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Sample records for aerial tram support

  1. DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWER TWO, WITH TOWERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWER TWO, WITH TOWERS THREE,FOUR, FIVE AND SIX IN DISTANCE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  2. DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWERS THREE AND FOUR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWERS THREE AND FOUR WITH TOWERS FIVE AND SIX IN THE DISTANCE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE TWO INTACT CABLES RUNNING ALONG TOP OF THE TOWERS ARE FIXED. WHILE THE MOVING CABLE IS LYING SLACK ON THE GROUND. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  3. OVERVIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWERS NINE, TEN, AND DEEP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWERS NINE, TEN, AND DEEP RAVINE,LOOKING SOUTH FROM BREAK OVER TOWER LOCATION. A SINGLE ORE BUCKET HANGS FROM THE CABLE AT CENTER. DEATH VALLEY'S FLOOR IS IN THE DISTANCE (TOP). - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  4. DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWER SIX WITH TOWERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWER SIX WITH TOWERS SEVEN,EIGHT, NINE, TEN, AND BREAK OVER TOWER IN DISTANCE, LOOKING NORTH. TOWER SIX IS THE LAST BEFORE A DEEP CHASM, AS IS SEEN BY THE DISTANCE BETWEEN TOWERS SIX AND SEVEN. SEE CA-291-48 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  5. DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWER SIX WITH TOWERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWER SIX WITH TOWERS SEVEN, EIGHT, NINE, TEN, AND BREAK OVER TOWER IN DISTANCE, LOOKING NORTH. TOWER SIX IS THE LAST BEFORE A DEEP CHASM, AS IS SEEN BY THE DISTANCE BETWEEN TOWERS SIX AND SEVEN. SEE CA-291-21 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  6. DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM CABLE COUNTERWEIGHT SYSTEM, LOOKING DOWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM CABLE COUNTERWEIGHT SYSTEM, LOOKING DOWN THROUGH THE LOWER TERMINAL FLOOR. TWO SUSPENDED ROCK FILLED WOODEN BOXES CAN BE SEEN AT BOTTOM. THE METAL FRAMEWORK WAS INSTALLED BY THE PARK SERVICE DURING THE AERIAL TRAM'S STABILIZATION IN THE 1983. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  7. OVERVIEW OF LOWER TRAM TERMINAL AND STAMP MILL SITE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF LOWER TRAM TERMINAL AND STAMP MILL SITE, LOOKING NORTHWEST. THE AERIAL TRAMWAY BEGINS AT THE TERMINAL AND CONTINUES NORTH TO THE UPPER RIGHT. THE FIRST SUPPORT TOWER CAN BE SEEN. JUST BELOW THE WATER TANK IS A LOADING PLATFORM AND TRAM TRESTLE USED FOR THE TRANSPORT OF SUPPLIES THAT LEAD UP TO THE TRAM TERMINAL. ALL THREE LEVELS OF THE FORMER 20 STAMP MILL CAN BE SEEN AT CENTER. SEE CA-291-02 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  8. OVERVIEW OF LOWER TRAM TERMINAL AND STAMP MILL SITE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF LOWER TRAM TERMINAL AND STAMP MILL SITE, LOOKING NORTHWEST. THE AERIAL TRAMWAY BEGINS AT THE TERMINAL AND CONTINUES NORTH TO THE UPPER RIGHT. THE FIRST SUPPORT TOWER CAN BE SEEN. JUST BELOW THE WATER TANK IS A LOADING PLATFORM AND TRAM TRESTLE USED FOR THE TRANSPORT OF SUPPLIES THAT LEAD UP TO THE TRAM TERMINAL. ALL THREE LEVELS OF THE FORMER 20 STAMP MILL CAN BE SEEN AT CENTER. SEE CA-291-46( CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  9. 31. LOOKING SOUTHEAST. AS THE TRAM ENTERED THE GRAVITY TRAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. LOOKING SOUTHEAST. AS THE TRAM ENTERED THE GRAVITY TRAM LINE, IT CROSSED THIS CUT-STONE BRIDGE AND WAS CONTROLLED BY THE SWITCHING PLATFORM IN THE BACKGROUND - Independent Coal & Coke Company, Kenilworth, Carbon County, UT

  10. Supporting Remote Sensing Research with Small Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. C.; Shanks, P. C.; Kritis, L. A.; Trani, M. G.

    2014-11-01

    We describe several remote sensing research projects supported with small Unmanned Aerial Systems (sUAS) operated by the NGA Basic and Applied Research Office. These sUAS collections provide data supporting Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR), NGA University Research Initiative (NURI), and Cooperative Research And Development Agreements (CRADA) efforts in addition to inhouse research. Some preliminary results related to 3D electro-optical point clouds are presented, and some research goals discussed. Additional details related to the autonomous operational mode of both our multi-rotor and fixed wing small Unmanned Aerial System (sUAS) platforms are presented.

  11. DETAIL VIEW OF UPPER TRAM TERMINAL STRUCTURE, LOOKING NORTHEAST TOWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF UPPER TRAM TERMINAL STRUCTURE, LOOKING NORTHEAST TOWARD THE REAR OF THE STRUCTURE. THE WHEELS AT THE TOP OF THE TRAM BUCKETS RODE OFF THE STATIONARY CABLES ONTO THE TRACK SUPPORTED BY THE "C" IRONS SUSPENDED FROM THE TOP TIMBERS, CLEARLY SEEN AT THE TOP OF THE FRAME. THE ANCHOR POINTS FOR THE TWO STATIONARY CABLES ARE AT BOTTOM CENTER, JUST BELOW THE CABLE WHEEL. THE MAIN CABLE WHEEL IS IN THE DISTANCE AT CENTER LEFT. THE ORE CHUTES COMING FROM THE ORE BIN ARE AT LEFT CENTER EDGE. TRAM BUCKETS WERE CHARGED HERE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  12. FlyAR: augmented reality supported micro aerial vehicle navigation.

    PubMed

    Zollmann, Stefanie; Hoppe, Christof; Langlotz, Tobias; Reitmayr, Gerhard

    2014-04-01

    Micro aerial vehicles equipped with high-resolution cameras can be used to create aerial reconstructions of an area of interest. In that context automatic flight path planning and autonomous flying is often applied but so far cannot fully replace the human in the loop, supervising the flight on-site to assure that there are no collisions with obstacles. Unfortunately, this workflow yields several issues, such as the need to mentally transfer the aerial vehicle’s position between 2D map positions and the physical environment, and the complicated depth perception of objects flying in the distance. Augmented Reality can address these issues by bringing the flight planning process on-site and visualizing the spatial relationship between the planned or current positions of the vehicle and the physical environment. In this paper, we present Augmented Reality supported navigation and flight planning of micro aerial vehicles by augmenting the user’s view with relevant information for flight planning and live feedback for flight supervision. Furthermore, we introduce additional depth hints supporting the user in understanding the spatial relationship of virtual waypoints in the physical world and investigate the effect of these visualization techniques on the spatial understanding. PMID:24650983

  13. FlyAR: augmented reality supported micro aerial vehicle navigation.

    PubMed

    Zollmann, Stefanie; Hoppe, Christof; Langlotz, Tobias; Reitmayr, Gerhard

    2014-04-01

    Micro aerial vehicles equipped with high-resolution cameras can be used to create aerial reconstructions of an area of interest. In that context automatic flight path planning and autonomous flying is often applied but so far cannot fully replace the human in the loop, supervising the flight on-site to assure that there are no collisions with obstacles. Unfortunately, this workflow yields several issues, such as the need to mentally transfer the aerial vehicle’s position between 2D map positions and the physical environment, and the complicated depth perception of objects flying in the distance. Augmented Reality can address these issues by bringing the flight planning process on-site and visualizing the spatial relationship between the planned or current positions of the vehicle and the physical environment. In this paper, we present Augmented Reality supported navigation and flight planning of micro aerial vehicles by augmenting the user’s view with relevant information for flight planning and live feedback for flight supervision. Furthermore, we introduce additional depth hints supporting the user in understanding the spatial relationship of virtual waypoints in the physical world and investigate the effect of these visualization techniques on the spatial understanding.

  14. DETAIL VIEW OF UPPER TRAM TERMINAL STRUCTURE, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF UPPER TRAM TERMINAL STRUCTURE, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD THE FRONT OF THE STRUCTURE. THE WHEELS AT THE TOP OF THE TRAM BUCKETS RODE OFF THE STATIONARY CABLES ONTO THE TRACK SUPPORTED BY THE "C" IRONS SUSPENDED FROM THE TOP TIMBERS ON THE LEFT AND RIGHT. THE BUCKET OPENING MECHANISM IS ON THE LEFT, AND PART OF THE CLOSING MECHANISM ON THE RIGHT EDGE OF THE FRAME. THE TWO CABLES AT CENTER ARE THE STATIONARY TRAM CABLES THAT RUN ALONG THE TOP OF THE SUPPORT TOWERS ON WHICH THE WHEELS OF THE TRAM BUCKETS RODE. THEY ARE ANCHORED AT GROUND LEVEL JUST OFF FRAME TO THE LOWER LEFT. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  15. TOP VIEW OF UPPER TRAM TERMINAL, PRIMARY ORE BIN, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOP VIEW OF UPPER TRAM TERMINAL, PRIMARY ORE BIN, AND ORE CHUTE,LOOKING SOUTHWEST. TRAM MACHINERY AND GEARS ARE AT LOWER CENTER. A SMALL ELECTRIC MOTOR AT THE REAR LEFT OF THE TERMINAL PROBABLY WAS ADDED AFTER THE ORIGINAL CONSTRUCTION. THE MOVING CABLE OF THE TRAM WAS DRIVEN BY THESE GEARS AND THE LARGE WHEEL UNDERNEATH (SEE CA-291-31 FOR DETAIL). EMPTY TRAM BUCKETS CAME IN FROM THE LEFT, SWINGING AROUND TO THE CHUTES FROM THE ORE BIN TO BE LOADED FOR THE TRIP DOWN TO THE MILL (SEE CA-291-35 FOR DETAIL). THE BREAK OVER TOWER CAN BE SEEN IN THE DISTANCE AT TOP LEFT. THE SUPPORT TOWER BETWEEN THE UPPER TERMINAL AND THE BREAK OVER TOWER IS COLLAPSED. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  16. OVERVIEW OF UPPER TRAM TERMINAL, TRAM TRESTLE, AND PRIMARY ORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF UPPER TRAM TERMINAL, TRAM TRESTLE, AND PRIMARY ORE BIN, LOOKING NORTHEAST. REMAINS OF A BLACKSMITH'S FORGE AND WORK CAN BE SEEN JUST BELOW THE ORE BIN (SEE CA-291-32 FOR DETAIL). ROCK FOUNDATIONS LOCATED JUST ABOVE THE ORE BIN AND ALONG THE FIRST RIDGELINE ARE TENT PADS. SEE CA-291-49 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  17. OVERVIEW OF UPPER TRAM TERMINAL, TRAM TRESTLE, AND PRIMARY ORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF UPPER TRAM TERMINAL, TRAM TRESTLE, AND PRIMARY ORE BIN, LOOKING NORTHEAST. REMAINS OF A BLACKSMITH'S FORGE AND WORK CAN BE SEEN JUST BELOW THE ORE BIN (SEE CA-291-32 FOR DETAIL). ROCK FOUNDATIONS LOCATED JUST ABOVE THE ORE BIN AND ALONG THE FIRST RIDGELINE ARE TENT PADS. SEE CA-291-24 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  18. EAST ELEVATION OF LOWER TRAM TERMINAL, LOOKING NORTHWEST. TRAM CARS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST ELEVATION OF LOWER TRAM TERMINAL, LOOKING NORTHWEST. TRAM CARS ENTERED AND EXITED FROM RIGHT,AND DUMPED INTO THE ORE BIN SEEN AT LOWER LEFT. BELOW THE ORE BIN IS A JAW CRUSHER FOUNDATION. THE WOODEN BOX AT CENTER IS FILLED WITH ROCKS, PROVIDING THE COUNTERWEIGHT TO THE TRAMWAY CABLE, WHICH KEEPS IT TAUGHT. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  19. BEO Tram Spectral Data 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Torn, Margaret; Serbin, Shawn

    2015-06-10

    Visible to near-infrared (350-1100nm) vegetation spectral reflectance data collected on the BEO automated tram measurement platform during the 2014 growing season. The spectra were collected using a PP Systems UniSpec-DC instrument and was processed to at-surface reflectance and interpolated to 1nm.

  20. EAST ELEVATION OF LOWER TRAM TERMINAL WITH SIX FOOT SCALE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST ELEVATION OF LOWER TRAM TERMINAL WITH SIX FOOT SCALE, LOOKING NORTHWEST. THE SCALE IS LOCATED AT CENTER RIGHT, AGAINST THE SECOND SUPPORT TIMBER FROM THE RIGHT. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  1. Photocopy of recent aerial photograph (from U.S. Army Support Command ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of recent aerial photograph (from U.S. Army Support Command Hawaii, Wheeler Army Air Base, Hawaii) Photographer unknown, Circa 1990 AERIAL VIEW SHOWING MAIN SECTION OF BASE, BETWEEN KUNIA ROAD, WILIKINA DRIVE, AND McMAHON ROAD, AS WELL AS ADJACENT PINEAPPLE FIELDS, AND LAKE WILSON. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Wilikina Drive & Kunia Road, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  2. Photocopy of recent aerial photograph (from U.S. Army Support Command ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of recent aerial photograph (from U.S. Army Support Command Hawaii, Wheeler Army Air Base, Hawaii) Photographer unknown, Circa 1990 OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW SHOWING MAIN SECTION OF BASE WITH LAKE WILSON IN THE FOREGROUND AND WAIANAE MOUNTAINS IN THE BACKGROUND. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Wilikina Drive & Kunia Road, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  3. A Role for the Adaptor Proteins TRAM and TRIF in Toll-like Receptor 2 Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Nilsen, Nadra J.; Vladimer, Gregory I.; Stenvik, Jørgen; Orning, M. Pontus A.; Zeid-Kilani, Maria V.; Bugge, Marit; Bergstroem, Bjarte; Conlon, Joseph; Husebye, Harald; Hise, Amy G.; Fitzgerald, Katherine A.; Espevik, Terje; Lien, Egil

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in sensing invading microbes by host innate immunity. TLR2 recognizes bacterial lipoproteins/lipopeptides, and lipopolysaccharide activates TLR4. TLR2 and TLR4 signal via the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor adaptors MyD88 and MAL, leading to NF-κB activation. TLR4 also utilizes the adaptors TRAM and TRIF, resulting in activation of interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 3. Here, we report a new role for TRAM and TRIF in TLR2 regulation and signaling. Interestingly, we observed that TLR2-mediated induction of the chemokine Ccl5 was impaired in TRAM or TRIF deficient macrophages. Inhibition of endocytosis reduced Ccl5 release, and the data also suggested that TRAM and TLR2 co-localize in early endosomes, supporting the hypothesis that signaling may occur from an intracellular compartment. Ccl5 release following lipoprotein challenge additionally involved the kinase Tbk-1 and Irf3, as well as MyD88 and Irf1. Induction of Interferon-β and Ccl4 by lipoproteins was also partially impaired in cells lacking TRIF cells. Our results show a novel function of TRAM and TRIF in TLR2-mediated signal transduction, and the findings broaden our understanding of how Toll/interleukin-1 receptor adaptor proteins may participate in signaling downstream from TLR2. PMID:25505250

  4. 3. Elevation, tram deck, bonanza "A" frame and crushers level ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Elevation, tram deck, bonanza "A" frame and crushers level 11. - Kennecott Copper Corporation, Concentration Mill, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  5. TRAM flap breast reconstruction after radiation treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J K; Bostwick, J; Bried, J T; Mackay, G; Landry, J; Benton, J

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with and without radiation treatment before their breast reconstruction were compared to study the relationship of radiation to flap-related complications. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The transverse rectus abdominis muscle (TRAM) flap for breast reconstruction involves a a vascular pedicle and recipient bed, both included in the radiated field of patients undergoing adjunctive therapy. Detailed reviews of flap-related complications in this subgroup of patients have been limited. METHODS: One hundred eight patients with radiation treatment who subsequently underwent a TRAM flap breast reconstruction were compared with 572 patients with no radiation treatment before similar reconstruction. Flap-related complications, radiation dosage, time, fields, relationships between risk factors, and complications were studied. RESULTS: Overall complication rates were comparable between the two groups. Only fat necrosis (> 10% of total reconstruction) was found to be statistically significant (17.6% vs. 10.1%, p = 0.03228). No difference was found for fat necrosis in unipedicled vs. bipedicled flaps controlled for radiation (17.7% vs. 17.4%). Obesity and radiation therapy were associated with fat necrosis and major infection in a logistic regression. Significant abdominal scarring was also associated with major infection (p = 0.0044). CONCLUSIONS: In this, the largest reported series, radiation therapy was associated with increased fat necrosis and major infection. The use of the TRAM flap was not found to be prohibitive in radiated patients and should still be the first choice in this subgroup of patients. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:7794079

  6. DETAIL VIEW OF TRAM BUCKET AUTOMATIC LOCKING MECHANISM ON LOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF TRAM BUCKET AUTOMATIC LOCKING MECHANISM ON LOWER TRAM TERMINAL, LOOKING WEST. AS EMPTY BUCKETS PASSED THROUGH THIS MECHANISM, A LEVER ON THE BUCKET WAS ACTIVATED THAT LOCKED THE BUCKET TO THE MOVING CABLE, CARRYING IT ALONG BACK UP TO THE MINES. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  7. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST, OF SHENANDOAHDIVES (MAYFLOWER) MINE UPPER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST, OF SHENANDOAH-DIVES (MAYFLOWER) MINE UPPER TRAM STATION IN FOREGROUND AND PORTAL ABOVE (IN SHADOW). NOTE PACK TRAIL BETWEEN MINE HEAD AND NORTHERN END OF SILVER LAKE, JUST VISIBLE AT UPPER RIGHT. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  8. GENERAL VIEW OF MILL, LOOKING WEST NORTHWEST, WITH TRAM HOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF MILL, LOOKING WEST NORTHWEST, WITH TRAM HOUSE AND OFFICE BUILDING IN CENTER. COAL BIN AND BOILER HOUSE ARE AT FAR LEFT. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  9. Translation Microscopy (TRAM) for super-resolution imaging

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Zhen; Wilson, Rhodri S; Liu, Yuewei; R Dun, Alison; Saleeb, Rebecca S; Liu, Dongsheng; Rickman, Colin; Frame, Margaret; Duncan, Rory R; Lu, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Super-resolution microscopy is transforming our understanding of biology but accessibility is limited by its technical complexity, high costs and the requirement for bespoke sample preparation. We present a novel, simple and multi-color super-resolution microscopy technique, called translation microscopy (TRAM), in which a super-resolution image is restored from multiple diffraction-limited resolution observations using a conventional microscope whilst translating the sample in the image plane. TRAM can be implemented using any microscope, delivering up to 7-fold resolution improvement. We compare TRAM with other super-resolution imaging modalities, including gated stimulated emission deletion (gSTED) microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We further developed novel ‘ground-truth’ DNA origami nano-structures to characterize TRAM, as well as applying it to a multi-color dye-stained cellular sample to demonstrate its fidelity, ease of use and utility for cell biology. PMID:26822455

  10. DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER TRAM TERMINAL, SECONDARY ORE BIN, CRUSHER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER TRAM TERMINAL, SECONDARY ORE BIN, CRUSHER FOUNDATION, AND BALL MILL FOUNDATIONS, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST. ORE FROM THE MINES WAS DUMPED FROM THE TRAM BUCKETS INTO THE PRIMARY ORE BIN UNDER THE TRAM TERMINAL. A SLIDING CONTROL DOOR INTRODUCED THE INTO THE JAW CRUSHER (FOUNDATIONS,CENTER). THE CRUSHED ORE WAS THEN CONVEYED INTO THE SECONDARY ORE BIN AT CENTER LEFT. A HOLE IN THE FLOOR OF THE ORE BIN PASSED ORE ONTO ANOTHER CONVEYOR THAT BROUGHT IT OUT TO THE BALL MILL(FOUNDATIONS,CENTER BOTTOM). THIS SYSTEM IS MOST LIKELY NOT THE ORIGINAL SET UP, PROBABLY INSTALLED IN THE MINE'S LAST OCCUPATION IN THE EARLY 1940s. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  11. Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids support aerial insectivore performance more than food quantity.

    PubMed

    Twining, Cornelia W; Brenna, J Thomas; Lawrence, Peter; Shipley, J Ryan; Tollefson, Troy N; Winkler, David W

    2016-09-27

    Once-abundant aerial insectivores, such as the Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor), have declined steadily in the past several decades, making it imperative to understand all aspects of their ecology. Aerial insectivores forage on a mixture of aquatic and terrestrial insects that differ in fatty acid composition, specifically long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) content. Aquatic insects contain high levels of both LCPUFA and their precursor omega-3 PUFA, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), whereas terrestrial insects contain much lower levels of both. We manipulated both the quantity and quality of food for Tree Swallow chicks in a full factorial design. Diets were either high-LCPUFA or low in LCPUFA but high in ALA, allowing us to separate the effects of direct LCPUFA in diet from the ability of Tree Swallows to convert their precursor, ALA, into LCPUFA. We found that fatty acid composition was more important for Tree Swallow chick performance than food quantity. On high-LCPUFA diets, chicks grew faster, were in better condition, and had greater immunocompetence and lower basal metabolic rates compared with chicks on both low LCPUFA diets. Increasing the quantity of high-LCPUFA diets resulted in improvements to all metrics of performance while increasing the quantity of low-LCPUFA diets only resulted in greater immunocompetence and lower metabolic rates. Chicks preferentially retained LCPUFA in brain and muscle when both food quantity and LCPUFA were limited. Our work suggests that fatty acid composition is an important dimension of aerial insectivore nutritional ecology and reinforces the importance of high-quality aquatic habitat for these declining birds. PMID:27638210

  12. Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids support aerial insectivore performance more than food quantity.

    PubMed

    Twining, Cornelia W; Brenna, J Thomas; Lawrence, Peter; Shipley, J Ryan; Tollefson, Troy N; Winkler, David W

    2016-09-27

    Once-abundant aerial insectivores, such as the Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor), have declined steadily in the past several decades, making it imperative to understand all aspects of their ecology. Aerial insectivores forage on a mixture of aquatic and terrestrial insects that differ in fatty acid composition, specifically long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) content. Aquatic insects contain high levels of both LCPUFA and their precursor omega-3 PUFA, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), whereas terrestrial insects contain much lower levels of both. We manipulated both the quantity and quality of food for Tree Swallow chicks in a full factorial design. Diets were either high-LCPUFA or low in LCPUFA but high in ALA, allowing us to separate the effects of direct LCPUFA in diet from the ability of Tree Swallows to convert their precursor, ALA, into LCPUFA. We found that fatty acid composition was more important for Tree Swallow chick performance than food quantity. On high-LCPUFA diets, chicks grew faster, were in better condition, and had greater immunocompetence and lower basal metabolic rates compared with chicks on both low LCPUFA diets. Increasing the quantity of high-LCPUFA diets resulted in improvements to all metrics of performance while increasing the quantity of low-LCPUFA diets only resulted in greater immunocompetence and lower metabolic rates. Chicks preferentially retained LCPUFA in brain and muscle when both food quantity and LCPUFA were limited. Our work suggests that fatty acid composition is an important dimension of aerial insectivore nutritional ecology and reinforces the importance of high-quality aquatic habitat for these declining birds.

  13. Power line field sensing to support autonomous navigation of small unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, John; Bukshpun, Leonid; Pradhan, Ranjit

    2013-06-01

    Autonomous navigation around power lines in a complex urban environment is a critical challenge facing small unmanned aerial vehicles (SUAVs). As part of an ongoing development of an electric and magnetic field sensor system designed to provide SUAVs with the capability to sense and avoid power transmission and distribution lines by monitoring their electric and magnetic field signatures, we have performed field measurements and analysis of power-line signals. We discuss the nature of the power line signatures to be detected, and optimal strategies for detecting these signals amid SUAV platform noise and environmental interference. Based on an analysis of measured power line signals and vehicle noise, we have found that, under certain circumstances, power line harmonics can be detected at greater range than the fundamental. We explain this phenomenon by combining a model of power line signal nonlinearity with the quasi-static electric and magnetic signatures of multiphase power lines.

  14. TRAM HOUSE INTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. NOTE DEPARTING ORE BUCKET "12" ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TRAM HOUSE INTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. NOTE DEPARTING ORE BUCKET "12" AND SUSPENSION CABLE ANGLING DOWN THROUGH FLOOR AT LOWER LEFT. LARGE LEVER ON SIDE OF BUCKET ALLOWS IT TO BE ROTATED FOR DUMPING ORE. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  15. DETAIL VIEW OF TRAM SUSPENSION CABLE OILING CAR. NOTE CIRCULAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF TRAM SUSPENSION CABLE OILING CAR. NOTE CIRCULAR TRACTION CABLE CLAMP IN CENTER AND OIL FEED TO CABLE BETWEEN TWO RIGHT-HAND WHEELS. OIL REDUCED FRICTION AND RUST. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  16. DETAIL OVERHEAD VIEW OF SECONDARY ORE BIN, CONVEYOR PLATFORM TRAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OVERHEAD VIEW OF SECONDARY ORE BIN, CONVEYOR PLATFORM TRAM TRESTLE, AND LOADING PLATFORM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. THE HOLE IN THE ORE BIN FLOOR CAN BE SEEN, AND BALL MILL FOUNDATION AT LOWER LEFT CORNER. SEE CA-291-13 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  17. OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER TRAM TERMINAL, LOOKING NORTHWEST. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER TRAM TERMINAL, LOOKING NORTHWEST. THE JAW CRUSHER FOUNDATION CAN BE CLEARLY SEEN AT CENTER LEFT WITH A CONVEYOR TO CARRY CRUSHED ORE UP TO THE SECONDARY ORE BIN,LEFT. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  18. Detection of two intermixed invasive woody species using color infrared aerial imagery and the support vector machine classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirik, Mustafa; Chaudhuri, Sriroop; Surber, Brady; Ale, Srinivasulu; James Ansley, R.

    2013-01-01

    Both the evergreen redberry juniper (Juniperus pinchotii Sudw.) and deciduous honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) are destructive and aggressive invaders that affect rangelands and grasslands of the southern Great Plains of the United States. However, their current spatial extent and future expansion trends are unknown. This study was aimed at: (1) exploring the utility of aerial imagery for detecting and mapping intermixed redberry juniper and honey mesquite while both are in full foliage using the support vector machine classifier at two sites in north central Texas and, (2) assessing and comparing the mapping accuracies between sites. Accuracy assessments revealed that the overall accuracies were 90% with the associated kappa coefficient of 0.86% and 89% with the associated kappa coefficient of 0.85 for sites 1 and 2, respectively. Z-statistics (0.102<1.96) used to compare the classification results for both sites indicated an insignificant difference between classifications at 95% probability level. In most instances, juniper and mesquite were identified correctly with <7% being mistaken for the other woody species. These results indicated that assessment of the current infestation extent and severity of these two woody species in a spatial context is possible using aerial remote sensing imagery.

  19. DETAIL VIEW OF WINCHING ENGINE LOCATED AT THE UPPER TRAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF WINCHING ENGINE LOCATED AT THE UPPER TRAM TERMINAL, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE CABLE FROM THIS ENGINE LEADS DOWN INTO THE DEEP RAVINE IN FRONT OF THE UPPER TRAM TERMINAL. IT WAS PROBABLY USED TO DRAG MATERIALS UP TOWARD THE TERMINAL WHEN THE TERMINAL WAS BEING CONSTRUCTED, OR IN TIMES OF TRAMWAY BREAKDOWN. THE DRIVE ENGINE IS IN THE BACKGROUND. TWO LONG OPERATING LEVERS FOR THE ENGINE ARE IN THE CENTER FOREGROUND. AN EXTRA SPOOL OF CABLE IS ON THE GROUND TO THE RIGHT OF THE ENGINE. A WATER PIPELINE STRETCHES ACROSS THE SLOPE IN THE BACKGROUND, CARRYING WATER TO THE UPPER MINES. SEE CA-291-37 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  20. DETAIL VIEW OF WINCHING ENGINE LOCATED AT THE UPPER TRAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF WINCHING ENGINE LOCATED AT THE UPPER TRAM TERMINAL LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE CABLE FROM THIS ENGINE LEADS DOWN INTO THE DEEP RAVINE IN FRONT OF THE UPPER TRAM TERMINAL. IT WAS PROBABLY USED TO DRAG MATERIALS UP TOWARD THE TERMINAL WHEN THE TERMINAL WAS BEING CONSTRUCTED, OR IN TIMES OF TRAMWAY BREAK DOWN. THE DRIVE ENGINE IS IN THE BACKGROUND. TWO LONG OPERATING LEVERS FOR THE ENGINE ARE IN THE CENTER FOREGROUND. AN EXTRA SPOOL OF CABLE IS ON THE GROUND TO THE RIGHT OF THE ENGINE. A WATER PIPELINE STRETCHES ACROSS THE SLOPE IN THE BACKGROUND, CARRYING WATER TO THE UPPER MINES. SEE CA-291-52 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  1. [Pedicled versus free TRAM flap for breast reconstruction].

    PubMed

    Galla, T J; Lukas, B; Feller, A M

    1999-03-01

    In breast reconstruction, the free TRAM-flap offers many advantages over the pedicled TRAM-flap. Due to its superior perfusion, the free flap rarely develops necrosis. Shaping of the flap is easier due to the lack of the thick muscle pedicle. Because the rectus muscle is spared, there is minimal donor site morbidity. However, the necessary microvascular anastomoses reduced the acceptance of the free TRAM-flap. During a 13-months period, 51 breast reconstructions were performed in 41 patients, 31 unilateral and ten bilateral. 45 flaps served for delayed reconstruction and six flaps for immediate reconstruction. The operations were performed by two teams working simultaneously. The average operating time was 3.9 hours for unilateral and 6.9 hours for bilateral delayed reconstruction. For immediate reconstruction, 6.2 and 6.3 hours were required for uni- and bilateral procedures, respectively. In 38 flaps, the thoracodorsal vessels served as recipient vessels; 13 flaps were anastomosed to the internal mammary artery and vein. Postoperative complications were observed in 13 patients. Three vessel anastomoses had to be revised. In one flap, a partial necrosis occurred; in two flaps hematoma evacuation was necessary. Two patients suffered from fat necroses at the abdomen and one umbilicus was lost. Skin irritations and seromas at the abdomen occurred in five patients. Pulmonary embolism was diagnosed in one patient three weeks postoperatively. Abdominal hernias or bulging in the epigastric area were not observed up to 15 months after reconstruction. These results reveal a low complication rate for breast reconstruction with the free TRAM-flap. The advantages of this technique as compared to the pedicled technique are discussed.

  2. 110. MILL APPROACH FROM EAST. THE TRAM LINE RANT TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    110. MILL APPROACH FROM EAST. THE TRAM LINE RANT TO THE RIGHT (NORTH) OF THE ROAD AND REACHED THE CRUDE ORE BINS AROUND THE FAR BEND. BUILDINGS FROM FRONT TO BACK ARE, ON RIGHT, OIL WAREHOUSE AND GASOLINE SHED, AND ON LEFT, GARAGE, CARPENTER'S SHOP, OIL SHED, AND MACHINE SHOP. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  3. Searching data for supporting archaeo-landscapes in Cyprus: an overview of aerial, satellite, and cartographic datasets of the island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agapiou, Athos; Lysandrou, Vasiliki; Themistocleous, Kyriakos; Nisantzi, Argyro; Lasaponara, Rosa; Masini, Nicola; Krauss, Thomas; Cerra, Daniele; Gessner, Ursula; Schreier, Gunter; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos

    2016-08-01

    The landscape of Cyprus is characterized by transformations that occurred during the 20th century, with many of such changes being still active today. Landscapes' changes are due to a variety of reasons including war conflicts, environmental conditions and modern development that have often caused the alteration or even the total loss of important information that could have assisted the archaeologists to comprehend the archaeo-landscape. The present work aims to provide detailed information regarding the different existing datasets that can be used to support archaeologists in understanding the transformations that the landscape in Cyprus undergone, from a remote sensing perspective. Such datasets may help archaeologists to visualize a lost landscape and try to retrieve valuable information, while they support researchers for future investigations. As such they can further highlight in a predictive manner and consequently assess the impacts of landscape transformation -being of natural or anthropogenic cause- to cultural heritage. Three main datasets are presented here: aerial images, satellite datasets including spy satellite datasets acquired during the Cold War, and cadastral maps. The variety of data is provided in a chronological order (e.g. year of acquisitions), while other important parameters such as the cost and the accuracy are also determined. Individual examples of archaeological sites in Cyprus are also provided for each dataset in order to underline both their importance and performance. Also some pre- and post-processing remote sensing methodologies are briefly described in order to enhance the final results. The paper within the framework of ATHENA project, dedicated to remote sensing archaeology/CH, aims to fill a significant gap in the recent literature of remote sensing archaeology of the island and to assist current and future archaeologists in their quest for remote sensing information to support their research.

  4. Ikhana: A NASA Unmanned Aerial System Supporting Long-Duration Earth Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobleigh, Brent R.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews Ikhana's project goals: (1) Develop an airborne platform to conduct Earth observation and atmospheric sampling science missions both nationally and internationally, (2) develop and demonstrate technologies that improve the capability of UAVs to conduct science collection missions, (3) develop technologies that improve manned and unmanned aircraft systems, and (4) support important national UAV development activities. The criteria that guided the selection of the aircraft are listed. The payload areas on Ikhana are shown and the network that connects the systems are also reviewed. The data recorder is shown. Also the diagram of the Airborne Research Test System (ARTS) is reviewed. The Mobile Ground Control Station and the Mobile Ku SatCom Antenna are also shown and described.

  5. Aerial Explorers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg; Ippolito, Corey

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents recent results from a mission architecture study of planetary aerial explorers. In this study, several mission scenarios were developed in simulation and evaluated on success in meeting mission goals. This aerial explorer mission architecture study is unique in comparison with previous Mars airplane research activities. The study examines how aerial vehicles can find and gain access to otherwise inaccessible terrain features of interest. The aerial explorer also engages in a high-level of (indirect) surface interaction, despite not typically being able to takeoff and land or to engage in multiple flights/sorties. To achieve this goal, a new mission paradigm is proposed: aerial explorers should be considered as an additional element in the overall Entry, Descent, Landing System (EDLS) process. Further, aerial vehicles should be considered primarily as carrier/utility platforms whose purpose is to deliver air-deployed sensors and robotic devices, or symbiotes, to those high-value terrain features of interest.

  6. DETAIL VIEW OF ORE CHARGING CHUTES OF THE UPPER TRAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF ORE CHARGING CHUTES OF THE UPPER TRAM TERMINAL, LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD THE REAR OF THE STRUCTURE. THE ELECTRIC DRIVE MOTOR IS IN THE BACKGROUND AT UPPER RIGHT JUST BEHIND THE DRIVE GEAR. THE BELT FROM THIS MOTOR CONNECTED TO THE WHEEL AT TOP CENTER, WHICH DROVE THE SMALLER GEAR MESHED WITH THE LARGER ONE. THERE ARE NO CONTROL DOORS FOR THESE CHUTES OTHER THAN THE METAL ONES IN THE FOREGROUND. SEE CA-291-35 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  7. DETAIL VIEW OF ORE CHARGING CHUTES OF THE UPPER TRAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF ORE CHARGING CHUTES OF THE UPPER TRAM TERMINAL,LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD THE REAR OF THE STRUCTURE. THE ELECTRIC DRIVE MOTOR IS IN THE BACKGROUND AT UPPER RIGHT JUST BEHIND THE DRIVE GEAR. THE BELT FROM THIS MOTOR CONNECTED TO THE WHEEL AT TOP CENTER,WHICH DROVE THE SMALLER GEAR MESHED WITH THE LARGER ONE. THERE ARE NO CONTROL DOORS FOR THESE CHUTES OTHER THAN THE METAL ONES IN THE FOREGROUND. SEE CA-291-51 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  8. Satellite and Aerial Remote Sensing in Support of Disaster Response Operations Conducted by the Texas Division of Emergency Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, G. L.; Tapley, B. D.; Bettadpur, S. V.; Howard, T.; Porter, B.; Smith, S.; Teng, L.; Tapley, C.

    2014-12-01

    The effective use of remote sensing products as guidance to emergency managers and first responders during field operations requires close coordination and communication with state-level decision makers, incident commanders and the leaders of individual strike teams. Information must be tailored to meet the needs of different emergency support functions and must contain current (ideally near real-time) data delivered in standard formats in time to influence decisions made under rapidly changing conditions. Since 2003, a representative of the University of Texas Center for Space Research (CSR) has served as a member of the Governor's Emergency Management Council and has directed the flow of information from remote sensing observations and high performance computing modeling and simulations to the Texas Division of Emergency Management in the State Operations Center. The CSR team has supported response and recovery missions resulting from hurricanes, tornadoes, flash floods, wildfires, oil spills and other natural and man-made disasters in Texas and surrounding states. Through web mapping services, state emergency managers and field teams have received threat model forecasts, real-time vehicle tracking displays and imagery to support search-and-clear operations before hurricane landfall, search-and-rescue missions following floods, tactical wildfire suppression, pollution monitoring and hazardous materials detection. Data servers provide near real-time satellite imagery collected by CSR's direct broadcast receiving system and post data products delivered during activations of the United Nations International Charter on Space and Major Disasters. In the aftermath of large-scale events, CSR is charged with tasking state aviation resources, including the Air National Guard and Texas Civil Air Patrol, to acquire geolocated aerial photography of the affected region for wide area damage assessment. A data archive for each disaster is available online for years following

  9. Shifts in stability and control effectiveness during evolution of Paraves support aerial maneuvering hypotheses for flight origins

    PubMed Central

    Cam, Sharlene; Huynh, Tony; Kwong, Austin; Mehrabani, Homayun; Tse, Kyle; Dudley, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The capacity for aerial maneuvering was likely a major influence on the evolution of flying animals. Here we evaluate consequences of paravian morphology for aerial performance by quantifying static stability and control effectiveness of physical models for numerous taxa sampled from within the lineage leading to birds (Paraves). Results of aerodynamic testing are mapped phylogenetically to examine how maneuvering characteristics correspond to tail shortening, forewing elaboration, and other morphological features. In the evolution of Paraves we observe shifts from static stability to inherently unstable aerial planforms; control effectiveness also migrated from tails to the forewings. These shifts suggest that a some degree of aerodynamic control and capacity for maneuvering preceded the evolution of a strong power stroke. The timing of shifts also suggests features normally considered in light of development of a power stroke may play important roles in control. PMID:25337460

  10. Structural safety of trams in case of misguidance in a switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, Christian; Schwickert, Martin; Simonis, Andreas

    2010-08-01

    Tram vehicles mainly operate on street tracks where sometimes misguidance in switches occurs due to unfavourable conditions. Generally, in this situation, the first running gear of the vehicle follows the bend track while the next running gears continue straight ahead. This leads to a constraint that can only be solved if the vehicle's articulation is damaged or the wheel derails. The last-mentioned situation is less critical in terms of safety and costs. Five different tram types, one of them high floor, the rest low floor, were examined analytically. Numerical simulation was used to determine which wheel would be the first to derail and what level of force is needed in the articulation area between two carbodies to make a tram derail. It was shown that with pure analytical simulation, only an idea of which tram type behaves better or worse in such a situation can be gained, while a three-dimensional computational simulation gives more realistic values for the forces that arise. Three of the four low-floor tram types need much higher articulation forces to make a wheel derail in a switch misguidance situation. One particular three-car type with two single-axle running gears underneath the centre car must be designed to withstand nearly three times higher articulation forces than a conventional high-floor articulated tram. Tram designers must be aware of that and should design the carbody accordingly.

  11. UPTF-TRAM experiments for SBLOCA: Evaluation of condensation processes in TRAM tests A6 and A7

    SciTech Connect

    Sonneburg, H.G.; Tuunanen, J.; Palazov, V.V.

    1995-09-01

    The investigation of thermal-hydraulic phenomena related to reactor transients with accident management measures is the goal of the TRansient and accident Management (TRAM) experimental programme being carried out at the Upper Plenum Test Facility (UPTF) at Mannheim (Germany). These experimental investigations and test analyses are funded by the German Federal Minister for Research and Technology (BMFT). The UPTF simulates these phenomena in a 1:1 such relative to the dimension of a PWR. Condensation of steam during Emergency Core Cooling (ECC) water injection from accumulators into the primary system is one of the phenomena studied within the accumulators into the primary system is one of the phenomena studied within the TRAM programme. This phenomenon partly controls the efficiency of accumulator injection if the high pressure safety systems fail. Beside this, the condensation within the nitrogen inside the accumulator for a certain period controls the pressure development inside the accumulator. Thus, both condensation phenomena determine the ECC flow rate delivered to the primary system. Concerning the condensation inside the primary system, this is also of safety relevance in the case of Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) during cold leg injection.

  12. Abdominal Closure after TRAM Flap Breast Reconstruction with Transversus Abdominis Muscle Release and Mesh

    PubMed Central

    Avendano-Peza, Héctor; Novitsky, Yuri W.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Breast reconstruction with a pedicled transverse rectus abdominis muscle (TRAM) flap can result in significant abdominal wall donor-site morbidity. Although the pedicled TRAM flap donor area reinforced with mesh results in decreased rates of postoperative abdominal bulging and hernias, the best technique to accomplish that is yet to be elucidated. We present our novel technique of posterior components separation with transversus abdominis muscle release and retromuscular mesh reinforcement for donor-area closure during pedicled TRAM flap breast reconstruction. PMID:27757337

  13. Application of a random effects negative binomial model to examine tram-involved crash frequency on route sections in Melbourne, Australia.

