABITATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Near infrared color aerial photography (-1:7200) of Yaquina Bay, Oregon, flown at minus tides during summer months of 1997 was used to produce digital stereo ortho-photographs covering tidally exposed eelgrass habitat. GIS analysis coupled with GPS positioning of ground-truth da...

  8. Thermal soaring flight of birds and unmanned aerial vehicles.

    PubMed

    Akos, Zsuzsa; Nagy, Máté; Leven, Severin; Vicsek, Tamás

    2010-12-01

    Thermal soaring saves much energy, but flying large distances in this form represents a great challenge for birds, people and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The solution is to make use of the so-called thermals, which are localized, warmer regions in the atmosphere moving upward with a speed exceeding the descent rate of birds and planes. Saving energy by exploiting the environment more efficiently is an important possibility for autonomous UAVs as well. Successful control strategies have been developed recently for UAVs in simulations and in real applications. This paper first presents an overview of our knowledge of the soaring flight and strategy of birds, followed by a discussion of control strategies that have been developed for soaring UAVs both in simulations and applications on real platforms. To improve the accuracy of the simulation of thermal exploitation strategies we propose a method to take into account the effect of turbulence. Finally, we propose a new GPS-independent control strategy for exploiting thermal updrafts. PMID:21098957

  9. Thermal Infrared Profiling Spectrometer (TIPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzl, Franz; Miosga, Gerhard; Lehmann, Frank; Richter, Rudolf; Tank, Volker; Boehl, R.

    1990-01-01

    The Thermal Infrared Profiling Spectrometer (TIPS) is an airborne/spaceborne sensor concept developed at DLR-Institute for Optoelectronics for scientific observations in remote sensing of the earth surface. The patented spectrometer design is based on a fast scanning Fourier spectrometer (FSM) using a rotating retroreflector to achieve the appropriate path alteration thus avoiding the usual linear movement of one of the mirrors in an conventional Michelson interferometer. The spectral band covers the 3 - 13 μm band with a spectral resolution of 5 cm-1 (50 nm at 10 μm). The measured signal is an interferogramm, derived quantities are spectral emissivity, spectral radiance and surface temperature. The optical system consists of an aperture filling plane tilting mirror to provide off-nadir observation and calibration mode. The collecting mirror focal length and the detector area yields an instantaneous field of view (ifov) of 1.2 mrad, noise equivalent temperature resolution of 0.04K (300K), and a noise equivalent change in emissivity Δɛof 6 x 10-4. Calibration is performed by two aperture filling area blackbodies at two different temperatures. An extensive simulation of signal/noise performance of the TIPS has been evaluated by means of the simulation programm SENSAT9, developed by DI.R. This simulation comprises the sensor performance, typical variations of atmospheric conditions and selected spectra from ground surfaces. Results of this simulation are discussed and a description of the sensor is presented.

  10. Infrared thermal imaging figures of merit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Herbert

    1989-01-01

    Commercially available types of infrared thermal imaging instruments, both viewers (qualitative) and imagers (quantitative) are discussed. The various scanning methods by which thermal images (thermograms) are generated will be reviewed. The performance parameters (figures of merit) that define the quality of performance of infrared radiation thermometers will be introduced. A discussion of how these parameters are extended and adapted to define the performance of thermal imaging instruments will be provided. Finally, the significance of each of the key performance parameters of thermal imaging instruments will be reviewed and procedures currently used for testing to verify performance will be outlined.

  11. Thermal infrared radiometer calibration and experimental measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, JiAn; Wang, Difeng; Gong, Fang; Yan, Bai; He, Xianqiang

    2015-08-01

    Thermal infrared radiometers play a vital role in obtaining information in field measurements and also in verifying information from remote sensing satellite sensor data. However, the calibration precision of the thermal infrared radiometers directly affects the accuracy of the remote sensing data analysis and application. It is therefore necessary to ensure that the calibration of thermal infrared radiometers is of sufficient and reliable precision. In this paper, the theory of a six-band thermal infrared radiometer (CE 312-2 ASTER) calibration method was introduced, with the calibration being conducted by using a blackbody source in the laboratory. The sources of error during the calibration procedure were analyzed, and the results of the calibration were provided. Then, laboratory experiments using the radiometer were described. The measurements of the surface temperature of a water sample that was contained in a thermostatic water bath, performed by using the radiometer, were compared to the water sample's temperature controlled by another device. These experiments were used to evaluate the calibration precision of the CE 312-2 ASTER radiometer, by means of assessing the measurement accuracy of the experiments. The results demonstrated that the calibration coefficients of the CE 312-2 ASTER thermal infrared radiometer displayed a very good performance, with highly accurate measurements, and could be used to detect phenomena related to a thermal infrared target.

  12. Cropping management using color and color infrared aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, K. M.; Morris-Jones, D. R.; Lee, G. B.; Kiefer, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) is a widely accepted tool for erosion prediction and conservation planning. Solving this equation yields the long-term average annual soil loss that can be expected from rill and inter-rill erosion. In this study, manual interpretation of color and color infrared 70 mm photography at the scale of 1:60,000 is used to determine the cropping management factor in the USLE. Accurate information was collected about plowing practices and crop residue cover (unharvested vegetation) for the winter season on agricultural land in Pheasant Branch Creek watershed in Dane County, Wisconsin.

  13. Interpreting Michigan forest cover types from color infrared aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    The characteristics of 17 cover types (13 forest types or tree species and 4 nonforest cover types) in Michigan are discussed as well as their interpretation from medium scale color infrared photography. The occurrence of each type is described by region and site requirements. Those attributes of a tree or stand which are helpful when attempting to interpret the type from a vertical perspective are discussed as well as common crown types. The identification of the forest type or tree species by using image characteristics (size, shape, shadow, color, texture, pattern, or association) is discussed. Ground photographs and sketches of individual trees are included. Stereograms of typical stands are available.

  14. Quantitative wildlife habitat evaluation using high-altitude color infrared aerial photographs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pettinger, Lawrence R.; Farmer, Adrian; Schamberger, Mel

    1978-01-01

    The habitat value for elk and sage grouse of two proposed phosphate strip mine sites was determined using habitat parameter measurements from high-altitude color infrared aerial photographs. Habitat suitability was assessed using the Habitat Evaluation Procedures being developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Similar results were obtained from two approaches--a remote-sensing-only approach and a mix of measurements from photo interpretation and conventional field surveys.

  15. Thermal Infrared Anomalies of Several Strong Earthquakes

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Congxin; Guo, Xiao; Qin, Manzhong

    2013-01-01

    In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method to extract the useful anomaly information. Based on the analyses of 8 earthquakes, we got the results as follows. (1) There are significant thermal radiation anomalies before and after earthquakes for all cases. The overall performance of anomalies includes two main stages: expanding first and narrowing later. We easily extracted and identified such seismic anomalies by method of “time-frequency relative power spectrum.” (2) There exist evident and different characteristic periods and magnitudes of thermal abnormal radiation for each case. (3) Thermal radiation anomalies are closely related to the geological structure. (4) Thermal radiation has obvious characteristics in abnormal duration, range, and morphology. In summary, we should be sure that earthquake thermal infrared anomalies as useful earthquake precursor can be used in earthquake prediction and forecasting. PMID:24222728

  16. Thermal infrared anomalies of several strong earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Congxin; Zhang, Yuansheng; Guo, Xiao; Hui, Shaoxing; Qin, Manzhong; Zhang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method to extract the useful anomaly information. Based on the analyses of 8 earthquakes, we got the results as follows. (1) There are significant thermal radiation anomalies before and after earthquakes for all cases. The overall performance of anomalies includes two main stages: expanding first and narrowing later. We easily extracted and identified such seismic anomalies by method of "time-frequency relative power spectrum." (2) There exist evident and different characteristic periods and magnitudes of thermal abnormal radiation for each case. (3) Thermal radiation anomalies are closely related to the geological structure. (4) Thermal radiation has obvious characteristics in abnormal duration, range, and morphology. In summary, we should be sure that earthquake thermal infrared anomalies as useful earthquake precursor can be used in earthquake prediction and forecasting. PMID:24222728

  17. Low-thermal expansion infrared glass ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Philip

    2009-05-01

    L2 Tech, Inc. is in development of an innovative infrared-transparent glass ceramic material with low-thermal expansion (<0.5 ppm/°C) and high thermal-shock resistance to be used as windows and domes for high speed flight. The material is an inorganic, non-porous glass ceramic, characterized by crystalline phases of evenly distributed nano-crystals in a residual glass phase. The major crystalline phase is zirconium tungstate (ZrW2O8) which has Negative Thermal Expansion (NTE). The glass phase is the infrared-transparent germanate glass which has positive thermal expansion (PTE). Then glass ceramic material has a balanced thermal expansion of near zero. The crystal structure is cubic and the thermal expansion of the glass ceramic is isotropic or equal in all directions.

  18. Aerial thermography for energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Thermal infrared scanning from an aircraft is a convenient and commercially available means for determining relative rates of energy loss from building roofs. The need to conserve energy as fuel costs makes the mass survey capability of aerial thermography an attractive adjunct to community energy awareness programs. Background information on principles of aerial thermography is presented. Thermal infrared scanning systems, flight and environmental requirements for data acquisition, preparation of thermographs for display, major users and suppliers of thermography, and suggested specifications for obtaining aerial scanning services were reviewed.

  19. Provisional maps of thermal areas in Yellowstone National Park, based on satellite thermal infrared imaging and field observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Heasler, Henry; Jaworowski, Cheryl; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.

    2014-01-01

    Maps that define the current distribution of geothermally heated ground are useful toward setting a baseline for thermal activity to better detect and understand future anomalous hydrothermal and (or) volcanic activity. Monitoring changes in the dynamic thermal areas also supports decisions regarding the development of Yellowstone National Park infrastructure, preservation and protection of park resources, and ensuring visitor safety. Because of the challenges associated with field-based monitoring of a large, complex geothermal system that is spread out over a large and remote area, satellite-based thermal infrared images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) were used to map the location and spatial extent of active thermal areas, to generate thermal anomaly maps, and to quantify the radiative component of the total geothermal heat flux. ASTER thermal infrared data acquired during winter nights were used to minimize the contribution of solar heating of the surface. The ASTER thermal infrared mapping results were compared to maps of thermal areas based on field investigations and high-resolution aerial photos. Field validation of the ASTER thermal mapping is an ongoing task. The purpose of this report is to make available ASTER-based maps of Yellowstone’s thermal areas. We include an appendix containing the names and characteristics of Yellowstone’s thermal areas, georeferenced TIFF files containing ASTER thermal imagery, and several spatial data sets in Esri shapefile format.

  20. Infrared Detector System with Controlled Thermal Conductance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A thermal infrared detector system includes a heat sink, a support member, a connection support member connecting the support member to the heat sink and including a heater unit is reviewed. An infrared detector element is mounted on the support member and a temperature signal representative of the infrared energy contacting the support member can then be derived by comparing the temperature of the support member and the heat sink. The temperature signal from a support member and a temperature signal from the connection support member can then be used to drive a heater unit mounted on the connection support member to thereby control the thermal conductance of the support member. Thus, the thermal conductance can be controlled so that it can be actively increased or decreased as desired.

  1. Thermal infrared spectral imager for airborne science applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, William R.; Hook, Simon J.; Mouroulis, Pantazis; Wilson, Daniel W.; Gunapala, Sarath D.; Hill, Cory J.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Realmuto, Vincent; Eng, Bjorn T.

    2009-05-01

    An airborne thermal hyperspectral imager is underdevelopment which utilizes the compact Dyson optical configuration and quantum well infrared photo detector (QWIP) focal plane array. The Dyson configuration uses a single monolithic prism-like grating design which allows for a high throughput instrument (F/1.6) with minimal ghosting, stray-light and large swath width. The configuration has the potential to be the optimal imaging spectroscopy solution unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) due to its small form factor and relatively low power requirements. The planned instrument specifications are discussed as well as design trade-offs. Calibration testing results (noise equivalent temperature difference, spectral linearity and spectral bandwidth) and laboratory emissivity plots from samples are shown using an operational testbed unit which has similar specifications as the final airborne system. Field testing of the testbed unit was performed to acquire plots of emissivity for various known standard minerals (quartz). A comparison is made using data from the ASTER spectral library.

  2. Impact of aerial infrared roof moisture scans on the U.S. Army's ROOFER program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knehans, Al; Ledford, Jim

    1993-04-01

    The ROOFER program is being used by the U.S. Army to inspect and evaluate its built-up and single-ply membrane roofs. The results of the inspection effort are used to develop an overall roof condition index. The condition of the roof insulation can greatly alter the final condition index. By using an aerial infrared (IR) roof moisture scan, all the insulated roofs at most Army installations can be effectively surveyed in a very short time. The aerial scans have detected numerous areas of wet roof insulation, which has had a profound impact on the results of the ROOFER program. The scans have also provided management personnel with more accurate analysis as to the actual condition of the installation's insulated roofs.

  3. Flight vehicle thermal testing with infrared lamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, Roger A.

    1992-01-01

    The verification and certification of new structural material concepts for advanced high speed flight vehicles relies greatly on thermal testing with infrared quartz lamps. The basic quartz heater system characteristics and design considerations are presented. Specific applications are illustrated with tests that were conducted for the X-15, the Space Shuttle, and YF-12 flight programs.

  4. Thermal resolution specification in infrared scene projectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaVeigne, Joe; Franks, Greg; Danielson, Tom

    2015-05-01

    Infrared scene projectors (IRSPs) are a key part of performing dynamic testing of infrared (IR) imaging systems. Two important properties of an IRSP system are apparent temperature and thermal resolution. Infrared scene projector technology continues to progress, with several systems capable of producing high apparent temperatures currently available or under development. These systems use different emitter pixel technologies, including resistive arrays, digital micro-mirror devices (DMDs), liquid crystals and LEDs to produce dynamic infrared scenes. A common theme amongst these systems is the specification of the bit depth of the read-in integrated circuit (RIIC) or projector engine , as opposed to specifying the desired thermal resolution as a function of radiance (or apparent temperature). For IRSPs, producing an accurate simulation of a realistic scene or scenario may require simulating radiance values that range over multiple orders of magnitude. Under these conditions, the necessary resolution or "step size" at low temperature values may be much smaller than what is acceptable at very high temperature values. A single bit depth value specified at the RIIC, especially when combined with variable transfer functions between commanded input and radiance output, may not offer the best representation of a customer's desired radiance resolution. In this paper, we discuss some of the various factors that affect thermal resolution of a scene projector system, and propose some specification guidelines regarding thermal resolution to help better define the real needs of an IR scene projector system.

  5. Detection and damage assessment of citrus tree losses with aerial color infrared photography /ACIR/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blazquez, C. H.; Horn, F. W., Jr.; Edwards, G. J.

    1981-01-01

    Detection and disease damage assessment of citrus tree losses in a Florida citrus grove were made by establishing a registration (grove site location) coordinate system, developing a damage assessment system, and testing sequential aerial color infrared (ACIR) photography at the scale of 1 in. = 333 ft (2.5 cm = 100 m) during the winter, spring, and summer seasons of 1978 and spring of 1979. Spring photography was the easiest to photo interpret, showed the greatest differences between healthy and diseased trees, and had the least shadow and background interference for photo interpretation. Trees showing slight disease damage were detected in ACIR before they were found in ground surveys.

  6. Pedestrian Detection and Tracking from Low-Resolution Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Thermal Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yalong; Wu, Xinkai; Yu, Guizhen; Xu, Yongzheng; Wang, Yunpeng

    2016-01-01

    Driven by the prominent thermal signature of humans and following the growing availability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), more and more research efforts have been focusing on the detection and tracking of pedestrians using thermal infrared images recorded from UAVs. However, pedestrian detection and tracking from the thermal images obtained from UAVs pose many challenges due to the low-resolution of imagery, platform motion, image instability and the relatively small size of the objects. This research tackles these challenges by proposing a pedestrian detection and tracking system. A two-stage blob-based approach is first developed for pedestrian detection. This approach first extracts pedestrian blobs using the regional gradient feature and geometric constraints filtering and then classifies the detected blobs by using a linear Support Vector Machine (SVM) with a hybrid descriptor, which sophisticatedly combines Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) features in order to achieve accurate detection. This research further proposes an approach for pedestrian tracking. This approach employs the feature tracker with the update of detected pedestrian location to track pedestrian objects from the registered videos and extracts the motion trajectory data. The proposed detection and tracking approaches have been evaluated by multiple different datasets, and the results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. This research is expected to significantly benefit many transportation applications, such as the multimodal traffic performance measure, pedestrian behavior study and pedestrian-vehicle crash analysis. Future work will focus on using fused thermal and visual images to further improve the detection efficiency and effectiveness. PMID:27023564

  7. Pedestrian Detection and Tracking from Low-Resolution Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Thermal Imagery.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yalong; Wu, Xinkai; Yu, Guizhen; Xu, Yongzheng; Wang, Yunpeng

    2016-01-01

    Driven by the prominent thermal signature of humans and following the growing availability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), more and more research efforts have been focusing on the detection and tracking of pedestrians using thermal infrared images recorded from UAVs. However, pedestrian detection and tracking from the thermal images obtained from UAVs pose many challenges due to the low-resolution of imagery, platform motion, image instability and the relatively small size of the objects. This research tackles these challenges by proposing a pedestrian detection and tracking system. A two-stage blob-based approach is first developed for pedestrian detection. This approach first extracts pedestrian blobs using the regional gradient feature and geometric constraints filtering and then classifies the detected blobs by using a linear Support Vector Machine (SVM) with a hybrid descriptor, which sophisticatedly combines Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) features in order to achieve accurate detection. This research further proposes an approach for pedestrian tracking. This approach employs the feature tracker with the update of detected pedestrian location to track pedestrian objects from the registered videos and extracts the motion trajectory data. The proposed detection and tracking approaches have been evaluated by multiple different datasets, and the results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. This research is expected to significantly benefit many transportation applications, such as the multimodal traffic performance measure, pedestrian behavior study and pedestrian-vehicle crash analysis. Future work will focus on using fused thermal and visual images to further improve the detection efficiency and effectiveness. PMID:27023564

  8. Estimation of walrus populations on sea ice with infrared imagery and aerial photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Udevitz, M.S.; Burn, D.M.; Webber, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Population sizes of ice-associated pinnipeds have often been estimated with visual or photographic aerial surveys, but these methods require relatively slow speeds and low altitudes, limiting the area they can cover. Recent developments in infrared imagery and its integration with digital photography could allow substantially larger areas to be surveyed and more accurate enumeration of individuals, thereby solving major problems with previous survey methods. We conducted a trial survey in April 2003 to estimate the number of Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) hauled out on sea ice around St. Lawrence Island, Alaska. The survey used high altitude infrared imagery to detect groups of walruses on strip transects. Low altitude digital photography was used to determine the number of walruses in a sample of detected groups and calibrate the infrared imagery for estimating the total number of walruses. We propose a survey design incorporating this approach with satellite radio telemetry to estimate the proportion of the population in the water and additional low-level flights to estimate the proportion of the hauled-out population in groups too small to be detected in the infrared imagery. We believe that this approach offers the potential for obtaining reliable population estimates for walruses and other ice-associated pinnipeds. ?? 2007 by the Society for Marine Mammalogy.

  9. Thermal infrared near-field spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew C; Raschke, Markus B

    2012-03-14

    Despite the seminal contributions of Kirchhoff and Planck describing far-field thermal emission, fundamentally distinct spectral characteristics of the electromagnetic thermal near-field have been predicted. However, due to their evanescent nature their direct experimental characterization has remained elusive. Combining scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy with Fourier-transform spectroscopy using a heated atomic force microscope tip as both a local thermal source and scattering probe, we spectroscopically characterize the thermal near-field in the mid-infrared. We observe the spectrally distinct and orders of magnitude enhanced resonant spectral near-field energy density associated with vibrational, phonon, and phonon-polariton modes. We describe this behavior and the associated distinct on- and off-resonance nanoscale field localization with model calculations of the near-field electromagnetic local density of states. Our results provide a basis for intrinsic and extrinsic resonant manipulation of optical forces, control of nanoscale radiative heat transfer with optical antennas, and use of this new technique of thermal infrared near-field spectroscopy for broadband chemical nanospectroscopy. PMID:22280474

  10. Thermal analysis of a linear infrared lamp

    SciTech Connect

    Nakos, J.T.

    1982-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental analysis of an infrared lamp is presented based on radiant heat transfer theory. The analysis is performed on a specific type of linear lamp which has a coiled tungsten filament surrounded by a fused quartz envelope. The purpose of the study was to model the lamp thermally, not electrically, to arrive at a better understanding of the operation of the lamp.

  11. Infrared microcalorimetric spectroscopy using uncooled thermal detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Datskos, P.G. |; Rajic, S.; Datskou, I.; Egert, C.M.

    1997-10-01

    The authors have investigated a novel infrared microcalorimetric spectroscopy technique that can be used to detect the presence of trace amounts of target molecules. The chemical detection is accomplished by obtaining the infrared photothermal spectra of molecules absorbed on the surface of an uncooled thermal detector. Traditional gravimetric based chemical detectors (surface acoustic waves, quartz crystal microbalances) require highly selective coatings to achieve chemical specificity. In contrast, infrared microcalorimetric based detection requires only moderately specific coatings since the specificity is a consequence of the photothermal spectrum. They have obtained infrared photothermal spectra for trace concentrations of chemical analytes including diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP), 2-mercaptoethanol and trinitrotoluene (TNT) over the wavelength region2.5 to 14.5 {micro}m. They found that in the wavelength region 2.5 to 14.5 {micro}m DIMP exhibits two strong photothermal peaks. The photothermal spectra of 2-mercaptoethanol and TNT exhibit a number of peaks in the wavelength region 2.5 to 14.5 {micro}m and the photothermal peaks for 2-mercaptoethanol are in excellent agreement with infrared absorption peaks present in its IR spectrum. The photothermal response of chemical detectors based on microcalorimetric spectroscopy has been found to vary reproducibly and sensitively as a consequence of adsorption of small number of molecules on a detector surface followed by photon irradiation and can be used for improved chemical characterization.

  12. EFFECTS OF AERIAL THERMAL FOG APPLICATIONS OF FENTHION ON CAGED PINK SHRIMP, MYSIDS AND SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mosquito control applications of fenthion by aerial thermal fog equipment were studied at two sites in Collier County, FL, for sprays that occurred on 20 and 23 June 1984. Acute, lethal effects of fenthion deposited in these estuarine habitats were assessed for caged pink shrimp ...

  13. Crop Status Monitoring using Multispectral and Thermal Imaging systems for Accessible Aerial Platforms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural aircraft and unmanned aerial systems (UAS) are easily scheduled and accessible remote sensing platforms. Canopy temperature data were taken with an Electrophysics PV-320T thermal imaging camera mounted in agricultural aircraft. Weather data and soil water potential were monitored and th...

  14. A DECADE OF MAPPING SUBMERGED AQUATIC VEGETATION USING COLOR INFRARED AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY: METHODS USED AND LESSONS LEARNED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Annual color infrared aerial photographs acquired annually between 1997 and 2007 were used to classify distributions of intertidal and shallow subtidal native eelgrass Zostera marina and non-indigenous dwarf eelgrass Z. japonica in lower Yaquina estuary, Oregon. The use of digit...

  15. Reciprocity testing of Kodak film type SO-289 multispectral infrared aerial film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, H. E.

    1975-01-01

    Kodak multispectral infrared aerial film type SO-289 was tested for reciprocity characteristics because of the variance between the I-B sensitometer exposure times (8 seconds and 4 seconds) and the camera exposure time (1/500 second) used on the ASTP stratospheric aerosol measurement project. Test exposures were made on the flight emulsion using a Mead star system sensitometer, the films were processed to ASTP control standards, and the resulting densities read and reciprocity data calculated. It was found that less exposure was required to produce a typical density (1.3) at 1/500 second exposure time than at an 8 second exposure time. This exposure factor was 2.8.

  16. Therman Infrared Imaging In Agriculture Using a Small Unmanned Aerial System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal infrared (TIR) emittance from arable lands shows great promise as a tool to evaluate crop productivity, monitor stress, predict yield and evaluate management alternatives. However, the utility of TIR imagery has been complicated by: 1) infrequent acquisitions, 2) coarse spatial resolution a...

  17. Interpretation of multispectral and infrared thermal surveys of the Suez Canal Zone, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elshazly, E. M.; Hady, M. A. A. H.; Hafez, M. A. A.; Salman, A. B.; Morsy, M. A.; Elrakaiby, M. M.; Alaassy, I. E. E.; Kamel, A. F.

    1977-01-01

    Remote sensing airborne surveys were conducted, as part of the plan of rehabilitation, of the Suez Canal Zone using I2S multispectral camera and Bendix LN-3 infrared passive scanner. The multispectral camera gives four separate photographs for the same scene in the blue, green, red, and near infrared bands. The scanner was operated in the microwave bands of 8 to 14 microns and the thermal surveying was carried out both at night and in the day time. The surveys, coupled with intensive ground investigations, were utilized in the construction of new geological, structural lineation and drainage maps for the Suez Canal Zone on a scale of approximately 1:20,000, which are superior to the maps made by normal aerial photography. A considerable number of anomalies belonging to various types were revealed through the interpretation of the executed multispectral and infrared thermal surveys.

  18. The use of color infrared aerial photography in determining salt marsh vegetation and delimiting man-made structures of Lynnhaven Bay, Virginia. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, R. E., III

    1974-01-01

    Color infrared aerial photography was found to be superior to color aerial photography in an ecological study of Lynnhaven Bay, Virginia. The research was divided into three phases: (1) Determination of the feasibility of correlating color infrared aerial photography with saline wetland species composition and zonation patterns, (2) determination of the accuracy of the aerial interpretation and problems related to the aerial method used; and (3) comparison of developed with undeveloped areas along Lynnhaven Bay's shoreline. Wetland species composition and plant community zonation bands were compared with aerial infrared photography and resulted in a high degree of correlation. Problems existed with changing physical conditions; time of day, aircraft angle and sun angle, making it necessary to use several different characteristics in wetland species identification. The main characteristics used were known zonation patterns, textural signatures and color tones. Lynnhaven Bay's shoreline was 61.5 percent developed.

  19. Assessing Drought Responses Using Thermal Infrared Imaging.

    PubMed

    Prashar, Ankush; Jones, Hamlyn G

    2016-01-01

    Canopy temperature, a surrogate for stomatal conductance, is shown to be a good indicator of plant water status and a potential tool for phenotyping and irrigation scheduling. Measurement of stomatal conductance and leaf temperature has traditionally been done by using porometers or gas exchange analyzers and fine-wire thermocouples attached to the leaves, which are labor intensive and point measurements. The advent of remote or proximal thermal sensing technologies has provided the potential for scaling up to leaves, plants, and canopies. Thermal cameras with a temperature resolution of <0.1 K now allow one to study the temperature variation within and between plants. This chapter discusses some applications of infrared thermography for assessing drought and other abiotic and biotic stress and outlines some of the main factors that need to be considered when applying this to the study of leaf or canopy temperature whether in controlled environments or in the field. PMID:26867626

  20. Analysis and simulation of the infrared characteristics of the aerial target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Sen; Li, Xiao-xia; Zhao, Nan

    2011-08-01

    This paper consults and improves the on hand computational methods and circuits, which comprehensively utilizes the knowledge of the Aerodynamics, the heat transfer theory, the radio optics, ANSYS and so on. In the analysis of the IR characteristics of aerial targets, taking it into account that most of the computing methods on hand are empirical or semi-empirical, which are more simple, but more limited, less sufficient and scientific and have more human factors, so we begin with the determination of the thermal field, adopt the numerical method to realize the calculation and modeling of the IR radiation with ANSYS, analysis how the spectral coverage and the observed bearing affect the IR radiation, and then get the credible and all-side numerical calculation results. Then, this paper introduces a method utilizing 3DS MAX and OpenGL to generate the IR picture of the target, which divides the grey level of the IR radiation reasonably according to the final numeric calculating results and the principle of the grey level division, and then we generate the IR pictures of the aerial targets.

  1. Identification of irrigated crop types from ERTS-1 density contour maps and color infrared aerial photography. [Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrs, R. W.; Evans, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The crop types of a Great Plains study area were mapped from color infrared aerial photography. Each field was positively identified from field checks in the area. Enlarged (50x) density contour maps were constructed from three ERTS-1 images taken in the summer of 1973. The map interpreted from the aerial photography was compared to the density contour maps and the accuracy of the ERTS-1 density contour map interpretations were determined. Changes in the vegetation during the growing season and harvest periods were detectable on the ERTS-1 imagery. Density contouring aids in the detection of such charges.

  2. Evapotranspiration estimates using ASTER thermal infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmugge, Thomas J.; French, Andrew; Kustas, William P.

    2002-01-01

    The recent availability of multi-band thermal infrared imagery from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission & Reflection radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite has made feasible the estimation of evapotranspiration at 90 meter resolution. One critical variable in evapotranspiration models is surface temperature. With ASTER the temperature can be reliably determined over a wide range of vegetative conditions. The requirements for accurate temperature measurement include minimization of atmospheric effects, correction for surface emissivity variations and sufficient resolution for the type of vegetative cover. When ASTER imagery are combined with meteorological observations, these requirements are usually met and result in surface temperatures accurate within 1-2 C. ASTER-based evapotranspiration estimates were made during September 2000 over a sub-humid regions at the USDA/ARS Grazinglands research laboratory near El Reno in central Oklahoma. Daily evapotranspiration was estimated by applying instantaneous ASTER surface temperatures, as well as ASTER-based vegetation indices from visible-near infrared bands, to a two-source energy flux model and combining the result with separately acquired hourly solar radiation data. The estimates of surface fluxes show reasonable agreement (within 50-100 W/m2) with ground-based Bowen Ratio Energy Balance measurements and illustrate how ASTER measurements can be applied to heterogeneous terrain. There are some significant discrepancies, however, and these may in part be due to difficulty quantifying fractional cover of senescent vegetation.

  3. Infrared microradiometry of thermal ink jet heaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Olaf; Drews, Reinhold E.

    1989-07-01

    Thermal inkjet heaters were studied by infrared microradiometry using an apparatus similar to that reported in the literature. An InSb infrared sensor is mounted on a modified Leitz microscope equipped with a 36X reflecting objective. The system looks at a spot on the heater about 14 μm in diameter. The locally emitted infrared output is used as a qualitative measure of the local temperature. The temperature distribution on the heater surface is studied by constructing two-dimensional temperature contour maps. Current pulsing is carried out in air or in the presence of a high boiling point liquid. Other variables include pulse width, frequency, voltage, and heater geometry. Temperature profiles obtained in this way are in good agreement with those obtained from modeling calculations. Cycling has been carried out with several different passivation coatings with an emphasis on Ta passivation. Microradiometry of Ta-passivated heaters is complicated by the formation of Ta2O5 under most pulsing conditions and Ta2O5 has a much higher emissivity than tantalum. Burn-in curves (infrared output versus time) are used to monitor this oxidation process. Since the Ta2O5 thickness is not uniform over the heater surface, an accurate interpretation of the temperature contour maps of Ta-covered heaters is not easy. Microradiometry data of oxidized Ta heaters are supplemented with data obtained using optical microscopy, SEM, and profilometry. By overstressing heaters, hot spots were generated and studied using temperature contour maps. Subsequently, failed heaters were studied using SEM, and from these data failure mechanisms are postulated.

  4. Thermal Infrared Spectral Imager for Airborne Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, William R.; Hook, Simon J.; Mouroulis, Pantazis; Wilson, Daniel W.; Gunapala, Sarath D.; Hill, Cory J.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Eng, Bjorn T.

    2009-01-01

    An airborne thermal hyperspectral imager is under development which utilizes the compact Dyson optical configuration and quantum well infrared photo detector (QWIP) focal plane array. The Dyson configuration uses a single monolithic prism-like grating design which allows for a high throughput instrument (F/1.6) with minimal ghosting, stray-light and large swath width. The configuration has the potential to be the optimal imaging spectroscopy solution for lighter-than-air (LTA) vehicles and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) due to its small form factor and relatively low power requirements. The planned instrument specifications are discussed as well as design trade-offs. Calibration testing results (noise equivalent temperature difference, spectral linearity and spectral bandwidth) and laboratory emissivity plots from samples are shown using an operational testbed unit which has similar specifications as the final airborne system. Field testing of the testbed unit was performed to acquire plots of apparent emissivity for various known standard minerals (such as quartz). A comparison is made using data from the ASTER spectral library.

  5. Producing Mosaiced Infrared Data on Natural Hazards for Real-time Emergency Management using UAS and Thermal Infrared Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatfield, M. C.; Webley, P. W.; Saiet, E., II

    2015-12-01

    Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) provide a unique capability for emergency management and real-time hazard assessment with access to hazardous environments that maybe off limits for manned aircraft while reducing the risk to personnel and loss of ground assets. When dealing with hazards, such as forest fires and volcanic eruptions, there is a need to assess the location of the fire/flow front and where best to assign ground personnel to reduce the risk to local populations and infrastructure. Thermal infrared cameras provide the ideal tool to detect subtle changes in the developing fire/flow front while providing data 24/7. There are limits to the detecting capabilities of these cameras given the wavelengths used and image resolution available. Given the large thermal contrast between the hot flow front and surrounding landscape then the data can be used to map out the location and changes seen as the front of the flow/fire advances. To map the complete hazard then either the UAS has to be flown at an altitude to capture the event in one image or the data has to be mosaiced together. Higher altitudes lead to coarser resolution imagery and therefore we will show how thermal infrared data can be mosaiced to provide the highest spatial resolution map of the hazard. We will present results using different UAS and thermal cameras including adding neutral density filters to detect hotter thermal targets. Timely generation of these mosaiced maps in a real-time environment is critical for those assessing the ongoing event and we will show how these maps can be generated quickly with the necessary spatial and thermal accuracy while discussing the requirements needed to generate thermal infrared maps of the hazardous events that are both useful for quick real-time assessment and also for further investigation in research projects.

  6. Quantitative deconvolution of human thermal infrared emittance.

    PubMed

    Arthur, D T J; Khan, M M

    2013-01-01

    The bioheat transfer models conventionally employed in etiology of human thermal infrared (TIR) emittance rely upon two assumptions; universal graybody emissivity and significant transmission of heat from subsurface tissue layers. In this work, a series of clinical and laboratory experiments were designed and carried out to conclusively evaluate the validity of the two assumptions. Results obtained from the objective analyses of TIR images of human facial and tibial regions demonstrated significant variations in spectral thermophysical properties at different anatomic locations on human body. The limited validity of the two assumptions signifies need for quantitative deconvolution of human TIR emittance in clinical, psychophysiological and critical applications. A novel approach to joint inversion of the bioheat transfer model is also introduced, levering the deterministic temperature-dependency of proton resonance frequency in low-lipid human soft tissue for characterizing the relationship between subsurface 3D tissue temperature profiles and corresponding TIR emittance. PMID:23086533

  7. Thermal infrared research: Where are we now?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, J. L.; Jackson, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    The use of infrared temperatures in agriculture and hydrology is based on the energy balance equation which is used to estimate evapotranspiration and crop stress over small areas within a field as well as large areas. For its full utilization, this measurement must be combined with other spectral data collected at a time resolution sufficient to detect changes in the agricultural or hydrological systems and at a spatial resolution with enough detail to sample within individual fields. The most stringent requirement is that the data be readily available to the user. The spatial resolution necessary for IR measurements to be incorporated into evapotranspiration models to accurately estimate field and regional transpiration or measure crop stress; methods to estimate crop stress and yield over large areas and different cultivars within a species; the temporal resolution adequate for detecting crop stress or inclusion in evapotranspiration models; and ancillary parameters for estimating thermal IR measurements must be investigated.

  8. Realistic texture in simulated thermal infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Jason T.

    Creating a visually-realistic yet radiometrically-accurate simulation of thermal infrared (TIR) imagery is a challenge that has plagued members of industry and academia alike. The goal of imagery simulation is to provide a practical alternative to the often staggering effort required to collect actual data. Previous attempts at simulating TIR imagery have suffered from a lack of texture---the simulated scenes generally failed to reproduce the natural variability seen in actual TIR images. Realistic synthetic TIR imagery requires modeling sources of variability including surface effects such as solar insolation and convective heat exchange as well as sub-surface effects such as density and water content. This research effort utilized the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) model, developed at the Rochester Institute of Technology, to investigate how these additional sources of variability could be modeled to correctly and accurately provide simulated TIR imagery. Actual thermal data were collected, analyzed, and exploited to determine the underlying thermodynamic phenomena and ascertain how these phenomena are best modeled. The underlying task was to determine how to apply texture in the thermal region to attain radiometrically-correct, visually-appealing simulated imagery. Three natural desert scenes were used to test the methodologies that were developed for estimating per-pixel thermal parameters which could then be used for TIR image simulation by DIRSIG. Additional metrics were devised and applied to the synthetic images to further quantify the success of this research. The resulting imagery demonstrated that these new methodologies for modeling TIR phenomena and the utilization of an improved DIRSIG tool improved the root mean-squared error (RMSE) of our synthetic TIR imagery by up to 88%.

  9. The Visualization of Infrared Radiation Using Thermal Sensitive Foils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bochnícek, Zdenek

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a set of demonstration school experiments where infrared radiation is detected using thermal sensitive foils. The possibility of using standard glass lenses for infrared imaging is discussed in detail. It is shown that with optic components made from glass, infrared radiation up to 2.5 µm of wavelength can be detected. The…

  10. Infrared frequency-tunable coherent thermal sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao; Yang, Yue; Wang, Liping

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we numerically demonstrate an infrared (IR) frequency-tunable selective thermal emitter made of graphene-covered silicon carbide (SiC) gratings. Rigorous coupled-wave analysis shows temporally-coherent emission peaks associated with magnetic polariton (MP), whose resonance frequency can be dynamically tuned within the phonon absorption band of SiC by varying graphene chemical potential. An analytical inductor-capacitor circuit model is introduced to quantitatively predict the resonance frequency and further elucidate the mechanism for the tunable emission peak. The effects of grating geometric parameters, such as grating height, groove width and grating period, on the selective emission peak are explored. The direction-independent behavior of MP and associated coherent emission are also demonstrated. Moreover, by depositing four layers of graphene sheets onto the SiC gratings, a large tunability of 8.5% in peak frequency can be obtained to yield the coherent emission covering a broad frequency range from 820 to 890 cm-1. The novel tunable metamaterial could pave the way to a new class of tunable thermal sources in the IR region.

  11. Determining in-season nitrogen requirements for corn using aerial color-infrared photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sripada, Ravi Prakash

    Fast, accurate methods to determine in-season corn (Zea mays L.) nitrogen (N) requirements are needed to provide more precise and economical management and potentially decrease groundwater N contamination. The objectives of this study were to: (i) develop a methodology for predicting in-season N requirement for corn at the V7 and VT stages using aerial color infrared (CIR) photography; (ii) validate the RGDVI-based remote sensing technique for determining in-season N requirements for corn at VT; (iii) determine the relationships between corn agronomic parameters and spectral parameters that influence the prediction of optimum NV7 and NVT rates. Field studies were conducted for four years over a wide range of soil conditions and water regimes in the North Carolina Coastal Plain. A two-way factorial experimental design was implemented as a split-plot in randomized complete blocks with NPL as the main plot factor and NV7 or NVT as the sub-plot factor. Corn agronomic parameters were measured and aerial CIR photographs were obtained for each site at V7 or VT prior to N application. Spectral radiation of corn measured using the Green Difference Vegetation Index (GDVI) relative to high-N reference strips using a linear-plateau model was the best predictor of optimum NVT (R2 = 0.67). Very weak correlations were observed between optimum rates of N V7 and band combinations with significant correlations for relative G, RGDVI, and relative difference vegetation index (RDVI). In the VT validation study, the difference between predicted and observed optimum NVT rates ranged from -30 to 90 kg N ha-1. Overall, the remote sensing technique was successful (r2 = 0.85) in predicting optimum NVT rates despite the inherent constraints of predicting yield potential in any particular year. The spectral index RGDVI showed consistently significant relationships with corn agronomic parameters measured at VT. By assessing corn N requirements late in the season during the period of maximum N

  12. Apparatus and method for transient thermal infrared spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    McClelland, John F.; Jones, Roger W.

    1991-12-03

    A method and apparatus for enabling analysis of a material (16, 42) by applying a cooling medium (20, 54) to cool a thin surface layer portion of the material and to transiently generate a temperature differential between the thin surface layer portion and the lower portion of the material sufficient to alter the thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material from the black-body thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material. The altered thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material is detected by a spectrometer/detector (28, 50) while the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is sufficiently free of self-absorption by the material of the emitted infrared radiation. The detection is effected prior to the temperature differential propagating into the lower portion of the material to an extent such that the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is no longer sufficiently free of self-absorption by the material of emitted infrared radiation, so that the detected altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is indicative of the characteristics relating to the molecular composition of the material.

  13. Payette National Forest aerial survey project using the Kodak digital color infrared camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, Jerry D.

    1997-11-01

    Staff of the Payette National Forest located in central Idaho used the Kodak Digital Infrared Camera to collect digital photographic images over a wide variety of selected areas. The objective of this aerial survey project is to collect airborne digital camera imagery and to evaluate it for potential use in forest assessment and management. The data collected from this remote sensing system is being compared with existing resource information and with personal knowledge of the areas surveyed. Resource specialists are evaluating the imagery to determine if it may be useful for; identifying cultural sites (pre-European settlement tribal villages and camps); recognizing ecosystem landscape pattern; mapping recreation areas; evaluating the South Fork Salmon River road reconstruction project; designing the Elk Summit Road; assessing the impact of sediment on anadramous fish in the South Fork Salmon River; assessing any contribution of sediment to the South Fork from the reconstructed road; determining post-wildfire stress development in conifer timber; in assessing the development of insect populations in areas initially determined to be within low intensity wildfire burn polygons; and to search for Idaho Ground Squirrel habitat. Project sites include approximately 60 linear miles of the South Fork of the Salmon River; a parallel road over about half that distance; 3 archaeological sites; two transects of about 6 miles each for landscape patterns; 3 recreation areas; 5 miles of the Payette River; 4 miles of the Elk Summit Road; a pair of transects 4.5 miles long for stress assessment in timber; a triplet of transects about 3 miles long for the assessment of the identification of species; and an area of about 640 acres to evaluate habitat for the endangered Idaho Ground Squirrel. Preliminary results indicate that the imagery is an economically viable way to collect site specific resource information that is of value in the management of a national forest.

  14. Development of practical thermal infrared hyperspectral imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianyu; Li, Chunlai; Lv, Gang; Yuan, Liyin; Liu, Enguang; Jin, Jian; Ji, Hongzhen

    2014-11-01

    As an optical remote sensing equipment, the thermal infrared hyperspectral imager operates in the thermal infrared spectral band and acquires about 180 wavebands in range of 8.0~12.5μm. The field of view of this imager is 13° and the spatial resolution is better than 1mrad. Its noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) is less than 0.2K@300K(average). 1 The influence of background radiation of the thermal infrared hyperspectral imager,and a simulation model of simplified background radiation is builded. 2 The design and implementationof the Cryogenic Optics. 3 Thermal infrared focal plane array (FPA) and special dewar component for the thermal infrared hyperspectral imager. 4 Parts of test results of the thermal infrared hyperspectral imager.The hyperspectral imaging system is China's first success in developing this type of instrument, whose flight validation experiments have already been embarked on. The thermal infrared hyperspectral data acquired will play an important role in fields such as geological exploration and air pollutant identification.

  15. Spaceborne Thermal Infrared Measurements of Volcanic Thermal Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, R. G.; Hook, S. J.; Davies, A. G.

    2006-12-01

    Thermal Infrared (TIR) remote sensing measurements of high-temperature volcanic features improve our understanding of volcanic processes and our ability to identify renewed volcanic activity, forecast eruptions, and assess hazards. We will present a time-series analysis of ASTER TIR data acquired over 3 different volcanoes that span a range of temperatures typical of volcanic features: 1) crater lake at Mount Ruapehu; 2) dacite dome at Mount St. Helens, and 3) lava lake at Mount Erebus. The goals of this study were to determine a baseline for the thermal behavior of these volcanoes by characterizing non-volcanic background temperature variations as well as identify how temporal changes in the ASTER-derived temperatures relate to dynamic volcanic processes. Also, one of the on-going and future goals of this work is to develop background thermal variation models for many volcanoes to help identify changes that may occur prior to eruptions. Measuring the temporal thermal behavior of well-monitored active volcanoes provides insights on how to interpret TIR data over other volcanoes that are more remote and less well-studied. At Mount Ruapehu, 34 nighttime ASTER-derived temperatures (integrated over 90-m pixels) from Apr 2001 to Mar 2006 ranged from 10 to 34 C, reflecting regular seasonal variations, with some thermal anomalies that possibly relate to increased fumarolic activity on the crater floor beneath the lake. At Mount St Helens, 19 nighttime ASTER-derived temperatures from Mar 2000 to Feb 2006 ranged from -10 to 96 C. They varied seasonally before the most recent eruption (Oct 2004), and tracked with dome growth after the eruption, relating to dome volume and morphology changes. At Mount Erebus, 115 nighttime ASTER-derived temperatures from Mar 2001 to July 2006 ranged from 0 to 90 C. The sub-pixel sized lava lake showed a large range of retrieved temperatures but no systematic variability, possibly due to steam frequently condensing over the lake. Currently

  16. Jupiter's atmospheric composition from the Cassini thermal infrared spectroscopy experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunde, V. G.; Flasar, F. M.; Jennings, D. E.; Bezard, B.; Strobel, D. F.; Conrath, B. J.; Nixon, C. A.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Romani, P. N.; Achterberg, R. K.; Simon-Miller, A. A.; Irwin, P.; Brasunas, J. C.; Pearl, J. C.; Smith, M. D.; Orton, G. S.; Gierasch, P. J.; Spilker, L. J.; Carlson, R. C.; Mamoutkine, A. A.; Calcutt, S. B.; Read, P. L.; Taylor, F. W.; Fouchet, T.; Parrish, P.

    2004-01-01

    The Composite Infrared Spectrometer observed Jupiter in the thermal infrared during the swing-by of the Cassini spacecraft. Results include the detection of two new stratospheric species, the methyl radical and diacetylene, gaseous species present in the north and south auroral infrared hot spots; determination of the variations with latitude of acetylene and ethane, the latter a tracer of atmospheric motion; observations of unexpected spatial distributions of carbon dioxide and hydrogen cyanide, both considered to be products of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 impacts; characterization of the morphology of the auroral infrared hot spot acetylene emission; and a new evaluation of the energetics of the northern auroral infrared hot spot.

  17. Thermal Imaging Using Small-Aerial Platforms for Assessment of Crop Water Stress in Humid Subtropical Climates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf- or canopy-to-air temperature difference (hereafter called CATD) can provide information on crop energy status. Thermal imagery from agricultural aircraft or Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have the potential of providing thermal data for calculation of CATD and visual snapshots that can guide ...

  18. Anisotropy of thermal infrared exitance above and within plant canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pawu, Kyaw Tha

    1991-01-01

    Any significant angular dependence of the emitted long wave radiation could result in errors in remotely estimated energy budgets or evapotranspiration. Empirical data and thermal infrared radiation models are reviewed in reference to anisotropic emissions from the plant canopy. The biometeorological aspects of linking longwave models with plant canopy energy budgets and micrometeorology are discussed. A new soil plant atmosphere model applied to anisotropic longwave emissions from a canopy is presented. Time variation of thermal infrared emission measurements is discussed.

  19. Thermal Infrared Radiative Forcing By Atmospheric Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Narayan

    The work mainly focuses on the study of thermal infrared (IR) properties of atmospheric greenhouse gases and aerosols, and the estimation of the aerosol-induced direct longwave (LW) radiative forcing in the spectral region 5-20 mum at the Earth's surface (BOA; bottom of the atmosphere) and the top of the atmosphere (TOA) in cloud-free atmospheric conditions. These objectives were accomplished by conducting case studies on clear sky, smoky, and dusty conditions that took place in the Great Basin of the USA in 2013. Both the solar and thermal IR measurements and a state-of-the-science radiative transfer model, the LBLDIS, a combination of the Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model and the Discrete Ordinate Radiative Transfer (DISORT) solver were employed for the study. The LW aerosol forcing is often not included in climate models because the aerosol effect on the LW is often assumed to be negligible. We lack knowledge of aerosol characteristics in the LW region, and aerosol properties exhibit high variability. We have found that the LW TOA radiative forcing due to fine mode aerosols, mainly associated with small biomass burning smoke particles, is + 0.4 W/m2 which seems to be small, but it is similar to the LW radiative forcing due to increase in CO2 concentration in the Earth's atmosphere since the preindustrial era of 1750 (+ 1.6 W/m 2). The LW radiative forcing due to coarse mode aerosols, associated with large airborne mineral dust particles, was found to be as much as + 5.02 W/m2 at the surface and + 1.71 W/m2 at the TOA. All of these significant positive values of the aerosol radiative forcing both at the BOA and TOA indicate that the aerosols have a heating effect in the LW range, which contributes to counterbalancing the cooling effect associated with the aerosol radiative forcing in the shortwave (SW) spectral region. In the meantime, we have found that LW radiative forcing by aerosols is highly sensitive to particle size and complex refractive indices of

  20. Stream Temperature Estimation From Thermal Infrared Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handcock, R. N.; Kay, J. E.; Gillespie, A.; Naveh, N.; Cherkauer, K. A.; Burges, S. J.; Booth, D. B.

    2001-12-01

    Stream temperature is an important water quality indicator in the Pacific Northwest where endangered fish populations are sensitive to elevated water temperature. Cold water refugia are essential for the survival of threatened salmon when events such as the removal of riparian vegetation result in elevated stream temperatures. Regional assessment of stream temperatures is limited by sparse sampling of temperatures in both space and time. If critical watersheds are to be properly managed it is necessary to have spatially extensive temperature measurements of known accuracy. Remotely sensed thermal infrared (TIR) imagery can be used to derive spatially distributed estimates of the skin temperature (top 100 nm) of streams. TIR imagery has long been used to estimate skin temperatures of the ocean, where split-window techniques have been used to compensate for atmospheric affects. Streams are a more complex environment because 1) most are unresolved in typical TIR images, and 2) the near-bank environment of stream corridors may consist of tall trees or hot rocks and soils that irradiate the stream surface. As well as compensating for atmospheric effects, key problems to solve in estimating stream temperatures include both subpixel unmixing and multiple scattering. Additionally, fine resolution characteristics of the stream surface such as evaporative cooling due to wind, and water surface roughness, will effect measurements of radiant skin temperatures with TIR devices. We apply these corrections across the Green River and Yakima River watersheds in Washington State to assess the accuracy of remotely sensed stream surface temperature estimates made using fine resolution TIR imagery from a ground-based sensor (FLIR), medium resolution data from the airborne MASTER sensor, and coarse-resolution data from the Terra-ASTER satellite. We use linear spectral mixture analysis to isolate the fraction of land-leaving radiance originating from unresolved streams. To compensate the

  1. Colored three-dimensional reconstruction of vehicular thermal infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shaoyuan; Leung, Henry; Shen, Zhenyi

    2015-06-01

    Enhancement of vehicular night vision thermal infrared images is an important problem in intelligent vehicles. We propose to create a colorful three-dimensional (3-D) display of infrared images for the vehicular night vision assistant driving system. We combine the plane parameter Markov random field (PP-MRF) model-based depth estimation with classification-based infrared image colorization to perform colored 3-D reconstruction of vehicular thermal infrared images. We first train the PP-MRF model to learn the relationship between superpixel features and plane parameters. The infrared images are then colorized and we perform superpixel segmentation and feature extraction on the colorized images. The PP-MRF model is used to estimate the superpixel plane parameter and to analyze the structure of the superpixels according to the characteristics of vehicular thermal infrared images. Finally, we estimate the depth of each pixel to perform 3-D reconstruction. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can give a visually pleasing and daytime-like colorful 3-D display from a monochromatic vehicular thermal infrared image, which can help drivers to have a better understanding of the environment.

  2. Apparatus and method for transient thermal infrared emission spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    McClelland, John F.; Jones, Roger W.

    1991-12-24

    A method and apparatus for enabling analysis of a solid material (16, 42) by applying energy from an energy source (20, 70) top a surface region of the solid material sufficient to cause transient heating in a thin surface layer portion of the solid material (16, 42) so as to enable transient thermal emission of infrared radiation from the thin surface layer portion, and by detecting with a spectrometer/detector (28, 58) substantially only the transient thermal emission of infrared radiation from the thin surface layer portion of the solid material. The detected transient thermal emission of infrared radiation is sufficiently free of self-absorption by the solid material of emitted infrared radiation, so as to be indicative of characteristics relating to molecular composition of the solid material.

  3. Infrared Thermal Imaging as a Tool in University Physics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mollmann, Klaus-Peter; Vollmer, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Infrared thermal imaging is a valuable tool in physics education at the university level. It can help to visualize and thereby enhance understanding of physical phenomena from mechanics, thermal physics, electromagnetism, optics and radiation physics, qualitatively as well as quantitatively. We report on its use as lecture demonstrations, student…

  4. Factors affecting thermal infrared images at selected field sites

    SciTech Connect

    Sisson, J.B.; Ferguson, J.S.

    1993-07-01

    A thermal infrared (TIR) survey was conducted to locate surface ordnance in and around the Naval Ordnance Disposal Area, and a thermal anomaly was found. This report documents studies conducted to identify the position of cause of the thermal anomaly. Also included are results of a long path Fourier transform infrared survey, soil sampling activities, soil gas surveys, and buried heater studies. The results of these studies indicated that the thermal anomaly was caused by a gravel pad, which had thermal properties different than those of the surrounding soil. Results from this investigation suggest that TIR is useful for locating surface objects having a high thermal inertia compared to the surrounding terrain, but TIR is of very limited use for characterizing buried waste or other similar buried objects at the INEL.

  5. Thermal Infrared Imaging-Based Computational Psychophysiology for Psychometrics.

    PubMed

    Cardone, Daniela; Pinti, Paola; Merla, Arcangelo

    2015-01-01

    Thermal infrared imaging has been proposed as a potential system for the computational assessment of human autonomic nervous activity and psychophysiological states in a contactless and noninvasive way. Through bioheat modeling of facial thermal imagery, several vital signs can be extracted, including localized blood perfusion, cardiac pulse, breath rate, and sudomotor response, since all these parameters impact the cutaneous temperature. The obtained physiological information could then be used to draw inferences about a variety of psychophysiological or affective states, as proved by the increasing number of psychophysiological studies using thermal infrared imaging. This paper presents therefore a review of the principal achievements of thermal infrared imaging in computational physiology with regard to its capability of monitoring psychophysiological activity. PMID:26339284

  6. Thermal Infrared Imaging-Based Computational Psychophysiology for Psychometrics

    PubMed Central

    Cardone, Daniela; Pinti, Paola; Merla, Arcangelo

    2015-01-01

    Thermal infrared imaging has been proposed as a potential system for the computational assessment of human autonomic nervous activity and psychophysiological states in a contactless and noninvasive way. Through bioheat modeling of facial thermal imagery, several vital signs can be extracted, including localized blood perfusion, cardiac pulse, breath rate, and sudomotor response, since all these parameters impact the cutaneous temperature. The obtained physiological information could then be used to draw inferences about a variety of psychophysiological or affective states, as proved by the increasing number of psychophysiological studies using thermal infrared imaging. This paper presents therefore a review of the principal achievements of thermal infrared imaging in computational physiology with regard to its capability of monitoring psychophysiological activity. PMID:26339284

  7. Thermal/structural/optical integrated design for optical sensor mounted on unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Gaopeng; Yang, Hongtao; Mei, Chao; Wu, Dengshan; Shi, Kui

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of science and technology and the promotion of many local wars in the world, altitude optical sensor mounted on unmanned aerial vehicle is more widely applied in the airborne remote sensing, measurement and detection. In order to obtain high quality image of the aero optical remote sensor, it is important to analysis its thermal-optical performance on the condition of high speed and high altitude. Especially for the key imaging assembly, such as optical window, the temperature variation and temperature gradient can result in defocus and aberrations in optical system, which will lead to the poor quality image. In order to improve the optical performance of a high speed aerial camera optical window, the thermal/structural/optical integrated design method is developed. Firstly, the flight environment of optical window is analyzed. Based on the theory of aerodynamics and heat transfer, the convection heat transfer coefficient is calculated. The temperature distributing of optical window is simulated by the finite element analysis software. The maximum difference in temperature of the inside and outside of optical window is obtained. Then the deformation of optical window under the boundary condition of the maximum difference in temperature is calculated. The optical window surface deformation is fitted in Zernike polynomial as the interface, the calculated Zernike fitting coefficients is brought in and analyzed by CodeV Optical Software. At last, the transfer function diagrams of the optical system on temperature field are comparatively analyzed. By comparing and analyzing the result, it can be obtained that the optical path difference caused by thermal deformation of the optical window is 138.2 nm, which is under PV ≤1 4λ . The above study can be used as an important reference for other optical window designs.

  8. Thermal-infrared spectral observations of geologic materials in emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, Philip R.; Luth, Sharon J.

    1987-01-01

    The thermal-infrared spectra of geologic materials in emission were studied using the prototype Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES). A variety of of processes and surface modifications that may influence or alter the spectra of primary rock materials were studied. It was confirmed that thermal emission spectra contain the same absorption features as those observed in transmission and reflection spectra. It was confirmed that the TES instrument can be used to obtain relevant spectra for analysis of rock and mineral composition.

  9. Conceptual thermal design and analysis of a far-infrared/mid-infrared remote sensing instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roettker, William A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the conceptual thermal design and analysis results for the Spectroscopy of the Atmosphere using Far-Infrared Emission (SAFIRE) instrument. SAFIRE has been proposed for Mission to Planet Earth to study ozone chemistry in the middle atmosphere using remote sensing of the atmosphere in the far-infrared (21-87 microns) and mid-infrared (9-16 microns) spectra. SAFIRE requires that far-IR detectors be cooled to 3-4 K and mid-IR detectors to 80 K for the expected mission lifetime of five years. A superfluid helium dewar and Stirling-cycle cryocoolers provide the cryogenic temperatures required by the infrared detectors. The proposed instrument thermal design uses passive thermal control techniques to reject 465 watts of waste heat from the instrument.

  10. Aerial infrared imaging reveals large nutrient-rich groundwater inputs to the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Adam G.; Glenn, Craig R.; Burnett, William C.; Peterson, Richard N.; Lucey, Paul G.

    2008-08-01

    Regional high-resolution (0.1°C, 0.5 m) low-altitude thermal infrared imagery (TIR) reveals the exact input locations and fine-scale mixing structure of massive, cool groundwaters that discharge into the coastal zone as both diffuse flows and as >30 large point-sourced nutrient-rich plumes along the dry western half of the large volcanic island of Hawaii. These inputs are the sole source of new nutrient delivery to coastal waters in this oligotrophic setting. Water column profiling and nutrient sampling show that the plumes are cold, buoyant, nutrient-rich brackish mixtures of groundwater and seawater. By way of example, we illustrate in detail one of the larger plumes, which discharges ca. 12,000 m3 d-1 (ca. 8,600 m3 d-1 freshwater), rates comparable in volume to high-flux groundwater outputs in better-known tropical karst terrains. We further show how nutrient mixing trends may be integrated into TIR sea surface temperatures to produce surface water nutrient maps of regional extent.

  11. Hyperspatial Thermal Imaging of Surface Hydrothermal Features at Pilgrim Hot Springs, Alaska using a small Unmanned Aerial System (sUAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haselwimmer, C. E.; Wilson, R.; Upton, C.; Prakash, A.; Holdmann, G.; Walker, G.

    2013-12-01

    Thermal remote sensing provides a valuable tool for mapping and monitoring surface hydrothermal features associated with geothermal activity. The increasing availability of low-cost, small Unmanned Aerial Systems (sUAS) with integrated thermal imaging sensors offers a means to undertake very high spatial resolution (hyperspatial), quantitative thermal remote sensing of surface geothermal features in support of exploration and long-term monitoring efforts. Results from the deployment of a quadcopter sUAS equipped with a thermal camera over Pilgrim Hot Springs, Alaska for detailed mapping and heat flux estimation for hot springs, seeps, and thermal pools are presented. Hyperspatial thermal infrared imagery (4 cm pixels) was acquired over Pilgrim Hot Springs in July 2013 using a FLIR TAU 640 camera operating from an Aeryon Scout sUAS flying at an altitude of 40m. The registered and mosaicked thermal imagery is calibrated to surface temperature values using in-situ measurements of uniform blackbody tarps and the temperatures of geothermal and other surface pools acquired with a series of water temperature loggers. Interpretation of the pre-processed thermal imagery enables the delineation of hot springs, the extents of thermal pools, and the flow and mixing of individual geothermal outflow plumes with an unprecedented level of detail. Using the surface temperatures of thermal waters derived from the FLIR data and measured in-situ meteorological parameters the hot spring heat flux and outflow rate is calculated using a heat budget model for a subset of the thermal drainage. The heat flux/outflow rate estimates derived from the FLIR data are compared against in-situ measurements of the hot spring outflow rate recorded at the time of the thermal survey.

  12. Development of infrared thermal imager for dry eye diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Huihua Kenny; Chen, Chih Yen; Cheng, Hung You; Chen, Ko-Hua; Chang, David O.

    2006-08-01

    This study aims at the development of non-contact dry eye diagnosis based on an infrared thermal imager system, which was used to measure the cooling of the ocular surface temperature of normal and dry eye patients. A total of 108 subjects were measured, including 26 normal and 82 dry eye patients. We have observed that the dry eye patients have a fast cooling of the ocular surface temperature than the normal control group. We have developed a simplified algorithm for calculating the temperature decay constant of the ocular surface for discriminating between normal and dry eye. This study shows the diagnostic of dry eye syndrome by the infrared thermal imager system has reached a sensitivity of 79.3%, a specificity of 75%, and the area under the ROC curve 0.841. The infrared thermal imager system has a great potential to be developed for dry eye screening with the advantages of non-contact, fast, and convenient implementation.

  13. Thermal-infrared pedestrian ROI extraction through thermal and motion information fusion.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Caballero, Antonio; López, María T; Serrano-Cuerda, Juan

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the robustness of a new thermal-infrared pedestrian detection system under different outdoor environmental conditions. In first place the algorithm for pedestrian ROI extraction in thermal-infrared video based on both thermal and motion information is introduced. Then, the evaluation of the proposal is detailed after describing the complete thermal and motion information fusion. In this sense, the environment chosen for evaluation is described, and the twelve test sequences are specified. For each of the sequences captured from a forward-looking infrared FLIR A-320 camera, the paper explains the weather and light conditions under which it was captured. The results allow us to draw firm conclusions about the conditions under which it can be affirmed that it is efficient to use our thermal-infrared proposal to robustly extract human ROIs. PMID:24727500

  14. Thermal-Infrared Pedestrian ROI Extraction through Thermal and Motion Information Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Caballero, Antonio; López, María T.; Serrano-Cuerda, Juan

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the robustness of a new thermal-infrared pedestrian detection system under different outdoor environmental conditions. In first place the algorithm for pedestrian ROI extraction in thermal-infrared video based on both thermal and motion information is introduced. Then, the evaluation of the proposal is detailed after describing the complete thermal and motion information fusion. In this sense, the environment chosen for evaluation is described, and the twelve test sequences are specified. For each of the sequences captured from a forward-looking infrared FLIR A-320 camera, the paper explains the weather and light conditions under which it was captured. The results allow us to draw firm conclusions about the conditions under which it can be affirmed that it is efficient to use our thermal-infrared proposal to robustly extract human ROIs. PMID:24727500

  15. Space-Based Thermal Infrared Studies of Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainzer, A.; Usui, F.; Trilling, D. E.

    Large-area surveys operating at mid-infrared wavelengths have proven to be a valuable means of discovering and characterizing minor planets. Through the use of radiometric models, it is possible to derive physical properties such as diameters, albedos, and thermal inertia for large numbers of objects. Modern detector array technology has resulted in a significant improvement in spatial resolution and sensitivity compared with previous generations of spacebased infrared telescopes, giving rise to a commensurate increase in the number of objects that have been observed at these wavelengths. Spacebased infrared surveys of asteroids therefore offer an effective method of rapidly gathering information about the orbital and physical properties of small-body populations. The AKARI, Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)/ Near- Earth Object Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (NEOWISE), Spitzer Space Telescope, and Herschel Space Observatory missions have significantly increased the number of minor planets with well-determined diameters and albedos.