    PubMed

    Naznin, Farhana; Currie, Graham; Logan, David; Sarvi, Majid

    2016-07-01

    Safety is a key concern in the design, operation and development of light rail systems including trams or streetcars as they impose crash risks on road users in terms of crash frequency and severity. The aim of this study is to identify key traffic, transit and route factors that influence tram-involved crash frequencies along tram route sections in Melbourne. A random effects negative binomial (RENB) regression model was developed to analyze crash frequency data obtained from Yarra Trams, the tram operator in Melbourne. The RENB modelling approach can account for spatial and temporal variations within observation groups in panel count data structures by assuming that group specific effects are randomly distributed across locations. The results identify many significant factors effecting tram-involved crash frequency including tram service frequency (2.71), tram stop spacing (-0.42), tram route section length (0.31), tram signal priority (-0.25), general traffic volume (0.18), tram lane priority (-0.15) and ratio of platform tram stops (-0.09). Findings provide useful insights on route section level tram-involved crashes in an urban tram or streetcar operating environment. The method described represents a useful planning tool for transit agencies hoping to improve safety performance.

  14. Injuries Due to Wedging of Bicycle Wheels in On-road Tram Tracks

    PubMed Central

    Deunk, Jaap; Harmsen, Annelieke M. K.; Schonhuth, Casper P.; Bloemers, Frank W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In cities with trams as public transportation, tram tracks are often on public roads, creating a shared road situation with other road participants like cyclists. Beside the risk of direct collisions, this situation can also lead to bicycle wheels getting wedged in tram tracks, causing cyclists to fall. Objectives: The aim of this study was to gain more insight in the injury pattern of this trauma mechanism and to draw attention to the risks of the infrastructural situation with on-road tram tracks. Patients and Methods: A one-year, prospective, observational cohort study was conducted. All patients admitted after presentation to the emergency department of a level 1 trauma center, who got injured because their bicycle wheels got wedged in tram tracks, were included. Data were collected on patient demographics, type of injury and treatment. Results: Ten patients were included. Six were male. The mean age was 38 years. Six patients required surgery, mostly because of extremity injuries. Mean duration of admission was 4 days. Mean injury severity score was 13. One patient died as a result of the injuries sustained in the accident. Conclusions: Tram tracks on public roads are potentially dangerous and can lead to serious injuries and even mortality amongst cyclist. Operative intervention is frequently needed. PMID:25685751

  15. Obesity Should Not Prevent from TRAM Flap Breast Reconstruction in Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Alipour, Sadaf; Omranipour, Ramesh; Akrami, Rahim

    2015-12-01

    Transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap is the most common procedure performed for breast reconstruction after mastectomy for breast cancer. Obesity is a relative contraindication, and complex modifications have been proposed in the pedicled technique for obese patients. We studied ischemic complications in our patients to investigate the effect of body weight on the outcome of TRAM flap breast reconstruction. Pertinent data from medical records of patients receiving a TRAM flap surgery from 1986 to 2011 were extracted. Patients were divided into three groups based on the body mass index (BMI): normal (<25 kg/m(2)), overweight (25-29.9 kg/m(2)), and obese (>30 kg/m(2)). Flap necrosis is defined as any visible nonviable tissue in the reconstructed breast. It was observed that 117 patients had received TRAM flap reconstruction. Fifty-eight patients were excluded. Of the remaining 59 cases, 24 had normal BMI, 21 were overweight, and 14 were obese. No patient was found to develop flap necrosis. Outcome of TRAM flap breast reconstruction in obese patients is similar to nonobese patients. No major necrosis in need of reoperation was identified in the studied obese patients. It was concluded that categorizing obesity as a relative contraindication to TRAM flap breast reconstruction should be revisited based on larger cohort studies. PMID:26730022

  16. Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    John Hill, a pilot and commercial aerial photographer, needed an information base. He consulted NERAC and requested a search of the latest developments in camera optics. NERAC provided information; Hill contacted the manufacturers of camera equipment and reduced his photographic costs significantly.

  17. Towards Real-time, On-board, Hardware-Supported Sensor and Software Health Management for Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann; Rozier, Kristin Y.; Reinbacher, Thomas; Mengshoel, Ole J.; Mbaya, Timmy; Ippolito, Corey

    2013-01-01

    Unmanned aerial systems (UASs) can only be deployed if they can effectively complete their missions and respond to failures and uncertain environmental conditions while maintaining safety with respect to other aircraft as well as humans and property on the ground. In this paper, we design a real-time, on-board system health management (SHM) capability to continuously monitor sensors, software, and hardware components for detection and diagnosis of failures and violations of safety or performance rules during the flight of a UAS. Our approach to SHM is three-pronged, providing: (1) real-time monitoring of sensor and/or software signals; (2) signal analysis, preprocessing, and advanced on the- fly temporal and Bayesian probabilistic fault diagnosis; (3) an unobtrusive, lightweight, read-only, low-power realization using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) that avoids overburdening limited computing resources or costly re-certification of flight software due to instrumentation. Our implementation provides a novel approach of combining modular building blocks, integrating responsive runtime monitoring of temporal logic system safety requirements with model-based diagnosis and Bayesian network-based probabilistic analysis. We demonstrate this approach using actual data from the NASA Swift UAS, an experimental all-electric aircraft.

  18. Object Based Agricultural Land Cover Classification Map of Shadowed Areas from Aerial Image and LIDAR Data Using Support Vector Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberto, R. T.; Serrano, S. C.; Damian, G. B.; Camaso, E. E.; Celestino, A. B.; Hernando, P. J. C.; Isip, M. F.; Orge, K. M.; Quinto, M. J. C.; Tagaca, R. C.

    2016-06-01

    Aerial image and LiDAR data offers a great possibility for agricultural land cover mapping. Unfortunately, these images leads to shadowy pixels. Management of shadowed areas for classification without image enhancement were investigated. Image segmentation approach using three different segmentation scales were used and tested to segment the image for ground features since only the ground features are affected by shadow caused by tall features. The RGB band and intensity were the layers used for the segmentation having an equal weights. A segmentation scale of 25 was found to be the optimal scale that will best fit for the shadowed and non-shadowed area classification. The SVM using Radial Basis Function kernel was then applied to extract classes based on properties extracted from the Lidar data and orthophoto. Training points for different classes including shadowed areas were selected homogeneously from the orthophoto. Separate training points for shadowed areas were made to create additional classes to reduced misclassification. Texture classification and object-oriented classifiers have been examined to reduced heterogeneity problem. The accuracy of the land cover classification using 25 scale segmentation after accounting for the shadow detection and classification was significantly higher compared to higher scale of segmentation.

  19. OVERVIEW OF STAMP MILL SITE,LOOKING SOUTHWEST. THE LOWER TRAM TERMINAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF STAMP MILL SITE,LOOKING SOUTHWEST. THE LOWER TRAM TERMINAL IS OUT OF FRAME, JUST TO THE RIGHT. WATER TANK, LOADING PLATFORM, AND TRAM TRESTLE LEADING UP TO THE TRAM TERMINAL ARE AT RIGHT. THE STRUCTURE AT EXTREME RIGHT BELOW THE TRESTLE, ARE REMAINS OF A SECONDARY ORE BIN, WITH BALL MILL FOUNDATIONS AND WOOD DEBRIS JUST BELOW ON THE SECOND LEVEL. AT CENTER IS A BOILER AND THE FRAME WORK OF A FILTER PRESS. THE SMALL STRUCTURE AT CENTER LEFT IS AN INTERPRETIVE SIGN PLACED BY THE PARK SERVICE. AT LOWER LEFT, THIRD LEVEL OF THE MILL, ARE THE REMAINS OF A BLACKSMITH'S FORGE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  20. Measurement of the volume of the pedicled TRAM flap in immediate breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Chang, K P; Lin, S D; Hou, M F; Lee, S S; Tsai, C C

    2001-12-01

    The transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap is now accepted as the standard for breast reconstruction, but achieving symmetrical breast reconstruction is still a challenge. A precise estimate of the volume of the flap is necessary to reconstruct a symmetrical and aesthetically pleasing breast. Many methods have been developed to overcome this problem, but they have not been suitable for the pedicled TRAM flap. By using a self-made device based on the Archimedes' principle, the authors can calculate accurately the volume of the pedicled TRAM flap and predict reliably the breast volume intraoperatively. The "procedure" is based on a self-made box into which the pedicled TRAM flap is placed. Warm saline is added to the box and the flap is then removed. Flap volume is calculated easily by determining the difference between the preestimated volume of the box and the volume of the residual water. From February to May 2000, this method was used on 28 patients to predict breast volume for breast reconstruction. This study revealed that the difference of the maximal chest circumferences (the index of the breast volume) demonstrates a positive correlation with the difference of the volumes and weights between the mastectomy specimen and the net TRAM flap. However, a more closely positive correlation exists between the differences of maximal chest circumference volume (r = 0.677) than maximal chest circumference weight (r = 0.618). These data reveal that the reconstructed breast's volume has a closer relationship with the volume of the net pedicled TRAM flap, rather than with its weight. PMID:11756827

  1. DETAIL VIEW OF TRAM BUCKET FRAME, SHOWING CLAMPING MECHANISM,WITHOUT ORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF TRAM BUCKET FRAME, SHOWING CLAMPING MECHANISM,WITHOUT ORE BUCKET AND WHEELS. THE FRAME IS LYING ON ITS SIDE. THE ORE BUCKET WAS ATTACHED TO THE LEFT SIDE, AND TWO WHEELS WERE ATTACHED TO THE SPINDLE ON THE RIGHT. THE FRAME AND BUCKET ARE SUSPENDED FROM THE STATIONARY CABLE BY THE TWO WHEELS, WITH THE ORE BUCKET HANGING BELOW. THE WHEEL AND LEVER AT CENTER WERE ACTIVATED BY THE OPENING AND CLOSING MECHANISMS ON THE TRAM TERMINALS TO LOCK OR RELEASE THE BUCKET ONTO THE MOVING CABLE THAT RAN THROUGH THE SQUARE BLOCK AT CENTER. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  2. Activity of the Agrobacterium Ti plasmid conjugal transfer regulator TraR is inhibited by the product of the traM gene.

    PubMed Central

    Fuqua, C; Burbea, M; Winans, S C

    1995-01-01

    The Agrobacterium Ti plasmid tra regulon was previously found to be positively regulated by the TraR protein in the presence of a diffusible N-acyl homoserine lactone designated Agrobacterium autoinducer (AAI). TraR and AAI are similar to LuxR from Vibrio fischeri and the Vibrio autoinducer (VAI), which regulate target bioluminescence (lux) genes in a cell density-dependent manner. We now show that tra genes are also regulated by a second protein, designated TraM, which acts to antagonize TraR-dependent activation. The traM gene is closely linked to traR, and the two genes are transcribed convergently. The predicted TraM proteins of two different Ti plasmids are 77% identical but are not significantly similar to other protein sequences in the database, and thus TraM may represent a novel regulatory protein. Null mutations in traM cause strongly increased conjugation, tra gene transcription, and AAI production. A functional copy of traM introduced into traM mutants decreased conjugation, tra gene transcription, and AAI synthesis. TraM inhibits transcription of traA, traI, and traM. Although traM was first identified by its octopine-inducible promoter, we now show that induction by octopine requires traR, strongly suggesting that TraR is the direct traM activator. PMID:7868612

  3. Scientific Infrastructure To Support Manned And Unmanned Aircraft, Tethered Balloons, And Related Aerial Activities At Doe Arm Facilities On The North Slope Of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivey, M.; Dexheimer, D.; Hardesty, J.; Lucero, D. A.; Helsel, F.

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), through its scientific user facility, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) facilities, provides scientific infrastructure and data to the international Arctic research community via its research sites located on the North Slope of Alaska. DOE has recently invested in improvements to facilities and infrastructure to support operations of unmanned aerial systems for science missions in the Arctic and North Slope of Alaska. A new ground facility, the Third ARM Mobile Facility, was installed at Oliktok Point Alaska in 2013. Tethered instrumented balloons were used to make measurements of clouds in the boundary layer including mixed-phase clouds. A new Special Use Airspace was granted to DOE in 2015 to support science missions in international airspace in the Arctic. Warning Area W-220 is managed by Sandia National Laboratories for DOE Office of Science/BER. W-220 was successfully used for the first time in July 2015 in conjunction with Restricted Area R-2204 and a connecting Altitude Reservation Corridor (ALTRV) to permit unmanned aircraft to operate north of Oliktok Point. Small unmanned aircraft (DataHawks) and tethered balloons were flown at Oliktok during the summer and fall of 2015. This poster will discuss how principal investigators may apply for use of these Special Use Airspaces, acquire data from the Third ARM Mobile Facility, or bring their own instrumentation for deployment at Oliktok Point, Alaska. The printed poster will include the standard DOE funding statement.

  4. Tram-Track Suture Technique for Pupillary Capture of a Scleral Fixated Intraocular Lens

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung In; Kim, Kiseok

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To report a new technique using tram-track suture for pupillary capture of a scleral fixated posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC-IOL) to reposition the tilted IOL. Methods In this prospective interventional case series, we describe a tram-track suture for pupillary capture of a scleral fixated PC-IOL. A long straight needle with double-armed 10-0 polypropylene is passed behind the iris and just above the optic portion (tilted forward) of the IOL. The other straight needle with double-armed 10-0 polypropylene is passed just below the optic portion (tilted backward) of the IOL. After the IOL is repositioned properly, the polypropylene sutures are gently pulled and tied. Results Four eyes of 4 patients underwent tram-track suture for pupillary capture of a scleral fixated PC-IOL. No intra- or postoperative complications were noted, and no pupillary captures were detected during the follow-up period. Conclusions The tram-track suture technique provides good centration and stability of a PC-IOL. This technique is an easy and effective way to reposition pupillary capture of an IOL. Further, it is also minimally invasive as it maintains a closed system. PMID:27462257

  5. DETAIL OVERHEAD VIEW OF SECONDARY ORE BIN. CONVEYOR PLATFORM,TRAM TRESTLE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OVERHEAD VIEW OF SECONDARY ORE BIN. CONVEYOR PLATFORM,TRAM TRESTLE, AND LOADING PLATFORM. LOOKING SOUTHWEST. THE HOLE IN THE ORE BIN FLOOR CAN BE SEEN, AND BALL MILL FOUNDATION AT LOWER LEFT CORNER. SEE CA-291-47(CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  6. Preoperative TRAM free flap volume estimation for breast reconstruction in lean patients.

    PubMed

    Minn, Kyung Won; Hong, Ki Yong; Lee, Sang Woo

    2010-04-01

    To obtain pleasing symmetry in breast reconstruction with transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) free flap, a large amount of abdominal flap is elevated and remnant tissue is trimmed in most cases. However, elevation of abundant abdominal flap can cause excessive tension in donor site closure and increase the possibility of hypertrophic scarring especially in lean patients. The TRAM flap was divided into 4 zones in routine manner; the depth and dimension of the 4 zones were obtained using ultrasound and AutoCAD (Autodesk Inc., San Rafael, CA), respectively. The acquired numbers were then multiplied to obtain an estimate of volume of each zone and the each zone volume was added. To confirm the relation between the estimated volume and the actual volume, authors compared intraoperative actual TRAM flap volumes with preoperative estimated volumes in 30 consecutive TRAM free flap breast reconstructions. The estimated volumes and the actual elevated volumes of flap were found to be correlated by regression analysis (r = 0.9258, P < 0.01). According to this result, we could confirm the reliability of the preoperative volume estimation using our method. Afterward, the authors applied this method to 7 lean patients by estimation and revision of the design and obtained symmetric results with minimal donor site morbidity. Preoperative estimation of TRAM flap volume with ultrasound and AutoCAD (Autodesk Inc.) allow the authors to attain the precise volume desired for elevation. This method provides advantages in terms of minimal flap trimming, easier closure of donor sites, reduced scar widening and symmetry, especially in lean patients.

  7. Urban air quality comparison for bus, tram, subway and pedestrian commutes in Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Teresa; Reche, Cristina; Rivas, Ioar; Cruz Minguillón, Maria; Martins, Vânia; Vargas, Concepción; Buonanno, Giorgio; Parga, Jesus; Pandolfi, Marco; Brines, Mariola; Ealo, Marina; Sofia Fonseca, Ana; Amato, Fulvio; Sosa, Garay; Capdevila, Marta; de Miguel, Eladio; Querol, Xavier; Gibbons, Wes

    2015-10-01

    Access to detailed comparisons in air quality variations encountered when commuting through a city offers the urban traveller more informed choice on how to minimise personal exposure to inhalable pollutants. In this study we report on an experiment designed to compare atmospheric contaminants inhaled during bus, subway train, tram and walking journeys through the city of Barcelona. Average number concentrations of particles 10-300 nm in size, N, are lowest in the commute using subway trains (N<2.5×10(4) part. cm(-3)), higher during tram travel and suburban walking (2.5×10(4) cm(-3)5.0×10(4) cm(-3)), with extreme transient peaks at busy traffic crossings commonly exceeding 1.0×10(5) cm(-3) and accompanied by peaks in Black Carbon and CO. Subway particles are coarser (mode 90 nm) than in buses, trams or outdoors (<70 nm), and concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and Black Carbon are lower in the tram when compared to both bus and subway. CO2 levels in public transport reflect passenger numbers, more than tripling from outdoor levels to >1200 ppm in crowded buses and trains. There are also striking differences in inhalable particle chemistry depending on the route chosen, ranging from aluminosiliceous at roadsides and near pavement works, ferruginous with enhanced Mn, Co, Zn, Sr and Ba in the subway environment, and higher levels of Sb and Cu inside the bus. We graphically display such chemical variations using a ternary diagram to emphasise how "air quality" in the city involves a consideration of both physical and chemical parameters, and is not simply a question of measuring particle number or mass. PMID:26277386

  8. Urban air quality comparison for bus, tram, subway and pedestrian commutes in Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Teresa; Reche, Cristina; Rivas, Ioar; Cruz Minguillón, Maria; Martins, Vânia; Vargas, Concepción; Buonanno, Giorgio; Parga, Jesus; Pandolfi, Marco; Brines, Mariola; Ealo, Marina; Sofia Fonseca, Ana; Amato, Fulvio; Sosa, Garay; Capdevila, Marta; de Miguel, Eladio; Querol, Xavier; Gibbons, Wes

    2015-10-01

    Access to detailed comparisons in air quality variations encountered when commuting through a city offers the urban traveller more informed choice on how to minimise personal exposure to inhalable pollutants. In this study we report on an experiment designed to compare atmospheric contaminants inhaled during bus, subway train, tram and walking journeys through the city of Barcelona. Average number concentrations of particles 10-300 nm in size, N, are lowest in the commute using subway trains (N<2.5×10(4) part. cm(-3)), higher during tram travel and suburban walking (2.5×10(4) cm(-3)5.0×10(4) cm(-3)), with extreme transient peaks at busy traffic crossings commonly exceeding 1.0×10(5) cm(-3) and accompanied by peaks in Black Carbon and CO. Subway particles are coarser (mode 90 nm) than in buses, trams or outdoors (<70 nm), and concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and Black Carbon are lower in the tram when compared to both bus and subway. CO2 levels in public transport reflect passenger numbers, more than tripling from outdoor levels to >1200 ppm in crowded buses and trains. There are also striking differences in inhalable particle chemistry depending on the route chosen, ranging from aluminosiliceous at roadsides and near pavement works, ferruginous with enhanced Mn, Co, Zn, Sr and Ba in the subway environment, and higher levels of Sb and Cu inside the bus. We graphically display such chemical variations using a ternary diagram to emphasise how "air quality" in the city involves a consideration of both physical and chemical parameters, and is not simply a question of measuring particle number or mass.

  9. StarTram: An Ultra Low Cost Launch System to Enable Large Scale Exploration of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, James; Maise, George; Paniagua, John

    2006-01-01

    StarTram is a new approach for low launch to space using Maglev technology. Spacecraft are magnetically levitated and accelerated without propellants to orbital speeds in an evacuated tunnel at ground level using only electrical energy. The cost of the electric energy for acceleration to 8 kilometers per second is only 60 cents per kilogram of payload. After reaching orbital speed, the StarTram spacecraft coast upwards inside an evacuated levitated launch tube to an altitude, of 10 kilometers or more, where they enter the low-pressure ambient atmosphere. The launch tube is magnetically levitated by the repulsive force between a set of high current superconducting cables on it and oppositely directed currents in a set of superconducting cables on the ground beneath. High strength Kevlar tethers anchor the launch tube against crosswinds and prevent it from moving laterally or vertically. A Magneto Hydro Dynamic (MHD) pump at the exit of the evacuated launch tube prevents air from entering the tube. Two StarTram systems are described, a high G (30G) system for cargo only launch and a moderate G (2.5 G) system for passenger/cargo spacecraft. StarTram's projected unit cost is $30 per kilogram of payload launched, including operating and amortization costs. A single StarTram facility could launch more than 100,000 tons of cargo per year and many thousands of passengers. StarTram would use existing superconductors and materials, together with Maglev technology similar to that now operating. The StarTram cargo launch system could be implemented by 2020 AD and the passenger system by 2030 AD.

  10. Inhibition of vascular calcification by block of intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channels with TRAM-34.

    PubMed

    Freise, Christian; Querfeld, Uwe

    2014-07-01

    Vascular calcifications are a hallmark of advanced cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease. A key event is the transition of contractile vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) into an osteoblast-like phenotype, promoting a coordinated process of vascular remodeling resembling bone mineralization. Intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (KCa3.1) are expressed in various tissues including VSMC. Aiming for novel therapeutic targets in vascular calcification, we here studied effects of KCa3.1-inhibition on VSMC calcification by the specific KCa3.1 inhibitor TRAM-34. Calcification in the murine VSMC cell line MOVAS-1 and primary rat VSMC was induced by calcification medium (CM) containing elevated levels of PO4(3-) and Ca(2+). Cell signaling, calcification markers, and release of nitric oxide and alkaline phosphatase were assessed by luciferase reporter plasmids, RT-PCR and specific enzymatic assays, respectively. KCa3.1 gene silencing was achieved by siRNA experiments. TRAM-34 at 10nmol/l, decreased CM-induced calcification and induced NO release of VSMC accompanied by decreased TGF-β signaling. The CM-induced mRNA expressions of osterix, osteocalcin, matrix-metalloproteinases (MMP)-2/-9 were reduced by TRAM-34 while osteopontin expression was increased. Further, TRAM-34 attenuated the CM- and TNF-α-induced activation of NF-κB and reduced the release of MMP-2/-9 by VSMC. Finally, TRAM-34 abrogated CM-induced apoptosis and KCa3.1 gene silencing protected VSMC from CM-induced onset of calcification. In summary, TRAM-34 interferes with calcification relevant signaling of NF-κB and TGF-β thereby blocking the phenotypic transition/calcification of VSMC. We conclude that the results provide a rationale for further studies regarding a possible therapeutic role of KCa3.1 inhibition by TRAM-34 or other inhibitors in vascular calcification.

  11. Aerial radiation surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Jobst, J.

    1980-01-01

    A recent aerial radiation survey of the surroundings of the Vitro mill in Salt Lake City shows that uranium mill tailings have been removed to many locations outside their original boundary. To date, 52 remote sites have been discovered within a 100 square kilometer aerial survey perimeter surrounding the mill; 9 of these were discovered with the recent aerial survey map. Five additional sites, also discovered by aerial survey, contained uranium ore, milling equipment, or radioactive slag. Because of the success of this survey, plans are being made to extend the aerial survey program to other parts of the Salt Lake valley where diversions of Vitro tailings are also known to exist.

  12. Breast reconstruction with single-pedicle TRAM flap in breast cancer patients with low midline abdominal scar

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jun-Dong; Huang, Wen-He; Qiu, Si-Qi; He, Li-Fang; Guo, Cui-Ping; Zhang, Yong-Qu; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Guo-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Breast reconstruction with transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap is challenging in patients with low midline abdominal scar. In this study, we aimed to investigate the clinical feasibility of immediate breast reconstruction using single-pedicle TRAM (SP-TRAM) flaps in patients with low midline abdominal scar. There were 4 strict selection criteria: 1) presence at least 3 perforators on the pedicle side; 2) perforators with regional average flow velocity of >20 cm/s; 3) upper edge of the abdominal scar at least 4 cm from the umbilicus; and 4) scar age >1 year. Eight breast cancer patients with low midline abdominal scar (scar group) and 20 without (control group) underwent immediate breast reconstruction with SP-TRAM flaps consisting of zone I and III and zone II tissues. Flap complications, donor-site complications, and cosmetic results were compared between the two groups. All flaps survived and both groups presented similar flap and donor site complications, including fat necrosis, seroma, hematoma, infection, delayed wound healing, and abdominal hernia, and patients in both groups had similar aesthetic results (p > 0.05). Thus, the study demonstrated that breast reconstruction using SP-TRAM flap was a safe approach in carefully selected patients with low midline abdominal scar. PMID:27406872

  13. StarTram: Ultra Low Cost Launch For Large Space Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, J.; Maise, G.; Paniagua, J.

    2004-02-01

    The StarTram Maglev system can launch hundreds of thousands of tons of cargo per year to orbit (~1000 times present capability) plus many thousands of passengers. The launch cost is only $30/kilogram of cargo, ~ 1/300 th of present cost. Magnetically levitated spacecraft accelerate to >=8 km/see in an evacuated ground tunnel using superconducting (SC) Maglev technology now operating in Japan for high speed trains. No propellant is used; energy from the electrical grid costs $0.50 per kg of launch weight. After reaching orbital speed, the levitated craft ascend in a curving evacuated launch tube that is magnetically levitated above Earth's surface by the repulsion force between SC cables attached to it and an opposing set of SC cables on the surface. The levitation force is 4 tons/meter of tube length at 20 km altitude, and exceeds the tube weight. High strength Kevlar tethers to the ground prevent vertical and lateral motion. Craft enter the atmosphere at 20 km through an open exit that prevents in-leakage of low density air by high speed gas ejectors and an MHD (Magnetic Hydro Dynamic) pump, and coast to apogee, where a small V burn (~500 m/s) establishes orbit. Deceleration as it enters the atmosphere at 20 km is modest, ~1 g. Peak heating is ~5 KW/cm2 for times of a few seconds before the craft reaches space. The technology for StarTram-C now exists, and no breakthroughs in materials are required. Two possible StarTram systems are compared, one for cargo only, and the second for both passengers and cargo.

  14. Aerial Image Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, Robert E.

    1987-09-01

    Aerial images produce the best stereoscopic images of the viewed world. Despite the fact that every optic in existence produces an aerial image, few persons are aware of their existence and possible uses. Constant reference to the eye and other optical systems have produced a psychosis of design that only considers "focal planes" in the design and analysis of optical systems. All objects in the field of view of the optical device are imaged by the device as an aerial image. Use of aerial images in vision and visual display systems can provide a true stereoscopic representation of the viewed world. This paper discusses aerial image systems - their applications and designs and presents designs and design concepts that utilize aerial images to obtain superior visual displays, particularly with application to visual simulation.

  15. 11. Photocopy of aerial photograph (original aerial located in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photocopy of aerial photograph (original aerial located in the U.S. Forest Service, Toiyabe National Forest, Carson District Office). AERIAL VIEW OF THE GENOA PEAK ROAD, SPUR. - Genoa Peak Road, Spur, Glenbrook, Douglas County, NV

  16. Tiltrotor Aeroacoustic Code (TRAC) Prediction Assessment and Initial Comparisons with Tram Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Casey L.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Charles, Bruce D.; McCluer, Megan

    1999-01-01

    A prediction sensitivity assessment to inputs and blade modeling is presented for the TiltRotor Aeroacoustic Code (TRAC). For this study, the non-CFD prediction system option in TRAC is used. Here, the comprehensive rotorcraft code, CAMRAD.Mod1, coupled with the high-resolution sectional loads code HIRES, predicts unsteady blade loads to be used in the noise prediction code WOPWOP. The sensitivity of the predicted blade motions, blade airloads, wake geometry, and acoustics is examined with respect to rotor rpm, blade twist and chord, and to blade dynamic modeling. To accomplish this assessment, an interim input-deck for the TRAM test model and an input-deck for a reference test model are utilized in both rigid and elastic modes. Both of these test models are regarded as near scale models of the V-22 proprotor (tiltrotor). With basic TRAC sensitivities established, initial TRAC predictions are compared to results of an extensive test of an isolated model proprotor. The test was that of the TiltRotor Aeroacoustic Model (TRAM) conducted in the Duits-Nederlandse Windtunnel (DNW). Predictions are compared to measured noise for the proprotor operating over an extensive range of conditions. The variation of predictions demonstrates the great care that must be taken in defining the blade motion. However, even with this variability, the predictions using the different blade modeling successfully capture (bracket) the levels and trends of the noise for conditions ranging from descent to ascent.

  17. Technique for Minimizing Donor-site Morbidity after Pedicled TRAM-Flap Breast Reconstruction: Outcomes by a Single Surgeon’s Experience

    PubMed Central

    Rietjens, Mario; De Lorenzi, Francesca; Andrea, Manconi; Petit, Jean-Yves; Hamza, Alaa; Martella, Stefano; Barbieri, Benedetta; Gottardi, Alessandra; Giuseppe, Lomeo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Breast reconstruction with pedicled transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap can result in significant abdominal wall donor-site morbidity. We present our technique of transversely dividing the anterior fascia and rectus abdominis combined with reinforcement above the arcuate line for closure of the anterior abdominal wall defect to prevent contour deformities performed by a single senior surgeon and compare these results with those of our prior series. Methods: We described our new technique of closure of the abdominal wall defect and retrospectively performed the comparison between the results of pedicled TRAM flaps using the new closure technique and those of 420 pedicled TRAM flaps from our 2003 publication in terms of abdominal bulging and hernia. Results: Sixty-seven pedicled TRAM flaps in 65 patients were compared with 420 pedicled TRAM flaps of the 2003 series. The new technique was associated with 5 partial TRAM flap necroses (8%). There was no total flap loss with the new technique. The median follow-up period was 13 months (range, 4–36 months). There were no instances of abdominal hernia and bulge during follow-up in the new series. Compared with the previous 2003 series, the new technique was superior in terms of occurrence of abdominal wall hernia or bulging. Conclusions: We are still performing pedicled TRAM flap for autologous breast reconstruction. Using the technique of transversely dividing the anterior fascia and rectus abdominis combined with reinforcement above the arcuate line can reduce the occurrence of abdominal bulging and hernia. PMID:26495189

  18. Aerial photographic reproductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1975-01-01

    The National Cartographic Information Center of the U.S. Geological Survey maintains records of aerial photographic coverage of the United States and its Territories, based on reports from other Federal agencies as well as State governmental agencies and commercial companies. From these records, the Center furnishes data to prospective purchasers on available photography and the agency holding the aerial film.

  19. 30 CFR 75.829 - Tramming continuous mining machines in and out of the mine and from section to section.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Meet all applicable requirements for medium-voltage circuits in 30 CFR 75. ER06AP10.002 (2) Step-up... supplying low or medium voltage to the step-up transformer must meet the applicable requirements of 30 CFR... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tramming continuous mining machines in and...

  20. 30 CFR 75.829 - Tramming continuous mining machines in and out of the mine and from section to section.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Meet all applicable requirements for medium-voltage circuits in 30 CFR 75. ER06AP10.002 (2) Step-up... supplying low or medium voltage to the step-up transformer must meet the applicable requirements of 30 CFR... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tramming continuous mining machines in and...

  1. 30 CFR 75.829 - Tramming continuous mining machines in and out of the mine and from section to section.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Meet all applicable requirements for medium-voltage circuits in 30 CFR 75. ER06AP10.002 (2) Step-up... supplying low or medium voltage to the step-up transformer must meet the applicable requirements of 30 CFR... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tramming continuous mining machines in and...

  2. 30 CFR 75.829 - Tramming continuous mining machines in and out of the mine and from section to section.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Meet all applicable requirements for medium-voltage circuits in 30 CFR 75. ER06AP10.002 (2) Step-up... supplying low or medium voltage to the step-up transformer must meet the applicable requirements of 30 CFR... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tramming continuous mining machines in and...

  3. 30 CFR 75.829 - Tramming continuous mining machines in and out of the mine and from section to section.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Meet all applicable requirements for medium-voltage circuits in 30 CFR 75. ER06AP10.002 (2) Step-up... supplying low or medium voltage to the step-up transformer must meet the applicable requirements of 30 CFR... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tramming continuous mining machines in and...

  4. Safety impacts of platform tram stops on pedestrians in mixed traffic operation: A comparison group before-after crash study.

    PubMed

    Naznin, Farhana; Currie, Graham; Logan, David; Sarvi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Tram stops in mixed traffic environments present a variety of safety, accessibility and transport efficiency challenges. In Melbourne, Australia the hundred year-old electric tram system is progressively being modernized to improve passenger accessibility. Platform stops, incorporating raised platforms for level entry into low floor trams, are being retro-fitted system-wide to replace older design stops. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety impacts of platform stops over older design stops (i.e. Melbourne safety zone tram stops) on pedestrians in the context of mixed traffic tram operation in Melbourne, using an advanced before-after crash analysis approach, the comparison group (CG) method. The CG method evaluates safety impacts by taking into account the general trends in safety and the unobserved factors at treatment and comparison sites that can alter the outcomes of a simple before-after analysis. The results showed that pedestrian-involved all injury crashes reduced by 43% after platform stop installation. This paper also explores a concern that the conventional CG method might underestimate safety impacts as a result of large differences in passenger stop use between treatment and comparison sites, suggesting differences in crash risk exposure. To adjust for this, a modified analysis explored crash rates (crash counts per 10,000 stop passengers) for each site. The adjusted results suggested greater reductions in pedestrian-involved crashes after platform stop installation: an 81% reduction in pedestrian-involved all injury crashes and 86% reduction in pedestrian-involved FSI crashes, both are significant at the 95% level. Overall, the results suggest that platform stops have considerable safety benefits for pedestrians. Implications for policy and areas for future research are explored. PMID:26476596

  5. Validation of the METEOSAT storm detection and nowcasting system Cb-TRAM with lightning network data - Europe and South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinner, T.; Forster, C.; de Coning, E.; Betz, H.-D.

    2013-02-01

    In this manuscript, recent changes to the DLR METEOSAT thunderstorm TRacking And Monitoring algorithm (Cb-TRAM) are presented as well as a validation of Cb-TRAM against the European ground-based LIghtning NETwork data (LINET) of Nowcast GmbH and Lightning Detection Network (LDN) data of the South African Weather Service (SAWS). The validation is conducted along the well known skill scores probability of detection (POD) and false alarm ratio (FAR) on the basis of METEOSAT/SEVIRI pixels as well as on the basis of thunderstorm objects. The values obtained demonstrate the limits of Cb-TRAM in specific as well as the limits of satellite methods in general which are based on thermal emission and solar reflectivity information from thunderstorm tops. Although the climatic conditions and the occurence of thunderstorms is quite different for Europe and South Africa, the quality score values are similar. Our conclusion is that Cb-TRAM provides robust results of well-defined quality for very different climatic regimes. The POD for a thunderstorm with intense lightning is about 80% during the day. The FAR for a Cb-TRAM detected thunderstorm which is not at least close to intense lightning activity is about 50%; if the proximity to any lightning activity is evaluated the FAR is even much lower at about 15%. Pixel-based analysis shows that the detected thunderstorm object size is not indiscriminately large, but well within the physical limitations of the method. Nighttime POD and FAR are somewhat worse as the detection scheme can not use high resolution visible information. Nowcasting scores show useful values up to approximatelly 30 min.

  6. Validation of the Meteosat storm detection and nowcasting system Cb-TRAM with lightning network data - Europe and South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinner, T.; Forster, C.; de Coning, E.; Betz, H.-D.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, recent changes to the Meteosat thunderstorm TRacking And Monitoring algorithm (Cb-TRAM) are presented as well as a validation of Cb-TRAM against data from the European ground-based LIghtning NETwork (LINET) of Nowcast GmbH and the South African Weather Service Lightning Detection Network (SAWS LDN). Validation is conducted along the well-known skill measures probability of detection (POD) and false alarm ratio (FAR) on the basis of Meteosat/SEVIRI pixels as well as on the basis of thunderstorm objects. The values obtained demonstrate specific limitations of Cb-TRAM, as well as limitations of satellite methods in general which are based on thermal emission and solar reflectivity information from thunderstorm cloud tops. Although the climatic conditions and the occurrence of thunderstorms are quite different for Europe and South Africa, quality score values are similar. Our conclusion is that Cb-TRAM provides robust results of well-defined quality for very different climatic regimes. The POD for a thunderstorm with intense lightning is about 80% during the day. The FAR for a Cb-TRAM detection which is not even close to intense lightning is about 50%. If only proximity to any lightning activity is required, FAR is much lower at about 15%. Pixel-based analysis shows that detected thunderstorm object size is not indiscriminately large, but well within physical limitations of the satellite method. Night-time POD and FAR are somewhat worse as the detection scheme does not use the high-resolution visible information during night-time hours. Nowcasting scores show useful values up to approximately 30 min in advance.

  7. Modeling aerial refueling operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Allen B., III

    Aerial Refueling (AR) is the act of offloading fuel from one aircraft (the tanker) to another aircraft (the receiver) in mid flight. Meetings between tanker and receiver aircraft are referred to as AR events and are scheduled to: escort one or more receivers across a large body of water; refuel one or more receivers; or train receiver pilots, tanker pilots, and boom operators. In order to efficiently execute the Aerial Refueling Mission, the Air Mobility Command (AMC) of the United States Air Force (USAF) depends on computer models to help it make tanker basing decisions, plan tanker sorties, schedule aircraft, develop new organizational doctrines, and influence policy. We have worked on three projects that have helped AMC improve its modeling and decision making capabilities. Optimal Flight Planning. Currently Air Mobility simulation and optimization software packages depend on algorithms which iterate over three dimensional fuel flow tables to compute aircraft fuel consumption under changing flight conditions. When a high degree of fidelity is required, these algorithms use a large amount of memory and CPU time. We have modeled the rate of aircraft fuel consumption with respect to AC GrossWeight, Altitude and Airspeed. When implemented, this formula will decrease the amount of memory and CPU time needed to compute sortie fuel costs and cargo capacity values. We have also shown how this formula can be used in optimal control problems to find minimum costs flight plans. Tanker Basing Demand Mismatch Index. Since 1992, AMC has relied on a Tanker Basing/AR Demand Mismatch Index which aggregates tanker capacity and AR demand data into six regions. This index was criticized because there were large gradients along regional boundaries. Meanwhile tankers frequently cross regional boundaries to satisfy the demand for AR support. In response we developed continuous functions to score locations with respect to their proximity to demand for AR support as well as their

  8. TRAM (Transcriptome Mapper): database-driven creation and analysis of transcriptome maps from multiple sources

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several tools have been developed to perform global gene expression profile data analysis, to search for specific chromosomal regions whose features meet defined criteria as well as to study neighbouring gene expression. However, most of these tools are tailored for a specific use in a particular context (e.g. they are species-specific, or limited to a particular data format) and they typically accept only gene lists as input. Results TRAM (Transcriptome Mapper) is a new general tool that allows the simple generation and analysis of quantitative transcriptome maps, starting from any source listing gene expression values for a given gene set (e.g. expression microarrays), implemented as a relational database. It includes a parser able to assign univocal and updated gene symbols to gene identifiers from different data sources. Moreover, TRAM is able to perform intra-sample and inter-sample data normalization, including an original variant of quantile normalization (scaled quantile), useful to normalize data from platforms with highly different numbers of investigated genes. When in 'Map' mode, the software generates a quantitative representation of the transcriptome of a sample (or of a pool of samples) and identifies if segments of defined lengths are over/under-expressed compared to the desired threshold. When in 'Cluster' mode, the software searches for a set of over/under-expressed consecutive genes. Statistical significance for all results is calculated with respect to genes localized on the same chromosome or to all genome genes. Transcriptome maps, showing differential expression between two sample groups, relative to two different biological conditions, may be easily generated. We present the results of a biological model test, based on a meta-analysis comparison between a sample pool of human CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells and a sample pool of megakaryocytic cells. Biologically relevant chromosomal segments and gene clusters with

  9. Measurement and analysis of electromagnetic fields from trams, trains and hybrid cars.

    PubMed

    Halgamuge, Malka N; Abeyrathne, Chathurika D; Mendis, Priyan

    2010-10-01

    Electricity is used substantially and sources of electric and magnetic fields are, unavoidably, everywhere. The transportation system is a source of these fields, to which a large proportion of the population is exposed. Hence, investigation of the effects of long-term exposure of the general public to low-frequency electromagnetic fields caused by the transportation system is critically important. In this study, measurements of electric and magnetic fields emitted from Australian trams, trains and hybrid cars were investigated. These measurements were carried out under different conditions, locations, and are summarised in this article. A few of the measured electric and magnetic field strengths were significantly lower than those found in prior studies. These results seem to be compatible with the evidence of the laboratory studies on the biological effects that are found in the literature, although they are far lower than international levels, such as those set up in the International Commission on Non-Ionising Radiation Protection guidelines.