  16. Radiometric cloud imaging with an uncooled microbolometer thermal infrared camera.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Joseph; Nugent, Paul; Pust, Nathan; Thurairajah, Brentha; Mizutani, Kohei

    2005-07-25

    An uncooled microbolometer-array thermal infrared camera has been incorporated into a remote sensing system for radiometric sky imaging. The radiometric calibration is validated and improved through direct comparison with spectrally integrated data from the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI). With the improved calibration, the Infrared Cloud Imager (ICI) system routinely obtains sky images with radiometric uncertainty less than 0.5 W/(m(2 )sr) for extended deployments in challenging field environments. We demonstrate the infrared cloud imaging technique with still and time-lapse imagery of clear and cloudy skies, including stratus, cirrus, and wave clouds. PMID:19498585

  17. Thermal Analysis on Cryogenic Liquid Hydrogen Tank on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen; Harpster, George; Hunter, James

    2007-01-01

    Thermal analyses are performed on the liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank designed for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) powered by solar arrays and a regenerative proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. A 14-day cruise mission at a 65,000 ft altitude is considered. Thermal analysis provides the thermal loads on the tank system and the boiling-off rates of LH2. Different approaches are being considered to minimize the boiling-off rates of the LH2. It includes an evacuated multilayer insulation (MLI) versus aerogel insulation on the LH2 tank and aluminum versus stainless steel spacer rings between the inner and outer tank. The resulting boil-off rates of LH2 provided by the one-dimensional model and three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) on the tank system are presented and compared to validate the results of the three-dimensional FEA. It concludes that heat flux through penetrations by conduction is as significant as that through insulation around the tank. The tank system with MLI insulation and stainless steel spacer rings result in the lowest boiling-off rate of LH2.

  18. Adjustable responsivity for thermal infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Woo-Bin; Talghader, Joseph J.

    2002-07-01

    With the recent interest in adaptive IR imaging, focal plane arrays are desired that can operate linearly over an enormous dynamic range. Unfortunately, large signals can cause thermal detectors to operate at temperatures significantly above their ambient resulting in intensity dependent performance or even device damage. In this letter, the responsivity of microbolometer devices is controlled using the detector and substrate as a simple electrostatic actuator. Microbolometers are demonstrated to switch between states that are over a factor of 50 apart in responsivity. The limits of the switching are theoretically separated by four to five orders of magnitude. In addition, intermediate values of responsivity can be obtained by designing devices in which the support beams snap down at lower voltage than the detector plate. Combining this idea with the pressure dependence of the thermal contact conductance, continuous thermal conductance tuning over a factor of 3 is demonstrated.

  19. ASTER THERMAL INFRARED OBSERVATIONS OVER NEW MEXICO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than a dozen clear sky ASTER scenes over the Jornada, New Mexico LTER site have been acquired since the launch of NASA's Terra satellite in December, 1999. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER) instrument has 5 channels in the 8 to 12 micrometer wave band with ...

  20. Remote infrared thermal sensing of sewer voids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weil, Gary J.

    1995-05-01

    Many sewers in America's cities are more than 125 years old and are subject to structural failure. In one year alone, St. Louis, Missouri had 4,000 sewer collapses that carried an astronomical repair tag. When a sewer caves in, it often takes the street, sidewalks, and surrounding buildings along with it endangering public health and safety. The ideal situation would be to repair a sewer before such cave-ins occur, as emergency repairs are far more costly than preventive measures. The question addressed by this paper is how to detect unseen problem areas in sewer systems before collapses occur. At the present, progressive sewer administrations may use crawl crews or remote controlled video cameras to inspect sewers at suspected problem locations. This can be extremely costly, dangerous, and not very accurate, as a void around the outside of the sewer is often invisible from within. Thus, even a crawl crew can fail to detect most voids. Sewer districts and independent engineering firms have found infrared thermography, a nondestructive testing method, to be extremely accurate in finding sewer voids, and accompanying pipeline leaks, before they can cause expensive and dangerous problems. Infrared thermography is a non-contact, remote sensing method, with the potential for surveying large areas quickly and efficiently.

  1. Testing smooth surface characteristics based on thermal infrared polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Li; Wang, Zhen; Hong, Jin; Qiao, Yan-li; Chen, Yi-qiong

    2007-12-01

    A novel optical method was provided to test the sample surface using a thermal polarimeter. The polarimeter consists of a rotary polarization filter and a thermal imaging system that is based on an uncooled focal plane array (UFPA) in long wave infrared (LWIR, 8~12μm) band. The thermal infrared polarization images of a Vernier caliper head were taken by a rotary polarizing filter at angles of 0°, 60°, 120° degrees. These images were saved into a computer and were calculated with Stokes parameter formulas to produce digital images of Stokes parameters I, Q and U, degree of linear polarization and direction of polarization. These images clearly show the difference between different areas of Vernier caliper, and this difference is not obtainable from the intensity images. Experimental results show that the introduced method can extract surface roughness information from thermal images and can distinguish different surface characteristics quickly.

  2. A DECADE OF MAPPING SUBMERGED AQUATIC VEGETATION USING COLOR INFRARED AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY: METHODS USED AND LESSONS LEARNED - 5-14-2014

    EPA Science Inventory

    Annual color infrared (CIR) aerial photographs acquired annually between 1997 and 2007 were used to classify distributions of intertidal and shallow subtidal native eelgrass Zostera marina and non-indigenous dwarf eelgrass Z. japonica in lower Yaquina estuary, Oregon. The use of...

  3. Anomalous thermal expansion with infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Plendl, J N; Mansur, L C

    1972-05-01

    Anomalous thermal expansion is treated through an analytical approach, based on the anharmonic behavior of lattice vibrations of the solids CuCl and CuBr of which complete ir spectroscopic data were available for the low temperature region. In the two cases examined here, anomalous thermal expansion as well as change of anharmonic factor, as a function of temperature, show a mirrorlike proportionality. In addition, drastic changes of ir energy absorption take place within the temperature region of reexpansion, suggesting a substantial increase of the ionic fraction of binding, coupled with a corresponding decrease of the covalent fraction, within the re-expansion period. These striking events appear to be the basic reason for the re-expansion phenomenon, since the sum value of the ionic radii of the compounds in question is greater than the sum value of the covalent radii, thus enlarging the interatomic distance, instead of contracting it. PMID:20119115

  4. Thermal infrared opacity of the Mars atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, T.Z.

    1986-04-01

    An analytical technique is presented for the deriving Mars atmosphere opacity from data furnished by the IR Thermal Mapper (IRTM) instruments on the Viking landers. Each IRTM features four telescopes for viewing Mars in six spectral bands and seven spatial fields of view. The present study focuses on 20 microns measurements of the thermal inertia, 0.3-3.0 microns data for the surface albedo, and, finally, the 7, 9, and 15 microns data for the actual opacity derivations. The model takes into account the atmospheric temperature profile, scattering by dust, the surface emissivity and the variation of the surface/atmosphere temperature discontinuity. Analyses are carried out of the possible error factors and the model is used to generate opacity histories for the two Viking Lander sites. The results, when compared with other astronomical data, indicate that the method is sufficiently accurate to use opacity data to analyze the processes of storm genesis and to study local storms. 26 references.

  5. Bi-material resonant infrared thermal detector and array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xia; Zhang, Dacheng

    2014-10-01

    A resonant infrared thermal sensor with high sensitivity, whose sensing element is a bi-material structure with thermal expansion mismatch effect, is presented in this paper. The sensor detects infrared radiation by means of tracking the change in resonance frequency of the bi-material structure with temperature change attributed to the infrared radiation from targets. The bi-material structure can amplify the change in resonance frequency compared to a single material sensing structure. In accordance with the theory of vibration mechanics and design principle of infrared thermal detector, the bi-material resonant sensor by means of which an array can be achieved is designed. The simulation results, by ANSYS software analysis based on multi-layer shell finite element, demonstrate that the dependence of resonance frequency on temperature of the designed sensing structure achieves 1Hz/0.01°C. A microarray with 6×6 resonant infrared sensors is fabricated based on microelectronics processes being compatible with integrated circuit fabrication technology. The frequency variation corresponding to the temperature shift can be obtained by electrical measurement.

  6. Spectroscopic data for thermal infrared remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varanasi, P.; Nemtchinov, V.; Li, Z.

    1995-01-01

    There has been extensive world-wide use of chloro-fluoro-carbons (CFC's), especially CFC-11 (CFCl3) and CFC-12 (CF2Cl2), hydro-chloro-fluoro-carbons (HCFC's), HCFC-22 (CHFCl2) in particular, and sulphur hexaflouride (SF6) in numerous many industrial applications. These chemicals possess either a strong ozone-depletion potential or a global-warming potential, or both, and pose a threat to the inhabitability of our planet. Recognition of this fact has led to significant curtailment, if not total banishment, of their use globally. However, as recent satellite observations have shown, decline in their atmospheric concentrations may not be immediate. The marked depletion of ozone which has been observed in recent years at high latitudes has made infrared remote sensing of the atmosphere an activity of high priority. The success of any infrared remote sensing experiment conducted in the atmosphere depends upon the availability of accurate, high-resolution, spectroscopic data that are applicable to that experiment. This paper presents a preliminary phase of a multi-faceted work using a Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS) which is in progress in our laboratory. The concept of how laboratory-borne measurements can be geared toward obtaining a database that is directly applicable to satellite-borne remote sensing missions is the main thrust of this paper which addresses itself to ongoing or planned international space missions. Spectroscopic data on the unresolvable bands of the above mentioned as well as several other man-made gases and on the individual spectral lines of such naturally present trace gases as CO2, N2O, NH3, and CH4 are presented. There is often significant overlap between the isolated lines of better known bands of the more abundant species and the weaker absorption features identifiable as bands of the currently less abundant CFC's, HCFC's, and SF6.

  7. High speed heterodyne infrared thermography applied to thermal diffusivity identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradere, C.; Clerjaud, L.; Batsale, J. C.; Dilhaire, S.

    2011-05-01

    We have combined InfraRed thermography and thermal wave techniques to perform microscale, ultrafast (microsecond) temperature field measurements. The method is based on an IR camera coupled to a microscope and synchronized to the heat source by means of phase locked function generators. The principle is based on electronic stroboscopic sampling where the low IR camera acquisition frequency facq (25 Hz) undersamples a high frequency thermal wave. This technique permits the measurement of the emissive thermal response at a (microsecond) short time scale (microsecond) with the full frame mode of the IR camera with a spatial thermal resolution of 7 μm. Then it becomes possible to study 3D transient heat transfer in heterogeneous and high thermal conductive thin layers. Thus it is possible for the first time in our knowledge to achieve temperature field measurements in heterogeneous media within a wide range of time domains. The IR camera is now a suitable instrument for multiscale thermal analysis.

  8. Soil moisture inferences from thermal infrared measurements of vegetation temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, R. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Thermal infrared measurements of wheat (Triticum durum) canopy temperatures were used in a crop water stress index to infer root zone soil moisture. Results indicated that one time plant temperature measurement cannot produce precise estimates of root zone soil moisture due to complicating plant factors. Plant temperature measurements do yield useful qualitative information concerning soil moisture and plant condition.

  9. Infrared lens thermal effect: equivalent focal shift and calculating model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cheng-shuo; Shi, Zelin; Feng, Bin; Xu, Bao-shu

    2014-11-01

    It's well-know that the focal shift of infrared lens is the major factor in degeneration of imaging quality when temperature change. In order to figure out the connection between temperature change and focal shift, partial differential equations of thermal effect on light path are obtained by raytrace method, to begin with. The approximately solution of the PDEs show that focal shift is proportional to temperature change. And a formula to compute the proportional factor is given. In order to understand infrared lens thermal effect deeply, we use defocus by image plane shift at constant temperature to equivalently represent thermal effect on infrared lens. So equivalent focal shift (EFS) is defined and its calculating model is proposed at last. In order to verify EFS and its calculating model, Physical experimental platform including a motorized linear stage with built-in controller, blackbody, target, collimator, IR detector, computer and other devices is developed. The experimental results indicate that EFS make the image plane shift at constant temperature have the same influence on infrared lens as thermal effect and its calculating model is correct.

  10. Infrared scanners detect thermal gradients in building walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantsios, A. G.

    1979-01-01

    Presents study on ability of infrared scanner used to detect thermal gradients in outside walls of two homes in Virginia Beach, Virginia under joint effort of Langley Research Center, Virginia Energy Office and Virginia Beach Energy Conservation Pilot Project. Details how study can be used to help minimize energy loss.

  11. LONGWAVE THERMAL INFRARED SPECTRAL VARIABILITY IN INDIVIDUAL ROCKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A hyperspectral imaging spectrometer measuring in the longwave thermal infrared (7.6 - 11.6 µm) with a spatial resolution less than 5 mm at a range of 10 m was used in the field to observe the variability of emissivity spectra of individual rock surfaces. The rocks were obtained commercially, were ...

  12. Land Cover Characterization for Hydrological Modeling Using Thermal Infrared Emissivities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing with multispectral thermal infrared observations has the potential to improve regional scale estimation of evapotranspiration (ET) by constraining the land surface energy balance in a way that is not possible using more conventional remote sensing techniques. Current models use data f...

  13. Interpretation of Thermal Infrared Imagery for Irrigation Water Resource Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nellis, M. Duane

    1985-01-01

    Water resources play a major role in the character of agricultural development in the arid western United States. This case study shows how thermal infrared imagery, which is sensitive to radiant or heat energy, can be used to interpret crop moisture content and associated stress in irrigated areas. (RM)

  14. Thermal Infrared Spectroscopy of Saturn and Titan from Cassini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Brasunas, J. C.; Carlson, R. C.; Flasar, F. M.; Kunde, V. G.; Mamoutkine, A. A.; Nixon, A.; Pearl, J. C.; Romani, P. N.; Simon-Miller, A. A.; Bjoraker, G. L.

    2009-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft completed its nominal mission at Saturn in 2008 and began its extended mission. Cassini carries the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS); a Fourier transform spectrometer that measures the composition, thermal structure and dynamics of the atmospheres of Saturn and Titan, and also the temperatures of other moons and the rings.

  15. Thermal Infrared Spectroscopy of Experimentally Shocked Anorthosite and Pyroxenite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. R.; Hoerz, F.; Christensen, P.; Lucey, P. G.

    2001-01-01

    We performed shock recovery experiments at JSC (17-63 GPa) on samples of Stillwater pyroxenite and anorthosite and acquired their thermal infrared spectra (3-50 micron) to investigate the degradation of spectral features at high pressures. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. Broadband infrared vibrational nano-spectroscopy using thermal blackbody radiation.

    PubMed

    O'Callahan, Brian T; Lewis, William E; Möbius, Silke; Stanley, Jared C; Muller, Eric A; Raschke, Markus B

    2015-12-14

    Infrared vibrational nano-spectroscopy based on scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) provides intrinsic chemical specificity with nanometer spatial resolution. Here we use incoherent infrared radiation from a 1400 K thermal blackbody emitter for broadband infrared (IR) nano-spectroscopy. With optimized interferometric heterodyne signal amplification we achieve few-monolayer sensitivity in phonon polariton spectroscopy and attomolar molecular vibrational spectroscopy. Near-field localization and nanoscale spatial resolution is demonstrated in imaging flakes of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) and determination of its phonon polariton dispersion relation. The signal-to-noise ratio calculations and analysis for different samples and illumination sources provide a reference for irradiance requirements and the attainable near-field signal levels in s-SNOM in general. The use of a thermal emitter as an IR source thus opens s-SNOM for routine chemical FTIR nano-spectroscopy. PMID:26698997

  17. Thermal infrared exploitation for 3D face reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abayowa, Bernard O.

    2009-05-01

    Despite the advances in face recognition research, current face recognition systems are still not accurate or robust enough to be deployed in uncontrolled environments. The existence of a pose and illumination invariant face recognition system is still lacking. This research exploits the relationship between thermal infrared and visible imagery, to estimate 3D face with visible texture from infrared imagery. The relationship between visible and thermal infrared texture is learned using kernel canonical correlation analysis(KCCA), and then a 3D modeler is used to estimate the geometric structure from predicted visual imagery. This research will find it's application in uncontrolled environments where illumination and pose invariant identification or tracking is required at long range such as urban search and rescue (Amber alert, missing dementia patient), and manhunt scenarios.

  18. Application of color infrared aerial photography to assess macroalgal distribution in an eutrophic estuary, Upper Newport Bay, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, E. D.; Nezlin, N. P.; Kamer, K.

    2007-05-01

    Newport Bay is a large estuary in southern California that is subject to anthropogenic nutrient loading, eutrophication and hypoxia. Traditional ground-based methods of assessing algal extent for monitoring and management are limited in that they cannot provide a synoptic view of algal distribution over comparatively large areas. The goal of this study was to explore the application of color infrared aerial photography as an alternative for analyzing the changes in the abundance of macroalgae. Three surveys combining remote sensing (false-color infrared aerial photography) and traditional (ground-based quadrats) sampling methods to quantify macroalgal mat coverage were carried out in Upper Newport Bay (UNB) between July and October 2005. Airborne photographs (scale 1:6000) collected during daytime low tides, clear skies and appropriate sun angle were orthorectified, georegistered and combined into three mosaic composite images, one for each survey. During each aerial photography survey, macroalgal percent cover was measured on the ground at ~30 locations randomly scattered throughout the intertidal mudflat area; these ground data were used for calibration of classification schemes developed for each of the composite images. Using a cluster-analysis classification method, ground samples from each survey were classified into three or four classes, based on similarity of their optical signatures. Before classification, each digital image was transformed by the Minimum Noise Fraction Rotation method to remove noise and enhance contrast between the classes. For classification, the Spectral Angle Mapper scheme was used. All pixels in the images were attributed to classes and the areal extent of each class was estimated. For each class, the averaged percent cover by different substrates was estimated from ground sample data. The total coverage by different substrates was calculated by multiplying the within-cluster percent coverage by cluster areas. This analysis showed

  19. BOOK REVIEW: Infrared Thermal Imaging: Fundamentals, Research and Applications Infrared Thermal Imaging: Fundamentals, Research and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planinsic, Gorazd

    2011-09-01

    Ten years ago, a book with a title like this would be interesting only to a narrow circle of specialists. Thanks to rapid advances in technology, the price of thermal imaging devices has dropped sharply, so they have, almost overnight, become accessible to a wide range of users. As the authors point out in the preface, the growth of this area has led to a paradoxical situation: now there are probably more infrared (IR) cameras sold worldwide than there are people who understand the basic physics behind them and know how to correctly interpret the colourful images that are obtained with these devices. My experience confirms this. When I started using the IR camera during lectures on the didactics of physics, I soon realized that I needed more knowledge, which I later found in this book. A wide range of potential readers and topical areas provides a good motive for writing a book such as this one, but it also represents a major challenge for authors, as compromises in the style of writing and choice of topics are required. The authors of this book have successfully achieved this, and indeed done an excellent job. This book addresses a wide range of readers, from engineers, technicians, and physics and science teachers in schools and universities, to researchers and specialists who are professionally active in the field. As technology in this area has made great progress in recent times, this book is also a valuable guide for those who opt to purchase an infrared camera. Chapters in this book could be divided into three areas: the fundamentals of IR thermal imaging and related physics (two chapters); IR imaging systems and methods (two chapters) and applications, including six chapters on pedagogical applications; IR imaging of buildings and infrastructure, industrial applications, microsystems, selected topics in research and industry, and selected applications from other fields. All chapters contain numerous colour pictures and diagrams, and a rich list of relevant

  20. Infrared Thermal Sensing Of Sewer Voids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weil, Gary J.

    1984-03-01

    The deterioration of sewer systems and their associated infrastructure is one of the most serious problems facing city, state, federal, and world authorities. As an example, three large sewer voids in the St. Louis Metropolitan area caused over $2,000,000 in repair costs in only one year. The detection of voids in and around underground sewer lines, as well as the detection of effluent leakages is necessary when determining the priority of structures for repair. At the present time sewer voids are sometimes detected by manual methods which are expensive, time consuming, and not extremely accurate. Most of the time, the void is not detected until the street caves in. Infrared thermography has been found to be capable of detecting voids around underground sewer systems because under certain conditions, temperature differentials exist between various types of materials, effluents, and cavities. This paper describes the problem of deteriorating sewer systems, the field tests used to detect sewer voids, the equipment used in the field tests, the theories used to design the tests, various complicating factors, and anticipated future refinements on the procedure.

  1. Remote Sensing of Almond and Walnut Tree Canopy Temperatures Using an Inexpensive Infrared Sensor on a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Kellen Ethan

    the needs of a given field for more precise monitoring. The goal of this study was to explore the feasibility of using an inexpensive temperature sensor (Melexis MLX90614; NV Melexis SA, Rozendaalstraat 12, 8900 Ieper, Belgium) on a small UAV (Mikrokopter OktoXL; Hisystems GmbH Flachsmeerstrasse 2, 26802 Moormerland, Germany) to sense the canopy temperatures of almond and walnut trees. To accomplish this goal, we installed an infrared temperature sensor and a digital camera on a small UAV. The camera provided a spatial awareness of the IR temperature measurements which would otherwise require a very expensive thermal imager to obtain. The UAV was flown above almond and walnut trees recording images and temperatures, which were aligned temporally in post-processing. The pixels of each image were classified in to four classes: sunlit leaves, shaded leaves, sunlit soil, and shaded soil. Assuming that the measured temperature could be described as a weighted sum of each class in the field of view of the IR sensor, a linear system of equations was established to estimate the temperature of each class using at least several measurements of the same tree. Results indicated a good correlation between the temperatures estimated from the linear system of equations and the temperatures of those classes sampled on the ground immediately following each flight. With leaf temperatures ranging from about 12 to 40 degrees Celsius between 23 flights over two years, the linear solver was able to estimate the temperature of the sunlit and shaded leaves to within several degrees Celsius of the sampled temperature in most cases, with a coefficient of determination (r2 value) of 0.96 during the first year, and 0.73 during the second year. An additional study was undertaken to detect spatial temperature distribution within the orchard. Ground measurements were taken of every other tree in two walnut rows and one almond row using the handheld sensor, and the UAV was flown over those rows

  2. Evaluation of infrared collimators for testing thermal imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrzanowski, K.

    2007-06-01

    Infrared reflective collimators are important components of expensive sophisticated test systems used for testing thermal imagers. Too low quality collimators can become a source of significant measurement errors and collimators of too high quality can unnecessarily increase cost of a test system. In such a situation it is important for test system users to know proper requirements on the collimator and to be able to verify its performance. A method for evaluation of infrared reflective collimators used in test systems for testing thermal imagers is presented in this paper. The method requires only easily available optical equipment and can be used not only by collimator manufactures but also by users of test equipment to verify performance of the collimators used for testing thermal imagers.

  3. Soil signature simulation in the thermal infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Tyler; Salvaggio, Carl

    2015-10-01

    Soil emissivity signatures were constructed using the digital imaging and remote sensing image generation (DIRSIG) model and Blender three-dimensional (3-D) graphic design software. Using these tools, the geometry, radiometry, and chemistry of quartz were exploited to model the presence of particle size effects in the thermal spectra of disturbed soil. Using the physics engines within the Blender 3-D graphic design software, a physical representation of a granular soil scene was created. Chemical and optical properties of pure quartz were assigned to particles in the scene based on particle size. The spectral signature of disturbed soil was modeled by the physical mixture of small fine particles (50 μm diameter) and larger grains (500 μm diameter). The study demonstrated that by combining realistic target geometry and spectral measurements of pure quartz, emissivity of complex soil mixtures could be modeled without functional data fitting or rigorous analysis of material dynamics.

  4. Global approach toward the evaluation of thermal infrared countermeasures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verlinde, Patrick S. A.; Proesmans, Marc

    1991-07-01

    This paper proposes a procedure for the numerical evaluation of the efficiency of countermeasures in the thermal infrared. This procedure consists of three phases. In the first phase, the characteristics of different thermal camouflage materials are tested on a lab-scale. These tests comprise measurements of the attenuation of the incident infrared energy and/or of the thermal emissivity factor. With respect to the attenuation measurement, a calibrated infrared sensor is used to determine the radiation patterns of an object. The comparison of these patterns before and after the application of a camouflage system gives an absolute measure of its attenuation. The result of this measurement is important since the attenuation is closely related to the contrast between the camouflaged object and its background and thus to the probability of detection. Contrast, however, is not the only important feature for the detection of an object in a thermal image. That is why in a second phase the countermeasures under evaluation are tested in a real environment. During this phase, a numerical value is given to the efficiency of the considered camouflage in the thermal infrared, using features selected from those which are known to be important for human vision. These include, besides contrast, other features such as correlation and texture. The third and final phase aims at a verification and a validation of the test results. Indeed, it is of a crucial importance to find a link between the performances obtained in the field and the characteristics measured on a lab- scale. It is also necessary to verify that a good correlation exists between the efficiency as determined by human observers or by numerical evaluation. This is now taking place using a database of thermal images taken with a GEC Avionics TICM II (8 to 12 micrometers ). Those images are then presented to human observers and to the machine in a project called Psychotest.

  5. Global approach towards the evaluation of thermal infrared countermeasures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verlinde, Patrick; Wilms, Philippe

    1993-11-01

    This paper proposes a procedure for the numerical evaluation of the efficiency of countermeasures in the thermal infrared. This procedure consists of three phases. In the first phase the characteristics of different thermal camouflage materials are tested on a lab-scale. These tests comprise measurements of the attenuation of the incident infrared energy and/or of the thermal emissivity factor. With respect to the attenuation measurement, a calibrated infrared sensor is used, to determine the radiation patterns of an object. The comparison of these patterns before and after the application of a camouflage system, gives an absolute measure of its attenuation. The result of this measurement is important since the attenuation is closely related to the contrast between the camouflaged object and its background and thus to the probability of detection. Contrast however, is not the only important feature for the detection of an object in a thermal image. That is why in a second phase the countermeasures under evaluation are tested in a real environment. During this phase, a numerical value is given to the efficiency of the considered camouflage in the thermal infrared, using features selected from those which are known to be important for human vision. These include, besides contrast, other features such as correlation and texture. The third and final phase aims at a verification and a validation of the test results. Indeed, it is of crucial importance to find a link between the performance obtained in the field and the characteristics measured on a lab-scale. It is also necessary to verify that a good correlation exists between the efficiency as determined by human observers and the result of this numerical evaluation procedure. This will be done using a database of thermal images taken with a GEC Avionics TICM II (8 to 12 micron). Those images are then presented as well to human observers as to the machine in a project called 'Psychotest'.

  6. Demonstration of a multimode longwave infrared imaging system on an unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Terry L.; Romanski, John G.; Buckley, John J.; Girata, Anthony J.

    1999-07-01

    The RISTA II sensor was integrated into the Altus Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and flown over Camp Roberts and Ft. Hunter Ligget, CA in July 1998. The RISTA II demonstration system consisted of a long-wave IR imager, a digital data link, and a ground processing facility (GPF) containing an aided target recognizer, data storage devices, and operator workstations. Imagery was compressed on the UAV and sent on the GPF over a 10.71 Mbit per second digital data link. Selected image frames from the GPF were sent near real-time over a T1 link to observers in Rosslyn, VA. The sensor operated in a variety of scanning and framing modes. Both manual and automatic sensor pointing were demonstrated. Seven flights were performed at altitudes up to 7500m and range sup to 60 km from the GPF. Applicability to numerous military and civilian scenarios was demonstrated.

  7. Infrared microcalorimetric spectroscopy using uncooled thermal detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datskos, Panos G.; Rajic, Slobodan; Datskou, Irene; Egert, Charles M.

    1997-10-01

    We have investigated a novel IR microcalorimetric spectroscopy technique that can be used to detect the presence of trace amounts of target molecules. The chemical detection is accomplished by obtaining the IR photothermal spectra of molecules absorbed on the surface of an uncooled thermal detector. Traditional gravimetric based chemical detectors require highly selective coatings to achieve chemical specificity. In contrast, IR microcalorimetric based detection requires only moderately specific coatings since the specificity is a consequence of the photothermal spectrum. We have obtained IR photothermal spectra for trace concentrations of chemical analytes including diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP), 2-mercaptoethanol and trinitrotoluene (TNT) over the wavelength region 2.5 to 14.5 micrometers . We found that in the wavelength region 2.5 to 14.5 micrometers DIMP exhibits two strong photothermal peaks. The photothermal spectra of 2-mercaptoethanol and TNT exhibit a number of peaks in the wavelength region 2.5 to 14.5 micrometers and the photothermal peaks for 2-mercaptoethanol are in excellent agreement with IR absorption peaks present in its IR spectrum. The photothermal response of chemical detectors based on microcalorimetric spectroscopy has been found to vary reproducibly and sensitively as a consequence of adsorption of small number of molecules on a detector surface followed by photon irradiation and can be used for improved chemical characterization.

  8. Spectral mixture analysis of multispectral thermal infrared images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillespie, Alan R.

    1992-01-01

    Remote spectral measurements of light reflected or emitted from terrestrial scenes is commonly integrated over areas sufficiently large that the surface comprises more than one component. Techniques have been developed to analyze multispectral or imaging spectrometer data in terms of a wide range of mixtures of a limited number of components. Spectral mixture analysis has been used primarily for visible and near-infrared images, but it may also be applied to thermal infrared data. Two approaches are reviewed: binary mixing and a more general treatment for isothermal mixtures of a greater number of components.

  9. A novel technique to monitor thermal discharges using thermal infrared imaging.

    PubMed

    Muthulakshmi, A L; Natesan, Usha; Ferrer, Vincent A; Deepthi, K; Venugopalan, V P; Narasimhan, S V

    2013-09-01

    Coastal temperature is an important indicator of water quality, particularly in regions where delicate ecosystems sensitive to water temperature are present. Remote sensing methods are highly reliable for assessing the thermal dispersion. The plume dispersion from the thermal outfall of the nuclear power plant at Kalpakkam, on the southeast coast of India, was investigated from March to December 2011 using thermal infrared images along with field measurements. The absolute temperature as provided by the thermal infrared (TIR) images is used in the Arc GIS environment for generating a spatial pattern of the plume movement. Good correlation of the temperature measured by the TIR camera with the field data (r(2) = 0.89) make it a reliable method for the thermal monitoring of the power plant effluents. The study portrays that the remote sensing technique provides an effective means of monitoring the thermal distribution pattern in coastal waters. PMID:23839171

  10. Infrared Thermal Imaging System on a Mobile Phone

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Fu-Feng; Chen, Feng; Liu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    A novel concept towards pervasively available low-cost infrared thermal imaging system lunched on a mobile phone (MTIS) was proposed and demonstrated in this article. Through digestion on the evolutional development of milestone technologies in the area, it can be found that the portable and low-cost design would become the main stream of thermal imager for civilian purposes. As a representative trial towards this important goal, a MTIS consisting of a thermal infrared module (TIM) and mobile phone with embedded exclusive software (IRAPP) was presented. The basic strategy for the TIM construction is illustrated, including sensor adoption and optical specification. The user-oriented software was developed in the Android environment by considering its popularity and expandability. Computational algorithms with non-uniformity correction and scene-change detection are established to optimize the imaging quality and efficiency of TIM. The performance experiments and analysis indicated that the currently available detective distance for the MTIS is about 29 m. Furthermore, some family-targeted utilization enabled by MTIS was also outlined, such as sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) prevention, etc. This work suggests a ubiquitous way of significantly extending thermal infrared image into rather wide areas especially health care in the coming time. PMID:25942639

  11. Infrared thermal imaging system on a mobile phone.

    PubMed

    Lee, Fu-Feng; Chen, Feng; Liu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    A novel concept towards pervasively available low-cost infrared thermal imaging system lunched on a mobile phone (MTIS) was proposed and demonstrated in this article. Through digestion on the evolutional development of milestone technologies in the area, it can be found that the portable and low-cost design would become the main stream of thermal imager for civilian purposes. As a representative trial towards this important goal, a MTIS consisting of a thermal infrared module (TIM) and mobile phone with embedded exclusive software (IRAPP) was presented. The basic strategy for the TIM construction is illustrated, including sensor adoption and optical specification. The user-oriented software was developed in the Android environment by considering its popularity and expandability. Computational algorithms with non-uniformity correction and scene-change detection are established to optimize the imaging quality and efficiency of TIM. The performance experiments and analysis indicated that the currently available detective distance for the MTIS is about 29 m. Furthermore, some family-targeted utilization enabled by MTIS was also outlined, such as sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) prevention, etc. This work suggests a ubiquitous way of significantly extending thermal infrared image into rather wide areas especially health care in the coming time. PMID:25942639

  12. Studies of planetary boundary layer by infrared thermal imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Albina, Bogdan; Dimitriu, Dan Gheorghe Gurlui, Silviu Octavian; Cazacu, Marius Mihai; Timofte, Adrian

    2014-11-24

    The IR camera is a relatively novel device for remote sensing of atmospheric thermal processes from the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) based on measurements of the infrared radiation. Infrared radiation is energy radiated by the motion of atoms and molecules on the surface of aerosols, when their temperature is more than absolute zero. The IR camera measures directly the intensity of radiation emitted by aerosols which is converted by an imaging sensor into an electric signal, resulting a thermal image. Every image pixel that corresponds to a specific radiance is pre-processed to identify the brightness temperature. The thermal infrared imaging radiometer used in this study, NicAir, is a precision radiometer developed by Prata et al. The device was calibrated for the temperature range of 270–320 K and using a calibration table along with image processing software, important information about variations in temperature can be extracted from acquired IR images. The PBL is the lowest layer of the troposphere where the atmosphere interacts with the ground surfaces. The importance of PBL lies in the fact that it provides a finite but varying volume in which pollutants can disperse. The aim of this paper is to analyze the PBL altitude and thickness variations over Iasi region using the IR imaging camera as well as its behavior from day to night and thermal processes occurring in PBL.

  13. Performance of the LDCM Thermal Infrared Sensor for Evapotranspiration Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irons, J. R.; Reuter, D. C.; Thome, K. J.; Smith, R. L.; Montanaro, M.

    2012-12-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) rate measurements are being made at the scale of individual farm fields with data from the Landsat satellites. A new instrument, the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), has been built and tested for launch aboard the next Landsat satellite, the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), scheduled for launch on February 11, 2013. TIRS performance requirements were specified to ensure that the LDCM will provide the thermal infrared data necessary to continue measuring field scale ET rates. The presentation will compare the prelaunch performance of TIRS to specifications and to requirements for ET rate measurements. The comparisons will be made in terms of noise equivalent change in radiance and temperature, cross-track uniformity of spectral and radiometric response, spatial resolution and sharpness, and other specified characteristics. Performance was measured while TIRS was operated in a thermal vacuum chamber to simulate the space environment and while illuminated by a calibrated source of thermal infrared radiation. Results indicate that TIRS will perform better than earlier Landsat sensors with respect to radiometric requirements for accurately measuring ET rates.

  14. Infrared thermal facial image sequence registration analysis and verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chieh-Li; Jian, Bo-Lin

    2015-03-01

    To study the emotional responses of subjects to the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), infrared thermal facial image sequence is preprocessed for registration before further analysis such that the variance caused by minor and irregular subject movements is reduced. Without affecting the comfort level and inducing minimal harm, this study proposes an infrared thermal facial image sequence registration process that will reduce the deviations caused by the unconscious head shaking of the subjects. A fixed image for registration is produced through the localization of the centroid of the eye region as well as image translation and rotation processes. Thermal image sequencing will then be automatically registered using the two-stage genetic algorithm proposed. The deviation before and after image registration will be demonstrated by image quality indices. The results show that the infrared thermal image sequence registration process proposed in this study is effective in localizing facial images accurately, which will be beneficial to the correlation analysis of psychological information related to the facial area.

  15. Mid-Infrared Reflectance Imaging of Thermal-Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edlridge, Jeffrey I.; Martin, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    An apparatus for mid-infrared reflectance imaging has been developed as means of inspecting for subsurface damage in thermal-barrier coatings (TBCs). The apparatus is designed, more specifically, for imaging the progression of buried delamination cracks in plasma-sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings on turbine-engine components. Progression of TBC delamination occurs by the formation of buried cracks that grow and then link together to produce eventual TBC spallation. The mid-infrared reflectance imaging system described here makes it possible to see delamination progression that is invisible to the unaided eye, and therefore give sufficiently advanced warning before delamination progression adversely affects engine performance and safety. The apparatus (see figure) includes a commercial mid-infrared camera that contains a liquid-nitrogen-cooled focal plane indium antimonide photodetector array, and imaging is restricted by a narrow bandpass centered at wavelength of 4 microns. This narrow wavelength range centered at 4 microns was chosen because (1) it enables avoidance of interfering absorptions by atmospheric OH and CO2 at 3 and 4.25 microns, respectively; and (2) the coating material exhibits maximum transparency in this wavelength range. Delamination contrast is produced in the midinfrared reflectance images because the introduction of cracks into the TBC creates an internal TBC/air-gap interface with a high diffuse reflectivity of 0.81, resulting in substantially higher reflectance of mid-infrared radiation in regions that contain buried delamination cracks. The camera is positioned a short distance (.12 cm) from the specimen. The mid-infrared illumination is generated by a 50-watt silicon carbide source positioned to the side of the mid-infrared camera, and the illumination is collimated and reflected onto the specimen by a 6.35-cm-diameter off-axis paraboloidal mirror. Because the collected images are of a steady-state reflected intensity (in

  16. The thermal infrared radiance properties of dust aerosol over ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Zengzhou; Pan, Delu; Tu, Qianguang; Gong, Fang; Chen, Jianyu

    2015-10-01

    Asian dust storms, which can long-range transport to ocean, often occur on spring. The present of Asian dust aerosols over ocean makes some difficult for other studies, such as cloud detection, and also take some advantage for ocean, such as take nutrition into the ocean by dry or wet deposition. Therefore, it is important to study the dust aerosol and retrieve the properties of dust from satellite observations that is mainly from the thermal infrared radiance. In this paper, the thermal infrared radiance properties of dust aerosol over ocean are analyzed from MODIS and MTSAT2 observations and Streamer model simulations. By analyzing some line samples and a series of dust aerosol region, it shows that the dust aerosol brightness temperature at 12μm (BT12) is always greater than BT11 and BT8.5, and BT8.5 is general greater than BT11. The brightness temperature different between 11μm and 12μm (BTD11-12) increases with the dust intensity. And the BTD11-12 will become positive when the atmospheric relative humidity is greater than 70%. The BTD11-12 increases gradually with the surface temperature while the effect on BTD11-12 of dust layer temperature is not evident. Those are caused by the transmission of the dust aerosol is different at the two thermal infrared channels. During daytime, dust infrared brightness temperature at mid-infrared bands should reduce the visual radiance, which takes about 25K or less. In general, BT3.7 is greater than BT11 for dust aerosol. Those results are helpful to monitor or retrieve dust aerosol physical properties over ocean from satellite.

  17. Thermal Imaging of Subsurface Coal Fires by means of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in the Autonomous Province Xinjiang, PRC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasterling, Margarete; Schloemer, Stefan; Fischer, Christian; Ehrler, Christoph

    2010-05-01

    Spontaneous combustion of coal and resulting coal fires lead to very high temperatures in the subsurface. To a large amount the heat is transferred to the surface by convective and conductive transport inducing a more or less pronounced thermal anomaly. During the past decade satellite-based infrared-imaging (ASTER, MODIS) was the method of choice for coal fire detection on a local and regional scale. However, the resolution is by far too low for a detailed analysis of single coal fires which is essential prerequisite for corrective measures (i.e. fire fighting) and calculation of carbon dioxide emission based on a complex correlation between energy release and CO2 generation. Consequently, within the framework of the Sino-German research project "Innovative Technologies for Exploration, Extinction and Monitoring of Coal Fires in Northern China", a new concept was developed and successfully tested. An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was equipped with a lightweight camera for thermografic (resolution 160 by 120 pixel, dynamic range -20 to 250°C) and for visual imaging. The UAV designed as an octocopter is able to hover at GPS controlled waypoints during predefined flight missions. The application of a UAV has several advantages. Compared to point measurements on the ground the thermal imagery quickly provides the spatial distribution of the temperature anomaly with a much better resolution. Areas otherwise not accessible (due to topography, fire induced cracks, etc.) can easily be investigated. The results of areal surveys on two coal fires in Xinjiang are presented. Georeferenced thermal and visual images were mosaicked together and analyzed. UAV-born data do well compared to temperatures measured directly on the ground and cover large areas in detail. However, measuring surface temperature alone is not sufficient. Simultaneous measurements made at the surface and in roughly 15cm depth proved substantial temperature gradients in the upper soil. Thus the temperature

  18. Human suspicious activity recognition in thermal infrared video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossen, Jakir; Jacobs, Eddie; Chowdhury, Fahmida K.

    2014-10-01

    Detecting suspicious behaviors is important for surveillance and monitoring systems. In this paper, we investigate suspicious activity detection in thermal infrared imagery, where human motion can be easily detected from the background regardless of the lighting conditions and colors of the human clothing and surfaces. We use locally adaptive regression kernels (LARK) as patch descriptors, which capture the underlying local structure of the data exceedingly well, even in the presence of significant distortions. Patch descriptors are generated for each query patch and for each database patch. A statistical approach is used to match the query activity with the database to make the decision of suspicious activity. Human activity videos in different condition such as, walking, running, carrying a gun, crawling, and carrying backpack in different terrains were acquired using thermal infrared camera. These videos are used for training and performance evaluation of the algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed approach achieves good performance in suspicious activity recognition.

  19. Anisotropy of thermal infrared exitance in sunflower canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tha Paw u, Kyaw; Ustin, Susan L.; Zhang, Chang-An

    1989-01-01

    Anisotropy of thermal infrared exitance above and within a relatively closed fully irrigated sunflower canopy is detailed. Azimuthal variation in thermal infrared exitance above canopies was weakly (statistically) related to solar position and was comparable to or larger than errors in satellite-based canopy estimates. Anisotropy within canopies was significantly lower and decreased with canopy closure and depth into the canopy. Measured azimuthal isotropy within canopies supports the use of this assumption in radiative transfer models. Significant differences in canopy temperature measurements were found depending upon whether the instruments were within or above the canopy. These differences could produce errors of 20-35 percent in latent energy estimates during periods of high evapotranspiration (ET) and greater errors in periods of restricted ET.

  20. Resource inventory for multi-agency watershed planning. [using color infrared aerial photomapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enslin, W. R.; Richason, B., III; Bennett, M. J.

    1974-01-01

    A demonstration study showed that NASA high-altitude color infrared (RB-57) imagery is useful for providing timely, relatively inexpensive, and accurate land-use information. The inventory encompassed 18 land-use categories for a 2590-square-kilometer Michigan watershed. The RB-57 photography was compared to alternative data collection methods (including ERTS and Skylab) and was found to have superior cost effectiveness for providing the desired information.

  1. Design study for Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanich, C. G.; Osterwisch, F. G.; Szeles, D. M.; Houtman, W. H.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of dividing the 8-12 micrometer thermal infrared wavelength region into six spectral bands by an airborne line scanner system was investigated. By combining an existing scanner design with a 6 band spectrometer, a system for the remote sensing of Earth resources was developed. The elements in the spectrometer include an off axis reflective collimator, a reflective diffraction grating, a triplet germanium imaging lens, a photoconductive mercury cadmium telluride sensor array, and the mechanical assembly to hold these parts and maintain their optical alignment across a broad temperature range. The existing scanner design was modified to accept the new spectrometer and two field filling thermal reference sources.

  2. Measurement of directional thermal infrared emissivity of vegetation and soils

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, J.M.; Balick, L.K.

    1995-10-01

    A new method has been developed for measuring directional thermal emissivity as a function of view angle for plant canopies and soils using two infrared thermometers each sensitive to a different wavelength band. By calibrating the two infrared thermometers to 0.1C consistency, canopy directional emissivity can be estimated with typical errors less than 0.005 in the 8--14 um wavelength band, depending on clarity of the sky and corrections for CO{sub 2} absorption by the atmosphere. A theoretical justification for the method is developed along with an error analysis. Laboratory measurements were used to develop corrections for CO{sub 2}, absorption and a field calibration method is used to obtain the necessary 0.1C consistency for relatively low cost infrared thermometers. The emissivity of alfalfa (LAI=2.5) and corn (LAI=3.2) was near 0.995 and independent of view angle. Individual corn leaves had an emissivity of 0.97. A wheat (LAI=3.0) canopy had an emissivity of 0.985 at nadir and 0.975 at 75 degree view angle. The canopy emissivity values tend to be higher than values in the literature, and are useful for converting infrared thermometer measurements to kinetic temperature and interpreting satellite thermal observations.

  3. Buildings Research using Infrared Imaging Radiometers with Laboratory Thermal Chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, Brent; Arasteh, Dariush

    1999-01-12

    Infrared thermal imagers are used at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to study heat transfer through components of building thermal envelopes. Two thermal chambers maintain steady-state heat flow through test specimens under environmental conditions for winter heating design. Infrared thermography is used to map surface temperatures on the specimens' warm side. Features of the quantitative thermography process include use of external reference emitters, complex background corrections, and spatial location markers. Typical uncertainties in the data are {+-} 0.5 C and 3 mm. Temperature controlled and directly measured external reference emitters are used to correct data from each thermal image. Complex background corrections use arrays of values for background thermal radiation in calculating temperatures of self-viewing surfaces. Temperature results are used to validate computer programs that predict heat flow including Finite-Element Analysis (FEA) conduction simulations and conjugate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. Results are also used to study natural convection surface heat transfer. Example data show the distribution of temperatures down the center line of an insulated window.

  4. The Thermal Infrared Sensor on the Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuter, Dennis; Richardson, Cathy; Irons, James; Allen, Rick; Anderson, Martha; Budinoff, Jason; Casto, Gordon; Coltharp, Craig; Finneran, Paul; Forsbacka, Betsy; Hale, Taylor; Jennings, Tom; Jhabvala, Murzy; Lunsford, Allen; Magnuson, Greg; Mills, Rick; Morse, Tony; Otero, Veronica; Rohrbach, Scott; Smith, Ramsey; Sullivan, Terry; Tesfaye, Zelalem; Thome, Kurtis; Unger, Glenn; Whitehouse, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), a joint NASA and USGS mission, is scheduled for launch in December, 2012. The LDCM instrument payload will consist of the Operational Land Imager (OLI), provided by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corporation (BATC} under contract to NASA and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This paper outlines the design of the TIRS instrument and gives an example of its application to monitoring water consumption by measuring evapotranspiration.

  5. Closing The Fromm Control Loop On The Infrared Thermal Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Herbert

    1988-11-01

    Substituting infrared thermal sensors for conventional thermocouples to measure the temperature of a product, or a point in a process, often provides the industrial user with distinct advantages such as freedom from contact with the product and better speed of response. The major disadvantage has always been higher sensor cost. Now that costs of ir sensors have come down, the non-contact approach is becoming more of a valid alternative, and the instrument or process control engineer often weighs the relative advantages of the two approaches before making a decision. With the advent of "smart" thermal scanning systems, however, it is becoming possible to rapidly measure and control several, many or all points on a product surface remotely and without contact, a capability without precedent, and not feasible with conventional contact sensors. This paper will trace the evolution of infrared noncontact temperature measurement, its development as a process control tool and the introduction of IR line scanners and imagers as industrial control sensors. Several applications of modern closed-loop control systems based on infrared sensors, scanners and imagers will be reviewed. 1. INTRODUCTION Temperature and thermal behavior of materials and fabricated parts in process are most critical factors in the manufacturing process. For this reason temperature is by far the most measured quantity in industrial process monitoring and control. Conventional methods of temperature measurement using thermometers and thermocouples are commonly used for the majority of monitoring and control applications. Non-contact temperature measurement using infrared sensors has become an increasingly desirable alternative over conventional methods as ir sensors have become less expensive, more reliable and electrically interchangeable with conventional thermistors and thermocouples. Now, with the introduction of innovative computer hardware and software, full image thermal control of products and

  6. Thermal performance evaluation of the infrared telescope dewar subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, E. W.

    1986-01-01

    Thermal performance evaluations (TPE) were conducted with the superfluid helium dewar of the Infrared Telescope (IRT) experiment from November 1981 to August 1982. Test included measuring key operating parameters, simulating operations with an attached instrument cryostat and validating servicing, operating and safety procedures. Test activities and results are summarized. All objectives are satisfied except for those involving transfer of low pressure liquid helium (LHe) from a supply dewar into the dewar subsystem.

  7. Thermal Infrared Studies of Chloride Salts; Implications for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldridge, A. M.; Osterloo, M. M.; Christensen, P. R.

    2007-12-01

    Morphological and spectral evidence supporting the past occurrence of widespread water on the surface of Mars continues to build. Furthermore, geochemical footprints of water are especially compelling. As a past reservoir of water receded, it would have left behind evaporitic chemistries specific to Martian water-rock interactions (e.g. chlorides, sulfates and phyllosilicates). To understand the extent and abundance of past water, the detection of such minerals is key. In support of both orbital and in situ thermal infrared (TIR) observations, we have examined the TIR behavior of chloride minerals. In the thermal infrared, most minerals are identified based on characteristic absorption features. However, chloride detection is particularly challenging because these minerals are transparent over much of the infrared and therefore their identification must be based on the effect that they have on the spectra of coexisting materials. Additionally, the transparent nature of chlorides results in greybody (non-unit emissivity) behavior and consequently the standard calibration techniques to convert from radiance to emissivity produces a slope in the spectra. Here we discuss laboratory spectral studies including emission, reflectance, and transmission spectra of a suite of chloride minerals and mixtures. These studies are then used to interpret a spectrally distinct deposit identified with 2001 Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) data in the low albedo, mid-to-low latitude, southern highlands of Mars which correspond to mid- late Noachian aged terrains and early Hesperian aged ridged plains units.

  8. Systems Analysis for Thermal Infrared ` THz Torch' Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Fangjing; Sun, Jingye; Brindley, Helen E.; Liang, Xiaoxin; Lucyszyn, Stepan

    2015-05-01

    The ` THz Torch' concept was recently introduced by the authors for providing secure wireless communications over short distances within the thermal infrared (10-100 THz). Unlike conventional systems, thermal infrared can exploit front-end thermodynamics with engineered blackbody radiation. For the first time, a detailed power link budget analysis is given for this new form of wireless link. The mathematical modeling of a short end-to-end link is provided, which integrates thermodynamics into conventional signal and noise power analysis. As expected from the Friis formula for noise, it is found that the noise contribution from the pyroelectric detector dominates intrinsic noise. From output signal and noise voltage measurements, experimental values for signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are obtained and compared with calculated predictions. As with conventional communications systems, it is shown for the first time that the measured SNR and measured bit error rate found with this thermodynamics-based system resembles classical empirical models. Our system analysis can serve as an invaluable tool for the development of thermal infrared systems, accurately characterizing each individual channel and, thus, enables the performance of multi-channel ` THz Torch' systems to be optimized.

  9. Advanced electro-mechanical micro-shutters for thermal infrared night vision imaging and targeting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durfee, David; Johnson, Walter; McLeod, Scott

    2007-04-01

    Un-cooled microbolometer sensors used in modern infrared night vision systems such as driver vehicle enhancement (DVE) or thermal weapons sights (TWS) require a mechanical shutter. Although much consideration is given to the performance requirements of the sensor, supporting electronic components and imaging optics, the shutter technology required to survive in combat is typically the last consideration in the system design. Electro-mechanical shutters used in military IR applications must be reliable in temperature extremes from a low temperature of -40°C to a high temperature of +70°C. They must be extremely light weight while having the ability to withstand the high vibration and shock forces associated with systems mounted in military combat vehicles, weapon telescopic sights, or downed unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). Electro-mechanical shutters must have minimal power consumption and contain circuitry integrated into the shutter to manage battery power while simultaneously adapting to changes in electrical component operating parameters caused by extreme temperature variations. The technology required to produce a miniature electro-mechanical shutter capable of fitting into a rifle scope with these capabilities requires innovations in mechanical design, material science, and electronics. This paper describes a new, miniature electro-mechanical shutter technology with integrated power management electronics designed for extreme service infra-red night vision systems.

  10. Thermal infrared anomaly indicating unformed strong earthquake sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Qinglin; Qiang, Zuji

    2015-01-01

    By processing and analyzing many satellite remote sensing images in infrared channels, we found visual evidence indicating earthquake sequences. In a sequence, large earthquakes could migrate thousands of kilometers along a linear route from one land mass to another, and infrared anomalies also cover these land masses. The sequence has at least two types: (1) quakes alternately occurring at two ends of a belt, or (2) quakes progressively migrating along a far-flung route. The former can be foreshowed in a single infrared belt with a legible directed structure and higher brightness temperature; the latter can be identified in advance from the shift, veer, and deformation of more areas with a higher brightness temperature. The thermal infrared anomalies with a shorter duration are used to predict the quake-sequence evolving in a longer period. Two sorts of sequences can meet and form a more complex structure that can also be shown in advance by an anomalous infrared area. These studies on the seismic sequences will provide a potent means for analyzing earthquake-pregnant fields and estimating the location of unformed earthquake sequences.

  11. Advances in photo-thermal infrared imaging microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furstenberg, Robert; Kendziora, Chris; Papantonakis, Michael; Nguyen, Viet; McGill, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    There is a growing need for chemical imaging techniques in many fields of science and technology: forensics, materials science, pharmaceutical and chemical industries, just to name a few. While FTIR micro-spectroscopy is commonly used, its practical resolution limit of about 20 microns or more is often insufficient. Raman micro-spectroscopy provides better spatial resolution (~1 micron), but is not always practical because of samples exhibiting fluorescence or low Raman scattering efficiency. We are developing a non-contact and non-destructive technique we call photo-thermal infrared imaging spectroscopy (PT-IRIS). It involves photo-thermal heating of the sample with a tunable quantum cascade laser and measuring the resulting increase in thermal emission with an infrared detector. Photo-thermal emission spectra resemble FTIR absorbance spectra and can be acquired in both stand-off and microscopy configurations. Furthermore, PT-IRIS allows the acquisition of absorbance-like photo-thermal spectra in a reflected geometry, suitable for field applications and for in-situ study of samples on optically IR-opaque substrates (metals, fabrics, paint, glass etc.). Conventional FTIR microscopes in reflection mode measure the reflectance spectra which are different from absorbance spectra and are usually not catalogued in FTIR spectral libraries. In this paper, we continue developing this new technique. We perform a series of numerical simulations of the laser heating of samples during photo-thermal microscopy. We develop parameterized formulas to help the user pick the appropriate laser illumination power. We also examine the influence of sample geometry on spectral signatures. Finally, we measure and compare photo-thermal and reflectance spectra for two test samples.

  12. Mapping and Measuring Thermal Areas in Yellowstone using ASTER and Landsat 8 Thermal Infrared Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, R. G.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Heasler, H.; Jaworowski, C.; Keszthelyi, L. P.

    2014-12-01

    ASTER thermal infrared (TIR) data, combined with field observations and pre-existing maps have been used to map Yellowstone's thermal areas. Thermal anomaly maps and estimates of the radiant geothermal heat flux are important for establishing the baseline thermal activity to better detect and understand future anomalous hydrothermal and/or volcanic activity, and also for monitoring changes in the geothermal system to support decisions regarding infrastructure development, preservation and protection of Yellowstone's resources, and ensuring visitor safety. One of the critical measurement parameters in the use of spaceborne TIR for studying subtle (sub-pixel, sub-boiling) thermal features is the acquisition of TIR data at night. Acquisition of night time data reduces the influence of solar radiance and increases the temperature difference between thermal targets and the cooler background, thus improving estimates of the geothermal component of heat flux. ASTER night time TIR data (90-m pixels) are acquired too infrequently and irregularly for regular monitoring purposes. However, the new Landsat 8 platform with the Thermal Infrared Sensor (100-m pixels) has been tasked to regularly collect night time TIR imagery (every 16 days). These data show promise for continued satellite-based thermal monitoring at Yellowstone, and could also be useful in monitoring subtle thermal activity at other volcanic/geothermal systems around the world. This presentation will highlight results of a comparative analysis of Landsat 8 TIRS and ASTER TIR data for measuring and mapping Yellowstone's thermal areas.

  13. Development of a portable multispectral thermal infrared camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osterwisch, Frederick G.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this research and development effort was to design and build a prototype instrument designated the 'Thermal Infrared Multispectral Camera' (TIRC). The Phase 2 effort was a continuation of the Phase 1 feasibility study and preliminary design for such an instrument. The completed instrument designated AA465 has application in the field of geologic remote sensing and exploration. The AA465 Thermal Infrared Camera (TIRC) System is a field-portable multispectral thermal infrared camera operating over the 8.0 - 13.0 micron wavelength range. Its primary function is to acquire two-dimensional thermal infrared images of user-selected scenes. Thermal infrared energy emitted by the scene is collected, dispersed into ten 0.5 micron wide channels, and then measured and recorded by the AA465 System. This multispectral information is presented in real time on a color display to be used by the operator to identify spectral and spatial variations in the scenes emissivity and/or irradiance. This fundamental instrument capability has a wide variety of commercial and research applications. While ideally suited for two-man operation in the field, the AA465 System can be transported and operated effectively by a single user. Functionally, the instrument operates as if it were a single exposure camera. System measurement sensitivity requirements dictate relatively long (several minutes) instrument exposure times. As such, the instrument is not suited for recording time-variant information. The AA465 was fabricated, assembled, tested, and documented during this Phase 2 work period. The detailed design and fabrication of the instrument was performed during the period of June 1989 to July 1990. The software development effort and instrument integration/test extended from July 1990 to February 1991. Software development included an operator interface/menu structure, instrument internal control functions, DSP image processing code, and a display algorithm coding program. The

  14. Silicon photonic crystal thermal emitter at near-infrared wavelengths

    PubMed Central

    O’Regan, Bryan J.; Wang, Yue; Krauss, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Controlling thermal emission with resonant photonic nanostructures has recently attracted much attention. Most of the work has concentrated on the mid-infrared wavelength range and/or was based on metallic nanostructures. Here, we demonstrate the experimental operation of a resonant thermal emitter operating in the near-infrared (≈1.5 μm) wavelength range. The emitter is based on a doped silicon photonic crystal consisting of a two dimensional square array of holes and using silicon-on-insulator technology with a device-layer thickness of 220 nm. The device is resistively heated by passing current through the photonic crystal membrane. At a temperature of ≈1100 K, we observe relatively sharp emission peaks with a Q factor around 18. A support structure system is implemented in order to achieve a large area suspended photonic crystal thermal emitter and electrical injection. The device demonstrates that weak absorption together with photonic resonances can be used as a wavelength-selection mechanism for thermal emitters, both for the enhancement and the suppression of emission. PMID:26293111

  15. Silicon photonic crystal thermal emitter at near-infrared wavelengths.

    PubMed

    O'Regan, Bryan J; Wang, Yue; Krauss, Thomas F

    2015-01-01

    Controlling thermal emission with resonant photonic nanostructures has recently attracted much attention. Most of the work has concentrated on the mid-infrared wavelength range and/or was based on metallic nanostructures. Here, we demonstrate the experimental operation of a resonant thermal emitter operating in the near-infrared (≈1.5 μm) wavelength range. The emitter is based on a doped silicon photonic crystal consisting of a two dimensional square array of holes and using silicon-on-insulator technology with a device-layer thickness of 220 nm. The device is resistively heated by passing current through the photonic crystal membrane. At a temperature of ≈1100 K, we observe relatively sharp emission peaks with a Q factor around 18. A support structure system is implemented in order to achieve a large area suspended photonic crystal thermal emitter and electrical injection. The device demonstrates that weak absorption together with photonic resonances can be used as a wavelength-selection mechanism for thermal emitters, both for the enhancement and the suppression of emission. PMID:26293111

  16. Thermal infrared survey of Sunlight Basin, Park County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Vice, D.H.; Crowley, J.P.; Vice, M.A.

    1983-08-01

    Thermal infrared surveys were flown over the Sunlight mining region and Sulphur Camp area of the Sunlight Basin to substantiate whether reported fumaroles are indicative of contemporary geothermal activity in the area. Thermal infrared imagery shows areas of warm ground along and warm water discharge into Sunlight Creek and Sulphur Lake. Sulphur deposits are found on north- and south-facing hill slopes associated with a second warm ground anomaly adjacent to Gas Creek. Warming is also manifested in the thermal characteristics of vegetation, and several fumaroles are identifiable. Aeromagnetic data show a 200 gamma low at Sulphur Camp which cannot be explained topographically. Major northeast-trending lineaments provide potential conduits for thermal fluids from the magma plume in Yellowstone National Park, 50 km (30 mi) to the southwest. The floor of the Yellowstone caldera is topographically higher and could provide the necessary hydraulic head to move the fluids outward. Other geothermal resources may exhibit the same characteristics. This example suggests that geothermal resources may occur at considerable distances from a heat source.

  17. Use of thermal infrared and colour infrared imagery to detect crop moisture stress. [Alberta, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, R. C.; Clark, N. F.; Cihlar, J. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. In the presence of variable plant cover (primarily percent cover) and variable available water content, the remotely sensed apparent temperatures correlate closely with plant cover and poorly with soil water. To the extent that plant cover is not systematically related to available soil water, available water in the root zone values may not be reliably predicted from the thermal infrared data. On the other hand, if plant cover is uniform and the soil surface is shown in a minor way, the thermal data indicate plant stress and consequently available water in the soil profile.

  18. Thermal infrared imaging in psychophysiology: Potentialities and limits

    PubMed Central

    Ioannou, Stephanos; Gallese, Vittorio; Merla, Arcangelo

    2014-01-01

    Functional infrared thermal imaging (fITI) is considered an upcoming, promising methodology in the emotional arena. Driven by sympathetic nerves, observations of affective nature derive from muscular activity subcutaneous blood flow as well as perspiration patterns in specific body parts. A review of 23 experimental procedures that employed fITI for investigations of affective nature is provided, along with the adopted experimental protocol and the thermal changes that took place on selected regions of interest in human and nonhuman subjects. Discussion is provided regarding the selection of an appropriate baseline, the autonomic nature of the thermal print, the experimental setup, methodological issues, limitations, and considerations, as well as future directions. PMID:24961292

  19. Airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) images over disseminated gold deposits, Osgood Mountains, Humboldt County, Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krohn, M. Dennis

    1986-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) acquired airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) images over several disseminated gold deposits in northern Nevada in 1983. The aerial surveys were flown to determine whether TIMS data could depict jasperoids (siliceous replacement bodies) associated with the gold deposits. The TIMS data were collected over the Pinson and Getchell Mines in the Osgood Mountains, the Carlin, Maggie Creek, Bootstrap, and other mines in the Tuscarora Mountains, and the Jerritt Canyon Mine in the Independence Mountains. The TIMS data seem to be a useful supplement to conventional geochemical exploration for disseminated gold deposits in the western United States. Siliceous outcrops are readily separable in the TIMS image from other types of host rocks. Different forms of silicification are not readily separable, yet, due to limitations of spatial resolution and spectral dynamic range. Features associated with the disseminated gold deposits, such as the large intrusive bodies and fault structures, are also resolvable on TIMS data. Inclusion of high-resolution thermal inertia data would be a useful supplement to the TIMS data.

  20. Land use inventory of Salt Lake County, Utah from color infrared aerial photography 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, K. P.; Willie, R. D.; Wheeler, D. J.; Ridd, M. K.

    1983-01-01

    The preparation of land use maps of Salt Lake County, Utah from high altitude color infrared photography is described. The primary purpose of the maps is to aid in the assessment of the effects of urban development on the agricultural land base and water resources. The first stage of map production was to determine the categories of land use/land cover and the mapping unit detail. The highest level of interpretive detail was given to the land use categories found in the agricultural or urbanized portions of the county; these areas are of primary interest with regard to the consumptive use of water from surface streams and wells. A slightly lower level of mapping detail was given to wetland environments; areas to which water is not purposely diverted by man but which have a high consumptive rate of water use. Photos were interpreted on the basis of color, tone, texture, and pattern, together with features of the topographic, hydrologic, and ecological context.