  10. Measurement and analysis of electromagnetic fields from trams, trains and hybrid cars.

    PubMed

    Halgamuge, Malka N; Abeyrathne, Chathurika D; Mendis, Priyan

    2010-10-01

    Electricity is used substantially and sources of electric and magnetic fields are, unavoidably, everywhere. The transportation system is a source of these fields, to which a large proportion of the population is exposed. Hence, investigation of the effects of long-term exposure of the general public to low-frequency electromagnetic fields caused by the transportation system is critically important. In this study, measurements of electric and magnetic fields emitted from Australian trams, trains and hybrid cars were investigated. These measurements were carried out under different conditions, locations, and are summarised in this article. A few of the measured electric and magnetic field strengths were significantly lower than those found in prior studies. These results seem to be compatible with the evidence of the laboratory studies on the biological effects that are found in the literature, although they are far lower than international levels, such as those set up in the International Commission on Non-Ionising Radiation Protection guidelines. PMID:20554578

  11. Calculation of the Aerodynamic Behavior of the Tilt Rotor Aeroacoustic Model (TRAM) in the DNW

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2001-01-01

    Comparisons of measured and calculated aerodynamic behavior of a tiltrotor model are presented. The test of the Tilt Rotor Aeroacoustic Model (TRAM) with a single, 1/4-scale V- 22 rotor in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW) provides an extensive set of aeroacoustic, performance, and structural loads data. The calculations were performed using the rotorcraft comprehensive analysis CAMRAD II. Presented are comparisons of measured and calculated performance and airloads for helicopter mode operation, as well as calculated induced and profile power. An aerodynamic and wake model and calculation procedure that reflects the unique geometry and phenomena of tiltrotors has been developed. There are major differences between this model and the corresponding aerodynamic and wake model that has been established for helicopter rotors. In general, good correlation between measured and calculated performance and airloads behavior has been shown. Two aspects of the analysis that clearly need improvement are the stall delay model and the trailed vortex formation model.

  12. A Novel Tram Stent Method in the Treatment of Coronary Bifurcation Lesions – Finite Element Study

    PubMed Central

    Arokiaraj, Mark C.; De Santis, Gianluca; De Beule, Matthieu; Palacios, Igor F.

    2016-01-01

    A novel stent was designed for the treatment of coronary bifurcation lesion, and it was investigated for its performance by finite element analysis. This study was performed in search of a novel method of treatment of bifurcation lesion with provisional stenting. A bifurcation model was created with the proximal vessel of 3.2 mm diameter, and the distal vessel after the side branch (2.3 mm) was 2.7 mm. A novel stent was designed with connection links that had a profile of a tram. Laser cutting and shape setting of the stent was performed, and thereafter it was crimped and deployed over a balloon. The contact pressure, stresses on the arterial wall, stresses on the stent, the maximal principal log strain of the main artery and the side-branch were studied. The study was performed in Abaqus, Simulia. The stresses on the main branch and the distal branch were minimally increased after deployment of this novel stent. The side branch was preserved, and the stresses on the side branch were lesser; and at the confluence of bifurcation on either side of the side branch origin the von-Mises stress was marginally increased. The stresses and strain at the bifurcation were significantly lesser than the stresses and strain of the currently existing techniques used in the treatment of bifurcation lesions though the study was primarily focused only on the utility of the new technology. There is a potential for a novel Tram-stent method in the treatment of coronary bifurcation lesions. PMID:26937643

  13. A Novel Tram Stent Method in the Treatment of Coronary Bifurcation Lesions - Finite Element Study.

    PubMed

    Arokiaraj, Mark C; De Santis, Gianluca; De Beule, Matthieu; Palacios, Igor F

    2016-01-01

    A novel stent was designed for the treatment of coronary bifurcation lesion, and it was investigated for its performance by finite element analysis. This study was performed in search of a novel method of treatment of bifurcation lesion with provisional stenting. A bifurcation model was created with the proximal vessel of 3.2 mm diameter, and the distal vessel after the side branch (2.3 mm) was 2.7 mm. A novel stent was designed with connection links that had a profile of a tram. Laser cutting and shape setting of the stent was performed, and thereafter it was crimped and deployed over a balloon. The contact pressure, stresses on the arterial wall, stresses on the stent, the maximal principal log strain of the main artery and the side-branch were studied. The study was performed in Abaqus, Simulia. The stresses on the main branch and the distal branch were minimally increased after deployment of this novel stent. The side branch was preserved, and the stresses on the side branch were lesser; and at the confluence of bifurcation on either side of the side branch origin the von-Mises stress was marginally increased. The stresses and strain at the bifurcation were significantly lesser than the stresses and strain of the currently existing techniques used in the treatment of bifurcation lesions though the study was primarily focused only on the utility of the new technology. There is a potential for a novel Tram-stent method in the treatment of coronary bifurcation lesions. PMID:26937643

  14. A Novel Tram Stent Method in the Treatment of Coronary Bifurcation Lesions - Finite Element Study.

    PubMed

    Arokiaraj, Mark C; De Santis, Gianluca; De Beule, Matthieu; Palacios, Igor F

    2016-01-01

    A novel stent was designed for the treatment of coronary bifurcation lesion, and it was investigated for its performance by finite element analysis. This study was performed in search of a novel method of treatment of bifurcation lesion with provisional stenting. A bifurcation model was created with the proximal vessel of 3.2 mm diameter, and the distal vessel after the side branch (2.3 mm) was 2.7 mm. A novel stent was designed with connection links that had a profile of a tram. Laser cutting and shape setting of the stent was performed, and thereafter it was crimped and deployed over a balloon. The contact pressure, stresses on the arterial wall, stresses on the stent, the maximal principal log strain of the main artery and the side-branch were studied. The study was performed in Abaqus, Simulia. The stresses on the main branch and the distal branch were minimally increased after deployment of this novel stent. The side branch was preserved, and the stresses on the side branch were lesser; and at the confluence of bifurcation on either side of the side branch origin the von-Mises stress was marginally increased. The stresses and strain at the bifurcation were significantly lesser than the stresses and strain of the currently existing techniques used in the treatment of bifurcation lesions though the study was primarily focused only on the utility of the new technology. There is a potential for a novel Tram-stent method in the treatment of coronary bifurcation lesions.

  15. Detailed mineralogical characterization of the Bullfrog and Tram members USW-G1, with emphasis on clay mineralogy

    SciTech Connect

    Bish, D.L.

    1981-10-01

    The detailed mineralogy of the Bullfrog and Tram Members of the Crater Flat Tuff from drill hole USW-G1 has been examined, primarily to characterize fully the amounts and types of clay minerals in the tuffs and the possible effects clay minerals have on rock properties. Results of bulk sample x-ray diffraction analyses agree closely with previous determinations, although slightly higher clay mineral contents were found in this study. X-ray diffraction analysis of fine fractions revealed that the clay minerals in the tuffs are sodium-saturated montmorillonite-beidellites with typical layer charges and no high-charge layers. These smectites are found in virtually all samples of the Bullfrog and Tram, and there is no correlation between the amounts of smectites and the amounts of zeolite, quartz, and feldspar. Smectites are present in both welded and nonwelded horizons and are scarce in some zones with slight-to-absent welding.

  16. Aerial Photography Summary Record System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1998-01-01

    The Aerial Photography Summary Record System (APSRS) describes aerial photography projects that meet specified criteria over a given geographic area of the United States and its territories. Aerial photographs are an important tool in cartography and a number of other professions. Land use planners, real estate developers, lawyers, environmental specialists, and many other professionals rely on detailed and timely aerial photographs. Until 1975, there was no systematic approach to locate an aerial photograph, or series of photographs, quickly and easily. In that year, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) inaugurated the APSRS, which has become a standard reference for users of aerial photographs.

  17. Discovering discriminative graphlets for aerial image categories recognition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luming; Han, Yahong; Yang, Yi; Song, Mingli; Yan, Shuicheng; Tian, Qi

    2013-12-01

    Recognizing aerial image categories is useful for scene annotation and surveillance. Local features have been demonstrated to be robust to image transformations, including occlusions and clutters. However, the geometric property of an aerial image (i.e., the topology and relative displacement of local features), which is key to discriminating aerial image categories, cannot be effectively represented by state-of-the-art generic visual descriptors. To solve this problem, we propose a recognition model that mines graphlets from aerial images, where graphlets are small connected subgraphs reflecting both the geometric property and color/texture distribution of an aerial image. More specifically, each aerial image is decomposed into a set of basic components (e.g., road and playground) and a region adjacency graph (RAG) is accordingly constructed to model their spatial interactions. Aerial image categories recognition can subsequently be casted as RAG-to-RAG matching. Based on graph theory, RAG-to-RAG matching is conducted by comparing all their respective graphlets. Because the number of graphlets is huge, we derive a manifold embedding algorithm to measure different-sized graphlets, after which we select graphlets that have highly discriminative and low redundancy topologies. Through quantizing the selected graphlets from each aerial image into a feature vector, we use support vector machine to discriminate aerial image categories. Experimental results indicate that our method outperforms several state-of-the-art object/scene recognition models, and the visualized graphlets indicate that the discriminative patterns are discovered by our proposed approach. PMID:23955764

  18. TRAM-Derived Decoy Peptides inhibits the inflammatory response in mouse mammary epithelial cells and a mastitis model in mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoyu; Tian, Yuan; Wang, Tiancheng; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Wei; Gao, Xuejiao; Qu, Shihui; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Naisheng

    2015-10-01

    It has been proved that TRAM-Derived Decoy peptides have anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we synthesized a TRAM-Derived decoy peptide (TM6), belongs to TRAM TIR domain, of which sequence is "N"-RQIKIWFQNRRMKWK, KENFLRDTWCNFQFY-"C" and evaluated the effects of TM6 on lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice. In vivo, LPS-induced mice mastitis model was established by injection of LPS through the duct of mammary gland. TM6 was injected 1h before or after LPS treatment. In vitro, primary mouse mammary epithelial cells were used to investigate the effects of TM6 on LPS-induced inflammatory responses. The results showed that TM6 inhibited LPS-induced mammary gland histopathologic changes, MPO activity, and TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 production in mice. In vitro, TM6 significantly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-6 production, as well as NF-κB and MAPKs activation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that TM6 had protective effects on LPS-mastitis and may be a promising therapeutic reagent for mastitis treatment.

  19. USGS Releases New Digital Aerial Products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) has initiated distribution of digital aerial photographic products produced by scanning or digitizing film from its historical aerial photography film archive. This archive, located in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, contains thousands of rolls of film that contain more than 8 million frames of historic aerial photographs. The largest portion of this archive consists of original film acquired by Federal agencies from the 1930s through the 1970s to produce 1:24,000-scale USGS topographic quadrangle maps. Most of this photography is reasonably large scale (USGS photography ranges from 1:8,000 to 1:80,000) to support the production of the maps. Two digital products are currently available for ordering: high-resolution scanned products and medium-resolution digitized products.

  20. A Spherical Aerial Terrestrial Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, Christopher J.

    This thesis focuses on the design of a novel, ultra-lightweight spherical aerial terrestrial robot (ATR). The ATR has the ability to fly through the air or roll on the ground, for applications that include search and rescue, mapping, surveillance, environmental sensing, and entertainment. The design centers around a micro-quadcopter encased in a lightweight spherical exoskeleton that can rotate about the quadcopter. The spherical exoskeleton offers agile ground locomotion while maintaining characteristics of a basic aerial robot in flying mode. A model of the system dynamics for both modes of locomotion is presented and utilized in simulations to generate potential trajectories for aerial and terrestrial locomotion. Details of the quadcopter and exoskeleton design and fabrication are discussed, including the robot's turning characteristic over ground and the spring-steel exoskeleton with carbon fiber axle. The capabilities of the ATR are experimentally tested and are in good agreement with model-simulated performance. An energy analysis is presented to validate the overall efficiency of the robot in both modes of locomotion. Experimentally-supported estimates show that the ATR can roll along the ground for over 12 minutes and cover the distance of 1.7 km, or it can fly for 4.82 minutes and travel 469 m, on a single 350 mAh battery. Compared to a traditional flying-only robot, the ATR traveling over the same distance in rolling mode is 2.63-times more efficient, and in flying mode the system is only 39 percent less efficient. Experimental results also demonstrate the ATR's transition from rolling to flying mode.

  1. Aerial Explorers and Robotic Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg

    2004-01-01

    A unique bio-inspired approach to autonomous aerial vehicle, a.k.a. aerial explorer technology is discussed. The work is focused on defining and studying aerial explorer mission concepts, both as an individual robotic system and as a member of a small robotic "ecosystem." Members of this robotic ecosystem include the aerial explorer, air-deployed sensors and robotic symbiotes, and other assets such as rovers, landers, and orbiters.

  2. Aerial Perspective Artistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a lesson centering on aerial perspective artistry of students and offers suggestions on how art teachers should carry this project out. This project serves to develop students' visual perception by studying reproductions by famous artists. This lesson allows one to imagine being lured into a landscape capable of captivating…

  3. Aerial of the VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Even in this aerial view at KSC, the Vehicle Assembly Building is imposing. In front of it is the Launch Control Center. In the background is the Rotation/Processing Facility, next to the Banana Creek. In the foreground is the Saturn Causeway that leads to Launch Pads 39A and 39B.

  4. Aerial photographic reproductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1971-01-01

    Geological Survey vertical aerial photography is obtained primarily for topographic and geologic mapping. Reproductions from this photography are usually satisfactory for general use. Because reproductions are not stocked, but are custom processed for each order, they cannot be returned for credit or refund.

  5. Top-k similar graph matching using TraM in biological networks.

    PubMed

    Amin, Mohammad Shafkat; Finley, Russell L; Jamil, Hasan M

    2012-01-01

    Many emerging database applications entail sophisticated graph-based query manipulation, predominantly evident in large-scale scientific applications. To access the information embedded in graphs, efficient graph matching tools and algorithms have become of prime importance. Although the prohibitively expensive time complexity associated with exact subgraph isomorphism techniques has limited its efficacy in the application domain, approximate yet efficient graph matching techniques have received much attention due to their pragmatic applicability. Since public domain databases are noisy and incomplete in nature, inexact graph matching techniques have proven to be more promising in terms of inferring knowledge from numerous structural data repositories. In this paper, we propose a novel technique called TraM for approximate graph matching that off-loads a significant amount of its processing on to the database making the approach viable for large graphs. Moreover, the vector space embedding of the graphs and efficient filtration of the search space enables computation of approximate graph similarity at a throw-away cost. We annotate nodes of the query graphs by means of their global topological properties and compare them with neighborhood biased segments of the datagraph for proper matches. We have conducted experiments on several real data sets, and have demonstrated the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method

  6. AERIAL RADIOLOGICAL SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, A.E.

    1997-06-09

    Measuring terrestrial gamma radiation from airborne platforms has proved to be a useful method for characterizing radiation levels over large areas. Over 300 aerial radiological surveys have been carried out over the past 25 years including U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, commercial nuclear power plants, Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program/Uranium Mine Tailing Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP/UMTRAP) sites, nuclear weapons test sites, contaminated industrial areas, and nuclear accident sites. This paper describes the aerial measurement technology currently in use by the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) for routine environmental surveys and emergency response activities. Equipment, data-collection and -analysis methods, and examples of survey results are described.

  7. Monitoring ecosystem dynamics in an Arctic tundra ecosystem using hyperspectral reflectance and a robotic tram system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Santonu

    ) Is NDVI a good predictor for aboveground biomass and leaf area index (LAI) for plant species that are common in an arctic landscape? (4) How can cyberinfrastructure tools be developed to optimize ground-based remote sensing data collection, management and processing associated with a large scale experimental infrastructure? The Biocomplexity project experimentally manipulated the water table (drained, flooded, and control treatments) of a vegetated thaw lake basin to investigate the effects of altered hydrology on land-atmosphere carbon balance. In each experimental treatment, hyperspectral reflectance data were collected in the visible and near IR range of the spectrum using a robotic tram system that operated along a 300m tramline during the snow free growing period between June and August 2005-09. Water table depths (WTD) and soil volumetric water content were also collected along these transects. During 2005-2007, measurements were made without experimental treatments. Experimental treatments were run in 2008 and 2009, which involved water table being raised (+10cm) and lowered (-10cm) in flooding and draining treatments respectively. A new spectral index, the normalized difference surface water index (NDSWI) was developed and tested at multiple spatial and temporal scales. NDSWI uses the 460nm (blue) and 1000nm (IR) bands and was to capture surface hydrological dynamics in the study area using the robotic tram system. When applied to high spatial resolution satellite imagery, NDSWI was also able to capture changes in surface hydrology at the landscape scale. Interannual patterns of land-surface phenology (measured with the normalized difference vegetation index - NDVI) unexpectedly lacked marked differences under experimental conditions. Measurement of NDVI was, however, compromised when WTD was above ground level. NDVI and NDSWI were negatively correlated when WTD was above ground level, which held when scaled to MODIS imagery collected from satellite

  8. 1-J operation of monolithic composite ceramics with Yb:YAG thin layers: multi-TRAM at 10-Hz repetition rate and prospects for 100-Hz operation.

    PubMed

    Divoky, Martin; Tokita, Shigeki; Hwang, Sungin; Kawashima, Toshiyuki; Kan, Hirofumi; Lucianetti, Antonio; Mocek, Tomas; Kawanaka, Junji

    2015-03-15

    Experimental amplification of 10-ns pulses to energy of 1 J at repetition rate of 10-100 Hz in cryogenic multipass total-reflection active-mirror (TRAM) amplifier is reported for the first time. By using a monolithic multi-TRAM, which is a YAG ceramic composite with three thin Yb:YAG active layers, efficient energy extraction was achieved without parasitic lasing. A detailed measurement of output characteristics of the laser amplifier is presented; results are discussed and compared with numerical calculations.

  9. Aerial Video Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    When Michael Henry wanted to start an aerial video service, he turned to Johnson Space Center for assistance. Two NASA engineers - one had designed and developed TV systems in Apollo, Skylab, Apollo- Soyuz and Space Shuttle programs - designed a wing-mounted fiberglass camera pod. Camera head and angles are adjustable, and the pod is shaped to reduce vibration. The controls are located so a solo pilot can operate the system. A microprocessor displays latitude, longitude, and bearing, and a GPS receiver provides position data for possible legal references. The service has been successfully utilized by railroads, oil companies, real estate companies, etc.

  10. Monitoring Ecosystem Dynamics Ecosystem Using Hyperspectral Reflectance and a Robotic Tram System in Barrow Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, S.; Gamon, J. A.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the future state of the earth system requires improved knowledge of ecosystem dynamics and long term observations of how ecosystem structures and functions are being impacted by global change. Improving remote sensing methods is essential for such advancement because satellite remote sensing is the only means by which landscape to continental-scale change can be observed. The Arctic appears to be impacted by climate change more than any other region on Earth. Arctic terrestrial ecosystems comprise only 6% of the land surface area on Earth yet contain an estimated 25% of global soil organic carbon, most of which is stored in permafrost. If projected increases in plant productivity do not offset forecast losses of soil carbon to the atmosphere as greenhouse gases, regional to global greenhouse warming could be enhanced. Soil moisture is an important control of land-atmosphere carbon exchange in arctic terrestrial ecosystems. However, few studies to date have examined using remote sensing, or developed remote sensing methods for observing the complex interplay between soil moisture and plant phenology and productivity in arctic landscapes. This study was motivated by this knowledge gap and addressed the following questions as a contribution to a large scale, multi investigator flooding and draining experiment funded by the National Science Foundation near Barrow, Alaska from 2005 - 2009. 1. How can optical remote sensing be used to monitor the surface hydrology of arctic landscapes? 2. What are the spatio-temporal dynamics of land-surface phenology (NDVI) in the study area and do hydrological treatment has any effect on inter-annual patterns? A new spectral index, the normalized difference surface water index (NDSWI) was developed and tested at multiple spatial and temporal scales. NDSWI uses the 460nm (blue) and 1000nm (IR) bands and was developed to capture surface hydrological dynamics in the study area using the robotic tram system. When applied to

  11. Infrared film for aerial photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, William H.

    1979-01-01

    Considerable interest has developed recently in the use of aerial photographs for agricultural management. Even the simplest hand-held aerial photographs, especially those taken with color infrared film, often provide information not ordinarily available through routine ground observation. When fields are viewed from above, patterns and variations become more apparent, often allowing problems to be spotted which otherwise may go undetected.

  12. AERIAL MEASURING SYSTEM IN JAPAN

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, Craig; Colton, David

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Agency’s Aerial Measuring System deployed personnel and equipment to partner with the U.S. Air Force in Japan to conduct multiple aerial radiological surveys. These were the first and most comprehensive sources of actionable information for U.S. interests in Japan and provided early confirmation to the government of Japan as to the extent of the release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Generation Station. Many challenges were overcome quickly during the first 48 hours; including installation and operation of Aerial Measuring System equipment on multiple U.S. Air Force Japan aircraft, flying over difficult terrain, and flying with talented pilots who were unfamiliar with the Aerial Measuring System flight patterns. These all combined to make for a dynamic and non-textbook situation. In addition, the data challenges of the multiple and on-going releases, and integration with the Japanese government to provide valid aerial radiological survey products that both military and civilian customers could use to make informed decisions, was extremely complicated. The Aerial Measuring System Fukushima response provided insight in addressing these challenges and gave way to an opportunity for the expansion of the Aerial Measuring System’s mission beyond the borders of the US.

  13. Aerial thermography for energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Thermal infrared scanning from an aircraft is a convenient and commercially available means for determining relative rates of energy loss from building roofs. The need to conserve energy as fuel costs makes the mass survey capability of aerial thermography an attractive adjunct to community energy awareness programs. Background information on principles of aerial thermography is presented. Thermal infrared scanning systems, flight and environmental requirements for data acquisition, preparation of thermographs for display, major users and suppliers of thermography, and suggested specifications for obtaining aerial scanning services were reviewed.

  14. Etanercept protects myocutaneous flaps from ischaemia reperfusion injury: An experimental study in a rat tram flap model.

    PubMed

    Ersoy, Burak; Çevik, Özge; Çilingir, Özlem Tuğçe

    2016-08-01

    Background Being an inevitable component of free tissue transfer, ischemia-reperfusion injury tends to contribute to flap failure. TNF-α is an important proinflammatory cytokine and a prominent mediator of the ischemia-reperfusion injury. Etanercept, a soluble TNF-α binding protein, has shown anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects in animal models of renal and myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. We have designed an experimental study to investigate the effect of etanercept on myocutaneous ischemia-reperfusion injury on transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap model in rats. Methods Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: In group 1 (sham), the TRAM flap was raised and sutured back without further intervention. In group 2 (control), the flap was raised and the ischemia-reperfusion protocol was followed. In group 3, etanercept (10 mg/kg, i.v.) was administered 10 minutes before reperfusion. At the end of the reperfusion period, biochemical and histolopathological evaluations were performed on serum and tissue samples. Results In the etanercept group the IMA and 8-OHdG levels (p = 0.005 and p = 0.004, respectively) were found significantly lower, and the GSH and SOD levels (p = 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively) significantly higher in comparison to the control group. The histopathological analysis has revealed a lower degree of hyalinization, degenerated muscle fibers and nuclear change in the etanercept group compared to the control group. Conclusion The results of our experimental study indicate that etanercept offers protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury in skeletal muscle tissue, enhancing the TRAM flap viability. The ability of etanercept to induce ischemic tolerance suggests that it may be applicable in free-flap surgery. PMID:26950289

  15. Development of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Site-Specific Crop Production Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) have been developed and applied to support the practice of precision agriculture. Compared to piloted aircrafts, an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle can focus on much smaller crop fields with much lower flight altitude than regular airplanes to perform site-specific management ...

  16. Development and prospect of unmanned aerial vehicles for agricultural production management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles have been developed and applied to support agricultural production management. Compared to piloted aircrafts, an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) can focus on small crop fields in lower flight altitude than regular airplanes to perform site-specific management with high precisi...

  17. The Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) 2002 Report. UNO Aviation Monograph Series. UNOAI Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Brent D.; Box, Richard C.; Fink, Mary M.; Gogos, George; Lehrer, Henry R.; Narayanan, Ram M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.; O'Neil, Patrick D.; Tarry, Scott E.; Vlasek, Karisa D.

    This document contains four papers on aeronautics education, research, and partnerships that partly supported through the Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL). The paper "2002 AERIAL Monograph" (Brent D. Bowen, Jocelyn S. Nickerson, Mary M. Fink, et al.) presents an overview of research and development in the following…

  18. Delivery of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Sullivan, Donald V.

    2011-01-01

    To support much of NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Program science, NASA has acquired two Global Hawk Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Two major missions are currently planned using the Global Hawk: the Global Hawk Pacific (GloPac) and the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) missions. This paper briefly describes GloPac and GRIP, the concept of operations and the resulting requirements and communication architectures. Also discussed are requirements for future missions that may use satellite systems and networks owned and operated by third parties.

  19. Analysis of Conservative Tracer Tests in the Bullfrog, Tram, and Prow Pass Tuffs, 1996 to 1998, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Umari, Amjad; Fahy, Michael F.; Earle, John D.; Tucci, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the potential for transport of radionuclides in ground water from the proposed high-level nuclear-waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, conservative (nonsorbing) tracer tests were conducted among three boreholes, known as the C-hole Complex, and values for transport (or flow) porosity, storage (or matrix) porosity, longitudinal dispersivity, and the extent of matrix diffusion were obtained. The C-holes are completed in a sequence of Miocene tuffaceous rock, consisting of nonwelded to densely welded ash-flow tuff with intervals of ash-fall tuff and volcaniclastic rocks, covered by Quaternary alluvium. The lower part of the tuffaceous-rock sequence includes the Prow Pass, Bullfrog, and Tram Tuffs of the Crater Flat Group. The rocks are pervaded by tectonic and cooling fractures. Paleozoic limestone and dolomite underlie the tuffaceous rocks. Four radially convergent and one partially recirculating conservative (nonsorbing) tracer tests were conducted at the C-hole Complex from 1996 to 1998 to establish values for flow porosity, storage porosity, longitudinal dispersivity, and extent of matrix diffusion in the Bullfrog and Tram Tuffs and the Prow Pass Tuff. Tracer tests included (1) injection of iodide into the combined Bullfrog-Tram interval; (2) injection of 2,6 difluorobenzoic acid into the Lower Bullfrog interval; (3) injection of 3-carbamoyl-2-pyridone into the Lower Bullfrog interval; and (4) injection of iodide and 2,4,5 trifluorobenzoic acid, followed by 2,3,4,5 tetrafluorobenzoic acid, into the Prow Pass Tuff. All tracer tests were analyzed by the Moench single- and dual-porosity analytical solutions to the advection-dispersion equation or by superposition of these solutions. Nonlinear regression techniques were used to corroborate tracer solution results, to obtain optimal parameter values from the solutions, and to quantify parameter uncertainty resulting from analyzing two of the three radially convergent conservative tracer tests

  20. 46. HISTORIC AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST AT THE REDSTONE TEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. HISTORIC AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST AT THE REDSTONE TEST SITE, SHOWING THE TEST STAND, SUPPORT EQUIPMENT, SERVICE AREA AND THE OBSERVATION TANKS BURIED BENEATH THE EARTH MOUND IN THE BACKGROUND. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  1. 4. AERIAL VIEW FROM THE SOUTH OF (LEFT TO RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. AERIAL VIEW FROM THE SOUTH OF (LEFT TO RIGHT CENTER) LOB (BLDG. 763), TECHNICAL SUPPORT BUILDING (BLDG. 762/762A), AND SLC-3 AIR FORCE BUILDING (BLDG. 761). SOUTH SIDE OF SLC-3 WEST IN LEFT BACKGROUND. OCEAN IN DISTANT BACKGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  2. The Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) 2002 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Box, Richard C.; Fink, Mary; Gogos, George; Lehrer, Henry R.; Narayanan, Ram M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.; Tarry, Scott E.; Vlasek, Karisa D.; O'Neil, Patrick D.

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium (NSGC) & EPSCoR programs at the University of Nebraska at Omaha are involved in a variety of innovative research activities. Such research is supported through the Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) and collaborative seed funds. AERIAL is a comprehensive, multi-faceted, five year NASA EPSCoR initiative that contributes substantially to the strategic research and technology priorities of NASA while intensifying Nebraska s rapidly growing aeronautics research and development endeavors. AERIAL includes three major collaborative research teams (CRTs) whose nexus is a common focus in aeronautics research. Each CRT - Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Airborne Remote Sensing for Agricultural Research and Commercialization Applications (ARS), and Numerical Simulation of the Combustion of Fuel Droplets: Finite Rate Kinetics and Flame Zone Grid Adaptation (CEFD) -has a distinct research agenda. This program provides the template for funding of new and innovative research that emphasizes aerospace technology.

  3. Exploration of Titan Using Vertical Lift Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. A.

    2001-01-01

    Autonomous vertical lift aerial vehicles (such as rotorcraft or powered-lift vehicles) hold considerable potential for supporting planetary science and exploration missions. Vertical lift aerial vehicles would have the following advantages/attributes for planetary exploration: (1) low-speed and low-altitude detailed aerial surveys; (2) remote-site sample return to lander platforms; (3) precision placement of scientific probes; (4) soft landing capability for vehicle reuse (multiple flights) and remote-site monitoring; (5) greater range, speed, and access to hazardous terrain than a surface rover; and (6) greater resolution of surface details than an orbiter or balloons. Exploration of Titan presents an excellent opportunity for the development and usage of such vehicles. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. Dynamics of aerial target pursuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, S.

    2015-12-01

    During pursuit and predation, aerial species engage in multitasking behavior that involve simultaneous target detection, tracking, decision-making, approach and capture. The mobility of the pursuer and the target in a three dimensional environment during predation makes the capture task highly complex. Many researchers have studied and analyzed prey capture dynamics in different aerial species such as insects and bats. This article focuses on reviewing the capture strategies adopted by these species while relying on different sensory variables (vision and acoustics) for navigation. In conclusion, the neural basis of these capture strategies and some applications of these strategies in bio-inspired navigation and control of engineered systems are discussed.

  5. AERIAL OF VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING & SURROUNDING AREA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    AERIAL OF VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING & SURROUNDING AREA KSC-377C-0082.41 116-KSC-377C-82.41, P-15877, ARCHIVE-04151 Aerial view - Shuttle construction progress - VAB and Orbiter Processing Facilities - direction northwest.

  6. An automatic high precision registration method between large area aerial images and aerial light detection and ranging data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Q.; Xie, D.; Sun, Y.

    2015-06-01

    The integration of digital aerial photogrammetry and Light Detetion And Ranging (LiDAR) is an inevitable trend in Surveying and Mapping field. We calculate the external orientation elements of images which identical with LiDAR coordinate to realize automatic high precision registration between aerial images and LiDAR data. There are two ways to calculate orientation elements. One is single image spatial resection using image matching 3D points that registered to LiDAR. The other one is Position and Orientation System (POS) data supported aerotriangulation. The high precision registration points are selected as Ground Control Points (GCPs) instead of measuring GCPs manually during aerotriangulation. The registration experiments indicate that the method which registering aerial images and LiDAR points has a great advantage in higher automation and precision compare with manual registration.

  7. Floating aerial LED signage based on aerial imaging by retro-reflection (AIRR).

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hirotsugu; Tomiyama, Yuka; Suyama, Shiro

    2014-11-01

    We propose a floating aerial LED signage technique by utilizing retro-reflection. The proposed display is composed of LEDs, a half mirror, and retro-reflective sheeting. Directivity of the aerial image formation and size of the aerial image have been investigated. Furthermore, a floating aerial LED sign has been successfully formed in free space.

  8. Delineation of the clotrimazole/TRAM-34 binding site on the intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channel, IKCa1.

    PubMed

    Wulff, H; Gutman, G A; Cahalan, M D; Chandy, K G

    2001-08-24

    Selective and potent triarylmethane blockers of the intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channel, IKCa1, have therapeutic use in sickle cell disease and secretory diarrhea and as immunosuppressants. Clotrimazole, a membrane-permeant triarylmethane, blocked IKCa1 with equal affinity when applied externally or internally, whereas a membrane-impermeant derivative TRAM-30 blocked the channel only when applied to the cytoplasmic side, indicating an internal drug-binding site. Introduction of the S5-P-S6 region of the triarylmethane-insensitive small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel SKCa3 into IKCa1 rendered the channel resistant to triarylmethanes. Replacement of Thr(250) or Val(275) in IKCa1 with the corresponding SKCa3 residues selectively abolished triarylmethane sensitivity without affecting the affinity of the channel for tetraethylammonium, charybdotoxin, and nifedipine. Introduction of these two residues into SKCa3 rendered the channel sensitive to triarylmethanes. In a molecular model of IKCa1, Thr(250) and Val(275) line a water-filled cavity just below the selectivity filter. Structure-activity studies suggest that the side chain methyl groups of Thr(250) and Val(275) may lock the triarylmethanes in place via hydrophobic interactions with the pi-electron clouds of the phenyl rings. The heterocyclic moiety may project into the selectivity filter and obstruct the ion-conducting pathway from the inside.

  9. Using Visualized Matrix Effects to Develop and Improve LC-MS/MS Bioanalytical Methods, Taking TRAM-34 as an Example

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Jia-Hung; Pao, Li-Heng

    2015-01-01

    Matrix effects (MEs) continue to be an obstacle in the development of the LC-MS/MS method, with phospholipids being the major cause of MEs. Changing the mobile phase has been a common strategy to reduce MEs; however, the underlying mechanism is unclear. "In-source multiple-reaction monitoring" (IS-MRM) for glycerophosphocholines (PCs) has been commonly applied in many bioanalytical methods. "Visualized MEs" is a suitable term to describe the application of IS-MRM to visualize the elution pattern of phospholipids. We selected a real case to discuss the relationship of MEs and phospholipids in different mobile phases by quantitative, qualitative, and visualized MEs in LC-MS/MS bioanalysis. The application of visualized MEs not only predicts the ion-suppression zone but also helps in selecting an appropriate (1) mobile phase, (2) column, (3) needle wash solvent for the residue of analyte and phospholipids, and (4) evaluates the clean-up efficiency of sample preparation. The TRAM-34 LC-MS/MS method, improved by using visualized MEs, was shown to be a precise and accurate analytical method. All data indicated that the use of visualized MEs indeed provided useful information about the LC-MS/MS method development and improvement. In this study, an integrative approach for the qualitative, quantitative, and visualized MEs was used to decipher the complexity of MEs. PMID:25909956

  10. Reconnaissance mapping from aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeden, H. A.; Bolling, N. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Engineering soil and geology maps were successfully made from Pennsylvania aerial photographs taken at scales from 1:4,800 to 1:60,000. The procedure involved a detailed study of a stereoscopic model while evaluating landform, drainage, erosion, color or gray tones, tone and texture patterns, vegetation, and cultural or land use patterns.

  11. Interactions between Streptomyces coelicolor and Bacillus subtilis: Role of Surfactants in Raising Aerial Structures

    PubMed Central

    Straight, Paul D.; Willey, Joanne M.; Kolter, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    Using mixed-species cultures, we have undertaken a study of interactions between two common spore-forming soil bacteria, Bacillus subtilis and Streptomyces coelicolor. Our experiments demonstrate that the development of aerial hyphae and spores by S. coelicolor is inhibited by surfactin, a lipopeptide surfactant produced by B. subtilis. Current models of aerial development by sporulating bacteria and fungi postulate a role for surfactants in reducing surface tension at air-liquid interfaces, thereby removing the major barrier to aerial growth. S. coelicolor produces SapB, an amphipathic peptide that is surface active and required for aerial growth on certain media. Loss of aerial hyphae in developmental mutants can be rescued by addition of purified SapB. While a surfactant from a fungus can substitute for SapB in a mutant that lacks aerial hyphae, not all surfactants have this effect. We show that surfactin is required for formation of aerial structures on the surface of B. subtilis colonies. However, in contrast to this positive role, our experiments reveal that surfactin acts antagonistically by arresting S. coelicolor aerial development and causing altered expression of developmental genes. Our observations support the idea that surfactants function specifically for a given organism regardless of their shared ability to reduce surface tension. Production of surfactants with antagonistic activity could provide a powerful competitive advantage during surface colonization and in competition for resources. PMID:16788200

  12. Aerial of the VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the early morning, flocks of birds soar over the Banana River, whose waters reflect the Vehicle Assembly Building , bathed in a pink glow from post-dawn light. Next to the VAB, on the left, is the Launch Control Center. The rectangular building closer to the water at left is the Operations Support Building. At right is the Rotation/Processing Facility. The birds are a common sight at KSC since the Center shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. The Refuge encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  13. Aerial Photographs and Satellite Images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    Photographs and other images of the Earth taken from the air and from space show a great deal about the planet's landforms, vegetation, and resources. Aerial and satellite images, known as remotely sensed images, permit accurate mapping of land cover and make landscape features understandable on regional, continental, and even global scales. Transient phenomena, such as seasonal vegetation vigor and contaminant discharges, can be studied by comparing images acquired at different times. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), which began using aerial photographs for mapping in the 1930's, archives photographs from its mapping projects and from those of some other Federal agencies. In addition, many images from such space programs as Landsat, begun in 1972, are held by the USGS. Most satellite scenes can be obtained only in digital form for use in computer-based image processing and geographic information systems, but in some cases are also available as photographic products.

  14. Aerial robotic data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Hayes, D.W.; Pendergast, M.M.; Corban, J.E.

    1993-12-31

    A small, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), equipped with sensors for physical and chemical measurements of remote environments, is described. A miniature helicopter airframe is used as a platform for sensor testing and development. The sensor output is integrated with the flight control system for real-time, interactive, data acquisition and analysis. Pre-programmed flight missions will be flown with several sensors to demonstrate the cost-effective surveillance capabilities of this new technology.

  15. A waveguide finite element and boundary element approach to calculating the sound radiated by railway and tram rails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, C.-M.; Jones, C. J. C.; Thompson, D. J.; Ryue, J.

    2009-04-01

    Engineering methods for modelling the generation of railway rolling noise are well established. However, these necessarily involve some simplifying assumptions to calculate the sound powers radiated by the wheel and the track. For the rail, this involves using an average vibration together with a radiation efficiency determined for a two-dimensional (2D) problem. In this paper, the sound radiation from a rail is calculated using a method based on a combination of waveguide finite elements and wavenumber boundary elements. This new method allows a number of the simplifying assumptions in the established methods to be avoided. It takes advantage of the 2D geometry of a rail to provide an efficient numerical approach but nevertheless takes into account the three-dimensional nature of the vibration and sound field and the infinite extent of the rail. The approach is used to study a conventional 'open' rail as well as an embedded tram rail of the type used for street running. In the former case it is shown that the conventional approach gives correct results and the complexity of the new method is mostly not necessary. However, for the embedded rail it is found that it is important to take into account the radiation from several wave types in the rail and embedding material. The damping effect of the embedding material on the rail vibration is directly taken into account and, for the example shown, causes the embedded rail to radiate less sound than the open rail above about 600 Hz. The free surface of the embedding material amplifies the sound radiation at some frequencies, while at other frequencies it moves out of phase with the rail and reduces the radiation efficiency. At low frequencies the radiation from the embedded rail resembles a line monopole source which produces greater power than the 'open' rail which forms a line dipole.

  16. Telemetry of Aerial Radiological Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    H. W. Clark, Jr.

    2002-10-01

    Telemetry has been added to National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA's) Aerial Measuring System (AMS) Incident Response aircraft to accelerate availability of aerial radiological mapping data. Rapid aerial radiological mapping is promptly performed by AMS Incident Response aircraft in the event of a major radiological dispersal. The AMS airplane flies the entire potentially affected area, plus a generous margin, to provide a quick look at the extent and severity of the event. The primary result of the AMS Incident Response over flight is a map of estimated exposure rate on the ground along the flight path. Formerly, it was necessary to wait for the airplane to land before the map could be seen. Now, while the flight is still in progress, data are relayed via satellite directly from the aircraft to an operations center, where they are displayed and disseminated. This permits more timely utilization of results by decision makers and redirection of the mission to optimize its value. The current telemetry capability can cover all of North America. Extension to a global capability is under consideration.

  17. Development of a new modular aerial spray system and night application capability for the U.S. Air Force

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. Air Force maintains a capability with the C130 aircraft to conduct aerial spray operations over large areas for controlling insects of medical importance. The current modular aerial spray system (MASS) is custom designed to support a variety of configurations from ultralow volume space spra...

  18. Genotoxicity Study of Polysaccharide Fraction from Astragalus membranaceus's Aerial Parts

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yeong-Chul; Kim, Min Hee; Kim, Jung Woo; Kim, Jong-Bong; Lee, Jae Geun; Yu, Chang Yeon; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Chung, Ill Min; Kim, Jae Kwang; Choi, Ri Na

    2014-01-01

    Radix Astragali, the root of Astragalus (A.) membranaceus, has been applied in a variety of diseases for a long time in Asian countries such as Korea and China. In addition, the aerial parts such as leaves and stems of A. membranaceus have received a great deal of attention. Recently, the polysaccharide fraction showing a potent immunomoduating activity was isolated from the aerial parts of A. membranaceus. Thus, the aerial parts of A. membranaceus would be worthy enough for a food material and a dietary supplement. However, they should be safe even though valuable. In our previous study, it was estimated that NOAEL for female rats are 5000 mg/kg/day of the crude polysaccharide fraction from A. membranaceus-aboveground parts. As a series of safety evaluation, genotoxicity test for the crude polysaccharide fraction was carried out in this study. In conclusion, the three genotoxicity assays provided strong overall support that the crude polysaccharide fraction lacks mutagenic and/or clastogenic potential under the GLP-based test conditions. This indicates the aerial parts of A. membranaceus would be safe enough for a food material and a dietary supplement. PMID:25071923

  19. 3. AERIAL VIEW FROM THE EAST OF (FOREGROUND TO BACKGROUND) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW FROM THE EAST OF (FOREGROUND TO BACKGROUND) SLC-3 AIR FORCE BUILDING (BLDG. 761), TECHNICAL SUPPORT BUILDING (BLDG. 762/762A), ENTRY CONTROL POINT (BLDG. 768), AND LOB (BLDG. 763). EAST SIDE OF SLC-3E MOBILE SERVICE TOWER (MST) VISIBLE IN UPPER LEFT CORNER. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  20. Meta-Analysis of Parkinson's Disease Transcriptome Data Using TRAM Software: Whole Substantia Nigra Tissue and Single Dopamine Neuron Differential Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Mariani, Elisa; Frabetti, Flavia; Tarozzi, Andrea; Pelleri, Maria Chiara; Pizzetti, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of the genetic basis of the Parkinson's disease (PD) and the correlation between genotype and phenotype has revolutionized our knowledge about the pathogenetic mechanisms of neurodegeneration, opening up exciting new therapeutic and neuroprotective perspectives. Genomic knowledge of PD is still in its early stages and can provide a good start for studies of the molecular mechanisms that underlie the gene expression variations and the epigenetic mechanisms that may contribute to the complex and characteristic phenotype of PD. In this study we used the software TRAM (Transcriptome Mapper) to analyse publicly available microarray data of a total of 151 PD patients and 130 healthy controls substantia nigra (SN) samples, to identify chromosomal segments and gene loci differential expression. In particular, we separately analyzed PD patients and controls data from post-mortem snap-frozen SN whole tissue and from laser microdissected midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons, to better characterize the specific DA neuronal expression profile associated with the late-stage Parkinson's condition. The default "Map" mode analysis resulted in 10 significantly over/under-expressed segments, mapping on 8 different chromosomes for SN whole tissue and in 4 segments mapping on 4 different chromosomes for DA neurons. In conclusion, TRAM software allowed us to confirm the deregulation of some genomic regions and loci involved in key molecular pathways related to neurodegeneration, as well as to provide new insights about genes and non-coding RNA transcripts not yet associated with the disease. PMID:27611585

  1. Meta-Analysis of Parkinson's Disease Transcriptome Data Using TRAM Software: Whole Substantia Nigra Tissue and Single Dopamine Neuron Differential Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Mariani, Elisa; Frabetti, Flavia; Tarozzi, Andrea; Pelleri, Maria Chiara; Pizzetti, Fabrizio; Casadei, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of the genetic basis of the Parkinson's disease (PD) and the correlation between genotype and phenotype has revolutionized our knowledge about the pathogenetic mechanisms of neurodegeneration, opening up exciting new therapeutic and neuroprotective perspectives. Genomic knowledge of PD is still in its early stages and can provide a good start for studies of the molecular mechanisms that underlie the gene expression variations and the epigenetic mechanisms that may contribute to the complex and characteristic phenotype of PD. In this study we used the software TRAM (Transcriptome Mapper) to analyse publicly available microarray data of a total of 151 PD patients and 130 healthy controls substantia nigra (SN) samples, to identify chromosomal segments and gene loci differential expression. In particular, we separately analyzed PD patients and controls data from post-mortem snap-frozen SN whole tissue and from laser microdissected midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons, to better characterize the specific DA neuronal expression profile associated with the late-stage Parkinson's condition. The default "Map" mode analysis resulted in 10 significantly over/under-expressed segments, mapping on 8 different chromosomes for SN whole tissue and in 4 segments mapping on 4 different chromosomes for DA neurons. In conclusion, TRAM software allowed us to confirm the deregulation of some genomic regions and loci involved in key molecular pathways related to neurodegeneration, as well as to provide new insights about genes and non-coding RNA transcripts not yet associated with the disease. PMID:27611585

  2. Automated recognition of forest patterns using aerial photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbezat, Vincent; Kreiss, Philippe; Sulzmann, Armin; Jacot, Jacques

    1996-12-01

    In Switzerland, aerial photos are indispensable tools for research into ecosystems and their management. Every six years since 1950, the whole of Switzerland has been systematically surveyed by aerial photos. In the forestry field, these documents not only provide invaluable information but also give support to field activities such as the drawing up of tree population maps, intervention planning, precise positioning of the upper forest limit, evaluation of forest damage and rates of tree growth. Up to now, the analysis of aerial photos has been carried out by specialists who painstakingly examine every photograph, which makes it a very long, exacting and expensive job. The IMT-DMT of the EPFL and Antenne romande of FNP, aware of the special interest involved and the necessity of automated classification of aerial photos, have pooled their resources to develop a software program capable of differentiating between single trees, copses and dense forests. The developed algorithms detect the crowns of the trees and the surface of the orthogonal projection. Form the shadow of each tree they calculate its height. They also determine the position of the tree in the Swiss national coordinate thanks to the implementation of a numeric altitude model. For the future, we have the prospect of many new and better uses of aerial photos being available to us, particularly where isolated stands are concerned and also when evolutions based on a diachronic series of photos have to be assessed: from timberline monitoring in the research on global change to the exploitation of wooded pastures on small surface areas.

  3. Astronomical Methods in Aerial Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beij, K Hilding

    1925-01-01

    The astronomical method of determining position is universally used in marine navigation and may also be of service in aerial navigation. The practical application of the method, however, must be modified and adapted to conform to the requirements of aviation. Much of this work of adaptation has already been accomplished, but being scattered through various technical journals in a number of languages, is not readily available. This report is for the purpose of collecting under one cover such previous work as appears to be of value to the aerial navigator, comparing instruments and methods, indicating the best practice, and suggesting future developments. The various methods of determining position and their application and value are outlined, and a brief resume of the theory of the astronomical method is given. Observation instruments are described in detail. A complete discussion of the reduction of observations follows, including a rapid method of finding position from the altitudes of two stars. Maps and map cases are briefly considered. A bibliography of the subject is appended.

  4. BOREAS Level-0 ER-2 Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominquez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), the ER-2 and other aerial photography was collected to provide finely detailed and spatially extensive documentation of the condition of the primary study sites. The ER-2 aerial photography consists of color-IR transparencies collected during flights in 1994 and 1996 over the study areas.

  5. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the American National... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aerial lifts. 1926.453 Section 1926.453 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Scaffolds § 1926.453 Aerial lifts. (a)...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the American National... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aerial lifts. 1926.453 Section 1926.453 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Scaffolds § 1926.453 Aerial lifts. (a)...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the American National... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aerial lifts. 1926.453 Section 1926.453 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Scaffolds § 1926.453 Aerial lifts. (a)...

  8. Aerial shaking performance of wet Anna's hummingbirds.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Jimenez, Victor Manuel; Dudley, Robert

    2012-05-01

    External wetting poses problems of immediate heat loss and long-term pathogen growth for vertebrates. Beyond these risks, the locomotor ability of smaller animals, and particularly of fliers, may be impaired by water adhering to the body. Here, we report on the remarkable ability of hummingbirds to perform rapid shakes in order to expel water from their plumage even while in flight. Kinematic performance of aerial versus non-aerial shakes (i.e. those performed while perching) was compared. Oscillation frequencies of the head, body and tail were lower in aerial shakes. Tangential speeds and accelerations of the trunk and tail were roughly similar in aerial and non-aerial shakes, but values for head motions while perching were twice as high when compared with aerial shakes [corrected] . Azimuthal angular amplitudes for both aerial and non-aerial shakes reached values greater than 180° for the head, greater than 45° for the body trunk and slightly greater than 90° for the tail and wings. Using a feather on an oscillating disc to mimic shaking motions, we found that bending increased average speeds by up to 36 per cent and accelerations of the feather tip up to fourfold relative to a hypothetical rigid feather. Feather flexibility may help to enhance shedding of water and reduce body oscillations during shaking.

  9. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire....

  10. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire....

  11. A Classroom Simulation of Aerial Photography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Simon

    1981-01-01

    Explains how a simulation of aerial photography can help students in a college level beginning course on interpretation of aerial photography understand the interrelationships of the airplane, the camera, and the earth's surface. Procedures, objectives, equipment, and scale are discussed. (DB)

  12. The NASA Dryden Flight Test Approach to an Aerial Refueling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Jennifer L.; Murray, James E.; Campos, Norma V.

    2005-01-01

    The integration of uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAVs) into controlled airspace has generated a new era of autonomous technologies and challenges. Autonomous aerial refueling would enable UAVs to travel further distances and loiter for extended periods over time-critical targets. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center recently has completed a flight research project directed at developing a dynamic hose and drogue system model to support the development of an automated aerial refueling system. A systematic dynamic model of the hose and drogue system would include the effects of various influences on the system, such as flight condition, hose and drogue type, tanker type and weight, receiver type, and tanker and receiver maneuvering. Using two NASA F/A-18 aircraft and a conventional hose and drogue aerial refueling store from the Navy, NASA has obtained flight research data that document the response of the hose and drogue system to these effects. Preliminary results, salient trends, and important lessons are presented

  13. The NASA Dryden AAR Project: A Flight Test Approach to an Aerial Refueling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Jennifer L.; Murray, James E.; Campos, Norma V.

    2004-01-01

    The integration of uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAVs) into controlled airspace has generated a new era of autonomous technologies and challenges. Autonomous aerial refueling would enable UAVs to travel further distances and loiter for extended periods over time-critical targets. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center recently has completed a flight research project directed at developing a dynamic hose and drogue system model to support the development of an automated aerial refueling system. A systematic dynamic model of the hose and drogue system would include the effects of various influences on the system, such as flight condition, hose and drogue type, tanker type and weight, receiver type, and tanker and receiver maneuvering. Using two NASA F/A-18 aircraft and a conventional hose and drogue aerial refueling store from the Navy, NASA has obtained flight research data that document the response of the hose and drogue system to these effects. Preliminary results, salient trends, and important lessons are presented.

  14. Adaptive planning of emergency aerial photogrammetric mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Fuqiang; Zhu, Qing; Zhang, Junxiao; Miao, Shuangxi; Zhou, Xingxia; Cao, Zhenyu

    2015-12-01

    Aiming at the diversity of emergency aerial photogrammetric mission requirements, complex ground and air environmental constraints make the planning mission time-consuming. This paper presents a fast adaptation for the UAV aerial photogrammetric mission planning. First, Building emergency aerial UAVs mission the unified expression of UAVs model and mechanical model of performance parameters in the semantic space make the integrated expression of mission requirements and low altitude environment. Proposed match assessment method which based on resource and mission efficiency. Made the Adaptive match of UAV aerial resources and mission. According to the emergency aerial resource properties, considering complex air-ground environment and mission requirements constraints. Made accurate design of UAV route. Experimental results show, the method scientific and efficient, greatly enhanced the emergency response rate.

  15. Quorum Sensing but Not Autoinduction of Ti Plasmid Conjugal Transfer Requires Control by the Opine Regulon and the Antiactivator TraM

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Kevin R.; Farrand, Stephen K.

    2000-01-01

    Conjugal transfer of the Ti plasmids from Agrobacterium tumefaciens is controlled by autoinduction via the transcriptional activator TraR and the acyl-homoserine lactone ligand, Agrobacterium autoinducer (AAI). This control process is itself regulated by opines, which are small carbon compounds produced by the crown gall tumors that are induced by the bacteria. Opines control autoinduction by regulating the expression of traR. Transfer of pTiC58 from donors grown with agrocinopines A and B, the conjugal opines for this Ti plasmid, was detected only after the donors had reached a population level of 107 cells per cm2. Donors incubated with the opines and AAI transferred their Ti plasmids at population levels about 10-fold lower than those incubated with opines only. Transcription of the tra regulon, as assessed by monitoring a traA::lacZ reporter, showed a similar dependence on the density of the donor population. However, even in cultures at low population densities that were induced with opines and AAI, there was a temporal lag of between 15 and 20 h in the development of conjugal competence. Moreover, even after this latent period, maximal transfer frequencies required several hours to develop. This lag period was independent of the population density of the donors but could be reduced somewhat by addition of exogenous AAI. Quorum-dependent development of conjugal competence required control by the opine regulon; donors harboring a mutant of pTiC58 deleted for the master opine responsive repressor accR transferred the Ti plasmid at maximum frequencies at very low population densities. Similarly, an otherwise wild-type derivative of pTiC58 lacking traM, which codes for an antiactivator that inhibits TraR activity, transferred at high frequency in a population-independent manner in the absence of the conjugal opines. Thus, while quorum sensing is dependent upon autoinduction, the two phenomena are not synonymous. We conclude that conjugal transfer of pTiC58 is

  16. Quorum sensing but not autoinduction of Ti plasmid conjugal transfer requires control by the opine regulon and the antiactivator TraM.

    PubMed

    Piper, K R; Farrand, S K

    2000-02-01

    Conjugal transfer of the Ti plasmids from Agrobacterium tumefaciens is controlled by autoinduction via the transcriptional activator TraR and the acyl-homoserine lactone ligand, Agrobacterium autoinducer (AAI). This control process is itself regulated by opines, which are small carbon compounds produced by the crown gall tumors that are induced by the bacteria. Opines control autoinduction by regulating the expression of traR. Transfer of pTiC58 from donors grown with agrocinopines A and B, the conjugal opines for this Ti plasmid, was detected only after the donors had reached a population level of 10(7) cells per cm(2). Donors incubated with the opines and AAI transferred their Ti plasmids at population levels about 10-fold lower than those incubated with opines only. Transcription of the tra regulon, as assessed by monitoring a traA::lacZ reporter, showed a similar dependence on the density of the donor population. However, even in cultures at low population densities that were induced with opines and AAI, there was a temporal lag of between 15 and 20 h in the development of conjugal competence. Moreover, even after this latent period, maximal transfer frequencies required several hours to develop. This lag period was independent of the population density of the donors but could be reduced somewhat by addition of exogenous AAI. Quorum-dependent development of conjugal competence required control by the opine regulon; donors harboring a mutant of pTiC58 deleted for the master opine responsive repressor accR transferred the Ti plasmid at maximum frequencies at very low population densities. Similarly, an otherwise wild-type derivative of pTiC58 lacking traM, which codes for an antiactivator that inhibits TraR activity, transferred at high frequency in a population-independent manner in the absence of the conjugal opines. Thus, while quorum sensing is dependent upon autoinduction, the two phenomena are not synonymous. We conclude that conjugal transfer of pTiC58 is

  17. COCOA: tracking in aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Saad; Shah, Mubarak

    2006-05-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are becoming a core intelligence asset for reconnaissance, surveillance and target tracking in urban and battlefield settings. In order to achieve the goal of automated tracking of objects in UAV videos we have developed a system called COCOA. It processes the video stream through number of stages. At first stage platform motion compensation is performed. Moving object detection is performed to detect the regions of interest from which object contours are extracted by performing a level set based segmentation. Finally blob based tracking is performed for each detected object. Global tracks are generated which are used for higher level processing. COCOA is customizable to different sensor resolutions and is capable of tracking targets as small as 100 pixels. It works seamlessly for both visible and thermal imaging modes. The system is implemented in Matlab and works in a batch mode.

  18. Whitecap coverage from aerial photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, R. W.

    1970-01-01

    A program for determining the feasibility of deriving sea surface wind speeds by remotely sensing ocean surface radiances in the nonglitter regions is discussed. With a knowledge of the duration and geographical extent of the wind field, information about the conventional sea state may be derived. The use of optical techniques for determining sea state has obvious limitations. For example, such means can be used only in daylight and only when a clear path of sight is available between the sensor and the surface. However, sensors and vehicles capable of providing the data needed for such techniques are planned for the near future; therefore, a secondary or backup capability can be provided with little added effort. The information currently being sought regarding white water coverage is also of direct interest to those working with passive microwave systems, the study of energy transfer between winds and ocean currents, the aerial estimation of wind speeds, and many others.

  19. Unmanned aerial survey of elephants.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Cédric; Lejeune, Philippe; Lisein, Jonathan; Sawadogo, Prosper; Bouché, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The use of a UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System) was tested to survey large mammals in the Nazinga Game Ranch in the south of Burkina Faso. The Gatewing ×100™ equipped with a Ricoh GR III camera was used to test animal reaction as the UAS passed, and visibility on the images. No reaction was recorded as the UAS passed at a height of 100 m. Observations, made on a set of more than 7000 images, revealed that only elephants (Loxodonta africana) were easily visible while medium and small sized mammals were not. The easy observation of elephants allows experts to enumerate them on images acquired at a height of 100 m. We, therefore, implemented an aerial strip sample count along transects used for the annual wildlife foot count. A total of 34 elephants were recorded on 4 transects, each overflown twice. The elephant density was estimated at 2.47 elephants/km(2) with a coefficient of variation (CV%) of 36.10%. The main drawback of our UAS was its low autonomy (45 min). Increased endurance of small UAS is required to replace manned aircraft survey of large areas (about 1000 km of transect per day vs 40 km for our UAS). The monitoring strategy should be adapted according to the sampling plan. Also, the UAS is as expensive as a second-hand light aircraft. However the logistic and flight implementation are easier, the running costs are lower and its use is safer. Technological evolution will make civil UAS more efficient, allowing them to compete with light aircraft for aerial wildlife surveys.

  20. Unmanned Aerial Survey of Elephants

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Cédric; Lejeune, Philippe; Lisein, Jonathan; Sawadogo, Prosper; Bouché, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The use of a UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System) was tested to survey large mammals in the Nazinga Game Ranch in the south of Burkina Faso. The Gatewing ×100™ equipped with a Ricoh GR III camera was used to test animal reaction as the UAS passed, and visibility on the images. No reaction was recorded as the UAS passed at a height of 100 m. Observations, made on a set of more than 7000 images, revealed that only elephants (Loxodonta africana) were easily visible while medium and small sized mammals were not. The easy observation of elephants allows experts to enumerate them on images acquired at a height of 100 m. We, therefore, implemented an aerial strip sample count along transects used for the annual wildlife foot count. A total of 34 elephants were recorded on 4 transects, each overflown twice. The elephant density was estimated at 2.47 elephants/km2 with a coefficient of variation (CV%) of 36.10%. The main drawback of our UAS was its low autonomy (45 min). Increased endurance of small UAS is required to replace manned aircraft survey of large areas (about 1000 km of transect per day vs 40 km for our UAS). The monitoring strategy should be adapted according to the sampling plan. Also, the UAS is as expensive as a second-hand light aircraft. However the logistic and flight implementation are easier, the running costs are lower and its use is safer. Technological evolution will make civil UAS more efficient, allowing them to compete with light aircraft for aerial wildlife surveys. PMID:23405088

  1. The DOE ARM Aerial Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Hubbe, John M.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Mei, Fan; Chand, Duli; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Andrews, Elisabeth; Biraud, S.; McFarquhar, Greg

    2014-05-01

    The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a climate research user facility operating stationary ground sites that provide long-term measurements of climate relevant properties, mobile ground- and ship-based facilities to conduct shorter field campaigns (6-12 months), and the ARM Aerial Facility (AAF). The airborne observations acquired by the AAF enhance the surface-based ARM measurements by providing high-resolution in-situ measurements for process understanding, retrieval-algorithm development, and model evaluation that are not possible using ground- or satellite-based techniques. Several ARM aerial efforts were consolidated into the AAF in 2006. With the exception of a small aircraft used for routine measurements of aerosols and carbon cycle gases, AAF at the time had no dedicated aircraft and only a small number of instruments at its disposal. In this "virtual hangar" mode, AAF successfully carried out several missions contracting with organizations and investigators who provided their research aircraft and instrumentation. In 2009, AAF started managing operations of the Battelle-owned Gulfstream I (G-1) large twin-turboprop research aircraft. Furthermore, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided funding for the procurement of over twenty new instruments to be used aboard the G-1 and other AAF virtual-hangar aircraft. AAF now executes missions in the virtual- and real-hangar mode producing freely available datasets for studying aerosol, cloud, and radiative processes in the atmosphere. AAF is also engaged in the maturation and testing of newly developed airborne sensors to help foster the next generation of airborne instruments.

  2. Aerial videotape mapping of coastal geomorphic changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Debusschere, Karolien; Penland, Shea; Westphal, Karen A.; Reimer, P. Douglas; McBride, Randolph A.

    1991-01-01

    An aerial geomorphic mapping system was developed to examine the spatial and temporal variability in the coastal geomorphology of Louisiana. Between 1984 and 1990 eleven sequential annual and post-hurricane aerial videotape surveys were flown covering periods of prolonged fair weather, hurricane impacts and subsequent post-storm recoveries. A coastal geomorphic classification system was developed to map the spatial and temporal geomorphic changes between these surveys. The classification system is based on 10 years of shoreline monitoring, analysis of aerial photography for 1940-1989, and numerous field surveys. The classification system divides shorelines into two broad classes: natural and altered. Each class consists of several genetically linked categories of shorelines. Each category is further subdivided into morphologic types on the basis of landform relief, elevation, habitat type, vegetation density and type, and sediment characteristics. The classification is used with imagery from the low-altitude, high-resolution aerial videotape surveys to describe and quantify the longshore and cross-shore geomorphic, sedimentologic, and vegetative character of Louisiana's shoreline systems. The mapping system makes it possible to delineate and map detailed geomorphic habitat changes at a resolution higher than that of conventional vertical aerial photography. Morphologic units are mapped parallel to the regional shoreline from the aerial videotape imagery onto the base maps at a scale of 1:24,000. The base maps were constructed from vertical aerial photography concurrent with the data of the video imagery.

  3. Differences in mechanical and structural properties of surface and aerial petioles of the aquatic plant Nymphaea odorata subsp. tuberosa (Nymphaeaceae).

    PubMed

    Etnier, Shelley A; Villani, Philip J

    2007-07-01

    Lily pads (Nymphaea odorata) exhibit heterophylly where a single plant may have leaves that are submerged, floating, or above (aerial) the surface of the water. Lily pads are placed in a unique situation because each leaf form is exposed to a distinctly different set of mechanical demands. While surface petioles may be loaded in tension under conditions of wind or waves, aerial petioles are loaded in compression because they must support the weight of the lamina. Using standard techniques, we compared the mechanical and morphological properties of both surface and aerial leaf petioles. Structural stiffness (EI) and the second moment of area (I) were higher in aerial petioles, although we detected no differences in other mechanical values (elastic modulus [E], extension ratio, and breaking strength). Morphologically, aerial petioles had a thicker rind, with increased collenchyma tissue and sclereid cell frequency. Aerial petioles also had a larger cross-sectional area and were more elliptical. Thus, subtle changes in the distribution of materials, rather than differences in their makeup, differentiate petiole forms. We suggest that the growth of aerial petioles may be an adaptive response to shading, allowing aerial leaves to rise above a crowded water surface.

  4. Differences in mechanical and structural properties of surface and aerial petioles of the aquatic plant Nymphaea odorata subsp. tuberosa (Nymphaeaceae).

    PubMed

    Etnier, Shelley A; Villani, Philip J

    2007-07-01

    Lily pads (Nymphaea odorata) exhibit heterophylly where a single plant may have leaves that are submerged, floating, or above (aerial) the surface of the water. Lily pads are placed in a unique situation because each leaf form is exposed to a distinctly different set of mechanical demands. While surface petioles may be loaded in tension under conditions of wind or waves, aerial petioles are loaded in compression because they must support the weight of the lamina. Using standard techniques, we compared the mechanical and morphological properties of both surface and aerial leaf petioles. Structural stiffness (EI) and the second moment of area (I) were higher in aerial petioles, although we detected no differences in other mechanical values (elastic modulus [E], extension ratio, and breaking strength). Morphologically, aerial petioles had a thicker rind, with increased collenchyma tissue and sclereid cell frequency. Aerial petioles also had a larger cross-sectional area and were more elliptical. Thus, subtle changes in the distribution of materials, rather than differences in their makeup, differentiate petiole forms. We suggest that the growth of aerial petioles may be an adaptive response to shading, allowing aerial leaves to rise above a crowded water surface. PMID:21636476

  5. Automated Aerial Refueling Hitches a Ride on AFF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Jennifer L.; Murray, James E.; Bever, Glenn; Campos, Norma V.; Schkolnik, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    The recent introduction of uninhabited aerial vehicles [UAVs (basically, remotely piloted or autonomous aircraft)] has spawned new developments in autonomous operation and posed new challenges. Automated aerial refueling (AAR) is a capability that will enable UAVs to travel greater distances and loiter longer over targets. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, in cooperation with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR), the Naval Air Force Pacific Fleet, and the Air Force Research Laboratory, rapidly conceived and accomplished an AAR flight research project focused on collecting a unique, high-quality database on the dynamics of the hose and drogue of an aerial refueling system. This flight-derived database would be used to validate mathematical models of the dynamics in support of design and analysis of AAR systems for future UAVs. The project involved the use of two Dryden F/A-18 airplanes and an S-3 hose-drogue refueling store on loan from the Navy. In this year-long project, which was started on October 1, 2002, 583 research maneuvers were completed during 23 flights.

  6. Geometric Calibration and Validation of Ultracam Aerial Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Michael; Schachinger, Bernhard; Muick, Marc; Neuner, Christian; Tschemmernegg, Helfried

    2016-03-01

    We present details of the calibration and validation procedure of UltraCam Aerial Camera systems. Results from the laboratory calibration and from validation flights are presented for both, the large format nadir cameras and the oblique cameras as well. Thus in this contribution we show results from the UltraCam Eagle and the UltraCam Falcon, both nadir mapping cameras, and the UltraCam Osprey, our oblique camera system. This sensor offers a mapping grade nadir component together with the four oblique camera heads. The geometric processing after the flight mission is being covered by the UltraMap software product. Thus we present details about the workflow as well. The first part consists of the initial post-processing which combines image information as well as camera parameters derived from the laboratory calibration. The second part, the traditional automated aerial triangulation (AAT) is the step from single images to blocks and enables an additional optimization process. We also present some special features of our software, which are designed to better support the operator to analyze large blocks of aerial images and to judge the quality of the photogrammetric set-up.

  7. Automatic Sea Bird Detection from High Resolution Aerial Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, S.; Grenzdörffer, G. J.

    2016-06-01

    Great efforts are presently taken in the scientific community to develop computerized and (fully) automated image processing methods allowing for an efficient and automatic monitoring of sea birds and marine mammals in ever-growing amounts of aerial imagery. Currently the major part of the processing, however, is still conducted by especially trained professionals, visually examining the images and detecting and classifying the requested subjects. This is a very tedious task, particularly when the rate of void images regularly exceeds the mark of 90%. In the content of this contribution we will present our work aiming to support the processing of aerial images by modern methods from the field of image processing. We will especially focus on the combination of local, region-based feature detection and piecewise global image segmentation for automatic detection of different sea bird species. Large image dimensions resulting from the use of medium and large-format digital cameras in aerial surveys inhibit the applicability of image processing methods based on global operations. In order to efficiently handle those image sizes and to nevertheless take advantage of globally operating segmentation algorithms, we will describe the combined usage of a simple performant feature detector based on local operations on the original image with a complex global segmentation algorithm operating on extracted sub-images. The resulting exact segmentation of possible candidates then serves as a basis for the determination of feature vectors for subsequent elimination of false candidates and for classification tasks.

  8. 7 CFR 611.21 - Availability of aerial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611... § 611.21 Availability of aerial photography. The National Cartography and Geospatial Center obtains necessary clearance for all aerial photography for NRCS. New aerial photography of designated areas in...

  9. 7 CFR 611.21 - Availability of aerial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611... § 611.21 Availability of aerial photography. The National Cartography and Geospatial Center obtains necessary clearance for all aerial photography for NRCS. New aerial photography of designated areas in...

  10. 7 CFR 611.21 - Availability of aerial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611... § 611.21 Availability of aerial photography. The National Cartography and Geospatial Center obtains necessary clearance for all aerial photography for NRCS. New aerial photography of designated areas in...

  11. 7 CFR 611.21 - Availability of aerial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611... § 611.21 Availability of aerial photography. The National Cartography and Geospatial Center obtains necessary clearance for all aerial photography for NRCS. New aerial photography of designated areas in...

  12. 7 CFR 611.21 - Availability of aerial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611... § 611.21 Availability of aerial photography. The National Cartography and Geospatial Center obtains necessary clearance for all aerial photography for NRCS. New aerial photography of designated areas in...

  13. The design of aerial camera focusing mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Changchang; Yang, Hongtao; Niu, Haijun

    2015-10-01

    In order to ensure the imaging resolution of aerial camera and compensating defocusing caused by the changing of atmospheric temperature, pressure, oblique photographing distance and other environmental factor [1,2], and to meeting the overall design requirements of the camera for the lower mass and smaller size , the linear focusing mechanism is designed. Through the target surface support, the target surface component is connected with focusing driving mechanism. Make use of precision ball screws, focusing mechanism transforms the input rotary motion of motor into linear motion of the focal plane assembly. Then combined with the form of linear guide restraint movement, the magnetic encoder is adopted to detect the response of displacement. And the closed loop control is adopted to realize accurate focusing. This paper illustrated the design scheme for a focusing mechanism and analyzed its error sources. It has the advantages of light friction and simple transmission chain and reducing the transmission error effectively. And this paper also analyses the target surface by finite element analysis and lightweight design. Proving that the precision of focusing mechanism can achieve higher than 3um, and the focusing range is +/-2mm.

  14. Directed aerial robot explorers for planetary exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankine, A. A.; Aaron, K. M.; Heun, M. K.; Nock, K. T.; Schlaifer, R. S.; Wyszkowski, C. J.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Lorenz, R. D.

    2004-01-01

    Global Aerospace Corporation (GAC) is developing a revolutionary system architecture for exploration of planetary atmospheres and surfaces from atmospheric altitudes. The work is supported by the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC). The innovative system architecture relies upon the use of Directed Aerial Robot Explorers (DAREs), which essentially are long-duration-flight autonomous balloons with trajectory control capabilities that can deploy swarms of miniature probes over multiple target areas. The balloons will serve a dual purpose as independent explorers and as microprobe delivery systems for targeted observations. Trajectory control capabilities will offer unprecedented opportunities in high-resolution, targeted observations of both atmospheric and surface phenomena. Multifunctional microprobes will be deployed from the balloons once over the target areas, and perform a multitude of functions, such as atmospheric profiling or surface exploration, relaying data back to the balloons or an orbiter. This architecture will enable low-cost, low-energy, long-term global exploration of planetary atmospheres and surfaces. We report here results of the preliminary analysis of the trajectory control capabilities and potential applications for DARE platforms at Venus, Mars, Titan and Jupiter.

  15. Mars Exploration with Directed Aerial Robot Explorers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankine, Alexey A.; Aaron, Kim M.; Heun, Matthew K.; Nock, Kerry T.; Schlaifer, R. Stephen; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Lorenz, Ralph D.

    2004-02-01

    Global Aerospace Corporation (GAC) is developing a revolutionary system architecture for exploration of planetary atmospheres and surfaces from atmospheric altitudes. The work is supported by the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC). The innovative system architecture relies upon the use of Directed Aerial Robot Explorers (DAREs), which essentially are long-duration-flight autonomous balloons with trajectory control capabilities that can deploy swarms of miniature probes over multiple target areas. Balloon guidance capabilities will offer unprecedented opportunities in high-resolution, targeted observations of both atmospheric and surface phenomena. Multifunctional microprobes will be deployed from the balloons when over the target areas, and perform a multitude of functions, such as atmospheric profiling or surface exploration, relaying data back to the balloons or an orbiter. This architecture will enable low-cost, low-energy, long-term global exploration of planetary atmospheres and surfaces. A conceptual analysis of DARE capabilities and science applications for Mars is presented. Initial results of simulations indicate that a relatively small trajectory control wing can significantly change planetary balloon flight paths, especially during summer seasons in Polar Regions. This opens new possibilities for high-resolution observations of crustal magnetic anomalies, polar layered terrain, polar clouds, dust storms at the edges of the Polar caps and of seasonal variability of volatiles in the atmosphere.

  16. Adapting unmanned aerial vehicles for turbulence measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, Brandon; Helvey, Jacob; Mullen, Jon; Thamann, Michael; Bailey, Sean

    2015-11-01

    We describe the approach of using highly instrumented and autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to spatially interrogate the atmospheric boundary layer's turbulent flow structure. This approach introduces new capabilities not available in contemporary micro-meteorological measurement techniques such as instrumented towers, balloons, and manned aircraft. A key advantage in utilizing UAVs as an atmospheric turbulence research tool is that it reduces the reliance on assumptions regarding temporal evolution of the turbulence inherent within Taylor's frozen flow hypothesis by facilitating the ability to spatially sample the flow field over a wide range of spatial scales. In addition, UAVs offer the ability to measure in a wide range of boundary conditions and distance from the earth's surface, the ability to gather many boundary layer thicknesses of data during brief periods of statistical quasi-stationarity, and the ability to acquire data where and when it is needed. We describe recent progress made in manufacturing purpose-built airframes and adapting pre-fabricated airframes for these measurements by integrating sensors into those airframes and developing data analysis techniques to isolate the atmospheric turbulence from the measured velocity signal. This research is supported by NSF Award CBET-1351411.

  17. Mapping Urban Ecosystem Services Using High Resolution Aerial Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilant, A. N.; Neale, A.; Wilhelm, D.

    2010-12-01

    Ecosystem services (ES) are the many life-sustaining benefits we receive from nature: e.g., clean air and water, food and fiber, cultural-aesthetic-recreational benefits, pollination and flood control. The ES concept is emerging as a means of integrating complex environmental and economic information to support informed environmental decision making. The US EPA is developing a web-based National Atlas of Ecosystem Services, with a component for urban ecosystems. Currently, the only wall-to-wall, national scale land cover data suitable for this analysis is the National Land Cover Data (NLCD) at 30 m spatial resolution with 5 and 10 year updates. However, aerial photography is acquired at higher spatial resolution (0.5-3 m) and more frequently (1-5 years, typically) for most urban areas. Land cover was mapped in Raleigh, NC using freely available USDA National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP) with 1 m ground sample distance to test the suitability of aerial photography for urban ES analysis. Automated feature extraction techniques were used to extract five land cover classes, and an accuracy assessment was performed using standard techniques. Results will be presented that demonstrate applications to mapping ES in urban environments: greenways, corridors, fragmentation, habitat, impervious surfaces, dark and light pavement (urban heat island). Automated feature extraction results mapped over NAIP color aerial photograph. At this scale, we can look at land cover and related ecosystem services at the 2-10 m scale. Small features such as individual trees and sidewalks are visible and mappable. Classified aerial photo of Downtown Raleigh NC Red: impervious surface Dark Green: trees Light Green: grass Tan: soil

  18. Combining Human Computing and Machine Learning to Make Sense of Big (Aerial) Data for Disaster Response.

    PubMed

    Ofli, Ferda; Meier, Patrick; Imran, Muhammad; Castillo, Carlos; Tuia, Devis; Rey, Nicolas; Briant, Julien; Millet, Pauline; Reinhard, Friedrich; Parkan, Matthew; Joost, Stéphane

    2016-03-01

    Aerial imagery captured via unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is playing an increasingly important role in disaster response. Unlike satellite imagery, aerial imagery can be captured and processed within hours rather than days. In addition, the spatial resolution of aerial imagery is an order of magnitude higher than the imagery produced by the most sophisticated commercial satellites today. Both the United States Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the European Commission's Joint Research Center (JRC) have noted that aerial imagery will inevitably present a big data challenge. The purpose of this article is to get ahead of this future challenge by proposing a hybrid crowdsourcing and real-time machine learning solution to rapidly process large volumes of aerial data for disaster response in a time-sensitive manner. Crowdsourcing can be used to annotate features of interest in aerial images (such as damaged shelters and roads blocked by debris). These human-annotated features can then be used to train a supervised machine learning system to learn to recognize such features in new unseen images. In this article, we describe how this hybrid solution for image analysis can be implemented as a module (i.e., Aerial Clicker) to extend an existing platform called Artificial Intelligence for Disaster Response (AIDR), which has already been deployed to classify microblog messages during disasters using its Text Clicker module and in response to Cyclone Pam, a category 5 cyclone that devastated Vanuatu in March 2015. The hybrid solution we present can be applied to both aerial and satellite imagery and has applications beyond disaster response such as wildlife protection, human rights, and archeological exploration. As a proof of concept, we recently piloted this solution using very high-resolution aerial photographs of a wildlife reserve in Namibia to support rangers with their wildlife conservation efforts (SAVMAP project, http://lasig.epfl.ch/savmap ). The

  19. Combining Human Computing and Machine Learning to Make Sense of Big (Aerial) Data for Disaster Response.

    PubMed

    Ofli, Ferda; Meier, Patrick; Imran, Muhammad; Castillo, Carlos; Tuia, Devis; Rey, Nicolas; Briant, Julien; Millet, Pauline; Reinhard, Friedrich; Parkan, Matthew; Joost, Stéphane

    2016-03-01

    Aerial imagery captured via unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is playing an increasingly important role in disaster response. Unlike satellite imagery, aerial imagery can be captured and processed within hours rather than days. In addition, the spatial resolution of aerial imagery is an order of magnitude higher than the imagery produced by the most sophisticated commercial satellites today. Both the United States Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the European Commission's Joint Research Center (JRC) have noted that aerial imagery will inevitably present a big data challenge. The purpose of this article is to get ahead of this future challenge by proposing a hybrid crowdsourcing and real-time machine learning solution to rapidly process large volumes of aerial data for disaster response in a time-sensitive manner. Crowdsourcing can be used to annotate features of interest in aerial images (such as damaged shelters and roads blocked by debris). These human-annotated features can then be used to train a supervised machine learning system to learn to recognize such features in new unseen images. In this article, we describe how this hybrid solution for image analysis can be implemented as a module (i.e., Aerial Clicker) to extend an existing platform called Artificial Intelligence for Disaster Response (AIDR), which has already been deployed to classify microblog messages during disasters using its Text Clicker module and in response to Cyclone Pam, a category 5 cyclone that devastated Vanuatu in March 2015. The hybrid solution we present can be applied to both aerial and satellite imagery and has applications beyond disaster response such as wildlife protection, human rights, and archeological exploration. As a proof of concept, we recently piloted this solution using very high-resolution aerial photographs of a wildlife reserve in Namibia to support rangers with their wildlife conservation efforts (SAVMAP project, http://lasig.epfl.ch/savmap ). The

  20. Verification of Potency of Aerial Digital Oblique Cameras for Aerial Photogrammetry in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakada, Ryuji; Takigawa, Masanori; Ohga, Tomowo; Fujii, Noritsuna

    2016-06-01

    Digital oblique aerial camera (hereinafter called "oblique cameras") is an assembly of medium format digital cameras capable of shooting digital aerial photographs in five directions i.e. nadir view and oblique views (forward and backward, left and right views) simultaneously and it is used for shooting digital aerial photographs efficiently for generating 3D models in a wide area. For aerial photogrammetry of public survey in Japan, it is required to use large format cameras, like DMC and UltraCam series, to ensure aerial photogrammetric accuracy. Although oblique cameras are intended to generate 3D models, digital aerial photographs in 5 directions taken with them should not be limited to 3D model production but they may also be allowed for digital mapping and photomaps of required public survey accuracy in Japan. In order to verify the potency of using oblique cameras for aerial photogrammetry (simultaneous adjustment, digital mapping and photomaps), (1) a viewer was developed to interpret digital aerial photographs taken with oblique cameras, (2) digital aerial photographs were shot with an oblique camera owned by us, a Penta DigiCAM of IGI mbH, and (3) accuracy of 3D measurements was verified.

  1. Locating buildings in aerial photos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James S.

    1994-01-01

    Algorithms and techniques for use in the identification and location of large buildings in digitized copies of aerial photographs are developed and tested. The building data would be used in the simulation of objects located in the vicinity of an airport that may be detected by aircraft radar. Two distinct approaches are considered. Most building footprints are rectangular in form. The first approach studied is to search for right-angled corners that characterize rectangular objects and then to connect these corners to complete the building. This problem is difficult because many nonbuilding objects, such as street corners, parking lots, and ballparks often have well defined corners which are often difficult to distinguish from rooftops. Furthermore, rooftops come in a number of shapes, sizes, shadings, and textures which also limit the discrimination task. The strategy used linear sequences of different samples to detect straight edge segments at multiple angles and to determine when these segments meet at approximately right-angles with respect to each other. This technique is effective in locating corners. The test image used has a fairly rectangular block pattern oriented about thirty degrees clockwise from a vertical alignment, and the overall measurement data reflect this. However, this technique does not discriminate between buildings and other objects at an operationally suitable rate. In addition, since multiple paths are tested for each image pixel, this is a time consuming task. The process can be speeded up by preprocessing the image to locate the more optimal sampling paths. The second approach is to rely on a human operator to identify and select the building objects and then to have the computer determine the outline and location of the selected structures. When presented with a copy of a digitized aerial photograph, the operator uses a mouse and cursor to select a target building. After a button on the mouse is pressed, with the cursor fully within

  2. Draper Laboratory small autonomous aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBitetto, Paul A.; Johnson, Eric N.; Bosse, Michael C.; Trott, Christian A.

    1997-06-01

    The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc. and students from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Boston University have cooperated to develop an autonomous aerial vehicle that won the 1996 International Aerial Robotics Competition. This paper describes the approach, system architecture and subsystem designs for the entry. This entry represents a combination of many technology areas: navigation, guidance, control, vision processing, human factors, packaging, power, real-time software, and others. The aerial vehicle, an autonomous helicopter, performs navigation and control functions using multiple sensors: differential GPS, inertial measurement unit, sonar altimeter, and a flux compass. The aerial transmits video imagery to the ground. A ground based vision processor converts the image data into target position and classification estimates. The system was designed, built, and flown in less than one year and has provided many lessons about autonomous vehicle systems, several of which are discussed. In an appendix, our current research in augmenting the navigation system with vision- based estimates is presented.