  1. Infrared-spectroscopic nanoimaging with a thermal source.

    PubMed

    Huth, F; Schnell, M; Wittborn, J; Ocelic, N; Hillenbrand, R

    2011-05-01

    Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is a widely used analytical tool for chemical identification of inorganic, organic and biomedical materials, as well as for exploring conduction phenomena. Because of the diffraction limit, however, conventional FTIR cannot be applied for nanoscale imaging. Here we demonstrate a novel FTIR system that allows for infrared-spectroscopic nanoimaging of dielectric properties (nano-FTIR). Based on superfocusing of thermal radiation with an infrared antenna, detection of the scattered light, and strong signal enhancement employing an asymmetric FTIR spectrometer, we improve the spatial resolution of conventional infrared spectroscopy by more than two orders of magnitude. By mapping a semiconductor device, we demonstrate spectroscopic identification of silicon oxides and quantification of the free-carrier concentration in doped Si regions with a spatial resolution better than 100  nm. We envisage nano-FTIR becoming a powerful tool for chemical identification of nanomaterials, as well as for quantitative and contact-free measurement of the local free-carrier concentration and mobility in doped nanostructures. PMID:21499314

  2. Roof heat loss detection using airborne thermal infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, K.; Bauer, C.; Sulzer, W.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the Austrian and European attempt to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, thermal rehabilitation and the improvement of the energy efficiency of buildings became an important topic in research as well as in building construction and refurbishment. Today, in-situ thermal infrared measurements are routinely used to determine energy loss through the building envelope. However, in-situ thermal surveys are expensive and time consuming, and in many cases the detection of the amount and location of waste heat leaving building through roofs is not possible with ground-based observations. For some years now, a new generation of high-resolution thermal infrared sensors makes it possible to survey heat-loss through roofs at a high level of detail and accuracy. However, to date, comparable studies have mainly been conducted on buildings with uniform roof covering and provided two-dimensional, qualitative information. This pilot study aims to survey the heat-loss through roofs of the buildings of the University of Graz (Austria) campus by using high-resolution airborne thermal infrared imagery (TABI 1800 - Thermal Airborne Broadband imager). TABI-1800 acquires data in a spectral range from 3.7 - 4.8 micron, a thermal resolution of 0.05 °C and a spatial resolution of 0.6 m. The remote sensing data is calibrated to different roof coverings (e.g. clay shingle, asphalt shingle, tin roof, glass) and combined with a roof surface model to determine the amount of waste heat leaving the building and to identify hot spots. The additional integration of information about the conditions underneath the roofs into the study allows a more detailed analysis of the upward heat flux and is a significant improvement of existing methods. The resulting data set provides useful information to the university facility service for infrastructure maintenance, especially in terms of attic and roof insulation improvements. Beyond that, the project is supposed to raise public

  3. Infrared Thermal Imaging for Automated Detection of Diabetic Foot Complications

    PubMed Central

    van Netten, Jaap J.; van Baal, Jeff G.; Liu, Chanjuan; van der Heijden, Ferdi; Bus, Sicco A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although thermal imaging can be a valuable technology in the prevention and management of diabetic foot disease, it is not yet widely used in clinical practice. Technological advancement in infrared imaging increases its application range. The aim was to explore the first steps in the applicability of high-resolution infrared thermal imaging for noninvasive automated detection of signs of diabetic foot disease. Methods The plantar foot surfaces of 15 diabetes patients were imaged with an infrared camera (resolution, 1.2 mm/pixel): 5 patients had no visible signs of foot complications, 5 patients had local complications (e.g., abundant callus or neuropathic ulcer), and 5 patients had diffuse complications (e.g., Charcot foot, infected ulcer, or critical ischemia). Foot temperature was calculated as mean temperature across pixels for the whole foot and for specified regions of interest (ROIs). Results No differences in mean temperature >1.5 °C between the ipsilateral and the contralateral foot were found in patients without complications. In patients with local complications, mean temperatures of the ipsilateral and the contralateral foot were similar, but temperature at the ROI was >2 °C higher compared with the corresponding region in the contralateral foot and to the mean of the whole ipsilateral foot. In patients with diffuse complications, mean temperature differences of >3 °C between ipsilateral and contralateral foot were found. Conclusions With an algorithm based on parameters that can be captured and analyzed with a high-resolution infrared camera and a computer, it is possible to detect signs of diabetic foot disease and to discriminate between no, local, or diffuse diabetic foot complications. As such, an intelligent telemedicine monitoring system for noninvasive automated detection of signs of diabetic foot disease is one step closer. Future studies are essential to confirm and extend these promising early findings. PMID:24124937

  4. Validation of the ASTER thermal infrared surface radiance data product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palluconi, Frank D.

    1996-11-01

    The advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) is a 14 channel high spatial resolution instrument selected for flight on the EOS AM-1 platform. This instrument has a 60 km pointable cross-track swath and five thermal infrared channels between 8 and 12 micrometers with 90 m spatial resolution. Correction for the effect of atmospheric attenuation and emission will be made using a radiative transfer model and atmospheric parameters either from the EOS AM-1 platform instruments MODIS (moderate- resolution imaging spectroradiometer) and MISR (multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer) or temperature and moisture profiles from global numerical assimilation models. The correction accuracy depends strongly on the accuracy of the atmospheric information used. To provide an objective assessment of the validity of the atmospheric correction in situ measurements of water surfaces under a variety of atmospheric conditions will be used to estimate the surface leaving radiance at the scale of an ASTER pixel. The procedure will use an array of continuously recording temperature buoys to establish the bulk water temperature, broadband radiometers to determine the near surface water temperature gradient and radiosonde and sunphotometer measurements and a radiative transfer model to deduce the sky irradiance. These measurements and the spectral emissivity of the water will be combined with the relative system spectral response to provide an estimate of thermal infrared surface leaving radiance for each ASTER thermal channel. An example of this approach using a multichannel thermal aircraft scanner as a stand in for ASTER is described. It is expected this approach will provide estimates of surface radiance accurate, in temperature terms, to better than 1 K.

  5. An airborne thematic thermal infrared and electro-optical imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiuhong; Shu, Peter

    2011-08-01

    This paper describes an advanced Airborne Thematic Thermal InfraRed and Electro-Optical Imaging System (ATTIREOIS) and its potential applications. ATTIREOIS sensor payload consists of two sets of advanced Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs) - a broadband Thermal InfraRed Sensor (TIRS) and a four (4) band Multispectral Electro-Optical Sensor (MEOS) to approximate Landsat ETM+ bands 1,2,3,4, and 6, and LDCM bands 2,3,4,5, and 10+11. The airborne TIRS is 3-axis stabilized payload capable of providing 3D photogrammetric images with a 1,850 pixel swathwidth via pushbroom operation. MEOS has a total of 116 million simultaneous sensor counts capable of providing 3 cm spatial resolution multispectral orthophotos for continuous airborne mapping. ATTIREOIS is a complete standalone and easy-to-use portable imaging instrument for light aerial vehicle deployment. Its miniaturized backend data system operates all ATTIREOIS imaging sensor components, an INS/GPS, and an e-Gimbal™ Control Electronic Unit (ECU) with a data throughput of 300 Megabytes/sec. The backend provides advanced onboard processing, performing autonomous raw sensor imagery development, TIRS image track-recovery reconstruction, LWIR/VNIR multi-band co-registration, and photogrammetric image processing. With geometric optics and boresight calibrations, the ATTIREOIS data products are directly georeferenced with an accuracy of approximately one meter. A prototype ATTIREOIS has been configured. Its sample LWIR/EO image data will be presented. Potential applications of ATTIREOIS include: 1) Providing timely and cost-effective, precisely and directly georeferenced surface emissive and solar reflective LWIR/VNIR multispectral images via a private Google Earth Globe to enhance NASA's Earth science research capabilities; and 2) Underflight satellites to support satellite measurement calibration and validation observations.

  6. Thermal infrared spectroscopy and modeling of experimentally shocked plagioclase feldspars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, J. R.; Horz, F.; Staid, M.I.

    2003-01-01

    Thermal infrared emission and reflectance spectra (250-1400 cm-1; ???7???40 ??m) of experimentally shocked albite- and anorthite-rich rocks (17-56 GPa) demonstrate that plagioclase feldspars exhibit characteristic degradations in spectral features with increasing pressure. New measurements of albite (Ab98) presented here display major spectral absorptions between 1000-1250 cm-1 (8-10 ??m) (due to Si-O antisymmetric stretch motions of the silica tetrahedra) and weaker absorptions between 350-700 cm-1 (14-29 ??m) (due to Si-O-Si octahedral bending vibrations). Many of these features persist to higher pressures compared to similar features in measurements of shocked anorthite, consistent with previous thermal infrared absorption studies of shocked feldspars. A transparency feature at 855 cm-1 (11.7 ??m) observed in powdered albite spectra also degrades with increasing pressure, similar to the 830 cm-1 (12.0 ??m) transparency feature in spectra of powders of shocked anorthite. Linear deconvolution models demonstrate that combinations of common mineral and glass spectra can replicate the spectra of shocked anorthite relatively well until shock pressures of 20-25 GPa, above which model errors increase substantially, coincident with the onset of diaplectic glass formation. Albite deconvolutions exhibit higher errors overall but do not change significantly with pressure, likely because certain clay minerals selected by the model exhibit absorption features similar to those in highly shocked albite. The implication for deconvolution of thermal infrared spectra of planetary surfaces (or laboratory spectra of samples) is that the use of highly shocked anorthite spectra in end-member libraries could be helpful in identifying highly shocked calcic plagioclase feldspars.

  7. Comparison between IASI and GOSAT retrievals in the thermal infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payan, S.; Camy-peyret, C.; Bureau, J.; Shiomi, K.

    2012-04-01

    GOSAT (Greenhouse Gases Observing SATellite) is a satellite dedicated to the study of greenhouses gases. It carries an infrared Fourier transform spectrometer (The Thermal and Near Infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation Fourier-Transform Spectrometer or TANSO-FTS), which acquires spectra in 4 bands, located in the Near-Infrared (NIR), ShortWave Infrared (SWIR) and Thermal Infrared (TIR). An imager (CAI: Cloud and Aerosols imager) enables to gain information on clouds and aerosols, and this information is used to improve the quality of CO2 and CH4 retrievals. IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) designed by CNES for Eumetsat is carried by the MetOp-A satellite. It is used for operational meteorology and is also interesting for greenhouse gases as well as for atmospheric chemistry and climate. We looked for close spatial and temporal coincidences between IASI and TANSO-FTS nadir spectra. Due to the respective orbits of MetOp-A and GOSAT, this is only achieved at high latitudes. We compared the surface temperature, CO2, CH4, N2O and O3 mixing ratios retrieved from TANSO-FTS and from IASI spectra. We used the [940;980] cm-1 window for CO2 (laser band), [1240;1320] cm-1 for CH4, [1140;1200] cm-1 for N2O, and [980;1100] cm-1 for O3. Since IASI is considered as a reference for radiometric calibrations, we compared the surface temperatures retrieved by GOSAT and IASI in these different windows to assess the GOSAT radiometric calibration. The GOSAT/IASI comparison is done on surface temperature rather than on raw radiances because the different instrumental noise and spectral resolution of these instruments make a direct comparison of the radiances more difficult. The use of different spectral windows enabled us to explore the spectral dependence of the TANSO-FTS radiometric calibration. Cloud-free and spatially homogenous fields of view (IFOVs) were selected using CAI images. Finally, we will show the potential to further improve the results using the

  8. Estimating chlorophyll with thermal and broadband multispectral high resolution imagery from an unmanned aerial system using relevance vector machines for precision agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elarab, Manal; Ticlavilca, Andres M.; Torres-Rua, Alfonso F.; Maslova, Inga; McKee, Mac

    2015-12-01

    Precision agriculture requires high-resolution information to enable greater precision in the management of inputs to production. Actionable information about crop and field status must be acquired at high spatial resolution and at a temporal frequency appropriate for timely responses. In this study, high spatial resolution imagery was obtained through the use of a small, unmanned aerial system called AggieAirTM. Simultaneously with the AggieAir flights, intensive ground sampling for plant chlorophyll was conducted at precisely determined locations. This study reports the application of a relevance vector machine coupled with cross validation and backward elimination to a dataset composed of reflectance from high-resolution multi-spectral imagery (VIS-NIR), thermal infrared imagery, and vegetative indices, in conjunction with in situ SPAD measurements from which chlorophyll concentrations were derived, to estimate chlorophyll concentration from remotely sensed data at 15-cm resolution. The results indicate that a relevance vector machine with a thin plate spline kernel type and kernel width of 5.4, having LAI, NDVI, thermal and red bands as the selected set of inputs, can be used to spatially estimate chlorophyll concentration with a root-mean-squared-error of 5.31 μg cm-2, efficiency of 0.76, and 9 relevance vectors.

  9. Enhancement of multispectral thermal infrared images - Decorrelation contrast stretching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillespie, Alan R.

    1992-01-01

    Decorrelation contrast stretching is an effective method for displaying information from multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) images. The technique involves transformation of the data to principle components ('decorrelation'), independent contrast 'stretching' of data from the new 'decorrelated' image bands, and retransformation of the stretched data back to the approximate original axes, based on the inverse of the principle component rotation. The enhancement is robust in that colors of the same scene components are similar in enhanced images of similar scenes, or the same scene imaged at different times. Decorrelation contrast stretching is reviewed in the context of other enhancements applied to TIR images.

  10. Chemical detection using the airborne thermal infrared imaging spectrometer (TIRIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Gat, N.; Subramanian, S.; Sheffield, M.; Erives, H.; Barhen, J.

    1997-04-01

    A methodology is described for an airborne, downlooking, longwave infrared imaging spectrometer based technique for the detection and tracking of plumes of toxic gases. Plumes can be observed in emission or absorption, depending on the thermal contrast between the vapor and the background terrain. While the sensor is currently undergoing laboratory calibration and characterization, a radiative exchange phenomenology model has been developed to predict sensor response and to facilitate the sensor design. An inverse problem model has also been developed to obtain plume parameters based on sensor measurements. These models, the sensors, and ongoing activities are described.

  11. Characteristic analysis on the thermal noise of infrared CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rong-zhu; Yu, Xing; Liu, Guo-dong

    2014-09-01

    1.064 μm, 1.319 μm and 10.6 μm laser were used to irradiate silicon-based HgCdTe CCD image system. The temperature distribution of detector induced by infrared laser irradiating in the experiment above was simulated. The influence of temperature on photoelectric parameters of HgCdTe CCD was calculated. A CCD physical model of crosstalk saturation was built and the response characteristic of CCD under the influence of thermal noise was analyzed. Result indicated that the rise of temperature induced by laser irradiating little influenced imaging effect of CCD.

  12. Infrared thermal imaging for detection of peripheral vascular disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bagavathiappan, S.; Saravanan, T.; Philip, John; Jayakumar, T.; Raj, Baldev; Karunanithi, R.; Panicker, T. M. R.; Korath, M. Paul; Jagadeesan, K.

    2009-01-01

    Body temperature is a very useful parameter for diagnosing diseases. There is a definite correlation between body temperature and diseases. We have used Infrared Thermography to study noninvasive diagnosis of peripheral vascular diseases. Temperature gradients are observed in the affected regions of patients with vascular disorders, which indicate abnormal blood flow in the affected region. Thermal imaging results are well correlated with the clinical findings. Certain areas on the affected limbs show increased temperature profiles, probably due to inflammation and underlying venous flow changes. In general the temperature contrast in the affected regions is about 0.7 to 1° C above the normal regions, due to sluggish blood circulation. The results suggest that the thermal imaging technique is an effective technique for detecting small temperature changes in the human body due to vascular disorders. PMID:20126565

  13. Terrestrial Applications of the Thermal Infrared Sensor, TIRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Ramsey L.; Thome, Kurtis; Richardson, Cathleen; Irons, James; Reuter, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Landsat satellites have acquired single-band thermal images since 1978. The next satellile in the heritage, Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), is scheduled to launch in December 2012. LDCM will contain the Operational Land Imager (OLI) and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), where TIRS operates in concert with, but independently of OLI. This paper will provide an overview of the remote sensing instrument TIRS. The T1RS instrument was designed at National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) where it will be fabricated and calibrated as well. Protecting the integrity of the Scientific Data that will be collected from TIRS played a strong role in definition of the calibration test equipment and procedures used for the optical, radiometric, and spatial calibration. The data that will be produced from LCDM will continue to be used world wide for environment monitoring and resource management.

  14. Downscaling Thermal Infrared Radiance for Subpixel Land Surface Temperature Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Desheng; Pu, Ruiliang

    2008-01-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) retrieved from satellite thermal sensors often consists of mixed temperature components. Retrieving subpixel LST is therefore needed in various environmental and ecological studies. In this paper, we developed two methods for downscaling coarse resolution thermal infrared (TIR) radiance for the purpose of subpixel temperature retrieval. The first method was developed on the basis of a scale-invariant physical model on TIR radiance. The second method was based on a statistical relationship between TIR radiance and land cover fraction at high spatial resolution. The two methods were applied to downscale simulated 990-m ASTER TIR data to 90-m resolution. When validated against the original 90-m ASTER TIR data, the results revealed that both downscaling methods were successful in capturing the general patterns of the original data and resolving considerable spatial details. Further quantitative assessments indicated a strong agreement between the true values and the estimated values by both methods.

  15. Detection of Single Standing Dead Trees from Aerial Color Infrared Imagery by Segmentation with Shape and Intensity Priors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polewski, P.; Yao, W.; Heurich, M.; Krzystek, P.; Stilla, U.

    2015-03-01

    Standing dead trees, known as snags, are an essential factor in maintaining biodiversity in forest ecosystems. Combined with their role as carbon sinks, this makes for a compelling reason to study their spatial distribution. This paper presents an integrated method to detect and delineate individual dead tree crowns from color infrared aerial imagery. Our approach consists of two steps which incorporate statistical information about prior distributions of both the image intensities and the shapes of the target objects. In the first step, we perform a Gaussian Mixture Model clustering in the pixel color space with priors on the cluster means, obtaining up to 3 components corresponding to dead trees, living trees, and shadows. We then refine the dead tree regions using a level set segmentation method enriched with a generative model of the dead trees' shape distribution as well as a discriminative model of their pixel intensity distribution. The iterative application of the statistical shape template yields the set of delineated dead crowns. The prior information enforces the consistency of the template's shape variation with the shape manifold defined by manually labeled training examples, which makes it possible to separate crowns located in close proximity and prevents the formation of large crown clusters. Also, the statistical information built into the segmentation gives rise to an implicit detection scheme, because the shape template evolves towards an empty contour if not enough evidence for the object is present in the image. We test our method on 3 sample plots from the Bavarian Forest National Park with reference data obtained by manually marking individual dead tree polygons in the images. Our results are scenario-dependent and range from a correctness/completeness of 0.71/0.81 up to 0.77/1, with an average center-of-gravity displacement of 3-5 pixels between the detected and reference polygons.

  16. Thermal infrared nadir observations of 24 atmospheric gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarisse, Lieven; R'Honi, Yasmina; Coheur, Pierre-François; Hurtmans, Daniel; Clerbaux, Cathy

    2011-05-01

    Thermal infrared nadir sounders are ideal for observing total columns or vertical profiles of atmospheric gases such as water, carbon dioxide and ozone. High resolution sounders with a spectral resolution below 5 cm-1 can distinguish fine spectral features of trace gases. Forty years after the launch of the first hyperspectral sounder IRIS, we have now several state of the art instruments in orbit, with improved instrumental specifications. In this letter we give an overview of the trace gases which have been observed by infrared nadir sounders, focusing on new observations of the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). We present typical observations of 14 rare reactive trace gas species. Several species are reported here for the first time in nadir view, including nitrous acid, furan, acetylene, propylene, acetic acid, formaldehyde and hydrogen cyanide, observations which were made in a pyrocumulus cloud from the Australian bush fires of February 2009. Being able to observe this large number of reactive trace gases will likely improve our knowledge of source emissions and their impact on the environment and climate.

  17. Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing of the Yellowstone Geothermal System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, R. G.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Heasler, H.; Jaworowski, C.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Schneider, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Yellowstone National Park (YNP) geothermal system is one of the largest in the world, with thousands of individual thermal features ranging in size from a few centimeters to tens of meters across, (e.g., fumaroles, geysers, mud pots and hot spring pools). Together, large concentrations of these thermal features make up dozens of distinct thermal areas, characterized by sparse vegetation, hydrothermally altered rocks, and usually either sinter, travertine, or acid sulfate alteration. The temperature of these thermal features generally ranges from ~30 to ~93 oC, which is the boiling temperature of water at the elevation of Yellowstone. In-situ temperature measurements of various thermal features are sparse in both space and time, but they show a dynamic time-temperature relationship. For example, as geysers erupt and send pulses of warm water down slope, the warm water cools rapidly and is then followed by another pulse of warm water, on time scales of minutes. The total heat flux from the Park’s thermal features has been indirectly estimated from chemical analysis of Cl- flux in water flowing from Yellowstone’s rivers. We are working to provide a more direct measurement, as well as estimates of time variability, of the total heat flux using satellite multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing data. Over the last 10 years, NASA’s orbiting ASTER and MODIS instruments have acquired hundreds and thousands of multispectral TIR images, respectively, over the YNP area. Compared with some volcanoes, Yellowstone is a relatively low-temperature geothermal system, with low thermal contrast to the non-geothermal surrounding areas; therefore we are refining existing techniques to extract surface temperature and thermal flux information. This task is complicated by issues such as, during the day, solar heated surfaces may be warmer than nearby geothermal features; and there is some topographic (elevation) influence on surface temperatures, even at night. Still

  18. Titan's Seasonal Changes Observed in the Thermal Infrared (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, D. E.; Anderson, C. M.; Nixon, C. A.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Achterberg, R. K.; Flasar, F.; Cottini, V.; Coustenis, A.; Vinatier, S.; Teanby, N. A.; Bampasidis, G.

    2013-12-01

    A central goal of the Cassini Mission is the detection and tracking of seasonal variations on Titan. Cassini arrived in the Saturn system in late northern winter and has so far observed for almost four Titan months, enough time to see significant changes as solar warming has moved northward. In the thermal infrared the shift has been apparent both in emission from the atmosphere and temperatures at the surface. Gases, clouds and aerosols in the atmosphere warm and cool with the seasons, accumulate and dissipate, and undergo transport on a global scale. Warming of the surface helps drive the exchange of heat and volatiles with the atmosphere, which contributes to weather. Seasonal activity in the north can be expected to be repeated in the south over the course of a year, so that it may be possible by the end of the Cassini Mission to combine winter-spring data from the north and summer-autumn data from the south to build up a picture that covers almost a full annual cycle. The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on Cassini records thermal infrared spectra in the 7-1000 micron range. CIRS has found that surface temperatures at Titan's poles are about 2.5 K lower than near the equator and that the temperatures moved from peaking south of the equator in 2005 to being approximately centered at the equator in 2011. As Titan passed through equinox in 2009, CIRS watched as atmospheric patterns that had been associated with northern winter began to emerge in the south. Emission from stratospheric gases and condensates varied dramatically as temperatures, chemistry and transport configurations adjusted to the season. Complex nitriles that had only been present at high northern latitudes began to appear near the South Pole while a polar ice cloud, originally identified in the north by its spectral emission, made an abrupt debut in the south. We expect much more evidence of seasonal evolution in the thermal infrared as CIRS continues to study Titan through the remainder of

  19. A Thermal Infrared Emission Spectra Library for Unpowdered Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashley, J. W.; Christensen, P. R.

    2007-12-01

    Mid-infrared thermal emission spectra have been obtained for whole-rock (unpowdered) samples of the following 25 meteorites: Abee, Admire, Allende, Bondoc, Brahin, Bruderheim, Canyon Diablo, Carichic, Clover Springs, Dhofar 007, Estherville, Holbrook, Juancheng, Kapoeta, Long Island, Marion, Modoc, ALH77225, ALH77233, ALH84082, LEW85322, ALH85025, ALH79029, ALH77004, and LEW86015. Meteorites were provided through the Center for Meteorite Studies at ASU, Johnson Space Center and the NASA Antarctic Meteorite Working Group, and from private collections. The database was prepared to aid in the on-going detection and interpretation of meteorites on Mars using the Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) instruments on both Mars Exploration Rovers. It therefore includes several specimens of low, moderate, and high weathering intensities, reflecting different levels of water exposure in desert and non-desert environments. Unweathered falls are also considered. Samples represent all three chondrite classes, stony irons (mesosiderites and pallasites), and select achondrites. Special consideration is given to dust-covered iron-nickel meteorites as part of a separate study designed to evaluate the Mini-TES spectra of iron-nickel meteorites on Mars. All samples were analyzed at or near a temperature of 80° C using a modified Nicolet Nexus 670 FT-IR spectrometer at the Mars Space Flight Facility at Arizona State University. Data were collected within the 2000 to 200 wavenumber (5 to 50 microns) mid-infrared range. The results show that many meteorite types display moderate to wide variability in the depth and position of prominent absorption features, making them easily distinguishable from each other. Most previous meteorite spectroscopy studies have either focused on near-infrared reflectance spectra [e.g. 1], and/or involved powdered samples to represent asteroid regoliths in the mid-infrared [e.g. 2 & 3]. Particle size- related issues are often at the heart of

  20. Landsat 8 thermal infrared sensor geometric characterization and calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storey, James C.; Choate, Michael J.; Moe, Donald

    2014-01-01

    The Landsat 8 spacecraft was launched on 11 February 2013 carrying two imaging payloads: the Operational Land Imager (OLI) and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS). The TIRS instrument employs a refractive telescope design that is opaque to visible wavelengths making prelaunch geometric characterization challenging. TIRS geometric calibration thus relied heavily on on-orbit measurements. Since the two Landsat 8 payloads are complementary and generate combined Level 1 data products, the TIRS geometric performance requirements emphasize the co-alignment of the OLI and TIRS instrument fields of view and the registration of the OLI reflective bands to the TIRS long-wave infrared emissive bands. The TIRS on-orbit calibration procedures include measuring the TIRS-to-OLI alignment, refining the alignment of the three TIRS sensor chips, and ensuring the alignment of the two TIRS spectral bands. The two key TIRS performance metrics are the OLI reflective to TIRS emissive band registration accuracy, and the registration accuracy between the TIRS thermal bands. The on-orbit calibration campaign conducted during the commissioning period provided an accurate TIRS geometric model that enabled TIRS Level 1 data to meet all geometric accuracy requirements. Seasonal variations in TIRS-to-OLI alignment have led to several small calibration parameter adjustments since commissioning.

  1. Secure thermal infrared communications using engineered blackbody radiation

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xiaoxin; Hu, Fangjing; Yan, Yuepeng; Lucyszyn, Stepan

    2014-01-01

    The thermal (emitted) infrared frequency bands, from 20–40 THz and 60–100 THz, are best known for applications in thermography. This underused and unregulated part of the spectral range offers opportunities for the development of secure communications. The ‘THz Torch' concept was recently presented by the authors. This technology fundamentally exploits engineered blackbody radiation, by partitioning thermally-generated spectral noise power into pre-defined frequency channels; the energy in each channel is then independently pulsed modulated and multiplexing schemes are introduced to create a robust form of short-range secure communications in the far/mid infrared. To date, octave bandwidth (25–50 THz) single-channel links have been demonstrated with 380 bps speeds. Multi-channel ‘THz Torch' frequency division multiplexing (FDM) and frequency-hopping spread-spectrum (FHSS) schemes have been proposed, but only a slow 40 bps FDM scheme has been demonstrated experimentally. Here, we report a much faster 1,280 bps FDM implementation. In addition, an experimental proof-of-concept FHSS scheme is demonstrated for the first time, having a 320 bps data rate. With both 4-channel multiplexing schemes, measured bit error rates (BERs) of < 10−6 are achieved over a distance of 2.5 cm. Our approach represents a new paradigm in the way niche secure communications can be established over short links. PMID:24912871

  2. Secure thermal infrared communications using engineered blackbody radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xiaoxin; Hu, Fangjing; Yan, Yuepeng; Lucyszyn, Stepan

    2014-06-01

    The thermal (emitted) infrared frequency bands, from 20-40 THz and 60-100 THz, are best known for applications in thermography. This underused and unregulated part of the spectral range offers opportunities for the development of secure communications. The `THz Torch' concept was recently presented by the authors. This technology fundamentally exploits engineered blackbody radiation, by partitioning thermally-generated spectral noise power into pre-defined frequency channels; the energy in each channel is then independently pulsed modulated and multiplexing schemes are introduced to create a robust form of short-range secure communications in the far/mid infrared. To date, octave bandwidth (25-50 THz) single-channel links have been demonstrated with 380 bps speeds. Multi-channel `THz Torch' frequency division multiplexing (FDM) and frequency-hopping spread-spectrum (FHSS) schemes have been proposed, but only a slow 40 bps FDM scheme has been demonstrated experimentally. Here, we report a much faster 1,280 bps FDM implementation. In addition, an experimental proof-of-concept FHSS scheme is demonstrated for the first time, having a 320 bps data rate. With both 4-channel multiplexing schemes, measured bit error rates (BERs) of < 10-6 are achieved over a distance of 2.5 cm. Our approach represents a new paradigm in the way niche secure communications can be established over short links.

  3. Secure thermal infrared communications using engineered blackbody radiation.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiaoxin; Hu, Fangjing; Yan, Yuepeng; Lucyszyn, Stepan

    2014-01-01

    The thermal (emitted) infrared frequency bands, from 20-40 THz and 60-100 THz, are best known for applications in thermography. This underused and unregulated part of the spectral range offers opportunities for the development of secure communications. The 'THz Torch' concept was recently presented by the authors. This technology fundamentally exploits engineered blackbody radiation, by partitioning thermally-generated spectral noise power into pre-defined frequency channels; the energy in each channel is then independently pulsed modulated and multiplexing schemes are introduced to create a robust form of short-range secure communications in the far/mid infrared. To date, octave bandwidth (25-50 THz) single-channel links have been demonstrated with 380 bps speeds. Multi-channel 'THz Torch' frequency division multiplexing (FDM) and frequency-hopping spread-spectrum (FHSS) schemes have been proposed, but only a slow 40 bps FDM scheme has been demonstrated experimentally. Here, we report a much faster 1,280 bps FDM implementation. In addition, an experimental proof-of-concept FHSS scheme is demonstrated for the first time, having a 320 bps data rate. With both 4-channel multiplexing schemes, measured bit error rates (BERs) of < 10(-6) are achieved over a distance of 2.5 cm. Our approach represents a new paradigm in the way niche secure communications can be established over short links. PMID:24912871

  4. Thermal Infrared Hot Spot and Dependence on Canopy Geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, James A.; Ballard, Jerrell R., Jr.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We perform theoretical calculations of the canopy thermal infrared (TIR) hot spot using a first principles 3-D model described earlier. Various theoretical canopies of varying leaf size and for differing canopy height are used to illustrate the magnitude of the TIR effect. Our results are similar to predicted behavior in the reflective hot spot as a function of canopy geometry and comparable to TIR measurements from the literature and our own simple ground experiments. We apply the MODTRAN atmospheric code to estimate the at-sensor variation in brightness temperature with view direction in the solar principal plane. For simple homogeneous canopies, we predict canopy thermal infrared hot spot variations of 2 degrees C at the surface with respect to nadir viewing. Dependence on leaf size is weak as long as the ratio of leaf size to canopy height is maintained. However, the angular width of the hot spot increases as the ratio of leaf diameter to canopy height increases. Atmospheric effects minimize but do not eliminate the TIR hot spot at satellite altitudes.

  5. Multispectral glass transparent from visible to thermal infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brehault, A.; Calvez, L.; Pain, T.; Adam, P.; Rollin, J.; Zhang, X. H.

    2014-06-01

    The thermal imaging market has experienced a strong growth during the recent years due to continued cost reduction of night vision devices. The development of uncooled focal plane detector arrays is the major reason for the cost reduction. Another reason is the continuous improvement of the optical solution. In this paper, we present a new multispectral material which responds to the increasing demand for optics operating simultaneously in the visible/SWIR (Short Wave InfraRed) and the thermal infrared region. The most important properties of some glasses from the GeS2-Ga2S3- CsCl system are highlighted in this study. A stable composition 15Ga2S3-75GeS2-10CsCl allowed the synthesis of a large glass without crystallization. The refractive index of this glass was precisely measured from 0.6 to 10.4μm by using the Littrow method. The chromatic dispersion was then calculated and compared with other multispectral materials.

  6. Thermal infrared remote sensing of crude oil slicks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, John W.; D'Aria, Dana M.; Sabins, Floyd F., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Unambiguous detection of oil slicks by remote sensing techniques has proven an elusive goal. This article presents new thermal infrared spectra of oil slicks made from five different crude oil samples with a wide range of API gravities and compositions. After a brief outgassing phase, all oil slick spectra are quite similar and little affected by thickness, extended exposure to air or sunlight, and even by emulsification with seawater (mousse formation). Thus, oil slicks provide a remarkably unvarying spectral signature as remote sensing targets in the thermal infrared compared to other regions of the spectrum. This spectral signature in the 8-14 micron atmospheric window is flat, with an average reflectance of 4 percent. Seawater, on the other hand, has a spectrum that varies in reflectance with wavelength in the 8-14 micron window from 0.90 to 3.65 percent. In addition, we show that sea foam displays a reflectance spectrum quite similar to that of seawater in the 8-14 micron region. This results in a relatively uniform spectral background, against which oil slicks can be detected, based on their different spectral signature.

  7. The research on the effect of atmospheric transmittance for the measuring accuracy of infrared thermal imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu-cun; Chen, Yi-ming; Fu, Xian-bin; Luo, Cheng

    2016-07-01

    The effect of atmospheric transmittance on infrared thermal imager temperature measuring accuracy cannot be ignored when the object is far from infrared thermal imager. In this paper, a method of reducing the influence of atmospheric transmittance is proposed for the infrared thermal imager. Firstly, the temperature measuring formula of infrared thermal imager and the effect of atmospheric transmittance on temperature measuring accuracy is analyzed. According to the composition of the atmosphere, the main factors influencing the atmosphere transmittance are determined. Secondly, the temperature measuring model of infrared thermal imager in sea level is established according to the absorption of water vapor and carbon dioxide, the scattering of air molecules and aerosol particulate, and the attenuation effects of weather conditions such as rain and snow. Finally, the correctness and feasibility of the proposed model is verified by the comparison experiments of four different environmental conditions. According to the experiments, the temperature measuring accuracy of the infrared thermal imager is improved.

  8. Research of thermal cycles of long wavelength MCT infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Li-gang; Liu, Da-fu; Zhu, San-gen; Gong, Hai-mei

    2009-07-01

    The conflict of longevity of satellite's service and limited life of Sterling cooler decides that coolers should work on the intermittent mode in space. As a result, The HgCdTe (MCT) infrared (IR) detectors in satellite are commonly subjected to thousands of repeated thermal cycles from below -173°C to room temperature (20°C), which brings some new reliability problems. Especially the mismatch of coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of different materials may lead to some unfamiliar failure modes with such low temperature and nearly 200°C span of thermal cycles. In order to study the characteristics of MCT detectors under the stress of thermal cycles, this paper introduced a special automatic system. The system is mainly composed of a sub-container of liquid nitrogen, a heater controlled by the PID hardware, and an object stage on which the MCT detectors to be tested are mounted. Furthermore, the sub-container, the heater and the stage are positioned in a large vacuum tank. In the course of thermal cycles, the object stage moved up and down with MCT detectors is driven by a step motor. When it rises to the bottom of liquid nitrogen sub-container, the stage is to be cooled with detectors, and when declines to the heater, the stage to be heated with detectors, too. At last, two long wavelength MCT detector samples are tested with this equipment, and the resistance, the signal and the noise are measured. It shows that all the pixels' resistance didn't change beyond 5% after 5000 cycles. However, the tested signal of the last pixel of both detectors increased sharply after 1000 cycles, and fell to normal level after 5000 cycles, with its noise altering a little from beginning to end. A deduction is given in this paper for this phenomenon. In accordance, the thermal cycle equipment and the experimental data, would supply some references to the design and fabrication of MCT IR detectors.

  9. A Thermal Infrared View of Altered Noachian Martian Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalski, J.; Noe, E.; Mustard, J.; Bibring, J.

    2007-12-01

    Exposures of altered, ancient Martian crust seemingly represent a distant epoch in Mars" history where aqueous surface processes were active and the planet may have been habitable. In this study, thermal infrared remote sensing data are analyzed in order to better understand these deposits and the geological conditions under which they formed. Three questions are addressed: 1) On surfaces where VNIR datasets detect clay minerals, do thermal IR datasets also detect clays? 2) Aside from clay minerals, what other minerals are detected in the clay-bearing deposits based on thermal IR spectroscopy? 3) What are the thermophysical properties of clay mineral-bearing deposits? Thermal IR data used include TES and THEMIS datasets. To date, one deposit has been detected in the Mawrth Vallis region where thermal IR spectra have features attributable to trioctahedral clay minerals - possibly serpentine. Many other deposits (elsewhere in Mawrth Vallis and the Nili Fossae region) have subtle features at long wavelengths (> 20 microns) suggestive of Mg- and/or Fe-bearing clay mineralogy. Most of the deposits that show strong clay mineral signatures in the VNIR have basaltic character in the thermal IR. Thermal inertia values for these altered deposits are consistent with a combination of bedrock and sand at subpixel levels - consistent with the interpretation of the clay minerals as bulk component of in situ bedrock. Understanding the bulk composition of ancient, clay-bearing bedrock is critical to unraveling the geologic formation mechanisms of these deposits and their significance related to ancient Martian climate and habitability. In the Mawrth Vallis region, the basaltic signatures from clay-bearing deposits are relatively weak. In the Nili Fossae region, the basaltic signatures are stronger with surface mineralogy dominated by plagioclase feldspar, pyroxene, and in some cases, olivine. At this point, it is difficult to strongly constrain the abundance of clay minerals in

  10. PHyTIR - A Prototype Thermal Infrared Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jau, Bruno M.; Hook, Simon J.; Johnson, William R.; Foote, Marc C.; Paine, Christopher G.; Pannell, Zack W.; Smythe, Robert F.; Kuan, Gary M.; Jakoboski, Julie K.; Eng, Bjorn T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the PHyTIR (Prototype HyspIRI Thermal Infrared Radiometer) instrument, which is the engineering model for the proposed HyspIRI (Hyperspectral Infrared Imager) earth observing instrument. The HyspIRI mission would be comprised of the HyspIRI TIR (Thermal Infrared Imager), and a VSWIR (Visible Short-Wave Infra-Red Imaging Spectrometer). Both instruments would be used to address key science questions related to the earth's carbon cycle, ecosystems, climate, and solid earth properties. Data gathering of volcanic activities, earthquakes, wildfires, water use and availability, urbanization, and land surface compositions and changes, would aid the predictions and evaluations of such events and the impact they create. Even though the proposed technology for the HyspIRI imager is mature, the PHyTIR prototype is needed to advance the technology levels for several of the instrument's key components, and to reduce risks, in particular to validate 1) the higher sensitivity, spatial resolution, and higher throughput required for this focal plane array, 2) the pointing accuracy, 2) the characteristics of several spectral channels, and 4) the use of ambient temperature optics. The PHyTIR telescope consists of the focal plane assembly that is housed within a cold housing located inside a vacuum enclosure; all mounted to a bulkhead, and an optical train that consists of 3 powered mirrors; extending to both sides of the bulkhead. A yoke connects the telescope to a scan mirror. The rotating mirror enables to scan- a large track on the ground. This structure is supported by kinematic mounts, linking the telescope assembly to a base plate that would also become the spacecraft interface for HyspIRI. The focal plane's cooling units are also mounted to the base plate, as is an overall enclosure that has two viewing ports with large exterior baffles, shielding the focal plane from incoming stray light. PHyTIR's electronics is distributed inside and near the vacuum

  11. Near-surface Thermal Infrared Imaging of a Mixed Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrecht, D. M.; Helliker, B. R.; Richardson, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Measurement of an organism's temperature is of basic physiological importance and therefore necessary for ecosystem modeling, yet most models derive leaf temperature from energy balance arguments or assume it is equal to air temperature. This is because continuous, direct measurement of leaf temperature outside of a controlled environment is difficult and rarely done. Of even greater challenge is measuring leaf temperature with the resolution required to understand the underlying energy balance and regulation of plant processes. To measure leaf temperature through the year, we have mounted a high-resolution, thermal infrared camera overlooking the canopy of a temperate deciduous forest. The camera is co-located with an eddy covariance system and a suite of radiometric sensors. Our camera measures longwave thermal infrared (λ = 7.5-14 microns) using a microbolometer array. Suspended in the canopy within the camera FOV is a matte black copper plate instrumented with fine wire thermocouples that acts as a thermal reference for each image. In this presentation, I will discuss the challenges of continuous, long-term field operation of the camera, as well as measurement sensitivity to physical and environmental parameters. Based on this analysis, I will show that the uncertainties in converting radiometric signal to leaf temperature are well constrained. The key parameter for minimizing uncertainty is the emissivity of the objects being imaged: measuring the emissivity to within 0.01 enables leaf temperature to be calculated to within 0.5°C. Finally, I will present differences in leaf temperature observed amongst species. From our two-year record, we characterize high frequency, daily, and seasonal thermal signatures of leaves and crowns, in relation to environmental conditions. Our images are taken with sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to quantify the preferential heating of sunlit portions of the canopy and the cooling effect of wind gusts. Future work will

  12. The MAMBA Thermal Infrared All-Sky Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pier, Edward Alan; Tinn Chee Jim, Kevin; Lewis, Peter

    2015-08-01

    We are developing a system to continually and simultaneously monitor infrared atmospheric extinction along all lines of sight. This system combines a next generation radiometrically calibrated thermal all-sky camera, a weather station, and a neural net trained on historic Radiosonde profiles. Oceanit Laboratories, Inc. will market this system as an off the shelf unit. Custom-built thermal all sky cameras have previously been used on Haleakala, Cerro Tololo, and elsewhere. Except for RASICAM on Cerro Tololo, they have not been radiometrically calibrated and have been used only for qualitative cloud monitoring. The new system will have improved sky coverage, resolution, and noise properties with respect to RASICAM, and simulations show it will be able to infer atmospheric transmittance to within a few percent. The all sky camera will combine an equiresolution optical design with an off-the-shelf thermal detector and in field blackbody calibration sources to provide uniform sensitivity and radiometric accuracy across the sky at relatively low cost. Our goal is to make such systems ubiqitous at observatories around the world.

  13. Thermal imaging through infrared fiber/waveguides bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gannot, Israel; Goren, Alon; Rave, Eran; Katzir, Abraham; Gopal, Veena; Revezin, Gregory; Harrington, James A.

    2004-06-01

    Trans-endoscopic Infrared Imaging (IRI) relates the possibility to conduct IRI diagnosis of internal body surfaces under minimal invasiveness. It may also be utilized to control and to optimize the thermal interactions and the potential side effects during Minimally Invasive Surgeries (MIS). However, transferring the thermal images transendoscopically requires the usage of IR imaging bundles, which are neither yet mature nor commercially available. In our setup we have used two basic types of recently-developed imaging bundles: Ag/AgI-coated Hollow Glass Waveguide (HGW) bundles and Silver Halide (AgClBr) core-clad fiber bundles. The optical setup system was consisted of IR optics (e.g. ZnSe lenses, reflective objectives) and a thermal IR camera. We have succeeded to image objects through the bundles, such as various shapes of electrically heated wires, ex-vivo biological phantoms (samples of porcine stomach) and in-vivo phantom models (mice) irradiated by CO2 laser. Measurements were conducted for both - static and dynamic object states.

  14. Quantifying Riverine Surface Velocities Using Thermal Infrared PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutkowski, C. M.; Puleo, J. A.; McKenna, T. E.

    2010-12-01

    With the exception of river width, remotely obtaining riverine properties such as velocity, discharge and depth is difficult. The use of remote sensing techniques to estimate river velocity requires observation of surface texture. Unfortunately, many river environments do not exhibit texture that can be seen by the naked eye nor recorded with standard RGB imagery. Long wave infrared (thermal) imagers are capable of quantifying small true or apparent (usually based on variations in emissivity) temperature variations on the river surface that are advected with the current. A field study was conducted from May 24-28, 2010 in the Wolf River in Harrison County, Mississippi in order to investigate the application of thermal imagery to infer riverine surface currents. Over 20 hours of thermal imagery were captured during daylight and nighttime hours in addition to standard RGB imagery. Imagery is geo-rectified to the riverine surface and velocities are quantified using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The PIV technique identifies similar patterns of intensity between images and quantifies the spatial distance between the patterns. Horizontal velocity vectors are derived using these distances and the image sampling interval (7.5 Hz). Mean, in situ surface velocities were obtained using 6 electro-magnetic current meters deployed from a floating platform that was repositioned numerous times during the study. Image-derived velocities and validation by comparison with surface velocities obtained from the current meters will be presented.

  15. Geothermal Exploration in Akutan, Alaska, Using Multitemporal Thermal Infrared Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienholz, C.; Prakash, A.; Kolker, A.

    2009-12-01

    The Akutan geothermal system, which is a part of Alaska’s Aleutian volcanic arc, has several known thermal springs and a known fumarole field. It is reported to be one of the few high-grade geothermal resources in Alaska with a potential for further development as a geothermal energy resource. However, there is paucity of data and limited understanding and characterization of this system for optimal resource development. We used cloud-free summer-time thermal infrared (TIR) images from the rich and free archive of Landsat data to detect and map the surface expressions, such as temperature anomalies, hot springs, geysers, and fumaroles, associated with the geothermal system. We first processed individual TIR images to estimate land surface temperature and detect surface temperature anomalies. We then used image stacking, a technique adapted from the field of digital photography, to further highlight persistent surface temperature anomalies and subdue background transient temperature anomalies associated with local scene specific conditions. The image stacking approach highlighted new thermal anomaly areas, sometimes not visible on a single image scene. It also helped to increase the confidence level in land surface thermal anomaly detection. The image stacking itself could not resolve the issue of removing thermal anomalies associated with differential heating of locally high topographic areas. The image stacking result was therefore further classified by elevation, slope, vegetation type and geology and re-analyzed. This processing helped to highlight not only the locations of the known existing fumarole field and thermal springs, but also revealed three new distinct regions of surface thermal anomalies that are amenable to further ground-based investigations and exploration. Our team is currently in the field taking temperature measurements and collecting ancillary data at the identified locations and we anticipate learning soon if the satellite based

  16. Longwave thermal infrared spectral variability in individual rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Balick, Lee K; Gillespie, Alan; French, Andrew; Danilina, Iryna

    2008-01-01

    A hyperspectral imaging spectrometer measuring in the longwave thermal infrared (7.6-11.6 {micro}m) with a spatial resolution less than 4 mm was used in the field to observe the variability of emissivity spectra within individual rocks. The rocks were obtained commercially, were on the order of 20 cm in size and were selected to have distinct spectral features: they include alabaster (gypsum), soapstone (steatite with talc), obsidian (volcanic glass), norite (plagioclase and orthopyroxene), and 'jasper' (silica with iron oxides). The advantages of using an imaging spectrometer to spectrally characterize these rocks are apparent. Large spectral variations were observed within individual rocks that may be attributed to roughness, surface geometry, and compositional variation. Non-imaging spectrometers would normally miss these variations as would small samples used in laboratory measurements, spatially averaged spectra can miss the optimum spectra for identification materials and spatially localized components of the rock can be obscured.

  17. An infrared radiation based thermal biosensor for enzymatic biochemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Dong, Tao; Zhao, Xinyan; Yang, Zhaochu; Pires, Nuno M M

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a thermal biosensor based on the infrared radiation energy is proposed for calorimetric measurement of biochemical reactions. Having a good structure design combined with MEMS technology as well as employing the Si /SiGe quantum well sensing material with a high TCR and low 1/f noise, the sensor shows potentials to be high sensitive and real-time. The urea enzymatic reaction was tested to verify the performance of sensor, which demonstrates a linear detection range from 0.5mM to 150mM and a relative standard deviation less than 1%. For the sensor fabrication, wafer-level transfer bonding is a key process, which makes the integration of quantum well material and a free standing structure possible. It reduces the heat loss from the sensor to the surrounding environment. PMID:23365944

  18. Thermal mapping of the lunar surface. [using infrared radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raine, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    A program of lunar infrared radiometry which uses large area scanning is described, and procedures for atmospheric attenuation correction and data reduction to temperature by relative radiometry are outlined. Flow charts of the computer data reduction program are shown which contain the astrometric analysis from ephemeral data. The scan data, taken on 10 evenings in 1971 and 1972 in the 10 to 12 micron window, are presented as isothermal contour maps of the lunar disc. More than 160 areas of anomalous thermal emission were found in the lunar darkside data. Eclipse cooling curves, measured in the same wavelength band for 7 lunar regions during the eclipse of February 10, 1971, are also presented. Errors of the scan and eclipse data were calculated from accuracy estimates of the parameters.

  19. Thermal infrared reflectance and emission spectroscopy of quartzofeldspathic glasses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byrnes, J.M.; Ramsey, M.S.; King, P.L.; Lee, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    This investigation seeks to better understand the thermal infrared (TIR) spectral characteristics of naturally-occurring amorphous materials through laboratory synthesis and analysis of glasses. Because spectra of glass phases differ markedly from their mineral counterparts, examination of glasses is important to accurately determine the composition of amorphous surface materials using remote sensing datasets. Quantitatively characterizing TIR (5-25 ??m) spectral changes that accompany structural changes between glasses and mineral crystals provides the means to understand natural glasses on Earth and Mars. A suite of glasses with compositions analogous to common terrestrial volcanic glasses was created and analyzed using TIR reflectance and emission techniques. Documented spectral characteristics provide a basis for comparison with TIR spectra of other amorphous materials (glasses, clays, etc.). Our results provide the means to better detect and characterize glasses associated with terrestrial volcanoes, as well as contribute toward understanding the nature of amorphous silicates detected on Mars. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Early detection of plant disease using infrared thermal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Huirong; Zhu, Shengpan; Ying, Yibin; Jiang, Huanyu

    2006-10-01

    By using imaging techniques, plant physiological parameters can be assessed without contact with the plant and in a non-destructive way. During plant-pathogen infection, the physiological state of the infected tissue is altered, such as changes in photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance, accumulation of Salicylic acid (SA) and even cell death. In this study, the different temperature distribution between the leaves infected by tobacco mosaic virus strain-TMV-U1 and the noninfected leaves was visualized by digital infrared thermal imaging with the microscopic observations of the different structure within different species tomatoes. Results show a presymptomatic decrease in leaf temperature about 0.5-1.3 °C lower than the healthy leaves. The temperature difference allowed the discrimination between the infected and healthy leaves before the appearance of visible necrosis on leaves.

  1. Unmanned Ground Vehicle Perception Using Thermal Infrared Cameras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rankin, Arturo; Huertas, Andres; Matthies, Larry; Bajracharya, Max; Assad, Christopher; Brennan, Shane; Bellutta, Paolo; Sherwin, Gary W.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to perform off-road autonomous navigation at any time of day or night is a requirement for some unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) programs. Because there are times when it is desirable for military UGVs to operate without emitting strong, detectable electromagnetic signals, a passive only terrain perception mode of operation is also often a requirement. Thermal infrared (TIR) cameras can be used to provide day and night passive terrain perception. TIR cameras have a detector sensitive to either mid-wave infrared (MWIR) radiation (3-5?m) or long-wave infrared (LWIR) radiation (8-12?m). With the recent emergence of high-quality uncooled LWIR cameras, TIR cameras have become viable passive perception options for some UGV programs. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has used a stereo pair of TIR cameras under several UGV programs to perform stereo ranging, terrain mapping, tree-trunk detection, pedestrian detection, negative obstacle detection, and water detection based on object reflections. In addition, we have evaluated stereo range data at a variety of UGV speeds, evaluated dual-band TIR classification of soil, vegetation, and rock terrain types, analyzed 24 hour water and 12 hour mud TIR imagery, and analyzed TIR imagery for hazard detection through smoke. Since TIR cameras do not currently provide the resolution available from megapixel color cameras, a UGV's daytime safe speed is often reduced when using TIR instead of color cameras. In this paper, we summarize the UGV terrain perception work JPL has performed with TIR cameras over the last decade and describe a calibration target developed by General Dynamics Robotic Systems (GDRS) for TIR cameras and other sensors.

  2. Unmanned ground vehicle perception using thermal infrared cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankin, Arturo; Huertas, Andres; Matthies, Larry; Bajracharya, Max; Assad, Christopher; Brennan, Shane; Bellutta, Paolo; Sherwin, Gary W.

    2011-05-01

    The ability to perform off-road autonomous navigation at any time of day or night is a requirement for some unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) programs. Because there are times when it is desirable for military UGVs to operate without emitting strong, detectable electromagnetic signals, a passive only terrain perception mode of operation is also often a requirement. Thermal infrared (TIR) cameras can be used to provide day and night passive terrain perception. TIR cameras have a detector sensitive to either mid-wave infrared (MWIR) radiation (3-5μm) or long-wave infrared (LWIR) radiation (7-14μm). With the recent emergence of high-quality uncooled LWIR cameras, TIR cameras have become viable passive perception options for some UGV programs. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has used a stereo pair of TIR cameras under several UGV programs to perform stereo ranging, terrain mapping, tree-trunk detection, pedestrian detection, negative obstacle detection, and water detection based on object reflections. In addition, we have evaluated stereo range data at a variety of UGV speeds, evaluated dual-band TIR classification of soil, vegetation, and rock terrain types, analyzed 24 hour water and 12 hour mud TIR imagery, and analyzed TIR imagery for hazard detection through smoke. Since TIR cameras do not currently provide the resolution available from megapixel color cameras, a UGV's daytime safe speed is often reduced when using TIR instead of color cameras. In this paper, we summarize the UGV terrain perception work JPL has performed with TIR cameras over the last decade and describe a calibration target developed by General Dynamics Robotic Systems (GDRS) for TIR cameras and other sensors.

  3. Development of Thermal Infrared Sensor to Supplement Operational Land Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shu, Peter; Waczynski, Augustyn; Kan, Emily; Wen, Yiting; Rosenberry, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The thermal infrared sensor (TIRS) is a quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP)-based instrument intended to supplement the Operational Land Imager (OLI) for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM). The TIRS instrument is a far-infrared imager operating in the pushbroom mode with two IR channels: 10.8 and 12 m. The focal plane will contain three 640 512 QWIP arrays mounted onto a silicon substrate. The readout integrated circuit (ROIC) addresses each pixel on the QWIP arrays and reads out the pixel value (signal). The ROIC is controlled by the focal plane electronics (FPE) by means of clock signals and bias voltage value. The means of how the FPE is designed to control and interact with the TIRS focal plane assembly (FPA) is the basis for this work. The technology developed under the FPE is for the TIRS focal plane assembly (FPA). The FPE must interact with the FPA to command and control the FPA, extract analog signals from the FPA, and then convert the analog signals to digital format and send them via a serial link (USB) to a computer. The FPE accomplishes the described functions by converting electrical power from generic power supplies to the required bias power that is needed by the FPA. The FPE also generates digital clocking signals and shifts the typical transistor-to-transistor logic (TTL) to }5 V required by the FPA. The FPE also uses an application- specific integrated circuit (ASIC) named System Image, Digitizing, Enhancing, Controlling, And Retrieving (SIDECAR) from Teledyne Corp. to generate the clocking patterns commanded by the user. The uniqueness of the FPE for TIRS lies in that the TIRS FPA has three QWIP detector arrays, and all three detector arrays must be in synchronization while in operation. This is to avoid data skewing while observing Earth flying in space. The observing scenario may be customized by uploading new control software to the SIDECAR.

  4. Exploring the Saturn System in the Thermal Infrared: The Composite Infrared Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flasar, F. M.; Kunde, V. g.; Abbas, M. M.; Achterberg, R. K.; Ade, P.; Barucci, A.; Bezard, B.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Brasunas, J. C.; Calcutt, S.

    2004-01-01

    The Composite Inbred Spectrometer (CIRS) is a remote-sensing Fourier Transform Spectrometer on the Cassini orbiter that measures thermal radiation over two decades in wave number, from 10 to 1400 cm (1 mm to 7pm), with a spectral resolution that can be set from 0.5 to 20 cm. The far in portion of the spectrum (10 - 600 cm) is measured with a polarizing interferometer having thermopile detectors with a common 4-mrad field of view. The middle infrared portion is measured with a traditional Michelson interferometer having two focal planes (600 - 1100cm, 1100-1400 cm). Each focal plane is composed of a 1x10 array of HgCdTe detectors, each detector having a 0.3-mrad field of view. CIRS observations will provide three-dimensional maps of temperature, gas composition, and aerosols/condensates of the atmospheres of Titan and Saturn with good vertical and horizontal resolution, from deep in their tropospheres to high in their mesospheres. CIRS ability to observe atmospheres in the limb viewing mode (in addition to nadir) offers the opportunity to provide accurate and highly resolved vertical profiles of these atmospheric variables. The ability to observe with high-spectral resolution should facilitate the identification of new constituents. CIRS will also map the thermal and compositional properties of the surfaces of Saturn's icy satellites. It will similarly map Saturn's rings, characterizing their formation and evolution. The combination of broad spectral range, programmable spectral resolution, the small detector fields of view, and an orbiting spacecraft platform will allow CIRS to observe the Saturnian system in the thermal infrared at a level of detail not previously achieved.

  5. Thermal modeling of the Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gier, H. L.; Taylor, W. D.

    1983-01-01

    The Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is a cryogenically cooled telescope in the one-meter aperture class designed for sensing in the infrared from 2-200 microns. This facility is currently planned for multiple missions onboard the Space Shuttle with varying instrument complements. All components of the SIRTF within the field of view of the optics are cryogenically cooled. The baseline primary coolant is supercritical helium which is stored in an external tank and routed through the telescope-cooling the instruments, the optical components and the baffles. For detector cooling below 6 K, small reservoirs of superfluid helium (HeII) are provided. The SIRTF was thermally modeled on the SINDA computer program both for steady state and transient solutions. The analysis shows that the baseline configuration has a large capacity for growth in cryogen requirements. A proportional controller model was developed for transient operations. The control system maintained the optics within all prescribed temperature limits except for certain combinations of transients involving a large step change in the power dissipation in the secondary mirror assembly and/or when the primary mirror was assumed to be constructed of quartz. The baseline SIRTF will perform the mission for which it was designed.

  6. A low cost thermal infrared hyperspectral imager for small satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crites, S. T.; Lucey, P. G.; Wright, R.; Garbeil, H.; Horton, K. A.

    2011-06-01

    The traditional model for space-based earth observations involves long mission times, high cost, and long development time. Because of the significant time and monetary investment required, riskier instrument development missions or those with very specific scientific goals are unlikely to successfully obtain funding. However, a niche for earth observations exploiting new technologies in focused, short lifetime missions is opening with the growth of the small satellite market and launch opportunities for these satellites. These low-cost, short-lived missions provide an experimental platform for testing new sensor technologies that may transition to larger, more long-lived platforms. The low costs and short lifetimes also increase acceptable risk to sensors, enabling large decreases in cost using commercial off the shelf (COTS) parts and allowing early-career scientists and engineers to gain experience with these projects. We are building a low-cost long-wave infrared spectral sensor, funded by the NASA Experimental Project to Stimulate Competitive Research program (EPSCOR), to demonstrate the ways in which a university's scientific and instrument development programs can fit into this niche. The sensor is a low-mass, power efficient thermal hyperspectral imager with electronics contained in a pressure vessel to enable the use of COTS electronics, and will be compatible with small satellite platforms. The sensor, called Thermal Hyperspectral Imager (THI), is based on a Sagnac interferometer and uses an uncooled 320x256 microbolometer array. The sensor will collect calibrated radiance data at long-wave infrared (LWIR, 8-14 microns) wavelengths in 230-meter pixels with 20 wavenumber spectral resolution from a 400-km orbit.

  7. Infrared-thermal wave scanner for NDE of naval thermal spray coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.R.; Wandling, C.R.; Gatto, F.B.

    1984-02-27

    An engineering prototype scanning system has been completed and evaluated in shop tests. This paper describes the system and shows examples of bond defects that have been detected. The system uses advanced emissivity independent infrared scanning and thermal wave techniques to detect nonbonds and differentiate them from variations in coating density and thickness. A computer is used to control the scanning process, analyze the data and produce pseudo three-dimensional scan maps that can easily be interpreted by the operator. These maps show the thermal wave response (Z axis) as a function of position (X and Y axis) on the test object's surface. Operator interpretation of the maps as well as processing of the information by the system's micro-computer are simple. A heat pulse injected into the test objects surface generates a thermal wave that propagates inward at a rate that depends upon the thermal impedances it encounters. These internal impedances are caused by coating density differences, thickness differences and nonbonds. They influence the surface thermal impedance of the test object. Measurement of the surface thermal impedance can be accomplished by forming the ratio of the temperature response to heat flow for sinusoidal waves, or for transforms of transient waves, at the test objects surface. The surface thermal impedance is a true complex quantity, having both phase and amplitude. It is also frequency dependent, and this makes it possible to distinguish between impedance differences resulting from coating density differences, thickness differences and nonbonds.

  8. Thermal conductivity of a film of single walled carbon nanotubes measured with infrared thermal imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Ya; Inoue, Taiki; Xiang, Rong; Chiashi, Shohei; Maruyama, Shigeo

    Heat dissipation has restricted the modern miniaturization trend with the development of electronic devices. Theoretically proven to be with high axial thermal conductivity, single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) have long been expected to cool down the nanoscale world. Even though the tube-tube contact resistance limits the capability of heat transfer of the bulk film, the high intrinsic thermal conductivity of SWNT still glorify the application of films of SWNT network as a thermal interface material. In this work, we proposed a new method to straightly measure the thermal conductivity of SWNT film. We bridged two cantilevered Si thin plate with SWNT film, and kept a steady state heat flow in between. With the infrared camera to record the temperature distribution, the Si plates with known thermal conductivity can work as a reference to calculate the heat flux going through the SWNT film. Further, the thermal conductivity of the SWNT film can be obtained through Fourier's law after deducting the effect of thermal radiation. The sizes of the structure, the heating temperature, the vacuum degree and other crucial impact factors are carefully considered and analyzed. The author Y. F. was supported through the Advanced Integration Science Innovation Education and Research Consortium Program by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sport, Science and Technology.

  9. Apparatus and method for transient thermal infrared spectrometry of flowable enclosed materials

    DOEpatents

    McClelland, John F.; Jones, Roger W.

    1993-03-02

    A method and apparatus for enabling analysis of a flowable material enclosed in a transport system having an infrared transparent wall portion. A temperature differential is transiently generated between a thin surface layer portion of the material and a lower or deeper portion of the material sufficient to alter the thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material from the black-body thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material, and the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is detected through the infrared transparent portion of the transport system while the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is sufficiently free of self-absorption by the material of emitted infrared radiation. The detection is effected prior to the temperature differential propagating into the lower or deeper portion of the material to an extent such that the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is no longer sufficiently free of self-absorption by the material of emitted infrared radiation. By such detection, the detected altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is indicative of characteristics relating to molecular composition of the material.

  10. 3D Thermal Infrared Radiative Transfer in Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, W.; Liou, K.; Hall, A.

    2007-12-01

    We developed a 3D Monte Carlo photon tracing program for radiative transfer in inhomogeneous and irregular terrain coupled with the correlated k-distribution method for gaseous absorption in the atmosphere for the calculation of broadband thermal infrared (IR) fluxes at mountain surfaces. The thermal IR radiative transfer program includes emission from the atmosphere to the surface and vice versa as well as emissions between mountain surfaces. Both the atmosphere and the land surface are discretized by using finite cubic cells characterized by the spectral optical properties of molecules and background aerosols (absorption coefficient, single-scattering albedo, and scattering phase function) and terrain configuration (albedo, elevation, slope, and orientation). The emissivity of gases is parameterized in terms of the vertical optical depth of cubic cell. We selected an area of 100×100 km2 in the Tibetan Plateau near Lhasa city with a horizontal resolution of 1 km2 and used the surface temperature and albedo available from MODIS/Terra dataset for this study. We show that surface temperature is the dominating factor in radiative transfer calculations and that subgrid variability of the net surface IR flux distribution relative to a flat surface (1D) with average elevation and temperature can be as large as 50 W/m2 at cold mountain surfaces.

  11. Thermal interpretation of infrared dynamics in de Sitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigopoulos, Gerasimos

    2016-07-01

    The infrared dynamics of a light, minimally coupled scalar field in de Sitter spacetime with Ricci curvature R = 12H2, averaged over horizon sized regions of physical volume VH = (4π/3)(1/H)3, can be interpreted as Brownian motion in a medium with de Sitter temperature TDS = hbarH/2π. We demonstrate this by directly deriving the effective action of scalar field fluctuations with wavelengths larger than the de Sitter curvature radius and generalizing Starobinsky's seminal results on stochastic inflation. The effective action describes stochastic dynamics and the fluctuating force drives the field to an equilibrium characterized by a thermal Gibbs distribution at temperature TDS which corresponds to a de Sitter invariant state. Hence, approach towards this state can be interpreted as thermalization. We show that the stochastic kinetic energy of the coarse-grained description corresponds to the norm of ∂μphi and takes a well defined value per horizon volume ½langle(∇phi)2rangle = ‑ ½TDS/VH. This approach allows for the non-perturbative computation of the de Sitter invariant stress energy tensor langleTμνrangle for an arbitrary scalar potential.

  12. Thermal oscillations in rat kidneys: an infrared imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Gorbach, Alexander M.; Wang, Hengliang; Elster, Eric

    2008-01-01

    A high-resolution infrared (IR) camera was used to assess rhythmicity in localized renal blood flow, including the extent of regions containing nephrons with spontaneous oscillations in their individual blood flow. The IR imaging was able to follow changes in rat renal perfusion during baseline conditions, during occlusion of the main renal artery and during the administration of either saline or papaverine. Concurrent recordings were made of tubular pressure in superficial nephrons. Spontaneous vascular oscillations centred around 0.02–0.05 Hz and approximately 0.01 Hz could be detected reproducibly by IR imaging. Their spectral characteristics and their response to papaverine were in line with tubular pressure measurements. The intensity of and synchrony between thermal signals from different local areas of the kidney may allow, after surgical exposure, non-invasive imaging of functional clusters involved in renal cortical blood flow. Through visualization of the spatial extent of thermal oscillations, IR imaging holds promise in assessing kidney autoregulatory mechanisms. PMID:18650199

  13. Thermal vasodilation using a portable infrared thermal blanket in decompensated heart failure.

    PubMed

    Lima, Marcelo Villaça; Ochiai, Marcelo E; Vieira, Kelly N; Scipioni, Airton; Cardoso, Juliano N; Munhoz, Robinson T; Morgado, Paulo C; Barretto, Antonio C P

    2014-01-01

    Adjunctive and non-pharmacological therapies, such as heat, for the treatment of heart failure patients have been proposed. Positive results have been obtained in clinically stable patients, but no studies of the use of thermal therapy in patients with decompensated heart failure (DHF) have been reported. An open randomized clinical trial was designed in patients with DHF and controls. We studied 38 patients with a mean age of 56.9 years. A total of 86.8% were men, and 71% had nonischemic myocardiopathy. All participants were using dobutamine, and the median brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level was 1396 pg/mL. An infrared thermal blanket heated the patients, who were divided into 2 groups: group T (thermal therapy) and group C (control). Group T underwent vasodilation using the thermal blanket at 50°C for 40 minutes in addition to drug treatment. The cardiac index increased by 24.1% (P = 0.009), and systemic vascular resistance decreased by 16.0% in group T (P < 0.024) after thermal therapy. Heat as a vasodilator increased the cardiac index and lowered systemic vascular resistance in DHF patients. These data suggest thermal therapy as a therapeutic approach for the adjuvant treatment of DHF patients. PMID:25070123

  14. Infrared thermal imaging of rat somatosensory cortex with whisker stimulation.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takashi; Ooi, Yasuhiro; Seki, Junji

    2012-04-01

    The present study aims to validate the applicability of infrared (IR) thermal imaging for the study of brain function through experiments on the rat barrel cortex. Regional changes in neural activity within the brain produce alterations in local thermal equilibrium via increases in metabolic activity and blood flow. We studied the relationship between temperature change and neural activity in anesthetized rats using IR imaging to visualize stimulus-induced changes in the somatosensory cortex of the brain. Sensory stimulation of the vibrissae (whiskers) was given for 10 s using an oscillating whisker vibrator (5-mm deflection at 10, 5, and 1 Hz). The brain temperature in the observational region continued to increase significantly with whisker stimulation. The mean peak recorded temperature changes were 0.048 ± 0.028, 0.054 ± 0.036, and 0.097 ± 0.015°C at 10, 5, and 1 Hz, respectively. We also observed that the temperature increase occurred in a focal spot, radiating to encompass a larger region within the contralateral barrel cortex region during single-whisker stimulation. Whisker stimulation also produced ipsilateral cortex temperature increases, which were localized in the same region as the pial arterioles. Temperature increase in the barrel cortex was also observed in rats treated with a calcium channel blocker (nimodipine), which acts to suppress the hemodynamic response to neural activity. Thus the location and area of temperature increase were found to change in accordance with the region of neural activation. These results indicate that IR thermal imaging is viable as a functional quantitative neuroimaging technique. PMID:22282486

  15. Thermal Infrared Imager on Hayabusa2: Science and Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Tatsuaki

    2015-04-01

    Thermal Infrared Imager TIR was developed and calibrated for Haya-busa2 asteroid explorer, aiming at the investigation of thermo-physical properties of C-class near-Earth sub-km sized asteroid (162173) 1999JU3. TIR is based on the 2D micro-bolometer array with germani-um lens to image the surface of asteroid in 8 to 12 μm wavelength (1), measuring the thermal emission off the asteroid surface. Its field of view is 16° x 12° with 328 x 248 pixels. At least 40 (up to 100) images will be taken during asteroid rotation once a week, mainly from the Home Position which is about 20km sunward from asteroid surface. Therefore TIR will image the whole asteroid with spatial resolution of < 20m per pixel, and the temperature profile of each site on the asteroid will be traced from dawn to dusk regions by asteroid rotation. The scien-tific objectives of TIR include the mapping of asteroid surface condi-tions (regional distribution of thermal inertia), since the surface physical conditions are strongly correlated with thermal inertia. It is so informa-tive on understanding the re-accretion or surface sedimentation process-es of the asteroid to be the current form. TIR data will be used for searching for those sites having the typical particle size of 1mm for best sample collection, and within the proper thermal condition for space-craft safe operation. After launch of Hayabusa2, TIR has been tested successfully, covering from -100 to 150 °C using a single parameter settings (2). This implies that TIR is actually able to map the surface other than the sunlit areas. Performance of TIR was found basically the same as those in the pre-launch test, when the temperature of TIR is well controlled. References: (1) Fukuhara T. et al., (2011) Earth Planet. Space 63, 1009-1018; (2) Okada T. et al., (2015) Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf. 46, #1331.

  16. Thermal Infrared ASTER Observations of Faults in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eneva, M.

    2005-12-01

    Reports on earthquake precursors observed in the thermal infrared (TIR) data from several satellites have caused mixed reactions. Some researchers have identified precursory anomalies, such as increased temperatures of several degrees over several days in areas extending up to hundreds of kilometers. In view of the uncertainties in the data, others have been skeptical that such changes can be reliably and uniquely associated with seismic events. This problem is a subset of the more general question how to interpret TIR observations from space for the purpose of fault characterization. Although faults are often clearly discernable in thermal images, the contributions of various factors to any temporal variability in their thermal properties are not clear. These factors include vegetation, soil moisture, surface and air temperature, atmospheric water vapor, and perhaps even wind. Extracting anomalies specifically associated with earthquakes in view of this natural variability and in the presence of observational uncertainties is a difficult task at best. Using standard higher-level TIR products (e.g., surface temperature) derived from radiance at sensor is likely questionable without additional corrections. We address these questions through the analysis of 60 km x 60 km images collected by the ASTER instrument on board of the Terra satellite. ASTER is unique in that five of its 14 channels are TIR, with a spatial resolution of 90 m (compared with at least 1-km spatial resolution of instruments used in previous reports of precursory anomalies). We focus on a specific area in southern California (32.80N - 34.50N, 115.90W - 117.20W) that includes substantial parts of the San Andreas, San Jacinto and Elsinore faults, as well as two recent M5.2 and M4.9 earthquakes (June 12 and 16, 2005). In addition to the existing ASTER data, mostly collected in the daytime, we have made arrangements for future data collections over the next year, with emphasis on nighttime TIR data

  17. Land surface temperature retrieved from airborne multispectral scanner mid-infrared and thermal-infrared data.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yong-Gang; Wang, Ning; Ma, Ling-Ling; Liu, Yao-Kai; Wu, Hua; Tang, Bo-Hui; Tang, Ling-Li; Li, Chuan-Rong

    2016-01-25

    Land surface temperature (LST) is one of the key parameters in the physics of land surface processes at local/global scales. In this paper, a LST retrieval method was proposed from airborne multispectral scanner data comparing one mid-infrared (MIR) channel and one thermal infrared (TIR) channel with the land surface emissivity given as a priori knowledge. To remove the influence of the direct solar radiance efficiently, a relationship between the direct solar radiance and water vapor content and the view zenith angle and solar zenith angle was established. Then, LST could be retrieved with a split-window algorithm from MIR/TIR data. Finally, the proposed algorithm was applied to the actual airborne flight data and validated with in situ measurements of land surface types in the Baotou site in China on 17 October 2014. The results demonstrate that the difference between the retrieved and in situ LST was less than 1.5 K. The bais, RMSE, and standard deviation of the retrieved LST were 0.156 K, 0.883 K, and 0.869 K, respectively, for samples. PMID:26832579

  18. Greenhouse Observations of the Stratosphere and Troposphere (GHOST): a novel shortwave infrared spectrometer developed for the Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humpage, Neil; Boesch, Hartmut; Palmer, Paul; Parr-Burman, Phil; Vick, Andy; Bezawada, Naidu; Black, Martin; Born, Andy; Pearson, David; Strachan, Jonathan; Wells, Martyn

    2014-05-01

    The tropospheric distribution of greenhouse gases (GHGs) is dependent on surface flux variations, atmospheric chemistry and transport processes over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Errors in assumed atmospheric transport can adversely affect surface flux estimates inferred from surface, aircraft or satellite observations of greenhouse gas concentrations using inverse models. We present a novel, compact shortwave infrared spectrometer (GHOST) for installation on the NASA Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle to provide tropospheric column observations of CO2, CO, CH4, H2O and HDO over the ocean to address the need for large-scale, simultaneous, finely resolved measurements of key GHGs. These species cover a range of lifetimes and source processes, and measurements of their tropospheric columns will reflect the vertically integrated signal of their vertical and horizontal transport within the troposphere. The primary science objectives of GHOST are to: 1) provide observations which can be used to test atmospheric transport models; 2) validate satellite observations of GHG column observations over oceans, thus filling a critical gap in current validation capabilities; and 3) complement in-situ tropopause transition layer tracer observations from other instrumentation on board the Global Hawk to provide a link between upper and lower troposphere concentration measurements. The GHOST spectrometer system comprises a target acquisition module (TAM), a fibre slicer and feed system, and a multiple order spectrograph. The TAM design utilises a gimbal behind an optical dome, which is programmed to direct solar radiation reflected by the ocean surface into a fibre optic bundle. The fibre slicer and feed system then splits the light into the four spectral bands using order sorting filters. The fibres corresponding to each band are arranged with a small sideways offset to correctly centre each spectrum on the detector array. The spectrograph design is unique in that a

  19. Photogeologic and thermal infrared reconnaissance surveys of the Los Negritos-Ixtlan de los Hervores geothermal area, Michoacan, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomez, Valle R.; Friedman, J.D.; Gawarecki, S.J.; Banwell, C.J.

    1970-01-01

    New techniques, involving interpretation of panchromatic, ektachrome and ektachrome infrared aerographic photogaphs and thermographic infrared imagery recording emission from the earth's surface in middle and far infrared wavelengths (3-5??m and 8-14??m), are being introduced in geothermal investigations in Mexico to identify outstanding structural and geologic features in a rapid and economical manner. The object of this work is to evaluate the new airborne infrared techniques and equipment as a complement to the data obtained from panchromatic aerial photography. This project is part of the Mexican remote sensing program of natural resources carried out under the auspices of the Comision Nacional del Espacio Exterior and in which the Research Institute (Instituto de Investigaciones de la Industria Electrica) is actively participating. The present study was made cooperatively with the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the U.S. Geological Survey. The Los Negritos-Ixtlan de los Hervores geothermal fields are located east of Lake Chapala at the intersection of the Sierra Madre occidental and the west-central segment of the neovolcanic axis of Mexico. The two principal zones of hydrothermal activity occur in a tectonic trench filled with lake sediments of the Quaternary intercalated with Quaternary and Holocene volcanic rocks and characterized by an intricate system of block-fault tectonics, part of the Chapala-Acambay tectonic system, along which there has been volcanic activity in modern time. Surface manifestations of geothermal activity consist of relatively high heat flow and hot springs, small geysers and small steam vents aligned along an E-W axis at Ixtlan, possibly at the intersection of major fault trends and mud volcanoes and hot pools aligned NE-SW at Los Negritos. More than 20 exit points of thermal waters are shown on infrared imagery to be aligned along an extension of the Ixtlan fault between Ixtlan and El Salitre. A narrow zone of

  20. Thermal infrared hyperspectral imaging from vehicle-carried instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkland, Laurel E.; Herr, Kenneth C.; Adams, Paul M.; McAfee, John; Salisbury, John

    2002-09-01

    Stand-off identification in the field using thermal infrared spectrometers (hyperspectral) is a maturing technique for gases and aerosols. However, capabilities to identify solid-phase materials on the surface lag substantially, particularly for identification in the field without benefit of ground truth (e.g. for "denied areas"). Spectral signatures of solid phase materials vary in complex and non-intuitive ways, including non-linear variations with surface texture, particle size, and intimate mixing. Also, in contrast to airborne or satellite measurements, reflected downwelling radiance strongly affects the signature measured by field spectrometers. These complex issues can confound interpretations or cause a misidentification in the field. Problems that remain particularly obstinate are (1) low ambiguity identification when there is no accompanying ground truth (e.g. measurements of denied areas, or Mars surface by the 2003 Mars lander spectrometer); (2) real- or near real-time identification, especially when a low ambiguity answer is critical; (3) identification of intimate mixtures (e.g. two fine powders mixed together) and targets composed of very small particles (e.g. aerosol fallout dust, some tailings); and (4) identification of non-diffuse targets (e.g. smooth coatings such as paint and desert varnish), particularly when measured at a high emission angle. In most studies that focus on gas phase targets or specific manmade targets, the solid phase background signatures are called "clutter" and are thrown out. Here we discuss our field spectrometer images measured of test targets that were selected to include a range of particle sizes, diffuse, non-diffuse, high, and low reflectance materials. This study was designed to identify and improve understanding of the issues that complicate stand-off identification in the field, with a focus on developing identification capabilities to proceed without benefit of ground truth. This information allows both improved

  1. Measuring glacier surface temperatures with ground-based thermal infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubry-Wake, Caroline; Baraer, Michel; McKenzie, Jeffrey M.; Mark, Bryan G.; Wigmore, Oliver; Hellström, Robert È.; Lautz, Laura; Somers, Lauren

    2015-10-01

    Spatially distributed surface temperature is an important, yet difficult to observe, variable for physical glacier melt models. We utilize ground-based thermal infrared imagery to obtain spatially distributed surface temperature data for alpine glaciers. The infrared images are used to investigate thermal microscale processes at the glacier surface, such as the effect of surface cover type and the temperature gradient at the glacier margins on the glacier's temperature dynamics. Infrared images were collected at Cuchillacocha Glacier, Cordillera Blanca, Peru, on 23-25 June 2014. The infrared images were corrected based on ground truth points and local meteorological data. For the control points, the Pearson's correlation coefficient between infrared and station temperatures was 0.95. The ground-based infrared camera has the potential for greatly improving glacier energy budget studies, and our research shows that it is critical to properly correct the thermal images to produce robust, quantifiable data.

  2. A Thermal Infrared Radiation Parameterization for Atmospheric Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Ming-Dah; Suarez, Max J.; Liang, Xin-Zhong; Yan, Michael M.-H.; Cote, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This technical memorandum documents the longwave radiation parameterization developed at the Climate and Radiation Branch, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, for a wide variety of weather and climate applications. Based on the 1996-version of the Air Force Geophysical Laboratory HITRAN data, the parameterization includes the absorption due to major gaseous absorption (water vapor, CO2, O3) and most of the minor trace gases (N2O, CH4, CFCs), as well as clouds and aerosols. The thermal infrared spectrum is divided into nine bands. To achieve a high degree of accuracy and speed, various approaches of computing the transmission function are applied to different spectral bands and gases. The gaseous transmission function is computed either using the k-distribution method or the table look-up method. To include the effect of scattering due to clouds and aerosols, the optical thickness is scaled by the single-scattering albedo and asymmetry factor. The parameterization can accurately compute fluxes to within 1% of the high spectral-resolution line-by-line calculations. The cooling rate can be accurately computed in the region extending from the surface to the 0.01-hPa level.

  3. Estimating Clothing Thermal Insulation Using an Infrared Camera

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Young-Keun; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soohyun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel algorithm for estimating clothing insulation is proposed to assess thermal comfort, based on the non-contact and real-time measurements of the face and clothing temperatures by an infrared camera. The proposed method can accurately measure the clothing insulation of various garments under different clothing fit and sitting postures. The proposed estimation method is investigated to be effective to measure its clothing insulation significantly in different seasonal clothing conditions using a paired t-test in 99% confidence interval. Temperatures simulated with the proposed estimated insulation value show closer to the values of actual temperature than those with individual clothing insulation values. Upper clothing’s temperature is more accurate within 3% error and lower clothing’s temperature is more accurate by 3.7%~6.2% error in indoor working scenarios. The proposed algorithm can reflect the effect of air layer which makes insulation different in the calculation to estimate clothing insulation using the temperature of the face and clothing. In future, the proposed method is expected to be applied to evaluate the customized passenger comfort effectively. PMID:27005625

  4. THERMAL INFRARED MMTAO OBSERVATIONS OF THE HR 8799 PLANETARY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Hinz, Philip M.; Rodigas, Timothy J.; Kenworthy, Matthew A.; Sivanandam, Suresh; Meyer, Michael R.; Heinze, Aren N.; Mamajek, Eric E.

    2010-06-10

    We present direct imaging observations at wavelengths of 3.3, 3.8 (L' band), and 4.8 (M band) {mu}m, for the planetary system surrounding HR 8799. All three planets are detected at L' . The c and d components are detected at 3.3 {mu}m, and upper limits are derived from the M-band observations. These observations provide useful constraints on warm giant planet atmospheres. We discuss the current age constraints on the HR 8799 system and show that several potential co-eval objects can be excluded from being co-moving with the star. Comparison of the photometry is made to models for giant planet atmospheres. Models that include non-equilibrium chemistry provide a reasonable match to the colors of c and d. From the observed colors in the thermal infrared, we estimate T {sub eff} < 960 K for b and T {sub eff} = 1300 and 1170 K for c and d, respectively. This provides an independent check on the effective temperatures and thus masses of the objects from the Marois et al. results.

  5. Thermal Infrared MMTAO Observations of the HR 8799 Planetary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinz, Philip M.; Rodigas, Timothy J.; Kenworthy, Matthew A.; Sivanandam, Suresh; Heinze, Aren N.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Meyer, Michael R.

    2010-06-01

    We present direct imaging observations at wavelengths of 3.3, 3.8 (L' band), and 4.8 (M band) μm, for the planetary system surrounding HR 8799. All three planets are detected at L' . The c and d components are detected at 3.3 μm, and upper limits are derived from the M-band observations. These observations provide useful constraints on warm giant planet atmospheres. We discuss the current age constraints on the HR 8799 system and show that several potential co-eval objects can be excluded from being co-moving with the star. Comparison of the photometry is made to models for giant planet atmospheres. Models that include non-equilibrium chemistry provide a reasonable match to the colors of c and d. From the observed colors in the thermal infrared, we estimate T eff < 960 K for b and T eff = 1300 and 1170 K for c and d, respectively. This provides an independent check on the effective temperatures and thus masses of the objects from the Marois et al. results. Observations reported here were obtained at the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the University of Arizona and the Smithsonian Institution.

  6. Estimating Clothing Thermal Insulation Using an Infrared Camera.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Young-Keun; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soohyun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel algorithm for estimating clothing insulation is proposed to assess thermal comfort, based on the non-contact and real-time measurements of the face and clothing temperatures by an infrared camera. The proposed method can accurately measure the clothing insulation of various garments under different clothing fit and sitting postures. The proposed estimation method is investigated to be effective to measure its clothing insulation significantly in different seasonal clothing conditions using a paired t-test in 99% confidence interval. Temperatures simulated with the proposed estimated insulation value show closer to the values of actual temperature than those with individual clothing insulation values. Upper clothing's temperature is more accurate within 3% error and lower clothing's temperature is more accurate by 3.7%~6.2% error in indoor working scenarios. The proposed algorithm can reflect the effect of air layer which makes insulation different in the calculation to estimate clothing insulation using the temperature of the face and clothing. In future, the proposed method is expected to be applied to evaluate the customized passenger comfort effectively. PMID:27005625

  7. Thermal infrared spectroscopy and modeling of experimentally shocked basalts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, J. R.; Staid, M.I.; Kraft, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    New measurements of thermal infrared emission spectra (250-1400 cm-1; ???7-40 ??m) of experimentally shocked basalt and basaltic andesite (17-56 GPa) exhibit changes in spectral features with increasing pressure consistent with changes in the structure of plagioclase feldspars. Major spectral absorptions in unshocked rocks between 350-700 cm-1 (due to Si-O-Si octahedral bending vibrations) and between 1000-1250 cm-1 (due to Si-O antisymmetric stretch motions of the silica tetrahedra) transform at pressures >20-25 GPa to two broad spectral features centered near 950-1050 and 400-450 cm-1. Linear deconvolution models using spectral libraries composed of common mineral and glass spectra replicate the spectra of shocked basalt relatively well up to shock pressures of 20-25 GPa, above which model errors increase substantially, coincident with the onset of diaplectic glass formation in plagioclase. Inclusion of shocked feldspar spectra in the libraries improves fits for more highly shocked basalt. However, deconvolution models of the basaltic andesite select shocked feldspar end-members even for unshocked samples, likely caused by the higher primary glass content in the basaltic andesite sample.

  8. Thermal Infrared Spectral Band Detection Limits for Unidentified Surface Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkland, Laurel E.; Herr, Kenneth C.; Salisbury, John W.

    2001-01-01

    Infrared emission spectra recorded by airborne or satellite spectrometers can be searched for spectral features to determine the composition of rocks on planetary surfaces. Surface materials are identified by detections of characteristic spectral bands. We show how to define whether to accept an observed spectral feature as a detection when the target material is unknown. We also use remotely sensed spectra measured by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the Spatially Enhanced Broadband Array Spectrograph System to illustrate the importance of instrument parameters and surface properties on band detection limits and how the variation in signal-to-noise ratio with wavelength affects the bands that are most detectable for a given instrument. The spectrometer's sampling interval, spectral resolution, signal-to-noise ratio as a function of wavelength, and the sample's surface properties influence whether the instrument can detect a spectral feature exhibited by a material. As an example, in the 6-13 micrometer wavelength region, massive carbonates exhibit two bands: a very strong, broad feature at approximately 6.5 micrometers and a less intense, sharper band at approximately 11.25 micrometers. Although the 6.5-micrometer band is stronger and broader in laboratory-measured spectra, the 11.25-micrometer band will cause a more detectable feature in TES spectra.

  9. Thermal Intertias of Main-Belt Asteroids from Wise Thermal Infrared Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanus, Josef; Delbo', Marco; Durech, Josef; Alí-Lagoa, Victor

    2014-11-01

    By means of a modified thermophysical model (TPM) that takes into account asteroid shape and pole uncertainties, we analyze the thermal infrared data acquired by the NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) of about 300 asteroids with derived convex shape models. We adopt convex shape models from the DAMIT database (Durech et al., 2010, A&A 513, A46) and present new determinations based on optical disk-integrated photometry and the lightcurve inversion method (Kaasalainen & Torppa, 2001, Icarus 153, 37). This work more than double the number of asteroids with determined thermophysical properties. We also discuss cases in which shape uncertainties prevent the determination of reliable thermophysical properties. This is per-se a novel result, as the effect of shape has been often neglected in thermophysical modeling of asteroids.We also present the main results of the statistical study of derived thermophysical parameters within the whole population of MBAs and within few asteroid families. The thermal inertia increases with decreasing size, but a large range of thermal inertia values is observed within the similar size ranges between 10-100 km. Surprisingly, we derive low (<20J m^{-2} s^{-1/2} K^{-1}) thermal inertia values for several asteroids with sizes D>10 km, indicating a very fine and mature regolith on these small bodies. The work of JH and MD was carried under the contract 11-BS56-008 (SHOCKS) of the French Agence National de la Recherche (ANR), and JD has been supported by the grant GACR P209/10/0537 of the Czech Science Foundation.

  10. Landsat-8 Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) Vicarious Radiometric Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barsi, Julia A.; Shott, John R.; Raqueno, Nina G.; Markham, Brian L.; Radocinski, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Launched in February 2013, the Landsat-8 carries on-board the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), a two-band thermal pushbroom imager, to maintain the thermal imaging capability of the Landsat program. The TIRS bands are centered at roughly 10.9 and 12 micrometers (Bands 10 and 11 respectively). They have 100 m spatial resolution and image coincidently with the Operational Land Imager (OLI), also on-board Landsat-8. The TIRS instrument has an internal calibration system consisting of a variable temperature blackbody and a special viewport with which it can see deep space; a two point calibration can be performed twice an orbit. Immediately after launch, a rigorous vicarious calibration program was started to validate the absolute calibration of the system. The two vicarious calibration teams, NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), both make use of buoys deployed on large water bodies as the primary monitoring technique. RIT took advantage of cross-calibration opportunity soon after launch when Landsat-8 and Landsat-7 were imaging the same targets within a few minutes of each other to perform a validation of the absolute calibration. Terra MODIS is also being used for regular monitoring of the TIRS absolute calibration. The buoy initial results showed a large error in both bands, 0.29 and 0.51 W/sq m·sr·micrometers or -2.1 K and -4.4 K at 300 K in Band 10 and 11 respectively, where TIRS data was too hot. A calibration update was recommended for both bands to correct for a bias error and was implemented on 3 February 2014 in the USGS/EROS processing system, but the residual variability is still larger than desired for both bands (0.12 and 0.2 W/sq m·sr·micrometers or 0.87 and 1.67 K at 300 K). Additional work has uncovered the source of the calibration error: out-of-field stray light. While analysis continues to characterize the stray light contribution, the vicarious calibration work proceeds. The additional data have

  11. Infrared thermal wave non-destructive detection for the internal structure of metal Buddha head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, He-Nan; Zhang, Zhen-Wei; Lei, Yong; Qu, Liang; Gao, Fei; Feng, Li-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Objective This paper depicts a testing technology of nondestructive infrared imaging for acquiring internal structure information of metal Buddha head. Methods applying active infrared thermal imaging nondestructive testing technology Results Data which was collected by IR camera was processed, the typical time thermograph and the curve of logarithmic temperature-time can be. get information of relative thickness in metal Buddha face. Conclusion Infrared thermal imaging technology can be detect the inside information of metal Buddha head . It is feasible to conserve heritage in infrared imaging method.

  12. Spectral characterization of surface emissivities in the thermal infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niclòs, Raquel; Mira, Maria; Valor, Enric; Caselles, Diego; García-Santos, Vicente; Caselles, Vicente; Sánchez, Juan M.

    2015-04-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing trends to hyperspectral sensors on board satellites in the last decades, e.g., the current EOS-MODIS and EOS-ASTER and future missions like HyspIRI, ECOSTRESS, THIRSTY and MISTIGRI. This study aims to characterize spectrally the emissive properties of several surfaces, mostly soils. A spectrometer ranging from 2 to 16 μm, D&P Model 102, has been used to measure samples with singular spectral features, e.g. a sandy soil rich in gypsum sampled in White Sands (New Mexico, USA), salt samples, powdered quartz, and powdered calcite. These samples were chosen for their role in the assessment of thermal emissivity of soils, e.g., the calcite and quartz contents are key variables for modeling TIR emissivities of bare soils, along with soil moisture and organic matter. Additionally, the existence of large areas in the world with abundance of these materials, some of them used for calibration/validation activities of satellite sensors and products, makes the chosen samples interesting. White Sands is the world's largest gypsum dune field encompassing 400 km^2; the salt samples characterize the Salar of Uyuni (Bolivia), the largest salt flat in the world (up to 10,000 km^2), as well as the Jordanian and Israeli salt evaporation ponds at the south end of the Dead Sea, or the evaporation lagoons in Aigües-Mortes (France); and quartz is omnipresent in most of the arid regions of the world such as the Algodones Dunes or Kelso Dunes (California, USA), with areas around 700 km2 and 120 km^2, respectively. Measurements of target leaving radiance, hemispherical radiance reflected by a diffuse reflectance panel, and the radiance from a black body at different temperatures were taken to obtain thermal spectra with the D&P spectrometer. The good consistency observed between our measurements and laboratory spectra of similar samples (ASTER and MODIS spectral libraries) indicated the validity of the measurement protocol. Further, our study showed the

  13. Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) Instrument Thermal Subsystem Design and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otero, Veronica; Mosier, Carol; Neuberger, David

    2013-01-01

    The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) is one of two instruments on the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), which is scheduled to launch in February of 2013. The TIRS instrument was officially added to the mission later in the flow, which led to a highly aggressive schedule that became one of the main drivers during instrument development. The thermal subsystem design of the TIRS Sensor Unit is comprised of five thermal zones which range in temperature from less than 43 Kelvin to 330 Kelvin. Most zones are proportional heater controlled, and all are within a volume of 35 cu.ft. A two-stage cryocooler is used to cool the "cold stage" including three QWIP detectors to less than 43 Kelvin, and cool the "warm stage" to 105 Kelvin. The excess power dissipation from the cryocooler is rejected via ammonia transport heat pipes to a dedicated Cryocooler Radiator with embedded ammonia heat pipes. The cryogenic subsystem includes a series of shells used to radiatively and conductively isolate the cold stage from the warmer surroundings. The Optical System (telescope) is passively cooled to 180-190 Kelvin using a "thermal link" (comprised of a Flexible Conductive Thermal Strap and an APG Bar) which couples the telescope stage to a dedicated radiator with embedded ethane heat pipes. The Scene Select Mechanism, which is responsible for moving the Scene Select Mirror to three distinct positions (including Nadir, Space, and On-board Black Body Calibrator pointing), runs nominally at 278 Kelvin and is thermally isolated from the cryogenic thermal zones. The On-board Black Body Calibrator requires a dedicated radiator which allows for a temperature range of 260-330 Kelvin at the Source. The detectors are powered by the FPE Box, which is mounted to the nadir external surface of the composite honeycomb structure. There are two additional electronics boxes which are wet-mounted directly to the spacecraft shear panel, the Main Electronics Box and Cryocooler Electronics Box; thermal

  14. Integrated optics for nulling interferometry in the thermal infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barillot, Marc; Barthelemy, Eleonore; Broquin, Jean-Emmanuel; Frayret, Jérôme; Grelin, Jérôme; Hawkins, Gary; Kirschner, Volker; Parent, Gilles; Pradel, Annie; Rossi, Emmanuel; Vigreux, Caroline; Zhang, Shaoqian; Zhang, Xianghua

    2008-07-01

    Modal filtering is based on the capability of single-mode waveguides to transmit only one complex amplitude function to eliminate virtually any perturbation of the interfering wavefronts, thus making very high rejection ratios possible in a nulling interferometer. In the present paper we focus on the progress of Integrated Optics in the thermal infrared [6-20μm] range, one of the two candidate technologies for the fabrication of Modal Filters, together with fiber optics. In conclusion of the European Space Agency's (ESA) "Integrated Optics for Darwin" activity, etched layers of chalcogenide material deposited on chalcogenide glass substrates was selected among four candidates as the technology with the best potential to simultaneously meet the filtering efficiency, absolute and spectral transmission, and beam coupling requirements. ESA's new "Integrated Optics" activity started at mid-2007 with the purpose of improving the technology until compliant prototypes can be manufactured and validated, expectedly by the end of 2009. The present paper aims at introducing the project and the components requirements and functions. The selected materials and preliminary designs, as well as the experimental validation logic and test benches are presented. More details are provided on the progress of the main technology: vacuum deposition in the co-evaporation mode and subsequent etching of chalcogenide layers. In addition, preliminary investigations of an alternative technology based on burying a chalcogenide optical fiber core into a chalcogenide substrate are presented. Specific developments of anti-reflective solutions designed for the mitigation of Fresnel losses at the input and output surface of the components are also introduced.

  15. Is the aerosol emission detectable in the thermal infrared?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollweg, H.-D.; Bakan, S.; Taylor, J. P.

    2006-08-01

    The impact of aerosols on the thermal infrared radiation can be assessed by combining observations and radiative transfer calculations. Both have uncertainties, which are discussed in this paper. Observational uncertainties are obtained for two FTIR instruments operated side by side on the ground during the LACE 1998 field campaign. Radiative transfer uncertainties are assessed using a line-by-line model taking into account the uncertainties of the HITRAN 2004 spectroscopic database, uncertainties in the determination of the atmospheric profiles of water vapor and ozone, and differences in the treatment of the water vapor continuum absorption by the CKD 2.4.1 and MT_CKD 1.0 algorithms. The software package OPAC was used to describe the optical properties of aerosols for climate modeling. The corresponding radiative signature is a guideline to the assessment of the uncertainty ranges of observations and models. We found that the detection of aerosols depends strongly on the measurement accuracy of atmospheric profiles of water vapor and ozone and is easier for drier conditions. Within the atmospheric window, only the forcing of downward radiation at the surface by desert aerosol emerges clearly from the uncertainties of modeling and FTIR measurement. Urban and polluted continental aerosols are only partially detectable depending on the wave number and on the atmospheric water vapor amount. Simulations for the space-borne interferometer IASI show that only upward radiation above transported mineral dust aloft emerges out of the uncertainties. The detection of aerosols with weak radiative impact by FTIR instruments like ARIES and OASIS is made difficult by noise as demonstrated by the signal to noise ratio for clean continental aerosols. Altogether, the uncertainties found suggest that it is difficult to detect the optical depths of nonmineral and unpolluted aerosols.

  16. Spatial and Temporal Scaling of Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Goel, Narendra S.

    1995-01-01

    Although remote sensing has a central role to play in the acquisition of synoptic data obtained at multiple spatial and temporal scales to facilitate our understanding of local and regional processes as they influence the global climate, the use of thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing data in this capacity has received only minimal attention. This results from some fundamental challenges that are associated with employing TIR data collected at different space and time scales, either with the same or different sensing systems, and also from other problems that arise in applying a multiple scaled approach to the measurement of surface temperatures. In this paper, we describe some of the more important problems associated with using TIR remote sensing data obtained at different spatial and temporal scales, examine why these problems appear as impediments to using multiple scaled TIR data, and provide some suggestions for future research activities that may address these problems. We elucidate the fundamental concept of scale as it relates to remote sensing and explore how space and time relationships affect TIR data from a problem-dependency perspective. We also describe how linearity and non-linearity observation versus parameter relationships affect the quantitative analysis of TIR data. Some insight is given on how the atmosphere between target and sensor influences the accurate measurement of surface temperatures and how these effects will be compounded in analyzing multiple scaled TIR data. Last, we describe some of the challenges in modeling TIR data obtained at different space and time scales and discuss how multiple scaled TIR data can be used to provide new and important information for measuring and modeling land-atmosphere energy balance processes.

  17. MAPPING NON-INDIGENOUS EELGRASS ZOSTERA JAPONICA, ASSOCIATED MACROALGAE AND EMERGENT AQUATIC VEGETARIAN HABITATS IN A PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARY USING NEAR-INFRARED COLOR AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY AND A HYBRID IMAGE CLASSIFICATION TECHNIQUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted aerial photographic surveys of Oregon's Yaquina Bay estuary during consecutive summers from 1997 through 2001. Imagery was obtained during low tide exposures of intertidal mudflats, allowing use of near-infrared color film to detect and discriminate plant communitie...

  18. Infrared sequence transformation technique for in situ measurement of thermal diffusivity and monitoring of thermal diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Huilong; Zheng, Boyu; Chen, Feifan

    2015-11-01

    An infrared (IR) sequence transformation technique for visualization of thermal diffusion process and in situ measurement of radial thermal diffusivity is reported. It consists of heating the sample surface instantaneously by an angle-adjustable Gaussian beam and recording the temperature evolution by an IR camera. Compared to common techniques requiring the excitation beam to be fixed approximately perpendicular to the measurement surface, the proposed method allows a dynamic adjustment of the excitation incidence angle according to the actual operating space, which contributes to a fast and efficient in situ measurement approach. To achieve this, a new heat transfer model considering the elliptical distortion of the Gaussian beam caused by tilted incidence is established. Through decoupling analysis it is discovered that the area s surrounded by the maximum temperature curve rTmax (θ) grows linearly over time. The thermal diffusivity can be obtained from the growth rate at any incidence angle. Based on this s-time relation, an automatic thermal diffusivity characterization framework which involves extracting the rTmax (θ) sequence through a distance regularized level set evolution (DRLSE) formulation is proposed. For verification, samples of 304 stainless steel, titanium and zirconium are measured with the excitation incidence angles ranging from 30 ° to 60 ° , and the relative deviations from the literature values are - 6.28 % to 3.27 %, - 3.22 % to 5.79%, and - 1.61 % to 4.03% respectively. Besides, the thermal diffusion process of two typical printed circuit boards (PCBs) are monitored and analyzed visually with this technique.

  19. Thermal infrared images to quantify thermal ablation effects of acid and base on target tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ran; Wang, Jia; Liu, Jing

    2015-07-01

    Hyperthermia (42-46°C), treatment of tumor tissue through elevated temperature, offers several advantages including high cost-effectiveness, highly targeted ablation and fewer side effects and hence higher safety level over traditional therapies such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recently, hyperthermia using heat release through exothermic acid-base neutralization comes into view owing to its relatively safe products of salt and water and highly confined ablation. However, lack of quantitative understanding of the spatial and temporal temperature profiles that are produced by simultaneous diffusion of liquid chemical and its chemical reaction within tumor tissue impedes the application of this method. This article is dedicated to quantify thermal ablation effects of acid and base both individually and as in neutralization via infrared captured thermal images. A theoretical model is used to approximate specific heat absorption rate (SAR) based on experimental measurements that contrast two types of tissue, normal pork and pig liver. According to the computation, both pork and liver tissue has a higher ability in absorbing hydrochloric acid (HCl) than sodium hydroxide, hence suggesting that a reduced dosage for HCl is appropriate in a surgery. The heating effect depends heavily on the properties of tissue types and amount of chemical reagents administered. Given thermal parameters such as SAR for different tissues, a computational model can be made in predicting temperature transitions which will be helpful in planning and optimizing surgical hyperthermia procedures.

  20. Thermal infrared images to quantify thermal ablation effects of acid and base on target tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ran E-mail: liuran@tsinghua.edu.cn; Liu, Jing E-mail: liuran@tsinghua.edu.cn; Wang, Jia

    2015-07-15

    Hyperthermia (42-46°C), treatment of tumor tissue through elevated temperature, offers several advantages including high cost-effectiveness, highly targeted ablation and fewer side effects and hence higher safety level over traditional therapies such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recently, hyperthermia using heat release through exothermic acid-base neutralization comes into view owing to its relatively safe products of salt and water and highly confined ablation. However, lack of quantitative understanding of the spatial and temporal temperature profiles that are produced by simultaneous diffusion of liquid chemical and its chemical reaction within tumor tissue impedes the application of this method. This article is dedicated to quantify thermal ablation effects of acid and base both individually and as in neutralization via infrared captured thermal images. A theoretical model is used to approximate specific heat absorption rate (SAR) based on experimental measurements that contrast two types of tissue, normal pork and pig liver. According to the computation, both pork and liver tissue has a higher ability in absorbing hydrochloric acid (HCl) than sodium hydroxide, hence suggesting that a reduced dosage for HCl is appropriate in a surgery. The heating effect depends heavily on the properties of tissue types and amount of chemical reagents administered. Given thermal parameters such as SAR for different tissues, a computational model can be made in predicting temperature transitions which will be helpful in planning and optimizing surgical hyperthermia procedures.

  1. Mapping bare soil in South West Wales, UK, using high resolution colour infra-red aerial photography for water quality and flood risk management applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykes, Helena; Neale, Simon; Coe, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    Natural Resources Wales is a UK government body responsible for environmental regulation, among other areas. River walks in Water Framework Directive (WFD) priority catchments in South West Wales, UK, identified soil entering water courses due to poaching and bank erosion, leading to deterioration in the water quality and jeopardising the water quality meeting legal minimum standards. Bare soil has also been shown to cause quicker and higher hydrograph peaks in rural catchments than if those areas were vegetated, which can lead to flooding of domestic properties during peak storm flows. The aim was to target farm visits by operational staff to advise on practices likely to improve water quality and to identify areas where soft engineering solutions such as revegetation could alleviate flood risk in rural areas. High resolution colour-infrared aerial photography, 25cm in the three colour bands and 50cm in the near infrared band, was used to map bare soil in seven catchments using supervised classification of a five band stack including the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Mapping was combined with agricultural land use and field boundary data to filter out arable fields, which are supposed to bare soil for part of their cycle, and was very successful when compared to ground truthing, with the exception of silage fields which contained sparse, no or unproductive vegetation at the time the imagery was acquired leading to spectral similarity to bare soil. A raindrop trace model was used to show the path sediment from bare soil areas would take when moving through the catchment to a watercourse, with hedgerows inserted as barriers following our observations from ground truthing. The findings have been used to help farmers gain funding for improvements such as fencing to keep animals away from vulnerable river banks. These efficient and automated methods can be rolled out to more catchments in Wales and updated using aerial imagery acquired more recently to

  2. Space Weathering Effects in the Thermal Infrared: Lessons from LRO Diviner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenhagen, B. T.; Lucey, P. G.; Song, E.; Arnold, J. A.; Lemelin, M.; Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Bowles, N. E.; Glotch, T. D.; Paige, D. A.

    2015-11-01

    We quantify the degree to which space weathering affects the thermal infrared Christiansen Feature measured by LRO Diviner, and presents techniques to normalize space weathering effects and enable examination of the underlying composition.

  3. Modeling Titan's thermal infrared spectrum for high-resolution space observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coustenis, A.; Encrenaz, Th.; Bezard, B.; Bjoraker, G.; Graner, G.; Dang-Nhu, M.; Arie, E.

    1993-04-01

    The observability of minor species in Titan's atmosphere in its infrared thermal range is systematically studied and modeled to generate synthetic spectra. The model results on methane, water vapor, benzene, allene, and other heavier trace molecules are used to illustrate the capabilities of instruments aboard the Infrared Space Observatory, in particular a high-resolution composite infrared spectrometer, to determine vertical distributions of the molecules in a few hours of integration time.

  4. Thermal/structural/optical integrated design for optical window of a high-speed aerial optical camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Gaopeng; Yang, Hongtao; Mei, Chao; Shi, Kui; Wu, Dengshan; Qiao, Mingrui

    2015-10-01

    In order to obtain high quality image of the aero optical remote sensor, it is important to analysis its thermal-optical performance on the condition of high speed and high altitude. Especially for the key imaging assembly, such as optical window, the temperature variation and temperature gradient can result in defocus and aberrations in optical system, which will lead to the poor quality image. In order to improve the optical performance of a high speed aerial camera optical window, the thermal/structural/optical integrated design method is developed. Firstly, the flight environment of optical window is analyzed. Based on the theory of aerodynamics and heat transfer, the convection heat transfer coefficient is calculated. The temperature distributing of optical window is simulated by the finite element analysis software. The maximum difference in temperature of the inside and outside of optical window is obtained. Then the deformation of optical window under the boundary condition of the maximum difference in temperature is calculated. The optical window surface deformation is fitted in Zernike polynomial as the interface, the calculated Zernike fitting coefficients is brought in and analyzed by CodeV Optical Software. At last, the transfer function diagrams of the optical system on temperature field are comparatively analyzed. By comparing and analyzing the result, it can be obtained that the optical path difference caused by thermal deformation of the optical window is 149.6 nm, which is under PV <=1 4λ .The simulation result meets the requirements of optical design very well. The above study can be used as an important reference for other optical window designs.

  5. Incorporation of thermal shadows into real-time infrared three-dimensional image generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Andreas; Nischwitz, Alfred; Schätz, Peter; Obermeier, Paul

    2014-05-01

    In the infrared spectrum, two contributions to shadows exist: one part is reflective shadows resulting from occlusion of instantly reflected infrared rays, and the other part is thermal (IR) shadows occurring through occlusion of irradiance in the past. The realization of thermal shadows requires a thermal balance calculation in four-dimensions (three-dimensional geometry in one-dimensional time), which is computationally expensive, and therefore mostly used for nonreal-time simulations. We present an approximation of thermal shadows resulting from the occlusion of direct rays from IR emitters. Our approach uses programmable graphics cards to achieve real-time frame rates in scenes with dynamic geometry.

  6. Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS): An investigator's guide to TIMS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palluconi, F. D.; Meeks, G. R.

    1985-01-01

    The Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) is a NASA aircraft scanner providing six channel spectral capability in the thermal infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Operating in the atmospheric window region (8 to 12 micrometers) with a channel sensitivity of approximately 0.1 C, TIMS may be used whenever an accurate measure of the Earth's surface is needed. A description of this scanner is provided as well as a discussion of data acquisition and reduction.

  7. Thermal Infrared Geologic Remote Sensing Research at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartholomew, M. J.; Kahle, A. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    Remotely sensed thermal infrared spectral data have great potential to improve rock type discrimination if the factors that control thermal infrared spectral reflection and emission can be better understood. Improved rock type discrimination in turn leads to better and more efficient geologic mapping which is carried out in the exploration, assessment and documentation of mineral resources and geologic hazards. Geologic maps also contribute significantly to the understanding of the natural history of the Earth and neighboring planetary bodies.

  8. Development of models for thermal infrared radiation above and within plant canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paw u, Kyaw T.

    1992-01-01

    Any significant angular dependence of the emitted longwave radiation could result in errors in remotely estimated energy budgets or evapotranspiration. Empirical data and thermal infrared radiation models are reviewed in reference to anisotropic emissions from the plant canopy. The biometeorological aspects of linking longwave models with plant canopy energy budgets and micrometeorology are discussed. A new soil plant atmosphere model applied to anisotropic longwave emissions from a canopy is presented. Time variation of thermal infrared emission measurements is discussed.

  9. Study and design of modularized real-time processor for infrared thermal image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qian; Bai, Lianfa; Fang, Ming

    2001-09-01

    The new-type infrared thermal imaging technology should be a combination of infrared detecting and real-time processing. The intelligence ,modularity, miniature and real-time are the developmental subjects in infrared image processing In this paper, on the basis of the researching in the architecture feature of nowadays digital image processing system, the development. ideas and technology approaches of infrared image real-time processing are described .The new types of structure and technique of infrared thermal image real-time processing--adaptive time-space sequence flow network construction and feature weighting adaptive real-time processing method are presented firstly. According to the infrared image characteristics, the histogram of infrared image and the correlation inside frame or interframe are analyzed in detail, and some image enhancement methods are taken. These thermal image processing theory and algorithm are realized by hardware circuit. In PCB design, additional circuit noise and digital pulse interference are discussed deeply. On the basis of many experiments, the PCB design regulations with anti-interference are established. Finally, the Modularized Infrared Image Real-time Processor is finished with noise suppression and image enhancement. The design and circuit construction of the modularized infrared image real-time processor are given.

  10. Detection of two intermixed invasive woody species using color infrared aerial imagery and the support vector machine classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirik, Mustafa; Chaudhuri, Sriroop; Surber, Brady; Ale, Srinivasulu; James Ansley, R.

    2013-01-01

    Both the evergreen redberry juniper (Juniperus pinchotii Sudw.) and deciduous honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) are destructive and aggressive invaders that affect rangelands and grasslands of the southern Great Plains of the United States. However, their current spatial extent and future expansion trends are unknown. This study was aimed at: (1) exploring the utility of aerial imagery for detecting and mapping intermixed redberry juniper and honey mesquite while both are in full foliage using the support vector machine classifier at two sites in north central Texas and, (2) assessing and comparing the mapping accuracies between sites. Accuracy assessments revealed that the overall accuracies were 90% with the associated kappa coefficient of 0.86% and 89% with the associated kappa coefficient of 0.85 for sites 1 and 2, respectively. Z-statistics (0.102<1.96) used to compare the classification results for both sites indicated an insignificant difference between classifications at 95% probability level. In most instances, juniper and mesquite were identified correctly with <7% being mistaken for the other woody species. These results indicated that assessment of the current infestation extent and severity of these two woody species in a spatial context is possible using aerial remote sensing imagery.

  11. Tree Canopy Characterization for EO-1 Reflective and Thermal Infrared Validation Studies: Rochester, New York

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Jerrell R., Jr.; Smith, James A.

    2002-01-01

    The tree canopy characterization presented herein provided ground and tree canopy data for different types of tree canopies in support of EO-1 reflective and thermal infrared validation studies. These characterization efforts during August and September of 2001 included stem and trunk location surveys, tree structure geometry measurements, meteorology, and leaf area index (LAI) measurements. Measurements were also collected on thermal and reflective spectral properties of leaves, tree bark, leaf litter, soil, and grass. The data presented in this report were used to generate synthetic reflective and thermal infrared scenes and images that were used for the EO-1 Validation Program. The data also were used to evaluate whether the EO-1 ALI reflective channels can be combined with the Landsat-7 ETM+ thermal infrared channel to estimate canopy temperature, and also test the effects of separating the thermal and reflective measurements in time resulting from satellite formation flying.

  12. Towards people detection from fused time-of-flight and thermal infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoegner, L.; Hanel, A.; Weinmann, M.; Jutzi, B.; Hinz, S.; Stilla, U.

    2014-08-01

    Obtaining accurate 3d descriptions in the thermal infrared (TIR) is a quite challenging task due to the low geometric resolutions of TIR cameras and the low number of strong features in TIR images. Combining the radiometric information of the thermal infrared with 3d data from another sensor is able to overcome most of the limitations in the 3d geometric accuracy. In case of dynamic scenes with moving objects or a moving sensor system, a combination with RGB cameras of Time-of-Flight (TOF) cameras is suitable. As a TOF camera is an active sensor in the near infrared (NIR) and the thermal infrared camera captures the radiation emitted by the objects in the observed scene, the combination of these two sensors for close range applications is independent from external illumination or textures in the scene. This article is focused on the fusion of data acquired both with a time-of-flight (TOF) camera and a thermal infrared (TIR) camera. As the radiometric behaviour of many objects differs between the near infrared used by the TOF camera and the thermal infrared spectrum, a direct co-registration with feature points in both intensity images leads to a high number of outliers. A fully automatic workflow of the geometric calibration of both cameras and the relative orientation of the camera system with one calibration pattern usable for both spectral bands is presented. Based on the relative orientation, a fusion of the TOF depth image and the TIR image is used for scene segmentation and people detection. An adaptive histogram based depth level segmentation of the 3d point cloud is combined with a thermal intensity based segmentation. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated in an experimental setup with different geometric and radiometric influences that show the benefit of the combination of TOF intensity and depth images and thermal infrared images.

  13. Agricultural Applications and Requirements for Thermal Infrared Scanners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, C. L.

    1971-01-01

    Some of the applications of thermal scanner data in agriculture are presented along with illustrations of some of the factors affecting the temperature of plants, soil, and water. Examples of thermal imagery are included.

  14. The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) on Landsat 8: Design overview and pre-launch characterization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Thermal InfraRed Sensor (TIRS) on Landsat 8 is the latest thermal sensor in that series of missions. Unlike the previous single channel sensors, TIRS uses two channels to cover the 10-12 micron band. It is also a pushbroom imager; a departure from the previous whiskbroom approach. Nevertheles...

  15. Aerial thermography in archaeological prospection: Applications & processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cool, Autumn Chrysantha

    Aerial thermography is one of the least utilized archaeological prospection methods, yet it has great potential for detecting anthropogenic anomalies. Thermal infrared radiation is absorbed and reemitted at varying rates by all objects on and within the ground depending upon their density, composition, and moisture content. If an area containing archaeological features is recorded at the moment when their thermal signatures most strongly contrast with that of the surrounding matrix, they can be visually identified in thermal images. Research conducted in the 1960s and 1970s established a few basic rules for conducting thermal survey, but the expense associated with the method deterred most archaeologists from using this technology. Subsequent research was infrequent and almost exclusively appeared in the form of case studies. However, as the current proliferation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and compact thermal cameras draws renewed attention to aerial thermography as an attractive and exciting form of survey, it is appropriate and necessary to reevaluate our approach. In this thesis I have taken a two-pronged approach. First, I built upon the groundwork of earlier researchers and created an experiment to explore the impact that different environmental and climatic conditions have on the success or failure of thermal imaging. I constructed a test site designed to mimic a range of archaeological features and imaged it under a variety of conditions to compare and contrast the results. Second, I explored a new method for processing thermal data that I hope will lead to a means of reducing noise and increasing the clarity of thermal images. This step was done as part of a case study so that the effectiveness of the processing method could be evaluated by comparison with the results of other geophysical surveys.

  16. Heterodyne Spectroscopy in the Thermal Infrared Region: A Window on Physics and Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostiuk, Theodor

    2004-01-01

    The thermal infrared region contains molecular bands of many of the most important species in gaseous astronomical sources. True shapes and frequencies of emission and absorption spectral lines from these constituents of planetary and stellar atmospheres contain unique information on local temperature and abundance distribution, non-thermal effects, composition, local dynamics and winds. Heterodyne spectroscopy in the thermal infrared can remotely measure true line shapes in relatively cool and thin regions and enable the retrieval of detailed information about local physics and chemistry. The concept and techniques for heterodyne detection will be discussed including examples of thermal infrared photomixers and instrumentation used in studies of several astronomical sources. Use of heterodyne detection to study non-LTE phenomena, planetary aurora, minor planetary species and gas velocities (winds) will be discussed. A discussion of future technological developments and relation to space flight missions will be addressed.

  17. Changes in the distribution of the grey mangrove Avicennia marina (Forsk.) using large scale aerial color infrared photographs: are the changes related to habitat modification for mosquito control?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J.; Dale, P. E. R.; Chandica, A. L.; Breitfuss, M. J.

    2004-09-01

    Runnelling, a method of habitat modification used for mosquito management in intertidal saltmarshes in Australia, alters marsh hydrology. The objective of this research was to assess if runnelling had affected the distribution of the grey mangrove ( Avicennia marina (Forsk.)) at a study site in southeast Queensland. Since runnelling is carried out in diverse marshes a second aim was to assess differences in mangrove colonisation in the two main saltmarsh species in the area. These are marine couch [ Sporobolus virginicus (L.) Kunth.] and samphire [ Sarcocornia quinqueflora (Bunge ex Ung.-Stern.)]. Runnels at the study site were in an area dominated by Sporobolus. The mangrove area was measured by classifying digital color infrared (CIR) data obtained from aerial photographs acquired in 1982, which was 3 years before runnelling, and in 1987, 1991 and 1999, 2-14 years after. Changes in the spatial extent of A. marina were identified using difference images produced from post-classification change detection. The results showed that runnels did not significantly influence the distribution of A. marina at the study site. At a more detailed level differences in A. marina establishment in the Sporobolus and Sarcocornia areas were determined from counts of trees on the aerial photographs. There was a greater proportion of mangroves in Sarcocornia than Sporobolus and this increased over time. This may be related to differences in density between the plant species, to grapsid crab activity or to other edaphic conditions. There may be implications for runnelling in Sarcocornia marshes. The large increase observed in A. marina in the area generally is likely to be related to factors such as catchment modification or tidal/sea-level changes. It is concluded that runnelling has not led to mangrove establishment in the Sporobolus dominated saltmarsh.

  18. Robust Pedestrian Detection by Combining Visible and Thermal Infrared Cameras

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Hoon; Choi, Jong-Suk; Jeon, Eun Som; Kim, Yeong Gon; Thanh Le, Toan; Shin, Kwang Yong; Lee, Hyeon Chang; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2015-01-01

    With the development of intelligent surveillance systems, the need for accurate detection of pedestrians by cameras has increased. However, most of the previous studies use a single camera system, either a visible light or thermal camera, and their performances are affected by various factors such as shadow, illumination change, occlusion, and higher background temperatures. To overcome these problems, we propose a new method of detecting pedestrians using a dual camera system that combines visible light and thermal cameras, which are robust in various outdoor environments such as mornings, afternoons, night and rainy days. Our research is novel, compared to previous works, in the following four ways: First, we implement the dual camera system where the axes of visible light and thermal cameras are parallel in the horizontal direction. We obtain a geometric transform matrix that represents the relationship between these two camera axes. Second, two background images for visible light and thermal cameras are adaptively updated based on the pixel difference between an input thermal and pre-stored thermal background images. Third, by background subtraction of thermal image considering the temperature characteristics of background and size filtering with morphological operation, the candidates from whole image (CWI) in the thermal image is obtained. The positions of CWI (obtained by background subtraction and the procedures of shadow removal, morphological operation, size filtering, and filtering of the ratio of height to width) in the visible light image are projected on those in the thermal image by using the geometric transform matrix, and the searching regions for pedestrians are defined in the thermal image. Fourth, within these searching regions, the candidates from the searching image region (CSI) of pedestrians in the thermal image are detected. The final areas of pedestrians are located by combining the detected positions of the CWI and CSI of the thermal

  19. Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianliang; Tyler, Talmage; Starr, Tatiana; Starr, Anthony F; Jokerst, Nan Marie; Padilla, Willie J

    2011-07-22

    In this Letter we demonstrate, for the first time, selective thermal emitters based on metamaterial perfect absorbers. We experimentally realize a narrow band midinfrared (MIR) thermal emitter. Multiple metamaterial sublattices further permit construction of a dual-band MIR emitter. By performing both emissivity and absorptivity measurements, we find that emissivity and absorptivity agree very well as predicted by Kirchhoff's law of thermal radiation. Our results directly demonstrate the great flexibility of metamaterials for tailoring blackbody emission. PMID:21867022

  20. Thermal Infrared Airborne Field Studies: Applications to the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herr, K.; Kirkland, L.; Keim, E.; Hackwell, J.

    2002-12-01

    A primary goal of the Mars exploration program is to reconnoiter the planet from orbit using infrared remote sensing. Currently the Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the 2001 Mars Odyssey 9-band radiometer THEMIS provide this capability. Landing site selection and modeling of the geologic and climate history depend on accurate interpretations of these data sets. Interpretations use terrestrial analog remote sensing and laboratory studies. Until recently, there have been no airborne thermal infrared spectrometer ("hyspectral") data sets available to NASA researchers that are comparable to TES. As a result, studies relied on airborne multi-channel radiometer ("multispectral") measurements (e.g. TIMS, MASTER). A radiometer has the advantage that measurement of broad bands makes it easier to measure with higher sensitivity. However, radiometers lack the spectral resolution to investigate details of spectral signatures. This gap may be partially addressed using field samples collected and measured in the laboratory. However, that leaves questions unanswered about the field environment and potentially leaves important complicating issues undiscovered. Two questions that haunt thermal infrared remote sensing investigations of Mars are: (1) If a mineral is not detected in a given data set, how definitively should we state that it is not there? (2) When does the method provide quantitative mineral mapping? In order to address these questions, we began collaborating with Department of Defense (DoD) oriented researchers and drawing on the unique instrumentation they developed. Both Mars and DoD researchers have a common need to identify materials without benefit of ground truth. Such collaborations provide a fresh perspective as well as unique data. Our work addresses uncertainties in stand-off identification of solid phase surface materials when the identification must proceed without benefit of ground truth. We will report on the results applied to TES

  1. Huanglongbing (Citrus Greening) Detection Using Visible, Near Infrared and Thermal Imaging Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Sankaran, Sindhuja; Maja, Joe Mari; Buchanon, Sherrie; Ehsani, Reza

    2013-01-01

    This study demonstrates the applicability of visible-near infrared and thermal imaging for detection of Huanglongbing (HLB) disease in citrus trees. Visible-near infrared (440–900 nm) and thermal infrared spectral reflectance data were collected from individual healthy and HLB-infected trees. Data analysis revealed that the average reflectance values of the healthy trees in the visible region were lower than those in the near infrared region, while the opposite was the case for HLB-infected trees. Moreover, 560 nm, 710 nm, and thermal band showed maximum class separability between healthy and HLB-infected groups among the evaluated visible-infrared bands. Similarly, analysis of several vegetation indices indicated that the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), Vogelmann red-edge index (VOG) and modified red-edge simple ratio (mSR) demonstrated good class separability between the two groups. Classification studies using average spectral reflectance values from the visible, near infrared, and thermal bands (13 spectral features) as input features indicated that an average overall classification accuracy of about 87%, with 89% specificity and 85% sensitivity could be achieved with classification models such as support vector machine for trees with symptomatic leaves. PMID:23389343

  2. Imaging spectroscopy of Venus in the thermal infrared: daily variations of the thermal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Encrenaz, Therese; Greathouse, Thomas; Richter, Matthew; DeWitt, Curtis; Lacy, John; Widemann, Thomas; Fouchet, Thierry; Bézard, Bruno; Atreya, Sushil

    2015-04-01

    Since 2012, we have been monitoring the lower mesosphere of Venus using high-resolution imaging spectroscopy with the Texas Echelon Cross Echelle Spectrograph (TEXES) at the Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) at Mauna Kea Observatory (Hawaii). Four campaigns took place in January and October 2012, then in February and July 2014. In January 2012, the evening terminator was observed, while the morning terminator was observed during the three following runs. The main objective of our study was a cartography of the abundances of SO2 and H2O (through HDO) over the H2SO4 cloud deck. High-resolution hyper-spectral maps of Venus were recorded at 7μm (SO2, HDO, CO2), 19 μm (SO2, CO2) and in two CO2 bands at 10.5 μm and 12.6 μm. Measuring CO2 transitions of different intensities allows us to retrieve information about the thermal structure above the clouds as a function of latitude and local hour. At high latitudes (around 70° N and S), our data show the isothermal or inversion layer just above the cloud associated with the polar collar. This effect is clearly stronger around the morning terminator than at the evening terminator. In addition, data recorded in the CO2 hot band at 10.5 μm show at the limb a non-thermal emission on the dayside, consistent with previous heterodyne spectroscopy observations at the same wavelength. We will present maps of the mesospheric temperature at different pressure levels above the cloud top. These data will be compared with other datasets obtained from Venus Express and from ground-based observations.

  3. Long and short-term spatial processes analysis of an acacia tree population using a single aerial photograph with near infra-red band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacson, Sivan; Blumberg, Dan G.; Rachmilevitch, Shimon; Ephrath, Jhonathan E.

    2014-05-01

    Hyper-arid zones are characterized by highly sparse vegetation cover. Monitoring vegetation dynamics in hyper-arid zones is important because any reduction in the vegetation cover in these areas can lead to a considerable reduction in the carrying capacity of the ecological system. Remote sensing expands the spatial and temporal database and is thus a powerful tool for long-term monitoring in arid zones, where access is limited and long-term ground data are rarely available. The main goal of this research was to study both the long-term and short-term spatial processes affecting the acacia population, by using information from a single, three bands color infrared (CIR) aerial photograph (green, red and near infrared). CIR images enable us to obtain information about photosynthetically active biomass by using vegetation indices such as NDVI. A map of individual acacia trees that was extracted from a CIR aerial photograph of Wadi Ktora allowed us to examine the distribution pattern of the trees size and foliage health status (NDVI). Tree size distribution was used as an indicator of long-term (decades) geo-hydrologic spatial processes effecting the acacia population. The tree health status distribution was used as an indicator for short-term (months to a few years) geo-hydrologic spatial processes, such as the paths of recent flashfloods events. Comparison of the tree size distribution and NDVI values distribution enabled us to differentiate between long-term and short-term processes that brought the population to its present state. The spatial analysis revealed that both the tree size and NDVI distribution patterns were significantly clustered, suggesting that the processes responsible for tree size and tree health status do have a spatial expression. Furthermore, each of the attributes has a different distribution and unique clustering location. We suggest that the lack of spatial correlation between tree size and health status is a result of spatial

  4. Evaluation of Methods for Coregistration and Fusion of Rpas-Based 3d Point Clouds and Thermal Infrared Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoegner, L.; Tuttas, S.; Xu, Y.; Eder, K.; Stilla, U.