  3. Reliable aerial thermography for energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, J. R.; Bowman, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    A method for energy conservation, the aerial thermography survey, is discussed. It locates sources of energy losses and wasteful energy management practices. An operational map is presented for clear sky conditions. The map outlines the key environmental conditions conductive to obtaining reliable aerial thermography. The map is developed from defined visual and heat loss discrimination criteria which are quantized based on flat roof heat transfer calculations.

  4. Aerial radiological survey of Areas 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15 and 17, Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, 8 August-2 September 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Fritzsche, A E

    1982-06-01

    An aerial gamma survey was conducted over Yucca Flat during August 1978. A limited quantity of soil samples was obtained and evaluated in support of the aerial survey. Results are presented in the form of exposure rate isopleths from man-made isotopes and estimates of concentrations and inventories of /sup 152/Eu, /sup 137/Cs and /sup 60/Co.

  5. Aerial Vehicle Surveys of other Planetary Atmospheres and Surfaces: Imaging, Remote-sensing, and Autonomy Technology Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Gregory; Ippolito, Corey; Alena, Rick

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to review the anticipated imaging and remote-sensing technology requirements for aerial vehicle survey missions to other planetary bodies in our Solar system that can support in-atmosphere flight. In the not too distant future such planetary aerial vehicle (a.k.a. aerial explorers) exploration missions will become feasible. Imaging and remote-sensing observations will be a key objective for these missions. Accordingly, it is imperative that optimal solutions in terms of imaging acquisition and real-time autonomous analysis of image data sets be developed for such vehicles.

  6. Aerial Measuring System (AMS) Baseline Surveys for Emergency Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, C

    2012-06-04

    Originally established in the 1960s to support the Nuclear Test Program, the AMS mission is to provide a rapid and comprehensive worldwide aerial measurement, analysis, and interpretation capability in response to a nuclear/radiological emergency. AMS provides a responsive team of individuals whose processes allow for a mission to be conducted and completed with results available within hours. This presentation slide-show reviews some of the history of the AMS, summarizes present capabilities and methods, and addresses the value of the surveys.

  7. Aerial photo SBVC1962". Photo no. 360. Low oblique aerial view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial photo -SBVC-1962". Photo no. 360. Low oblique aerial view of the campus, looking southeast. Stamped on the rear: "Ron Wilhite, Sun-Telegram photo, file, 10/22/62/ - San Bernardino Valley College, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  8. Exploring Planets with Directed Aerial Robot Explorers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankine, Alexey A.; Aaron, Kim M.; Heun, Matthew K.; Nock, Kerry T.; Schlaifer, R. Stephen; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Lorenz, Ralph D.

    2004-02-01

    Global Aerospace Corporation (GAC) is developing a revolutionary system architecture for exploration of planetary atmospheres and surfaces from atmospheric altitudes. The work is supported by the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC). The innovative system architecture relies upon the use of Directed Aerial Robot Explorers (DAREs), which essentially are long-duration-flight autonomous balloons with trajectory control capabilities that can deploy swarms of miniature probes over multiple target areas. Balloon guidance capabilities will offer unprecedented opportunities in high-resolution, targeted observations of both atmospheric and surface phenomena. Multifunctional microprobes will be deployed from the balloons once over the target areas, and perform a multitude of functions, such as atmospheric profiling or surface exploration, relaying data back to the balloons or an orbiter. This architecture will enable low-cost, low-energy, long-term global exploration of planetary atmospheres and surfaces. This paper focuses on a conceptual analysis of the DARE architecture capabilities and science applications for Venus, Titan and Jupiter. Preliminary simulations with simplified atmospheric models show that a relatively small trajectory control wing can enable global coverage of the atmospheres of Venus and Titan by a single balloon over a 100-day mission. This presents unique opportunities for global in situ sampling of the atmospheric composition and dynamics, atmospheric profiling over multiple sites with small dropsondes and targeted deployment of surface microprobes. At Jupiter, path guidance capabilities of the DARE platforms permits targeting localized regions of interest, such as ``hot spots'' or the Great Red Spot. A single DARE platform at Jupiter can sample major types of the atmospheric flows (zones and belts) over a 100-day mission. Observations by deployable probes would reveal if the differences exist in radiative, dynamic and compositional environments

  9. Aerial radiation survey at a military range.

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, G. P.; Martino, L. E.; Wrobel, J.; Environmental Assessment; U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground

    2001-04-01

    Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) is currently listed on the Superfund National Priorities List because of past waste handling practices at 13 'study areas.' Concern has been expressed that anthropogenic radioisotopes may have been released at some of the study areas, with the potential of posing health risks to human or ecological receptors. This concern was addressed by thoroughly searching archival records, sampling and analyzing environmental media, and performing an aerial radiation survey. The aerial radiation survey techniques employed have been used over all U.S. Department of Energy and commercial reactor sites. Use of the Aerial Measurement System (AMS) allowed investigators to safely survey areas where surveys using hand-held instruments would be difficult to perform. In addition, the AMS delivered a full spectrum of the measured gamma radiation, thereby providing a means of determining which radioisotopes were present at the surface. As a quality check on the aerial measurements, four ground truth measurements were made at selected locations and compared with the aerial data for the same locations. The results of the survey revealed no evidence of surface radioactive contamination. The measured background radiation, including the cosmic contribution, ranged from 4 to 11 {mu}R/h.

  10. Looking for an old aerial photograph

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    Attempts to photograph the surface of the Earth date from the 1800's, when photographers attached cameras to balloons, kites, and even pigeons. Today, aerial photographs and satellite images are commonplace. The rate of acquiring aerial photographs and satellite images has increased rapidly in recent years. Views of the Earth obtained from aircraft or satellites have become valuable tools to Government resource planners and managers, land-use experts, environmentalists, engineers, scientists, and a wide variety of other users. Many people want historical aerial photographs for business or personal reasons. They may want to locate the boundaries of an old farm or a piece of family property. Or they may want a photograph as a record of changes in their neighborhood, or as a gift. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) maintains the Earth Science Information Centers (ESIC?s) to sell aerial photographs, remotely sensed images from satellites, a wide array of digital geographic and cartographic data, as well as the Bureau?s wellknown maps. Declassified photographs from early spy satellites were recently added to the ESIC offerings of historical images. Using the Aerial Photography Summary Record System database, ESIC researchers can help customers find imagery in the collections of other Federal agencies and, in some cases, those of private companies that specialize in esoteric products.

  11. Aerial Measuring System Sensor Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    R. S. Detwiler

    2002-04-01

    This project deals with the modeling the Aerial Measuring System (AMS) fixed-wing and rotary-wing sensor systems, which are critical U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Consequence Management assets. The fixed-wing system is critical in detecting lost or stolen radiography or medical sources, or mixed fission products as from a commercial power plant release at high flying altitudes. The helicopter is typically used at lower altitudes to determine ground contamination, such as in measuring americium from a plutonium ground dispersal during a cleanup. Since the sensitivity of these instruments as a function of altitude is crucial in estimating detection limits of various ground contaminations and necessary count times, a characterization of their sensitivity as a function of altitude and energy is needed. Experimental data at altitude as well as laboratory benchmarks is important to insure that the strong effects of air attenuation are modeled correctly. The modeling presented here is the first attempt at such a characterization of the equipment for flying altitudes. The sodium iodide (NaI) sensors utilized with these systems were characterized using the Monte Carlo N-Particle code (MCNP) developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. For the fixed wing system, calculations modeled the spectral response for the 3-element NaI detector pod and High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector, in the relevant energy range of 50 keV to 3 MeV. NaI detector responses were simulated for both point and distributed surface sources as a function of gamma energy and flying altitude. For point sources, photopeak efficiencies were calculated for a zero radial distance and an offset equal to the altitude. For distributed sources approximating an infinite plane, gross count efficiencies were calculated and normalized to a uniform surface deposition of 1 {micro}Ci/m{sup 2}. The helicopter calculations modeled the transport of americium-241 ({sup 241}Am

  12. Shutter/aperture settings for aerial photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, H. E.; Perry, L.

    1976-01-01

    Determination of aerial camera shutter and aperture settings to produce consistently high-quality aerial photographs is a task complicated by numerous variables. Presented in this article are brief discussions of each variable and specific data which may be used for the systematic control of each. The variables discussed include sunlight, aircraft altitude, subject and season, film speed, and optical system. Data which may be used as a base reference are included, and encompass two sets of sensitometric specifications for two film-chemistry processes along with camera-aircraft parameters, which have been established and used to produce good exposures. Information contained here may be used to design and implement an exposure-determination system for aerial photography.

  13. The Development and Flight Testing of an Aerially Deployed Unmanned Aerial System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Andrew

    An investigation into the feasibility of aerial deployed unmanned aerial vehicles was completed. The investigation included the development and flight testing of multiple unmanned aerial systems to investigate the different components of potential aerial deployment missions. The project consisted of two main objectives; the first objective dealt with the development of an airframe capable of surviving aerial deployment from a rocket and then self assembling from its stowed configuration into its flight configuration. The second objective focused on the development of an autopilot capable of performing basic guidance, navigation, and control following aerial deployment. To accomplish these two objectives multiple airframes were developed to verify their completion experimentally. The first portion of the project, investigating the feasibility of surviving an aerial deployment, was completed using a fixed wing glider that following a successful deployment had 52 seconds of controlled flight. Before developing the autopilot in the second phase of the project, the glider was significantly upgraded to fix faults discovered in the glider flight testing and to enhance the system capabilities. Unfortunately to conform to outdoor flight restrictions imposed by the university and the Federal Aviation Administration it was required to switch airframes before flight testing of the new fixed wing platform could begin. As a result, an autopilot was developed for a quadrotor and verified experimentally completely indoors to remain within the limits of governing policies.

  14. An aerial radiological survey of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding area, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) and surrounding area in Paducah, Kentucky, was conducted during May 15--25, 1990. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the terrestrial radiological environment at the PGDP and surrounding area for use in effective environmental management and emergency response planning. The aerial survey was flown at an altitude of 61 meters (200 feet) along a series of parallel lines 107 meters (350 feet) apart. The survey encompassed an area of 62 square kilometers (24 square miles), bordered on the north by the Ohio River. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a gamma radiation contour map. Typical background exposure rates were found to vary from 5 to 12 microroentgens per hour ([mu]R/h). Protactinium-234m, a radioisotope indicative of uranium-238, was detected at several facilities at the PGDR. In support of the aerial survey, ground-based exposure rate and soil sample measurements were obtained at several sites within the survey perimeter. The results of the aerial and ground-based measurements were found to agree within [plus minus]15%.

  15. Hardware Implementation of COTS Avionics System on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Yoo-Hsiu; Kumar, Parth; Ishihara, Abraham; Ippolito, Corey

    2010-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can serve as low cost and low risk platforms for flight testing in Aeronautics research. The NASA Exploration Aerial Vehicle (EAV) and Experimental Sensor-Controlled Aerial Vehicle (X-SCAV) UAVs were developed in support of control systems research at NASA Ames Research Center. The avionics hardware for both systems has been redesigned and updated, and the structure of the EAV has been further strengthened. Preliminary tests show the avionics operate properly in the new configuration. A linear model for the EAV also was estimated from flight data, and was verified in simulation. These modifications and results prepare the EAV and X-SCAV to be used in a wide variety of flight research projects.

  16. MicroProbe Small Unmanned Aerial System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland, Geoffrey; Miles, Ted

    2012-01-01

    The MicroProbe unmanned aerial system (UAS) concept incorporates twin electric motors mounted on the vehicle wing, thus enabling an aerodynamically and environmentally clean nose area for atmospheric sensors. A payload bay is also incorporated in the fuselage to accommodate remote sensing instruments. A key feature of this concept is lightweight construction combined with low flying speeds to minimize kinetic energy and associated hazards, as well as maximizing spatial resolution. This type of aerial platform is needed for Earth science research and environmental monitoring. There were no vehicles of this type known to exist previously.

  17. Metrically preserving the USGS aerial film archive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moe, Donald; Longhenry, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Since 1972, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, has provided fi lm-based products to the public. EROS is home to an archive of 12 million frames of analog photography ranging from 1937 to the present. The archive contains collections from both aerial and satellite platforms including programs such as the National High Altitude Program (NHAP), National Aerial Photography Program (NAPP), U.S. Antarctic Resource Center (USARC), Declass 1(CORONA, ARGON, and LANYARD), Declass 2 (KH-7 and KH-9), and Landsat (1972 – 1992, Landsat 1–5).

  18. Advanced Image Processing of Aerial Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodell, Glenn; Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-ur; Hines, Glenn

    2006-01-01

    Aerial imagery of the Earth is an invaluable tool for the assessment of ground features, especially during times of disaster. Researchers at the NASA Langley Research Center have developed techniques which have proven to be useful for such imagery. Aerial imagery from various sources, including Langley's Boeing 757 Aries aircraft, has been studied extensively. This paper discusses these studies and demonstrates that better-than-observer imagery can be obtained even when visibility is severely compromised. A real-time, multi-spectral experimental system will be described and numerous examples will be shown.

  19. Ground cover estimated from aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerbermann, A. H.; Cuellar, J. A.; Wiegand, C. L.

    1976-01-01

    Estimates of per cent ground cover made by ground observers were compared with independent estimates made on the basis of low-altitude (640-1219 m) aerial photographs of the same fields. Standard statistical simple correlation and linear regression analyses revealed a high correlation between the two estimation methods. In crops such as grain, sorghum, corn, and forage sorghum, in which the broadest part of the leaf canopy is near the top of the plant, there was a tendency to overestimate the per cent ground cover from aerial photographs.

  20. Noise from aerial bursts of fireworks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maglieri, D. J.; Henderson, H. R.

    1973-01-01

    A study was made recording the pressure time histories of the aerial bursts of mortars of various sizes launched during an actual fireworks display. The peak overpressure and duration of blast noise as well as the energy spectral density are compared with the characteristics of a blasting cap and of an F-104 aircraft at a Mach number of 1.4 and an altitude of 42,000 ft. Noise levels of the fireworks aerial bursts peaked 15 decibels below levels deemed damaging to hearing.

  1. Laser Doppler velocimeter aerial spray measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalay, A. D.; Eberle, W. R.; Howle, R. E.; Shrider, K. R.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental research program for measuring the location, spatial extent, and relative concentration of airborne spray clouds generated by agricultural aircraft is described. The measurements were conducted with a ground-based laser Doppler velocimeter. The remote sensing instrumentation, experimental tests, and the results of the flight tests are discussed. The cross section of the aerial spray cloud and the observed location, extent, and relative concentration of the airborne particulates are presented. It is feasible to use a mobile laser Doppler velocimeter to track and monitor the transport and dispersion of aerial spray generated by an agricultural aircraft.

  2. AERIAL OF VISITORS INFORMATION CENTER [VIC] & ROCKET GARDEN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    AERIAL OF VISITORS INFORMATION CENTER [VIC] & ROCKET GARDEN KSC-373C-0556.20 116-KSC-373C-556.20, P-01622-B, ARCHIVE-04455 Aerial view of Easter crowds at Visitors Information Center, Kennedy Space Center, Florida.

  3. An aerial radiological survey of the Seabrook Nuclear Station and surrounding area, Seabrook, New Hampshire, July 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Seabrook Nuclear Station, Seabrook, New Hampshire, during the period 6 July through 14 July 1988. The purpose of the 247-square-kilometer (96-square-mile) survey was to document the terrestrial gamma environment of the station and surrounding area. An exposure rate contour map at 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was constructed from the gamma data and overlaid on an aerial photograph and map of the area. Exposure rates measured in the area typically ranged form 9 to 12 microroentgens per hour ({mu}R/h). In areas where water shielded the earth, lower exposure rates were measured. Ground-based exposure rate measurements and soil samples were obtained to support the aerial data. Oblique aerial photographs of the station were also acquired during the survey. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  4. The application of GPS precise point positioning technology in aerial triangulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiuxiao; Fu, Jianhong; Sun, Hongxing; Toth, Charles

    In traditional GPS-supported aerotriangulation, differential GPS (DGPS) positioning technology is used to determine the 3-dimensional coordinates of the perspective centers at exposure time with an accuracy of centimeter to decimeter level. This method can significantly reduce the number of ground control points (GCPs). However, the establishment of GPS reference stations for DGPS positioning is not only labor-intensive and costly, but also increases the implementation difficulty of aerial photography. This paper proposes aerial triangulation supported with GPS precise point positioning (PPP) as a way to avoid the use of the GPS reference stations and simplify the work of aerial photography. Firstly, we present the algorithm for GPS PPP in aerial triangulation applications. Secondly, the error law of the coordinate of perspective centers determined using GPS PPP is analyzed. Thirdly, based on GPS PPP and aerial triangulation software self-developed by the authors, four sets of actual aerial images taken from surveying and mapping projects, different in both terrain and photographic scale, are given as experimental models. The four sets of actual data were taken over a flat region at a scale of 1:2500, a mountainous region at a scale of 1:3000, a high mountainous region at a scale of 1:32000 and an upland region at a scale of 1:60000 respectively. In these experiments, the GPS PPP results were compared with results obtained through DGPS positioning and traditional bundle block adjustment. In this way, the empirical positioning accuracy of GPS PPP in aerial triangulation can be estimated. Finally, the results of bundle block adjustment with airborne GPS controls from GPS PPP are analyzed in detail. The empirical results show that GPS PPP applied in aerial triangulation has a systematic error of half-meter level and a stochastic error within a few decimeters. However, if a suitable adjustment solution is adopted, the systematic error can be eliminated in GPS-supported

  5. Crystallization and preliminary structure determination of the transfer protein TraM from the Gram-positive conjugative plasmid pIP501.

    PubMed

    Goessweiner-Mohr, Nikolaus; Grumet, Lukas; Pavkov-Keller, Tea; Birner-Gruenberger, Ruth; Grohmann, Elisabeth; Keller, Walter

    2013-02-01

    The major means of horizontal gene spread (e.g. of antibiotic resistance) is conjugative plasmid transfer. It presents a serious threat especially for hospitalized and immuno-suppressed patients, as it can lead to the accelerated spread of bacteria with multiple antibiotic resistances. Detailed information about the process is available only for bacteria of Gram-negative (G-) origin and little is known about the corresponding mechanisms in Gram-positive (G+) bacteria. Here we present the purification, biophysical characterization, crystallization and preliminary structure determination of the TraM C-terminal domain (TraMΔ, comprising residues 190-322 of the full-length protein), a putative transfer protein from the G+ conjugative model plasmid pIP501. The crystals diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution and belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 39.21, b = 54.98, c = 93.47 Å, α = 89.91, β = 86.44, γ = 78.63° and six molecules per asymmetric unit. The preliminary structure was solved by selenomethionine single-wavelength anomalous diffraction.

  6. 77 FR 36250 - Information Collection Request; Request for Aerial Photography

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency Information Collection Request; Request for Aerial Photography... FSA Aerial Photography Program. The FSA Aerial Photography Field Office (APFO) uses the information from this form to collect the customer and photography information needed to produce and ship...

  7. 47 CFR 32.6421 - Aerial cable expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aerial cable expense. 32.6421 Section 32.6421... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6421 Aerial cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with aerial cable. (b) Subsidiary record...

  8. Geography via Aerial Field Trips: Do It This Way, 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richason, Benjamin F., Jr.; Guell, Carl E.

    To provide guidance for geography teachers, this booklet presents information on how to plan and execute aerial field trips. The aerial field trip can be employed as an effective visual aid technique in the teaching of geography, especially for presenting earth generalizations and interrelationships. The benefits of an aerial field trip are…

  9. "A" Is for Aerial Maps and Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Reese H.; Delahunty, Tina

    2007-01-01

    The technology of satellite imagery and remote sensing adds a new dimension to teaching and learning about maps with elementary school children. Just a click of the mouse brings into view some images of the world that could only be imagined a generation ago. Close-up aerial pictures of the school and neighborhood quickly catch the interest of…

  10. 47 CFR 32.2421 - Aerial cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... cost of optical fiber cable and other associated material used in constructing a physical path for the... cable or aerial wire as well as the cost of other material used in construction of such plant... the original cost of single or paired conductor cable, wire and other associated material used...

  11. Sea Ice Mapping using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solbø, S.; Storvold, R.

    2011-12-01

    Mapping of sea ice extent and sea ice features is an important task in climate research. Since the arctic coastal and oceanic areas have a high probability of cloud coverage, aerial platforms are superior to satellite measurements for high-resolution optical measurements. However, routine observations of sea ice conditions present a variety of problems using conventional piloted aircrafts. Specially, the availability of suitable aircrafts for lease does not cover the demand in major parts of the arctic. With the recent advances in unmanned aerial systems (UAS), there is a high possibility of establishing routine, cost effective aerial observations of sea ice conditions in the near future. Unmanned aerial systems can carry a wide variety of sensors useful for characterizing sea-ice features. For instance, the CryoWing UAS, a system initially designed for measurements of the cryosphere, can be equipped with digital cameras, surface thermometers and laser altimeters for measuring freeboard of ice flows. In this work we will present results from recent CryoWing sea ice flights on Svalbard, Norway. The emphasis will be on data processing for stitching together images acquired with the non-stabilized camera payload, to form high-resolution mosaics covering large spatial areas. These data are being employed to map ice conditions; including ice and lead features and melt ponds. These high-resolution mosaics are also well suited for sea-ice mechanics, classification studies and for validation of satellite sea-ice products.

  12. Calculating aerial images from EUV masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pistor, Thomas V.; Neureuther, Andrew R.

    1999-06-01

    Aerial images for line/space patterns, arrays of posts and an arbitrary layout pattern are calculated for EUV masks in a 4X EUV imaging system. Both mask parameters and illumination parameters are varied to investigate their effects on the aerial image. To facilitate this study, a parallel version of TEMPEST with a Fourier transform boundary condition was developed and run on a network of 24 microprocessors. Line width variations are observed when absorber thickness or sidewall angle changes. As the line/space pattern scales to smaller dimensions, the aspect ratios of the absorber features increase, introducing geometric shadowing and reducing aerial image intensity and contrast. 100nm square posts have circular images of diameter close to 100nm, but decreasing in diameter significantly when the corner round radius at the mask becomes greater than 50 nm. Exterior mask posts image slightly smaller and with higher ellipticity than interior mask posts. The aerial image of the arbitrary test pattern gives insight into the effects of the off-axis incidence employed in EUV lithography systems.

  13. A TOOL FOR PLANNING AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    abstract The U.S. EPAs Pacific Coastal Ecology Branch has developed a tool in the form of an Excel. spreadsheet that facilitates planning aerial photography missions. The spreadsheet accepts various input parameters such as desired photo-scale and boundary coordinates of the stud...

  14. Aerial Scene Recognition using Efficient Sparse Representation

    SciTech Connect

    Cheriyadat, Anil M

    2012-01-01

    Advanced scene recognition systems for processing large volumes of high-resolution aerial image data are in great demand today. However, automated scene recognition remains a challenging problem. Efficient encoding and representation of spatial and structural patterns in the imagery are key in developing automated scene recognition algorithms. We describe an image representation approach that uses simple and computationally efficient sparse code computation to generate accurate features capable of producing excellent classification performance using linear SVM kernels. Our method exploits unlabeled low-level image feature measurements to learn a set of basis vectors. We project the low-level features onto the basis vectors and use simple soft threshold activation function to derive the sparse features. The proposed technique generates sparse features at a significantly lower computational cost than other methods~\\cite{Yang10, newsam11}, yet it produces comparable or better classification accuracy. We apply our technique to high-resolution aerial image datasets to quantify the aerial scene classification performance. We demonstrate that the dense feature extraction and representation methods are highly effective for automatic large-facility detection on wide area high-resolution aerial imagery.

  15. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ground: (i) Extensible boom platforms; (ii) Aerial ladders; (iii) Articulating boom platforms; (iv... articulating boom platforms. (i) Lift controls shall be tested each day prior to use to determine that such... when outriggers are used, they shall be positioned on pads or a solid surface. Wheel chocks shall...

  16. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ground: (i) Extensible boom platforms; (ii) Aerial ladders; (iii) Articulating boom platforms; (iv... articulating boom platforms. (i) Lift controls shall be tested each day prior to use to determine that such... when outriggers are used, they shall be positioned on pads or a solid surface. Wheel chocks shall...

  17. Aerial Infrared Photos for Citrus Growers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blazquez, C. H.; Horn, F. W. J.

    1982-01-01

    Handbook advises on benefits and methods of aerial photography with color infrared film. Interpretation of photographs is discussed in detail. Necessary equipment for interpretation is described--light table, magnifying lenses, and microfiche viewers, for example. Advice is given on rating tree condition; identifying effects of diseases, insects, and nematodes; and evaluating effects of soil, water, and weather.

  18. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS... construction of such plant. (b) The cost of permits and privileges for the construction of cable and...

  19. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS... construction of such plant. (b) The cost of permits and privileges for the construction of cable and...

  20. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS... construction of such plant. (b) The cost of permits and privileges for the construction of cable and...

  1. Aerial photographs and satellite images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1995-01-01

    Because photographs and images taken from the air or from space are acquired without direct contact with the ground, they are referred to as remotely sensed images. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has used remote sensing from the early years of the 20th century to support earth science studies and for mapping purposes.

  2. Object and activity detection from aerial video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Se, Stephen; Shi, Feng; Liu, Xin; Ghazel, Mohsen

    2015-05-01

    Aerial video surveillance has advanced significantly in recent years, as inexpensive high-quality video cameras and airborne platforms are becoming more readily available. Video has become an indispensable part of military operations and is now becoming increasingly valuable in the civil and paramilitary sectors. Such surveillance capabilities are useful for battlefield intelligence and reconnaissance as well as monitoring major events, border control and critical infrastructure. However, monitoring this growing flood of video data requires significant effort from increasingly large numbers of video analysts. We have developed a suite of aerial video exploitation tools that can alleviate mundane monitoring from the analysts, by detecting and alerting objects and activities that require analysts' attention. These tools can be used for both tactical applications and post-mission analytics so that the video data can be exploited more efficiently and timely. A feature-based approach and a pixel-based approach have been developed for Video Moving Target Indicator (VMTI) to detect moving objects at real-time in aerial video. Such moving objects can then be classified by a person detector algorithm which was trained with representative aerial data. We have also developed an activity detection tool that can detect activities of interests in aerial video, such as person-vehicle interaction. We have implemented a flexible framework so that new processing modules can be added easily. The Graphical User Interface (GUI) allows the user to configure the processing pipeline at run-time to evaluate different algorithms and parameters. Promising experimental results have been obtained using these tools and an evaluation has been carried out to characterize their performance.

  3. The Alfred Nobel rocket camera. An early aerial photography attempt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingemar Skoog, A.

    2010-02-01

    Alfred Nobel (1833-1896), mainly known for his invention of dynamite and the creation of the Nobel Prices, was an engineer and inventor active in many fields of science and engineering, e.g. chemistry, medicine, mechanics, metallurgy, optics, armoury and rocketry. Amongst his inventions in rocketry was the smokeless solid propellant ballistite (i.e. cordite) patented for the first time in 1887. As a very wealthy person he actively supported many Swedish inventors in their work. One of them was W.T. Unge, who was devoted to the development of rockets and their applications. Nobel and Unge had several rocket patents together and also jointly worked on various rocket applications. In mid-1896 Nobel applied for patents in England and France for "An Improved Mode of Obtaining Photographic Maps and Earth or Ground Measurements" using a photographic camera carried by a "…balloon, rocket or missile…". During the remaining of 1896 the mechanical design of the camera mechanism was pursued and cameras manufactured. In April 1897 (after the death of Alfred Nobel) the first aerial photos were taken by these cameras. These photos might be the first documented aerial photos taken by a rocket borne camera. Cameras and photos from 1897 have been preserved. Nobel did not only develop the rocket borne camera but also proposed methods on how to use the photographs taken for ground measurements and preparing maps.

  4. Ultramap v3 - a Revolution in Aerial Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitinger, B.; Sormann, M.; Zebedin, L.; Schachinger, B.; Hoefler, M.; Tomasi, R.; Lamperter, M.; Gruber, B.; Schiester, G.; Kobald, M.; Unger, M.; Klaus, A.; Bernoegger, S.; Karner, K.; Wiechert, A.; Ponticelli, M.; Gruber, M.

    2012-07-01

    In the last years, Microsoft has driven innovation in the aerial photogrammetry community. Besides the market leading camera technology, UltraMap has grown to an outstanding photogrammetric workflow system which enables users to effectively work with large digital aerial image blocks in a highly automated way. Best example is the project-based color balancing approach which automatically balances images to a homogeneous block. UltraMap V3 continues innovation, and offers a revolution in terms of ortho processing. A fully automated dense matching module strives for high precision digital surface models (DSMs) which are calculated either on CPUs or on GPUs using a distributed processing framework. By applying constrained filtering algorithms, a digital terrain model can be derived which in turn can be used for fully automated traditional ortho texturing. By having the knowledge about the underlying geometry, seamlines can be generated automatically by applying cost functions in order to minimize visual disturbing artifacts. By exploiting the generated DSM information, a DSMOrtho is created using the balanced input images. Again, seamlines are detected automatically resulting in an automatically balanced ortho mosaic. Interactive block-based radiometric adjustments lead to a high quality ortho product based on UltraCam imagery. UltraMap v3 is the first fully integrated and interactive solution for supporting UltraCam images at best in order to deliver DSM and ortho imagery.

  5. Robust adaptive control for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahveci, Nazli E.

    The objective of meeting higher endurance requirements remains a challenging task for any type and size of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). According to recent research studies significant energy savings can be realized through utilization of thermal currents. The navigation strategies followed across thermal regions, however, are based on rather intuitive assessments of remote pilots and lack any systematic path planning approaches. Various methods to enhance the autonomy of UAVs in soaring applications are investigated while seeking guarantees for flight performance improvements. The dynamics of the aircraft, small UAVs in particular, are affected by the environmental conditions, whereas unmodeled dynamics possibly become significant during aggressive flight maneuvers. Besides, the demanded control inputs might have a magnitude range beyond the limits dictated by the control surface actuators. The consequences of ignoring these issues can be catastrophic. Supporting this claim NASA Dryden Flight Research Center reports considerable performance degradation and even loss of stability in autonomous soaring flight tests with the subsequent risk of an aircraft crash. The existing control schemes are concluded to suffer from limited performance. Considering the aircraft dynamics and the thermal characteristics we define a vehicle-specific trajectory optimization problem to achieve increased cross-country speed and extended range of flight. In an environment with geographically dispersed set of thermals of possibly limited lifespan, we identify the similarities to the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) and provide both exact and approximate guidance algorithms for the navigation of automated UAVs. An additional stochastic approach is used to quantify the performance losses due to incorrect thermal data while dealing with random gust disturbances and onboard sensor measurement inaccuracies. One of the main contributions of this research is a novel adaptive control design with

  6. Environmental application of aerial reconnaissance to search for open dumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getz, Thomas J.; Randolph, J. C.; Echelberger, Wayne F.

    1983-11-01

    Three approaches to using aerial photography are evaluated for searching for open dumps in the state of Indiana. Photography with hand-held cameras from a small airplane proved more effective and flexible than either photo-interpretation of existing air photos or subcontracting to a federal agency for new aerial photography. The rationale for our choice of aerial reconnaissance, other uses of low-level aerial surveillance, the utility of small-format camera aerial photography for environmental analysis, and methods used for locating open dumps are discussed.

  7. Cracking the perfusion code?: Laser-assisted Indocyanine Green angiography and combined laser Doppler spectrophotometry for intraoperative evaluation of tissue perfusion in autologous breast reconstruction with DIEP or ms-TRAM flaps.

    PubMed

    Ludolph, Ingo; Arkudas, Andreas; Schmitz, Marweh; Boos, Anja M; Taeger, Christian D; Rother, Ulrich; Horch, Raymund E; Beier, Justus P

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to assess the correlation of flap perfusion analysis based on laser-assisted Indocyanine Green (ICG) angiography with combined laser Doppler spectrophotometry in autologous breast reconstruction using free DIEP/ms-TRAM flaps. Between February 2014 and July 2015, 35 free DIEP/ms-TRAM flaps were included in this study. Besides the clinical evaluation of flaps, intraoperative perfusion dynamics were assessed by means of laser-assisted ICG angiography and post-capillary oxygen saturation and relative haemoglobin content (rHb) using combined laser Doppler spectrophotometry. Correlation of the aforementioned parameters was analysed, as well as the impact on flap design and postoperative complications. Flap survival rate was 100%. There were no partial flap losses. In three cases, flap design was based on the angiography, contrary to clinical evaluation and spectrophotometry. The final decision on the inclusion of flap areas was based on the angiographic perfusion pattern. Angiography and spectrophotometry showed a correlation in most of the cases regarding tissue perfusion, post-capillary oxygen saturation and relative haemoglobin content. Laser-assisted ICG angiography is a useful tool for intraoperative evaluation of flap perfusion in autologous breast reconstruction with DIEP/ms-TRAM flaps, especially in decision making in cases where flap perfusion is not clearly assessable by clinical signs and exact determination of well-perfused flap margins is difficult to obtain. It provides an objective real-time analysis of flap perfusion, with high sensitivity for the detection of poorly perfused flap areas. Concerning the topographical mapping of well-perfused flap areas, laser-assisted angiography is superior to combined laser Doppler spectrophotometry.

  8. Controller Design of Quadrotor Aerial Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yali, Yu; SunFeng; Yuanxi, Wang

    This paper deduced the nonlinear dynamic model of a quadrotor aerial robot, which was a VTOL (vertical tale-off and landing) unmanned air vehicle. Since that is a complex model with the highly nonlinear multivariable strongly coupled and under-actuated property, the controller design of it was very difficult. Aimed at attaining the excellent controller, the whole system can be divided into three interconnected parts: attitude subsystem, vertical subsystem, position subsystem. Then nonlinear control strategy of them has been described, such as SDRE and Backstepping. The controller design was presented to stabilize the whole system. Through simulation result indicates, the various models have shown that the control law stabilize a quadrotor aerial robot with good tracking performance and robotness of the system.

  9. Aerial color infrared photography applications to citriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blazquez, C. H.; Horn, F. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Results of a one-year experimental study on the use of aerial color infrared photography in citrus grove management are presented. It is found that the spring season, when trees are in flush (have young leaves), is the best season to photograph visible differences between healthy and diseased trees. It is also shown that the best photography can be obtained with a 12-in. focal length lens. The photographic scale that allowed good photo interpretation with simple inexpensive equipment was 1 in. = 330 ft. The use of a window-overlay transparency method allowed rapid photo interpretation and data recording in computer-compatible forms. Aerial color infrared photography carried out during the spring season revealed a more accurate status of tree condition than visual inspection.

  10. Mobile mine roof support system

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.C.

    1981-12-29

    A description is given of a mobile self-propelled mine roof support system employing pairs of individually self-propelled roof support units movable along opposite ribs of a mine room to follow an advancing mine face. Each support unit comprises an elongated, wheel-mounted frame positioned along the adjacent rib. Pairs of vertical jacks are connected to opposite sides of the frame, being positioned loosely, and vertically movable, within oversize openings in brackets attached to the frame. A foot plate is universally pivotally attached to the lower ends of each pair of jacks and extends across the underside of the frame. A top-supporting canopy is universally pivotally attached across the upper ends of each pair of jacks and has an overhanging portion extending cantileverly into the room toward the opposite support unit. The jacks have external flanges engagable with the brackets. When the jacks fully retract the foot plate from the mine bottom upwardly against the underside of the frame, the entire assembly including the canopies is clamped rigidly between the brackets and the underside of the frame to lock the canopies to the frame for tramming. After the pairs of jacks press the foot plates downwardly against the bottom, the jacks shift upwardly to disengage their external flanges from the brackets and to press the canopies against the mine top. In an alternate embodiment, the ends of the canopies of the opposite roof support units are interconnected by wire ropes or chains and tensioned by hydraulic cylinders to support the top at the center of the room. A horizontally swingable inbye section of the frame has at least one canopy to continuously support the top when the mining operation changes direction, as when it makes a breakthrough from one room to another.

  11. 13. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT FROM DIRECTLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT FROM DIRECTLY OVERHEAD IN 1954. IN 1950, DOW CHEMICAL COMPANY WAS CHOSEN BY THE ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION TO ESTABLISH THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT AS AN ATOMIC BOMB TRIGGER FABRICATION FACILITY. THE CRITERIA FOR SITING SUCH A PLANT INCLUDED A LOCATION WEST OF THE MISSISSIPPI, NORTH OF TEXAS, SOUTH OF THE NORTHERN BORDER OF COLORADO, AND EAST OF UTAH; A DRY MODERATE CLIMATE; A SUPPORTING POPULATION OF AT LEAST 25,000 PEOPLE; AND ACCESSIBILITY FROM LOS ALAMOS, NM, CHICAGO, IL, AND ST. LOUIS, MO. TWENTY-ONE AREAS IN THE UNITED STATES WERE SUGGESTED; SEVEN LOCATIONS WERE SCREENED IN THE DENVER AREA. THIS FOUR-SQUARE MILE AREA WAS SELECTED AND CONSTRUCTION BEGAN IN 1951 (8/31/54). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  12. 22. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST DOWN CENTRAL AVENUE FROM WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST DOWN CENTRAL AVENUE FROM WEST OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE AND SUPPORT AREA OF THE PLANT. ON THE LEFT (NORTH) SIDE OF THE STREET IN THE FOREGROUND OF THE PHOTOGRAPH IS BUILDING 111, THE GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. TO THE EAST OF BUILDING 111 IS BUILDING 112, THE CAFETERIA. FURTHER TO THE EAST IS BUILDING 331, THE VEHICLE MAINTENANCE GARAGE AND FIRE DEPARTMENT; BUILDING 333, THE PAINT SHOP; BUILDING 334, THE ELECTRICAL AND GENERAL MAINTENANCE SHOP; AND BUILDING 551, THE GENERAL WAREHOUSE. ON THE RIGHT (SOUTH) SIDE OF CENTRAL AVENUE, IN THE FOREGROUND IS BUILDING 121, FIREARMS REPAIR. BEHIND BUILDING 121 IS BUILDING 122, EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES, AND BUILDING 123, HEALTH PHYSICS LABORATORY. BUILDING 441, THE PRODUCTION ... - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  13. Ultralight photovoltaic modules for unmanned aerial vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Nowlan, M.J.; Maglitta, J.C.; Darkazalli, G.; Lamp, T.

    1997-12-31

    New lightweight photovoltaic modules are being developed for powering high altitude unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Modified low-cost terrestrial solar cell and module technologies are being applied to minimize vehicle cost. New processes were developed for assembling thin solar cells, encapsulant films, and cover films. An innovative by-pass diode mounting approach that uses a solar cell as a heat spreader was devised and tested. Materials and processes will be evaluated through accelerated environmental testing.

  14. Toxicological effects of aerial application of monocrotophos.

    PubMed

    Rao, R R; Quadros, F; Mazmudar, R M; Marathe, M R; Gangoli, S D

    1980-01-01

    Aerial application of the insecticide Nuvacron 40% (monocrotophos) had no significant effect on the cholinesterase level of plasma and erythrocytes of cattle, chicken, buffaloes, and human volunteers exposed to the spray. Contamination of canal water with the pesticide was completely eliminated within 24 hr, whereas that in the soil was reduced by 80% in 72 hr. The degradation of insecticide residue in grass was about 90% in seven days and in cotton leaves about 85% for the same period.

  15. Comparative Analysis of the Tour Jete and Aerial with Detailed Analysis of Aerial Takeoff Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierson, Mimi; Coplin, Kim

    2006-10-01

    Whether internally as muscle tension or from external sources, forces are necessary for all motion. This research focused on athletic rotations where conditions of flight are established during takeoff. By studying reaction forces that produce torques, moments of inertia, and linear and angular differences between distinct rotations around different principle axes of the body (tour jete in ballet - longitudinal axis; aerial in gymnastics - anteroposterior axis), and by looking at the values of angular momentum in the specific mechanics of aerial takeoff, we can gain insight into possible causes of injury, flaws in technique and limitations of athletes. Results showed significant differences in the horizontal and vertical components of takeoff between the tour jete and the aerial, and a realization that torque was produced in different biomechanical planes. Both rotations showed braking forces before takeoff to counteract forward momentum and increase vertical lift, but the angle of applied force varied, and the horizontal components of velocity and force and vertical velocity as well as moment of inertia throughout flight were consistently greater for the aerial. Breakdown of aerial takeoff highlighted the relative importance of the takeoff phases, showing that completion depends fundamentally upon the rotation of the rear foot and torso twisting during takeoff rather than the last foot in contact with the ground.

  16. Inertial instrument system for aerial surveying

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, R.H.; Chapman, W.H.; Hanna, W.F.; Mongan, C.E.; Hursh, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    An inertial guidance system for aerial surveying has been developed under contract to the U.S. Geological Survey. This prototype system, known as the aerial profiling of terrain (APT) system, is designed to determine continuously the positions of points along an aircraft flight path, or the underlying terrain profile, to an accuracy of + or - 0.5 ft (15 cm) vertically and + or - 2 ft (61 cm) horizontally. The system 's objective thus is to accomplish, from a fixed-wing aircraft, what would traditionally be accomplished from ground-based topographic surveys combined with aerial photography and photogrammetry. The two-part strategy for measuring the terrain profile entails: (1) use of an inertial navigator for continuous determination of the three-coordinate position of the aircraft, and (2) use of an eye-safe pulsed laser profiler for continuous measurement of the vertical distance from aircraft to land surface, so that the desired terrain profile can then be directly computed. The APT system, installed in a DeHavilland Twin Otter aircraft, is typically flown at a speed of 115 mph (105 knots) at an altitude of 2,000 ft (610 m) above the terrain. Performance-evaluation flights have shown that the vertical and horizontal accuracy specifications are met. (USGS)

  17. Mask degradation monitoring with aerial mask inspector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Wen-Jui; Fu, Yung-Ying; Lu, Shih-Ping; Jiang, Ming-Sian; Lin, Jeffrey; Wu, Clare; Lifschitz, Sivan; Tam, Aviram

    2013-06-01

    As design rule continues to shrink, microlithography is becoming more challenging and the photomasks need to comply with high scanner laser energy, low CDU, and ever more aggressive RETs. This give rise to numerous challenges in the semiconductor wafer fabrication plants. Some of these challenges being contamination (mainly haze and particles), mask pattern degradation (MoSi oxidation, chrome migration, etc.) and pellicle degradation. Fabs are constantly working to establish an efficient methodology to manage these challenges mainly using mask inspection, wafer inspection, SEM review and CD SEMs. Aerial technology offers a unique opportunity to address the above mask related challenges using one tool. The Applied Materials Aera3TM system has the inherent ability to inspect for defects (haze, particles, etc.), and track mask degradation (e.g. CDU). This paper focuses on haze monitoring, which is still a significant challenge in semiconductor manufacturing, and mask degradation effects that are starting to emerge as the next challenge for high volume semiconductor manufacturers. The paper describes Aerial inspector (Aera3) early haze methodology and mask degradation tracking related to high volume manufacturing. These will be demonstrated on memory products. At the end of the paper we take a brief look on subsequent work currently conducted on the more general issue of photo mask degradation monitoring by means of an Aerial inspector.

  18. Localization of aerial broadband noise by pinnipeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Marla M.; Schusterman, Ronald J.; Southall, Brandon L.; Kastak, David

    2004-05-01

    Although many pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses) emit broadband calls on land as part of their communication system, few studies have addressed these animals' ability to localize aerial broadband sounds. In this study, the aerial sound localization acuities of a female northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), a male harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and a female California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) were measured in the horizontal plane. The stimulus was broadband white noise that was band pass filtered between 1.2 and 15 kHz. Testing was conducted in a hemi-anechoic chamber using a left/right forced choice procedure to measure the minimum audible angle (MAA) for each subject. MAAs were defined as half the angular separation of two sound sources bisected by a subject's midline that corresponded to 75% correct discrimination. MAAs were 4.7°, 3.6°, and 4.2° for the northern elephant seal, harbor seal, and California sea lion, respectively. These results demonstrate that individuals of these pinniped species have sound localization abilities comparable to the domestic cat and rhesus macaque. The acuity differences between our subjects were small and not predicted by head size. These results likely reflect the relatively acute general abilities of pinnipeds to localize aerial broadband signals.

  19. Remotely deployable aerial inspection using tactile sensors

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, C. N.; Cao, J.; Pierce, S. G.; Dobie, G.; Summan, R.; Sullivan, J. C.; Pipe, A. G.

    2014-02-18

    For structural monitoring applications, the use of remotely deployable Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) inspection platforms offer many advantages, including improved accessibility, greater safety and reduced cost, when compared to traditional manual inspection techniques. The use of such platforms, previously reported by researchers at the University Strathclyde facilitates the potential for rapid scanning of large areas and volumes in hazardous locations. A common problem for both manual and remote deployment approaches lies in the intrinsic stand-off and surface coupling issues of typical NDE probes. The associated complications of these requirements are obviously significantly exacerbated when considering aerial based remote inspection and deployment, resulting in simple visual techniques being the preferred sensor payload. Researchers at Bristol Robotics Laboratory have developed biomimetic tactile sensors modelled on the facial whiskers (vibrissae) of animals such as rats and mice, with the latest sensors actively sweeping their tips across the surface in a back and forth motion. The current work reports on the design and performance of an aerial inspection platform and the suitability of tactile whisking sensors to aerial based surface monitoring applications.

  20. Arctic Oil Spill Mapping and Response Using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, K. W.

    2011-12-01

    The University of Alaska Fairbanks works extensively with unmanned aerial systems and various sensor payloads used in mapping. Recent projects with Royal Dutch Shell and British Petroleum have demonstrated that unmanned aerial systems, including fixed and rotary winged platforms, can provide quick response to oil spill mapping in a variety of flight conditions, including those not well suited for manned aerial systems. We describe this collaborative research between the University and oil companies exploring and developing oil resources in Alaska and the Arctic.

  1. AERIAL VIEW FACING NORTH. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF FABRIC BUILDING, STRUCTURAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW FACING NORTH. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF FABRIC BUILDING, STRUCTURAL WAREHOUSE, RAIL MILL, & OPEN HEARTH COMPLEX. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  2. 21. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST TOWARDS LINCOLN MEMORIAL AND WASHINGTON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST TOWARDS LINCOLN MEMORIAL AND WASHINGTON MONUMENT - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. 20. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTH FROM ARLINGTON TOWARDS LINCOLN MEMORIAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTH FROM ARLINGTON TOWARDS LINCOLN MEMORIAL - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  4. 1. Aerial view, looking northeast up Newark Bay, showing entire ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Aerial view, looking northeast up Newark Bay, showing entire island Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  5. Aerial T1 EMP (electromagnetic pulse) effects assessment. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-05-15

    The Office of the Manager, National Communications System (OMNCS) has undertaken the Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Mitigation program to support the survivability objectives addressed by National Security Decision Directive 97 (NSDD-97) and Executive Order 12472. The objective of this program is to mitigate the damaging effects of nuclear weapons on regional and national telecommunications capabilities. To meet this objective, the OMNCS has sponsored efforts to create a network-level model to assess the effects of high-altitude EMP (HEMP). In addition, the OMNCS has sponsored various efforts to collect the system-level HEMP effects data required to support the network-level model. The products of this model assist the NCS in identifying potential vulnerabilities of national telecommunications capabilities to HEMP and supporting National Security and Emergency Preparedness (NSEP) initiatives. This report presents an assessment of the survivability of aerial T1 systems in a HEMP environment. This effort includes a test program to collect the data required to assess coupling of incident electromagnetic fields to aerial T1 cables. Also this report documents the test activities and the data collected. It also reviews the results of the buried T1 system assessment and summarizes the relevant data. Based on these data, conclusions are drawn concerning the survivability of typical aerial T1 cable systems. Finally, recommendations are presented for addressing remaining issues relevant to this assessment.

  6. Biomechanical responses of aquatic plants to aerial conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hamann, Elena; Puijalon, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Wetlands are impacted by changes in hydrological regimes that can lead to periods of low water levels. During these periods, aquatic plants experience a drastic change in the mechanical conditions that they encounter, from low gravitational and tensile hydrodynamic forces when exposed to flow under aquatic conditions, to high gravitational and bending forces under terrestrial conditions. The objective of this study was to test the capacity of aquatic plants to produce self-supporting growth forms when growing under aerial conditions by assessing their resistance to terrestrial mechanical conditions and the associated morpho-anatomical changes. Methods Plastic responses to aerial conditions were assessed by sampling Berula erecta, Hippuris vulgaris, Juncus articulatus, Lythrum salicaria, Mentha aquatica, Myosotis scorpioides, Nuphar lutea and Sparganium emersum under submerged and emergent conditions. The cross-sectional area and dry matter content (DMC) were measured in the plant organs that bear the mechanical forces, and their biomechanical properties in tension and bending were assessed. Key Results All of the species except for two had significantly higher stiffness in bending and thus an increased resistance to terrestrial mechanical conditions when growing under emergent conditions. This response was determined either by an increased allocation to strengthening tissues and thus a higher DMC, or by an increased cross-sectional area. These morpho-anatomical changes also resulted in increased strength and stiffness in tension. Conclusions The capacity of the studied species to colonize this fluctuating environment can be accounted for by a high degree of phenotypic plasticity in response to emersion. Further investigation is however needed to disentangle the finer mechanisms behind these responses (e.g. allometric relations, tissue make-up), their costs and adaptive value. PMID:24187030

  7. Unmanned Aerial Systems and Spectroscopy for Remote Sensing Applications in Archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Themistocleous, K.; Agapiou, A.; Cuca, B.; Hadjimitsis, D. G.

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing has open up new dimensions in archaeological research. Although there has been significant progress in increasing the resolution of space/aerial sensors and image processing, the detection of the crop (and soil marks) formations, which relate to buried archaeological remains, are difficult to detect since these marks may not be visible in the images if observed over different period or at different spatial/spectral resolution. In order to support the improvement of earth observation remote sensing technologies specifically targeting archaeological research, a better understanding of the crop/soil marks formation needs to be studied in detail. In this paper the contribution of both Unmanned Aerial Systems as well ground spectroradiometers is discussed in a variety of examples applied in the eastern Mediterranean region (Cyprus and Greece) as well in Central Europe (Hungary). In- situ spectroradiometric campaigns can be applied for the removal of atmospheric impact to simultaneous satellite overpass images. In addition, as shown in this paper, the systematic collection of ground truth data prior to the satellite/aerial acquisition can be used to detect the optimum temporal and spectral resolution for the detection of stress vegetation related to buried archaeological remains. Moreover, phenological studies of the crops from the area of interest can be simulated to the potential sensors based on their Relative Response Filters and therefore prepare better the satellite-aerial campaigns. Ground data and the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) can provide an increased insight for studying the formation of crop and soil marks. New algorithms such as vegetation indices and linear orthogonal equations for the enhancement of crop marks can be developed based on the specific spectral characteristics of the area. As well, UAS can be used for remote sensing applications in order to document, survey and model cultural heritage and archaeological sites.

  8. A review of aerial radiological surveys of Nevada Test Site fallout fields 1951 through 1970

    SciTech Connect

    1987-12-01

    Aerial surveys of offsite fallout radiation fields from the Nevada Test Site began in the early 1950s and continued throughout the above-ground testing period. The results of the aerial surveys were used to support ground data in determining the extent of the fallout patterns. For the series of tests conducted in 1953 and 1955, the primary uncertainty of the results was knowing the location of the aircraft. Navigation was made from aeronautical charts of a scale 1:1,000,000, and errors in location of several miles were experienced. Another problem was that exposure rate readings made in the aircraft of 1 milliroentgen per hour or lower were not reliable. Exposure rate measurements above 1 milliroentgen per hour were more accurate, however, and are considered reliable to within a factor of two or three in predicting 3-foot exposure rate levels. For the 1957 series, the aircraft position data were quite accurate. Ground-level exposure rates predicted from aerial data obtained by the United States Geological Survey aircraft for the five-detector array were considered reliable to within +-40% or better for most of the surveys. When the single detector was used, the accuracy decreased to about a factor of two. Relative count rates obtained by the aircraft operated by the Atomic Energy Commission, Raw Materials Division, are probably valid, but quantitative determination of 3-foot exposure rates are not. The Aerial Radiological Monitoring System performed all the aerial surveys in the 1960s. However, the air-to-ground conversion factors used were too low. Using a corrected conversion factor, the predicted 3-foot exposure rates should be valid to +-40% in most fallout fields if all other parameters are considered. 40 refs., 30 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. D Surface Generation from Aerial Thermal Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodaei, B.; Samadzadegan, F.; Dadras Javan, F.; Hasani, H.

    2015-12-01

    Aerial thermal imagery has been recently applied to quantitative analysis of several scenes. For the mapping purpose based on aerial thermal imagery, high accuracy photogrammetric process is necessary. However, due to low geometric resolution and low contrast of thermal imaging sensors, there are some challenges in precise 3D measurement of objects. In this paper the potential of thermal video in 3D surface generation is evaluated. In the pre-processing step, thermal camera is geometrically calibrated using a calibration grid based on emissivity differences between the background and the targets. Then, Digital Surface Model (DSM) generation from thermal video imagery is performed in four steps. Initially, frames are extracted from video, then tie points are generated by Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) algorithm. Bundle adjustment is then applied and the camera position and orientation parameters are determined. Finally, multi-resolution dense image matching algorithm is used to create 3D point cloud of the scene. Potential of the proposed method is evaluated based on thermal imaging cover an industrial area. The thermal camera has 640×480 Uncooled Focal Plane Array (UFPA) sensor, equipped with a 25 mm lens which mounted in the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The obtained results show the comparable accuracy of 3D model generated based on thermal images with respect to DSM generated from visible images, however thermal based DSM is somehow smoother with lower level of texture. Comparing the generated DSM with the 9 measured GCPs in the area shows the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) value is smaller than 5 decimetres in both X and Y directions and 1.6 meters for the Z direction.

  10. BOREAS Level-0 C-130 Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominguez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), C-130 and other aerial photography was collected to provide finely detailed and spatially extensive documentation of the condition of the primary study sites. The NASA C-130 Earth Resources aircraft can accommodate two mapping cameras during flight, each of which can be fitted with 6- or 12-inch focal-length lenses and black-and-white, natural-color, or color-IR film, depending upon requirements. Both cameras were often in operation simultaneously, although sometimes only the lower resolution camera was deployed. When both cameras were in operation, the higher resolution camera was often used in a more limited fashion. The acquired photography covers the period of April to September 1994. The aerial photography was delivered as rolls of large format (9 x 9 inch) color transparency prints, with imagery from multiple missions (hundreds of prints) often contained within a single roll. A total of 1533 frames were collected from the C-130 platform for BOREAS in 1994. Note that the level-0 C-130 transparencies are not contained on the BOREAS CD-ROM set. An inventory file is supplied on the CD-ROM to inform users of all the data that were collected. Some photographic prints were made from the transparencies. In addition, BORIS staff digitized a subset of the tranparencies and stored the images in JPEG format. The CD-ROM set contains a small subset of the collected aerial photography that were the digitally scanned and stored as JPEG files for most tower and auxiliary sites in the NSA and SSA. See Section 15 for information about how to acquire additional imagery.

  11. Photogrammetric mapping using unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graça, N.; Mitishita, E.; Gonçalves, J.

    2014-11-01

    Nowadays Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology has attracted attention for aerial photogrammetric mapping. The low cost and the feasibility to automatic flight along commanded waypoints can be considered as the main advantages of this technology in photogrammetric applications. Using GNSS/INS technologies the images are taken at the planned position of the exposure station and the exterior orientation parameters (position Xo, Yo, Zo and attitude ω, φ, χ) of images can be direct determined. However, common UAVs (off-the-shelf) do not replace the traditional aircraft platform. Overall, the main shortcomings are related to: difficulties to obtain the authorization to perform the flight in urban and rural areas, platform stability, safety flight, stability of the image block configuration, high number of the images and inaccuracies of the direct determination of the exterior orientation parameters of the images. In this paper are shown the obtained results from the project photogrammetric mapping using aerial images from the SIMEPAR UAV system. The PIPER J3 UAV Hydro aircraft was used. It has a micro pilot MP2128g. The system is fully integrated with 3-axis gyros/accelerometers, GPS, pressure altimeter, pressure airspeed sensors. A Sony Cyber-shot DSC-W300 was calibrated and used to get the image block. The flight height was close to 400 m, resulting GSD near to 0.10 m. The state of the art of the used technology, methodologies and the obtained results are shown and discussed. Finally advantages/shortcomings found in the study and main conclusions are presented

  12. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  13. Aerial views of the San Andreas Fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, M.

    1988-01-01

    These aerial photographs of the San Andreas fault were taken in 1965 by Robert E. Wallace of the U.S Geological Survey. The pictures were taken with a Rolliflex camera on 20 format black and white flim; Wallace was aboard a light, fixed-wing aircraft, flying mostly at low altitudes. He photographed the fault from San Francisco near its north end where it enters by the Salton Sea. These images represent only a sampling of the more than 300 images prodcued during this project. All the photographs reside in the U.S Geological Survey Library in Menlo Park, California. 

  14. Aerial view of Runway 33 at SLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This aerial view shows the approach on Runway 33 at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility. The runway is 15,000 feet long, with 1,000-foot paved overruns at each end; 300 feet wide (about length of football field), with 50-foot asphalt shoulders each side; 16 inches thick in the center, and 15 inches thick on sides. It has a slope of 24 inches from the center line to the edge for drainage. The single landing strip is considered two runways, depending on approach -- Runway 15 from northwest, Runway 33 from southeast.

  15. Aerial view of the Press Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In this aerial view, The News Center sits beyond a large parking lot, on a hill at the northeastern end of the Launch Complex 39 Area , next to the turn basin (at left). From left, the grandstand faces the launch pads several miles away on the Atlantic seashore; behind it, the television studio is the site of media conferences; next, the large white-roofed building is the hub of information and activity for press representatives. Lined up on the right of the Press Site are various buildings and trailers, home to major news networks. The parking lot can accommodate the hundreds of media personnel who attend Space Shuttle launches.

  16. A Runtime Data Verification Cyberinfrastructure for an Automated Robotic Tram System Measuring Surface Reflectance in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallegos, I.; Goswami, S.; Tweedie, C. E.; Gamon, J.; Gates, A.

    2008-12-01

    Global change is amongst the greatest challenges facing humanity. Understanding the future state of the Earth System and how humans will need to adapt will require improved environmental observation capacity, more thorough understanding of environmental connectivity and integration of such data in to predictive models. Increasingly, environmental science is becoming data driven as the need for answering bigger picture questions increases - more than ever, researchers are collecting larger data streams through automated means, relying on data from other researchers or agencies, and integrating data from different disciplines. Associated with this advancement in the environmental sciences is the need for improved mechanisms and procedures to verify the integrity of data streams and improve trust in and optimization of data and work flows. A collaborative research effort between the Systems Ecology Lab at the University of Texas at El Paso and the University of Alberta performs ground-based hyperspectral remote sensing studies to investigate the effect of soil moisture on arctic ecosystem structure and function using a robotic cart and tramline infrastructure. This system generates about 60,000 data files during a normal field season and because of this high volume of data, it has become nearly impossible to quality check all spectral data collected using traditional data quality checking approaches. This presentation introduces a prototype run-time Data Quality Specification and Monitoring System (DQSMS) that has been developed in a collaborative effort with the NSF-funded Cyber-ShARE Center of Excellence at the University of Texas at El Paso. Using this software, users can customize data quality requirements and flag problematic data for post collection filtering and correction. The software also supports remote real time verification through wireless connectivity. We welcome input from other researchers and the opportunity to adapt this tool to other remote field

  17. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles unique cost estimating requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, P.; Apgar, H.; Stukes, S.; Sterk, S.

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also referred to as drones, are aerial platforms that fly without a human pilot onboard. UAVs are controlled autonomously by a computer in the vehicle or under the remote control of a pilot stationed at a fixed ground location. There are a wide variety of drone shapes, sizes, configurations, complexities, and characteristics. Use of these devices by the Department of Defense (DoD), NASA, civil and commercial organizations continues to grow. UAVs are commonly used for intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR). They are also use for combat operations, and civil applications, such as firefighting, non-military security work, surveillance of infrastructure (e.g. pipelines, power lines and country borders). UAVs are often preferred for missions that require sustained persistence (over 4 hours in duration), or are “ too dangerous, dull or dirty” for manned aircraft. Moreover, they can offer significant acquisition and operations cost savings over traditional manned aircraft. Because of these unique characteristics and missions, UAV estimates require some unique estimating methods. This paper describes a framework for estimating UAV systems total ownership cost including hardware components, software design, and operations. The challenge of collecting data, testing the sensitivities of cost drivers, and creating cost estimating relationships (CERs) for each key work breakdown structure (WBS) element is discussed. The autonomous operation of UAVs is especially challenging from a software perspective.

  18. Design of an integrated aerial image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Jing; Spanos, Costas J.

    2005-05-01

    The subject of this paper is a novel integrated aerial image sensor (IAIS) system suitable for integration within the surface of an autonomous test wafer. The IAIS could be used as a lithography processing monitor, affording a "wafer's eye view" of the process, and therefore facilitating advanced process control and diagnostics without integrating (and dedicating) the sensor to the processing equipment. The IAIS is composed of an aperture mask and an array of photo-detectors. In order to retrieve nanometer scale resolution of the aerial image with a practical photo-detector pixel size, we propose a design of an aperture mask involving a series of spatial phase "moving" aperture groups. We demonstrate a design example aimed at the 65nm technology node through TEMPEST simulation. The optimized, key design parameters include an aperture width in the range of 30nm, aperture thickness in the range of 70nm, and offer a spatial resolution of about 5nm, all with comfortable fabrication tolerances. Our preliminary simulation work indicates the possibility of the IAIS being applied to the immersion lithography. A bench-top far-field experiment verifies that our approach of the spatial frequency down-shift through forming large Moire patterns is feasible.

  19. Community aerial mosquito control and naled exposure.

    PubMed

    Duprey, Zandra; Rivers, Samantha; Luber, George; Becker, Alan; Blackmore, Carina; Barr, Dana; Weerasekera, Gayanga; Kieszak, Stephanie; Flanders, W Dana; Rubin, Carol

    2008-03-01

    In October 2004, the Florida Department of Health (FLDOH) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) assessed human exposure to ultra-low volume (ULV) aerial application of naled. Teams administered activity questionnaires regarding pesticide exposure and obtained baseline urine samples to quantify prespray naled metabolite levels. Following the spray event, participants were asked to collect postspray urine specimens within 12 h of the spray event and at 8-h intervals for up to 40 h. Upon completion, a postspray activity questionnaire was administered to study participants. Two hundred five (87%) participants completed the study. The urine analysis showed that although 67% of prespray urine samples had detectable levels of a naled metabolite, the majority of postspray samples were below the limit of detection (< LOD). Only at the "postspray 6" time period, which corresponds to a time greater than 5 half-lives (> 40 h) following exposure, the number of samples with detectable levels exceeded 50%. There was a significant decrease in naled metabolites from prespray to postspray (= .02), perhaps associated with a significant reduction (< or = 0.05) in some participants that may have resulted in pesticide exposure by means other than the mosquito control operations. These data suggest that aerial spraying of naled does not result in increased levels of naled in humans, provided the naled is used according to label instructions. PMID:18437813

  20. Moving Obstacle Avoidance for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yucong

    There has been a vast increase in applications of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in civilian domains. To operate in the civilian airspace, a UAV must be able to sense and avoid both static and moving obstacles for flight safety. While indoor and low-altitude environments are mainly occupied by static obstacles, risks in space of higher altitude primarily come from moving obstacles such as other aircraft or flying vehicles in the airspace. Therefore, the ability to avoid moving obstacles becomes a necessity for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Towards enabling a UAV to autonomously sense and avoid moving obstacles, this thesis makes the following contributions. Initially, an image-based reactive motion planner is developed for a quadrotor to avoid a fast approaching obstacle. Furthermore, A Dubin's curve based geometry method is developed as a global path planner for a fixed-wing UAV to avoid collisions with aircraft. The image-based method is unable to produce an optimal path and the geometry method uses a simplified UAV model. To compensate these two disadvantages, a series of algorithms built upon the Closed-Loop Rapid Exploratory Random Tree are developed as global path planners to generate collision avoidance paths in real time. The algorithms are validated in Software-In-the-Loop (SITL) and Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) simulations using a fixed-wing UAV model and in real flight experiments using quadrotors. It is observed that the algorithm enables a UAV to avoid moving obstacles approaching to it with different directions and speeds.

  1. Aerial survey estimates of fallow deer abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gogan, Peter J.; Gates, Natalie B.; Lubow, Bruce C.; Pettit, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Reliable estimates of the distribution and abundance of an ungulate species is essential prior to establishing and implementing a management program. We used ground surveys to determine distribution and ground and aerial surveys and individually marked deer to estimate the abundance of fallow deer (Dama dama) in north-coastal California. Fallow deer had limited distribution and heterogeneous densities. Estimated post-rut densities across 4 annual surveys ranged from a low of 1.4 (SE=0.2) deer/km2 to a high of 3.3 (se=0.5) deer/km2 in a low density stratum and from 49.0 (SE=8.3) deer/km2 to 111.6 deer/km2 in a high density stratum. Sightability was positively influenced by the presence of white color-phase deer in a group and group size, and varied between airial and ground-based observers and by density strata. Our findings underscore the utility of double-observer surveys and aerial surveys with individually marked deer, both incorporating covariates to model sightability, to estimate deer abundance.

  2. Blending zone determination for aerial orthimage mosaicking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chao-Hung; Chen, Bo-Heng; Lin, Bo-Yi; Chou, Han-Szu

    2016-09-01

    Creating a composed image from a set of aerial images is a fundamental step in orthomosaic generation. One of the processes involved in this technique is determining an optimal seamline in an overlapping region to stitch image patches seamlessly. Most previous studies have solved this optimization problem by searching for a one-pixel-wide seamline with an objective function. This strategy significantly reduced pixel mismatches on the seamline caused by geometric distortions of images but did not fully consider color discontinuity and mismatch problems that occur around the seamline, which sometimes cause mosaicking artifacts. This study proposes a blending zone determination scheme with a novel path finding algorithm to reduce the occurrence of unwanted artifacts. Instead of searching for a one-pixel-wide seamline, a blending zone, which is a k-pixel-wide seamline that passes through high-similarity pixels in the overlapping region, is determined using a hierarchical structure. This strategy allows for not only seamless stitching but also smooth color blending of neighboring image patches. Moreover, the proposed method searches for a blending zone without the pre-process of highly mismatched pixel removal and additional geographic data of road vectors and digital surface/elevation models, which increases the usability of the approach. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of aerial images demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method to related methods in terms of avoidance of passing highly mismatched pixels.

  3. Wageningen UR Unmanned Aerial Remote Sensing Facility - Overview of activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholomeus, Harm; Keesstra, Saskia; Kooistra, Lammert; Suomalainen, Juha; Mucher, Sander; Kramer, Henk; Franke, Jappe

    2016-04-01

    To support environmental management there is an increasing need for timely, accurate and detailed information on our land. Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are increasingly used to monitor agricultural crop development, habitat quality or urban heat efficiency. An important reason is that UAS technology is maturing quickly while the flexible capabilities of UAS fill a gap between satellite based and ground based geo-sensing systems. In 2012, different groups within Wageningen University and Research Centre have established an Unmanned Airborne Remote Sensing Facility. The objective of this facility is threefold: a) To develop innovation in the field of remote sensing science by providing a platform for dedicated and high-quality experiments; b) To support high quality UAS services by providing calibration facilities and disseminating processing procedures to the UAS user community; and c) To promote and test the use of UAS in a broad range of application fields like habitat monitoring, precision agriculture and land degradation assessment. The facility is hosted by the Laboratory of Geo-Information Science and Remote Sensing (GRS) and the Department of Soil Physics and Land Management (SLM) of Wageningen University together with the team Earth Informatics (EI) of Alterra. The added value of the Unmanned Aerial Remote Sensing Facility is that compared to for example satellite based remote sensing more dedicated science experiments can be prepared. This includes for example higher frequent observations in time (e.g., diurnal observations), observations of an object under different observation angles for characterization of BRDF and flexibility in use of camera's and sensors types. In this way, laboratory type of set ups can be tested in a field situation and effects of up-scaling can be tested. In the last years we developed and implemented different camera systems (e.g. a hyperspectral pushbroom system, and multispectral frame cameras) which we operated in projects all

  4. An algorithm for approximate rectification of digital aerial images

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-resolution aerial photography is one of the most valuable tools available for managing extensive landscapes. With recent advances in digital camera technology, computer hardware, and software, aerial photography is easier to collect, store, and transfer than ever before. Images can be automa...

  5. Monitoring and Assuring the Quality of Digital Aerial Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christopherson, Jon

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation explains the USGS plan for monitoring and assuring the quality of digital aerial data. The contents include: 1) History of USGS Aerial Imaging Involvement; 2) USGS Research and Results; 3) Outline of USGS Quality Assurance Plan; 4) Other areas of Interest; and 5) Summary

  6. Aerial radiological survey of Area 11, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    1983-06-01

    An aerial radiological survey of Area 11's Plutonium Valley was conducted at the Nevada Test Site from 18 to 30 January 1982. Contour maps representing terrestrial exposure rates and soil concentrations of transuranics, /sup 235/U and /sup 137/Cs are presented on an aerial photograph. Inventories of the locale's transuranic and uranium activities are also included.

  7. Kite Aerial Photography (KAP) as a Tool for Field Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    Kite aerial photography (KAP) is proposed as a creative tool for geography field teaching and as a medium to approach the complexity of readily available geodata. The method can be integrated as field experiment, surveying technique or group activity. The acquired aerial images can instantaneously be integrated in geographic information systems…

  8. AERIAL OF VISITORS INFORMATION CENTER [VIC] & ROCKET GARDEN EXHIBIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    AERIAL OF VISITORS INFORMATION CENTER [VIC] & ROCKET GARDEN EXHIBIT KSC-375C-0604.12 116-KSC-375C-604.12, P-20220, ARCHIVE-04465 Aerial view of Kennedy Space Center Visitors Information Center looking east-northeastward. New food services building under construction is visible at upper left.

  9. The remote characterization of vegetation using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle photography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can fly in place of piloted aircraft to gather remote sensing information on vegetation characteristics. The type of sensors flown depends on the instrument payload capacity available, so that, depending on the specific UAV, it is possible to obtain video, aerial phot...

  10. 12. Photocopy of photograph (original negative located at Aerial Mapping ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopy of photograph (original negative located at Aerial Mapping Company, Phoenix, Arizona, Negative No. 90046) Photographer unknown, March 28, 1990. DIMENSION-CONTROLLED AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHIC MAP. - Yuma Main Street Water Treatment Plant, Jones Street at foot of Main Street, Yuma, Yuma County, AZ

  11. 11. Photographic copy of aerial photograph dated ca. 1954; Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photographic copy of aerial photograph dated ca. 1954; Photographer unknown; Original owned by Waterloo Courier, Waterloo, Iowa; AERIAL VIEW OF RATH COMPLEX, LOOKING WEST; BEEF KILLING BUILDING (149 AND LIVESTOCK HOLDING AREAS ARE AT LEFT CENTER; FERTILIZER PLANT/STORAGE BUILDINGS ARE AT BOTTOM OF PHOTO - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  12. 12. Photographic copy of aerial photograph dated October 1988; Photographed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photographic copy of aerial photograph dated October 1988; Photographed by Aerial Services, Incorporated, Waterloo, Iowa; THE RATH COMPLEX FROM DIRECTLY OVERHEAD; THE PACKING PLANT BUILDINGS OCCUPY UPPER RIGHT QUADRANT OF PHOTO; 18TH STREET BRIDGE AT CENTER - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  13. USGS Earth Explorer Client for Co-Discovery of Aerial and Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhenry, R.; Sohre, T.; McKinney, R.; Mentele, T.

    2011-12-01

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation Science (EROS) Center is home to one of the largest civilian collections of images of the Earth's surface. These images are collected from recent satellite platforms such as the Landsat, Terra, Aqua and Earth Observer-1, historical airborne systems such as digital cameras and side-looking radar, and digitized historical aerial photography dating to the 1930's. The aircraft scanners include instruments such as the Advanced Solid State Array Spectrometer (ASAS). Also archived at EROS are specialized collections of aerial images, such as high-resolution orthoimagery, extensive collections over Antarctica, and historical airborne campaigns such as the National Aerial Photography Program (NAPP) and the National High Altitude Photography (NHAP) collections. These collections, as well as digital map data, declassified historical space-based photography, and variety of collections such as the Global Land Survey 2000 (GLS2000) and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) are accessible through the USGS Earth Explorer (EE) client. EE allows for the visual discovery and browse of diverse datasets simultaneously, permitting the co-discovery and selection refinement of both satellite and aircraft imagery. The client, in use for many years was redesigned in 2010 to support requirements for next generation Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) data access and distribution. The redesigned EE is now supported by standards-based, open source infrastructure. EE gives users the capability to search 189 datasets through one interface, including over 8.4 million frames of aerial imagery. Since April 2011, NASA datasets archived at the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) including the MODIS land data products and ASTER Level-1B data products over the U.S. and Territories were made available via the EE client enabling users to co-discover aerial data archived at the USGS EROS along with USGS

  14. Calculation and uses of the lithographic aerial image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flagello, Donis G.; Smith, Daniel G.

    2012-09-01

    Beginning with the seminal Dill papers of 1975, the aerial image has been essential for understanding the process of microlithography. From the aerial image, we can predict the performance of a given lithographic process in terms of depth of focus, exposure latitude, etc. As lithographic technologies improved, reaching smaller and smaller printed features, the sophistication of aerial image calculations has had to increase from simple incoherent imaging theory, to partial coherence, polarization effects, thin film effects at the resist, thick mask effects, and so on. This tutorial provides an overview and semihistorical development of the aerial image calculation and then provides a review of some of the various ways in which the aerial image is typically used to estimate the performance of the lithographic process.

  15. Observing snow cover using unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spallek, Waldemar; Witek, Matylda; Niedzielski, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    Snow cover is a key environmental variable that influences high flow events driven by snow-melt episodes. Estimates of snow extent (SE), snow depth (SD) and snow water equivalent (SWE) allow to approximate runoff caused by snow-melt episodes. These variables are purely spatial characteristics, and hence their pointwise measurements using terrestrial monitoring systems do not offer the comprehensive and fully-spatial information on water storage in snow. Existing satellite observations of snow reveal moderate spatial resolution which, not uncommonly, is not fine enough to estimate the above-mentioned snow-related variables for small catchments. High-resolution aerial photographs and the resulting orthophotomaps and digital surface models (DSMs), obtained using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), may offer spatial resolution of 3 cm/px. The UAV-based observation of snow cover may be done using the near-infrared (NIR) cameras and visible-light cameras. Since the beginning of 2015, in frame of the research project no. LIDER/012/223/L-5/13/NCBR/2014 financed by the National Centre for Research and Development of Poland, we have performed a series of the UAV flights targeted at four sites in the Kwisa catchment in the Izerskie Mts. (part of the Sudetes, SW Poland). Observations are carried out with the ultralight UAV swinglet CAM (produced by senseFly, lightweight 0.5 kg, wingspan 80 cm) which enables on-demand sampling at low costs. The aim of the field work is to acquire aerial photographs taken using the visible-light and NIR cameras for a purpose of producing time series of DSMs and orthophotomaps with snow cover for all sites. The DSMs are used to calculate SD as difference between observational (with snow) and reference (without snow) models. In order to verify such an approach to compute SD we apply several procedures, one of which is the estimation of SE using the corresponding orthophotomaps generated on a basis of visual-light and NIR images. The objective of this

  16. 2. AERIAL VIEW OF SLC3 FROM THE NORTH. SLC3W IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW OF SLC-3 FROM THE NORTH. SLC-3W IN FOREGROUND; SLC-3E IN BACKGROUND. LAUNCH OPERATIONS BUILDING (LOB; BLDG. 763) AND CABLE TRAYS BETWEEN LOB AND THE PADS VISIBLE IMMEDIATELY EAST (LEFT) OF THE PADS. VEHICLE SUPPORT BUILDING (BLDG. 766) LOCATED EAST OF ROAD IN LEFT FOREGROUND. TECHNICAL SUPPORT BUILDING (BLDG. 762/762A) AND SLC-3 AIR FORCE BUILDING (BLDG. 761) VISIBLE EAST OF LOG IN LEFT BACKGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  17. Aerial monitoring and environmental protection: aerial photography as an instrument for checking landscape damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartara, Patrizia

    2009-09-01

    C.N.R. and University of Salento have realized a Geographical Information System for heritage management of the national territory (landscape) and historical urban settlements. Informations come from bibliography, archives, direct and systematic field survey, different kind of aerial photographs analysis, with the primary aim of knowledge for the establishment of an in existence Cultural Heritage Cadastre, focused to legal protection and exploitation of the sites, not last the correct territory planning.

  18. Precision wildlife monitoring using unmanned aerial vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Jarrod C.; Baylis, Shane M.; Mott, Rowan; Herrod, Ashley; Clarke, Rohan H.

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a new frontier in environmental research. Their use has the potential to revolutionise the field if they prove capable of improving data quality or the ease with which data are collected beyond traditional methods. We apply UAV technology to wildlife monitoring in tropical and polar environments and demonstrate that UAV-derived counts of colony nesting birds are an order of magnitude more precise than traditional ground counts. The increased count precision afforded by UAVs, along with their ability to survey hard-to-reach populations and places, will likely drive many wildlife monitoring projects that rely on population counts to transition from traditional methods to UAV technology. Careful consideration will be required to ensure the coherence of historic data sets with new UAV-derived data and we propose a method for determining the number of duplicated (concurrent UAV and ground counts) sampling points needed to achieve data compatibility. PMID:26986721

  19. Precision wildlife monitoring using unmanned aerial vehicles.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Jarrod C; Baylis, Shane M; Mott, Rowan; Herrod, Ashley; Clarke, Rohan H

    2016-03-17

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a new frontier in environmental research. Their use has the potential to revolutionise the field if they prove capable of improving data quality or the ease with which data are collected beyond traditional methods. We apply UAV technology to wildlife monitoring in tropical and polar environments and demonstrate that UAV-derived counts of colony nesting birds are an order of magnitude more precise than traditional ground counts. The increased count precision afforded by UAVs, along with their ability to survey hard-to-reach populations and places, will likely drive many wildlife monitoring projects that rely on population counts to transition from traditional methods to UAV technology. Careful consideration will be required to ensure the coherence of historic data sets with new UAV-derived data and we propose a method for determining the number of duplicated (concurrent UAV and ground counts) sampling points needed to achieve data compatibility.

  20. Bioinspired optical sensors for unmanned aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chahl, Javaan; Rosser, Kent; Mizutani, Akiko

    2011-04-01

    Insects are dependant on the spatial, spectral and temporal distributions of light in the environment for flight control and navigation. This paper reports on flight trials of implementations of insect inspired behaviors on unmanned aerial vehicles. Optical flow methods for maintaining a constant height above ground and a constant course have been demonstrated to provide navigation capabilities that are impossible using conventional avionics sensors. Precision control of height above ground and ground course were achieved over long distances. Other vision based techniques demonstrated include a biomimetic stabilization sensor that uses the ultraviolet and green bands of the spectrum, and a sky polarization compass. Both of these sensors were tested over long trajectories in different directions, in each case showing performance similar to low cost inertial heading and attitude systems. The behaviors demonstrate some of the core functionality found in the lower levels of the sensorimotor system of flying insects and shows promise for more integrated solutions in the future.

  1. Global aerial flyways allow efficient travelling.

    PubMed

    Kranstauber, B; Weinzierl, R; Wikelski, M; Safi, K

    2015-12-01

    Birds migrate over vast distances at substantial costs. The highly dynamic nature of the air makes the selection of the best travel route difficult. We investigated to what extent migratory birds may optimise migratory route choice with respect to wind, and if route choice can be subject to natural selection. Following the optimal route, calculated using 21 years of empirical global wind data, reduced median travel time by 26.5% compared to the spatially shortest route. When we used a time-dependent survival model to quantify the adaptive benefit of choosing a fixed wind-optimised route, 84.8% of pairs of locations yielded a route with a higher survival than the shortest route. This suggests that birds, even if incapable of predicting wind individually, could adjust their migratory routes at a population level. As a consequence, this may result in the emergence of low-cost flyways representing a global network of aerial migratory pathways.

  2. Precision wildlife monitoring using unmanned aerial vehicles.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Jarrod C; Baylis, Shane M; Mott, Rowan; Herrod, Ashley; Clarke, Rohan H

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a new frontier in environmental research. Their use has the potential to revolutionise the field if they prove capable of improving data quality or the ease with which data are collected beyond traditional methods. We apply UAV technology to wildlife monitoring in tropical and polar environments and demonstrate that UAV-derived counts of colony nesting birds are an order of magnitude more precise than traditional ground counts. The increased count precision afforded by UAVs, along with their ability to survey hard-to-reach populations and places, will likely drive many wildlife monitoring projects that rely on population counts to transition from traditional methods to UAV technology. Careful consideration will be required to ensure the coherence of historic data sets with new UAV-derived data and we propose a method for determining the number of duplicated (concurrent UAV and ground counts) sampling points needed to achieve data compatibility. PMID:26986721

  3. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design.

    PubMed

    Coppejans, Hugo H G; Myburgh, Herman C

    2015-12-02

    There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV), such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers.

  4. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design

    PubMed Central

    Coppejans, Hugo H. G.; Myburgh, Herman C.

    2015-01-01

    There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV), such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers. PMID:26633410

  5. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design.

    PubMed

    Coppejans, Hugo H G; Myburgh, Herman C

    2015-01-01

    There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV), such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers. PMID:26633410

  6. Aerial photography for sensing plant anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.; Cardenas, R.; Hart, W. G.

    1970-01-01

    Changes in the red tonal response of Kodak Ektrachrome Infrared Aero 8443 film (EIR) are often incorrectly attributed solely to variations in infrared light reflectance of plant leaves, when the primary influence is a difference in visible light reflectance induced by varying chlorophyll contents. Comparisons are made among aerial photographic images of high- and low-chlorophyll foliage. New growth, foot rot, and boron and chloride nutrient toxicites produce low-chlorophyll foliage, and EIR transparency images of light red or white compared with dark-red images of high-chlorophyll foliage. Deposits of the sooty mold fungus that subsists on the honeydew produced by brown soft scale insects, obscure the citrus leaves' green color. Infected trees appear as black images on EIR film transparencies compared with red images of healthy trees.

  7. Aerial view of Launch Complex 39

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In this aerial view looking south can be seen Launch Complex (LC) 39 area, where assembly, checkout and launch of the Space Shuttle Orbiter and its External Tank and twin Solid Rocket Boosters take place. Central to the complex is the tallest building at the center, the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). To the immediate left, from top to bottom, are the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) High Bay 3 and new engine shop (north side), OPF Modular Office Building, Thermal Protection System Facility, and a crawler-transporter (to its left). In front of the VAB are OPF 1 and OPF 2. At right is the Processing Control Center. West of OPF 3 is the Mobile Launch Platform. In the upper left corner is Launch Pad B; at the far right is the turn basin, with the Press Site located just below it to the right.