    2016-06-01

    This paper discusses the automatic coregistration and fusion of 3d point clouds generated from aerial image sequences and corresponding thermal infrared (TIR) images. Both RGB and TIR images have been taken from a RPAS platform with a predefined flight path where every RGB image has a corresponding TIR image taken from the same position and with the same orientation with respect to the accuracy of the RPAS system and the inertial measurement unit. To remove remaining differences in the exterior orientation, different strategies for coregistering RGB and TIR images are discussed: (i) coregistration based on 2D line segments for every single TIR image and the corresponding RGB image. This method implies a mainly planar scene to avoid mismatches; (ii) coregistration of both the dense 3D point clouds from RGB images and from TIR images by coregistering 2D image projections of both point clouds; (iii) coregistration based on 2D line segments in every single TIR image and 3D line segments extracted from intersections of planes fitted in the segmented dense 3D point cloud; (iv) coregistration of both the dense 3D point clouds from RGB images and from TIR images using both ICP and an adapted version based on corresponding segmented planes; (v) coregistration of both image sets based on point features. The quality is measured by comparing the differences of the back projection of homologous points in both corrected RGB and TIR images.

  5. How Many Hippos (homhip): Algorithm for Automatic Counts of Animals with Infra-Red Thermal Imagery from Uav

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhoest, S.; Linchant, J.; Quevauvillers, S.; Vermeulen, C.; Lejeune, P.

    2015-08-01

    The common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius L.) is part of the animal species endangered because of multiple human pressures. Monitoring of species for conservation is then essential, and the development of census protocols has to be chased. UAV technology is considering as one of the new perspectives for wildlife survey. Indeed, this technique has many advantages but its main drawback is the generation of a huge amount of data to handle. This study aims at developing an algorithm for automatic count of hippos, by exploiting thermal infrared aerial images acquired from UAV. This attempt is the first known for automatic detection of this species. Images taken at several flight heights can be used as inputs of the algorithm, ranging from 38 to 155 meters above ground level. A Graphical User Interface has been created in order to facilitate the use of the application. Three categories of animals have been defined following their position in water. The mean error of automatic counts compared with manual delineations is +2.3% and shows that the estimation is unbiased. Those results show great perspectives for the use of the algorithm in populations monitoring after some technical improvements and the elaboration of statistically robust inventories protocols.

  6. Non-contact measurement of linear thermal expansion coefficients of solid materials by infrared image correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanini, R.; Freni, F.

    2014-01-01

    A new non-contact optical method (IIC, infrared image correlation) for the determination of the coefficients of thermal expansion of solid materials is presented. The proposed method is based on performing a digital image correlation between thermal images recorded at different temperatures by means of an infrared camera. It allows the coefficient of thermal expansion of both isotropic and anisotropic solid materials to be determined by measuring simultaneously the fractional increase in length and the actual thermal field over a small region of interest in which a dual-emissivity stochastic speckle pattern has been created. The results reported in this paper prove the effectiveness of the proposed method that can be applied either to carry out reference measurements in laboratory or to evaluate thermal stresses and strains on structural components in-field.

  7. Solar panel thermal cycling testing by solar simulation and infrared radiation methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuss, H. E.

    1980-01-01

    For the solar panels of the European Space Agency (ESA) satellites OTS/MAROTS and ECS/MARECS the thermal cycling tests were performed by using solar simulation methods. The performance data of two different solar simulators used and the thermal test results are described. The solar simulation thermal cycling tests for the ECS/MARECS solar panels were carried out with the aid of a rotatable multipanel test rig by which simultaneous testing of three solar panels was possible. As an alternative thermal test method, the capability of an infrared radiation method was studied and infrared simulation tests for the ultralight panel and the INTELSAT 5 solar panels were performed. The setup and the characteristics of the infrared radiation unit using a quartz lamp array of approx. 15 sq and LN2-cooled shutter and the thermal test results are presented. The irradiation uniformity, the solar panel temperature distribution, temperature changing rates for both test methods are compared. Results indicate the infrared simulation is an effective solar panel thermal testing method.

  8. Detecting groundwater flow direction from infrared thermal images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Akhundzadah Noor; Saito, Hirotaka; Asada, Kei; Kato, Makoto

    In this study we propose an approach to directly measure temperature changes around the heat source placed in a borehole using an infrared camera for determining groundwater flow direction. A plastic box filled with sands with a cylindrical perforated column placed in middle of the box was used in lab experiments. A heater was inserted in the center of the borehole. To detect the flow direction from the temperature distribution, an infrared camera that was placed face-down at the top of the cylinder (i.e., borehole) was used. COMSOL was used to numerically simulate coupled water flow and heat transfer to evaluate experimental results. Results show that when the flux is in the order of 10-2 to 10-4cm s-1, we can determine the groundwater flow direction because of a skewed temperature distribution due to convective transport of heat.

  9. Aerial Explorers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg; Ippolito, Corey

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents recent results from a mission architecture study of planetary aerial explorers. In this study, several mission scenarios were developed in simulation and evaluated on success in meeting mission goals. This aerial explorer mission architecture study is unique in comparison with previous Mars airplane research activities. The study examines how aerial vehicles can find and gain access to otherwise inaccessible terrain features of interest. The aerial explorer also engages in a high-level of (indirect) surface interaction, despite not typically being able to takeoff and land or to engage in multiple flights/sorties. To achieve this goal, a new mission paradigm is proposed: aerial explorers should be considered as an additional element in the overall Entry, Descent, Landing System (EDLS) process. Further, aerial vehicles should be considered primarily as carrier/utility platforms whose purpose is to deliver air-deployed sensors and robotic devices, or symbiotes, to those high-value terrain features of interest.

  10. Snow studies using thermal infrared observations from earth satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    The application of satellite high resolution infrared data was studied for mapping snow cover. The study has two objectives: (1) to determine whether existing radiometers onboard the Nimbus and ITOS satellites can provide hydrologically useful snow information, and (2) to develop analysis techniques applicable to future IR sensor systems on earth satellites. The IR measurements are being analyzed in conjunction with concurrent satellite photographs and conventional snow cover data.

  11. Improved methods for measuring thermal parameters of liquid samples using photothermal infrared radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuriakose, Maju; Depriester, Michael; Dadarlat, Dorin; Sahraoui, Abdelhak Hadj

    2013-02-01

    High accuracy, non-contact measuring methods for finding thermal properties of liquid samples using photothermal infrared radiometry (PTR) are presented. The use of transparent windows to confine micro volume liquid samples and the implementation of front and/or back signal detection procedures helped the successful implementation of the PTR technique for measuring liquids with high proficiency. We present two configurations, the so-called back-front photothermal infrared radiometry and back photothermal infrared radiometry to find thermal diffusivity and thermal effusivity of liquid samples. Sensitivity studies and error analyses included prove the robustness of each method. As an illustration of the temperature and electric field varying studies, we have included the experimental results on a 5CB (4-cyano-4‧-pentylbiphenyl) liquid crystal.

  12. Near infrared-red models for the remote estimation of chlorophyll- a concentration in optically complex turbid productive waters: From in situ measurements to aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurlin, Daniela

    Today the water quality of many inland and coastal waters is compromised by cultural eutrophication in consequence of increased human agricultural and industrial activities and remote sensing is widely applied to monitor the trophic state of these waters. This study explores near infrared-red models for the remote estimation of chlorophyll-a concentration in turbid productive waters and compares several near infrared-red models developed within the last 35 years. Three of these near infrared-red models were calibrated for a dataset with chlorophyll-a concentrations from 2.3 to 81.2 mg m -3 and validated for independent and statistically significantly different datasets with chlorophyll-a concentrations from 4.0 to 95.5 mg m-3 and 4.0 to 24.2 mg m-3 for the spectral bands of the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) and Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The developed MERIS two-band algorithm estimated chlorophyll-a concentrations from 4.0 to 24.2 mg m-3, which are typical for many inland and coastal waters, very accurately with a mean absolute error 1.2 mg m-3. These results indicate a high potential of the simple MERIS two-band algorithm for the reliable estimation of chlorophyll-a concentration without any reduction in accuracy compared to more complex algorithms, even though more research seems required to analyze the sensitivity of this algorithm to differences in the chlorophyll-a specific absorption coefficient of phytoplankton. Three near infrared-red models were calibrated and validated for a smaller dataset of atmospherically corrected multi-temporal aerial imagery collected by the hyperspectral airborne imaging spectrometer for applications (AisaEAGLE). The developed algorithms successfully captured the spatial and temporal variability of the chlorophyll-a concentrations and estimated chlorophyll- a concentrations from 2.3 to 81.2 mg m-3 with mean absolute errors from 4.4 mg m-3 for the AISA two band algorithm to 5.2 mg m-3

  13. Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, M.

    2013-11-01

    'Infrared' is a very wide field in physics and the natural sciences which has evolved enormously in recent decades. It all started in 1800 with Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel's discovery of infrared (IR) radiation within the spectrum of the Sun. Thereafter a few important milestones towards widespread use of IR were the quantitative description of the laws of blackbody radiation by Max Planck in 1900; the application of quantum mechanics to understand the rotational-vibrational spectra of molecules starting in the first half of the 20th century; and the revolution in source and detector technologies due to micro-technological breakthroughs towards the end of the 20th century. This has led to much high-quality and sophisticated equipment in terms of detectors, sources and instruments in the IR spectral range, with a multitude of different applications in science and technology. This special issue tries to focus on a few aspects of the astonishing variety of different disciplines, techniques and applications concerning the general topic of infrared radiation. Part of the content is based upon an interdisciplinary international conference on the topic held in 2012 in Bad Honnef, Germany. It is hoped that the information provided here may be useful for teaching the general topic of electromagnetic radiation in the IR spectral range in advanced university courses for postgraduate students. In the most general terms, the infrared spectral range is defined to extend from wavelengths of 780 nm (upper range of the VIS spectral range) up to wavelengths of 1 mm (lower end of the microwave range). Various definitions of near, middle and far infrared or thermal infrared, and lately terahertz frequencies, are used, which all fall in this range. These special definitions often depend on the scientific field of research. Unfortunately, many of these fields seem to have developed independently from neighbouring disciplines, although they deal with very similar topics in respect of the

  14. Thermal infrared emissivity spectrum and its characteristics of crude oil slick covered seawater.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Pan; Gu, Xing-Fai; Yu, Taol; Meng, Qing-Yan; Li, Jia-Guoi; Shi, Ji-xiang; Cheng, Yang; Wang, Liang; Liu, Wen-Song; Liu, Qi-Yuei; Zhao, Li-Min

    2014-11-01

    Detecting oil slick covered seawater surface using the thermal infrared remote sensing technology exists the advantages such as: oil spill detection with thermal infrared spectrum can be performed in the nighttime which is superior to visible spectrum, the thermal infrared spectrum is superior to detect the radiation characteristics of both the oil slick and the seawater compared to the mid-wavelength infrared spectrum and which have great potential to detect the oil slick thickness. And the emissivity is the ratio of the radiation of an object at a given temperature in normal range of the temperature (260-320 K) and the blackbody radiation under the same temperature , the emissivity of an object is unrelated to the temperature, but only is dependent with the wavelength and material properties. Using the seawater taken from Bohai Bay and crude oil taken from Gudao oil production plant of Shengli Oilfield in Dongying city of Shandong Province, an experiment was designed to study the characteristics and mechanism of thermal infrared emissivity spectrum of artificial crude oil slick covered seawater surface with its thickness. During the experiment, crude oil was continuously dropped into the seawater to generate artificial oil slick with different thicknesses. By adding each drop of crude oil, we measured the reflectivity of the oil slick in the thermal infrared spectrum with the Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (102F) and then calculated its thermal infrared emissivity. The results show that the thermal infrared emissivity of oil slick changes significantly with its thickness when oil slick is relatively thin (20-120 μm), which provides an effective means for detecting the existence of offshore thin oil slick In the spectrum ranges from 8 to 10 μm and from 13. 2 to 14 μm, there is a steady emissivity difference between the seawater and thin oil slick with thickness of 20 μm. The emissivity of oil slick changes marginally with oil slick thickness and

  15. Measurement of thermal radiation using regular glass optics and short-wave infrared detectors.

    PubMed

    Yoon, H W; Eppeldauer, G P

    2008-01-21

    The measurement of thermal radiation from ambient-temperature objects using short-wave infrared detectors and regular glass optics is described. The detectors are chosen to operate in the 2.0 microm to 2.5 microm atmospheric window. Selection of detectors with high shunt resistance along with the 4-stage thermo-electric cooling of the detectors to -85 degrees C results in detectivity, D*, of 4 x 10(13) cm Hz(1/2)/W which is near the background limited performance at 295 K. Furthermore, the use of regular-glass commercial optics to collect the thermal radiation results in diffraction-limited imaging. The use of a radiation thermometer constructed with these elements for the measurement of a blackbody from 20 degrees C to 50 degrees C results in noise-equivalent temperature difference (NETD) of < 3 mK at 50 degrees C. The operation at shorter wavelengths than traditional thermal sensors also leads to lower sensitivity to the emissivity of the object in determining the temperature of the object. These elements are used to construct a calibrator for an infrared collimator, and such a system demonstrates noise-equivalent irradiances of < 5 fW/cm(2). These results indicate that radiometers using short-wave infrared sensors could be constructed utilizing commercial glass optics with possible better performance and lower NETD than existing radiometers using cryogenically-cooled mid-infrared or thermal infrared detectors. PMID:18542168

  16. GreenHouse Observations of the Stratosphere and Troposphere (GHOST): a novel shortwave infrared spectrometer developed for the Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humpage, Neil; Bösch, Hartmut; Palmer, Paul I.; Parr-Burman, Phil M.; Vick, Andrew J. A.; Bezawada, Naidu N.; Black, Martin; Born, Andrew J.; Pearson, David; Strachan, Jonathan; Wells, Martyn

    2014-10-01

    The tropospheric distribution of greenhouse gases (GHGs) depends on surface flux variations, atmospheric chemistry and transport processes over a range of spatial and temporal scales. Accurate and precise atmospheric concentration observations of GHGs can be used to infer surface flux estimates, though their interpretation relies on unbiased atmospheric transport models. GHOST is a novel, compact shortwave infrared spectrometer which will observe tropospheric columns of CO2, CO, CH4 and H2O (along with the HDO/H2O ratio) during deployment on board the NASA Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle. The primary science objectives of GHOST are to: 1) test atmospheric transport models; 2) evaluate satellite observations of GHG column observations over oceans; and 3) complement in-situ tropopause transition layer observations from other Global Hawk instruments. GHOST comprises a target acquisition module (TAM), a fibre slicer and feed system, and a multiple order spectrograph. The TAM is programmed to direct solar radiation reflected by the ocean surface into a fibre optic bundle. Incoming light is then split into four spectral bands, selected to optimise remote observations of GHGs. The design uses a single grating and detector for all four spectral bands. We summarise the GHOST concept and its objectives, and describe the instrument design and proposed deployment aboard the Global Hawk platform.

  17. Detection of leaks in buried rural water pipelines using thermal infrared images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eidenshink, Jeffery C.

    1985-01-01

    Leakage is a major problem in many pipelines. Minor leaks called 'seeper leaks', which generally range from 2 to 10 m3 per day, are common and are difficult to detect using conventional ground surveys. The objective of this research was to determine whether airborne thermal-infrared remote sensing could be used in detecting leaks and monitoring rural water pipelines. This study indicates that such leaks can be detected using low-altitude 8.7- to 11.5. micrometer wavelength, thermal infrared images collected under proper conditions.

  18. Surface contamination detection by means of near-infrared stimulation of thermal luminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Carrieri, Arthur H.; Roese, Erik S

    2006-02-01

    A method for remotely detecting liquid chemical contamination on terrestrial surfaces is presented. Concurrent to irradiation by an absorbing near-infrared beam, the subject soil medium liberates radiance called thermal luminescence (TL) comprising middle-infrared energies (numir) that is scanned interferometrically in beam duration tau. Cyclic states of absorption and emission by the contaminant surrogate are rendered from a sequential differential-spectrum measurement [deltaS(numir,tau)] of the scanned TL. Detection of chemical warfare agent simulant wetting soil is performed in this manner, for example, through pattern recognition of its unique, thermally dynamic, molecular vibration resonance bands on display in the deltaS(numir,tau) metric.

  19. THERMAL MODEL CALIBRATION FOR MINOR PLANETS OBSERVED WITH WISE/NEOWISE: COMPARISON WITH INFRARED ASTRONOMICAL SATELLITE

    SciTech Connect

    Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Grav, T.; Wright, E.; Cutri, R. M.; Walker, R.; McMillan, R. S.

    2011-08-10

    With thermal infrared observations detected by the NEOWISE project, we have measured diameters for 1742 minor planets that were also observed by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS). We have compared the diameters and albedo derived by applying a spherical thermal model to the objects detected by NEOWISE and find that they are generally in good agreement with the IRAS values. We have shown that diameters computed from NEOWISE data are often less systematically biased than those found with IRAS. This demonstrates that the NEOWISE data set can provide accurate physical parameters for the >157,000 minor planets that were detected by NEOWISE.

  20. Microscale thermal analysis with cooled and uncooled infrared cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morikawa, Junko; Hayakawa, Eita; Hashimoto, Toshimasa

    2012-06-01

    Uncooled micro-bolometer of 17 μm pitch has been successfully applied to the micro-scale thermal analysis with a newly designed optics, the emissivity corrected procedure, and the quasi-acceleration of time frame method. The spatial resolution of 11 μm in a good balance of MTF and N.A. has been achieved for the optics of VOx FPA. It enables to visualize the exothermic latent heat of freezing biological cells at a minus temperature. The emissivity corrected microscale thermal imaging using a real time direct impose-signal system is presented both with VOx and InSb FPA.

  1. Analysis of thermal shock strength and quality factor with infrared optical domes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Youtang; Liu, Shuo; Xu, Yuan; Chang, Benkang

    2012-11-01

    The development of infrared optical materials is always closely related to the research and exploration of material science. The infrared optical domes bears shock and produces stress when the infrared optical domes mounted on the missile moving at a high speed is shocked by high temperature. According to principle of energy balance in fracture mechanics proposed by D.P.H. Hasselman, the author analyzed the crack extension and derived the relationship between Infrared optical materials window model and thermal shock quality factor. Meanwhile, strong or weak of thermal shock for different samples whether they are thin or thick are compared through the operation of queuing algorithm. The conclusion is the internal surface of the domes isn't heated when the window model is the thermal shock quality factor of thick sample and the heating time is between heating time constant and diffusion time constant. On the other hand, the internal surface of the domes is being heated when the window model is the thermal shock quality factor of thin sample and the heating time is between the two time constants. The most optical domes parts in practice is belong the thin model. For the thin model, reducing the thickness of optical parts can improve their thermal shock ability but mechanical impact stress factor should be considered comprehensively to design optical parts.

  2. Advances in Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing for Land Surface Modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 10 years ago, John Norman and co-authors proposed a thermal-based land surface modeling strategy that treated the energy exchange and kinetic temperatures of the soil and vegetated components in a unique “Two-Source Model” (TSM) approach. The TSM formulation addresses key factors affecting the...

  3. Design of 10x uncooled thermal infrared zoom optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Da; Du, Yu-nan; Mi, Shi-long; Guo, Yan-chi

    2013-09-01

    For 320x240 pixel2 uncooled focal plane array detector, an infrared continuous zoom optical system of 10x zoom ratio for long-wavelength is designed in this paper. This system can be applied in joint transform correlator and other infrared tracing systems. The spectral band of the system is 8μm~12μm, the focal length is 20mm ~200mm , and the F number of the system is 2. The relative aperture is invariant during the zoom process, and the variable magnification curve and compensation curve are smooth as well. The system only consists of 7 lenses and one aspherical surface. The results have shown that when the maximum spatial frequency is 17lp/mm, the MTF(Modulation Transfer Function) curves in the whole range of focal length are all above 0.5 which are closed to diffraction limited curve. The stability of image plane is well, and the imaging quality is perfect, which show that the system meets the requirement of technical specification.

  4. One-sided infrared thermal imaging for flaw characterization of ceramic matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Deemer, C.; Sun, J. G.; Ellingson, W. A.

    2000-05-16

    One-sided infrared thermal imaging is being used to characterize voids and delamination in SiC/SiC composites. Flaw depth is estimated by examining the decay of surface temperature after application of a thermal pulse. Digital analysis of the surface temperature/time relationship allows characterization of the sizes and positions of defects. Results show that defects of various sizes and depths can be characterized in SiC/SiC composites with the technique.

  5. A Multi-Wavelength Thermal Infrared and Reflectance Scene Simulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, J. R., Jr.; Smith, J. A.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Several theoretical calculations are presented and our approach discussed for simulating overall composite scene thermal infrared exitance and canopy bidirectional reflectance of a forest canopy. Calculations are performed for selected wavelength bands of the DOE Multispectral Thermal Imagery and comparisons with atmospherically corrected MTI imagery are underway. NASA EO-1 Hyperion observations also are available and the favorable comparison of our reflective model results with these data are reported elsewhere.

  6. Stream temperature estimated in situ from thermal-infrared images: best estimate and uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iezzi, F.; Todisco, M. T.

    2015-11-01

    The paper aims to show a technique to estimate in situ the stream temperature from thermal-infrared images deepening its best estimate and uncertainty. Stream temperature is an important indicator of water quality and nowadays its assessment is important particularly for thermal pollution monitoring in water bodies. Stream temperature changes are especially due to the anthropogenic heat input from urban wastewater and from water used as a coolant by power plants and industrial manufacturers. The stream temperatures assessment using ordinary techniques (e.g. appropriate thermometers) is limited by sparse sampling in space due to a spatial discretization necessarily punctual. Latest and most advanced techniques assess the stream temperature using thermal-infrared remote sensing based on thermal imagers placed usually on aircrafts or using satellite images. These techniques assess only the surface water temperature and they are suitable to detect the temperature of vast water bodies but do not allow a detailed and precise surface water temperature assessment in limited areas of the water body. The technique shown in this research is based on the assessment of thermal-infrared images obtained in situ via portable thermal imager. As in all thermographic techniques, also in this technique, it is possible to estimate only the surface water temperature. A stream with the presence of a discharge of urban wastewater is proposed as case study to validate the technique and to show its application limits. Since the technique analyzes limited areas in extension of the water body, it allows a detailed and precise assessment of the water temperature. In general, the punctual and average stream temperatures are respectively uncorrected and corrected. An appropriate statistical method that minimizes the errors in the average stream temperature is proposed. The correct measurement of this temperature through the assessment of thermal- infrared images obtained in situ via portable

  7. Water Through Life, A New Technique for Mapping Shallow Water Tables in Arid and Semi-Arid Climates using Color Infrared Aerial Photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fielding, G.

    2003-04-01

    Two of the fundamental issues in water resources in arid regions are (1) the ability to accurately predict the presence of groundwater shallow enough to support riparian ecosystems and (2) the ability to assess the vulnerability of those ecosystems to withdrawals by an ever-increasing human population. A new technique for finding areas of shallow groundwater in arid and semi-arid environments has been developed that addresses both of these concerns by using the relative health of natural vegetation as an indicator of perennial shallow groundwater in environments where water is the main biolimiting factor to growth. The technique revolves around the differences in the spectral response between: actively transpiring vegetation; dormant vegetation; and dry, bare soil in the 400-900nm range as recorded by color infrared film in the dry pre-monsoon months. Distilling out only the active vegetation from aerial photographs was achieved through the creation of an index-based filter using readily available, inexpensive photo processing software. The output of the filter was carefully designed to maximize the qualitative interpretability by an analyst through the careful selection of display colors that are tuned to the maximum sensitivity range of the human vision system. When the analyst combines the qualitative interpretation of the spatial distribution of active vegetation with an understanding of the rooting depth of the native species it becomes possible to extrapolate a quantitative, basin-scale reconnaissance level map which defines the lateral extent of areas of shallow <20m(+/-5m) groundwater with a spatial accuracy of just a few meters. The research plan for the development of this technique also explored the potential for conducting the entire analysis procedure in three dimensions by projecting the filtered aerial photographs onto 10m resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). When this is done and the geomorphology of the region is carefully considered the

  8. Physical Characteristics of Near-Earth Asteroids from Thermal Infrared Spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Alan W.; Davies, John K.

    1999-12-01

    Thermal infrared spectrophotometric observations of the near-Earth asteroids 433 Eros, 1980 Tezcatlipoca, and 3671 Dionysus are presented and their implications for the physical characteristics of the objects discussed. Sizes and albedos are derived on the basis of published thermal models and comparison of the infrared data with optical observations. The results for 433 Eros are in very good agreement with radar and other earlier findings and demonstrate the accuracy achievable with one of the thermal models used. The new data, together with earlier results from the literature, suggest the surface thermal inertia of 433 Eros is no larger than three times that of the Moon. The derived effective diameter and optical albedo of 1980 Tezcatlipoca (around lightcurve maximum) are D=6.7±1.0 km and pV=0.15±0.05, and for 3671 Dionysus D=1.0±0.2 km and pV=0.40±0.15. These diameters are significantly different from previous estimates. The thermal continua of Tezcatlipoca and Dionysus are indicative of high surface thermal inertias. A near-infrared spectrum of Dionysus, coupled with the high albedo, suggests an M or E classification. Such taxonomic types are relatively rare amongst near-Earth asteroids.

  9. Plasmonic light harvesting for multicolor infrared thermal detection.

    PubMed

    Mao, Feilong; Xie, Jinjin; Xiao, Shiyi; Komiyama, Susumu; Lu, Wei; Zhou, Lei; An, Zhenghua

    2013-01-14

    Here we combined experiments and theory to study the optical properties of a plasmonic cavity consisting of a perforated metal film and a flat metal sheet separated by a semiconductor spacer. Three different types of optical modes are clearly identified-the propagating and localized surface plasmons on the perforated metal film and the Fabry-Perot modes inside the cavity. Interactions among them lead to a series of hybridized eigenmodes exhibiting excellent spectral tunability and spatially distinct field distributions, making the system particularly suitable for multicolor infrared light detections. As an example, we design a two-color detector protocol with calculated photon absorption efficiencies enhanced by more than 20 times at both colors, reaching ~42.8% at f1 = 20.0THz (15μm in wavelength) and ~46.2% at f2 = 29.5THz (~10.2μm) for a 1μm total thickness of sandwiched quantum wells. PMID:23388923

  10. Moving target detection in thermal infrared imagery using spatiotemporal information.

    PubMed

    Akula, Aparna; Ghosh, Ripul; Kumar, Satish; Sardana, H K

    2013-08-01

    An efficient target detection algorithm for detecting moving targets in infrared imagery using spatiotemporal information is presented. The output of the spatial processing serves as input to the temporal stage in a layered manner. The spatial information is obtained using joint space-spatial-frequency distribution and Rényi entropy. Temporal information is incorporated using background subtraction. By utilizing both spatial and temporal information, it is observed that the proposed method can achieve both high detection and a low false-alarm rate. The method is validated with experimentally generated data consisting of a variety of moving targets. Experimental results demonstrate a high value of F-measure for the proposed algorithm. PMID:24323206

  11. Low cost infrared and near infrared sensors for UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aden, S. T.; Bialas, J. P.; Champion, Z.; Levin, E.; McCarty, J. L.

    2014-11-01

    Thermal remote sensing has a wide range of applications, though the extent of its use is inhibited by cost. Robotic and computer components are now widely available to consumers on a scale that makes thermal data a readily accessible resource. In this project, thermal imagery collected via a lightweight remote sensing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) was used to create a surface temperature map for the purpose of providing wildland firefighting crews with a cost-effective and time-saving resource. The UAV system proved to be flexible, allowing for customized sensor packages to be designed that could include visible or infrared cameras, GPS, temperature sensors, and rangefinders, in addition to many data management options. Altogether, such a UAV system could be used to rapidly collect thermal and aerial data, with a geographic accuracy of less than one meter.

  12. Infrared Thermal Imaging During Ultrasonic Aspiration of Bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotter, D. J.; Woodworth, G.; Gupta, S. V.; Manandhar, P.; Schwartz, T. H.

    Ultrasonic surgical aspirator tips target removal of bone in approaches to tumors or aneurysms. Low profile angled tips provide increased visualization and safety in many high risk surgical situations that commonly were approached using a high speed rotary drill. Utilization of the ultrasonic aspirator for bone removal raised questions about relative amount of local and transmitted heat energy. In the sphenoid wing of a cadaver section, ultrasonic bone aspiration yielded lower thermal rise in precision bone removal than rotary mechanical drills, with maximum temperature of 31 °C versus 69 °C for fluted and 79 °C for diamond drill bits. Mean ultrasonic fragmentation power was about 8 Watts. Statistical studies using tenacious porcine cranium yielded mean power levels of about 4.5 Watts to 11 Watts and mean temperature of less than 41.1 °C. Excessively loading the tip yielded momentary higher power; however, mean thermal rise was less than 8 °C with bone removal starting at near body temperature of about 37 °C. Precision bone removal and thermal management were possible with conditions tested for ultrasonic bone aspiration.

  13. The Status of the Mercury Thermal Radiometer and Thermal Infrared Spectrometer (MERTIS) for BepiColombo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiesinger, Harald; Helbert, Jörn; Peter, Gisbert; Walter, Ingo; D'Amore, Mario; Säuberlich, Thomas; Weber, Iris

    2014-05-01

    The Mercury Radiometer and Thermal Infrared Spectrometer (MERTIS) is one of the selected payloads of the ESA/JAXA BepiColombo mission, to be launched in 2016. The scientific objectives of MERTIS are to 1.) Study Mercury's surface composition, 2.) Identify rock-forming minerals, 3.) Map the surface mineralogy, and 4.) Study surface temperature variations and thermal inertia. The instrument consists of an uncooled grating push-broom IR-spectrometer (TIS) and a radiometer (TIR), which will operate in the wavelength regions of 7-14 µm and 7-40 µm, respectively [1,2]. From its nominal orbit, MERTIS will map the surface globally at a spatial resolution of about 500 m and for approximately 5-10% of the surface at a resolution of up to 280 m. MERTIS consists of more than 10 miniaturized, highly integrated subsystems, including mirror optics, two IR detectors (bolometer and radiometer) with read-out electronics, two actuators (pointing unit and shutter), two on-board blackbody calibration targets at 300 and 700 K, two baffles (planet, space), heater, temperature sensors, and two cold redundant instrument controllers and power supplies. We have built, calibrated, and delivered the MERTIS instrument to ESA. The Flight Model of the instrument is now fully functional and integrated on the spacecraft. In its flight configuration, MERTIS has a mass of less than 3.1 kg and during nominal science operations has a power consumption of 7.9 - 9.9 W. After calibration, the SNR of MERTIS is 266 at 8 μm wavelength and a temperature of the scene of 700 K and a dwell time of 100 ms [3,4]. With additional data processing on-board a higher SNR is expected. This is much better than the required SNR of >100, which is necessary to resolve mineral bands with low spectral contrast [1,5,6]. To alleviate the problem of limited downlink capabilities of BepiColombo, we have created a highly optimized operational scenario to reduce the MERTIS data rate by about 60% from the original plan. We also

  14. Status of thermal imaging technology as applied to conservation-update 1

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, F.J.; Wood, J.T.; Barthle, R.C.

    1980-07-01

    This document updates the 1978 report on the status of thermal imaging technology as applied to energy conservation in buildings. Thermal imaging technology is discussed in terms of airborne surveys, ground survey programs, and application needs such as standards development and lower cost equipment. Information on the various thermal imaging devices was obtained from manufacturer's standard product literature. Listings are provided of infrared projects of the DOE building diagnostics program, of aerial thermographic firms, and of aerial survey programs. (LCL)

  15. System test and flight results from infrared astronomical satellite external thermal subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salazar, R. P.; Petrick, S. W.; Wen, L.-C.

    1985-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) received its system level thermal testing in a solar simulator in September and October 1982 and was launched in January 1983. In order to reduce costs and meet a tight launch schedule, a system thermal test approach was employed which combined the goals of thermal design development tests, thermal balance tests, and thermal vacuum qualification tests. This approach relied heavily on the use of a computer-controlled automatic data handling and heater control system which reduced reliance on human monitoring of test data in comparison to past projects. The validity of this approach has been borne out by flight results. During the whole mission most temperatures were within the desired range and close to predictions. Included under the external thermal subsystem are room temperature electronics and radiatively cooled surfaces with temperatures below 100 and 200K.

  16. An international conference on thermal infrared sensing for diagnostics and control (Thermosense VIII)

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, H.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on infrared thermography. Topics considered at the conference included professionalism and standards, industrial processes, electronics and microelectronics applications, power generation and distribution, quality aspects of electric utility inspections, thermal imaging for the nuclear power industry, thermographic imaging and computer image processing of defects in building materials, and fraud in the energy conservation field.

  17. Effects of surficial modification processes on thermal infrared signatures in the arid southwestern United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weitz, Catherine M.; Farr, Tom G.

    1992-01-01

    Thermal infrared spectra from both laboratory and remote sensing instruments were used to distinguish different age lava flows with varying amounts of surficial modification at Cima and Lunar Crater volcanic fields. The modification processes affecting the lava flows cause spectral differences that can be seen in remotely sensed emittance spectra from the thermal infrared multispectral scanner. Important influences on the thermal infrared spectra include aeolian mantling, vegetation, lave flow roughness, and rock varnish. Laboratory thermal infrared reflectance spectra of the subaerially exposed surfaces of 1-15 cm basalt fragments at Cima volcanic field show a feature attributable to rock varnish on the younger flows (0.14-0.75 m.y.) that is lacking on the older flows (greater than 0.8 m.y.). This suggests that rock varnish is thinner on the older flows at Cima volcanic field. Scanning electron microscope images and thin sections of the different age flows at Cima volcanic field support the conclusion that rock varnish is thinner and may be eroding on the older flow surfaces.

  18. Sharpening landsat thermal infrared imagery for mapping evapotranspiration at field scale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal infrared (TIR) imagery provides estimates of land-surface temperature (LST) that can be used for mapping land surface energy fluxes and evapotranspiration (ET). For the ET mapping at the field scale, TIR data are required at relatively fine pixel resolution similar to the resolution of Land...

  19. Postdispersion system for astronomical observations with Fourier transform spectrometers in the thermal infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiedermann, Guenter; Jennings, D. E.; Hanel, R. H.; Kunde, V. G.; Moseley, S. H.

    1989-01-01

    A postdispersion system for astronomical observations with Fourier transform spectrometers in the thermal infrared has been developed which improves the sensitivity of radiation noise limited observations by reducing the spectral range incident on the detector. Special attention is given to the first-generation blocked impurity band detector. Planetary, solar, and stellar observations are reported.

  20. Calculating model for equivalent thermal defocus amount in infrared imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chengshuo; Shi, Zelin; Xu, Baoshu; Feng, Bin

    2016-01-01

    The main effect of temperature change on infrared imaging system is the focus shift of infrared lenses. This paper analyzes the equivalent influence on imaging between the temperature change and the defocus at room temperature. In order to quantify the equivalence, we define an equivalent thermal defocus amount (ETDA). The ETDA describes the distance of the photosensitive surface shifting at room temperature, which has the same effect on imaging as the temperature changes. To model the ETDA, the expression of the focal shift as a function of temperature is obtained by solving partial differential equations for the thermal effect on light path firstly with some approximations. Then point spread functions of the thermal effect and defocus at room temperature are modeled based on wave aberration. The calculating model of ETDA is finally established by making their PSFs equal under the condition that the cutoff frequency of infrared imaging systems is much smaller than that of infrared lens. The experimental results indicate that defocus of ETDA at room temperature has the same influence on imaging as the thermal effect. Prospectively, experiments at high/low temperature can be replaced by experiments at room temperature with ETDA.

  1. Examining rapid onset drought development using the thermal infrared based evaporative stress index

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reliable indicators of rapid drought onset are necessary to improve the utility of drought early warning systems. In this study, the Evaporative Stress Index (ESI), which uses remotely-sensed thermal infrared imagery to estimate evapotranspiration (ET), is compared to meteorological data and United...

  2. Amplitude of the diurnal temperature cycle as observed by thermal infrared and microwave radiometers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land surface temperature (LST) is a key input to physically-based retrieval algorithms of hydrological states and fluxes, and global measurements of LST are provided by many satellite platforms. Passive microwave (MW) observations offer an alternative to conventional thermal infrared (TIR) LST retri...

  3. POTENTIAL OF THERMAL INFRARED REMOTE SENSING FOR THE MONITORING OF LAND SURFACES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal infrared remote sensing over vegetated land surfaces is expected to provide valuable information for documenting soil-vegetation-atmosphere exchanges about heat, water and mass. On the one hand, the community benefits of various TIR remote sensing observations according to four dimensions: s...

  4. Comparison of P/Brorsen-Metcalf and P/Halley in the thermal infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, David K.; Russell, Ray W.; Hanner, Martha S.; Lien, David J.

    1990-01-01

    Of the periodic comets, only comets Halley and Brorsen-Metcalf have periods of the order of 75 years and are bright enough to study spectroscopically in the infrared. Thermal IR spectroscopy of comet P/Brorsen-Metcalf near perihelion are presented and the results are compared to comet P/Halley.

  5. Mapping Acid Sulfate Alteration of Basaltic Andesite with Thermal Infrared Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, R. G.; Calvin, W. M.; Hook, S. J.; Taranik, J. V.

    2002-01-01

    Airborne thermal infrared multi- and hyperspectral data sets are used to map sulfate alteration of basaltic andesites near Reno, NV. Alteration includes quartz-alunite, jarosite and a number of clay minerals such as kaolinite and montmorillonite. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  6. Mapping Evapotranspiration and Drought Using Multi-Scale thermal-Infrared Remote Sensing Data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many of the natural and managed ecosystems in the western U.S. are sparsely or partially vegetated during much of the annual growing cycle. Partial vegetation cover conditions present challenges to single-source evapotranspiration (ET) algorithms based on thermal-infrared (TIR) remote sensing becau...

  7. Thermal infrared imaging of the temporal variability in stomatal conductance for fruit trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struthers, Raymond; Ivanova, Anna; Tits, Laurent; Swennen, Rony; Coppin, Pol

    2015-07-01

    Repeated measurements using thermal infrared remote sensing were used to characterize the change in canopy temperature over time and factors that influenced this change on 'Conference' pear trees (Pyrus communis L.). Three different types of sensors were used, a leaf porometer to measure leaf stomatal conductance, a thermal infrared camera to measure the canopy temperature and a meteorological sensor to measure weather variables. Stomatal conductance of water stressed pear was significantly lower than in the control group 9 days after stress began. This decrease in stomatal conductance reduced transpiration, reducing evaporative cooling that increased canopy temperature. Using thermal infrared imaging with wavelengths between 7.5 and13 μm, the first significant difference was measured 18 days after stress began. A second order derivative described the average rate of change of the difference between the stress treatment and control group. The average rate of change for stomatal conductance was 0.06 (mmol m-2 s-1) and for canopy temperature was -0.04 (°C) with respect to days. Thermal infrared remote sensing and data analysis presented in this study demonstrated that the differences in canopy temperatures between the water stress and control treatment due to stomata regulation can be validated.

  8. Rapid microplate, green method for high-throughput evaluation of vinegar acidity using thermal infrared enthalpimetry.

    PubMed

    Tischer, Bruna; Oliveira, Alessandra Stangherlin; Ferreira, Daniele de Freitas; Menezes, Cristiano Ragagnin; Duarte, Fábio Andrei; Wagner, Roger; Barin, Juliano Smanioto

    2017-01-15

    Infrared thermal imaging was combined with disposable microplates to perform enthalpimetric analysis using an infrared camera to monitor temperature without contact. The proposed thermal infrared enthalpimetry (TIE) method was used to determine the total, fixed and volatile acidities of vinegars. Sample preparation and analysis were performed in the same vessel, avoiding excessive sample handling and reducing energy expenditure by more than ten times. The results agreed with those of the conventional method for different kinds of vinegars, with values of 1.7%, and 2.3% for repeatability and intermediate precision, respectively. A linear calibration curve was obtained from 0.040 to 1.30molL(-1). The proposed method provided rapid results (within 10s) for four samples simultaneously, a sample throughput of up to 480 samples per hour. In addition, the method complies with at least eight of twelve recommendations for green analytical chemistry, making TIE a promising tool for routine vinegar analysis. PMID:27542445

  9. Thermal monitoring of transport infrastructures by infrared thermography coupled with inline local atmospheric conditions survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumoulin, J.

    2013-09-01

    An infrared system architecture (software and hardware) has been studied and developed to allow long term monitoring of transport infrastructures in a standalone configuration. It is based on the implementation of low cost infrared thermal cameras (equipped with uncooled microbolometer focal plane array) available on the market coupled with other measurement systems. All data collected feed simplified radiative models running on GPU available on small PC to produce corrected thermal map of the surveyed structure at selected time step. Furthermore, added Web-enabled capabilities of this new infrared measurement system are also presented and discussed. A prototype of this system was tested and evaluated on real infrastructure opened to traffic. Results obtained by image and signal processing are presented. Finally, conclusions and perspectives for new implementation and new functionalities are presented and discussed.

  10. Infrared near-field imaging and spectroscopy based on thermal or synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Peragut, Florian; De Wilde, Yannick; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale

    2014-06-23

    We demonstrate the coupling of a scattering near-field scanning optical microscope combined with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The set-up operates using either the near-field thermal emission from the sample itself, which is proportional to the electromagnetic local density of states, or with an external infrared synchrotron source, which is broadband and highly brilliant. We perform imaging and spectroscopy measurements with sub-wavelength spatial resolution in the mid-infrared range on surfaces made of silicon carbide and gold and demonstrate the capabilities of the two configurations for super-resolved near-field mid-infrared hyperspectral imaging and that the simple use of a properly chosen bandpass filter on the detector allows one to image the spatial distribution of materials with sub-wavelength resolution by studying the contrast in the near-field images.

  11. Exploring the Use of Thermal Infrared Imaging in Human Stress Research

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Joshua A.; Cardone, Daniela; Tusche, Anita; Singer, Tania

    2014-01-01

    High resolution thermal infrared imaging is a pioneering method giving indices of sympathetic activity via the contact-free recording of facial tissues (thermal imprints). Compared to established stress markers, the great advantage of this method is its non-invasiveness. The goal of our study was to pilot the use of thermal infrared imaging in the classical setting of human stress research. Thermal imprints were compared to established stress markers (heart rate, heart rate variability, finger temperature, alpha-amylase and cortisol) in 15 participants undergoing anticipation, stress and recovery phases of two laboratory stress tests, the Cold Pressor Test and the Trier Social Stress Test. The majority of the thermal imprints proved to be change-sensitive in both tests. While correlations between the thermal imprints and established stress markers were mostly non-significant, the thermal imprints (but not the established stress makers) did correlate with stress-induced mood changes. Multivariate pattern analysis revealed that in contrast to the established stress markers the thermal imprints could not disambiguate anticipation, stress and recovery phases of both tests. Overall, these results suggest that thermal infrared imaging is a valuable method for the estimation of sympathetic activity in the stress laboratory setting. The use of this non-invasive method may be particularly beneficial for covert recordings, in the study of special populations showing difficulties in complying with the standard instruments of data collection and in the domain of psychophysiological covariance research. Meanwhile, the established stress markers seem to be superior when it comes to the characterization of complex physiological states during the different phases of the stress cycle. PMID:24675709

  12. Thermal Imaging with Novel Infrared Focal Plane Arrays and Quantitative Analysis of Thermal Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, S. D.; Rafol, S. B.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Mumolo, J. M.; Soibel, A.; Ting, D. Z.; Tidrow, Meimei

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a single long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) camera for thermography. This camera has been used to measure the temperature profile of patients. A pixel coregistered simultaneously reading mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR)/LWIR dual-band QWIP camera was developed to improve the accuracy of temperature measurements especially with objects with unknown emissivity. Even the dualband measurement can provide inaccurate results due to the fact that emissivity is a function of wavelength. Thus we have been developing a four-band QWIP camera for accurate temperature measurement of remote object.

  13. Thermal Evaluation of Scorched Graphite-Epoxy Panels by Infrared Scanning

    PubMed Central

    Slifka, A. J.; Hall, T.; Boltz, E. S.

    2003-01-01

    A simple measurement system is described for evaluating damage to graphite-epoxy panels, such as those used in high-performance aircraft. The system uses a heating laser and infrared imaging system to measure thermal performance. Thermal conductivity or diffusivity is a sensitive indicator of damage in materials, allowing this thermal measurement to show various degrees of damage in graphite-epoxy composites. Our measurements track well with heat-flux damage to graphite epoxy panels. This measurement system, including analysis software, could easily be used in the field, such as on the deck of an aircraft carrier or at remote air strips.

  14. Estimation of spectral emissivity in the thermal infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kryskowski, David; Maxwell, J. R.

    1993-01-01

    A number of algorithms are available in the literature that attempt to remove most of the effects of temperature from thermal multispectral data where the final goal is to extract emissivity differences. Early approaches include adjacent spectral band ratioing, broad band radiance normalization and the use of one band where emissivities are generally high (e.g., 11 to 12 micrometers) to determine the temperature. More recent work has produced two techniques that use data averaging to extract temperature to leave a quantity related to emissivity changes. These two techniques have been investigated and compared and appear to provide reasonable results. The analysis presented in this paper develops a thermal IR multispectral temperature/emissivity estimation procedure based on formal estimation theory, Gaussian statistics, and a stochastic radiance signal model including the effects of both temperature and emissivity. The importance of this work is that this is an optimal estimation procedure which will provide minimum variance estimates of temperature and emissivity changes directly. Section 2 discusses optimal linear spectral emissivity estimation and Section 3 is a summary.

  15. Uncooled infrared thermal imaging systems for law enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyle, Robert J. S.; Van Dover, Douglas K.

    1995-05-01

    For over 18 years, Texas Instruments (TI) has been developing low cost uncooled thermal imaging technology for night vision applications. Using technology developed with support from several government agencies, TI is offering this dual-use technology in a low cost system for police cruisers and other surveillance applications. TI has teamed with Highes Aircraft to provide NIGHTSIGHTTM, now being marketed jointly. Because NIGHSIGHT is a passive thermal image, it gives law enforcement officers the ability to see in total darkness. This capability gives the uncooled system distinct advantages over image intensifiers which require some degree of visible light. It also differs from typical cryogenic or cooled IR systems because it does not contain a cryogenic cooler mechanism or a scanner which lowers the complexity, costs, size, weight, and power consumption. Police across the US have tested prototype sensors with positive results. Police officers often praise the ability to see in total darkness and report the many advantages of the system and how it changes their perspective on law enforcement. Systems have also been provided to the Drug Enforcement Agency, INS border patrol, prison security staff, Baltimore-Washington International Airport security, Texas Parks and Wildlife Service and the Los Angeles Harbor Patrol and have been used in a variety of security and surveillance situations. The paper will address the implementation of the technology; discuss barriers to use such as cost, awareness, and system understanding, and examine the impact of the technology on the effectiveness of law enforcement at night.

  16. Demonstration of dual-band infrared thermal imaging for bridge inspection. Phase II, final report

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, P.F.; Del Grande, N.K.; Schaich, P.C.

    1996-03-01

    Developing and implementing methods of effective bridge rehabilitation is a major issue for the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). The nation spends $5 billion annually to replace, rehabilitate or construct new bridges. According to the National Bridge Inventory, over 100,000 U.S. bridges are structurally deficient. About 40,000 of these bridges have advanced deck deterioration. The most common causes of serious deck deterioration is delamination. Delaminations result when steel reinforcements within the bridge deck corrode, creating gaps that separate the concrete into layers. A reliable inspection technology, capable of identifying delaminations, would represent a power new tool in bridge maintenance. To date, most bridge inspections rely on human interpretation of surface visual features of chain dragging. These methods are slow, disruptive, unreliable and raise serious safety concerns. Infrared thermal imaging detects subsurface delaminations and surface clutter, which is introduced by foreign material on the roadway. Typically, foreign material which is not always evident on a video tape image, produces a unique IR reflectance background unlike the thermal response of a subsurface delamination. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) uses dual-band infrared (DBIR) thermal imaging to identify and remove nonthermal IR reflectance backgrounds from foreign material on the roadway. DBIR methods improve the performance of IR thermal imaging by a factor of ten, compared to single-band infrared (SBIR) methods. DBIR thermal imaging allows precise temperature measurement to reliably locate bridge deck delaminations and remove wavelength-dependent emissivity variations due to foreign material on the roadway.

  17. Thermal physical property-based fusion of geostationary meteorological satellite visible and infrared channel images.

    PubMed

    Han, Lei; Shi, Lu; Yang, Yiling; Song, Dalei

    2014-01-01

    Geostationary meteorological satellite infrared (IR) channel data contain important spectral information for meteorological research and applications, but their spatial resolution is relatively low. The objective of this study is to obtain higher-resolution IR images. One common method of increasing resolution fuses the IR data with high-resolution visible (VIS) channel data. However, most existing image fusion methods focus only on visual performance, and often fail to take into account the thermal physical properties of the IR images. As a result, spectral distortion occurs frequently. To tackle this problem, we propose a thermal physical properties-based correction method for fusing geostationary meteorological satellite IR and VIS images. In our two-step process, the high-resolution structural features of the VIS image are first extracted and incorporated into the IR image using regular multi-resolution fusion approach, such as the multiwavelet analysis. This step significantly increases the visual details in the IR image, but fake thermal information may be included. Next, the Stefan-Boltzmann Law is applied to correct the distortion, to retain or recover the thermal infrared nature of the fused image. The results of both the qualitative and quantitative evaluation demonstrate that the proposed physical correction method both improves the spatial resolution and preserves the infrared thermal properties. PMID:24919017

  18. Nighttime reactive nitrogen measurements from stratospheric infrared thermal emission observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, Mian M.; Kunde, Virgil G.; Brasunas, J. C.; Herman, J. R.; Massie, Steven T.

    1991-01-01

    IR thermal emission spectra of the earth's atmosphere in the 700-2000/cm region were obtained with a cryogenically cooled high-resolution interferometer spectrometer on a balloon flight from Palestine, Texas, on September 15-16, 1986. The observations exhibit spectral features of a number of stratospheric constituents, including important species of the reactive nitrogen family. An analysis of the observed data for simultaneously measured vertical distributions of O3, H2O, N2O, NO2, N2O5, HNO3, and ClONO2 is presented. These measurements permit the first direct determination of the nighttime total reactive nitrogen concentrations, and the partitioning of the important elements of the NO(x) family. Comparisons of the total reactive nitrogen budget are made with the measurements by the ATMOS experiment and with the predictions of one-dimensional and two-dimensional photochemical models.

  19. Thermal infrared remote sensing and Kirchhoff's law: 1. Laboratory measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, J. W.; Wald, A.; Daria, D. M.

    1993-01-01

    Kirchoff's Law, as originally conceived, applies only to samples in thermal equilibrium with their surroundings. Most laboratory measurements of emissivity only approach this condition and it never applies in remote sensing applications. In particular, the background is often much cooler than the radiating sample, and this has led to a long controversy about the applicability of Kirchhoff's Law under such conditions. It has also led to field and laboratory measurement techniques that use some form of the 'emissivity box' approach, which surrounds the sample with a background as close as possible to the sample temperature. In our experiments, we have heated soil samples in air on a hot plate in the laboratory to a much higher temperature than the room temperature background. Spectral emissivity was measured, except the known emissivities of both the primary and secondary Christiansen features were used, instead of assuming an emissivity of unity at these wavelengths. The results from this investigation are discussed in brief.

  20. Use of visible, near-infrared, and thermal infrared remote sensing to study soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, M. B.; Greeley, R.; Goettelman, R.

    1974-01-01

    Two methods are used to estimate soil moisture remotely using the 0.4- to 14.0-micron wavelength region: (1) measurement of spectral reflectance, and (2) measurement of soil temperature. The reflectance method is based on observations which show that directional reflectance decreases as soil moisture increases for a given material. The soil temperature method is based on observations which show that differences between daytime and nighttime soil temperatures decrease as moisture content increases for a given material. In some circumstances, separate reflectance or temperature measurements yield ambiguous data, in which case these two methods may be combined to obtain a valid soil moisture determination. In this combined approach, reflectance is used to estimate low moisture levels; and thermal inertia (or thermal diffusivity) is used to estimate higher levels. The reflectance method appears promising for surface estimates of soil moisture, whereas the temperature method appears promising for estimates of near-subsurface (0 to 10 cm).

  1. Use of visible, near-infrared, and thermal infrared remote sensing to study soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, M. B.; Greeley, R.; Goettelman, R.

    1974-01-01

    Two methods are described which are used to estimate soil moisture remotely using the 0.4- to 14.0 micron wavelength region: (1) measurement of spectral reflectance, and (2) measurement of soil temperature. The reflectance method is based on observations which show that directional reflectance decreases as soil moisture increases for a given material. The soil temperature method is based on observations which show that differences between daytime and nighttime soil temperatures decrease as moisture content increases for a given material. In some circumstances, separate reflectance or temperature measurements yield ambiguous data, in which case these two methods may be combined to obtain a valid soil moisture determination. In this combined approach, reflectance is used to estimate low moisture levels; and thermal inertia (or thermal diffusivity) is used to estimate higher levels. The reflectance method appears promising for surface estimates of soil moisture, whereas the temperature method appears promising for estimates of near-subsurface (0 to 10 cm).

  2. Mid and thermal infrared remote sensing at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, William R.; Hook, Simon J.

    2016-05-01

    The mid and thermal infrared (MTIR) for the Earth surface is defined between 3 and 14µm. In the outer solar system, objects are colder and their Planck response shifts towards longer wavelengths. Hence for these objects (e.g. icy moons, polar caps, comets, Europa), the thermal IR definition usually stretches out to 50µm and beyond. Spectroscopy has been a key part of this scientific exploration because of its ability to remotely determine elemental and mineralogical composition. Many key gas species such as methane, ammonia, sulfur, etc. also have vibrational bands which show up in the thermal infrared spectrum above the background response. Over the past few decades, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has been building up a portfolio of technology to capture the MTIR for various scientific applications. Three recent sensors are briefly reviewed: The airborne Hyperspectral thermal emission spectrometer (HyTES), the ECOsystem Spaceborne Thermal Radiometer Experiment on Space Station (ECOSTRESS) and Mars Climate Sounder (MCS)/DIVINER. Each of these sensors utilize a different technology to provide a remote sensing product based on MTIR science. For example, HyTES is a push-brooming hyperspectral imager which utilizes a large format quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP). The goal is to transition this to a new complementary barrier infrared photodetector (CBIRD) with a similar long wave cut-off and increased sensitivity. ECOSTRESS is a push-whisk Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) based high speed, multi-band, imager which will eventually observe and characterize plant/vegetation functionality and stress index from the International Space Station (ISS) across the contiguous United States (CONUS). MCS/DIVINER utilizes thermopile technology to capture the thermal emission from the polar caps and shadow regions of the moon. Each sensor utilizes specific JPL technology to capture unique science.

  3. Monitoring vegetation cover changes over a semi-arid rangeland with multispectral ASTER thermal infrared emissivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, A. N.; Schmugge, T.; Ritchie, J.; Hsu, A.; Jacob, F.; Ogawa, K.; Inamdar, A.

    2006-12-01

    Observations of land surface temperatures with thermal infrared are an important and crucial application of satellite remote sensing that the value of multispectral thermal infrared emissivities, a measurement component, may be overlooked. Spectral emissivities, retrievable from sensors such as ASTER and MODIS provide indispensable data for more accurate land surface temperature estimates and characterization of land surface cover. This study addresses the latter issue, whereby long-term changes in vegetation canopy densities can be detected in a way independent of more conventional vegetation indices such as NDVI. Thermal emissivities are dependent upon the surface geometry and are especially variable over sparse vegetation. When viewing such terrain, emissivities range in values from 0.8-0.9 represent dry soils and up to 0.98-0.99 represent vegetation. Using ASTER's 90 m multispectral thermal infrared capability, a sequence of 21 scenes were acquired for 2001-2003 over the New Mexico semi-arid rangeland, Jornada. These were calibrated, atmospherically corrected, georegistered, then converted to spectral and broadband emissivities. Analysis of the scenes reveals spatially coherent patches of grass and shrubland showing decreasing emissivities on the order of 1% per 3 years. The observed patterns could be due to long-term soil surface texture or moisture changes, but a more likely explanation is decreased vegetation density. A significant benefit of emissivity monitoring, particularly at 8-9.5 μm wavelengths, is its independence from vegetation greenness, which means thermal infrared assessments can be a useful canopy density estimator year-round. When used in conjunction with NDVI, thermal data can help discriminate soils from both green and senescent vegetation.

  4. Recent advances in airborne terrestrial remote sensing with the NASA airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS), airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR), and thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, Gregg; Evans, Diane L.; Kahle, Anne B.

    1989-01-01

    Significant progress in terrestrial remote sensing from the air has been made with three NASA-developed sensors that collectively cover the solar-reflected, thermal infrared, and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. These sensors are the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS), the thermal infrared mapping spectrometer (TIMS) and the airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR), respectively. AVIRIS and SAR underwent extensive in-flight engineering testing in 1987 and 1988 and are scheduled to become operational in 1989. TIMS has been in operation for several years. These sensors are described.

  5. Evaluation of thermal stability of indinavir sulphate using diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Parul; Premkumar, L; Mehrotra, Ranjana; Kandpal, H C; Bakhshi, A K

    2008-06-01

    Indinavir sulphate is a potent and specific protease inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It is used for the treatment of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). At elevated temperature the drug which otherwise remains crystalline undergoes a phase transition to an amorphous phase to form degradation products. In the present study, thermal stability of indinavir sulphate is evaluated using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy. Infrared spectra of the drug before and after the exposure to thermal radiation at different temperatures were acquired in the diffuse reflectance mode using a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometer. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies were used as complimentary techniques to adequately implement and assist the interpretation of the infrared spectroscopy results. The DRIFT spectra reveal that the drug remains stable up to 100 degrees C, degrades slightly at 125 degrees C and undergoes complete degradation at about 150 degrees C to produce degradation products. The degradation products can easily be characterized using the infrared spectra. PMID:18280078

  6. Thermal compensator for closed-cycle helium refrigerator. [assuring constant temperature for an infrared laser diode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, D. E.; Hillman, J. J. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    The wave length of an infrared, semiconductor laser diode having an output frequency that is dependent on the diode temperature is maintained substantially constant by maintaining the diode temperature constant. The diode is carried by a cold tip of a closed cycle helium refrigerator. The refrigerator has a tendency to cause the temperature of the cold tip to oscillate. A heater diode and a sensor diode are placed on a thermal heat sink that is the only highly conductive thermal path between the laser diode and the cold tip. The heat sink has a small volume and low thermal capacitance so that the sensing diode is at substantially the same temperature as the heater diode and substantially no thermal lag exists between them. The sensor diode is connected in a negative feedback circuit with the heater diode so that the tendency of the laser diode to thermally oscillate is virtually eliminated.

  7. MERTIS: geometrical calibration of thermal infrared optical system by applying diffractive optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, M.; Baumbach, D.; Buder, M.; Börner, A.; Grießbach, D.; Peter, G.; Santier, E.; Säuberlich, T.; Schischmanow, A.; Schrader, S.; Walter, I.

    2015-09-01

    Geometrical sensor calibration is essential for space applications based on high accuracy optical measurements, in this case for the thermal infrared push-broom imaging spectrometer MERTIS. The goal is the determination of the interior sensor orientation. A conventional method is to measure the line of sight for a subset of pixels by single pixel illumination with collimated light. To adjust angles, which define the line of sight of a pixel, a manipulator construction is used. A new method for geometrical sensor calibration is using Diffractive Optical Elements (DOE) in connection with laser beam equipment. Diffractive optical elements (DOE) are optical microstructures, which are used to split an incoming laser beam with a dedicated wavelength into a number of beams with well-known propagation directions. As the virtual sources of the diffracted beams are points at infinity, the resulting image is invariant against translation. This particular characteristic allows a complete geometrical sensor calibration with only one taken image avoiding complex adjustment procedures, resulting in a significant reduction of calibration effort. We present a new method for geometrical calibration of a thermal infrared optical system, including an thermal infrared test optics and the MERTIS spectrometer bolometer detector. The fundamentals of this new approach for geometrical infrared optical systems calibration by applying diffractive optical elements and the test equipment are shown.

  8. Analysis of urban regions using AVHRR thermal infrared data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    Using 1-km AVHRR satellite data, relative temperature difference caused by conductivity and inertia were used to distinguish urban and non urban land covers. AVHRR data that were composited on a biweekly basis and distributed by the EROS Data Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, were used for the classification process. These composited images are based on the maximum normalized different vegetation index (NDVI) of each pixel during the 2-week period using channels 1 and 2. The resultant images are nearly cloud-free and reduce the need for extensive reclassification processing. Because of the physiographic differences between the Eastern and Western United States, the initial study was limited to the eastern half of the United States. In the East, the time of maximum difference between the urban surfaces and the vegetated non urban areas is the peak greenness period in late summer. A composite image of the Eastern United States for the 2-weel time period from August 30-Septmeber 16, 1991, was used for the extraction of the urban areas. Two channels of thermal data (channels 3 and 4) normalized for regional temperature differences and a composited NDVI image were classified using conventional image processing techniques. The results compare favorably with other large-scale urban area delineations.

  9. Thermal radiation characteristics of silicon inverse opal in mid infrared range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jing; Xie, Kai

    2015-03-01

    A binary solvent with large density was used as dispersant for silica spheres, in which silica spheres with large diameter can suspend steadily and disperse very well. With this suspension, fine opals with 2100 nm SiO2 mono-disperse spheres were successfully prepared by solvent evaporation method. Low pressure vapor deposition method was then used to fill the voids of the silica opals with Si, and silicon inverse opal with photonic band gaps in mid infrared region was obtained. The infrared radiation characteristic of resulted sample was examined. It is shown that silicon inverse opal structure is effective in suppressing silicon thermal radiation in the photonic band gap spectral region.

  10. Exploring the Effects of Dust Coatings and Shock Pressures on Thermal Infrared Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. R.; Lucey, P. G.; Christensen, P. R.; Hoerz, F.

    1999-01-01

    Dust coatings on rocks obscured the underlying rock surfaces at the Mars Pathfinder landing site and made it difficult to obtain pristine visible/near-infrared reflectance spectra and chemical measurements. Such dust coatings also affect the ability of thermal infrared (TIR) spectra (such as that provided by TES and future lander (mini-TES) and orbiter multispectral imaging systems (THEMIS) to reveal accurately the mineralogy of rocks and soils. Similarly, high shock pressures from impact events cause crystalline disorder in important minerals such as pyroxene and feldspar that also affects their TIR spectra and complicates spectral interpretation of shocked impact materials. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  11. Thermal infrared remote sensing of surface features for renewable resource applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welker, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    The subjects of infrared remote sensing of surface features for renewable resource applications is reviewed with respect to the basic physical concepts involved at the Earth's surface and up through the atmosphere, as well as the historical development of satellite systems which produce such data at increasingly greater spatial resolution. With this general background in hand, the growth of a variety of specific renewable resource applications using the developing thermal infrared technology are discussed, including data from HCMM investigators. Recommendations are made for continued growth in this field of applications.

  12. Spectral Analysis of the Primary Flight Focal Plane Arrays for the Thermal Infrared Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montanaro, Matthew; Reuter, Dennis C.; Markham, Brian L.; Thome, Kurtis J.; Lunsford, Allen W.; Jhabvala, Murzy D.; Rohrbach, Scott O.; Gerace, Aaron D.