  8. Tracer airflow measurement system (TRAMS)

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Duo

    2007-04-24

    A method and apparatus for measuring fluid flow in a duct is disclosed. The invention uses a novel high velocity tracer injector system, an optional insertable folding mixing fan for homogenizing the tracer within the duct bulk fluid flow, and a perforated hose sampling system. A preferred embodiment uses CO.sub.2 as a tracer gas for measuring air flow in commercial and/or residential ducts. In extant commercial buildings, ducts not readily accessible by hanging ceilings may be drilled with readily plugged small diameter holes to allow for injection, optional mixing where desired using a novel insertable foldable mixing fan, and sampling hose.

  9. Large aerial bursts: an important class of terrestrial accretionary events.

    PubMed

    Wasson, John T

    2003-01-01

    Large aerial bursts similar to the 1908 Tunguska bolide but much larger in magnitude have surely been responsible for many catastrophic events in the history of the Earth. Because aerial bursts produce shallow (or even negligible) craters, their existence is difficult to document in the geological record. Even aerial bursts as small as Tunguska deposit enough energy to melt approximately 1mm of dry soil. Silica-rich glass formed in such melts has the potential to survive in the soil for many Ma, thus a potential indicator of large aerial bursts is glass that was formed as thick regions within silicate melt sheets. The layered tektites from Southeast Asia and the Libyan desert glass may have formed by a combination of sedimentation and downslope flow of silicate melt heated by radiation from large aerial bursts. The alternative, formation of layered tektites as crater ejecta, cannot account for observations such as uniformly high 10Be contents, the orientation of the magnetic remanence field, and the absence of splash-form (e.g., teardrop or dumbbell) tektites in regions where layered tektites are common. The largest asteroids or comets make craters no matter what their strength. Recent reviews suggest that, for events in the energy range up to 10(19)-10(20) J (about two orders of magnitude larger than the Meteor Crater impact), aerial bursts are more likely than cratering events, and the layered tektites of Southeast Asia imply the existence of aerial bursts one to two orders of magnitude larger still. PMID:12809134

  10. Large Aerial Bursts: An Important Class of Terrestrial Accretionary Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasson, John T.

    2003-01-01

    Large aerial bursts similar to the 1908 Tunguska bolide but much larger in magnitude have surely been responsible for many catastrophic events in the history of the Earth. Because aerial bursts produce shallow (or even negligible) craters, their existence is difficult to document in the geological record. Even aerial bursts as small as Tunguska deposit enough energy to melt ~1mm of dry soil. Silica-rich glass formed in such melts has the potential to survive in the soil for many Ma, thus a potential indicator of large aerial bursts is glass that was formed as thick regions within silicate melt sheets. The layered tektites from Southeast Asia and the Libyan desert glass may have formed by a combination of sedimentation and downslope flow of silicate melt heated by radiation from large aerial bursts. The alternative, formation of layered tektites as crater ejecta, cannot account for observations such as uniformly high 10Be contents, the orientation of the magnetic remanence field, and the absence of splash-form (e.g., teardrop or dumbbell) tektites in regions where layered tektites are common. The largest asteroids or comets make craters no matter what their strength. Recent reviews suggest that, for events in the energy range up to 1019-1020 J (about two orders of magnitude larger than the Meteor Crater impact), aerial bursts are more likely than cratering events, and the layered tektites of Southeast Asia imply the existence of aerial bursts one to two orders of magnitude larger still.

  11. Building and road detection from large aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Shunta; Aoki, Yoshimitsu

    2015-02-01

    Building and road detection from aerial imagery has many applications in a wide range of areas including urban design, real-estate management, and disaster relief. The extracting buildings and roads from aerial imagery has been performed by human experts manually, so that it has been very costly and time-consuming process. Our goal is to develop a system for automatically detecting buildings and roads directly from aerial imagery. Many attempts at automatic aerial imagery interpretation have been proposed in remote sensing literature, but much of early works use local features to classify each pixel or segment to an object label, so that these kind of approach needs some prior knowledge on object appearance or class-conditional distribution of pixel values. Furthermore, some works also need a segmentation step as pre-processing. Therefore, we use Convolutional Neural Networks(CNN) to learn mapping from raw pixel values in aerial imagery to three object labels (buildings, roads, and others), in other words, we generate three-channel maps from raw aerial imagery input. We take a patch-based semantic segmentation approach, so we firstly divide large aerial imagery into small patches and then train the CNN with those patches and corresponding three-channel map patches. Finally, we evaluate our system on a large-scale road and building detection datasets that is publicly available.

  12. Concept options for the aerial survey of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorrington, G. E.

    2011-01-01

    Various aerial platforms intended for long endurance survey of the Titan surface are presented. A few novel concepts are introduced, including a heated methane balloon and a balloon with a tethered wind turbine. All the concept options are predicted to have lower scientific payload fractions than the Huygens probe. It is concluded that the selection of the best aerial platform option depends on more accurate mass estimates and a clear decision on whether, or not, in situ surface composition measurements are required in conjunction with aerial remote sensing.

  13. Aerial image retargeting (AIR): achieving litho-friendly designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yehia Hamouda, Ayman; Word, James; Anis, Mohab; Karim, Karim S.

    2011-04-01

    In this work, we present a new technique to detect non-Litho-Friendly design areas based on their Aerial Image signature. The aerial image is calculated for the litho target (pre-OPC). This is followed by the fixing (retargeting) the design to achieve a litho friendly OPC target. This technique is applied and tested on 28 nm metal layer and shows a big improvement in the process window performance. For an optimized Aerial-Image-Retargeting (AIR) recipe is very computationally efficient and its runtime doesn't consume more than 1% of the OPC flow runtime.

  14. Flap or soar? How a flight generalist responds to its aerial environment.

    PubMed

    Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Bouten, Willem; van Loon, E Emiel; Meijer, Christiaan; Camphuysen, C J

    2016-09-26

    The aerial environment is heterogeneous in space and time and directly influences the costs of animal flight. Volant animals can reduce these costs by using different flight modes, each with their own benefits and constraints. However, the extent to which animals alter their flight modes in response to environmental conditions has rarely been studied in the wild. To provide insight into how a flight generalist can reduce the energetic cost of movement, we studied flight behaviour in relation to the aerial environmental and landscape using hundreds of hours of global positioning system and triaxial acceleration measurements of the lesser black-backed gull (Larus fuscus). Individuals differed largely in the time spent in flight, which increased linearly with the time spent in flight at sea. In general, flapping was used more frequently than more energetically efficient soaring flight. The probability of soaring increased with increasing boundary layer height and time closer to midday, reflecting improved convective conditions supportive of thermal soaring. Other forms of soaring flight were also used, including fine-scale use of orographic lift. We explore the energetic consequences of behavioural adaptations to the aerial environment and underlying landscape and implications for individual energy budgets, foraging ecology and reproductive success.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'. PMID:27528785

  15. Shoreline extraction from light detection and ranging digital elevation model data and aerial images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousef, Amr; Iftekharuddin, Khan M.; Karim, Mohammad A.

    2014-01-01

    There is an increased demand for understanding the accurate position of the shorelines. The automatic extraction of shorelines utilizing the digital elevation models (DEMs) obtained from light detection and ranging (LiDAR), aerial images, and multispectral images has become very promising. In this article, we develop two innovative algorithms that can effectively extract shorelines depending on the available data sources. The first is a multistep morphological technique that works on LiDAR DEM with respect to a tidal datum, whereas the second depends on the availability of training data to extract shorelines from LiDAR DEM fused with aerial images. Unlike similar techniques, the morphological approach detects and eliminates the outliers that result from waves, etc., by means of an anomaly test with neighborhood constraints. Additionally, it eliminates docks, bridges, and fishing piers along the extracted shorelines by means of Hough transform. The second approach extracts the shoreline by means of color space conversion of the aerial images and the support vector machines classifier to segment the fused data into water and land. We perform Monte-Carlo simulations to estimate the confidence interval for the error in shoreline position. Compared with other relevant techniques in literature, the proposed methods offer better accuracy in shoreline extraction.

  16. An aerial radiological survey of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding area, Portsmouth, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted from July 11--20, 1990, over an 83-square-kilometer (32-square-mile) area surrounding the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant located near Portsmouth, Ohio. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 91 meters (300 feet) with line spacings of 122 meters (400 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a set of United States Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps of the area. The terrestrial exposure rates varied from about 7 to 14 microroentgens per hour ([mu]R/h) at 1 meter above the ground. Analysis of the data for man-made sources and for the uranium decay product, protactinium-234m ([sup 234m]Pa), showed five sites within the boundaries of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant with elevated readings. Spectra obtained in the vicinity of the buildings at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant showed the presence of [sup 234m]Pa, a uranium-238 ([sup 238]U) decay product. In addition, spectral analysis of the data obtained over the processing plant facility showed gamma activity indicative of uranium-235 ([sup 234]U). No other man-made gamma ray emitting radioactive material was detected, either on or off the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant property. Soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at five different locations within the survey boundlaries to support the aerial data.

  17. Film cameras or digital sensors? The challenge ahead for aerial imaging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Light, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    Cartographic aerial cameras continue to play the key role in producing quality products for the aerial photography business, and specifically for the National Aerial Photography Program (NAPP). One NAPP photograph taken with cameras capable of 39 lp/mm system resolution can contain the equivalent of 432 million pixels at 11 ??m spot size, and the cost is less than $75 per photograph to scan and output the pixels on a magnetic storage medium. On the digital side, solid state charge coupled device linear and area arrays can yield quality resolution (7 to 12 ??m detector size) and a broader dynamic range. If linear arrays are to compete with film cameras, they will require precise attitude and positioning of the aircraft so that the lines of pixels can be unscrambled and put into a suitable homogeneous scene that is acceptable to an interpreter. Area arrays need to be much larger than currently available to image scenes competitive in size with film cameras. Analysis of the relative advantages and disadvantages of the two systems show that the analog approach is more economical at present. However, as arrays become larger, attitude sensors become more refined, global positioning system coordinate readouts become commonplace, and storage capacity becomes more affordable, the digital camera may emerge as the imaging system for the future. Several technical challenges must be overcome if digital sensors are to advance to where they can support mapping, charting, and geographic information system applications.

  18. Flap or soar? How a flight generalist responds to its aerial environment.

    PubMed

    Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Bouten, Willem; van Loon, E Emiel; Meijer, Christiaan; Camphuysen, C J

    2016-09-26

    The aerial environment is heterogeneous in space and time and directly influences the costs of animal flight. Volant animals can reduce these costs by using different flight modes, each with their own benefits and constraints. However, the extent to which animals alter their flight modes in response to environmental conditions has rarely been studied in the wild. To provide insight into how a flight generalist can reduce the energetic cost of movement, we studied flight behaviour in relation to the aerial environmental and landscape using hundreds of hours of global positioning system and triaxial acceleration measurements of the lesser black-backed gull (Larus fuscus). Individuals differed largely in the time spent in flight, which increased linearly with the time spent in flight at sea. In general, flapping was used more frequently than more energetically efficient soaring flight. The probability of soaring increased with increasing boundary layer height and time closer to midday, reflecting improved convective conditions supportive of thermal soaring. Other forms of soaring flight were also used, including fine-scale use of orographic lift. We explore the energetic consequences of behavioural adaptations to the aerial environment and underlying landscape and implications for individual energy budgets, foraging ecology and reproductive success.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'.

  19. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the ARM Aerial Facility

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. ARM data is collected both through permanent monitoring stations and field campaigns around the world. Airborne measurements required to answer science questions from researchers or to validate ground data are also collected. To find data from all categories of aerial operations, follow the links from the AAF information page at http://www.arm.gov/sites/aaf. Tables of information will provide start dates, duration, lead scientist, and the research site for each of the named campaigns. The title of a campaign leads, in turn, to a project description, contact information, and links to the data. Users will be requested to create a password, but the data files are free for viewing and downloading. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  20. Direct Penguin Counting Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, C. U.; Kim, H. C.; Kim, J. H.; Hong, S. G.

    2015-12-01

    This study presents an application of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images to monitor penguin colony in Baton Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica. The area around Narębski Point located on the southeast coast of Barton Peninsula was designated as Antarctic Specially Protected Area No. 171 (ASPA 171), and Chinstrap and Gentoo penguins inhabit in this area. The UAV images were acquired in a part of ASPA 171 from four flights in a single day, Jan 18, 2014. About 360 images were mosaicked as an image of about 3 cm spatial resolution and then a subset including representative penguin rookeries was selected. The subset image was segmented based on gradient map of pixel values, and spectral and spatial attributes were assigned to each segment. The object based image analysis (OBIA) was conducted with consideration of spectral attributes including mean and minimum values of each segment and various shape attributes such as area, length, compactness and roundness to detect individual penguin. The segments indicating individual penguin were effectively detected on rookeries with high contrasts in the spectral and shape attributes. The importance of periodic and precise monitoring of penguins has been recognized because variations of their populations reflect environmental changes and disturbance from human activities. Utilization of very high resolution imaging method shown in this study can be applied to other penguin habitats in Antarctica, and the results will be able to support establishing effective environmental management plans.

  1. Mortality of nontarget arthropods from an aerial application of pyrethrins.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Jonathan A; Novak, Mark G; Hyles, Timothy S; Niemela, Michael K

    2009-06-01

    Mortality of nontarget organisms from an ultra-low volume (ULV) aerial application of pyrethrins (Evergreen EC 60-6) was monitored by collecting arthropods from ground tarps placed at the interface of open and canopy areas. A larger number and greater diversity of arthropods were recovered from tarps in the ULV spray area. The observed mortality was approximately 10-fold greater than in the control area. Kruskal-Wallis tests revealed a significant difference in the abundance and diversity of arthropods collected at treatment and control sites at 1 and 12 h postspray. Arthropods, primarily insects, from the treatment area included representatives from 12 orders and > or = 34 families, as compared to 7 orders and 12 families in the control area. Chironomidae (midges) and Formicidae (ants) were the most commonly represented families, accounting for 61% of the arthropods collected from the treatment area; no large-bodied insects (>8 mm) were recovered. Mortality of sentinel mosquitoes in the treatment and control areas averaged 96% and <1%, respectively, at 24 h postexposure. This study supports previous work that the impact of a single ULV application of pyrethrins was limited to a variety of small-bodied arthropods.

  2. Spatially explicit rangeland erosion monitoring using high-resolution digital aerial imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillan, Jeffrey K.; Karl, Jason W.; Barger, Nichole N.; Elaksher, Ahmed; Duniway, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Nearly all of the ecosystem services supported by rangelands, including production of livestock forage, carbon sequestration, and provisioning of clean water, are negatively impacted by soil erosion. Accordingly, monitoring the severity, spatial extent, and rate of soil erosion is essential for long-term sustainable management. Traditional field-based methods of monitoring erosion (sediment traps, erosion pins, and bridges) can be labor intensive and therefore are generally limited in spatial intensity and/or extent. There is a growing effort to monitor natural resources at broad scales, which is driving the need for new soil erosion monitoring tools. One remote-sensing technique that can be used to monitor soil movement is a time series of digital elevation models (DEMs) created using aerial photogrammetry methods. By geographically coregistering the DEMs and subtracting one surface from the other, an estimate of soil elevation change can be created. Such analysis enables spatially explicit quantification and visualization of net soil movement including erosion, deposition, and redistribution. We constructed DEMs (12-cm ground sampling distance) on the basis of aerial photography immediately before and 1 year after a vegetation removal treatment on a 31-ha Piñon-Juniper woodland in southeastern Utah to evaluate the use of aerial photography in detecting soil surface change. On average, we were able to detect surface elevation change of ± 8−9cm and greater, which was sufficient for the large amount of soil movement exhibited on the study area. Detecting more subtle soil erosion could be achieved using the same technique with higher-resolution imagery from lower-flying aircraft such as unmanned aerial vehicles. DEM differencing and process-focused field methods provided complementary information and a more complete assessment of soil loss and movement than any single technique alone. Photogrammetric DEM differencing could be used as a technique to

  3. The U.S. Department of Energy's Aerial Measuring System (AMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Marianno

    2008-03-01

    For nearly 40 years, aerial radiological search and survey missions have been performed by the United States Department of Energy's (USDOE) Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL). Originally created in 1967 as Aerial Measurement Operations (AMO), the AMS mission has expanded to include acquiring baseline measurements, performing periodic area monitoring, and responding to radiological emergencies. In an accident scenario, AMS fixed-wing and/or rotary-wing systems can be deployed to map radiological deposition. A fixed-wing system is on standby twenty-fours per day, seven days per week and can be deployed within four hours of notification. It can quickly evaluate high levels of radiation which may constitute immediate health risks. To accomplish its mission the fixed-wing aircraft utilizes the Spectral Aerial Radiological Computer System (SPARCS) which records gross count and spectral information. Data from SPARCS is telemetered to ground stations and secure websites where it can be viewed and evaluated in near-real time. The rotary-wing system deploys following the critical phase of an accident and supports the DOE's Consequence Management Response Team (CMRT) in determining long term consequences of the accident. The rotary wing aircraft utilizes the Radiation and Environmental Data Acquisition and Recording System (REDAR). A 25-liter sodium iodide (NaI) spectral system and precise positioning allow distributed man-made activity of less than 1 {micro}R/hr at ground level to be precisely mapped. This talk will discuss history of the USDOE's AMS program and its current efforts to conduct baseline aerial surveys of some US cities.

  4. Application of machine learning for the evaluation of turfgrass plots using aerial images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Ke; Raheja, Amar; Bhandari, Subodh; Green, Robert L.

    2016-05-01

    Historically, investigation of turfgrass characteristics have been limited to visual ratings. Although relevant information may result from such evaluations, final inferences may be questionable because of the subjective nature in which the data is collected. Recent advances in computer vision techniques allow researchers to objectively measure turfgrass characteristics such as percent ground cover, turf color, and turf quality from the digital images. This paper focuses on developing a methodology for automated assessment of turfgrass quality from aerial images. Images of several turfgrass plots of varying quality were gathered using a camera mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle. The quality of these plots were also evaluated based on visual ratings. The goal was to use the aerial images to generate quality evaluations on a regular basis for the optimization of water treatment. Aerial images are used to train a neural network so that appropriate features such as intensity, color, and texture of the turfgrass are extracted from these images. Neural network is a nonlinear classifier commonly used in machine learning. The output of the neural network trained model is the ratings of the grass, which is compared to the visual ratings. Currently, the quality and the color of turfgrass, measured as the greenness of the grass, are evaluated. The textures are calculated using the Gabor filter and co-occurrence matrix. Other classifiers such as support vector machines and simpler linear regression models such as Ridge regression and LARS regression are also used. The performance of each model is compared. The results show encouraging potential for using machine learning techniques for the evaluation of turfgrass quality and color.

  5. Influence of Gsd for 3d City Modeling and Visualization from Aerial Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alrajhi, Muhamad; Alam, Zafare; Afroz Khan, Mohammad; Alobeid, Abdalla

    2016-06-01

    Ministry of Municipal and Rural Affairs (MOMRA), aims to establish solid infrastructure required for 3D city modelling, for decision making to set a mark in urban development. MOMRA is responsible for the large scale mapping 1:1,000; 1:2,500; 1:10,000 and 1:20,000 scales for 10cm, 20cm and 40 GSD with Aerial Triangulation data. As 3D city models are increasingly used for the presentation exploration, and evaluation of urban and architectural designs. Visualization capabilities and animations support of upcoming 3D geo-information technologies empower architects, urban planners, and authorities to visualize and analyze urban and architectural designs in the context of the existing situation. To make use of this possibility, first of all 3D city model has to be created for which MOMRA uses the Aerial Triangulation data and aerial imagery. The main concise for 3D city modelling in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia exists due to uneven surface and undulations. Thus real time 3D visualization and interactive exploration support planning processes by providing multiple stakeholders such as decision maker, architects, urban planners, authorities, citizens or investors with a three - dimensional model. Apart from advanced visualization, these 3D city models can be helpful for dealing with natural hazards and provide various possibilities to deal with exotic conditions by better and advanced viewing technological infrastructure. Riyadh on one side is 5700m above sea level and on the other hand Abha city is 2300m, this uneven terrain represents a drastic change of surface in the Kingdom, for which 3D city models provide valuable solutions with all possible opportunities. In this research paper: influence of different GSD (Ground Sample Distance) aerial imagery with Aerial Triangulation is used for 3D visualization in different region of the Kingdom, to check which scale is more sophisticated for obtaining better results and is cost manageable, with GSD (7.5cm, 10cm, 20cm and 40cm

  6. A new flavonoid from the aerial part of Thalictrum atriplex.

    PubMed

    Guangyao, G; Sibao, C; Junshan, Y; Peigen, X

    2000-12-01

    A new flavone glycoside, identified as kaempferol 3-O-[3'"-acetyl-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1'"-6")]-beta-D-gluco pyranoside (1), has been isolated from the aerial part of Thalictrum atriplex. PMID:11077167

  7. 33. GENERAL HIGH ALTITUDE AERIAL VIEW OF COMPLEX AND GENERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. GENERAL HIGH ALTITUDE AERIAL VIEW OF COMPLEX AND GENERAL SETTING. October 1982 - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 15, Upper Mississipi River (Arsenal Island), Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  8. 13. GENERAL HIGH ALTITUDE AERIAL VIEW OF COMPLEX AND GENERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. GENERAL HIGH ALTITUDE AERIAL VIEW OF COMPLEX AND GENERAL SETTING. October 1982 - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 17, Upper Mississippi River, New Boston, Mercer County, IL

  9. Aerial photography summary record system - five years later.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lauterborn, T.J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the APSRS, an automated information system for conventional aerial photography projects, established after the formation of the National Cartographic Information Center in the US Geological Survey in 1974. -after Author

  10. Bureau of Aeronautics, October 16, 1943, Photograph #4875. AERIAL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bureau of Aeronautics, October 16, 1943, Photograph #4875. AERIAL OF ROOSEVELT BASE LOOKING EAST - Roosevelt Base, Bounded by Ocean Boulevard, Pennsylvania Avenue, Richardson Avenue, & Idaho Street, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 1. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST (OLD HARVARD STREET BRIDGE AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST (OLD HARVARD STREET BRIDGE AT LEFT, NEW BRIDGE AT RIGHT) - Old Harvard Street Bridge, Spanning Rock Creek at National Zoological Park, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  12. 1. AERIAL VIEW OF THE PATH TRANSIT SYSTEM BRIDGE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW OF THE PATH TRANSIT SYSTEM BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE CONRAIL BRIDGE (HAER No. NJ-43) AND THE NEWARK TURNPIKE ARE VISIBLE IN THE BACKGROUND - Path Transit System Bridge, Spanning Hackensack River, Kearny, Hudson County, NJ

  13. 45. Aerial view of station in 1944, four years after ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Aerial view of station in 1944, four years after automation and before construction of the parking lot.U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) Photo - Bodie Island Light Station, Off Highway 12, Nags Head, Dare County, NC

  14. AERIAL VIEW FACING EAST. VIEW OF FABRIC BUILDING, STRUCTURAL WAREHOUSE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW FACING EAST. VIEW OF FABRIC BUILDING, STRUCTURAL WAREHOUSE, RAIL MILLS & OPEN HEARTH COMPLEX (RIGHT TO LEFT). CITY OF MONESSEN IN BACKGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  15. 2. Photocopy of aerial view of the museum, taken October ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of aerial view of the museum, taken October 26, 1966. Original photo in possession of the Philadelphia Museum of Art. - Philadelphia Museum of Art, Benjamin Franklin Parkway, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. 21. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH UP MEETING STREET FROM THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH UP MEETING STREET FROM THE INTERSECTION OF MEETING AND BROAD STREETS (FOUR CORNERS--ST. MICHAEL'S EPISCOPAL CHURCH, FIREPROOF BUILDING, COURTHOUSE, U.S. POST OFFICE). - City Plan of Charleston, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  17. 80. PHOTOCOPY OF 1976 AERIAL PHOTO OF BULLFROG MINE. From ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    80. PHOTOCOPY OF 1976 AERIAL PHOTO OF BULLFROG MINE. From National Park Service Environmental Review and Analysis, Bullfrog Mine Plan of Operations, Death Valley Nat'l Monument (24 March 1976) - Bullfrog Mine, Rhyolite, Nye County, NV

  18. 81. PHOTOCOPY OF 1978 AERIAL PHOTO OF BULLFROG MINE. From ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    81. PHOTOCOPY OF 1978 AERIAL PHOTO OF BULLFROG MINE. From National Park Service Environmental Review and Analysis, BullfroG Mine Plan of Operations, Death Valley Nat'l Monument (24 August 1978) - Bullfrog Mine, Rhyolite, Nye County, NV

  19. Photocopy of photograph. AERIAL VIEW. Original photograph taken April 1957 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph. AERIAL VIEW. Original photograph taken April 1957 by Mr. Lewis, and on file at the Edison National Historic Site, negative number 0-998 - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  20. 69. AERIAL VIEW OF EAST END OF PARKWAY, LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. AERIAL VIEW OF EAST END OF PARKWAY, LOOKING WEST TOWARD BRIDGE AND SIKORSKY HELICOPTER PLANT. - Merritt Parkway, Beginning in Greenwich & running 38 miles to Stratford, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  1. 64. AERIAL VIEW OF EAST END OF PARKWAY, LOOKING WEST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. AERIAL VIEW OF EAST END OF PARKWAY, LOOKING WEST, SIKORSKY HELICOPTER PLANT TO THE RIGHT. - Merritt Parkway, Beginning in Greenwich & running 38 miles to Stratford, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  2. 7. Historic aerial photo of rocket engine test facility complex, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic aerial photo of rocket engine test facility complex, June 1962. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA GRC photo number C-60674. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  3. 14. Photocopy of Photograph AERIAL VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, GENERAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopy of Photograph AERIAL VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, GENERAL VIEW OF COMPLEX, 16 April 1973. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  4. 13. Photocopy of Photograph AERIAL VIEW TO NORTHWEST, GENERAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of Photograph AERIAL VIEW TO NORTHWEST, GENERAL VIEW OF COMPLEX, 16 April 1973. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  5. AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING NORTH, WITH FORMER TCIUS STEEL ORE MINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING NORTH, WITH FORMER TCI-US STEEL ORE MINE HEADQUARTERS (BOTTOM) AND SUPERINTENDENT'S AND FOREMAN HOUSING ALONG MINNESOTA AVENUE AT CREST OF RED MOUNTAIN (TOP LEFT). - Muscoda Red Ore Mining Community, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  6. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST TOWARDS TCIUS STEEL, ENSLEY WORKS OPEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST TOWARDS TCI-US STEEL, ENSLEY WORKS OPEN HEARTH IN BACKGROUND. - Tennessee Coal & Iron Company, Ensley Works, West of residential & commercial districts, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  7. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH WEST, BIRMINGPORT ROAD AND DON DRENNEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH WEST, BIRMINGPORT ROAD AND DON DRENNEN OVERPASS IN FOREGROUND, TCI-US STEEL ENSLEY WORKS OPEN HEARTH (RUINS) IN THE BACKGROUND. - Tennessee Coal & Iron Company, Ensley Works, West of residential & commercial districts, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  8. 52. CLOSEUP AERIAL VIEW OF THE MERCURY CAPSULE SITTING ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. CLOSE-UP AERIAL VIEW OF THE MERCURY CAPSULE SITTING ON TOP OF THE REDSTONE ROCKET IN THE TEST STAND. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  9. 45. HISTORIC AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT THE TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. HISTORIC AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT THE TEST STAND AND THE SURROUNDING ELECTRONICS AND EQUIPMENT TRAILERS. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  10. 1. NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ISLAND. REMAINS OF SEA WALL VISIBLE IN FOREGROUND AND RIGHT OF IMAGE. - Fort Delaware, Sea Wall, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  11. NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ISLAND. REMAINS OF SEA WALL VISIBLE IN FOREGROUND AND RIGHT OF IMAGE - Fort Delaware, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  12. 30. Aerial view looking SE at Brooklyn Tower and the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Aerial view looking SE at Brooklyn Tower and the intersection of Water Street and Camden Plaza. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  13. 14. AERIAL VIEW OF ENGINE DISPLAY INSIDE PASSENGER CAR SHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. AERIAL VIEW OF ENGINE DISPLAY INSIDE PASSENGER CAR SHOP (NOW A TRANSPORTATION MUSEUM) - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  14. 50. AERIAL VIEW OF THE SOUTH END OF ALEXANDRIA LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. AERIAL VIEW OF THE SOUTH END OF ALEXANDRIA LOOKING NORTH. (WASHINGTON ST.) - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  15. 67. AERIAL VIEW OF WATERFOWL SANCTUARY WITH INTERSTATE 395 LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    67. AERIAL VIEW OF WATERFOWL SANCTUARY WITH INTERSTATE 395 LOOKING NORTHEAST INTO WASHINGTON D.C. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  16. 4. AERIAL VIEW OF MT. VERNON TERMINUS, SOUTHERN TERMINUS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. AERIAL VIEW OF MT. VERNON TERMINUS, SOUTHERN TERMINUS OF GEORGE WASHINGTON MEMORIAL PARKWAY (GWMP), LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  17. 2. AERIAL VIEW OF THE WEST GROUNDS OF THE CAPITOL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW OF THE WEST GROUNDS OF THE CAPITOL, UNION PLAZA AND REFLECTING POOL AND THE BOTANIC GARDENS, LOOKING NORTH FROM OVER FIRST STREET, SW. - National Mall & Monument Grounds, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. 262. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer June 1998 AERIAL VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    262. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer June 1998 AERIAL VIEW OF CANTILEVER TRUSS CANTILEVER ARM AND SUSPENDED SPAN, NORTH SIDE, FACING SOUTH. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  19. HISTORIC IMAGE: AERIAL VIEW OF CEMETERY AND ITS ENVIRONS. PHOTOGRAPH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HISTORIC IMAGE: AERIAL VIEW OF CEMETERY AND ITS ENVIRONS. PHOTOGRAPH 15 SEPTEMBER 1950. NCA HISTORY COLLECTION. - San Francisco National Cemetery, 1 Lincoln Boulevard, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  20. 13. AERIAL OF FORT SHERIDAN LOOKING NORTH TOWARD THE WATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. AERIAL OF FORT SHERIDAN LOOKING NORTH TOWARD THE WATER TOWER (Copy negative made from negative by TASO, U.S. Army, Fort Sheridan, Illinois). - Fort Sheridan, 25 miles Northeast of Chicago, on Lake Michigan, Lake Forest, Lake County, IL

  1. 38. DETAIL AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT 45 DEGREE ANGLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. DETAIL AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT 45 DEGREE ANGLE SHOWING TOP VIEW OF 210' 9' LIFT SPAN - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Newark Bay Lift Bridge, Spanning Newark Bay, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  2. 39. DETAIL AERIAL VIEW LOOKING AT 210' 9' LIFT SPAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. DETAIL AERIAL VIEW LOOKING AT 210' 9' LIFT SPAN TOWER SHEAVES SHOWING 1 SET WITH AND 1 SET WITHOUT SHEAVE HOODS - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Newark Bay Lift Bridge, Spanning Newark Bay, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  3. 2. AERIAL VIEW OF ROLLING LIFT BRIDGE. DORCHESTER AVENUE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW OF ROLLING LIFT BRIDGE. DORCHESTER AVENUE IN BACKGROUND. SOUTH STATION VISIBLE AT TOP LEFT. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Fort Point Channel Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  4. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems for Disaster Relief: Tornado Alley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeBusk, Wesley M.

    2009-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle systems are currently in limited use for public service missions worldwide. Development of civil unmanned technology in the United States currently lags behind military unmanned technology development in part because of unresolved regulatory and technological issues. Civil unmanned aerial vehicle systems have potential to augment disaster relief and emergency response efforts. Optimal design of aerial systems for such applications will lead to unmanned vehicles which provide maximum potentiality for relief and emergency response while accounting for public safety concerns and regulatory requirements. A case study is presented that demonstrates application of a civil unmanned system to a disaster relief mission with the intent on saving lives. The concept utilizes unmanned aircraft to obtain advanced warning and damage assessments for tornados and severe thunderstorms. Overview of a tornado watch mission architecture as well as commentary on risk, cost, need for, and design tradeoffs for unmanned aerial systems are provided.

  5. 74. AERIAL VIEW OF MEMORIAL BRIDGE AND MEMORIAL AVENUE LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    74. AERIAL VIEW OF MEMORIAL BRIDGE AND MEMORIAL AVENUE LOOKING EAST AT LINCOLN MEMORIAL. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  6. Meteorological influences on mass accountability of aerially applied sprays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The deposition and drift of aerially applied crop protection materials is influenced by a number of factors including equpment setup and operational parameters, spray material characteristics, and meteorological effects. This work examines the meteorological influences that effect the ultimate fate...

  7. 56. AERIAL VIEW OF WIDE MEDIAN NEXT TO WASHINGTON SAILING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. AERIAL VIEW OF WIDE MEDIAN NEXT TO WASHINGTON SAILING MARINA LOOKING NORTH. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  8. 54. AERIAL VIEW OF WIDE MEDIAN JUST SOUTH OF WASHINGTON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. AERIAL VIEW OF WIDE MEDIAN JUST SOUTH OF WASHINGTON SAILING MARINA LOOKING NORTH. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  9. 11. COPY OF 1970 AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF LORING AIR FORCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. COPY OF 1970 AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF LORING AIR FORCE BASE. PHOTOGRAPH LOCATED AT AIR FORCE BASE CONVERSION AGENCY, LORING AIR FORCE BASE, MAINE. - Loring Air Force Base, Airfield, Central portion of base, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  10. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST, OF ARRASTRA GULCH, WITH SILVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST, OF ARRASTRA GULCH, WITH SILVER LAKE IN FOREGROUND. NOTE SILVER LAKE MINE AND MILL RUINS ON FAR SHORE. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  11. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF SILVER LAKE. NOTE IOWA MINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF SILVER LAKE. NOTE IOWA MINE RUINS AT LEFT CENTER AND SILVER LAKE MINE RUINS BEYOND NORTHWEST SHORE. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  12. 1. AERIAL VIEW FROM SE LOOKING NW, SHOWING BRIDGE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW FROM SE LOOKING NW, SHOWING BRIDGE AND SITE CONTEXT - Slates' Mill Bridge, Township Road 439 spanning South Branch of Tunkhannock Creek in Benton Township, Dalton, Lackawanna County, PA

  13. 5. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF BUILDING 371 AFTER CONSTRUCTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF BUILDING 371 AFTER CONSTRUCTION WAS COMPLETED. (11/7/78) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  14. 2. AERIAL VIEW OF BRIDGE IN CONTEXT FROM SOUTHWEST. LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW OF BRIDGE IN CONTEXT FROM SOUTHWEST. LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Rue Road Bridge, Rue Road, spanning Matchaponix Brook, .35 mile east of intersection with Route 613, Jamesburg, Middlesex County, NJ

  15. 1. AERIAL VIEW OF BRIDGE IN CONTEXT INCLUDING VICTORY CIRCLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW OF BRIDGE IN CONTEXT INCLUDING VICTORY CIRCLE FROM SOUTH. LOOKING NORTH. - Rue Road Bridge, Rue Road, spanning Matchaponix Brook, .35 mile east of intersection with Route 613, Jamesburg, Middlesex County, NJ

  16. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, OF SHENANDOAHDIVES (MAYFLOWER) MINE PORTAL, IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, OF SHENANDOAH-DIVES (MAYFLOWER) MINE PORTAL, IN SHADOW AT WIDENED END OF ROAD, THREE-EIGHTHS FROM THE BOTTOM. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  17. 83. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer June 1998 CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    83. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer June 1998 CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW OF EAST BAY CROSSING FROM YERBA BUENA ISLAND TO OAKLAND, NORTH SIDE, FACING EAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. 89. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer June 1998 CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    89. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer June 1998 CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW OF EAST BAY CROSSING FROM YERBA BUENA ISLAND TO OAKLAND, FACING NORTHEAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  19. Data annotation of aerial reconnaissance imagery and exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wareberg, P. Gunnar; Prunes, V.; Scholes, Richard W.

    1995-09-01

    This paper reviews the use of LED recording head assemblies (RHAs) for film annotation in aerial reconnaissance cameras and discusses code matrix block readers (CMBRs). Annotation of video imagery is also covered.

  20. 3. AERIAL VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, WITH INTERSECTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, WITH INTERSECTION OF PACIFIC COAST HIGHWAY AND MAIN STREET IN FOREGROUND - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  1. 1. AERIAL VIEW OF BOTH ACTIVE AND INACTIVE FLUMES, TAKEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW OF BOTH ACTIVE AND INACTIVE FLUMES, TAKEN FROM EAST, NOTE STOCK SHELTERS IN BACKGROUND AND HAYSTACKS AND STORAGE IN FOREGROUND - Grant-Kohrs Ranch, Flumes, Highway 10, Deer Lodge, Powell County, MT

  2. East wall, showing rails of a halfton aerial gantry attached ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East wall, showing rails of a half-ton aerial gantry attached to roof frame - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  3. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST SHOWING PACKAGE FREIGHTER (VESSEL 54), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST SHOWING PACKAGE FREIGHTER (VESSEL 54), BROKEN BOW OF VESSEL IN FOREGROUND Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 54, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  4. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING COVERED BARGE (VESSEL 37) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING COVERED BARGE (VESSEL 37) IN CENTER OF PICTURE WITH FOUR HATCHES SHOWING IN SUPERSTRUCTURE Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 37, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  5. 2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING TOP, SIDE, AND REAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING TOP, SIDE, AND REAR VIEW OF VESSEL 37 SUPERSTRUCTURE Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 37, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  6. 2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING STERN OF HULL IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING STERN OF HULL IN FOREGROUND. TWO MASTS VISIBLE Charles Wisniewski, photographer, JanuAry 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 54, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  7. 2. NORTH SIDE. MASTER AERIAL SWITCH ON LOWER RIGHT PORTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. NORTH SIDE. MASTER AERIAL SWITCH ON LOWER RIGHT PORTION OF WALL. TRIPOD AND TENSION WEIGHTS AT LEFT. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Helix House, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  8. DETAIL TOP VIEW OF AERIAL TRAMWAY DRIVE MECHANISM, LOOKING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL TOP VIEW OF AERIAL TRAMWAY DRIVE MECHANISM, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE FRICTION BRAKING SYSTEM CAN BE SEEN IN SHADOW ABOVE THE LARGE CABLE WHEEL BELOW. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  9. 326. Clyde Sunderland, Photographer November 11, 1936 AERIAL VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    326. Clyde Sunderland, Photographer November 11, 1936 AERIAL VIEW OF OAKLAND APPROACH TO YERBA BUENA ISLAND UNDER CONSTRUCTION. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  10. AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH FORMER TCIUS STEEL WORKER HOUSES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH FORMER TCI-US STEEL WORKER HOUSES ALONG AVENUES G, H, I AND J AND MORGAN ROAD (BOTTOM, RUNNING LEFT TO RIGHT). - Muscoda Red Ore Mining Community, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  11. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING FURTHER SOUTH EAST, VILLAGE CREEK WATER TREATMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW LOOKING FURTHER SOUTH EAST, VILLAGE CREEK WATER TREATMENT PLANT ON RIGHT SIDE, ENSLEY IN BACKGROUND. - Birmingham Southern Railroad Yard, Thirty-fourth Street, Ensley, Jefferson County, AL

  12. Aerial overview of the Denver International Airport site, looking southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial overview of the Denver International Airport site, looking southwest - Denver International Airport Site, Between Fifty-sixth & 128th Avenues, Buckley Road & Box Elder Creek, Denver, Denver County, CO

  13. 33. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. AERIAL VIEW OF AREA DURING FLOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. AERIAL VIEW OF AREA DURING FLOOD STAGE. GIANELLA BRIDGE AT UPPER RIGHT Photographer unknown, January 24, 1970 - Gianella Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at State Highway 32, Hamilton City, Glenn County, CA

  14. 68. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking northeast, spring, 1957 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  15. 14. AERIAL VIEW OF POOL AND STRUCTURES Photocopy of photocopy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. AERIAL VIEW OF POOL AND STRUCTURES Photocopy of photocopy of 1931 rendering by Alexander, Becker and Schoeppe, architects and engineers - Glen Echo Park, Crystal Swimming Pool, 7300 McArthur Boulevard, Glen Echo, Montgomery County, MD

  16. 3. AERIAL VIEW OF THE MALL BETWEEN TWELFTH STREET AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW OF THE MALL BETWEEN TWELFTH STREET AND THE WASHINGTON MONUMENT, LOOKING NORTH UP THE 14TH STREET AXIS FROM OVER THE WASHINGTON CHANNEL. - National Mall & Monument Grounds, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. 63. Aerial view of SAC command post construction, looking west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. Aerial view of SAC command post construction, looking west - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  18. 67. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    67. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking northeast, undated - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  19. 62. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking east - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  20. 25. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING WEST OVER THE INTERSECTION OF MEETING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING WEST OVER THE INTERSECTION OF MEETING AND TRADD STREETS WITH THE NATHANIEL RUSSELL HOUSE AND THE FIRST SCOTT PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH AS LANDMARKS ALONG MEETING STREET. - City Plan of Charleston, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  1. Ontogeny of aerial righting and wing flapping in juvenile birds.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, Dennis; Cam, Sharlene; Huynh, Tony; Krivitskiy, Igor; Dudley, Robert

    2014-08-01

    Mechanisms of aerial righting in juvenile chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar) were studied from hatching to 14 days-post-hatching (dph). Asymmetric movements of the wings were used from 1 to 8 dph to effect progressively more successful righting behaviour via body roll. Following 8 dph, wing motions transitioned to bilaterally symmetric flapping that yielded aerial righting via nose-down pitch, along with substantial increases in vertical force production during descent. Ontogenetically, the use of such wing motions to effect aerial righting precedes both symmetric flapping and a previously documented behaviour in chukar (i.e. wing-assisted incline running) hypothesized to be relevant to incipient flight evolution in birds. These findings highlight the importance of asymmetric wing activation and controlled aerial manoeuvres during bird development and are potentially relevant to understanding the origins of avian flight. PMID:25165451

  2. Aerial view looking northwest. Buildings 1 and 2 fronting seaplane ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view looking northwest. Buildings 1 and 2 fronting seaplane ramps 2,3, and 4, are located bayside in center of view. - Naval Air Station North Island, North Island, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  3. Historic Image: Aerial view of Mount of Victory Plot. Photograph ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Historic Image: Aerial view of Mount of Victory Plot. Photograph 1961. NCA History Collection - Cypress Hills National Cemetery, Mount of Victory Plot Unit, 625 Jamaica Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  4. 3. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING THE ENTIRE BRIDGE FROM EAST CABLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING THE ENTIRE BRIDGE FROM EAST CABLE ANCHORAGE (EXTREME LEFT) TO WEST CABLE ANCHORAGE (UPPER RIGHT CORNER). March 1987. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  5. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST, OF ARRASTRA BASIN, SILVER LAKE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST, OF ARRASTRA BASIN, SILVER LAKE, AND THE SHENANDOAH-DIVES (MAYFLOWER) MILL IN DISTANT ANIMAS VALLEY. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  6. 1. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING AT GLENDALE ROAD CROSSING OF DEEP CREEK LAKE (PHOTOGRAPH BY RUTHVAN MORROW) - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  7. 2. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING AT GLENDALE ROAD CROSSING OF DEEP CREEK LAKE (PHOTOGRAPH BY RUTHVAN MORROW) - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  8. 1. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING MOBILE LAUNCHER. BASE IS CALLED LAUNCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING MOBILE LAUNCHER. BASE IS CALLED LAUNCH PLATFORM AND TOWER ON RIGHT IS CALLED LAUNCH UMBILICAL TOWER, (LUT). - Mobile Launcher One, Kennedy Space Center, Titusville, Brevard County, FL

  9. 70. AERIAL VIEW OF ROUTE 110 WITH PENTAGON AND PARKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. AERIAL VIEW OF ROUTE 110 WITH PENTAGON AND PARKING AREA LOOKING SOUTHEAST.(EXPRESSWAY V.S. PARKWAY) - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  10. Precision aerial application for site-specific rice crop management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision agriculture includes different technologies that allow agricultural professional to use information management tools to optimize agriculture production. The new technologies allow aerial application applicators to improve application accuracy and efficiency, which saves time and money for...