    2011-01-01

    Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) is a (1) New longwave infrared (10 - 12 micron) sensor for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission, (2) 185 km ground swath; 100 meter pixel size on ground, (3) Pushbroom sensor configuration. Issue of Calibration are: (1) Single detector -- only one calibration, (2) Multiple detectors - unique calibration for each detector -- leads to pixel-to-pixel artifacts. Objectives are: (1) Predict extent of residual striping when viewing a uniform blackbody target through various atmospheres, (2) Determine how different spectral shapes affect the derived surface temperature in a realistic synthetic scene.

  13. [Study on estimation of deserts soil total phosphorus content from thermal-infrared emissivity].

    PubMed

    Hou, Yan-jun; Tiyip, Tashpolat; Zhang, Fei; Sawut, Mamat; Nurmemet, Ilyas

    2015-02-01

    Soil phosphorus provides nutrient elements for plants, is one of important parameters for evaluating soil quality. The traditional method for soil total phosphorus content (STPC) measurement is not effective and time-consuming. However, remote sensing (RS) enables us to determine STPC in a fast and efficient way. Studies on the estimation of STPC in near-infrared spectroscopy have been developed by scholars, but model accuracy is still poor due to the low absorption coefficient and unclear absorption peak of soil phosphorus in near-infrared. In order to solve the deficiency which thermal-infrared emissivity estimate desert soil total phosphorus content, and could improve precision of estimation deserts soil total phosphorus. In this paper, characteristics of soil thermal-infrared emissivity are analyzed on the basis of laboratory processing and spectral measurement of deserts soil samples from the eastern Junggar Basin. Furthermore, thermal-infrared emissivity based RS models for STPC estimation are established and accuracy assessed. Results show that: when STPC is higher than 0.200 g x kg(-1), the thermal-infrared emissivity increases with the increase of STPC on the wavelength between 8.00 microm and 13 microm, and the emissivity is more sensitive to STPC on the wavelength between 9.00 and 9.6 microm; the estimate mode based on multiple stepwise regression was could not to estimate deserts soil total phosphorus content from thermal-infrared emissivity because the estimation effects of them were poor. The estimation accuracy of model based on partial least squares regression is higher than the model based on multiple stepwise regression. However, the accuracy of second-order differential estimation model based on partial least square regression is higher than based on multiple stepwise regression; The first differential of continuous remove estimation model based on partial least squares regression is the best model with R2 of correction and verification are up to

  14. The remote sensing of aquatic macrophytes Part 1: Color-infrared aerial photography as a tool for identification and mapping of littoral vegetation. Part 2: Aerial photography as a quantitative tool for the investigation of aquatic ecosystems. [Lake Wingra, Wisconsin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustafson, T. D.; Adams, M. S.

    1973-01-01

    Research was initiated to use aerial photography as an investigative tool in studies that are part of an intensive aquatic ecosystem research effort at Lake Wingra, Madison, Wisconsin. It is anticipated that photographic techniques would supply information about the growth and distribution of littoral macrophytes with efficiency and accuracy greater than conventional methods.

  15. Thermal cycling reliability of indirect hybrid HgCdTe infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xing; He, Kai; Wang, Jian-xin; Zhang, Qin-yao

    2013-09-01

    Thermal cycling reliability is one of the most important issues whether the HgCdTe infrared focal plane array detectors can be applied to both military and civil fields. In this paper, a 3D finite element model for indirect hybrid HgCdTe infrared detectors is established. The thermal stress distribution and thermally induced warpage of the detector assembly as a function of the distance between the detector chip and Si-ROIC, the thickness and the materials properties of electrical lead board in cryogenic temperature are analyzed. The results show that all these parameters have influences on the thermal stress distribution and warpage of the detector assembly, especially the coefficient of thermal expansion(CTE) of electrical lead board. The thermal stress and warpage in the assembly can be avoided or minimized by choosing the appropriate electrical lead board. Additionally, the warpage of some indirect hybrid detectors assembly samples is measured in experiment. The experimental results are in good agreement with the simulation results, which verifies that the results are calculated by finite element method are reasonable.

  16. Thermal removal from near-infrared imaging spectroscopy data of the Moon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, R.N.; Pieters, C.M.; Green, R.O.; Boardman, J.W.; Petro, N.E.

    2011-01-01

    In the near-infrared from about 2 ??m to beyond 3 ??m, the light from the Moon is a combination of reflected sunlight and emitted thermal emission. There are multiple complexities in separating the two signals, including knowledge of the local solar incidence angle due to topography, phase angle dependencies, emissivity, and instrument calibration. Thermal emission adds to apparent reflectance, and because the emission's contribution increases over the reflected sunlight with increasing wavelength, absorption bands in the lunar reflectance spectra can be modified. In particular, the shape of the 2 ??m pyroxene band can be distorted by thermal emission, changing spectrally determined pyroxene composition and abundance. Because of the thermal emission contribution, water and hydroxyl absorptions are reduced in strength, lowering apparent abundances. It is important to quantify and remove the thermal emission for these reasons. We developed a method for deriving the temperature and emissivity from spectra of the lunar surface and removing the thermal emission in the near infrared. The method is fast enough that it can be applied to imaging spectroscopy data on the Moon. Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Thermal infrared remote sensing of water temperature in riverine landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handcock, Rebecca N.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Cherkauer, Keith A.; Gillespie, Alan R.; Klement, Tockner; Faux, Russell N.; Tan, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Water temperature in riverine landscapes is an important regional indicator of water quality that is influenced by both ground- and surface-water inputs, and indirectly by land use in the surrounding watershed (Brown and Krygier, 1970; Beschta et al., 1987; Chen et al., 1998; Poole and Berman, 2001).Coldwater fishes such as salmon and trout are sensitive to elevated water temperature; therefore, water temperature must meet management guidelines and quality standards, which aim to create a healthy environment for endangered populations (McCullough et al., 2009). For example, in the USA, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established water quality standards to identify specific temperature criteria to protect coldwater fishes (Environmental Protection Agency, 2003). Trout and salmon can survive in cool-water refugia even when temperatures at other measurement locations are at or above the recommended maximums (Ebersole et al., 2001; Baird and Krueger, 2003; High et al., 2006). Spatially extensive measurements of water temperature are necessary to locate these refugia, to identify the location of ground- and surface-water inputs to the river channel, and to identify thermal pollution sources. Regional assessment of water temperature in streams and rivers has been limited by sparse sampling in both space and time. Water temperature has typically been measured using a network of widely distributed instream gages, which record the temporal change of the bulk, or kinetic, temperature of the water (Tk) at specific locations. For example, the State of Washington (USA) recorded water quality conditions at 76 stations within the Puget Lowlands eco region, which contains 12,721 km of streams and rivers (Washington Department of Ecology, 1998). Such gages are sparsely distributed, are typically located only in larger streams and rivers, and give limited information about the spatial distribution of water temperature.

  18. Thermal response of large area high temperature superconducting YBaCuO infrared bolometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khalil, Ali E.

    1990-01-01

    Thermal analysis of large area high temperature superconducting infrared detector operating in the equilibrium mode (bolometer) was performed. An expression for the temperature coefficient beta=1/R(dR/dT) in terms of the thermal conductance and the thermal time constant of the detector were derived. A superconducting transition edge bolometer is a thermistor consisting of a thin film superconducting YBaCuO evaporated into a suitable thermally isolated substrate. The operating temperature of the bolometer is maintained close to the midpoint of the superconducting transition region where the resistance R has a maximum dynamic range. A detector with a strip configuration was analyzed and an expression for the temperature rise (delta T) above the ambient due to a uniform illumination with a source of power density P(sub i) was calculated. An expression for the thermal responsivity of the detector was derived using the thermal diffusion analysis with appropriate boundary conditions. It was found that the thermal responsibility depends upon the spatial modulation frequency and the angular frequency of the incoming radiation. The problem of the thermal cross talk between different detector elements was addressed. In the case of monolithic HTS detector array with a row of square elements of dimensions 2a and CCD or CID readout electronics the thermal spread function was derived for different spacing between elements. This analysis can be critical for future design and applications of large area focal plane arrays as broad band optical detectors made of granular thin films HTS YBaCuO.

  19. Method for measuring thermal properties using a long-wavelength infrared thermal image

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Charles L.; Costin, Laurence S.; Smith, Jody L.; Moya, Mary M.; Mercier, Jeffrey A.

    2007-01-30

    A method for estimating the thermal properties of surface materials using long-wavelength thermal imagery by exploiting the differential heating histories of ground points in the vicinity of shadows. The use of differential heating histories of different ground points of the same surface material allows the use of a single image acquisition step to provide the necessary variation in measured parameters for calculation of the thermal properties of surface materials.

  20. Infrared Thermography as Applied to Thermal Testing of Power Systems Circuit Boards.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Jonathan James

    All operational electronic equipment dissipates some amount of energy in the form of infrared radiation. Faulty electronic components on a printed circuit board can be categorized as hard (functional) or soft (latent functional). Hard faults are those which are detected during a conventional manufacturing electronic test process. Soft failures, in contrast, are those which are undetectable through conventional testing, but which manifest themselves after a product has been placed into service. Such field defective modules ultimately result in operational failure and subsequently enter a manufacturer's costly repair process. While thermal imaging systems are being used increasingly in the electronic equipment industry as a product-testing tool, applications have primarily been limited to product design or repair processes, with minimal use in a volume manufacturing environment. Use of thermal imaging systems in such an environment has mostly been limited to low-volume products or random screening of high-volume products. Thermal measurements taken in a manufacturing environment are often taken manually, thus defeating their capability of rapid data acquisition and constraining their full potential in a high-volume manufacturing process. Integration of a thermal measurement system with automated testing equipment is essential for optimal use of expensive infrared measurement tools in a high-volume manufacturing environment. However, such a marriage presents problems with respect to both existing manufacturing test processes and infrared measurement techniques. Methods are presented in this dissertation to test automatically for latent faults, those which elude detection during conventional electronic testing, on printed circuit boards. These methods are intended for implementation in a volume manufacturing environment and involve the application of infrared imaging tools. Successful incorporation of infrared testing into existing test processes requires that: PASS

  1. Methane Retrievals in the Thermal and Short-Wave Infrared from IASI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knappett, D.; Siddans, R.; Kerridge, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    RAL has developed an optimal estimation scheme to retrieve global height-resolved information on methane from IASI measurements in the thermal infrared (7.9 micron) band. The use of IASI thermal infrared observations produces methane data at relatively high spatial resolution, both day and night, over land and ocean. The retrieval scheme extracts two independent pieces of information on the profile, with sensitivity extending into the lower troposphere. Column-averaged mixing ratios are derived from the retrieved profile with a precision of 20-40 ppbv. The retrieval scheme has been extensively validated and shown to perform well in comparison with column-averages from both ground-based observations (TCCON) and from the satellite short-wave infrared sounder GOSAT; a paper is currently in preparation (R.Siddans et al., 'Global height-resolved methane retrievals from IASI'). A limitation of thermal infrared retrievals is that sensitivity to the boundary layer is low compared to short-wave infrared sounders. However, IASI also measures methane lines in the 3.7 micron spectral range, where there is significant solar contribution in the daytime over land. Utilising this spectral region therefore has the potential to increase IASI sensitivity to methane in the boundary layer, although the 3.7 micron band has yet to be exploited due to the complexity of modelling both solar and thermal contributions to the measurements and the relatively high noise level of IASI in this spectral region. A continuous series of observations are planned by IASI on MetOp-A, -B and -C, followed by IASI-NG on MetOp-SG, covering the period from 2007-2040. Here we present 7 years of global methane retrievals from IASI MetOp-A thermal infrared data, spanning the period 2007-2013, along with validation and model comparison results. We also present early findings from an investigation into the potential of adding information on near-surface methane by exploiting the 3.7 micron band.

  2. LATERAL HEAT FLOW INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY FOR THICKNESS INDEPENDENT DETERMINATION OF THERMAL DIFFUSIVITY IN CFRP

    SciTech Connect

    Tralshawala, Nilesh; Howard, Don; Knight, Bryon; Plotnikov, Yuri; Ringermacher, Harry

    2008-02-28

    In conventional infrared thermography, determination of thermal diffusivity requires thickness information. Recently GE has been experimenting with the use of lateral heat flow to determine thermal diffusivity without thickness information. This work builds on previous work at NASA Langley and Wayne State University but we incorporate thermal time of flight (tof) analysis rather than curve fitting to obtain quantitative information. We have developed appropriate theoretical models and a tof based data analysis framework to experimentally determine all components of thermal diffusivity from the time-temperature measurements. Initial validation was carried out using finite difference simulations. Experimental validation was done using anisotropic carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites. We found that in the CFRP samples used, the in-plane component of diffusivity is about eight times larger than the through-thickness component.

  3. Lateral Heat Flow Infrared Thermography for Thickness Independent Determination of Thermal Diffusivity in CFRP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tralshawala, Nilesh; Howard, Don; Knight, Bryon; Plotnikov, Yuri; Ringermacher, Harry

    2008-02-01

    In conventional infrared thermography, determination of thermal diffusivity requires thickness information. Recently GE has been experimenting with the use of lateral heat flow to determine thermal diffusivity without thickness information. This work builds on previous work at NASA Langley and Wayne State University but we incorporate thermal time of flight (tof) analysis rather than curve fitting to obtain quantitative information. We have developed appropriate theoretical models and a tof based data analysis framework to experimentally determine all components of thermal diffusivity from the time-temperature measurements. Initial validation was carried out using finite difference simulations. Experimental validation was done using anisotropic carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites. We found that in the CFRP samples used, the in-plane component of diffusivity is about eight times larger than the through-thickness component.

  4. Surfaces of Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto: an investigation using Voyager IRIS thermal infrared spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    In 1979, the IRIS infrared spectrometers on the two Voyager spacecraft obtained over 1000 disk-resolved thermal emission spectra of Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto, Jupiter's three large icy satellites. This dissertation describes the first detailed analysis of this data set. Ganymede and Callisto subsolar temperatures are 10 and 5/sup 0/K, respectively, below equilibrium values. Equatorial nighttime temperatures are between 100 and 75/sup 0/K, Callisto and Europa being colder than Ganymede. The diurnal temperature profiles can be matched by 2-layer surfaces that are also consistent with the eclipse cooling observed from earth, though previous eclipse models underestimated thermal inertias by about 50%. Substrate thermal inertias in the 2-layer models are a factor of several lower than for solid ice. These are cold spots on Ganymede and Callisto that are not high-albedo regions, which may indicate large thermal inertia anomalies.

  5. Detection of Surface Temperature Anomalies in the Coso Geothermal Field Using Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coolbaugh, M.; Eneva, M.; Bjornstad, S.; Combs, J.

    2007-12-01

    We use thermal infrared (TIR) data from the spaceborne ASTER instrument to detect surface temperature anomalies in the Coso geothermal field in eastern California. The identification of such anomalies in a known geothermal area serves as an incentive to search for similar markers to areas of unknown geothermal potential. We carried out field measurements concurrently with the collection of ASTER images. The field data included reflectance, subsurface and surface temperatures, and radiosonde atmospheric profiles. We apply techniques specifically targeted to correct for thermal artifacts caused by topography, albedo, and thermal inertia. This approach has the potential to reduce data noise and to reveal thermal anomalies which are not distinguishable in the uncorrected imagery. The combination of remote sensing and field data can be used to evaluate the performance of TIR remote sensing as a cost-effective geothermal exploration tool.

  6. Efficient far-infrared thermal bremsstrahlung radiation from a heterojunction bipolar transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Pei-Kang; Yen, Shun-Tung

    2015-08-28

    We investigate the far-infrared thermal radiation properties of a heterojunction bipolar transistor. The device conveniently provides a high electric field for electrons to heat the lattice and the electron gas in a background with ions embedded. Because of very high effective temperature of the electron gas in the collector, the electron-ion bremsstrahlung makes efficient the thermal radiation in the far-infrared region. The transistor can yield a radiation power of 0.1 mW with the spectral region between 2 and 75 THz and a power conversion efficiency of 6 × 10{sup −4}. Such output contains a power of 20 μW in the low-frequency part (2–20 THz) of the spectrum.

  7. Thermal stability of piezoelectric properties and infrared sensor performance of spin-coated polyurea thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimoto, Masahiro; Koshiba, Yasuko; Misaki, Masahiro; Ishida, Kenji

    2015-10-01

    We have investigated the temperature dependence of the piezoelectric coefficients and infrared sensor performance of spin-coated thin films of polyundecylurea (PUA11). The piezoelectric coefficients of the PUA11 films remained constant at temperatures above 180 °C and these films demonstrated thermal resistance superior to those of poly(vinylidene fluoride/trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF/TrFE)] films. The infrared sensor performance of the PUA11 films was measured after annealing at 125 °C for 500 h and was found to have retained 84% of its preannealing level. The thermal stability of the PUA11 films was higher than that of the P(VDF/TrFE) films; moreover, PUA11 is also expected to have superior electrothermal stability.

  8. CENTAURS AND SCATTERED DISK OBJECTS IN THE THERMAL INFRARED: ANALYSIS OF WISE/NEOWISE OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, James M.; Grav, Tommy; Blauvelt, Erin; Collaboration: WISE Team; PTF Team; and others

    2013-08-10

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) observed 52 Centaurs and scattered disk objects (SDOs) in the thermal infrared, including 15 new discoveries. We present analyses of these observations to estimate sizes and mean optical albedos. We find mean albedos of 0.08 {+-} 0.04 for the entire data set. Thermal fits yield average beaming parameters of 0.9 {+-} 0.2 that are similar for both SDO and Centaur sub-classes. Biased cumulative size distributions yield size-frequency distribution power law indices of {approx}-1.7 {+-} 0.3. The data also reveal a relation between albedo and color at the 3{sigma} level. No significant relation between diameter and albedos is found.

  9. Multispectral thermal infrared mapping of the 1 October 1988 Kupaianaha flow field, Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Realmuto, Vincent J.; Hon, Ken; Kahle, Anne B.; Abbott, Elsa A.; Pieri, David C.

    1992-01-01

    Multispectral thermal infrared radiance measurements of the Kupaianaha flow field were acquired with the NASA airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) on the morning of 1 October 1988. The TIMS data were used to map both the temperature and emissivity of the surface of the flow field. The temperature map depicted the underground storage and transport of lava. The presence of molten lava in a tube or tumulus resulted in surface temperatures that were at least 10 C above ambient. The temperature map also clearly defined the boundaries of hydrothermal plumes which resulted from the entry of lava into the ocean. The emissivity map revealed the boundaries between individual flow units within the Kupaianaha field. Distinct spectral anomalies, indicative of silica-rich surface materials, were mapped near fumaroles and ocean entry sites. This apparent enrichment in silica may have resulted from an acid-induced leaching of cations from the surfaces of glassy flows.

  10. Demonstration of dual-band infrared thermal imaging at Grass Valley Creek bridges

    SciTech Connect

    Del Grande, N. K.; Durbin, P.F.; Logan, C.M.; Perkins, D.E.; Schich, P.C.

    1996-11-01

    We demonstrated dual-band infrared (DBIR) thermal imaging at the Grass Valley Creek Bridges near Redding CA. DBIR thermal imaging is an enabling technology for rapid, reliable, bridge deck inspections while minimizing lane closures. bridge-deck inspections were conducted from a mobile DBIR bridge inspection laboratory during November 2-3, 1995. We drove this self-contained unit at limited highway speeds over 0.4 lane miles of bridge deck. Using two thermal IR bands, we distinguished delaminations from clutter. Clutter, or unwanted thermal detail, occurs from foreign materials or uneven shade on the bridge deck surface. By mapping the DBIR spectral- response differences at 3-5 {mu}m and 8-12 {mu}m, we removed foreign material clutter. By mapping the deck diurnal thermal inertia variations, we removed clutter from uneven shade. Thermal inertia is a bulk deck property, the square root of thermal conductivity x density x heat capacity. Delaminated decks have below-average thermal inertias, or above-average day-night temperature excursions. Compared to normal decks areas, delaminated deck areas were typically 2 or 3 {degrees}C warmer at noon, and 0.5{degrees}C cooler at night. The mobile DBIR bridge inspection laboratory is currently undergoing extensive testing to examine bridges by the Federal Highway Administration.

  11. Compensating the Degradation of Near-Infrared Absorption of Black Silicon Caused by Thermal Annealing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanchao; Gao, Jinsong; Yang, Haigui; Wang, Xiaoyi; Shen, Zhenfeng

    2016-12-01

    We propose the use of thin Ag film deposition to remedy the degradation of near-infrared (NIR) absorption of black Si caused by high-temperature thermal annealing. A large amount of random and irregular Ag nanoparticles are formed on the microstructural surface of black Si after Ag film deposition, which compensates the degradation of NIR absorption of black Si caused by thermal annealing. The formation of Ag nanoparticles and their contributions to NIR absorption of black Si are discussed in detail. PMID:26831694

  12. Physical properties (particle size, rock abundance) from thermal infrared remote observations: Implications for Mars landing sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, P. R.; Edgett, Kenneth S.

    1994-01-01

    Critical to the assessment of potential sites for the 1997 Pathfinder landing is estimation of general physical properties of the martian surface. Surface properties have been studied using a variety of spacecraft and earth-based remote sensing observations, plus in situ studies at the Viking lander sites. Because of their value in identifying landing hazards and defining scientific objectives, we focus this discussion on thermal inertia and rock abundance derived from middle-infrared (6 to 30 microns) observations. Used in conjunction with other datasets, particularly albedo and Viking orbiter images, thermal inertia and rock abundance provide clues about the properties of potential Mars landing sites.

  13. MTI Thermal Bands Calibration at Ivanpah Playa with a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Villa-Aleman, E.

    2001-06-27

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) is currently calibrating the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) satellite sponsored by the Department of Energy. The reflective bands of the MTI satellite are calibrated in desert playas such as Ivanpah Playa in the Nevada/California border. The five MTI thermal bands are calibrated with targets of known emissivity and temperature such as power plant heated lakes. In order to accomplish a full calibration at the desert playas, a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer was used to measure soil surface radiance and temperature during the satellite overpass. The results obtained with the mobile FTIR during the ground truth campaign at Ivanpah Playa will be presented.

  14. Evaluation of high temperature superconductive thermal bridges for space-borne cryogenic infrared detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Elaine P.

    1993-01-01

    The focus of this research is on the reduction of the refrigeration requirements for infrared sensors operating in space through the use of high temperature superconductive (HTS) materials as electronic leads between the cooled sensors and the relatively warmer data acquisition components. Specifically, this initial study was directed towards the design of an experiment to quantify the thermal performance of these materials in the space environment. First, an intensive review of relevant literature was undertaken, and then, design requirements were formulated. From this background information, a preliminary experimental design was developed. Additional studies will involve a thermal analysis of the experiment and further modifications of the experimental design.

  15. All-optical athermalization of infrared imaging systems using thermally dependent binary phase masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmalem, Shay; Marom, Emanuel

    2016-06-01

    Lenses used in many infrared (IR) imaging systems are temperature sensitive. One of the most popular IR optical materials for lens fabrication is germanium; nevertheless, it exhibits a strong temperature dependent refractive index, causing significant thermal focal shift which in turn results in image blur. An all-optical solution for IR lens athermalization with no moving parts based on a thermally dependent binary phase mask is hereby proposed and analyzed. It allows high quality imaging to be obtained for a wide range of temperature variations, with minimal performance degradation at nominal temperature conditions.

  16. Prospective for graphene based thermal mid-infrared light emitting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawton, L. M.; Mahlmeister, N. H.; Luxmoore, I. J.; Nash, G. R.

    2014-08-01

    We have investigated the spatial and spectral characteristics of mid-infrared thermal emission from large area Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) graphene, transferred onto SiO2/Si, and show that the emission is broadly that of a grey-body emitter, with emissivity values of approximately 2% and 6% for mono- and multilayer graphene. For the currents used, which could be sustained for over one hundred hours, the emission peaked at a wavelength of around 4 μm and covered the characteristic absorption of many important gases. A measurable modulation of thermal emission was obtained even when the drive current was modulated at frequencies up to 100 kHz.

  17. NOAA-10 AVHRR thermal-infrared image of the Colorado Rocky Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallo, Kevin P.; Quirk, Bruce K.; Hood, Joy J.

    1988-01-01

    This month we demonstrate an example of the use of thermal infrared imagery to produce a relatively sharp surrogate shaded-relief image. The image shows one aspect of the drama and usefulness of calibrated thermal imagery that (because of compatible projection and pixel size) can be easily combined with other spectral bands of a satellite image. Such data can be enhanced in yet another way by stereoscopically combining two similar images with different orbital paths, such as was shown in the AVHRR column for January 1988.

  18. Research on the controlling thermal defocus aberration for the infrared imaging system based on wavefront coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Di; Dong, Liquan; Zhao, Yuejin; Liu, Xiaohua; Li, Cuiling; Guo, Xiaohu; Zhao, Zhu; Wu, Yijian

    2014-09-01

    We describe the application of wavefront coding technique for infrared imaging system to control thermal defocus. For traditional infrared imaging system, athermalization is necessary to maintain imaging performance which may increase complexity and cost of the imaging system. Wavefront coding includes a phase mask at the pupil which can re-modulate wave front so as to produce an encoded image. After digital processing, the system is insensitive to defocus. In this paper, the combination of wavefront coding technique and infrared imaging system has been discussed. We report here the optic design of the wavefront coding IR system based on Zemax. The phase mask is designed to ensure that the modulation transfer function (MTF) is approximately invariant in the range of working temperature. Meanwhile, we designed three IR systems to put up contrast experiments. System one and two are designed to compare the influence before and after the insertion of phase mask. System three is designed to compare the imaging performance before and after reducing lens in wavefront coding IR system. The simulation results show that the infrared imaging system based on wavefront coding can control thermal defocus in a temperature varying from -60ºC to 60 ºC, at the same time the weight and cost of optical elements are reduced by approximately 40%.

  19. Thermal-infrared remote sensing and Kirchhoff's Law. 1: Laboratory measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, John W.; Wald, Andrew; D'Aria, Dana M.

    1994-01-01

    By the end of this century the Earth Observing System (EOS) will provide worldwide, thermal infrared, multispectral images of the Earth, presenting geologists with a new kind of remote sensing data for interpretation. Thus it has become essential to understand the spectral emittance behavior of terrestrial surface materials. Perhaps the most fundamental question to be answereed is the extent to which such materials follow Kirchhoff's law (epsilon = 1 -R) under laboratory and field conditions, especially when a sample displays a thermal gradient. We present the first rigorous quantitative comparison of directional and hemispherical reflectance and directional emittance of rock and soil samples in the laboratory, with thermal gradients induced by heating them from below and allowing them to radiate to a colder background. The results show that only an extemeley low density sample composed of fine particles sifted into a 'fairy castle' structure displays a thermal gradient steep enough within the infrared skin depth to cause significant (6%) departure from Kirchhoff's law. There is no detectable effect on the more normal terrestrial samples, such as soils and rocks measured in the laboratory, even when semitransparent coatings are involved. Thus both emittance and reflectance measurements can be used to calculate sample emissivity for most terrestrial surface materieals. However, the effect on Kirchhoffian behavior of different field environments, which may induce a steeper thermal gradient in particulate samples, has yet to be determined, and some low-density surface materials like newly fallen snow, frost, and efflorescent salts on playas have yet to be measured in emittance.

  20. A comparison of techniques for extracting emissivity information from thermal infrared data for geologic studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hook, Simon J.; Gabell, A. R.; Green, A. A.; Kealy, P. S.

    1992-01-01

    This article evaluates three techniques developed to extract emissivity information from multispectral thermal infrared data. The techniques are the assumed Channel 6 emittance model, thermal log residuals, and alpha residuals. These techniques were applied to calibrated, atmospherically corrected thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS) data acquired over Cuprite, Nevada in September 1990. Results indicate that the two new techniques (thermal log residuals and alpha residuals) provide two distinct advantages over the assumed Channel 6 emittance model. First, they permit emissivity information to be derived from all six TIMS channels. The assumed Channel 6 emittance model only permits emissivity values to be derived from five of the six TIMS channels. Second, both techniques are less susceptible to noise than the assumed Channel 6 emittance model. The disadvantage of both techniques is that laboratory data must be converted to thermal log residuals or alpha residuals to facilitate comparison with similarly processed image data. An additional advantage of the alpha residual technique is that the processed data are scene-independent unlike those obtained with the other techniques.

  1. Advances in Front-end Enabling Technologies for Thermal Infrared `THz Torch' Wireless Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Fangjing; Lucyszyn, Stepan

    2016-05-01

    The thermal (emitted) infrared frequency bands (typically 20-40 and 60-100 THz) are best known for remote sensing applications that include temperature measurement (e.g. non-contacting thermometers and thermography), night vision and surveillance (e.g. ubiquitous motion sensing and target acquisition). This unregulated part of the electromagnetic spectrum also offers commercial opportunities for the development of short-range secure communications. The `THz Torch' concept, which fundamentally exploits engineered blackbody radiation by partitioning thermally generated spectral radiance into pre-defined frequency channels, was recently demonstrated by the authors. The thermal radiation within each channel can be independently pulse-modulated, transmitted and detected, to create a robust form of short-range secure communications within the thermal infrared. In this paper, recent progress in the front-end enabling technologies associated with the THz Torch concept is reported. Fundamental limitations of this technology are discussed; possible engineering solutions for further improving the performance of such thermal-based wireless links are proposed and verified either experimentally or through numerical simulations. By exploring a raft of enabling technologies, significant enhancements to both data rate and transmission range can be expected. With good engineering solutions, the THz Torch concept can exploit nineteenth century physics with twentieth century multiplexing schemes for low-cost twenty-first century ubiquitous applications in security and defence.

  2. Advances in Front-end Enabling Technologies for Thermal Infrared ` THz Torch' Wireless Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Fangjing; Lucyszyn, Stepan

    2016-09-01

    The thermal (emitted) infrared frequency bands (typically 20-40 and 60-100 THz) are best known for remote sensing applications that include temperature measurement (e.g. non-contacting thermometers and thermography), night vision and surveillance (e.g. ubiquitous motion sensing and target acquisition). This unregulated part of the electromagnetic spectrum also offers commercial opportunities for the development of short-range secure communications. The ` THz Torch' concept, which fundamentally exploits engineered blackbody radiation by partitioning thermally generated spectral radiance into pre-defined frequency channels, was recently demonstrated by the authors. The thermal radiation within each channel can be independently pulse-modulated, transmitted and detected, to create a robust form of short-range secure communications within the thermal infrared. In this paper, recent progress in the front-end enabling technologies associated with the THz Torch concept is reported. Fundamental limitations of this technology are discussed; possible engineering solutions for further improving the performance of such thermal-based wireless links are proposed and verified either experimentally or through numerical simulations. By exploring a raft of enabling technologies, significant enhancements to both data rate and transmission range can be expected. With good engineering solutions, the THz Torch concept can exploit nineteenth century physics with twentieth century multiplexing schemes for low-cost twenty-first century ubiquitous applications in security and defence.

  3. Thermal properties of a pyroelectric-ceramic infrared detector with metallic intermediate layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Moon H.; Bae, Seong H.; Bhalla, Amar S.

    1998-06-01

    Infrared thermal detectors were prepared with pyroelectric PSN-PT-PZ (1/47/52) ceramics, where a signal electrode had a structure Au/metallic buffer/Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 ceramic. The effect of a metallic buffer layer on the voltage responsivity was investigated with a response to a step signal, made by a dynamic pyroelectric measurement. A pyroelectric ceramic wafer was prepared by a mixed-oxide technique. The Au layer (thickness 50 nm) and the metallic buffers (thickness 0 to 20 nm) of Cr, NiCr (80:20), and Ti were prepared by dc magnetron sputtering. In order to improve the light absorptivity, Au black was coated on the Au signal electrode by thermal evaporation. A detector without a buffer layer showed a noisy and fluctuating output signal. Among the three kinds of buffer materials, NiCr (80:20) and Ti adhered well with ceramics and showed good electrical and thermal contact, whereas Cr resulted in bad contacts. Considering the output voltage and thermal properties, the optimum thickness of the buffer layer was about 15 to 20 nm, and sensors with a Ti buffer 15 to 20 nm in thickness showed good detectivity. Thus, the stability and reliability of the infrared thermal sensors could be improved by using an appropriate buffer layer.

  4. A Switchable Mid-Infrared Plasmonic Perfect Absorber with Multispectral Thermal Imaging Capability.

    PubMed

    Tittl, Andreas; Michel, Ann-Katrin U; Schäferling, Martin; Yin, Xinghui; Gholipour, Behrad; Cui, Long; Wuttig, Matthias; Taubner, Thomas; Neubrech, Frank; Giessen, Harald

    2015-08-19

    A switchable perfect absorber with multispectral thermal imaging capability is presented. Aluminum nanoantenna arrays above a germanium antimony telluride (GST) spacer layer and aluminum mirror provide efficient wavelength-tunable absorption in the mid-infrared. Utilizing the amorphous-to-crystalline phase transition in GST, this device offers switchable absorption with strong reflectance contrast at resonance and large phase-change-induced spectral shifts. PMID:26173394

  5. The Near-Earth Encounter of 2005 YU55: Thermal Infrared Observations from Gemini North

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Lucy F.; Emery, Joshua P.; Moskovitz, Nicholas A.; Granvik, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    As part of a multi-observatory campaign to observe 2005 YU55 during its November 2011 encounter with the Earth, thermal infrared photometry and spectroscopy (7.9- 14 and 18-22 micron) were conducted using the Michelle instrument at Gemini North. Reduction of the 8.8 flm photometry and the spectroscopy from UT Nov-IO as well as of all the Gemini data from UT Nov-9 is in progress. Results will be discussed.

  6. Objective assessment of biomagnetic devices and alternative clinical therapies using infrared thermal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rockley, Graham J.

    2001-03-01

    The overwhelming introduction of magnetic devices and other alternative therapies into the health care market prompts the need for objective evaluation of these techniques through the use of infrared thermal imaging. Many of these therapies are reported to promote the stimulation of blood flow or the relief of pain conditions. Infrared imaging is an efficient tool to assess such changes in the physiological state. Therefore, a thermal imager can help document and substantiate whether these therapies are in fact providing an effective change to the local circulation. Thermal images may also indicate whether the change is temporary or sustained. As a specific case example, preliminary findings will be presented concerning the use of magnets and the effect they have on peripheral circulation. This will include a discussion of the recommended protocols for this type of infrared testing. This test model can be applied to the evaluation of other devices and therapeutic procedures which are reputed to affect circulation such as electro acupuncture, orthopedic footwear and topical ointments designed to relieve pain or inflammation.

  7. Modeling thermal infrared (2-14 micrometer) reflectance spectra of frost and snow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wald, Andrew E.

    1994-01-01

    Existing theories of radiative transfer in close-packed media assume that each particle scatters independently of its neighbors. For opaque particles, such as are common in the thermal infrared, this assumption is not valid, and these radiative transfer theories will not be accurate. A new method is proposed, called 'diffraction subtraction', which modifies the scattering cross section of close-packed large, opaque spheres to account for the effect of close packing on the diffraction cross section of a scattering particle. This method predicts the thermal infrared reflectance of coarse (greater than 50 micrometers radius), disaggregated granular snow. However, such coarse snow is typically old and metamorphosed, with adjacent grains welded together. The reflectance of such a welded block can be described as partly Fresnel in nature and cannot be predicted using Mie inputs to radiative transfer theory. Owing to the high absorption coefficient of ice in the thermal infrared, a rough surface reflectance model can be used to calculate reflectance from such a block. For very small (less than 50 micrometers), disaggregated particles, it is incorrect in principle to treat diffraction independently of reflection and refraction, and the theory fails. However, for particles larger than 50 micrometers, independent scattering is a valid assumption, and standard radiative transfer theory works.

  8. Satellite Thermal Infrared Stress Field and Earthquake Prediction in Short-term and Imminent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Xie, H.; Zeng, Z.

    2007-12-01

    It has been recognized that there is a temperature-increase anomaly before earthquake. Meteorological satellite based thermal infrared (IR) radiation in detecting ground surface temperature, thus anomaly, has its advantages, such as data accuracy, large areal coverage, a large amount of information and capability of capturing the time- space dynamic variation of the temperature - increase before earthquakes (Qiang Zuji et al., 1996). Earthquake precursors should enable a predicator to give the three elements of a future earthquake: location, magnitude and time, (Max Wyss, 1993) in which the method of thermal anomaly detection can provide all three elements. Practice is the only criterion to examine a truth. Chinese scientists in the satellite thermal-infrared earthquake-prediction group led by QIANG Zuji and DIAN Changgong have carried on practicing short and imminent earthquake prediction since 1990. Over the years we have made steady and exciting progress. During the 11 years from 1990 to 2000, we made 119 predictions. of which 58 were valid and 15 were false alarms. The success rate of those predictions increases from 24% during period of 1990-1995, to 46% in 1996, 53% in 1997, 76% in 1998, to 80% in 1999 and 2000, summarized by Wang (2005). The satellite infrared detected thermal stress field is a reflection of the earth's crust stress condition when rock stress increases the spot along the stress to produce micro fissures in rock. Therefore, hot plane and line that have the closet relation with the stress condition and the rock faulted structure can demonstrate the compression stress direction. The thermal stress types have been recognized over years include isolated X shear structure, en echelon, single arm form, the string of beads shape, ~{!J~} type, rotation shear ellipse, and the advancement rotation shear ellipse (Wu Li-xin, Liu Shan-jun, 2006,Qiang Zuji et al 1991,1993,1995,1996,1997,2001)

  9. A protocol for analysing thermal stress in insects using infrared thermography.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Belén; Verdú, José R; Carrascal, Luis M; Lobo, Jorge M

    2016-02-01

    The study of insect responses to thermal stress has involved a variety of protocols and methodologies that hamper the ability to compare results between studies. For that reason, the development of a protocol to standardize thermal assays is necessary. In this sense, infrared thermography solves some of the problems allowing us to take continuous temperature measurements without handling the individuals, an important fact in cold-blooded organisms like insects. Here, we present a working protocol based on infrared thermography to estimate both cold and heat thermal stress in insects. We analyse both the change in the body temperature of individuals and their behavioural response. In addition, we used partial least squares regression for the statistical analysis of our data, a technique that solves the problem of having a large number of variables and few individuals, allowing us to work with rare or endemic species. To test our protocol, we chose two species of congeneric, narrowly distributed dung beetles that are endemic to the southeastern part of the Iberian Peninsula. With our protocol we have obtained five variables in the response to cold and twelve in the response to heat. With this methodology we discriminate between the two flightless species of Jekelius through their thermal response. In response to cold, Jekelius hernandezi showed a higher rate of cooling and reached higher temperatures of stupor and haemolymph freezing than Jekelius punctatolineatus. Both species displayed similar thermoregulation ranges before reaching lethal body temperature with heat stress. Overall, we have demonstrated that infrared thermography is a suitable method to assess insect thermal responses with a high degree of sensitivity, allowing for the discrimination between closely related species. PMID:26857985

  10. Active infrared thermal imaging technology to detect the corrosion defects in aircraft cargo door

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dapeng; Zhang, Cunlin; Zeng, Zhi; Xing, Chunfei; Li, Yanhong

    2009-11-01

    Aircraft fuselage material corrosion problems have been major aviation security issues, which hinder the development of aviation industry. How can we use non-destructive testing methods to detect the internal corrosion defects from the outside of the fuselage, to find the hidden safety problems in advance and update the defective equipment and materials, has great significance for the prevention of accidents. Nowadays, the active infrared thermal imaging technology as a new nondestructive technology has been gradually used on a wide variety of materials, such as composite, metal and so on. This article makes use of this technology on an aircraft cargo door specimen to detect the corrosion defects. Firstly, use High-energy flash pulse to excite the specimen, and use the thermal image processing software to splice the thermal images, so the thermal images of the overall specimen can be showed. Then, heat the defects by ultrasonic excitation, this will cause vibration and friction or thermoelastic effects in the places of defects, so the ultrasonic energy will dissipate into heat and manifested in the uneven temperature of surface. An Infrared camera to capture the changes of temperature of material surface, send data to the computer and records the thermal information of the defects. Finally, extracting data and drawing infrared radiation-time curve of some selected points of interest to analyze the signal changes in heat of defects further more. The results of the experiments show that both of the two ways of heat excitation show a clear position and shape of defects, and the ultrasonic method has more obvious effect of excitation to the defects, and a higher signal to noise ratio than the flash pulse excitation, but flash pulse method do not contact the specimen in the process of excitation, and shows the location and shape of defects in the overall of the specimen has its advantages.

  11. Synegies Between Visible/Near-Infrared Imaging Spectrometry and the Thermal Infrared in an Urban Environment: An Evaluation of the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HYSPIRI) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Dar A.; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Hulley, Glynn C.; Hook, Simon J.; Green, Robert O.

    2012-01-01

    A majority of the human population lives in urban areas and as such, the quality of urban environments is becoming increasingly important to the human population. Furthermore, these areas are major sources of environmental contaminants and sinks of energy and materials. Remote sensing provides an improved understanding of urban areas and their impacts by mapping urban extent, urban composition (vegetation and impervious cover fractions), and urban radiation balance through measures of albedo, emissivity and land surface temperature (LST). Recently, the National Research Council (NRC) completed an assessment of remote sensing needs for the next decade (NRC, 2007), proposing several missions suitable for urban studies, including a visible, near-infrared and shortwave infrared (VSWIR) imaging spectrometer and a multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) instrument called the Hyperspectral Infrared Imagery (HyspIRI). In this talk, we introduce the HyspIRI mission, focusing on potential synergies between VSWIR and TIR data in an urban area. We evaluate potential synergies using an Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and MODIS-ASTER (MASTER) image pair acquired over Santa Barbara, United States. AVIRIS data were analyzed at their native spatial resolutions (7.5m VSWIR and 15m TIR), and aggregated 60 m spatial resolution similar to HyspIRI. Surface reflectance was calculated using ACORN and a ground reflectance target to remove atmospheric and sensor artifacts. MASTER data were processed to generate estimates of spectral emissivity and LST using Modtran radiative transfer code and the ASTER Temperature Emissivity Separation algorithm. A spectral library of common urban materials, including urban vegetation, roofs and roads was assembled from combined AVIRIS and field-measured reflectance spectra. LST and emissivity were also retrieved from MASTER and reflectance/emissivity spectra for a subset of urban materials were retrieved from co-located MASTER and

  12. Thermal Infrared (8-13 micron) Spectra of the NEA 2100 Ra-Shalom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, L. F.; Emery, J. P.; McConnochie, T. H.

    2005-08-01

    Thermal infrared spectra of the near-Earth asteroid 2100 Ra-Shalom were measured on August 22 and 23 (UT) 2003 at Palomar Observatory using Spectrocam-10 on the 200'' Hale telescope. Total integration time was 186 minutes. These observations were part of the multi-wavelength observing campaign organized by Shepard et al. (2004). The thermal spectra of most main-belt asteroids can be well modelled by the Standard Thermal Model (STM) with a ``beaming parameter'' η =0.756 ± 0.014, which implies rough ``dusty'' surfaces of negligible thermal inertia. A STM fit of our Ra-Shalom data, however, yields η =1.2, corroborating the conclusion of Harris et al. (1998) and Lebofsky et al. (1979) that Ra-Shalom has a substantial thermal inertia. Harris et al., however, derived a higher value η =1.6--1.8 from their 1997 spectrophotometric data. We have used the pole solution of Kaasalainen et al. (2004) to apply a more sophisticated thermophysical model (Emery et al., 1998) to the circumstances of both our observations and those of Harris et al. Our preliminary result is that both data sets are consistent with asteroid radius R=1.15 km and thermal inertia ≥ 580 J/m2}/s{0.5/K. This is a lower limit because at the phase angles of these observations, surface roughness increases color temperature by infrared ``beaming''. Further modelling will be conducted with varying surface roughnesses. Despite its unusually high thermal inertia, Ra-Shalom appears to be similar to its main-belt counterparts in lacking spectral emissivity variation at the 5% level. (1) Shepard et al. (2004), LPSC XXXV, #1120. (2) Harris et al. (1998), Icarus 135, 441-450. (3) Lebofsky et al. (1979), Astron. J. 84, 885-888. (4) Kaasalainen et al. (2004), Icarus 167, 178-196. (5) Emery et al. (1998), Icarus 136, 104-123.

  13. Thermal research of infrared sight signal processing circuit board under temperature shock environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Youtang; Ding, Huang; Qiao, Jianliang; Xu, Yuan; Niu, Jun

    2015-10-01

    Thermal stability technology of signal processing circuit infrared sight is studied under temperature shock. Model parameters and geometry is configured for FPGA devices (EP1C20F400C8), solder material and PCB. Signal circuit boards of full array BGA distribution are simulated and analyzed by thermal shock and waveform through engineering finite element analysis software. Because solders of the whole model have strong stress along Y direction, initial stress constraints along Y direction are primarily considered when the partial model of single solder is imposed by thermal load. When absolute thermal loads stresses of diagonal nodes with maximum strains are separated from the whole model, interpolation is processed according to thermal loads circulation. Plastic strains and thermal stresses of nodes in both sides of partial model are obtained. The analysis results indicate that with thermal load circulation, maximum forces of each circulation along Y direction are increasingly enlarged and with the accumulation of plastic strains of danger point, the composition will become invalid in the end.

  14. Thermal diffusivity estimation of templated nanocomposite using frequency modulated infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indu Giri, Lalat; Tuli, Suneet

    2014-03-01

    Thermal diffusivity of anodic alumina (AAO) templated bismuth telluride nanowires has been measured using recently proposed frequency modulated thermal wave imaging (FMTWI). The technique provides a fast and efficient non-contact approach for in-plane thermal characterization of nanomaterials. An intensity modulated up-chirp signal is applied as photothermal excitation and the thermal response is monitored using an infrared (IR) thermography based temperature sensing system. Thermal diffusivity of the sample is experimentally assessed using the multiple phase information extracted from a single run of the experiment. This feature considerably reduces the operational time of the experiment as compared to similar lock-in thermography based approaches. This unique approach of solely using the phase information for thermal diffusivity measurements, allows the experiment to be more immune to the local variations in surface temperature and emissivity of the radiating surface. The experimental details of the technique are discussed, with practical measurement of thermal diffusivity of Bi2Te3/AAO nanocomposite in direction perpendicular to the nanochannel axis.

  15. Thermal research of infrared sight thermoelectric cooler control circuit under temperature environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Youtang; Ding, Huan; Xue, Xiao; Xu, Yuan; Chang, Benkang

    2010-10-01

    Testing device TST-05B, which is suitable for adaptability test of semiconductor devices, electronic products and other military equipment under the condition of the surrounding air temperature rapidly changing, is used here for temperature shock test.Thermal stability technology of thermoelectric cooler control circuit infrared sight under temperature shock is studied in this paper. Model parameters and geometry is configured for ADI devices (ADN8830), welding material and PCB which are used in system. Thermoelectric cooler control circuit packaged by CSP32 distribution are simulated and analyzed by thermal shock and waveform through engineering finite element analysis software ANSYYS. Because solders of the whole model have much stronger stress along X direction than that of other directions, initial stress constraints along X direction are primarily considered when the partial model of single solder is imposed by thermal load. When absolute thermal loads stresses of diagonal nodes with maximum strains are separated from the whole model, interpolation is processed according to thermal loads circulation. Plastic strains and thermal stresses of nodes in both sides of partial model are obtained. The analysis results indicates that with thermal load circulation, maximum forces of each circulation along X direction are increasingly enlarged and with the accumulation of plastic strains of danger point, at the same time structural deformation and the location of maximum equivalent plastic strain in the solder joints at the first and eighth, the composition will become invalid in the end.

  16. Thermal response of large area high temperature superconducting YBaCuO infrared bolometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khalil, Ali E.

    1991-01-01

    Thermal analysis of large area high temperature superconducting infrared detector operating in the equilibrium mode (bolometer) was performed. An expression for the temperature coefficient beta = 1/R(dR/dT) in terms of the thermal conductance and the thermal time constant of the detector were derived. A superconducting transition edge bolometer is a thermistor consisting of a thin film superconducting YBaCuO evaporated into a suitable thermally isolated substrate. The operating temperature of the bolometer is maintained close to the midpoint of the superconducting transition region where the resistance R has a maximum dynamic range. A detector with a strip configuration was analyzed and an expression for the temperature rise (delta T) above the ambient due to a uniform illumination with a source of power density was calculated. An expression for the thermal responsibility depends upon the spatial modulation frequency and the angular frequency of the incoming radiation. The problem of the thermal cross talk between different detector elements was addressed. In the case of monolithic HTS detector array with a row of square elements of dimensions 2a and CCD or CID readout electronics the thermal spread function was derived for different spacing between elements.

  17. In-Flight Wavelength Calibration of Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) Data Acquired from the ER-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hook, S.; Okada, K.

    1994-01-01

    In 1991 one flightline of Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data was acquired over Castaic Lake, California and in 1992 four flightlines of TIMS data were acquired over Death Valley, California.

  18. Noninvasive determination of burn depth in children by digital infrared thermal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina-Preciado, Jose David; Kolosovas-Machuca, Eleazar Samuel; Velez-Gomez, Ezequiel; Miranda-Altamirano, Ariel; González, Francisco Javier

    2013-06-01

    Digital infrared thermal imaging is used to assess noninvasively the severity of burn wounds in 13 pediatric patients. A delta-T (ΔT) parameter obtained by subtracting the temperature of a healthy contralateral region from the temperature of the burn wound is compared with the burn depth measured histopathologically. Thermal imaging results show that superficial dermal burns (IIa) show increased temperature compared with their contralateral healthy region, while deep dermal burns (IIb) show a lower temperature than their contralateral healthy region. This difference in temperature is statistically significant (p<0.0001) and provides a way of distinguishing deep dermal from superficial dermal burns. These results show that digital infrared thermal imaging could be used as a noninvasive procedure to assess burn wounds. An additional advantage of using thermal imaging, which can image a large skin surface area, is that it can be used to identify regions with different burn depths and estimate the size of the grafts needed for deep dermal burns.

  19. Thermal damages on the surface of a silicon wafer induced by a near-infrared laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sungho; Jhang, Kyung-Young

    2014-01-01

    Laser-induced thermal damages of a silicon wafer surface subjected to continuous near-infrared laser irradiation were investigated. Silicon wafer specimens were illuminated by a continuous-wave fiber laser beam (1070-nm wavelength) with irradiances from 93 to 186 W/cm2, and the surface morphology of each specimen was analyzed using optical microscopy. With increasing irradiance, straight cracks in the <110> direction appeared first, and partial melting and complete melting were subsequently observed. The mechanism of these laser-induced thermal damages in the silicon wafer surface was discussed with numerical analysis based on the heat transfer and thermoelasticity model. The irradiances initiating the cracking and melting were predicted by determining the irradiances in which the calculated thermal stress and temperature exceeded the corresponding limits of the fracture strength and melting point, respectively. These predictions agreed well with the experimental findings. Laser-induced thermal damages of the silicon wafer surface subjected to a continuous near-infrared laser irradiation were identified based on these investigations.

  20. HOTEYE: a novel thermal camera using higher operating temperature infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, Gavin J.; Blenkinsop, Ian D.; Catchpole, Rose; Gordon, Neil T.; Harper, Mark A. C.; Haynes, Paul C.; Hipwood, Les; Hollier, Colin J.; Jones, Chris; Lees, David J.; Maxey, Chris D.; Milner, Daniel; Ordish, Mike; Philips, Tim S.; Price, Richard W.; Shaw, Chris; Southern, Paul

    2005-05-01

    Conventional high performance infrared (IR) sensors need to be cooled to around 80K in order to achieve a high level of thermal sensitivity. Cooling to this temperature requires the use of Joule-Thomson coolers (with bottled gas supply) or Stirling cycle cooling engines, both of which are bulky, expensive and can have low reliability. In contrast to this, higher operating temperature (HOT) detectors are designed to give high thermal performance at an operating temperature in the range 200K to 240K. These detectors are fabricated from multi-layer mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) structures that have been designed for this application. At higher temperatures, lower cost, smaller, lighter and more reliable thermoelectric (or Peltier) devices can be used to cool the detectors. The HOTEYE thermal imaging camera, which is based on a 320x256 pixel HOT focal plane array, is described in this paper and performance measurements reported.

  1. High-Q mid-infrared thermal emitters operating with high power-utilization efficiency.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takuya; De Zoysa, Menaka; Asano, Takashi; Noda, Susumu

    2016-06-27

    We demonstrate a single-mode high-Q (Q>100) mid-infrared thermal emitter operating with high power-utilization efficiency. The emitter consists of a rod-type photonic crystal (PC) slab interacting with GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells (MQWs), a GaAs substrate frame supporting the PC slab, and electric wires for Joule heating of the device. We carefully design the structure of the PC slab and the supporting frame/wires to minimize unwanted thermal losses and realize narrowband thermal emission having a peak intensity, under a given electrical input power, that is an order of magnitude higher than that of a reference blackbody emitter due to the efficient increase of the device temperature. PMID:27410661

  2. Potential of remote visible and near-infrared spectral reflectance measurements for mapping thermal maturity variations

    SciTech Connect

    Rowan, L.C.; Pawlewicz, M.J.; Jones, O.D. )

    1989-09-01

    The visible and near-infrared (VNIR) spectral reflectance of rocks containing organic matter is related to thermal maturity because thermal alteration liberates hydrogen and forms highly absorbing carbon-rich polycondensed structures. To evaluate the usefulness of remote spectral reflectance measurements for mapping thermal maturity differences, Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images of the Eureka, Nevada, area were processed to produce a digital classification image maps that shows maturity in well-exposed, sparsely vegetated areas consisting of Chainman Shale. The relationship between spectral reflectance in TM bands and band ratios and maturity was confirmed through analysis of laboratory VNIR spectral reflectance and mean vitrinite reflectance (R{sub m}) measurements of 20 samples.

  3. A Monte Carlo method for 3D thermal infrared radiative transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Liou, K. N.

    2006-09-01

    A 3D Monte Carlo model for specific application to the broadband thermal radiative transfer has been developed in which the emissivities for gases and cloud particles are parameterized by using a single cubic element as the building block in 3D space. For spectral integration in the thermal infrared, the correlated k-distribution method has been used for the sorting of gaseous absorption lines in multiple-scattering atmospheres involving 3D clouds. To check the Monte-Carlo simulation, we compare a variety of 1D broadband atmospheric fluxes and heating rates to those computed from the conventional plane-parallel (PP) model and demonstrate excellent agreement between the two. Comparisons of the Monte Carlo results for broadband thermal cooling rates in 3D clouds to those computed from the delta-diffusion approximation for 3D radiative transfer and the independent pixel-by-pixel approximation are subsequently carried out to understand the relative merits of these approaches.

  4. [Study on Hollow Brick Wall's Surface Temperature with Infrared Thermal Imaging Method].

    PubMed

    Tang, Ming-fang; Yin, Yi-hua

    2015-05-01

    To address the characteristic of uneven surface temperature of hollow brick wall, the present research adopts soft wares of both ThermaCAM P20 and ThermaCAM Reporter to test the application of infrared thermal image technique in measuring surface temperature of hollow brick wall, and further analyzes the thermal characteristics of hollow brick wall, and building material's impact on surface temperature distribution including hollow brick, masonry mortar, and so on. The research selects the construction site of a three-story-high residential, carries out the heat transfer experiment, and further examines the exterior wall constructed by 3 different hollow bricks including sintering shale hollow brick, masonry mortar and brick masonry. Infrared thermal image maps are collected, including 3 kinds of sintering shale hollow brick walls under indoor heating in winter; and temperature data of wall surface, and uniformity and frequency distribution are also collected for comparative analysis between 2 hollow bricks and 2 kinds of mortar masonry. The results show that improving heat preservation of hollow brick aid masonry mortar can effectively improve inner wall surface temperature and indoor thermal environment; non-uniformity of surface temperature decreases from 0. 6 to 0. 4 °C , and surface temperature frequency distribution changes from the asymmetric distribution into a normal distribution under the condition that energy-saving sintering shale hollow brick wall is constructed by thermal mortar replacing cement mortar masonry; frequency of average temperature increases as uniformity of surface temperature increases. This research provides a certain basis for promotion and optimization of hollow brick wall's thermal function. PMID:26415433

  5. Determination of physical properties of the Asteroid (41) Daphne from interferometric observations in the thermal infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matter, Alexis; Delbo, Marco; Ligori, Sebastiano; Crouzet, Nicolas; Tanga, Paolo

    2011-09-01

    We describe interferometric observations of the Asteroid (41) Daphne in the thermal infrared obtained with the Mid-Infrared Interferometric Instrument (MIDI) and the Auxiliary Telescopes (ATs) of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). We derived the size and the surface thermal properties of (41) Daphne by means of a thermophysical model (TPM), which is used for the interpretation of interferometric data for the first time. From our TPM analysis, we derived a volume equivalent diameter for (41) Daphne of 189 km, using a non-convex 3-D shape model derived from optical lightcurves and adaptive optics images (B. Carry, private communication). On the other hand, when using the convex shape of Kaasalainen et al. (Kaasalainen, M., Mottola, S., Fulchignoni, M. [2002]. Icarus 159, 369-395) in our TPM analysis, the resulting volume equivalent diameter of (41) Daphne is between 194 and 209 km, depending on the surface roughness. The shape of the asteroid is used as an a priori information in our TPM analysis. No attempt is made to adjust the shape to the data. Only the size of the asteroid and its thermal parameters such as, albedo, thermal inertia and roughness are adjusted to the data. We estimated our model systematic uncertainty to be of 4% and of 7% on the determination of the asteroid volume equivalent diameter depending on whether the non-convex or the convex shape is used, respectively. In terms of thermal properties, we derived a value of the surface thermal inertia smaller than 50 J m -2 s -0.5 K -1 and preferably in the range between 0 and ˜30 J m -2 s -0.5 K -1. Our TPM analysis also shows that Daphne has a moderate macroscopic surface roughness.

  6. Thermal infrared investigation of the pyroclastic flow deposits and dome region of Bezymianny volcano, Kamchatka, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, A. J.; Ramsey, M. S.; van Manen, S. M.

    2007-12-01

    Bezymianny (Kamchatka, Russia) is an active stratovolcano that contains a summit lava dome and pyroclastic flow (PF) sheet to the southeast. Two recent eruptions (24 December 2006 and 11 May 2007) generated fresh pyroclastic flows on the southeastern flank. During the winter of 2006, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) collected several day- and night-time images to monitor the December eruption deposits and subsequent events. A field campaign in August 2007 was conducted to investigate recent changes at the lava dome and to map the new PF deposits. Within the cloud-free night time ASTER image from 30 June 2007, seven ASTER thermal infrared (TIR) 90 m pixels were identified as being thermally-anomalous and were investigated in the field. Both handheld Forward Looking Infrared Radiometer (FLIR) and thermocouple probe data were obtained and compared to the satellite TIR data. Helicopter- and ground-based FLIR surveys revealed thermally-elevated PF deposits that contained warm blocks and fumaroles. The maximum fumarole temperature within the December 2006 PF deposit was 377C at a distance of five kilometers from the lava dome. At the terminus of the 24 December 2006 PF, seven kilometers from the dome, the maximum temperature recorded was 228C. This suggests that eight months after the December 2006 eruption, the deposit was of a sufficient thickness in this area to retain heat. In addition, the thickness of the deposit probably increased as the slope angle decreased approximately 4 kilometers from dome, which may explain the high temperatures observed. We present spaceborne, airborne and ground-based thermal data in order to compare direct and remote thermal observations of ongoing activity and provide the first ground-based TIR data of actively cooling PF deposits at Bezymianny.

  7. MULTISCALE THERMAL-INFRARED MEASUREMENTS OF THE MAUNA LOA CALDERA, HAWAII

    SciTech Connect

    L. BALICK; A. GILLESPIE; ET AL

    2001-03-01

    Until recently, most thermal infrared measurements of natural scenes have been made at disparate scales, typically 10{sup {minus}3}-10{sup {minus}2} m (spectra) and 10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} m (satellite images), with occasional airborne images (10{sup 1} m) filling the gap. Temperature and emissivity fields are spatially heterogeneous over a similar range of scales, depending on scene composition. A common problem for the land surface, therefore, has been relating field spectral and temperature measurements to satellite data, yet in many cases this is necessary if satellite data are to be interpreted to yield meaningful information about the land surface. Recently, three new satellites with thermal imaging capability at the 10{sup 1}-10{sup 2} m scale have been launched: MTI, TERRA, and Landsat 7. MTI acquires multispectral images in the mid-infrared (3-5{micro}m) and longwave infrared (8-10{micro}m) with 20m resolution. ASTER and MODIS aboard TERRA acquire multispectral longwave images at 90m and 500-1000m, respectively, and MODIS also acquires multispectral mid-infrared images. Landsat 7 acquires broadband longwave images at 60m. As part of an experiment to validate the temperature and thermal emissivity values calculated from MTI and ASTER images, we have targeted the summit region of Mauna Loa for field characterization and near-simultaneous satellite imaging, both on daytime and nighttime overpasses, and compare the results to previously acquired 10{sup {minus}1} m airborne images, ground-level multispectral FLIR images, and the field spectra. Mauna Loa was chosen in large part because the 4x6km summit caldera, flooded with fresh basalt in 1984, appears to be spectrally homogeneous at scales between 10{sup {minus}1} and 10{sup 2} m, facilitating the comparison of sensed temperature. The validation results suggest that, with careful atmospheric compensation, it is possible to match ground measurements with measurements from space, and to use the Mauna Loa validation

  8. Reconstructing Face Image from the Thermal Infrared Spectrum to the Visible Spectrum.

    PubMed

    Kresnaraman, Brahmastro; Deguchi, Daisuke; Takahashi, Tomokazu; Mekada, Yoshito; Ide, Ichiro; Murase, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    During the night or in poorly lit areas, thermal cameras are a better choice instead of normal cameras for security surveillance because they do not rely on illumination. A thermal camera is able to detect a person within its view, but identification from only thermal information is not an easy task. The purpose of this paper is to reconstruct the face image of a person from the thermal spectrum to the visible spectrum. After the reconstruction, further image processing can be employed, including identification/recognition. Concretely, we propose a two-step thermal-to-visible-spectrum reconstruction method based on Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA). The reconstruction is done by utilizing the relationship between images in both thermal infrared and visible spectra obtained by CCA. The whole image is processed in the first step while the second step processes patches in an image. Results show that the proposed method gives satisfying results with the two-step approach and outperforms comparative methods in both quality and recognition evaluations. PMID:27110781

  9. A novel compression algorithm for infrared thermal image sequence based on K-means method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jin-Yu; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Meng, Xiangbin; Zhang, Yong

    2014-05-01

    High resolution in space and time is becoming the new trend of thermographic inspection of equipments, therefore, the development of a fast and precise processing and data store technique of high resolution thermal image should be well studied. This article will propose a novel global compression algorithm, which will provide an effective way to improve the precision and processing speed of thermal image data. This new algorithm is based on the decay of the temperature of thermograph and the feature of thermal image morphology. Firstly, it will sort the data in space according to K-means method. Then it will employ classic fitting calculation to fit all the typical temperature decay curves. At last, it will use the fitting parameters of the curves as the parameters for compression and reconstruction of thermal image sequence to achieve the method for which the thermal image sequence can be compressed in space and time simultaneously. To validate the proposed new algorithm, the authors used two embedded defective specimens made of different materials to do the experiment. The results show that the proposed infrared thermal image sequence compression processing algorithm is an effective solution with high speed and high precision. Compared to the conventional method, the global compression algorithm is not only noise resistant but also can improve the computing speed in hundreds of times.

  10. Reconstructing Face Image from the Thermal Infrared Spectrum to the Visible Spectrum †

    PubMed Central

    Kresnaraman, Brahmastro; Deguchi, Daisuke; Takahashi, Tomokazu; Mekada, Yoshito; Ide, Ichiro; Murase, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    During the night or in poorly lit areas, thermal cameras are a better choice instead of normal cameras for security surveillance because they do not rely on illumination. A thermal camera is able to detect a person within its view, but identification from only thermal information is not an easy task. The purpose of this paper is to reconstruct the face image of a person from the thermal spectrum to the visible spectrum. After the reconstruction, further image processing can be employed, including identification/recognition. Concretely, we propose a two-step thermal-to-visible-spectrum reconstruction method based on Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA). The reconstruction is done by utilizing the relationship between images in both thermal infrared and visible spectra obtained by CCA. The whole image is processed in the first step while the second step processes patches in an image. Results show that the proposed method gives satisfying results with the two-step approach and outperforms comparative methods in both quality and recognition evaluations. PMID:27110781

  11. Time series analysis of infrared satellite data for detecting thermal anomalies: a hybrid approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeppen, W. C.; Pilger, E.; Wright, R.

    2011-07-01

    We developed and tested an automated algorithm that analyzes thermal infrared satellite time series data to detect and quantify the excess energy radiated from thermal anomalies such as active volcanoes. Our algorithm enhances the previously developed MODVOLC approach, a simple point operation, by adding a more complex time series component based on the methods of the Robust Satellite Techniques (RST) algorithm. Using test sites at Anatahan and Kīlauea volcanoes, the hybrid time series approach detected ~15% more thermal anomalies than MODVOLC with very few, if any, known false detections. We also tested gas flares in the Cantarell oil field in the Gulf of Mexico as an end-member scenario representing very persistent thermal anomalies. At Cantarell, the hybrid algorithm showed only a slight improvement, but it did identify flares that were undetected by MODVOLC. We estimate that at least 80 MODIS images for each calendar month are required to create good reference images necessary for the time series analysis of the hybrid algorithm. The improved performance of the new algorithm over MODVOLC will result in the detection of low temperature thermal anomalies that will be useful in improving our ability to document Earth's volcanic eruptions, as well as detecting low temperature thermal precursors to larger eruptions.

  12. Retrieving Land Surface Temperature from Hyperspectral Thermal Infrared Data Using a Multi-Channel Method

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Xinke; Huo, Xing; Ren, Chao; Labed, Jelila; Li, Zhao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a key parameter in climate systems. The methods for retrieving LST from hyperspectral thermal infrared data either require accurate atmospheric profile data or require thousands of continuous channels. We aim to retrieve LST for natural land surfaces from hyperspectral thermal infrared data using an adapted multi-channel method taking Land Surface Emissivity (LSE) properly into consideration. In the adapted method, LST can be retrieved by a linear function of 36 brightness temperatures at Top of Atmosphere (TOA) using channels where LSE has high values. We evaluated the adapted method using simulation data at nadir and satellite data near nadir. The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of the LST retrieved from the simulation data is 0.90 K. Compared with an LST product from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) on Meteosat, the error in the LST retrieved from the Infared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) is approximately 1.6 K. The adapted method can be used for the near-real-time production of an LST product and to provide the physical method to simultaneously retrieve atmospheric profiles, LST, and LSE with a first-guess LST value. The limitations of the adapted method are that it requires the minimum LSE in the spectral interval of 800–950 cm−1 larger than 0.95 and it has not been extended for off-nadir measurements. PMID:27187408

  13. Retrieving Land Surface Temperature from Hyperspectral Thermal Infrared Data Using a Multi-Channel Method.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xinke; Huo, Xing; Ren, Chao; Labed, Jelila; Li, Zhao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a key parameter in climate systems. The methods for retrieving LST from hyperspectral thermal infrared data either require accurate atmospheric profile data or require thousands of continuous channels. We aim to retrieve LST for natural land surfaces from hyperspectral thermal infrared data using an adapted multi-channel method taking Land Surface Emissivity (LSE) properly into consideration. In the adapted method, LST can be retrieved by a linear function of 36 brightness temperatures at Top of Atmosphere (TOA) using channels where LSE has high values. We evaluated the adapted method using simulation data at nadir and satellite data near nadir. The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of the LST retrieved from the simulation data is 0.90 K. Compared with an LST product from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) on Meteosat, the error in the LST retrieved from the Infared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) is approximately 1.6 K. The adapted method can be used for the near-real-time production of an LST product and to provide the physical method to simultaneously retrieve atmospheric profiles, LST, and LSE with a first-guess LST value. The limitations of the adapted method are that it requires the minimum LSE in the spectral interval of 800-950 cm(-1) larger than 0.95 and it has not been extended for off-nadir measurements. PMID:27187408

  14. Infrared Thermal Imaging: A Tool for Simple, Simultaneous, and High-Throughput Enthalpimetric Analysis.

    PubMed

    Barin, Juliano Smanioto; Tischer, Bruna; Oliveira, Alessandra Stangherlin; Wagner, Roger; Costa, Adilson Ben; Flores, Erico Marlon Moraes

    2015-12-15

    In this work, the feasibility of infrared thermal imaging (ITI) is demonstrated to show its potential application in analytical chemistry. A system of ITI was combined with disposable microplates to perform enthalpimetric analysis, which was selected as an example in order to show the reliability of this method. In this way, the novel thermal infrared enthalpimetry (TIE) method was evaluated in neutralization, precipitation, redox, and complexation reactions, with a multichannel pipet for adding the reagent and an infrared camera to monitor the temperature of multiple reactions (up to 24 simultaneous reactions) in a contactless way. Analytical signals were obtained in only 10 s, and the difference in temperature (ΔT) before and after the reaction was used for the construction of calibration curves by use of reference solutions. More than 10,000 values were considered for the temperature determination for each reaction. The proposed method was applied for determination of the total acidity of vinegar as well as the chloride, iron, and calcium content of pharmaceuticals. The results were compared with those from conventional techniques (titration), and agreement between 96% and 101% was obtained. Sample throughput could even reach thousands of samples analyzed in 1 h. These preliminary results demonstrate the important features of TIE and possible application for other matrices and analytical parameters. The proposed TIE could be spread to cover other enthalpimetric techniques, different reactors (e.g., microfluidic and paper analytical devices), and portable devices, thus reaching other fields of chemistry. PMID:26562490

  15. Optical assembly of a visible through thermal infrared multispectral imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Henson, T.; Bender, S.; Byrd, D.; Rappoport, W.; Shen, G.Y.

    1998-06-01

    The Optical Assembly (OA) for the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) program has been fabricated, assembled, and successfully tested for its performance. It represents a major milestone achieved towards completion of this earth observing E-O imaging sensor that is to be operated in low earth orbit. Along with its wide-field-of-view (WFOV), 1.82{degree} along-track and 1.38{degree} cross-track, and comprehensive on-board calibration system, the pushbroom imaging sensor employs a single mechanically cooled focal plane with 15 spectral bands covering a wavelength range from 0.45 to 10.7 {micro}m. The OA has an off-axis three-mirror anastigmatic (TMA) telescope with a 36-cm unobscured clear aperture. The two key performance criteria, 80% enpixeled energy in the visible and radiometric stability of 1% 1{sigma} in the visible/near-infrared (VNIR) and short wavelength infrared (SWIR), of 1.45% 1{sigma} in the medium wavelength infrared (MWIR), and of 0.53% 1{sigma} long wavelength infrared (LWIR), as well as its low weight (less than 49 kg) and volume constraint (89 cm x 44 cm x 127 cm) drive the overall design configuration of the OA and fabrication requirements.

  16. Infrared survey of 50 buildings constructed during 100 years: thermal performances and damage conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ljungberg, Sven-Ake

    1995-03-01

    Different building constructions and craftsmanship give rise to different thermal performance and damage conditions. The building stock of most industrial countries consists of buildings of various age, and constructions, from old historic buildings with heavy stone or wooden construction, to new buildings with heavy or light concrete construction, or modern steel or wooden construction. In this paper the result from a detailed infrared survey of 50 buildings from six Swedish military camps is presented. The presentation is limited to a comparison of thermal performance and damage conditions of buildings of various ages, functions, and constructions, of a building period of more than 100 years. The result is expected to be relevant even to civilian buildings. Infrared surveys were performed during 1992-1993, with airborne, and mobile short- and longwave infrared systems, out- and indoor thermography. Interpretation and analysis of infrared data was performed with interactive image and analyzing systems. Field inspections were carried out with fiber optics system, and by ocular inspections. Air-exchange rate was measured in order to quantify air leakages through the building envelope, indicated in thermograms. The objects studied were single-family houses, barracks, office-, service-, school- and exercise buildings, military hotels and restaurants, aircraft hangars, and ship factory buildings. The main conclusions from this study are that most buildings from 1880 - 1940 have a solid construction with a high quality of craftsmanship, relatively good thermal performance, due to extremely thick walls, and adding insulation at the attic floor. From about 1940 - 1960 the quality of construction, thermal performance and craftsmanship seem to vary a lot. Buildings constructed during the period of 1960 - 1990 have in general the best thermal performance due to a better insulation capacity, however, also one finds here the greatest variety of problems. The result from this

  17. INTERPRETATION OF THERMAL-INFRARED MULTISPECTRAL SCANNER IMAGES OF THE OSGOOD MOUNTAINS, NEVADA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krohn, M. Dennis

    1984-01-01

    Data from the Thermal-Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) were collected over the Osgood Mountains in northern Nevada midmorning on 27 August 1983. The area includes gold-producing properties of the Getchell Mine, the Prinson Mine, and a prospect being developed near Preble, Nevada. Tungsten-bearing tactite deposits, barite deposits, and some minor lead-zinc deposits are also present. The area was surveyed to determine if multichannel, mid-infrared data could detect the effects of hydrothermal alteration in the sediment-hosted disseminated gold deposits. Because the gold in the deposits is generally microscopic and the effects of alteration are difficult to observe, the deposits present a difficult challenge for geological remote sensing.

  18. Optimum thermal infrared bands for mapping general rock type and temperature from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Q. A.; Nuesch, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine quantitatively the number and locations of spectral bands required to perform general rock-type discrimination from spaceborne imaging sensors using only thermal infrared measurements. Beginning with laboratory spectra collected under idealized conditions from relatively well characterized, homogeneous samples, a radiative transfer model was employed to transform ground exitance values into the corresponding spectral radiance at the top of the atmosphere. Taking sensor noise into account analysis of these data revealed that three 1 micrometer wide spectral bands would permit independent estimators of rock-type and sample temperature from a satellite infrared multispectral scanner. This study, indicates that the location of three spectral bands at 8.1-9.1 micrometers, 9.5-10.5 micrometers and 11.0-12.0 micrometers, and the employment of appropriate preprocessing to minimize atmospheric effects makes it possible to predict general rock-type and temperature for a variety of atmospheric states and temperatures.

  19. Triple-wavelength infrared plasmonic thermal emitter using hybrid dielectric materials in periodic arrangement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei-Lun; Hsiao, Hui-Hsin; Tang, Ming-Ru; Lee, Si-Chen

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a triple-wavelength infrared plasmonic thermal emitter using a periodic arrangement of hybrid dielectric materials within a tri-layer metal/dielectric/metal structure. The proposed arrangement makes it possible to sustain multiple resonance of localized surface plasmons (LSP), thereby providing an additional degree of freedom by which to vary the resonant wavelengths in the medium infrared region. Variations in the effective refractive index due to the different modal distribution within dielectric gratings results in multiple LSP resonances, and the resonant wavelengths can be easily tuned by altering the compositions of hybrid dielectric materials. The measured dispersion relation diagram and the finite difference time domain simulation indicated that the resonances were localized. They also indicate that the magnetic fields generated by the multiple LSP modes exhibit distribution patterns similar to that of a standing wave in the periodic arrangement of the hybrid dielectric layer, each of which presents an emission peak corresponding to a different modal order.

  20. Definitions in use by the visible and near-infrared, and thermal working groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruegge, Carol J.; Miller, ED; Martin, Bob; Kieffer, Hugh H.; Palmer, James M.

    1992-01-01

    The Calibration Advisory Panel (CAP) is composed of calibration experts from each of the Earth Observing System (EOS) instruments, science investigation, and cross-calibration teams. These members come from a variety of institutions and backgrounds. In order to facilitate an exchange of ideas, and assure a common basis for communication, it was desirable to assemble this list of definitions. These definitions were developed for use by the visible and near-infrared working group, and the thermal infrared working group. Where necessary or appropriate, deviations from these for specific instruments or other sensor types are given in the individual calibration plans. The definitions contained in this document are derived, wherever possible, from definitions accepted by international and national metrological commissions including the United States National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM), the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and the International Organization of Legal Metrology (OIML).

  1. Applications of the BAE SYSTEMS MicroIR uncooled infrared thermal imaging cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickman, Heather A.; Henebury, John J., Jr.; Long, Dennis R.

    2003-09-01

    MicroIR uncooled infrared imaging modules (based on VOx microbolometers), developed and manufactured at BAE SYSTEMS, are integrated into ruggedized, weatherproof camera systems and are currently supporting numerous security and surveillance applications. The introduction of uncooled thermal imaging has permitted the expansion of traditional surveillance and security perimeters. MicroIR cameras go beyond the imagery limits of visible and low-light short wavelength infrared sensors, providing continual, uninterrupted, high quality imagery both day and night. Coupled with an appropriate lens assembly, MicroIR cameras offer exemplary imagery performance that lends itself to a more comprehensive level of surveillance. With the current increased emphasis on security and surveillance, MicroIR Cameras are evolving as an unquestionably beneficial instrument in the security and surveillance arenas. This paper will elaborate on the attributes of the cameras, and discuss the development and the deployment, both present and future, of BAE SYSTEMS MicroIR Cameras.

  2. Ultraviolet radiation effects on the infrared damage rate of a thermal control coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bass, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of ultraviolet radiation on the infrared reflectance of ZnO silicone white thermal coatings were investigated. Narrow band ultraviolet radiation for wavelengths in the 2200A to 3500A range by a monochromator and a high pressure, 150-W Eimac xenon lamp. The sample was irradiated while in a vacuum of at least 0.000001 torr, and infrared reflectance was measured in situ with a spectroreflectometer at 19,500A. Reflectance degradation was studied as a function of wavelength, time, intensity, and dose. Damage was wavelength dependent at constant exposure, but no maximum was evident above the shortest wavelength investigated here. The degradation rate at constant intensity was an exponential function of time and varies with intensity.

  3. Application of Infrared Thermal Imaging in a Violinist with Temporomandibular Disorder.

    PubMed

    Clemente, M; Coimbra, D; Silva, A; Aguiar Branco, C; Pinho, J C

    2015-12-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) consist of a group of pathologies that affect the masticatory muscles, temporomandibular joints (TMJ), and/or related structures. String instrumentalists, like many orchestra musicians, can spend hours with head postures that may influence the biomechanical behavior of the TMJ and the muscles of the craniocervicomandibular complex (CCMC). The adoption of abnormal postures acquired during performance by musicians can lead to muscular hyperactivity of the head and cervical muscles, with the possible appearance of TMD. Medical infrared thermography is a non-invasive procedure that can monitor the changes in the superficial tissue related to blood circulation and may serve as a complement to the clinical examination. The objective of this study was to use infrared thermography to evaluate, in one subject, the cutaneous thermal changes adjacent to the CCMC that occur before, during, and after playing a string instrument. PMID:26614980

  4. Preliminary measurements of spectral signatures of tropical and temperate plants in the thermal infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, John W.; Milton, N. M.

    1987-01-01

    Spectral reflectance measurements of seven tropical species and six deciduous species were carried out in thermal infrared to establish the species-dependent spectral characteristics and to investigate the effect on spectral signatures of environmental variables, such as leaf maturity, drought, and metal stress. Seasonal variations of spectral signatures occurred between spring and summer leaves, but such variations were minimal during summer and early fall. Overall reflectance of senescent leaves was higher than that of young leaves, as was the reflectance of leaves from trees growing in metal-enriched soils, as compared with leaves from the control area. However, the characteristic spectral features were not changed in either case. It was also found that water stress did not have any effect on the infrared signatures: trees grown during a drought season maintained their characteristic spectral signatures.

  5. Thermal Infrared Observations of Lava Flows During the 1984 Mauna Loa Eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieri, D. C.; Gillespie, R.; Kahle, A. B.; Kahle, J.; Baloga, S. M.

    1985-01-01

    Thermal infrared videotape images of the flowing lava streams and the vent areas at 10.6 microns were made, as well as some broadband images in the 8 to 12 micron range (for gas plume detection). These data were calibrated with on-site hand-held radiometer measurements, in-flow thermocouple measurements, and with later laboratory kiln measurements. Infrared video data are useful in quantitatively assessing the pattern and mode of flow thermal losses, particularly with regard to radiative losses from established/incipient floating crust. The general cooling of the flows downstream was readily apparent. Upper reaches of the active flow exhibited nearly crust-free main channels, radiating at about 700 to 800 degrees C. Below about the 7500 foot level (about 8 km from the vent) the flows formed nearly continuous crust and tended to spread, become less well-defined and founder due to a reduction in slope. Nevertheless, in thermal IR observations, the surface trace of the active subsurface channel was visible, radiating at about 500 to 700 degrees C. At the active flow front, most solid crust radiated at temperatures less than 500 to 600 degrees C, however bright high temperature interiors (approximately 900 to 1000 degrees C) were clearly visible though evolving fissures.

  6. Thermal infrared observations of lava flows during the 1984 Mauna Loa eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieri, D. C.; Gillespie, R.; Kahle, A. B.; Kahle, J.; Baloga, S. M.

    1985-04-01

    Thermal infrared videotape images of the flowing lava streams and the vent areas at 10.6 microns were made, as well as some broadband images in the 8 to 12 micron range (for gas plume detection). These data were calibrated with on-site hand-held radiometer measurements, in-flow thermocouple measurements, and with later laboratory kiln measurements. Infrared video data are useful in quantitatively assessing the pattern and mode of flow thermal losses, particularly with regard to radiative losses from established/incipient floating crust. The general cooling of the flows downstream was readily apparent. Upper reaches of the active flow exhibited nearly crust-free main channels, radiating at about 700 to 800 degrees C. Below about the 7500 foot level (about 8 km from the vent) the flows formed nearly continuous crust and tended to spread, become less well-defined and founder due to a reduction in slope. Nevertheless, in thermal IR observations, the surface trace of the active subsurface channel was visible, radiating at about 500 to 700 degrees C. At the active flow front, most solid crust radiated at temperatures less than 500 to 600 degrees C, however bright high temperature interiors (approximately 900 to 1000 degrees C) were clearly visible though evolving fissures.

  7. Multivariate curve resolution for the analysis of remotely sensed thermal infrared hyperspectral images.

    SciTech Connect

    Haaland, David Michael; Stork, Christopher Lyle; Keenan, Michael Robert

    2004-07-01

    While hyperspectral imaging systems are increasingly used in remote sensing and offer enhanced scene characterization relative to univariate and multispectral technologies, it has proven difficult in practice to extract all of the useful information from these systems due to overwhelming data volume, confounding atmospheric effects, and the limited a priori knowledge regarding the scene. The need exists for the ability to perform rapid and comprehensive data exploitation of remotely sensed hyperspectral imagery. To address this need, this paper describes the application of a fast and rigorous multivariate curve resolution (MCR) algorithm to remotely sensed thermal infrared hyperspectral images. Employing minimal a priori knowledge, notably non-negativity constraints on the extracted endmember profiles and a constant abundance constraint for the atmospheric upwelling component, it is demonstrated that MCR can successfully compensate thermal infrared hyperspectral images for atmospheric upwelling and, thereby, transmittance effects. We take a semi-synthetic approach to obtaining image data containing gas plumes by adding emission gas signals onto real hyperspectral images. MCR can accurately estimate the relative spectral absorption coefficients and thermal contrast distribution of an ammonia gas plume component added near the minimum detectable quantity.

  8. The Mercury Radiometer and Thermal Infrared Spectrometer (MERTIS) for the BepiColombo mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiesinger, H.; Helbert, J.; Mertis Co-I Team

    2010-01-01

    Scheduled for launch on board the BepiColombo Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) in 2014, the Mercury Radiometer and Thermal Infrared Spectrometer (MERTIS) is an innovative instrument for studying the surface composition and mineralogy of planet Mercury. MERTIS combines an uncooled grating push broom IR-spectrometer (TIS) with a radiometer (TIR), which will operate in the wavelength region of 7-14 and 7-40 μm, respectively. The spatial resolution of the MERTIS observations will be about 500 m globally and better than 500 m for approximately 5-10% of the surface. The thermal infrared range offers unique diagnostic capabilities to study the surface composition of Mercury. In particular, feldspars can easily be detected and characterized, because they show several diagnostic spectral signatures in the 7-14 μm range: the Christiansen feature, reststrahlen bands, and the transparency feature. In addition, MERTIS will allow the identification and mapping of elemental sulfur, pyroxenes, olivines, and other complex minerals. The scientific objectives of MERTIS include: (1) characterization of Mercury's surface composition, (2) identification of rock-forming minerals, (3) mapping of the surface mineralogy, and (4) study of surface temperature variations and the thermal inertia. In preparation for the MERTIS data interpretation, we are performing spectral measurements of appropriate analogue materials in the Planetary Emissivity Laboratory (PEL) and are building a spectral library (Berlin Emissivity Database (BED)) of these materials for a variety of grain sizes.

  9. Extracting lithologic information from ASTER multispectral thermal infrared data in the eastern Kunlun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kai; Kong, Chunfang; Shuai, Yanmin; Cao, Chunxiang; Yan, Shouxun

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, mechanisms of mineral radiation transfer, atmospheric correction and surface temperature retrieve, method of minerals identification based on emissivity spectral features are studied. Mineral radiation transfer can model the mechanisms of spectral formation and variation, and is one of study methods of spectral mechanism. Along with the variation of mineral granularity, the shape and absorption depth of mineral emissivity spectral will all variate. However, the law of emissivity variation with emission angle of different minerals is identical. Along with the increasement of emission angle, emissivity decrease. The more emissivity is small, the more variation range and speed are large. The reflectance mixture of mineral is non-linear, and can be lineated using mineral radiative transfer model. After the mixture spectral is lineated, the precision of linear unmixing of spectral and mineral content extraction will be improved greatly. The atmospheric correction and surface temperature retrieve of thermal remote sensing data will affect extraction lithologic information greatly. In this paper, using the MODTRAN model to atmospheric correction, and using split-window algorithm for retrieving surface temperature from ASTER thermal infrared data. With the minerals emissivity spectral features and the index (QI, CI and SI), retrieving Si02 content of rock quantitatively using ASTER thermal infrared data. The method can be used to extract lithologic information.

  10. MODVOLC2: A Hybrid Time Series Analysis for Detecting Thermal Anomalies Applied to Thermal Infrared Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeppen, W. C.; Wright, R.; Pilger, E.

    2009-12-01

    We developed and tested a new, automated algorithm, MODVOLC2, which analyzes thermal infrared satellite time series data to detect and quantify the excess energy radiated from thermal anomalies such as active volcanoes, fires, and gas flares. MODVOLC2 combines two previously developed algorithms, a simple point operation algorithm (MODVOLC) and a more complex time series analysis (Robust AVHRR Techniques, or RAT) to overcome the limitations of using each approach alone. MODVOLC2 has four main steps: (1) it uses the original MODVOLC algorithm to process the satellite data on a pixel-by-pixel basis and remove thermal outliers, (2) it uses the remaining data to calculate reference and variability images for each calendar month, (3) it compares the original satellite data and any newly acquired data to the reference images normalized by their variability, and it detects pixels that fall outside the envelope of normal thermal behavior, (4) it adds any pixels detected by MODVOLC to those detected in the time series analysis. Using test sites at Anatahan and Kilauea volcanoes, we show that MODVOLC2 was able to detect ~15% more thermal anomalies than using MODVOLC alone, with very few, if any, known false detections. Using gas flares from the Cantarell oil field in the Gulf of Mexico, we show that MODVOLC2 provided results that were unattainable using a time series-only approach. Some thermal anomalies (e.g., Cantarell oil field flares) are so persistent that an additional, semi-automated 12-µm correction must be applied in order to correctly estimate both the number of anomalies and the total excess radiance being emitted by them. Although all available data should be included to make the best possible reference and variability images necessary for the MODVOLC2, we estimate that at least 80 images per calendar month are required to generate relatively good statistics from which to run MODVOLC2, a condition now globally met by a decade of MODIS observations. We also found

  11. Mapping Glacial Weathering Processes with Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing: A Case Study at Robertson Glacier, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutledge, A. M.; Christensen, P. R.; Shock, E.; Canovas, P. A., III

    2014-12-01

    Geologic weathering processes in cold environments, especially subglacial chemical processes acting on rock and sediment, are not well characterized due to the difficulty of accessing these environments. Glacial weathering of geologic materials contributes to the solute flux in meltwater and provides a potential source of energy to chemotrophic microbes, and is thus an important component to understand. In this study, we use Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data to map the extent of glacial weathering in the front range of the Canadian Rockies using remotely detected infrared spectra. We ground-truth our observations using laboratory infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and geochemical analyses of field samples. The major goals of the project are to quantify weathering inputs to the glacial energy budget, and to link in situ sampling with remote sensing capabilities. Robertson Glacier, Alberta, Canada is an excellent field site for this technique as it is easily accessible and its retreating stage allows sampling of fresh subglacial and englacial sediments. Infrared imagery of the region was collected with the ASTER satellite instrument. At that same time, samples of glacially altered rock and sediments were collected on a downstream transect of the glacier and outwash plain. Infrared laboratory spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction were used to determine the composition and abundance of minerals present. Geochemical data were also collected at each location, and ice and water samples were analyzed for major and minor elements. Our initial conclusion is that the majority of the weathering seems to be occurring at the glacier-rock interface rather than in the outwash stream. Results from both laboratory and ASTER data indicate the presence of leached weathering rinds. A general trend of decreasing carbonate abundances with elevation (i.e. residence time in ice) is observed, which is consistent with increasing calcium ion

  12. Spatiotemporal Evaluation of Nocturnal Cold Air Drainage Over a Simple Slope Using Thermal Infrared Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikani, V.; Chokmani, K.; Fathollahi, L.; Granberg, H.; Fournier, R.

    2016-06-01

    Measurements of climatic processes such as cold air drainage flows are problematic over mountainous areas. Observation of cold air drainage is not available in the existing observation network and it requires a special methodology. The main objective of this study was to characterize the cold air drainage over regions with a slope. A high resolution infrared camera, a meteorological station and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) were used. The specific objective was to derive nocturnal cold air drainage velocity over the slope. To address these objectives, a number of infrared measurement campaigns were conducted during calm and clear sky conditions over an agricultural zone (blackcurrant farm) in Canada. Using thermal infrared images, the nocturnal surface temperature gradient were computed in hourly basis. The largest gradient magnitudes were found between 17h -20h. The cooling rates at basin area were two times higher in comparison to the magnitudes observed within slope area. The image analysis illustrated this considerable temperature gradient of the basin may be partly due to transport of cold air drainage into the basin from the slope. The results show that thermal imagery can be used to characterize and understand the microclimate related to the occurrence of radiation frost in the agricultural field. This study provided the opportunity to track the cold air drainage flow and pooling of cold air in low lying areas. The infrared analysis demonstrated that nocturnal drainage flow displayed continuous variation in terms of space and time in response to microscale slope heterogeneities. In addition, the analysis highlighted the periodic aspect for cold air drainage flow.

  13. Thermal and Chemical Characterization of Non-metallic Materials Using Coupled Thermogravimetric Analysis and Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Timothy L.; Griffin, Dennis E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) is widely employed in the thermal characterization of non-metallic materials, yielding valuable information on decomposition characteristics of a sample over a wide temperature range. However, a potential wealth of chemical information is lost during the process, with the evolving gases generated during thermal decomposition escaping through the exhaust line. Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is a powerful analytical technique for determining many chemical constituents while in any material state, in this application, the gas phase. By linking these two techniques, evolving gases generated during the TGA process are directed into an appropriately equipped infrared spectrometer for chemical speciation. Consequently, both thermal decomposition and chemical characterization of a material may be obtained in a single sample run. In practice, a heated transfer line is employed to connect the two instruments while a purge gas stream directs the evolving gases into the FT-IR, The purge gas can be either high purity air or an inert gas such as nitrogen to allow oxidative and pyrolytic processes to be examined, respectively. The FT-IR data is collected real-time, allowing continuous monitoring of chemical compositional changes over the course of thermal decomposition. Using this coupled technique, an array of diverse materials has been examined, including composites, plastics, rubber, fiberglass epoxy resins, polycarbonates, silicones, lubricants and fluorocarbon materials. The benefit of combining these two methodologies is of particular importance in the aerospace community, where newly developing materials have little available data with which to refer. By providing both thermal and chemical data simultaneously, a more definitive and comprehensive characterization of the material is possible. Additionally, this procedure has been found to be a viable screening technique for certain materials, with the generated data useful in

  14. Thermal and Chemical Characterization of Non-Metallic Materials Using Coupled Thermogravimetric Analysis and Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Timothy L.

    2002-01-01

    Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) is widely employed in the thermal characterization of non-metallic materials, yielding valuable information on decomposition characteristics of a sample over a wide temperature range. However, a potential wealth of chemical information is lost during the process, with the evolving gases generated during thermal decomposition escaping through the exhaust line. Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is a powerful analytical technique for determining many chemical constituents while in any material state, in this application, the gas phase. By linking these two techniques, evolving gases generated during the TGA process are directed into an appropriately equipped infrared spectrometer for chemical speciation. Consequently, both thermal decomposition and chemical characterization of a material may be obtained in a single sample run. In practice, a heated transfer line is employed to connect the two instruments while a purge gas stream directs the evolving gases into the FT-IR. The purge gas can be either high purity air or an inert gas such as nitrogen to allow oxidative and pyrolytic processes to be examined, respectively. The FT-IR data is collected realtime, allowing continuous monitoring of chemical compositional changes over the course of thermal decomposition. Using this coupled technique, an array of diverse materials has been examined, including composites, plastics, rubber, fiberglass epoxy resins, polycarbonates, silicones, lubricants and fluorocarbon materials. The benefit of combining these two methodologies is of particular importance in the aerospace community, where newly developing materials have little available data with which to refer. By providing both thermal and chemical data simultaneously, a more definitive and comprehensive characterization of the material is possible. Additionally, this procedure has been found to be a viable screening technique for certain materials, with the generated data useful in

  15. Application of combined Landsat thematic mapper and airborne thermal infrared multispectral scanner data to lithologic mapping in Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Podwysocki, M.H.; Ehmann, W.J.; Brickey, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Future Landsat satellites are to include the Thematic Mapper (TM) and also may incorporate additional multispectral scanners. One such scanner being considered for geologic and other applications is a four-channel thermal-infrared multispectral scanner having 60-m spatial resolution. This paper discusses the results of studies using combined Landsat TM and airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) digital data for lithologic discrimination, identification, and geologic mapping in two areas within the Basin and Range province of Nevada. Field and laboratory reflectance spectra in the visible and reflective-infrared and laboratory spectra in the thermal-infrared parts of the spectrum were used to verify distinctions made between rock types in the image data sets.

  16. A model for μ-biomimetic thermal infrared sensors based on the infrared receptors of Melanophila acuminata.

    PubMed

    Siebke, Georg; Holik, Peter; Schmitz, Sam; Schmitz, Helmut; Lacher, Manfred; Steltenkamp, Siegfried

    2014-09-01

    Beetles of the genus Melanophila acuminata detect forest fires from distances as far as 130 km with infrared-sensing organs. Inspired by this extremely sensitive biological device, we are developing an IR sensor that operates at ambient temperature using MEMS technology. The sensor consists of two liquid-filled chambers that are connected by a micro-fluidic system. Absorption of IR radiation by one of these chambers leads to heating and expansion of a liquid. The increasing pressure deflects a membrane covered by one electrode of a plate capacitor. The micro-fluidic system and the second chamber represent a fluidic low-pass filter, preventing slow, but large pressure changes. However, the strong frequency dependence of the filter demands a precise characterization of its properties. Here, we present a theoretical model that describes the frequency-dependent response of the sensor based on material properties and geometrical dimensions. Our model is divided into four distinct parts that address different aspects of the sensor. The model describes the frequency-dependent behaviour of the fluidic filter and a thermal low-pass filter as well as saturation effects at low frequencies. This model allows the calculation of optimal design parameters, and thereby provides the foundation for the development of such a sensor. PMID:24762777

  17. Relationship among eye temperature measured using digital infrared thermal imaging and vaginal and rectal temperatures in hair sheep and cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Digital infrared thermal imaging (DITI) using a thermal camera has potential to be a useful tool for the production animal industry. Thermography has been used in both humans and a wide range of animal species to measure body temperature as a method to detect injury or inflammation. The objective of...

  18. Experiment of monitoring thermal discharge drained from nuclear plant through airborne infrared remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Difeng; Pan, Delu; Li, Ning

    2009-07-01

    The State Development and Planning Commission has approved nuclear power projects with the total capacity of 23,000 MW. The plants will be built in Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Guangdong, Shandong, Liaoning and Fujian Province before 2020. However, along with the nuclear power policy of accelerated development in our country, the quantity of nuclear plants and machine sets increases quickly. As a result the environment influence of thermal discharge will be a problem that can't be slid over. So evaluation of the environment influence and engineering simulation must be performed before station design and construction. Further more real-time monitoring of water temperature need to be arranged after fulfillment, reflecting variety of water temperature in time and provided to related managing department. Which will help to ensure the operation of nuclear plant would not result in excess environment breakage. At the end of 2007, an airborne thermal discharge monitoring experiment has been carried out by making use of MAMS, a marine multi-spectral scanner equipped on the China Marine Surveillance Force airplane. And experimental subject was sea area near Qin Shan nuclear plant. This paper introduces the related specification and function of MAMS instrument, and decrypts design and process of the airborne remote sensing experiment. Experiment showed that applying MAMS to monitoring thermal discharge is viable. The remote sensing on a base of thermal infrared monitoring technique told us that thermal discharge of Qin Shan nuclear plant was controlled in a small scope, never breaching national water quality standard.

  19. Proximity and gaze influences facial temperature: a thermal infrared imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Ioannou, Stephanos; Morris, Paul; Mercer, Hayley; Baker, Marc; Gallese, Vittorio; Reddy, Vasudevi

    2014-01-01

    Direct gaze and interpersonal proximity are known to lead to changes in psycho-physiology, behavior and brain function. We know little, however, about subtler facial reactions such as rise and fall in temperature, which may be sensitive to contextual effects and functional in social interactions. Using thermal infrared imaging cameras 18 female adult participants were filmed at two interpersonal distances (intimate and social) and two gaze conditions (averted and direct). The order of variation in distance was counterbalanced: half the participants experienced a female experimenter's gaze at the social distance first before the intimate distance (a socially “normal” order) and half experienced the intimate distance first and then the social distance (an odd social order). At both distances averted gaze always preceded direct gaze. We found strong correlations in thermal changes between six areas of the face (forehead, chin, cheeks, nose, maxilliary, and periorbital regions) for all experimental conditions and developed a composite measure of thermal shifts for all analyses. Interpersonal proximity led to a thermal rise, but only in the “normal” social order. Direct gaze, compared to averted gaze, led to a thermal increase at both distances with a stronger effect at intimate distance, in both orders of distance variation. Participants reported direct gaze as more intrusive than averted gaze, especially at the intimate distance. These results demonstrate the powerful effects of another person's gaze on psycho-physiological responses, even at a distance and independent of context. PMID:25136326

  20. A fast and mobile system for registration of low-altitude visual and thermal aerial images using multiple small-scale UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahyanejad, Saeed; Rinner, Bernhard

    2015-06-01

    The use of multiple small-scale UAVs to support first responders in disaster management has become popular because of their speed and low deployment costs. We exploit such UAVs to perform real-time monitoring of target areas by fusing individual images captured from heterogeneous aerial sensors. Many approaches have already been presented to register images from homogeneous sensors. These methods have demonstrated robustness against scale, rotation and illumination variations and can also cope with limited overlap among individual images. In this paper we focus on thermal and visual image registration and propose different methods to improve the quality of interspectral registration for the purpose of real-time monitoring and mobile mapping. Images captured by low-altitude UAVs represent a very challenging scenario for interspectral registration due to the strong variations in overlap, scale, rotation, point of view and structure of such scenes. Furthermore, these small-scale UAVs have limited processing and communication power. The contributions of this paper include (i) the introduction of a feature descriptor for robustly identifying corresponding regions of images in different spectrums, (ii) the registration of image mosaics, and (iii) the registration of depth maps. We evaluated the first method using a test data set consisting of 84 image pairs. In all instances our approach combined with SIFT or SURF feature-based registration was superior to the standard versions. Although we focus mainly on aerial imagery, our evaluation shows that the presented approach would also be beneficial in other scenarios such as surveillance and human detection. Furthermore, we demonstrated the advantages of the other two methods in case of multiple image pairs.

  1. Mapping alluvial fans in Death Valley, California, using multichannel thermal infrared images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillespie, A. R.; Kahle, A. B.; Pallluconi, F. D.

    1984-01-01

    Alluvial fans have been mapped in Death Valley, California using NASA's 8-12 micron six-channel airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS). Both composition and relative age differences were recognized. Age unit boundries are generally consistent with those obtained by conventional mapping. Composition was verified by field investigation and comparison with existing geologic maps. Bedrock and its young derived fan gravels have similar emissivities. The original composition of the fans is modified by differential erosion and weathering, permitting relative age mapping with TIMS.

  2. Fractal morphology of black carbon aerosol enhances absorption in the thermal infrared wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Heinson, William R; Chakrabarty, Rajan K

    2016-02-15

    In this Letter, we numerically calculate the mass absorption cross sections (MACs) of black carbon fractal aggregates in the thermal infrared solar spectrum. Compared to equivalent-size spheres, the MAC values of aggregates show a percent enhancement of ≈150 and 400 at small and large length scales, respectively. The absorption properties of aggregates with size parameters >1 surprisingly continued to remain in the Rayleigh optics regime. We explain this phenomenon using the Maxwell-Garnett effective medium theory and the concept of phase shift parameter. PMID:26872194

  3. Thermal Physical, and Infrared Spectroscopic Studies on Glasses Prepared by Microwave Route

    SciTech Connect

    Jagadeesha, N.; Gowda, V. C. Veeranna; Chakradhar, R. P. S.; Reddy, C. Narayana

    2011-07-15

    This paper describes thermal, physical and spectroscopic properties of glasses prepared by a novel micro wave method. These studies exhibited a strong compositional dependent trend and existence of characteristic boro-vanadate groups in these glasses. The scheme of modification of borate and vanadate groups is controlled by Sanderson's electronegativity principle. Analysis of density and glass transition temperatures suggests the presence of characteristic four coordinated borate and diboro - vanadate groups in these glasses. The presence of [BO{sub 4/2}]{sup -} and [B{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 9}]{sup 2-}) groups are confirmed by Infrared Spectroscopy of investigated glasses.

  4. Soil moisture estimation using reflected solar and emitted thermal infrared radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, R. D.; Cihlar, J.; Estes, J. E.; Heilman, J. L.; Kahle, A.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Millard, J.; Price, J. C.; Wiegand, C. L.

    1978-01-01

    Classical methods of measuring soil moisture such as gravimetric sampling and the use of neutron moisture probes are useful for cases where a point measurement is sufficient to approximate the water content of a small surrounding area. However, there is an increasing need for rapid and repetitive estimations of soil moisture over large areas. Remote sensing techniques potentially have the capability of meeting this need. The use of reflected-solar and emitted thermal-infrared radiation, measured remotely, to estimate soil moisture is examined.

  5. Use of thermal infrared pictures for retrieving intertidal DEM by the waterline method: advantages and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudin, D.; Delacourt, C.; Allemand, P.

    2010-12-01

    Digital Elevation Models (DEM) of the intertidal zones have a growing interest for ecological and land development purposes. They are also a fundamental tool for monitoring current sedimentary movements in those low energy environments. Such DEMs have to be constructed with a centimetric resolution as the topographic changes are not predictable and as sediment displacements are weak. Direct construction of DEM by GPS in these muddy environment is difficult: photogrammetric techniques are not efficient on uniform coloured surfaces and terrestrial laser scans are difficult to stabilize on the mud, due to humidity. In this study, we propose to improve and to apply the waterline method to retrieve DEMs in intertidal zones. This technique is based on monitoring accurately the boundary between sand and water during a whole tide rise with thermal infrared images. The DEM is made by stacking all these lines calibrated by an immersed pressure sensor. Using thermal infrared pictures, instead of optical ones, improves the detection of the waterline, since mud and water have very different responses to sun heating and a large emissivity contrast. However, temperature retrieving from thermal infrared data is not trivial, since the luminance of an object is the sum of a radiative part and a reflexive part, whose relative proportions are given by the emissivity. In the following equation, B accounts for the equivalent blackbody luminance, and Linc is the incident luminance : Ltot}=L{rad}+L_{refl=ɛ B+(1-ɛ )Linc The infrared waterline technique has been used for the monitoring of a beach located on the Aber Benoit, 8.5km away from the open sea. The site is mainly constituted of mud, and waves are very small (less than one centimeter high), which are the ideal conditions for using the waterline method. A few measurements have been made to make differential heigh maps of sediments. We reached a mean resolution of 2cm and a vertical accuracy better than one centimeter. The results

  6. Hyperspectral imaging for thermal analysis and remote gas sensing in the short wave infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisani, M.; Bianco, P.; Zucco, M.

    2012-07-01

    A novel hyperspectral imaging device based on Fourier transform analysis applied to a low finesse scanning Fabry-Pérot (F-P) interferometer has been demonstrated in the short wave infrared (SWIR) region. The technique allows the realization of a lightweight and compact instrument yet allowing much faster and/or better quality hyperspectral images with respect to classical instruments based on a dispersive means or on a tunable band-pass filter. The potentialities in spectroscopic applications like remote gas sensing are presented as well as accurate thermal imaging capabilities.

  7. General characteristics and availability of Landsat 3 and heat capacity mapping mission thermal infrared data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Southworth, C. Scott

    1983-01-01

    Two satellite systems launched by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in 1978 carried sensors which operated in the thermal infrared (IR) region of the electromagnetic spectrum, The final IR radiation data provide spectral information about the physical properties of the Earth's surficial materials not duplicated in either the visible or reflective IR wavelength regions. Landsat 3, launched on March 5, 1978, contained a thermal sensor as part of the multispectral scanner (MSS) system. The sensor operated in the 10.4- to 12.6-?m (band 8) wavelength region and produced imagery with a ground resolution of approximately 235 m. Launched on April 26) 1978) the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) spacecraft carried a sensor, the heat capacity mapping radiometer (HCMR) which operated in the 10.5- to 12.5?m wavelength region and produced imagery with a ground resolution of approximately 600 m at nadir. The HCMM satellite acquired over 6,600 data passes of visible (0.55-1.1 ?m), as well as thermal IR data, over North America, Europe, and Australia. General characteristics and availability of Landsat 3 and HCMM thermal IR data are discussed. Landsat 3 reflected IR band 7 (0.55-1.1 ?m) and Landsat 3 band 8 thermal data acquired over the eastern and western United States are analyzed and compared with HCMM visible, thermal IR, thermal inertia, and day-night temperature difference imagery for geologic applications. Digitally processed and enhanced HCMM data (high-pass filters, diagonal derivatives, and band ratios), produced by the U.S. Geological Survey, Flagstaff) Ariz., are presented for geologic interpretation.

  8. Infrared Sensor For Remote Temperature Monitoring Of Solar Thermal Central Receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, David W.

    1983-07-01

    At the Barstow 10MW Solar Thermal Pilot Plant, water is converted to high pressure steam by concentrated solar radiation. The design of the elements in which the boiling takes place makes them vulnerable to blockage by particulates contaminating the circulating water. Concern over the potential for heat damage to blocked boiler elements has led to the development of a remote optical monitoring system for use at the Pilot Plant. The system employs a telescope and infrared vidicon to detect the increased blackbody radiant emittance produced by an overheated element. An image is provided with spatial and thermal resolution sufficient to detect and identify a single blocked element. Design considerations for such a system are discussed, as are performance at the Pilot Plant and possible extensions of the system to more sophisticated pyrometric tasks.

  9. Thermal Aspects of Pyroelectric Ceramic Functional Material for Infrared Image Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matin, M. A.; Sugai, T.; Kawazu, N.; Akai, D.; Sawada, K.; Ishida, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design, fabrication and thermal simulation of smart 1024-element (32 × 32 pixels), monolithic, pyroelectric, functional electro-ceramic material-based infrared (IR) image sensors. A sol-gel-deposited PbZr0.4Ti0.6O3 (PZT) thin film was used as a pyroelectric material for the detector. We tailored the geometries and dimensions of the devices in designing the the image sensors with a smart material. The influence of a thermal isolator has been shown to significantly reduce heat loss to the device structure and environment. Introducing circular pixels instead of square ones has confirmed the ability to obtain an optimal design with a functional material for use in a smart image sensor, resulting in a maximal temperature change of 4 mK at a response frequency of 10 Hz.

  10. Noncontact detection of dry eye using a custom designed infrared thermal image system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Tai Yuan; Hwa, Chen Kerh; Liu, Po Hsuan; Wu, Ming Hong; Chang, David O.; Su, Po Fang; Chang, Shu Wen; Chiang, Huihua Kenny

    2011-04-01

    Dry eye syndrome is a common irritating eye disease. Current clinical diagnostic methods are invasive and uncomfortable for patients. This study developed a custom designed noncontact infrared (IR) thermal image system to measure the spatial and temporal variation of the ocular surface temperature over a 6-second eye-open period. This research defined two parameters: the temperature difference value and the compactness value to represent the temperature change and the irregularity of the temperature distribution on the tear film. Using these two parameters, this study achieved discrimination results for the dry eye and the normal eye groups; the sensitivity is 0.84, the specificity is 0.83, and the receiver operating characteristic area is 0.87. The results suggest that the custom designed IR thermal image system may be used as an effective tool for noncontact detection of dry eye.

  11. Evaluation of the infrared test method for the olympus thermal balance tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donato, M.; Stpierre, D.; Green, J.; Reeves, M.

    The performance of the infrared (IR) rig used for the thermal balance testing of the Olympus S/C thermal model is discussed. Included in this evaluation are the rig effects themselves, the IRFLUX computer code used to predict the radiation inputs, the Monitored Background Radiometers (MBR's) developed to measure the absorbed radiation flux intensity, the Uniform Temperature Reference (UTR) based temperature measurement system and the data acquisition system. A preliminary set of verification tests were performed on a 1 m x 1 m zone to assess the performance of the IR lamps, calrods, MBR's and aluminized baffles. The results were used, in part, to obtain some empirical data required for the IRFLUX code. This data included lamp and calrod characteristics, the absorptance function for various surface types, and the baffle reflectivities.

  12. [Quantitative estimation of CaO content in surface rocks using hyperspectral thermal infrared emissivity].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Fu; Zhang, Xue-Wen; Huang, Zhao-Qiang; Yang, Hang; Zhang, Fei-Zhou

    2011-11-01

    The objective of the present paper is to study the quantitative relationship between the CaO content and the thermal infrared emissivity spectra. The surface spectral emissivity of 23 solid rocks samples were measured in the field and the first derivative of the spectral emissivity was also calculated. Multiple linear regression (MLR), principal component analysis (PCR) and partial least squares regression (PLSR) were modeled and the regression results were compared. The results show that there is a good relationship between CaO content and thermal emissivity spectra features; emissivities become lower when CaO content increases in the 10.3-13 mm region; the first derivative spectra have a better predictive ability compared to the original emissivity spectra. PMID:22242490

  13. Photothermal and infrared thermography characterizations of thermal diffusion in hydroxyapatite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bante-Guerra, J.; Conde-Contreras, M.; Trujillo, S.; Martinez-Torres, P.; Cruz-Jimenez, B.; Quintana, P.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.

    2009-02-01

    Non destructive analysis of hydroxyapatite materials is an active research area mainly in the study of dental pieces and bones due to the importance these pieces have in medicine, archeology, dentistry, forensics and anthropology. Infrared thermography and photothermal techniques constitute highly valuable tools in those cases. In this work the quantitative analysis of thermal diffusion in bones is presented. The results obtained using thermographic images are compared with the ones obtained from the photothermal radiometry. Special emphasis is done in the analysis of samples with previous thermal damage. Our results show that the treatments induce changes in the physical properties of the samples. These results could be useful in the identification of the agents that induced modifications of unknown origin in hydroxyapatite structures.

  14. Use of thermal-infrared imagery in ground-water investigations in Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boettcher, A. J.; Haralick, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    Thermal infrared imagery was used to locate ground-water inflow along three streams and one lake in Montana. The thermal scanner used in May 1972, March 1973, and November 1975 was mounted in a twin-engined aircraft. On the 1973 and 1975 flights, the data were recorded in an analog format on magnetic tape in flight, later were converted to digital format, and were computer processed using an assignment of patterns to indicate differences in water temperature. Output from the image processing program was converted to a temperature map having an isotherm spacing of 0.5 C. Computerization was found to be the most efficient method to manipulate data from lakes, large rivers, and narrow sinuous streams.

  15. Evaluation of the infrared test method for the olympus thermal balance tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donato, M.; Stpierre, D.; Green, J.; Reeves, M.

    1986-01-01

    The performance of the infrared (IR) rig used for the thermal balance testing of the Olympus S/C thermal model is discussed. Included in this evaluation are the rig effects themselves, the IRFLUX computer code used to predict the radiation inputs, the Monitored Background Radiometers (MBR's) developed to measure the absorbed radiation flux intensity, the Uniform Temperature Reference (UTR) based temperature measurement system and the data acquisition system. A preliminary set of verification tests were performed on a 1 m x 1 m zone to assess the performance of the IR lamps, calrods, MBR's and aluminized baffles. The results were used, in part, to obtain some empirical data required for the IRFLUX code. This data included lamp and calrod characteristics, the absorptance function for various surface types, and the baffle reflectivities.

  16. Determination of water surface temperature based on the use of Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, James E.

    1992-01-01

    A straightforward method for compensating Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) digital data for the influence of atmospheric path radiance and the attenuation of target energy by the atmosphere is presented. A band ratioing model useful for estimating water surface temperatures, which requires no ground truth measurements, is included. A study conducted to test the potential of the model and the magnitudes of the corrections for atmosphere encountered is presented. Results of the study, which was based on data collected during an engineering evaluation flight of TIMS, indicate errors in the estimate of the surface temperature of the water fall from +/- 1.0 C for uncorrected data to +/- 0.4 C when data have been corrected according to the model presented. This value approaches the noise-limited thermal resolution of the sensor at the time of the flight.

  17. The Case for Moderately-Cooled, Far-Infrared Thermal Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brasunas, John C.; Lakew, Brook

    2004-01-01

    There are moderately-cooled (around 77K) infrared detectors, for instance InSb (around 5 microns wavelength) and HgCdTe (around 15 to 20 microns wavelength). However for longer wavelengths there are either uncooled thermal-type detectors or highly cooled (about 4K and lower) quantum and thermal detectors, with the notable exception of high Tc superconductor detectors. We will describe certain long-wavelength applications in space where only moderate cooling is feasible, and where better sensitivity is required than possible with uncooled detectors. These requirements could be met with high Tc bolometers, but it may also be prudent to develop other technologies. Additionally, over the past 16 years a marketplace has not developed for the commercial production of high Tc bolometers, indicating their production may be a natural endeavor for government laboratories.

  18. A statistical approach to the thermal analysis at fumarole fields using infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisciotta, Antonino; Diliberto, Iole Serena

    2016-04-01

    In the last decades, volcanology has evolved significantly, allowing for an improved understanding of volcanic processes preceding, accompanying and following eruptive events. Thermal imaging data, especially when used together with other monitoring techniques (such as seismicity, GPS measurements, and gas emissions), help to determine the nature of volcanic hazards. Between 2013 and 2015, four thermal surveys of the Vulcano Fossa fumarole field have been carried out. The fluid geochemistry of the target area and the time variation of the maximum temperature of the fluids released by the steaming vents have been well defined during the last decades and a great amount of scientific papers discussing interpretative models of the hydrothermal and magmatic systems feeding the fumaroles are available. The sequences of thermal images were recorded from a fixed view point 400 m (38°24.111' N 14°57.721' E), using a handheld infrared camera. The field surveys aimed to define the areal extension of thermal anomalies. The probability plots revealed different populations of data in each survey. The temperature space variability can be inferred to variable components of heat transport (radiative, convective, conductive) participating in the heat exchange occurring at the ground surface. The variation of shallow permeability of the ground and of the thermal capacity of the exposed surfaces are the main causes of space variability of exposed surfaces. The enlargement of the exhaling area and/or an increase of thermal anomaly surrounding the main fumarole vents (due to steam heating from the bottom source) can highlight significant increases of thermal release even when the maximum temperature of fumarole fluids falls. It has occurred in the last years in the fumarole in the inner slope, like FA fumarole where t dropped from 700°C in 1993 to the actual 250 °C but at the same time the area of steam emission abruptly changed. Responding to thermodynamic basic principles the

  19. Derivation of martian surface slope characteristics from directional thermal infrared radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandfield, Joshua L.; Edwards, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    Directional thermal infrared measurements of the martian surface is one of a variety of methods that may be used to characterize surface roughness and slopes at scales smaller than can be obtained by orbital imagery. Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) emission phase function (EPF) observations show distinct apparent temperature variations with azimuth and emission angle that are consistent with the presence of warm, sunlit and cool, shaded slopes at typically ˜0.1 m scales. A surface model of a Gaussian distribution of azimuth independent slopes (described by θ-bar) is combined with a thermal model to predict surface temperature from each viewing angle and azimuth of the TES EPF observation. The models can be used to predict surface slopes using the difference in measured apparent temperature from 2 separate 60-70° emission angle observations taken ˜180° in azimuth relative to each other. Most martian surfaces are consistent with low to moderate slope distributions. The slope distributions display distinct correlations with latitude, longitude, and albedo. Exceptionally smooth surfaces are located at lower latitudes in both the southern highlands as well as in high albedo dusty terrains. High slopes are associated with southern high-latitude patterned ground and north polar sand dunes. There is little apparent correlation between high resolution imagery and the derived θ-bar, with exceptions such as duneforms. This method can be used to characterize potential landing sites by assuming fractal scaling behavior to meter scales. More precisely targeted thermal infrared observations from other spacecraft instruments are capable of significantly reducing uncertainty as well as reducing measurement spot size from 10s of kilometers to sub-kilometer scales.

  20. Infrared laser thermal fusion of blood vessels: preliminary ex vivo tissue studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilip, Christopher M.; Rosenbury, Sarah B.; Giglio, Nicholas; Hutchens, Thomas C.; Schweinsberger, Gino R.; Kerr, Duane; Latimer, Cassandra; Nau, William H.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2013-05-01

    Suture ligation of blood vessels during surgery can be time-consuming and skill-intensive. Energy-based, electrosurgical, and ultrasonic devices have recently replaced the use of sutures and mechanical clips (which leave foreign objects in the body) for many surgical procedures, providing rapid hemostasis during surgery. However, these devices have the potential to create an undesirably large collateral zone of thermal damage and tissue necrosis. We explore an alternative energy-based technology, infrared lasers, for rapid and precise thermal coagulation and fusion of the blood vessel walls. Seven near-infrared lasers (808, 980, 1075, 1470, 1550, 1850 to 1880, and 1908 nm) were tested during preliminary tissue studies. Studies were performed using fresh porcine renal vessels, ex vivo, with native diameters of 1 to 6 mm, and vessel walls flattened to a total thickness of 0.4 mm. A linear beam profile was applied normal to the vessel for narrow, full-width thermal coagulation. The laser irradiation time was 5 s. Vessel burst pressure measurements were used to determine seal strength. The 1470 nm laser wavelength demonstrated the capability of sealing a wide range of blood vessels from 1 to 6 mm diameter with burst strengths of 578±154, 530±171, and 426±174 mmHg for small, medium, and large vessel diameters, respectively. Lateral thermal coagulation zones (including the seal) measured 1.0±0.4 mm on vessels sealed at this wavelength. Other laser wavelengths (1550, 1850 to 1880, and 1908 nm) were also capable of sealing vessels, but were limited by lower vessel seal pressures, excessive charring, and/or limited power output preventing treatment of large vessels (>4 mm outer diameter).

  1. Three-dimensional dynamic thermal imaging of structural flaws by dual-band infrared computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Del Grande, N.K.; Dolan, K.W.; Durbin, P.F.; Gorvad, M.R.; Kornblum, B.T.; Perkins, D.E.; Schneberk, D.J.; Shapiro, A.B.

    1993-04-01

    We discuss three-dimensional (3D) dynamic thermal imaging of structure flaws using dual-band infrared (DBIR) computed tomography. Conventional thermography provides single-band infrared images which are difficult to interpret. Standard procedures yield imprecise (or qualitative) information about subsurface flaw sites which are typically masked by surface clutter. We use a DBIR imaging unique pioneered at LLNL to capture the time history of surface temperature difference for flash-heated targets. We relate these patterns to the location, size, shape and depth of subsurface flaws. We have demonstrated temperature accuracies of 0.2{degree}C, timing synchronizations of 3 ms (after onset of heat flash) and intervals of 42 ms, between images, during an 8 s cooling (and hearing) interval characterizing the front (and back) surface temperature-time history of an epoxy-glue disbond site in a flash-heated aluminum lap joint. This type of disbond played a significant role in causing damage to the Aloha Aircraft fuselage on the aged Boeing 737 jetliner. By ratioing DBIR images (near 5 and 10 micron), we located surface temperature patterns (generated by weak heat flow anomalies at subsurface flaw sites) and removed the emissivity mask (from surface roughness variations). We compared measurements with calculations from the three-dimensional, finite element computer code: TOPAZ3D. We combined infrared, ultrasound and x-ray imaging methods to characterize the lap joint disbond site spatial, bond quality, and material differences.

  2. On Combining Thermal-Infrared and Radio-Occultation Data of Saturn's Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flasar, F. M.; Schinder, P. J.; Conrath, B. J.

    2008-01-01

    Radio-occultation and thermal-infrared measurements are complementary investigations for sounding planetary atmospheres. The vertical resolution afforded by radio occultations is typically approximately 1 km or better, whereas that from infrared sounding is often comparable to a scale height. On the other hand, an instrument like CIRS can easily generate global maps of temperature and composition, whereas occultation soundings are usually distributed more sparsely. The starting point for radio-occultation inversions is determining the residual Doppler-shifted frequency, that is the shift in frequency from what it would be in the absence of the atmosphere. Hence the positions and relative velocities of the spacecraft, target atmosphere, and DSN receiving station must be known to high accuracy. It is not surprising that the inversions can be susceptible to sources of systematic errors. Stratospheric temperature profiles on Titan retrieved from Cassini radio occultations were found to be very susceptible to errors in the reconstructed spacecraft velocities (approximately equal to 1 mm/s). Here the ability to adjust the spacecraft ephemeris so that the profiles matched those retrieved from CIRS limb sounding proved to be critical in mitigating this error. A similar procedure can be used for Saturn, although the sensitivity of its retrieved profiles to this type of error seems to be smaller. One issue that has appeared in inverting the Cassini occultations by Saturn is the uncertainty in its equatorial bulge, that is, the shape in its iso-density surfaces at low latitudes. Typically one approximates that surface as a geopotential surface by assuming a barotropic atmosphere. However, the recent controversy in the equatorial winds, i.e., whether they changed between the Voyager (1981) era and later (after 1996) epochs of Cassini and some Hubble observations, has made it difficult to know the exact shape of the surface, and it leads to uncertainties in the retrieved

  3. Determining thermal diffusivity and defect attributes in ceramic matrix composites by infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahuja, Sanjay; Ellingson, William A.; Stuckey, J. B.; Koehl, E. R.

    1996-03-01

    Ceramic matrix composites are being developed for numerous high temperature applications, including rotors and combustors for advanced turbine engines, heat exchanger and hot-gas filters for coal gasification plants. Among the materials of interest are silicon-carbide-fiber- reinforced-silicon-carbide (SiC(f)/SiC), silicon-carbide-fiber-reinforced-silicon-nitride (SiC(f)/Si3N4), aluminum-oxide-reinforced-alumina (Al2O3(f)/Al2O3, etc. In the manufacturing of these ceramic composites, the conditions of the fiber/matrix interface are critical to the mechanical and thermal behavior of the component. Defects such as delaminations and non-uniform porosity can directly affect the performance. A nondestructive evaluation (NDE) method, developed at Argonne National Laboratory has proved beneficial in analyzing as-processed conditions and defect detection created during manufacturing. This NDE method uses infrared thermal imaging for full-field quantitative measurement of the distribution of thermal diffusivity in large components. Intensity transform algorithms have been used for contrast enhancement of the output image. Nonuniformity correction and automatic gain control are used to dynamically optimize video contrast and brightness, providing additional resolution in the acquired images. Digital filtering, interpolation, and least-squares-estimation techniques have been incorporated for noise reduction and data acquisition. The Argonne NDE system has been utilized to determine thermal shock damage, density variations, and variations in fiber coating in a full array of test specimens.

  4. Thermal stability of lightweight graphite glass sandwich reflectors for far infrared astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluege, J. H.; Mayor, R. A.; Hoffman, W. F.

    1986-01-01

    Graphite fiber-reinforced glass matrix composites are being developed for a variety of structural applications requiring excellent thermomechanical stability. These materials are ideally suited for lightweight, high strength, thermally stable infrared mirrors because of their low density, low thermal expansion, high strength and stiffness, and their ability to be machined, replicated and figured using standard polishing techniques. These properties are particularly promising for applications such as a 3-meter balloon-borne far-infrared and submillimeter telescope mirror which must be both very lightweight and able to retain its figure accuracy when cycled between room temperature and its operating temperature of -50 C. This paper presents the results of a set of low temperature optical tests conducted to determine the figure stability of a 30-cm diameter, frit-bonded graphite/glass mirror in the +20 to -60 C temperature range using a 10.6 micron laser interferometer. The results indicate that the residual change in figure was less than 0.3 microns, rms.

  5. Dark and background response stability for the Landsat 8 Thermal Infrared Sensor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vanderwerff, Kelly; Montanaro, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) is a pushbroom sensor that will be a part of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), which is a joint mission between NASA and the USGS. The TIRS instrument will continue to collect the thermal infrared data that are currently being collected by the Thematic Mapper and the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus on Landsats 5 and 7, respectively. One of the key requirements of the new sensor is that the dark and background response be stable to ensure proper data continuity from the legacy Landsat instruments. Pre launch testing of the instrument has recently been completed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), which included calibration collects that mimic those that will be performed on orbit. These collects include images of a cold plate meant to simulate the deep space calibration source as viewed by the instrument in flight. The data from these collects give insight into the stability of the instrument’s dark and background response, as well as factors that may cause these responses to vary. This paper quantifies the measured background and dark response of TIRS as well as its stability.

  6. First Use of an Airborne Thermal Infrared Hyperspectral Scanner for Compositional Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkland, Laurel; Herr, Kenneth; Keim, Eric; Adams, Paul; Salisbury, John; Hackwell, John; Treiman, Allan

    2002-01-01

    In May 1999, the airborne thermal infrared hyperspectral imaging system, Spatially Enhanced Broadband Array Spectrograph System (SEBASS), was flown over Mon-non Mesa, NV, to provide the first test of such a system for geological mapping. Several types of carbonate deposits were identified using the 11.25 microns band. However, massive calcrete outcrops exhibited weak spectral contrast, which was confirmed by field and laboratory measurements. Because the weathered calcrete surface appeared relatively smooth in hand specimen, this weak spectral contrast was unexpected. Here we show that microscopic roughness not readily apparent to the eye has introduced both a cavity effect and volume scattering to reduce spectral contrast. The macroroughness of crevices and cobbles may also have a significant cavity effect. The diminished spectral contrast is important because it places higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) requirements for spectroscopic detection and identification. This effect should be factored into instrumentation planning and interpretations, especially interpretations without benefit of ground truth. SEBASS had the required high SNR and spectral resolution to allow us to demonstrate for the first time the ability of an airborne hyperspectral thermal infrared scanner to detect and identify spectrally subtle materials.

  7. [Validation of HJ-1B thermal infrared channels onboard radiometric calibration based on spectral response differences].

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Fu, Qiao-yan; Shi, Ting-ting; Wang, Ai-chun; Zhang, Xue-wen

    2014-08-01

    Since HJ-1B was launched, 7 sets of blackbody data have been used to calculate onboard calibration coefficients, but the research work on the validation of coefficients is rare. According to the onboard calibration principle, calibration coefficients of HJ-1B thermal infrared channel on Sep 14th, 2009 were calculated with the half-width, moments and look-up table methods. MODIS was selected for the reference sensor, and algorithms of spectral match were improved between the HJ-1B thermal infrared channel and MODIS 31, 32 channels based on the spectral response divergence. The relationship of top of atmosphere (TOA) radiance between the remote sensors was calculated, based on which the surface leaving brightness temperature was calculated by Planck function to validate the brightness temperature calculated through the onboard calibration coefficients. The equivalent brightness temperature calculated by spectral response divergence method is 285.97 K, and the inversion brightness temperature calculated by half-width, moments and look-up table methods is 288.77, 274.52 and 285.97 K respectively. The difference between the inversion brightness temperature and the equivalent brightness temperature is 2.8, -11.46 and 0.02 K, respectively, which demonstrate that onboard calibration coefficients calculated by the look-up table method has better precision and feasibility. PMID:25508743

  8. [Validation of HJ-1B thermal infrared channels onboard radiometric calibration based on spectral response differences].

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Fu, Qiao-yan; Shi, Ting-ting; Wang, Ai-chun; Zhang, Xue-wen

    2014-08-01

    Since HJ-1B was launched, 7 sets of blackbody data have been used to calculate onboard calibration coefficients, but the research work on the validation of coefficients is rare. According to the onboard calibration principle, calibration coefficients of HJ-1B thermal infrared channel on Sep 14th, 2009 were calculated with the half-width, moments and look-up table methods. MODIS was selected for the reference sensor, and algorithms of spectral match were improved between the HJ-1B thermal infrared channel and MODIS 31, 32 channels based on the spectral response divergence. The relationship of top of atmosphere (TOA) radiance between the remote sensors was calculated, based on which the surface leaving brightness temperature was calculated by Planck function to validate the brightness temperature calculated through the onboard calibration coefficients. The equivalent brightness temperature calculated by spectral response divergence method is 285.97 K, and the inversion brightness temperature calculated by half-width, moments and look-up table methods is 288.77, 274.52 and 285.97 K respectively. The difference between the inversion brightness temperature and the equivalent brightness temperature is 2.8, -11.46 and 0.02 K, respectively, which demonstrate that onboard calibration coefficients calculated by the look-up table method has better precision and feasibility. PMID:25474964

  9. Multispectral thermal infrared mapping of the 1 October 1988 Kupaianaha flow field, Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Realmuto, V.J.; Hon, K.; Kahle, A.B.; Abbott, E.A.; Pieri, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    Multispectral thermal infrared radiance measurements of the Kupaianaha flow field were acquired with the NASA airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) on the morning of 1 October 1988. The TIMS data were used to map both the temperature and emissivity of the surface of the flow field. The temperature map depicted the underground storage and transport of lava. The presence of molten lava in a tube or tumulus resulted in surface temperatures that were at least 10?? C above ambient. The temperature map also clearly defined the boundaries of hydrothermal plumes which resulted from the entry of lava into the ocean. The emissivity map revealed the boundaries between individual flow units within the Kupaianaha field. In general, the emissivity of the flows varied systematically with age but the relationship between age and emissivity was not unique. Distinct spectral anomalies, indicative of silica-rich surface materials, were mapped near fumaroles and ocean entry sites. This apparent enrichment in silica may have resulted from an acid-induced leaching of cations from the surfaces of glassy flows. Such incipient alteration may have been the cause for virtually all of the emissivity variations observed on the flow field, the spectral anomalies representing areas where the acid attack was most intense. ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag.

  10. Comparison of 3 infrared thermal detection systems and self-report for mass fever screening.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, An V; Cohen, Nicole J; Lipman, Harvey; Brown, Clive M; Molinari, Noelle Angelique; Jackson, William L; Kirking, Hannah; Szymanowski, Paige; Wilson, Todd W; Salhi, Bisan A; Roberts, Rebecca R; Stryker, David W; Fishbein, Daniel B

    2010-11-01

    Despite limited evidence regarding their utility, infrared thermal detection systems (ITDS) are increasingly being used for mass fever detection. We compared temperature measurements for 3 ITDS (FLIR ThermoVision A20M [FLIR Systems Inc., Boston, MA, USA], OptoTherm Thermoscreen [OptoTherm Thermal Imaging Systems and Infrared Cameras Inc., Sewickley, PA, USA], and Wahl Fever Alert Imager HSI2000S [Wahl Instruments Inc., Asheville, NC, USA]) with oral temperatures (≥ 100 °F = confirmed fever) and self-reported fever. Of 2,873 patients enrolled, 476 (16.6%) reported a fever, and 64 (2.2%) had a confirmed fever. Self-reported fever had a sensitivity of 75.0%, specificity 84.7%, and positive predictive value 10.1%. At optimal cutoff values for detecting fever, temperature measurements by OptoTherm and FLIR had greater sensitivity (91.0% and 90.0%, respectively) and specificity (86.0% and 80.0%, respectively) than did self-reports. Correlations between ITDS and oral temperatures were similar for OptoTherm (ρ = 0.43) and FLIR (ρ = 0.42) but significantly lower for Wahl (ρ = 0.14; p < 0.001). When compared with oral temperatures, 2 systems (OptoTherm and FLIR) were reasonably accurate for detecting fever and predicted fever better than self-reports. PMID:21029528

  11. Object detection utilizing a linear retrieval algorithm for thermal infrared imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, M.S.

    1996-11-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) spectroscopy and remote sensing have been proven to be extremely valuable tools for mineralogic discrimination. One technique for sub-pixel detection and data reduction, known as a spectral retrieval or unmixing algorithm, will prove useful in the analysis of data from scheduled TIR orbital instruments. This study represents the first quantitative attempt to identify the limits of the model, specifically concentrating on the TIR. The algorithm was written and applied to laboratory data, testing the effects of particle size, noise, and multiple endmembers, then adapted to operate on airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner data of the Kelso Dunes, CA, Meteor Crater, AZ, and Medicine Lake Volcano, CA. Results indicate that linear spectral unmixmg can produce accurate endmember detection to within an average of 5%. In addition, the effects of vitrification and textural variations were modeled. The ability to predict mineral or rock abundances becomes extremely useful in tracking sediment transport, decertification, and potential hazard assessment in remote volcanic regions. 26 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Determination of rock type on Mercury and the moon through remote sensing in the thermal infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyler, Ann L.; Kozlowski, Richard W. H.; Lebofsky, Larry A.

    1988-01-01

    Thermal infrared emission spectra of the moon and Mercury have been obtained using the Si:As photoconductor and circular variable filter at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Lunar spectra from 7.2 to 12.2 microns for two different locations in the south polar highlands have Christiansen frequency peaks at 8.1 microns and 7.9 microns, respectively. This indicates different compositions at the two locations; mafic in the first case, more felsic in the second. Emission spectra from Mercury are not as spatially localized,; however, the longitude of maximum contribution to the spectrum can be calculated from thermal models of the earth-facing disk. Results for areas centered at two longitudes have been obtained. Two locations in the intercrater plains were observed. At 40-deg longitude (very near the crater Homer), a peak at 7.9 microns indicates mafic igneous rock type. Spectra emanating from 46-deg longitude have peaks at 7.8 microns, indicating a region borderline between mafic and intermediate composition.

  13. Infrared Radiative Properties of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, Jeff I.; Spuckler, Charles M.; Street, Ken W.; Markham, Jim R.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The infrared (IR) transmittance and reflectance of translucent thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) have important implications for both the performance of these coatings as radiation barriers and emitters as well as affecting measurements of TBC thermal conductivity, especially as TBCs are being pushed to higher temperatures. In this paper, the infrared spectral directional-hemispherical transmittance and reflectance of plasma-sprayed 8wt% yttria-stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) TBCs are reported. These measurements are compared to those for single crystal YSZ specimens to show the effects of the plasma-sprayed coating microstructure. It is shown that the coatings exhibit negligible absorption at wavelengths up to about 5 micrometers, and that internal scattering rather than surface reflections dominates the hemispherical reflectance. The translucent nature of the 8YSZ TBCs results in the absorptance/emittance and reflectance of TBC-coated substrates depending on the TBC thickness, microstructure, as well as the radiative properties of the underlying substrate. The effects of these properties on TBC measurements and performance are discussed.

  14. [Diagnosis method of cotton water status based on infrared thermal imaging].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-lei; Zhang, Ji-yang; Liu, Hao; Qiang, Xiao-man; Ning, Hui-feng; Chen, Xin-guo; Gong, Xue-wen

    2016-01-01

    Canopy temperature is one of promising signals for evaluating crop water status. The infrared thermal imager can provide real-time temperature distributions over larger areas with high spatial resolution. The main factors (the observation orientation, angle and distance) controlling the accuracy of measuring canopy temperature with the infrared thermal imaging were investigated in a cotton field. Moreover, the correlation relationships between the crop water stress index (CWSI), which was observed using different methods, and soil water content (SWC), leaf water potential (LWP), and stomatal conductance (g(s)) of cotton in different water treatments were analyzed. Results indicated that the CWSI, which was measured in the opposite direction of the sun with the observation angle of 45°, was in good correlation with LWP, g(s) and SWC, indicating it was a suitable observing method of canopy temperature. The canopy temperature gradually decreased with the increasing observation distance, so the calibration was necessary for long-distance measurement. By analyzing the relationship between the temperature at the dry/wet reference surface and the canopy temperature, we developed a suitable and simplified model of CWSI for cotton in the North China Plain. PMID:27228606

  15. Thermal infrared (8 13 μm) spectra of 29 asteroids: the Cornell Mid-Infrared Asteroid Spectroscopy (MIDAS) Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Lucy F.; McConnochie, Timothy H.; Bell, James F.; Hayward, Thomas L.

    2005-02-01

    We report the results of the Cornell Mid-IR Asteroid Spectroscopy (MIDAS) survey, a program of ground-based observations designed to characterize the 8-13 μm spectral properties of a statistically significant sample of asteroids from a wide variety of visible to near-IR spectral classes. MIDAS is conducted at Palomar Observatory using the Spectrocam-10 (SC-10) spectrograph on the 200-in Hale telescope. We have measured the mid-infrared spectra of twenty-nine asteroids and have derived temperature estimates from our data that are largely consistent with the predictions of the standard thermal model. We have also generated relative emissivity spectra for the target asteroids. On only one asteroid, 1 Ceres, have we found emissivity features with spectral contrast greater than 5%. Our spectrum of 4 Vesta suggests emissivity variation at the 2-3% level. Published spectra of several of the small number of asteroids observed with ISO (six of which are also included in our survey), which appeared to exhibit much stronger emissivity features, are difficult to reconcile with our measurements. Laboratory work on mineral and meteorite samples has shown that the contrast of mid-IR spectral features is greatly reduced at fine grain sizes. Moreover, the NEAR mission found that 433 Eros is covered by a relatively thick fine-grained regolith. If small bodies in general possess such regoliths, their mid-IR spectral features may be quite subtle. This may explain the evident absence of strong emissivity variation in the majority of the MIDAS spectra.

  16. The SpaceWire-based thermal infrared imager system for asteroid sample return mission HAYABUSA2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otake, Hisashi; Okada, Tatsuaki; Funase, Ryu; Hihara, Hiroki; Sano, Junpei; Iwase, Kaori; Kashikawa, Ryoichi; Higashino, Isamu; Masuda, Tetsuya

    2013-09-01

    Thermal infrared imager system is developed for HAYABUSA2, which is planned to be launched in 2014 and aims at sample-return from a C class near-Earth asteroid 1999JU3 considered to contain organic or hydrated materials. The system consists of a thermal-infrared imager (TIR) and a digital electronics, which is used not only for the scientific investigation of physical properties of the asteroid surface, but also for the assessment of landing site selection and safe descent operation onto the asteroid surface with in situ measurement. Since round trip communication time between the asteroid and the Earth is more than thirty minutes, onboard automatic data processing function and high speed data recording capability are provided to exploit the limited downlink capacity which is up to 32kbps. TIR adopts an uncooled bolometer with 320 x 240 effective pixels. Image operations as multiple images summation, dark image subtraction, and the compensation of dead pixels are processed onboard. A processing module is connected to sensor interfaces through SpaceWire in order to provide deterministic processing time. Data compression is also provided to reduce restriction on storage capacity and operation time, which provides the equivalent compression ratio as JPEG2000 in 1/30 processing time in average. A high speed data recorder is also connected through SpaceWire in 50Mbps in order to record TIR data in parallel with other sensor data. The modularity of SpaceWire enables to use as built devices for TIR and inherits the same design as the long-wavelength infrared imager developed for the Venus climate orbiter Akatsuki.

  17. Mapping playa evaporite minerals and associated sediments in Death Valley, California, with multispectral thermal infrared images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, J.K.; Hook, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    Efflorescent salt crusts and associated sediments in Death Valley, California, were studied with remote-sensing data acquired by the NASA thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS). Nine spectral classes that represent a variety of surface materials were distinguished, including several classes that reflect important aspects of the playa groundwater chemistry and hydrology. Evaporite crusts containing abundant thenardite (sodium sulfate) were mapped along the northern and eastern margins of the Cottonball Basin, areas where the inflow waters are rich in sodium. Gypsum (calcium sulfate) crusts were more common in the Badwater Basin, particularly near springs associated with calcic groundwaters along the western basin margin. Evaporite-rich crusts generally marked areas where groundwater is periodically near the surface and thus able to replenish the crusts though capillary evaporation. Detrital silicate minerals were prevalent in other parts of the salt pan where shallow groundwater does not affect the surface composition. The surface features in Death Valley change in response to climatic variations on several different timescales. For example, salt crusts on low-lying mudflats form and redissolve during seasonal-to-interannual cycles of wetting and desiccation. In contrast, recent flooding and erosion of rough-salt surfaces in Death Valley probably reflect increased regional precipitation spanning several decades. Remote-sensing observations of playas can provide a means for monitoring changes in evaporite facies and for better understanding the associated climatic processes. At present, such studies are limited by the availability of suitable airborne scanner data. However, with the launch of the Earth Observing System (EOS) AM-1 Platform in 1998, multispectral visible/near-infrared and thermal infrared remote-sensing data will become globally available. Copyright 1996 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Atmospheric transmission and thermal background emission in the mid-infrared at Mauna Kea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otárola, A.; Richter, M.; Packham, C.; Chun, M.

    2015-04-01

    We present results of a preliminary study intended to quantitatively estimate the atmospheric transmission and thermal background emission in the mid-infrared (MIR), 7 μm - 26 μm, at the 13N TMT site in Mauna Kea. This is in the interest of supporting the planning of MIR instrumentation for the posible second-generation of astronomical instruments for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) project. Mauna Kea, located at high altitude (4,050 m above sea level), enjoys natural conditions that make it an outstanding location for astronomical observations in the mid-infrared. The goal of this work is to produce a dataset and model that shows the atmospheric transmission and thermal emission for two cases of precipitable water vapor (PWV), a low value of 0.3 mm, and at 1.5 mm which represent near median conditions at the site. Besides, and driven by the interest of the MIR community to exploit the daily twilight times, we look at the specific atmospheric conditions around twilight as a function of season. The best conditions are found for cold and dry winter days, and in particular the morning twilight offers the best conditions. The analysis of PWV data, shows the median value for the site (all year conditions between 6:00 PM and 7:30AM) is 1.8 mm and that periods of water vapor lower than 1.0 mm are common, these supports the opportunity and discovery potential of the TMT project in the mid-infrared bands.

  19. Atmospheric correction of MODIS thermal infrared bands by water vapor scaling method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonooka, Hideyuki

    2005-10-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) project has operationally provided land surface temperature (LST) and emissivity imagery produced from mid-infrared bands by either of two atmospheric correction algorithms. One is the generalized split-window algorithm. This algorithm can be applied to each observed scene, and the spatial resolution of generated products is 1 km, but the emissivity data in the products are empirically estimated by a classification-based method. Another is the physics-based day/night algorithm. In this algorithm, both LST and emissivity are physically determined using mid-infrared measurements, but a pair of day/night scenes is necessary for each processing, and the spectral resolution of generated products is degraded to 5 km. In the present paper, the water vapor scaling (WVS) method (Tonooka, 2001 and 2005) is applied to three MODIS thermal infrared (TIR) bands (29, 31, and 32) as an alternative approach. This method is an atmospheric correction algorithm for TIR multi-spectral data including land surfaces, designed mainly for the five TIR spectral bands of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on the Terra satellite. The WVS method is on the basis of a traditional approach using a radiative transfer code, such as MODTRAN, combined with external atmospheric profiles, but the errors included in profiles are reduced on a pixel-by-pixel basis using an extended multi-channel approach. In the present paper, the WVS method for the three MODIS TIR bands is proposed, and applied to actual imagery for preliminary validation.

  20. Titan's Thermal Emission: Analysis Of Near-surface Temperatures Via Mid-infrared Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadino, Jeff; Parrish, P. D.; Orton, G. S.; Burl, M. C.; Davies, A. G.; Irwin, P. G.; Teanby, N. A.; Flasar, F. M.; Cassini/CIRS investigation Team

    2006-09-01

    After Courtin and Kim 2002, tropospheric and near-surface temperatures of Titan may be obtained by examining mid-infrared radiances at 300 and 500 wavenumbers (33 and 20 microns). Here, the measured radiance is (respectively) sensitive to the temperature near the tropopause and sufficient to discern variations in surface topography and emissivity. Our search, as a function of location and time, compares brightness temperatures derived from measurements by the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) and variations of radiance as a function of Titan's rotation derived from ground-based measurements at NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility. Although the variation of the tropopause and zonal near-surface temperatures are fairly homogenous, similar to Courtin and Kim 2002, the meridional distribution of near-surface temperatures varies symmetrically from Equator to pole. While no significant thermal variations suggestive of localized hotspots have yet been observed, such diversity is suggestive of active surface geology, in support of other optical and near-infrared investigations. Although the spatial coverage of the CIRS dataset is severely limited, the approximately 10 degrees field of view (450km at the Equator) is de-convolved somewhat to extract meaningful, sub-pixel maps of Titan's surface. Courtin, R. and Kim, S. (2002). Planet. and Sp. Sci., 50: 309-321. The acquisition of data described here was accomplished through the coordinated effort of Cassini-Huygens project staff, Deep Space Network personnel and the CIRS instrument and science-planning teams with funding provided by the National Research Council, NASA/JPL and NASA/GSFC and the UK Particle Physics and Astronomy council.

  1. Application of high-resolution thermal infrared sensors for geothermal exploration at the Salton Sea, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reath, K. A.; Ramsey, M.; Tratt, D. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Salton Sea geothermal field straddles the southeast margin of the Salton Sea in California, USA. This field includes approximately 20km2 of mud volcanoes and mud pots and centered on the Mullet Island thermal anomaly. The area has been previously exploited for geothermal power; there are currently seven power plants in the area that produce 1000 MW. The field itself is relatively un-vegetated, which provides for unfettered detection of the surface mineralogy, radiant heat, and emitted gases using air and spaceborne thermal infrared (TIR) sensors. On March 26, 2009, the airborne Spatially Enhanced Broadband Array Spectrograph System (SEBASS) sensor was flown over the Salton Sea-Mullet Island area. SEBASS has a spectral resolution of 128 bands in the 7.5-14.5 micron spectral region and a spatial resolution of 1m/pixel from the 3000-ft altitude flown for this study. A large portion of the Calipatria Fault, a NW/SE-trending geothermally active fault that bisects the Mullet Island thermal anomaly, was imaged during this flight and several thermal/mineralogical anomalies were noted. The orbital Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) has only 5 spectral bands at 90m/pixel resolution, but has acquired dozens of visible and TIR datasets over the geothermal field in the 10-year history of the instrument. The thermal-temporal trend of this dataset has been analyzed, and the November 2008 image studied in detail for comparison to SEBASS. The land-leaving TIR radiance data were separated into brightness temperature and surface emissivity. TIR emissivity data are unique to each mineral and a TIR mineral spectral library was used to determine their presence on the ground. Various mineral maps were created showing the distribution surrounding the most active geothermal features. The higher spectral/spatial resolution SEBASS data were used to validate the lower spectral/spatial resolution ASTER data (as well as the higher resolution laboratory TIR

  2. A program to assess a thermal discharge on Trinity Bay, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaitzeff, J. B.; Whitehead, V. S.

    1972-01-01

    The application of a two dimensional mathematical model to the analysis of the thermal discharge to verify its ability to predict the temperature distribution of Trinity Bay in the vicinity of the water outfall. Basic data consist of aerial thermal infrared and in situ measurements.

  3. Thermal infrared observations and thermophysical characterization of OSIRIS-REx target asteroid (101955) Bennu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emery, J. P.; Fernández, Y. R.; Kelley, M. S. P.; Warden (nèe Crane), K. T.; Hergenrother, C.; Lauretta, D. S.; Drake, M. J.; Campins, H.; Ziffer, J.

    2014-05-01

    Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) have garnered ever increasing attention over the past few years due to the insights they offer into Solar System formation and evolution, the potential hazard they pose, and their accessibility for both robotic and human spaceflight missions. Among the NEAs, carbonaceous asteroids hold particular interest because they may contain clues to how the Earth got its supplies of water and organic materials, and because none has yet been studied in detail by spacecraft. (101955) Bennu is special among NEAs in that it will not only be visited by a spacecraft, but the OSIRIS-REx mission will also return a sample of Bennu’s regolith to Earth for detailed laboratory study. This paper presents analysis of thermal infrared photometry and spectroscopy that test the hypotheses that Bennu is carbonaceous and that its surface is covered in fine-grained (sub-cm) regolith. The Spitzer Space Telescope observed Bennu in 2007, using the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) to obtain spectra over the wavelength range 5.2-38 μm and images at 16 and 22 μm at 10 different longitudes, as well as the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) to image Bennu at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm, also at 10 different longitudes. Thermophysical analysis, assuming a spherical body with the known rotation period and spin-pole orientation, returns an effective diameter of 484 ± 10 m, in agreement with the effective diameter calculated from the radar shape model at the orientation of the Spitzer observations (492 ± 20 m, Nolan, M.C., Magri, C., Howell, E.S., Benner, L.A.M., Giorgini, J.D., Hergenrother, C.W., Hudson, R.S., Lauretta, D.S., Margo, J.-L., Ostro, S.J., Scheeres, D.J. [2013]. Icarus 226, 629-640) and a visible geometric albedo of 0.046 ± 0.005 (using Hv = 20.51, Hergenrother, C.W. et al. [2013]. Icarus 226, 663-670). Including the radar shape model in the thermal analysis, and taking surface roughness into account, yields a disk-averaged thermal inertia of 310 ± 70 J m-2 K-1 s-1

  4. Uncooled thin film infrared imaging device with aerogel thermal isolation: Deposition and planarization techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Ruffner, J.A.; Clem, P.G.; Tuttle, B.A.; Brinker, C.J.; Sriram, C.S.; Bullington, J.A.

    1998-04-01

    The authors have successfully integrated a thermally insulating silica aerogel thin film into a new uncooled monolithic thin film infrared (IR) imaging device. Compared to other technologies (bulk ceramic and microbridge), use of an aerogel layer provides superior thermal isolation of the pyroelectric imaging element from the relatively massive heat sinking integrated circuit. This results in significantly higher thermal and temporal resolutions. They have calculated noise equivalent temperature differences of 0.04--0.10 C from a variety of Pb{sub x}Zr{sub y}Ti{sub 1{minus}y}O{sub 3} (PZT) and Pb{sub x}La{sub 1{minus}x}Zr{sub y}Ti{sub 1{minus}y}O{sub 3} (PLZT) pyroelectric imaging elements in monolithic structures. In addition, use of aerogels results in an easier, less expensive fabrication process and a more robust device. Fabrication of these monolithic devices entails sol-gel deposition of the aerogel, sputter deposition of the electrodes, and solution chemistry deposition of the pyroelectric imaging elements. Uniform pyroelectric response is achieved across the device by use of appropriate planarization techniques. These deposition and planarization techniques are described. Characterization of the individual layers and monolithic structure using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and Byer-Roundy techniques also is discussed.

  5. Infrared thermal imaging: a review of the literature and case report.

    PubMed

    Kateb, Babak; Yamamoto, Vicky; Yu, Cheng; Grundfest, Warren; Gruen, John Peter

    2009-08-01

    Intraoperative Thermal Imaging (ITI) is a novel neuroimaging technique that can potentially locate the margins of primary and metastatic brain tumors. As a result, the additional real-time anatomical and pathophysiological information may significantly contribute to an improved extent of tumor resection. Our objectives in this article are i) to briefly discuss the current status of intraoperative imaging modalities including ITI and ii) to present a case report that evaluates the usefulness of ITI in detection of brain tumor and its margins. In this case report, ITI was used in a patient with a metastatic intracortical melanoma. The thermal profile of the tumor and surrounding normal cerebral cortex were mapped with a ThermaCAM P60 (TCP60) infrared camera by FLIR Systems. The data obtained by TCP60, intra-operatively, revealed a clear demarcation of tumor with significant temperature differences, up to 3.3 degrees C, between the tumor core (36.4 degrees C) and the surrounding normal tissue (33.1 degrees C). Ultrasound and pre-resection MR and CT confirmed the position and size of the metastasis. The volume of the tumor was preoperatively calculated using the CyberKnife software and postoperative volumetric measurement of the tumor residual was calculated by the Gamma Knife software. Our result, along with previously published results of others, suggests that thermal imaging could be used to provide a rapid, non-invasive, and real-time intra-operative imaging. PMID:19332140

  6. Satellite thermal infrared anomalies associated with strong earthquakes in the Vrancea area of Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, Maria A.; Savastru, Roxana S.; Savastru, Dan M.

    2015-11-01

    Thermal anomalies which are known to be significant precursors of strong earthquakes can be evidenced by spectral thermal infrared (TIR) bands recorded by sensors on board of NOAA-AVHRR and Terra/Aqua- MODIS satellite. In order to locate relevant thermal anomalous variations prior to some strong even moderate earthquakes recorded in Vrancea tectonic active zone in Romania, satellite derived geophysical parameters have been used: land surface temperature (LST), outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) and mean air temperature (AT). Spatiotemporal variations of LST, OLR, and AT before and after three strong earthquakes in Vrancea area (Mw = 7.4, 4 March 1977; Mw = 7.1, 30 August 1986; Mw = 6.9, 30 May 1990) and a moderate earthquake (Mw = 5.9, 27 October 2004) have been analyzed. Anomalous spatio-temporal patterns of these parameters developed a few days up to few weeks before the earthquakes disappeared after the main shocks. Significant increases in land surface temperature, outgoing long-wave radiation, and mean air temperature can be assigned to energy exchange mechanism during earthquake preparatory events. Such preseismic anomalies can be considered to be associated with the thermodynamic, degassing and ionization geochemical processes which seem to be activated due to the increased stress in the ground, and microfracturing of the rocks especially along area's active faults.

  7. Direct fusion of geostationary meteorological satellite visible and infrared images based on thermal physical properties.

    PubMed

    Han, Lei; Wulie, Buzha; Yang, Yiling; Wang, Hongqing

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated a novel method of fusing visible (VIS) and infrared (IR) images with the major objective of obtaining higher-resolution IR images. Most existing image fusion methods focus only on visual performance and many fail to consider the thermal physical properties of the IR images, leading to spectral distortion in the fused image. In this study, we use the IR thermal physical property to correct the VIS image directly. Specifically, the Stefan-Boltzmann Law is used as a strong constraint to modulate the VIS image, such that the fused result shows a similar level of regional thermal energy as the original IR image, while preserving the high-resolution structural features from the VIS image. This method is an improvement over our previous study, which required VIS-IR multi-wavelet fusion before the same correction method was applied. The results of experiments show that applying this correction to the VIS image directly without multi-resolution analysis (MRA) processing achieves similar results, but is considerably more computationally efficient, thereby providing a new perspective on VIS and IR image fusion. PMID:25569749

  8. Nondestructive Evaluation of Thermal Barrier Coatings by Mid-infrared Reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I; Spuckler, Charles M.; Nesbitt, James A.; Martin, Richard E.

    2005-01-01

    The application of mid-infrared reflectance (MIR) imaging to monitor damage in thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) has been extended from a previously demonstrated area-averaged spectroscopic analysis tool to become a practical imaging tool that provides the spatial resolution needed to quickly identify localized regions of TBC damage by visual inspection, Illumination optics and image collection procedures were developed to produce illumination-normalized flatfield reflectance images after subtraction of the background thermal emission. MIR reflectance images were collected with a bandpass filter centered at a wavelength of 4 microns, which provided the optimum balance between good sensitivity to buried cracks and coating erosion, but with a desirable sensitivity to TBC sintering and absorption from ambient gases. Examples are presented of the application of MIR reflectance imaging to monitor damage progression in plasma-sprayed 8wt% yttria-stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) TBCs subjected to either furnace cycling or alumina particle jet erosion. These results show that MIR reflectance imaging can reliably track the progression of buried delamination cracks produced by thermal cycling and can also be used to determine when any local section of the TBC has eroded beyond an acceptable limit. Modeling of the effects of buried cracks and erosion on reflectance will be presented to show the dependence of damage sensitivity to TBC thickness.

  9. Synergies between Visible/Near-Infrared imaging spectrometry and the Thermal Infrared in an urban environment: An evaluation of the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, D. A.; Quattrochi, D. A.; Hulley, G. C.; Hook, S.; Green, R. O.

    2011-12-01

    More than half of humanity lives in urban areas, projected to exceed 80% by 2015. Urban areas are major sources of environmental contaminants and sinks of energy and materials. Globally, remote sensing contributes to improved understanding of urban impacts through mapping urban extent, vegetation and impervious cover fractions and urban energy balance including albedo, emissivity and land surface temperature (LST). HyspIRI is a NRC "Decadal Survey" mission combining a visible, near-infrared and shortwave infrared (VSWIR) imaging spectrometer with a multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) instrument . Potential synergies between VSWIR and TIR data were explored using analogous airborne data acquired over Santa Barbara in June, 2008. These data were analyzed at their native spatial resolutions (7.5m VSWIR and 15m TIR), and aggregated 60 m spatial resolution similar to HyspIRI. A spectral library of common urban materials (e.g., grass, trees, soil, roofs, roads) was built from field and airborne-measured spectra . LST and emissivity were also retrieved from the airborne data. Co-located pixels from airborne data were used to generate reflectance/emissivity spectra for a subset of urban materials. Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) was used to map fractions of impervious, soil, green vegetation (GV) and non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) at the different spatial resolutions and to compare the fractional estimates across spatial scales. Surface energy parameters, including albedo, vegetation cover fraction, broadband emissivity and LST were also determined for urban and natural land-cover classes in the region. Fractions were validated using 1m digital photography. GV and NPV Fractions were highly correlated with validation data at all spatial scales, producing a near 1:1 relationship but with a <10% overestimate of GV from MESMA. Similar, high correlations were observed for impervious surfaces, although impervious was underestimated in most urban areas

  10. ATTIRE (analytical tools for thermal infrared engineering): A sensor simulation and modeling package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaggi, S.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Sensor Development Laboratory (ASDL) at the Stennis Space Center develops, maintains and calibrates remote sensing instruments for the National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA). To perform system design trade-offs, analysis, and establish system parameters, ASDL has developed a software package for analytical simulation of sensor systems. This package called 'Analytical Tools for Thermal InfraRed Engineering' - ATTIRE, simulates the various components of a sensor system. The software allows each subsystem of the sensor to be analyzed independently for its performance. These performance parameters are then integrated to obtain system level information such as Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), Noise Equivalent Radiance (NER), Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference (NETD) etc. This paper describes the uses of the package and the physics that were used to derive the performance parameters.

  11. Relating satellite multiangular thermal infrared observations to soil and foliage temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djepa, V.; Menenti, M.; Vaughan, R.

    The anisotropy of thermal infrared (TIR) radiance emitted by terrestrial targets comprising a mixture of soil and foliage is well documented by both ground and space — based radiometric data. Since TIR radiance depends on surface temperature and surface emissivity, observed anisotropy can be interpreted in terms of either anisotropy in emissivity or, for heterogeneous terrestrial targets, of differences in component temperatures. This paper focuses on the latter. A simple linear mixing model is proposed to relate the component temperatures of soil and foliage to the radiance emitted by a soil — foliage mixture. The underlying assumptions are briefly reviewed. It is finally shown that the simple linear model can be used to retrieve soil and foliage component temperatures from radiometric observations at different view angles. This is illustrated with a case — study based on TIR radiometric data collected by the Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR-2) on board the ERS- 2 during the SGP'97 and HEIFE experiments.

  12. These images show thermal infrared radiation from Jupiter at different wavelengths which are diagnos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These images show thermal infrared radiation from Jupiter at different wavelengths which are diagnostic of physical phenomena The 7.85-micron image in the upper left shows stratospheric temperatures which are elevated in the region of the A fragment impact (to the left of bottom). Temperatures deeper in the atmosphere near 150-mbar are shown by the 17.2-micron image in the upper right. There is a small elevation of temperatures at this depth, indicated by the arrow, and confirmed by other measurements near this wavelength. This indicates that the influence of the impact of fragment A on the troposphere has been minimal. The two images in the bottom row show no readily apparent perturbation of the ammmonia condensate cloud field near 600 mbar, as diagnosed by 8.57-micron radiation, and deeper cloud layers which are diagnosed by 5-micron radiation.

  13. Physics Based Modeling and Rendering of Vegetation in the Thermal Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. A.; Ballard, J. R., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    We outline a procedure for rendering physically-based thermal infrared images of simple vegetation scenes. Our approach incorporates the biophysical processes that affect the temperature distribution of the elements within a scene. Computer graphics plays a key role in two respects. First, in computing the distribution of scene shaded and sunlit facets and, second, in the final image rendering once the temperatures of all the elements in the scene have been computed. We illustrate our approach for a simple corn scene where the three-dimensional geometry is constructed based on measured morphological attributes of the row crop. Statistical methods are used to construct a representation of the scene in agreement with the measured characteristics. Our results are quite good. The rendered images exhibit realistic behavior in directional properties as a function of view and sun angle. The root-mean-square error in measured versus predicted brightness temperatures for the scene was 2.1 deg C.

  14. A scan-angle correction for thermal infrared multispectral data using side lapping images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, K.

    1996-01-01

    Thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS) images, acquired with side lapping flight lines, provide dual angle observations of the same area on the ground and can thus be used to estimate variations in the atmospheric transmission with scan angle. The method was tested using TIMS aircraft data for six flight lines with about 30% sidelap for an area within Joshua Tree National Park, California. Generally the results correspond to predictions for the transmission scan-angle coefficient based on a standard atmospheric model although some differences were observed at the longer wavelength channels. A change was detected for the last pair of lines that may indicate either spatial or temporal atmospheric variation. The results demonstrate that the method provides information for correcting regional survey data (requiring multiple adjacent flight lines) that can be important in detecting subtle changes in lithology.

  15. Thermal simulation and design optimization of a thermopile infrared detector with an SU-8 membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattsson, C. G.; Bertilsson, K.; Thungström, G.; Nilsson, H.-E.; Martin, H.

    2009-05-01

    Simulation and optimization tools are commonly used in the design phase of advanced electronics devices. In this work, we present a thermal simulation and design optimization tool for infrared thermopile detectors based on a closed membrane structure. The tool can be used to simulate and optimize thermopile detectors with an arbitrary number of design parameters. The optimization utilizes the Nelder-Mead and the adaptive simulated annealing optimization algorithms to maximize the system performance. A thermopile detector with an SU-8-based closed membrane and metal-metal thermocouples has been simulated and optimized. Based on the results generated by the tool, an optimized detector has been fabricated and characterized. The results from the measurements presented are in good agreement with the simulation results.

  16. Mapping the Piute Mountains, CA with Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hook, S. J.; Karlstrom, K. E.; Miller, C. F.; McCaffrey, K. J. W.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data were acquired in 1990 over the PiuteMountains, California to evaluate their usefulness for lithologic mapping in an area ofmetamorphosed, structurally complex, igneous and sedimentary rocks. The data were calibrated,atmospherically corrected, and emissivity variations extracted from them. There was an excellentvisual correlation between the units revealed in the TIMS data and the recent mapping in the easternside of the area. It was also possible to correct, improve and extend the recent map. For example,several areas of amphibolite were identified in the TIMS data that had been incorrectly mapped asgranodioritic gneiss, and the presence of a swarm of mafic dikes, of which only a few had previouslybeen identified, was revealed...

  17. Evaluation of thermal load during laser corneal refractive surgery using infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunsmann, U.; Sauer, U.; Arba-Mosquera, S.; Magnago, T.; Triefenbach, N.

    2010-09-01

    Infrared thermography is used for evaluation of the mean temperature as a measure of thermal load during corneal refractive surgery. An experimental method to determine emissivity and to calibrate the thermografic system is presented. In a case study on the porcine eye two dimensional temperature distributions with lateral resolution of 170 μm and line scans with temporal resolution of 13 μs are discussed with respect to the meaning of mean temperature. Using the newest generation of surgery equipment it is shown, that the mean temperature rise can be kept below 5 °C during myopic laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) treatments corresponding to an aberration-free correction of -2.75 diopter.

  18. NMR and Infrared Study of Thermal Oxidation of cis-1, 4-Polybutadiene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gemmer, Robert V.; Golub, Morton A.

    1978-01-01

    A study of the microstructural changes occuring in CB during thermal, uncatalyzed oxidation was carried out. Although the oxidation of CB is accompanied by extensive crosslinking with attendant insolubilization, it was found possible to follow the oxidation of solid CB directly with C-13 NMR spectroscopy. The predominant products appearing in the C-13 NMR spectra of oxidized CB are epoxides. The presence of lesser amounts of alcohols, peroxides, and carbonyl structures was adduced from complementary infrared and NMR spectra of soluble extracts obtained from the oxidized, crosslinked CB. This distribution of functional groups contrasts with that previously reported for the autooxidation of 1,4-polyisoprene. The difference was rationalized in terms of the relative stabilities of intermediate radical species involved in the autoxidation of CB and 1,4-polyisoprene.

  19. Infrared Spectral Studies of the Thermally-Driven Chemistry Present on Icy Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeffler, Mark J.; Hudson, Reggie L.

    2012-01-01

    Remote sensing of Jupiters icy satellites has revealed that even though their surfaces arc composed mostly of water ice, molecules such as SO2, CO2, H2O2. O2, and O3 also are present. On Europa, a high radiation flux is believed to play a role in the formation of many of the minor species detected, and numerous laboratory studies have been devoted to explore this hypothesis. In this presentation we will discuss some of our recent research on another alteration pathway, thermally-driven chemical reactions, which are also important for understanding the chemical evolution of Europa's surface and sub-surface ices. We will focus on the infrared spectra of and reactions between H2O, SO2 and H2O2, at 80 - 130 K.

  20. Thermal infrared as a tool to detect tree water stress in a coniferous forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nourtier, M.; Chanzy, A.; Bes, B.; Davi, H.; Hanocq, J. F.; Mariotte, N.; Sappe, G.

    2009-04-01

    In the context of climatic change, species area may move and so, a study of forest species vulnerability is on interest. In Mediterranean regions, trees can suffer of water stress due to drought during summer. Responses to environmental constraints are delayed in forest so it is necessary to anticipate risks in order to adapt management. It would be therefore interesting to localize areas where trees might be vulnerable to water stress. To detect such areas, the idea developed in this study is to map the severity of water stress, which may be linked to soil. Because vegetation surface temperature is linked to transpiration and so to water stress, the relevance of thermal infrared as a tool to detect water stress was explored. Past studies about surface temperature of forests at the planting scale did not lead to conclusive results. At this scale, important spatial and temporal variations of surface temperature, with a magnitude of about 10°C, can be registered but there is possibly a sizeable contribution of the undergrowth (Duchemin, 1998a, 1998b). In the other hand, important stress are not detectable, probably due to meteorological conditions (Pierce et al., 1990). During spring and summer 2008, an experimentation was carried out on the silver fir (Abies alba) forest of Mont Ventoux (south of France) to evaluate temporal variations at tree scale of the surface temperature in relation to water stress and climatic conditions. Two sites and three trees were chosen for measurements of surface temperature with a view to have different levels of water stress. Transpiration deficit is characterised by the ratio of actual transpiration to potential transpiration which is computed by the ISBA model (Noilhan et al., 1989) implemented by climatic observations made at the top of tree canopy. Sap flow measurements needed to calculate this ratio were completed on different trees of the sites. Climatic datas also allows building reference temperature and then surface

  1. A new flaw inspection technique based on infrared thermal images under Joule effect heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakagami, Takahide; Ogura, Keiji

    1992-11-01

    A new nondestructive inspection technique using infrared thermography was proposed, in which the thermal image of the surface temperature on a heated sample was used to identify flaws and defects. Joule effect heating by an electric current was employed to heat the sample instantaneously. Both numerical and experimental studies were conducted on the resolution and the availability in the detection of the through-thickness and surface cracks embedded in steel plates. The results showed that a singular concentration was observed at the crack tips in the surface temperature field in the transient stage of heat conduction, and the cracks were found to be sensitively detected from such a singular temperature field in the early transient stage. This technique was also applied to the inspection of the delamination defect in carbon-fiber reinforced plastics.

  2. Calibration of the Thermal Infrared Sensor on the Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thome, K; Reuter, D.; Lunsford, D.; Montanaro, M.; Smith, J.; Tesfaye, Z.; Wenny, B.

    2011-01-01

    The Landsat series of satellites provides the longest running continuous data set of moderate-spatial-resolution imagery beginning with the launch of Landsat 1 in 1972 and continuing with the 1999 launch of Landsat 7 and current operation of Landsats 5 and 7. The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) will continue this program into a fourth decade providing data that are keys to understanding changes in land-use changes and resource management. LDCM consists of a two-sensor platform comprised of the Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Thermal Infrared Sensors (TIRS). A description of the applications and design of the TIRS instrument is given as well as the plans for calibration and characterization. Included are early results from preflight calibration and a description of the inflight validation.

  3. Measurement of the stratospheric hydrogen peroxide concentration profile using far infrared thermal emission spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, K. V.; Johnson, D. G.; Traub, W. A.; Jucks, K. W.

    1991-01-01

    The first unequivocal measurement of hydrogen peroxide in the stratosphere have been made, a concentration profile obtained from a balloon platform using Fourier transform thermal emission spectroscopy in the far infrared. Measurements were made using the 112/cm R-Q5 branch of the rotational-torsional spectrum, with some confirmation from the 94/cm R-Q4 branch. The volume mixing ratio of H2O2 is 1.6 x 10 to the -10th at 38.4 km, decreasing to 0.6 x 10 to the -10th at 23.8 km, with uncertainties of about 16 percent. These measurements are compared to a recent stratospheric model calculation.

  4. Infrared observation of thermally activated oxide reduction within Al/SiOx/Si tunnel diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brendel, R.; Hezel, R.

    1992-05-01

    Electron-beam-evaporated aluminum/silicon oxide/silicon tunnel diodes with an initial oxide thickness of 1.3 nm have been annealed for up to 1 h at temperatures from 213 to 369 °C. They have been investigated by infrared grazing internal reflection (GIR) spectroscopy and current-voltage measurements. The measured IR spectra were analyzed by computer modeling. All spectral features could be explained self-consistently within a Al/AlOy/SiOx/Si layer model. In the as-deposited state less than 0.6 monolayers of Al—O bonds are formed at the Al/SiOx interface. A thermally activated reduction of the ultrathin oxide film by Al was observed. The changes in the current-voltage curves induced by slight annealing (1 min at 213 °C) are accompanied by changes in the insulator-bonding structure, which GIR is sensitive enough to detect.

  5. Mineralogy of S-complex Asteroids using Reflectance and Thermal Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, S. S.; Emery, J. P.; Marchis, F.; Enriquez, E.; Assafin, M.

    2013-12-01

    The S-type asteroids display an astounding diversity in mineralogy. They range from monomineralic olivine to complex olivine/pyroxene assemblages to basaltic assemblages. These materials are thought to be representative of an entire range of bodies that span essentially unmelted to bodies that experienced complete melting and igneous differentiation. Hence, the diverse silicate mineralogy for the S-type asteroids traces the thermal history of the asteroids a few Myr after formation. As such, determining the composition of S-type asteroids is a powerful investigative tool for understanding the post-accretionary thermal evolution, partial melting, and differentiation of the asteroids in the early Solar System. Moreover, the Sq and S(IV) are thought to be the parent bodies of ordinary chondrites (OCs), and therefore represent essentially unmelted or un-thermally processed materials. The mineralogy of these relatively unprocessed asteroids thus provide a window into investigating primitive Solar System materials, which were the building blocks of the terrestrial planets. The mineralogy of S-complex asteroids is typically determined using the 1- and 2-μm absorption bands related to olivine and pyroxene. Comparing the band centers, depths, and areas of these two features (i.e., band analysis) to calibrated laboratory data yields the general silicate mineralogy. Based on the near-infrared (NIR) band analysis, the S-type asteroids can be divided into seven subtypes, S(I - VII), with S(I)s being monomineralic olivine (mantle matieral), S(IV)s being analogous to OCs (primitive silicate material), and S(VII)s being basaltic material (igneously processed crustal material). The mid-infrared (MIR) thermal emission from asteroid surfaces exhibits a suite of silicate features due to Si-O stretching and O-Si-O bending vibrations near 10 and 18 μm, respectively. Marchis et al. (2012) demonstrated that the S-type asteroids exhibit diversity in their MIR emission. We seek to examine

  6. Rock type mapping with indices defined for multispectral thermal infrared ASTER data: case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninomiya, Yoshiki

    2003-03-01

    ASTER sensor aboard NASA's Terra satellite has the capability of measuring multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) emission from the earth's surface to space. The author proposed indices by the combination of ASTER-TIR bands for detecting quartz and carbonate minerals, and another index to estimate the abundance of bulk SiO2 content in the surface silicate rocks, applied them to the low level ASTER radiance at the sensor data without atmospheric corrections, and showed a potential ability of the indices in a rock type mapping. This paper tries to apply the proposed method into the practical case studies using ASTER-TIR data. The study sites include ophiolitic belt zones in Oman and along Yarlun Zangbo River in Tibet. The applied results are compared with the geology of the study areas. It indicates that the new remote sensing approach proposed here would improve the quality and the cost of the geological mapping in arid and semi-arid regions.

  7. Monitoring vegetation recovery patterns on Mount St. Helens using thermal infrared multispectral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langran, K. J.

    1985-01-01

    The eruptions of Mount St. Helens created new surfaces by stripping and implacing large volumes of eroded material and depositing tephra in the blast area and on the flanks of the mountain. Areas of major disturbance are those in the blast zone that were subject to debris avalanche, pyroclastic flows, mudflows, and blowdown and scorched timber; and those outside the blast zone that received extensive tephra deposits. These zones represent a spectrum of disturbance types and intensities that can be indexed by temperature, impact force, and depth of subsequent deposition. This paper describes an application of NASA's Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) in monitoring vegetation recovery patterns in disturbed areas. Preliminary study results indicate a significant correlation between measured effective radiant temperature and vegetated/nonvegetated areas, percent vegetation cover, and vegetation type.

  8. Monitoring vegetation recovery patterns on Mount St. Helens using thermal infrared multispectral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langran, Kenneth J.

    1986-01-01

    The Mount St. Helens 1980 eruption offers an opportunity to study vegetation recovery rates and patterns in a perturbed ecosystem. The eruptions of Mount St. Helens created new surfaces by stripping and implacing large volumes of eroded material and depositing tephra in the blast area and on the flanks of the mountain. Areas of major disturbance are those in the blast zone that were subject to debris avalanche, pyroclastic flows, mudflows, and blowdown and scorched timber; and those outside the blast zone that received extensive tephra deposits. It was observed that during maximum daytime solar heating, surface temperatures of vegetated areas are cooler than surrounding nonvegetated areas, and that surface temperature varies with percent vegetation cover. A method of measuring the relationship between effective radiant temperature (ERT) and percent vegetation cover in the thermal infrared (8 to 12 microns) region of the electromagnetic spectrum was investigated.

  9. Spectral properties of hydrogen, helium, methane, and ammonia at thermal infrared wavelengths. [for Jupiter atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, F. W.; Jones, A. D., III

    1976-01-01

    The paper presents some results of a theoretical and laboratory program to determine the thermal infrared spectral properties of the principal gaseous constituents of the atmosphere of Jupiter. Birnbaum (1975) has measured laboratory spectra in the 16- to 1000-micron wavelength range for hydrogen and hydrogen-helium mixtures at Jovian temperatures. These are compared with theoretically computed spectra in order to determine the temperature dependence of the line strengths in the pressure-induced rotational band and the overlap parameters from the translational band. Existing spectral data for methane do not agree well with measurements of the nu 4 band at room temperature. A revised allocation of line intensities is proposed. Existing data for the nu 2 (10-micron) band of ammonia agree reasonably well with measurements at room temperature and at -77 C, but there are some important discrepancies which remain to be explained.

  10. On-orbit Validation and Testing of Thermal Infrared Radiance Accuracy for Spaceborne CO2 Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gero, P.; Knuteson, R. O.; Best, F. A.; Adler, D. A.; Pettersen, C.; Revercomb, H. E.; Taylor, J. K.; Tobin, D.; Shiomi, K.

    2013-12-01

    Measurements of spectrally resolved thermal infrared (TIR) radiance contain signatures of carbon dioxide that can provide information about its distribution that is complementary to shortwave infrared measurements. In addition, simultaneous retrievals of temperature, water vapor, and other atmospheric constituents can be performed, which provide further insight into scientific questions about the carbon cycle. These measurements of spectral TIR radiance, however, must be made with demonstrable high-accuracy. The University of Wisconsin Space Science and Engineering Center, with support from the NASA Instrument Incubator Program (IIP), has developed the On-orbit Absolute Radiance Standard (OARS), an integrated subsystem that provides on-orbit end-to-end radiometric accuracy validation for infrared remote sensing instruments. The OARS constitutes a high-emissivity (>0.999) blackbody cavity, with an on-board emissivity monitor with uncertainty better than 0.06%, as well as embedded phase change cells that provide on-orbit absolute temperature determination with uncertainties better than 5 mK (k=3). The combined uncertainty of the subsystem is 0.045 K (k=3) in the effective brightness temperature of the blackbody cavity. The OARS was designed to meet the stringent requirements of climate benchmark missions, which require measurement uncertainties better than 0.1 K (k=3) in brightness temperature for the detection of spectral climate signatures. In this paper, we show the sensitivity of TIR radiation to perturbations in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, and we present a feasibility study for validating the measurements made by a TIR sensor using the OARS concept in order to make spaceborne measurements of CO2 with demonstrable on-orbit accuracy.

  11. Data Validation and Case Studies using the TET-1 Thermal Infrared Satellite System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, C.; Klein, D.; Kerr, G.; Stein, E.; Lorenz, E.; Frauenberger, O.; Borg, E.

    2015-04-01

    Based on the DLR satellite system BIRD, launched and operated in the early 2000, the TET-1 satellite has been launched in 2012 as part of the FireBird satellite constellation. The constellation will consist of two satellites, the second one to be launched in the first half of 2016. Acquired imagery is processed and archived by DLR and will be publicly available. For this purpose, a processing chain has been implemented converting raw data (level 0 product) to geo-annotated at-sensor radiance (level 1b). Further data products can be derived, e.g. information on brightness temperature, fire radiative power, and surface emissivity. Other processing levels, such as atmospherically corrected reflectance, could also be produced. The sensitivity of a Thermal Infrared (TIR) sensor system depends on its spectral characteristics and its spatial resolution. Various methods for high temperature event (HTE) detection and quantification have been developed, which can be categorized into single- and multi-band algorithms. While single band methods rely on the robust demarcation of background pixels and higher temperature pixels, considered as being anomalous, the TET-1 system facilitates the application of the widely used bi-spectral algorithm approach introduced by Dozier (1981), using the mid-infrared and longwave-infrared channel. This approach takes advantage of the non-linear nature of the Planck's curves to calculate temperatures and the HTE area on a sub-pixel basis. TIR remote sensing can make a significant contribution to the detection and, partly, the monitoring of land surface temperature (LST), HTE and of parameters describing the surface energy balance for specific areas.

  12. The use of visible and near-infrared reflectance spectra for estimating organic matter thermal maturity

    SciTech Connect

    Rowan, L.C.; Poole, F.G.; Pawlewicz, M.J.

    1995-10-01

    Measurements of visible and near-infrared spectral reflectance of 41 samples of mudstone, silt-stone, and carbonate rocks representing two major depositional settings in Nevada were compared to vitrinite reflectance (R{sub o}) and hydrogen index (HI) measurements to determine the relation between spectral reflectance and organic matter (OM) maturity. The samples range in age from Devonian to Paleogene and have highly variable total organic carbon (TOC) contents, recycled OM contents, and kerogen compositions. Visible and near-infrared spectral reflectance of the samples changes systematically as OM maturity increases from submature to supermature (R{sub o} range of 0.28 to 4.32); therefore, spectral reflectance generally can be used to estimate the thermal maturity of the contained OM. The sum of several ratios (compound ratio) used to express spectral changes in the visible and near-infrared wavelength region is high for most submature samples, decreases rapidly with increasing R{sub o} into the mature range, and then decreases less rapidly through the remaining mature range and the supermature range. A similar trend is displayed in the plot of HI vs. compound ratio. Some spectra are affected by iron absorption features and the presence of recycled OM. Iron absorption generally causes the compound ratio values to be anomalously high relative to the OM maturity, whereas recycled OM results in unusually low ratio values. Spectra affected by recycled OM were identified by using a pair of ratios that expresses the difference in spectral shape between these spectra and spectra of supermature samples, which they resemble. Samples containing recycled kerogen are much more numerous from the Mississippian prodelta basin of the Antler foreland basin than from the Antler orogene; this difference indicates derivation of much of the kerogen from the orogene.

  13. SpaceWire-based thermal-infrared imager system for asteroid sample return mission HAYABUSA2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hihara, Hiroki; Iwase, Kaori; Sano, Junpei; Otake, Hisashi; Okada, Tatsuaki; Funase, Ryu; Kashikawa, Ryoichi; Higashino, Isamu; Masuda, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    A thermal-infrared (TIR) imager system is developed for HAYABUSA2, which is planned to be launched in 2014 and aims at sample-return from a C-class near-Earth asteroid 162173 (1999JU3) considered to contain organic or hydrated materials. The system consists of a TIR imager and digital electronics, which are used not only for the scientific investigation of physical properties of the asteroid surface, but also for the assessment of landing site selection and safe descent operation onto the asteroid surface with in situ measurement. TIR adopts an uncooled bolometer. Image operations such as multiple images summation, dark image subtraction, and the compensation of dead pixels are processed onboard. A processing module is connected to sensor interfaces through SpaceWire in order to provide deterministic processing time. Data compression is also provided to reduce the restriction of transmission time, which provides the equivalent compression ratio as JPEG2000 in 1/30 processing time in average. A high-speed data recorder is connected through SpaceWire in order to record TIR data in parallel with other sensor data. The modularity of SpaceWire enables us to use these as built devices for TIR and inherits the same design as the long-wavelength infrared imager developed for the Venus climate orbiter Akatsuki.

  14. Thermal-infrared and visual imaging of comet Giacobini-Zinner

    SciTech Connect

    Telesco, C.M.; Decher, R.; Baugher, C.; Campins, H.; Mozurkewich, D.; Thronson, H.A.; Cruikshank, D.P.; Hammel, H.B.; Larson, S.; Sekanina, Z.

    1986-11-01

    Thermal-infrared and visual images obtained simultaneously of comet Giacobini-Zinner on UT 1985 August 4.4 are presented. The 10.8-micron map, which spans several arc minutes with 8-arcsec resolution, is the first ground-based infrared image of a comet. Considerable spatial structure is evident in the map, including a curved dust tail consisting primarily of dust grains larger than 100 microns. The width of this large-grain tail implies that these grains depart the nucleus with velocities less than 3 m/s. The distribution of grain albedo is determined for the central 1 arcmin. It is speculated that an observed increase in the albedo by a factor of 2 with distance from the nucleus and prolonged radius vector results from the confinement to the orbital plane of large fluffy grains previously considered for GZ by others; the lower albedo of this dust could result from multiple internal scattering increasing the probability of absorption of incident light. It is estimated that dust was departing the nucleus at the rate of about 8 x 10 to the 5th g/s, comparable to that derived for many other comets. 29 references.

  15. Measurement of mixed biomass burning and mineral dust aerosol in the thermal infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehler, C. H.; Trautmann, T.; Lindermeir, E.

    2009-03-01

    From January 19th to February 7th, 2008, we installed a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) at Praia Airport on the island of Santiago, Cape Verde. Our goal was to measure the combined radiative effect of biomass burning aerosol and mineral dust usually observed there during that time of the year, when mineral dust emerging from the Sahara mixes with biomass burning aerosol transported north-westwards from the Sahelian region. Our measurements were part of the Saharan Mineral Dwst Experiment 2 (SAMUM 2) funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) as continuation of the SAMUM field experiment in Morocco in 2006. SAMUM 2 is a joint venture of several German research institutes and universities and included both ground based as well as airborne measurements with the DLR Falcon research aircraft. The ground based instrumentation included spectrometers for visible and thermal infrared downwelling radiation, sun photometers, LIDAR and particle impactors while the Falcon was equipped with LIDAR and several instruments for aerosol analysis and sample return. A comparison of the FTIR measurements with radiative transfer simulations yields the expected aerosol forcing in the atmospheric window region after application of a suitable calibration method.

  16. Wavelet subspace decomposition of thermal infrared images for defect detection in artworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, M. Z.; Khan, A. A.; Mezghani, S.; Perrin, E.; Mouhoubi, K.; Bodnar, J. L.; Vrabie, V.

    2016-07-01

    Health of ancient artworks must be routinely monitored for their adequate preservation. Faults in these artworks may develop over time and must be identified as precisely as possible. The classical acoustic testing techniques, being invasive, risk causing permanent damage during periodic inspections. Infrared thermometry offers a promising solution to map faults in artworks. It involves heating the artwork and recording its thermal response using infrared camera. A novel strategy based on pseudo-random binary excitation principle is used in this work to suppress the risks associated with prolonged heating. The objective of this work is to develop an automatic scheme for detecting faults in the captured images. An efficient scheme based on wavelet based subspace decomposition is developed which favors identification of, the otherwise invisible, weaker faults. Two major problems addressed in this work are the selection of the optimal wavelet basis and the subspace level selection. A novel criterion based on regional mutual information is proposed for the latter. The approach is successfully tested on a laboratory based sample as well as real artworks. A new contrast enhancement metric is developed to demonstrate the quantitative efficiency of the algorithm. The algorithm is successfully deployed for both laboratory based and real artworks.

  17. Thermal-infrared remote sensing and Kirchhoff's law: 2. Field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korb, Andrew R.; Salisbury, John W.; D'Aria, Dana M.

    1999-07-01

    Laboratory and field measurements of the spectral, directional emissivity of surfaces were compared to emissivities calculated from directional hemispherical reflectances to establish the apparent validity of Kirchhoff's law under terrestrial field conditions. The laboratory measurements confirmed results of an earlier experiment that showed that rocks and coarse particulate surfaces follow Kirchhoff's law in the 8 to 14 μm atmospheric window, whereas very fine particulates may not. However, laboratory measurements of samples heated from below are not an adequate simulation of field conditions. Nonetheless, field measurements demonstrated similar results for materials heated by the Sun. Apparent deviations from Kirchhoff's law of more than 0.04 were measured for fine-particulate (quartz) surfaces, dependent on the intensity of downwelling radiance from atmospheric water vapor and clouds. Examples of natural surfaces that may deviate from Kirchhoff's law include wind-blown dust deposits, fresh snow, frosts, and fine volcanic ash in the vicinity of explosive volcanism. Apparent deviations from Kirchhoff's law are caused by steep thermal gradients in the infrared skin depth. A new technique probed this vertical temperature structure, with a sensitivity of 0.2°C, revealing details of a 2°C temperature difference within the infrared-emitting region (the top ˜150 μm) of a fine-particulate surface.

  18. Optimum thermal infrared bands for mapping general rock type and temperature from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Q. A.; Nueesch, D. R.; Vincent, R. K.

    1980-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine quantitatively the number and location of spectral bands required to perform general rock type discrimination from spaceborne imaging sensors using only thermal infrared measurements. Beginning with laboratory spectra collected under idealized conditions from relatively well-characterized homogeneous samples, a radiative transfer model was used to transform ground exitance values into the corresponding spectral radiance at the top of the atmosphere. Taking sensor noise into account, analysis of these data revealed that three 1 micron wide spectral bands would permit independent estimations of rock type and sample temperature from a satellite infrared multispectral scanner. This study, which ignores the mixing of terrain elements within the instantaneous field of view of a satellite scanner, indicates that the location of three spectral bands at 8.1-9.1, 9.5-10.5, and 11.0-12.0 microns, and the employment of appropriate preprocessing to minimize atmospheric effects makes it possible to predict general rock type and temperature for a variety of atmospheric states and temperatures.

  19. Dust coatings on basaltic rocks and implications for thermal infrared spectroscopy of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, J. R.; Christensen, P.R.; Lucey, P.G.

    2002-01-01

    Thin coatings of atmospherically deposited dust can mask the spectral characteristics of underlying surfaces on Mars from the visible to thermal infrared wavelengths, making identification of substrate and coating mineralogy difficult from lander and orbiter spectrometer data. To study the spectral effects of dust coatings, we acquired thermal emission and hemispherical reflectance spectra (5-25 ??m; 2000-400 cm-1) of basaltic andesite coated with different thicknesses of air fall-deposited palagonitic soils, fine-grained ceramic clay powders, and terrestrial loess. The results show that thin coatings (10-20 ??m) reduce the spectral contrast of the rock substrate substantially, consistent with previous work. This contrast reduction continues linearly with increasing coating thickness until a "saturation thickness" is reached, after which little further change is observed. The saturation thickness of the spectrally flat palagonite coatings is ??? 100-120 ??m, whereas that for coatings with higher spectral contrast is only ??? 50-75 ??m. Spectral differences among coated and uncoated samples correlate with measured coating thicknesses in a quadratic manner, whereas correlations with estimated surface area coverage are better fit by linear functions. Linear mixture modeling of coated samples using the rock substrate and coating materials as end-members is also consistent with their measured coating thicknesses and areal coverage. A comparison of ratios of Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) spectra of dark and bright intracrater and windstreak deposits associated with Radau crater suggests that the dark windstreak material may be coated with as much as 90% areal coverage of palagonitic dust. The data presented here also will help improve interpretations of upcoming mini-TES and Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) observations of coated Mars surface materials.

  20. THERMAL MODEL CALIBRATION FOR MINOR PLANETS OBSERVED WITH WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER/NEOWISE

    SciTech Connect

    Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Ressler, M.; Eisenhardt, P.; Grav, T.; Wright, E.; Cutri, R. M.; McMillan, R. S.; Cohen, M.

    2011-08-01

    With the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), we have observed over 157,000 minor planets. Included in these are a number of near-Earth objects, main-belt asteroids, and irregular satellites which have well measured physical properties (via radar studies and in situ imaging) such as diameters. We have used these objects to validate models of thermal emission and reflected sunlight using the WISE measurements, as well as the color corrections derived in Wright et al. for the four WISE bandpasses as a function of effective temperature. We have used 50 objects with diameters measured by radar or in situ imaging to characterize the systematic errors implicit in using the WISE data with a faceted spherical near-Earth asteroid thermal model (NEATM) to compute diameters and albedos. By using the previously measured diameters and H magnitudes with a spherical NEATM model, we compute the predicted fluxes (after applying the color corrections given in Wright et al.) in each of the four WISE bands and compare them to the measured magnitudes. We find minimum systematic flux errors of 5%-10%, and hence minimum relative diameter and albedo errors of {approx}10% and {approx}20%, respectively. Additionally, visible albedos for the objects are computed and compared to the albedos at 3.4 {mu}m and 4.6 {mu}m, which contain a combination of reflected sunlight and thermal emission for most minor planets observed by WISE. Finally, we derive a linear relationship between subsolar temperature and effective temperature, which allows the color corrections given in Wright et al. to be used for minor planets by computing only subsolar temperature instead of a faceted thermophysical model. The thermal models derived in this paper are not intended to supplant previous measurements made using radar or spacecraft imaging; rather, we have used them to characterize the errors that should be expected when computing diameters and albedos of minor planets observed by WISE using a spherical