  11. 3. AERIAL VIEW OF THREE BEARS LAKE, SHOWING OUTLET STREAM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW OF THREE BEARS LAKE, SHOWING OUTLET STREAM, BURLINGTON NORTHERN TRACKS, AND U.S. HIGHWAY 2, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Three Bears Lake & Dams, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  12. Photocopy of aerial photograph taken in 1959, showing Newark Airport. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of aerial photograph taken in 1959, showing Newark Airport. Photographer unknown. Original photograph property of Continental Airlines, Houston, Texas - Newark International Airport, Between New Jersey Turnpike, U.S. Routes 1 & 9, & Interstate 78, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  13. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, FROM RED MOUNTAIN TO USX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, FROM RED MOUNTAIN TO USX FAIRFIELD WORKS (TOP LEFT) WITH WENONAH SINTERING PLANT (BOTTOM CENTER) AND WENONAH COMMUNITY (CENTER RIGHT). - High Line Railroad, From Red Mountain to Fairfield Works, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  14. 7 CFR 1755.507 - Aerial cable services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Design of Aerial Plant. The same tension as would be used in normal line construction so as not to exceed... masonry or on studs of wood frame buildings. Cable attachment devices may be installed on sheet...

  15. 7 CFR 1755.507 - Aerial cable services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Design of Aerial Plant. The same tension as would be used in normal line construction so as not to exceed... masonry or on studs of wood frame buildings. Cable attachment devices may be installed on sheet...

  16. 7 CFR 1755.507 - Aerial cable services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Design of Aerial Plant. The same tension as would be used in normal line construction so as not to exceed... masonry or on studs of wood frame buildings. Cable attachment devices may be installed on sheet...

  17. 7 CFR 1755.507 - Aerial cable services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Design of Aerial Plant. The same tension as would be used in normal line construction so as not to exceed... masonry or on studs of wood frame buildings. Cable attachment devices may be installed on sheet...

  18. 7 CFR 1755.507 - Aerial cable services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Design of Aerial Plant. The same tension as would be used in normal line construction so as not to exceed... masonry or on studs of wood frame buildings. Cable attachment devices may be installed on sheet...

  19. 1. AERIAL VIEW OF WHITSETT (INTAKE) PUMP PLANT ON LAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW OF WHITSETT (INTAKE) PUMP PLANT ON LAKE SHORE IN FOREGROUND; GENE IN BACKGROUND, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Whitsett Pump Plant, West side of Colorado River, north of Parker Dam, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

  20. 4. AERIAL VIEW OF GENE WASH RESERVOIR AND GENE CAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. AERIAL VIEW OF GENE WASH RESERVOIR AND GENE CAMP LOOKING SOUTHWEST. DAM AND SPILLWAY VISIBLE IN BOTTOM OF PHOTO. - Gene Wash Reservoir & Dam, 2 miles west of Parker Dam, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

  1. 4. Aerial view of Whitsett intake (lower right), Parker Dam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Aerial view of Whitsett intake (lower right), Parker Dam and village (left), Gene Wash Reservoir, Gene Pump Plant and village (right). - Parker Dam, Spanning Colorado River between AZ & CA, Parker, La Paz County, AZ

  2. 5. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTH SHOWING PHILADELPHIA MUSEUM OF ART, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTH SHOWING PHILADELPHIA MUSEUM OF ART, SITE OF FORMER MAIN STORAGE RESERVOIR - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. 1. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING WATER WORKS SITE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING WATER WORKS SITE AND PHILADELPHIA MUSEUM OF ART ON HILL ABOVE - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. 2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SW. TIP OF GOOSE ISLAND AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SW. TIP OF GOOSE ISLAND AT TOP LEFT OF FRAME. - Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, Bridge No. Z-2, Spanning North Branch Canal at North Cherry Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  5. 3. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING ESE. TIP OF GOOSE ISLAND AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING ESE. TIP OF GOOSE ISLAND AT TOP RIGHT OF FRAME. - Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, Bridge No. Z-2, Spanning North Branch Canal at North Cherry Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  6. 16. AERIAL VIEW OF GOOSE ISLAND, LOOKING SOUTH, CIRCA 1960. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. AERIAL VIEW OF GOOSE ISLAND, LOOKING SOUTH, CIRCA 1960. BRIDGE No. Z-2 AT LOWER LEFT OF FRAME. - Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, Bridge No. Z-2, Spanning North Branch Canal at North Cherry Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  7. 4. AERIAL VIEW OF DAM SITE SHOWING OUTLET WORKS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. AERIAL VIEW OF DAM SITE SHOWING OUTLET WORKS AND DIVERSION CHANNEL IN FOREGROUND.... Volume XVIII, No. 9, March 5, 1940. - Prado Dam, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  8. 13. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING IN THE FOREGROUND, EXCAVATION FOR THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING IN THE FOREGROUND, EXCAVATION FOR THE SPILLWAY APRON.... Volume XVII, No. 12, December 26, 1939. - Prado Dam, Spillway, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  9. 6. EASTERLY AERIAL VIEW SHOWING THE RIGHT ABUTMENT AND OUTLET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. EASTERLY AERIAL VIEW SHOWING THE RIGHT ABUTMENT AND OUTLET CONTROL WORKS IN THE FOREGROUND.... Volume XX, No. 8, September 9, 1940. - Prado Dam, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  10. 21. AERIAL VIEW OF THE OUTLET STRUCTURE AND OUTLET CHANNEL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. AERIAL VIEW OF THE OUTLET STRUCTURE AND OUTLET CHANNEL, LOOKING UPSTREAM.... Volume XVII, No. 11, December 26, 1939. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  11. 15. AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF DAM SITE SHOWING SPILLWAY OGEE SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF DAM SITE SHOWING SPILLWAY OGEE SECTION AND SPILLWAY APRON EXCAVATION IN FOREGROUND.... Volume XVIII, No. 10, January 18, 1940. - Prado Dam, Spillway, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  12. F/A-18 Automated Aerial Refueling (AAR) Phase 1

    NASA Video Gallery

    Engineers at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center are evaluating the capability of an F/A-18A aircraft as an in-flight refueling tanker to develop analytical models for an automated aerial refuelin...

  13. 1. AERIAL SHOT HANGARS 14 (IN CENTER OF VIEW), WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL SHOT HANGARS 1-4 (IN CENTER OF VIEW), WEST FACING, SIDE LOOKING EAST. BUILDING 100 IS IN FOREGROUND. - Hill Field, Airplane Repair Hangars No. 1-No. 4, 5875 Southgate Avenue, Layton, Davis County, UT

  14. 2. AERIAL SHOT HANGARS 14 (IN CENTER OF VIEW), SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL SHOT HANGARS 1-4 (IN CENTER OF VIEW), SOUTH AND WEST FACING SIDES. BUILDING 238 IS IN LOWER RIGHT FOREGROUND. - Hill Field, Airplane Repair Hangars No. 1-No. 4, 5875 Southgate Avenue, Layton, Davis County, UT

  15. Aerial view of construction of both LTA ship hangars (looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view of construction of both LTA ship hangars (looking north) circa 1942. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  16. Aerial view of entire LTA base after completion of both ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view of entire LTA base after completion of both LTA ship hangars. Date unknown but probably circa 1945. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  17. Aerial view of reroofing of northern LTA ship hangar, circa ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view of re-roofing of northern LTA ship hangar, circa 1957. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  18. 129. FULL AERIAL VIEW SHOWING FORWARD PORT QUARTER, ENTERING PEARL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    129. FULL AERIAL VIEW SHOWING FORWARD PORT QUARTER, ENTERING PEARL HARBOR AFTER APOLLO 11 RECOVERY. 26 JULY 1969. (NATIONAL ARCHIVES NO. 428-KN-18090) - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  19. 26. AERIAL VIEW OF WASTE CALCINING FACILITY WITH SOLIDS STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. AERIAL VIEW OF WASTE CALCINING FACILITY WITH SOLIDS STORAGE FACILITY BEHIND. CAMERA FACING EAST. INEEL PHOTO NUMBER PHOTO 72-4571. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. 1. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING AQUEDUCT RIGHTOFWAY, WITH WASTE WEIR VISIBLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING AQUEDUCT RIGHT-OF-WAY, WITH WASTE WEIR VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Mill River Waste Weir, U.S. Route 9 at Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Tarrytown, Westchester County, NY

  1. 25. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS AERIAL VIEW OF WASTE CALCINING FACILITY TAKEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS AERIAL VIEW OF WASTE CALCINING FACILITY TAKEN WHEN STRUCTURE WAS 99 PERCENT COMPLETE. INEEL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-60-5409. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. 2. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SOUTHWEST SHOWING DOLPHIN MANUFACTURING CO., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SOUTHWEST SHOWING DOLPHIN MANUFACTURING CO., BARBOUR FLAX SPINNING CO. -- SPRUCE ST. MILL, ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS -- MILLWRIGHT SHOP AND FITTING SHOP. - Great Falls S. U. M. Historic District, Oliver Street, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  3. 10. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST SHOWING (from left) INDUSTRY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST SHOWING (from left) INDUSTRY MILL, HARMONY MILL, PHOENIX MILL, CONGDON MILL, TODD RAFFERTY MACHINE CO. - Great Falls S. U. M. Historic District, Oliver Street, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  4. 13. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SHOWING UNION WORKS (ROSEN MILL), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SHOWING UNION WORKS (ROSEN MILL), GRANT LOCOMOTIVE WORKS -- MACHINE SHOP, DANFORTH (COOKE) LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE CO. - Great Falls S. U. M. Historic District, Oliver Street, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  5. 22. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST SHOWING GRANT LOCOMOTIVE WORKS, UNION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST SHOWING GRANT LOCOMOTIVE WORKS, UNION WORKS (ROSEN MILL), ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE COMPANY AND IVANHOE MILL WHEELHOUSE UNDER RESTORATION. - Great Falls S. U. M. Historic District, Oliver Street, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  6. The Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) 2002 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Fink, Mary M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents and overview of the Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL). It covers the University of Nebraska's areas of research, and its outreach to students at Native American schools as part of AERIAL. The report contains three papers: "Airborne Remote Sensing (ARS) for Agricultural Research and Commercialization Application" (White Paper), "Validated Numerical Models for the Convective Extinction of Fuel Droplets (CEFD)", and "The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS): Research Collaborations with the NASA Langley Research Center".

  7. Optimization and application of Retinex algorithm in aerial image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Bo; He, Jun; Li, Hongyu

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, we provide a segmentation based Retinex for improving the visual quality of aerial images obtained under complex weather conditions. With the method, an aerial image will be segmented into different regions, and then an adaptive Gaussian based on the segmentations will be used to process it. The method addresses the problems existing in previously developed Retinex algorithms, such as halo artifacts and graying-out artifacts. The experimental result also shows evidence of its better effect.

  8. Ecological Energetics of an Abundant Aerial Insectivore, the Purple Martin

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Jeffrey F.; Bridge, Eli S.; Frick, Winifred F.; Chilson, Phillip B.

    2013-01-01

    The atmospheric boundary layer and lower free atmosphere, or aerosphere, is increasingly important for human transportation, communication, environmental monitoring, and energy production. The impacts of anthropogenic encroachment into aerial habitats are not well understood. Insectivorous birds and bats are inherently valuable components of biodiversity and play an integral role in aerial trophic dynamics. Many of these insectivores are experiencing range-wide population declines. As a first step toward gaging the potential impacts of these declines on the aerosphere’s trophic system, estimates of the biomass and energy consumed by aerial insectivores are needed. We developed a suite of energetics models for one of the largest and most common avian aerial insectivores in North America, the Purple Martin (Prognesubis). The base model estimated that Purple Martins consumed 412 (± 104) billion insects*y-1 with a biomass of 115,860 (± 29,192) metric tonnes*y-1. During the breeding season Purple Martins consume 10.3 (+ 3.0) kg of prey biomass per km3 of aerial habitat, equal to about 36,000 individual insects*km-3. Based on these calculations, the cumulative seasonal consumption of insects*km-3 is greater in North America during the breeding season than during other phases of the annual cycle, however the maximum daily insect consumption*km-3 occurs during fall migration. This analysis provides the first range-wide quantitative estimate of the magnitude of the trophic impact of this large and common aerial insectivore. Future studies could use a similar modeling approach to estimate impacts of the entire guild of aerial insectivores at a variety of temporal and spatial scales. These analyses would inform our understanding of the impact of population declines among aerial insectivores on the aerosphere’s trophic dynamics. PMID:24086755

  9. User guide for the USGS aerial camera Report of Calibration.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tayman, W.P.

    1984-01-01

    Calibration and testing of aerial mapping cameras includes the measurement of optical constants and the check for proper functioning of a number of complicated mechanical and electrical parts. For this purpose the US Geological Survey performs an operational type photographic calibration. This paper is not strictly a scientific paper but rather a 'user guide' to the USGS Report of Calibration of an aerial mapping camera for compliance with both Federal and State mapping specifications. -Author

  10. Measured Noise from Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabell, Randolph; McSwain, Robert; Grosveld, Ferdinand

    2016-01-01

    Proposed uses of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), including home package delivery, have the potential to expose large portions of communities to a new noise source. This paper discusses results of flyover noise measurements of four small UAVs, including an internal combustion-powered model airplane and three battery-powered multicopters. Basic noise characteristics of these vehicles are discussed, including spectral properties and sound level metrics such as sound pressure level, effective perceived noise level, and sound exposure level. The size and aerodynamic characteristics of the multicopters in particular make their flight path susceptible to atmospheric disturbances such as wind gusts. These gusts, coupled with a flight control system that varies rotor speed to maintain vehicle stability, create an unsteady acoustic signature. The spectral variations resulting from this unsteadiness are explored, in both hover and flyover conditions for the multicopters. The time varying noise, which differs from the relatively steady noise generated by large transport aircraft, may complicate the prediction of human annoyance using conventional sound level metrics.

  11. Solar-powered unmanned aerial vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhardt, K.C.; Lamp, T.R.; Geis, J.W.; Colozza, A.J.

    1996-12-31

    An analysis was performed to determine the impact of various power system components and mission requirements on the size of solar-powered high altitude long endurance (HALE)-type aircraft. The HALE unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) has good potential for use in many military and civil applications. The primary power system components considered in this study were photovoltaic (PV) modules for power generation and regenerative fuel cells for energy storage. The impact of relevant component performance on UAV size and capability were considered; including PV module efficiency and mass, power electronics efficiency, and fuel cell specific energy. Mission parameters such as time of year, flight altitude, flight latitude, and payload mass and power were also varied to determine impact on UAV size. The aircraft analysis method used determines the required aircraft wing aspect ratio, wing area, and total mass based on maximum endurance or minimum required power calculations. The results indicate that the capacity of the energy storage system employed, fuel cells in this analysis, greatly impacts aircraft size, whereas the impact of PV module efficiency and mass is much less important. It was concluded that an energy storage specific energy (total system) of 250--500 Whr/kg is required to enable most useful missions, and that PV cells with efficiencies greater than {approximately} 12% are suitable for use.

  12. [Death by explosion of an aerial mine].

    PubMed

    Stockhausen, Sarah; Wöllner, Kirsten; Madea, Burkhard; Doberentz, Elke

    2014-01-01

    Civilians are rarely killed by military weapons except in times of war. In early 2014, a 50-year-old man died in an explosion of an aerial mine from the Second World War when he was crushing concrete chunks with an excavator at a recycling plant. In the burned operator's cab, the remains of a body were found on the driver's seat. The thorax and the head were missing. Still sticking in the shoe, the right foot severed at the ankle was found about 7 m from the excavator together with numerous small to tiny body parts. At autopsy, the completely disrupted, strongly charred lower torso of a male connected to the left extremities as well as a large number of small tissue fragments and calcined bones were found. According to calculations performed by the seismographical station on the basis of seismic data, only about 45-60 percent of the charge had detonated. The autopsy results illustrate all the more the massive impact of such an explosion. PMID:26548019

  13. Aerial view of the KSC crawler transporters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In this aerial view the Crawler Transporter Maintenance Building (center) sits between two crawler transporters. The KSC crawlers are the largest tracked vehicles known. Once used to move assembled Apollo/Saturn from the VAB to the launch pad, they are now used for transporting Shuttle vehicles. They move the Mobile Launcher Platform into the Vehicle Assembly Building and then to the Launch Pad with an assembled space vehicle. Maximum speed is 1.6 km (one mile) per hour loaded, about 3.2 km (2 miles) per hour unloaded. Launch Pad to VAB trip time with the Mobile Launch Platform is about 5 hours. The crawler burns 568 liters (150 gallons) of diesel oil per mile. KSC's two crawlers have accumulated 1,243 miles since 1977. Including the Apollo years, the transporters have racked up 2,526 miles, about the same distance as a one-way trip from KSC to Los Angeles by interstate highway or a round trip between KSC and New York City.

  14. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle in Cadastral Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manyoky, M.; Theiler, P.; Steudler, D.; Eisenbeiss, H.

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents the investigation of UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) for use in cadastral surveying. Within the scope of a pilot study UAVs were tested for capturing geodata and compared with conventional data acquisition methods for cadastral surveying. Two study sites were therefore surveyed with a tachymeter-GNSS combination as well as a UAV system. The workflows of both methods were investigated and the resulting data were compared with the requirements of Swiss cadastral surveying. Concerning data acquisition and evaluation, the two systems are found to be comparable in terms of time expenditure, accuracy, and completeness. In conclusion, the UAV image orientation proved to be the limiting factor for the obtained accuracy due to the low- cost camera including camera calibration, image quality, and definition of the ground control points (natural or artificial). However, the required level of accuracy for cadastral surveying was reached. The advantage of UAV systems lies in their high flexibility and efficiency in capturing the surface of an area from a low flight altitude. In addition, further information such as orthoimages, elevation models and 3D objects can easily be gained from UAV images. Altogether, this project endorses the benefit of using UAVs in cadastral applications and the new opportunities they provide for cadastral surveying.

  15. Localization of aerial pure tones by pinnipeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Marla M.; Schusterman, Ronald J.; Kastak, David; Southall, Brandon L.

    2005-12-01

    In this study, minimum audible angles (MAAs) of aerial pure tones were measured in and compared between a northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Testing was conducted between 0.8 and 16 kHz in the elephant seal and 0.8 and 20 kHz in the harbor seal and sea lion in a hemi-anechoic chamber using a left/right psychophysical procedure. Performance for the same frequencies was also quantified for discrete speaker separation of 5° from the mid-line. For all subjects, MAAs ranged from approximately 3° to 15° and were generally equal to or larger than those previously measured in the same subjects with a broadband signal. Performance at 5° ranged from chance to 97% correct, depending on frequency and subject. Poorest performance in the sea lion and harbor seal occurred at intermediate frequencies, which is consistent with the duplex theory of sound localization. In contrast, the elephant seal's poorest performance occurred at higher frequencies. The elephant seal's result suggests an inferior ability to utilize interaural level differences and is perhaps related to best hearing sensitivity shifted toward lower frequencies in this species relative to other pinnipeds.

  16. Application of high-performance steel in mobile hydraulic cranes and aerial work platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, G.S.

    1995-12-31

    The market for mobile hydraulic cranes and aerial work platforms is highly competitive and customers continue to demand increased lift capacity and heights with decreased cost and vehicle weight. As Grove designers strive to optimize these parameters, the Materials and Welding Engineering Department must provide them with materials that surpass the capabilities of materials covered by established industry standards such as ASTM. These industry standards, due to their consensus nature, do not keep pace with the latest steel-making technology, which is often proprietary in nature. Therefore, Grove works with suppliers to support development of high performance steels by providing performance goals, fabrication testing, and a market for these new materials.

  17. Low-altitude aerial color digital photographic survey of the San Andreas Fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lynch, David K.; Hudnut, Kenneth W.; Dearborn, David S.P.

    2010-01-01

    Ever since 1858, when Gaspard-Félix Tournachon (pen name Félix Nadar) took the first aerial photograph (Professional Aerial Photographers Association 2009), the scientific value and popular appeal of such pictures have been widely recognized. Indeed, Nadar patented the idea of using aerial photographs in mapmaking and surveying. Since then, aerial imagery has flourished, eventually making the leap to space and to wavelengths outside the visible range. Yet until recently, the availability of such surveys has been limited to technical organizations with significant resources. Geolocation required extensive time and equipment, and distribution was costly and slow. While these situations still plague older surveys, modern digital photography and lidar systems acquire well-calibrated and easily shared imagery, although expensive, platform-specific software is sometimes still needed to manage and analyze the data. With current consumer-level electronics (cameras and computers) and broadband internet access, acquisition and distribution of large imaging data sets are now possible for virtually anyone. In this paper we demonstrate a simple, low-cost means of obtaining useful aerial imagery by reporting two new, high-resolution, low-cost, color digital photographic surveys of selected portions of the San Andreas fault in California. All pictures are in standard jpeg format. The first set of imagery covers a 92-km-long section of the fault in Kern and San Luis Obispo counties and includes the entire Carrizo Plain. The second covers the region from Lake of the Woods to Cajon Pass in Kern, Los Angeles, and San Bernardino counties (151 km) and includes Lone Pine Canyon soon after the ground was largely denuded by the Sheep Fire of October 2009. The first survey produced a total of 1,454 oblique digital photographs (4,288 x 2,848 pixels, average 6 Mb each) and the second produced 3,762 nadir images from an elevation of approximately 150 m above ground level (AGL) on the

  18. Pasadena, California Anaglyph with Aerial Photo Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This anaglyph shows NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California. Red-blue glasses are required to see the 3-D effect. The surrounding residential areas of La Canada-Flintridge (to the left) and Altadena/Pasadena (to the right) are also shown. JPL is located at the base of the San Gabriel Mountains, an actively growing mountain range, seen towards the top of the image. The large canyon coming out of the mountains (top to bottom of image) is the Arroyo Seco, which is a major drainage channel for the mountains. Sand and gravel removal operations in the lower part of the arroyo (bottom of image) are removing debris brought down by flood and mudflow events. Old landslide scars (lobe-shaped features) are seen in the arroyo, evidence that living near steep canyon slopes in tectonically active areas can be hazardous. The data can also be utilized by recreational users such as hikers enjoying the natural beauty of these rugged mountains.

    This anaglyph was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. The detailed aerial image was provided by U. S. Geological Survey digital orthophotography. Each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna

  19. Observing river stages using unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedzielski, Tomasz; Witek, Matylda; Spallek, Waldemar

    2016-08-01

    We elaborated a new method for observing water surface areas and river stages using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). It is based on processing multitemporal five orthophotomaps produced from the UAV-taken visible light images of nine sites of the river, acquired with a sufficient overlap in each part. Water surface areas are calculated in the first place, and subsequently expressed as fractions of total areas of water-covered terrain at a given site of the river recorded on five dates. The logarithms of the fractions are later calculated, producing five samples, each consisted of nine elements. In order to detect statistically significant increments of water surface areas between two orthophotomaps, we apply the asymptotic and bootstrapped versions of the Student's t test, preceded by other tests that aim to check model assumptions. The procedure is applied to five orthophotomaps covering nine sites of the Ścinawka river (south-western (SW) Poland). The data have been acquired during the experimental campaign, at which flight settings were kept unchanged over nearly 3 years (2012-2014). We have found that it is possible to detect transitions between water surface areas associated with all characteristic water levels (low, mean, intermediate and high stages). In addition, we infer that the identified transitions hold for characteristic river stages as well. In the experiment we detected all increments of water level: (1) from low stages to mean, intermediate and high stages; (2) from mean stages to intermediate and high stages; and (3) from intermediate stages to high stages. Potential applications of the elaborated method include verification of hydrodynamic models and the associated predictions of high flows as well as monitoring water levels of rivers in ungauged basins.

  20. Mapping Forest Edge Using Aerial Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLean, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    Slightly more than 60% of Massachusetts is covered with forest and this land cover type is invaluable for the protection and maintenance of our natural resources and is a carbon sink for the state. However, Massachusetts is currently experiencing a decline in forested lands, primarily due to the expansion of human development (Thompson et al., 2011). Of particular concern is the loss of "core areas" or the areas within forests that are not influenced by other land cover types. These areas are of significant importance to native flora and fauna, since they generally are not subject to invasion by exotic species and are more resilient to the effects of climate change (Campbell et al., 2009). However, the expansion of development has reduced the amount of this core area, but the exact amount is still unknown. Current methods of estimating core area are not particularly precise, since edge, or the area of the forest that is most influenced by other land cover types, is quite variable and situation dependent. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to devise a new method for identifying areas that could qualify as "edge" within the Harvard Forest, in Petersham MA, using new remote sensing techniques. We sampled along eight transects perpendicular to the edge of an abandoned golf course within the Harvard Forest property. Vegetation inventories as well as Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) at different heights within the canopy were used to determine edge depth. These measurements were then compared with small-footprint waveform aerial LiDAR datasets and imagery to model edge depths within Harvard Forest.

  1. 36 CFR 1237.24 - What are special considerations for storage and maintenance of aerial photographic records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... maintenance of aerial photographic records? (a) Mark each aerial film container with a unique identification code to facilitate identification and filing. (b) Mark aerial film indexes with the unique aerial film identification codes or container codes for the aerial film that they index. Also, file and mark the...

  2. 36 CFR 1237.24 - What are special considerations for storage and maintenance of aerial photographic records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... maintenance of aerial photographic records? (a) Mark each aerial film container with a unique identification code to facilitate identification and filing. (b) Mark aerial film indexes with the unique aerial film identification codes or container codes for the aerial film that they index. Also, file and mark the...

  3. 36 CFR 1237.24 - What are special considerations for storage and maintenance of aerial photographic records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... maintenance of aerial photographic records? (a) Mark each aerial film container with a unique identification code to facilitate identification and filing. (b) Mark aerial film indexes with the unique aerial film identification codes or container codes for the aerial film that they index. Also, file and mark the...

  4. 36 CFR 1237.24 - What are special considerations for storage and maintenance of aerial photographic records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... maintenance of aerial photographic records? (a) Mark each aerial film container with a unique identification code to facilitate identification and filing. (b) Mark aerial film indexes with the unique aerial film identification codes or container codes for the aerial film that they index. Also, file and mark the...

  5. Aerial views of construction on the RLV hangar at the Shuttle Landing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    An aerial view shows the early construction of a multi-purpose hangar, which is part of the $8 million Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Support Complex at Kennedy Space Center. In the background, toward the west, is Banana Creek, flowing into the Indian River Lagoon, and below it the Shuttle Landing Facility's landing strip. The RLV complex will also include facilities for related ground support equipment and administrative/ technical support. It will be available to accommodate the Space Shuttle; the X-34 RLV technology demonstrator; the L-1011 carrier aircraft for Pegasus and X-34; and other RLV and X-vehicle programs. The complex is jointly funded by the Spaceport Florida Authority, NASA's Space Shuttle Program and KSC. The facility will be operational in early 2000.

  6. Using aerial infrared thermography to detect utility theft of service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockton, Gregory R.; Lucas, R. Gillem

    2012-06-01

    Natural gas and electric utility companies, public utility commissions, consumer advocacy groups, city governments, state governments and the federal government United States continue to turn a blind eye towards utility energy theft of service which we conservatively estimate is in excess of 10 billion a year. Why? Many in the United States have exhausted their unemployment benefits. The amounts for federal funding for low income heating assistance programs (LIHEAP) funds were cut by nearly 40% for 2012 to 3.02 billion. "At peak funding ($5.1 billion in 2009), the program was national in scale but still only had enough resources to support roughly 1/4 of the eligible households.i" Contributions to charities are down and the number of families below the poverty line who are unable to pay to heat their houses continues to rise. Many of the less fortunate in our society now consider theft and fraud to be an attractive option for their supply of natural gas and/or electricity. A record high mild winter in 2011-2012 coupled with 10-year low natural gas prices temporarily obscured the need for low income heating assistance programs (LIHEAPs) from the news and federal budgets, but cold winters will return. The proliferation of smart meters and automated meter infrastructures across our nation can do little to detect energy theft because the thieves can simply by-pass the meters, jumper around the meters and/or steal meters from abandoned houses and use them. Many utility systems were never set-up to stop these types of theft. Even with low-cost per identified thief method using aerial infrared thermography, utilities continue to ignore theft detection.

  7. Colorimetric Determination of Color of Aerial Mycelium of Streptomycetes1

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Allister J.; Pridham, Thomas G.

    1965-01-01

    Lyons, Allister J., Jr. (Northern Regional Research Laboratory, Peoria, Ill.) and Thomas G. Pridham. Colorimetric determination of color of aerial mycelium of streptomycetes. J. Bacteriol. 89:159–169. 1965.—For some time, streptomycete taxonomists have been seeking to describe more accurately the colors of aerial mycelium. Some of the descriptive systems involve many different color names and groups. Others combine many colors into a few groups. All the systems and methods leave much to be desired. To obtain an accurate description, a colorimeter with a reflectance attachment was used to examine streptomycete aerial mycelium of 37 strains, representing all of the major aerial mycelium color groups. Each color was characterized by three values: dominant wavelength in millimicrons, and purity and brightness in percentages. All colors of aerial mycelium were of low purity (< 25%). Most of the dominant wavelengths were in the yellow to yellow-green bands of the spectrum. Most of the color tabs matched visually with the streptomycete strains had purities of a higher value than those of the cultures. The reflectance instrument seems to allow an objective description, and its use may help to clarify the color problem with streptomycetes. It is concluded that present color descriptions are inadequate and that the significance of color in speciation requires critical examination. PMID:14255657

  8. International-Aerial Measuring System (I-AMS) Training Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wasiolek, Piotre T.; Malchor, Russell L.; Maurer, Richard J.; Adams, Henry L.

    2015-10-01

    Since the Fukushima reactor accident in 2011, there has been an increased interest worldwide in developing national capabilities to rapidly map and assess ground contamination resulting from nuclear reactor accidents. The capability to rapidly measure the size of the contaminated area, determine the activity level, and identify the radionuclides can aid emergency managers and decision makers in providing timely protective action recommendations to the public and first responders. The development of an aerial detection capability requires interagency coordination to assemble the radiation experts, detection system operators, and aviation aircrews to conduct the aerial measurements, analyze and interpret the data, and provide technical assessments. The Office of International Emergency Management and Cooperation (IEMC) at the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) sponsors an International - Aerial Measuring System (I-AMS) training program for partner nations to develop and enhance their response to radiological emergencies. An initial series of courses can be conducted in the host country to assist in developing an aerial detection capability. As the capability develops and expands, additional experience can be gained through advanced courses with the opportunity to conduct aerial missions over a broad range of radiation environments.

  9. Arachnid aloft: directed aerial descent in neotropical canopy spiders.

    PubMed

    Yanoviak, Stephen P; Munk, Yonatan; Dudley, Robert

    2015-09-01

    The behaviour of directed aerial descent has been described for numerous taxa of wingless hexapods as they fall from the tropical rainforest canopy, but is not known in other terrestrial arthropods. Here, we describe similar controlled aerial behaviours for large arboreal spiders in the genus Selenops (Selenopidae). We dropped 59 such spiders from either canopy platforms or tree crowns in Panama and Peru; the majority (93%) directed their aerial trajectories towards and then landed upon nearby tree trunks. Following initial dorsoventral righting when necessary, falling spiders oriented themselves and then translated head-first towards targets; directional changes were correlated with bilaterally asymmetric motions of the anterolaterally extended forelegs. Aerial performance (i.e. the glide index) decreased with increasing body mass and wing loading, but not with projected surface area of the spider. Along with the occurrence of directed aerial descent in ants, jumping bristletails, and other wingless hexapods, this discovery of targeted gliding in selenopid spiders further indicates strong selective pressures against uncontrolled falls into the understory for arboreal taxa.

  10. Vehicle detection in aerial surveillance using dynamic Bayesian networks.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hsu-Yung; Weng, Chih-Chia; Chen, Yi-Ying

    2012-04-01

    We present an automatic vehicle detection system for aerial surveillance in this paper. In this system, we escape from the stereotype and existing frameworks of vehicle detection in aerial surveillance, which are either region based or sliding window based. We design a pixelwise classification method for vehicle detection. The novelty lies in the fact that, in spite of performing pixelwise classification, relations among neighboring pixels in a region are preserved in the feature extraction process. We consider features including vehicle colors and local features. For vehicle color extraction, we utilize a color transform to separate vehicle colors and nonvehicle colors effectively. For edge detection, we apply moment preserving to adjust the thresholds of the Canny edge detector automatically, which increases the adaptability and the accuracy for detection in various aerial images. Afterward, a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) is constructed for the classification purpose. We convert regional local features into quantitative observations that can be referenced when applying pixelwise classification via DBN. Experiments were conducted on a wide variety of aerial videos. The results demonstrate flexibility and good generalization abilities of the proposed method on a challenging data set with aerial surveillance images taken at different heights and under different camera angles.

  11. Arachnid aloft: directed aerial descent in neotropical canopy spiders.

    PubMed

    Yanoviak, Stephen P; Munk, Yonatan; Dudley, Robert

    2015-09-01

    The behaviour of directed aerial descent has been described for numerous taxa of wingless hexapods as they fall from the tropical rainforest canopy, but is not known in other terrestrial arthropods. Here, we describe similar controlled aerial behaviours for large arboreal spiders in the genus Selenops (Selenopidae). We dropped 59 such spiders from either canopy platforms or tree crowns in Panama and Peru; the majority (93%) directed their aerial trajectories towards and then landed upon nearby tree trunks. Following initial dorsoventral righting when necessary, falling spiders oriented themselves and then translated head-first towards targets; directional changes were correlated with bilaterally asymmetric motions of the anterolaterally extended forelegs. Aerial performance (i.e. the glide index) decreased with increasing body mass and wing loading, but not with projected surface area of the spider. Along with the occurrence of directed aerial descent in ants, jumping bristletails, and other wingless hexapods, this discovery of targeted gliding in selenopid spiders further indicates strong selective pressures against uncontrolled falls into the understory for arboreal taxa. PMID:26289654

  12. Arachnid aloft: directed aerial descent in neotropical canopy spiders

    PubMed Central

    Yanoviak, Stephen P.; Munk, Yonatan; Dudley, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The behaviour of directed aerial descent has been described for numerous taxa of wingless hexapods as they fall from the tropical rainforest canopy, but is not known in other terrestrial arthropods. Here, we describe similar controlled aerial behaviours for large arboreal spiders in the genus Selenops (Selenopidae). We dropped 59 such spiders from either canopy platforms or tree crowns in Panama and Peru; the majority (93%) directed their aerial trajectories towards and then landed upon nearby tree trunks. Following initial dorsoventral righting when necessary, falling spiders oriented themselves and then translated head-first towards targets; directional changes were correlated with bilaterally asymmetric motions of the anterolaterally extended forelegs. Aerial performance (i.e. the glide index) decreased with increasing body mass and wing loading, but not with projected surface area of the spider. Along with the occurrence of directed aerial descent in ants, jumping bristletails, and other wingless hexapods, this discovery of targeted gliding in selenopid spiders further indicates strong selective pressures against uncontrolled falls into the understory for arboreal taxa. PMID:26289654

  13. Aerial surveys and tagging of free-drifting icebergs using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGill, P. R.; Reisenbichler, K. R.; Etchemendy, S. A.; Dawe, T. C.; Hobson, B. W.

    2011-06-01

    Ship-based observations of free-drifting icebergs are hindered by the dangers of calving ice. To improve the efficacy and safety of these studies, new unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) were developed and then deployed in the Southern Ocean. These inexpensive UAVs were launched and recovered from a ship by scientific personal with a few weeks of flight training. The UAVs sent real-time video back to the ship, allowing researchers to observe conditions in regions of the icebergs not visible from the ship. In addition, the UAVs dropped newly developed global positioning system (GPS) tracking tags, permitting researchers to record the precise position of the icebergs over time. The position reports received from the tags show that the motion of free-drifting icebergs changes rapidly and is a complex combination of both translation and rotation.

  14. Actions, Observations, and Decision-Making: Biologically Inspired Strategies for Autonomous Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pisanich, Greg; Ippolito, Corey; Plice, Laura; Young, Larry A.; Lau, Benton

    2003-01-01

    This paper details the development and demonstration of an autonomous aerial vehicle embodying search and find mission planning and execution srrategies inspired by foraging behaviors found in biology. It begins by describing key characteristics required by an aeria! explorer to support science and planetary exploration goals, and illustrates these through a hypothetical mission profile. It next outlines a conceptual bio- inspired search and find autonomy architecture that implements observations, decisions, and actions through an "ecology" of producer, consumer, and decomposer agents. Moving from concepts to development activities, it then presents the results of mission representative UAV aerial surveys at a Mars analog site. It next describes hardware and software enhancements made to a commercial small fixed-wing UAV system, which inc!nde a ncw dpvelopnent architecture that also provides hardware in the loop simulation capability. After presenting the results of simulated and actual flights of bioinspired flight algorithms, it concludes with a discussion of future development to include an expansion of system capabilities and field science support.

  15. Overview of meteorological measurements for aerial spray modeling.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, J E; Biltoft, C A; Bowers, J F

    1996-06-01

    The routine meteorological observations made by the National Weather Service have a spatial resolution on the order of 1,000 km, whereas the resolution needed to conduct or model aerial spray applications is on the order of 1-10 km. Routinely available observations also do not include the detailed information on the turbulence and thermal structure of the boundary layer that is needed to predict the transport, dispersion, and deposition of aerial spray releases. This paper provides an overview of the information needed to develop the meteorological inputs for an aerial spray model such as the FSCBG and discusses the different types of instruments that are available to make the necessary measurements.

  16. Antioxidant activity of aerial parts of Tribulus alatus in rats.

    PubMed

    Kadry, H; Abou Basha, L; El Gindi, O; Temraz, A

    2010-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of alcoholic extract of Tribulus alatus was investigated by determination of blood glutathione, serum ascorbic acid and serum superoxide dismutase in rats. All groups treated with aerial parts without fruit, fruits and total herb showed a significant increase in all measured parameters (P<0.05). Upon fractionation of the alcoholic extracts using solvents with different polarities, all fractions revealed a significant increase in serum superoxide dismutase (P<0.05). On the other hand chloroformic fraction of aerial parts without fruit extract and ethylacetate fraction of fruits extract exhibited a significant increase in blood glutathione level. All fractions of fruits extract, chloroformic and ethylacetate fractions of aerial parts without fruit extract significantly increase the serum ascorbic acid concentration (P<0.05).

  17. PSM and thin OMOG reticles aerial imaging metrology comparison study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Yaron; Finders, Jo; Mangan, Shmoolik; Englard, Ilan; Mouraille, Orion; Janssen, Maurice; Miyazaki, Junji; Connolly, Brid; Kojima, Yosuke; Higuchi, Masaru

    2012-02-01

    For sub 20nm features, IC (integrated circuits) designs include an increasing number of features approaching the resolution limits of the scanner compared to the previous generation of IC designs. This trend includes stringent design rules and complex, ever smaller optical proximity correction (OPC) structures. In this regime, a new type of mask, known as opaque MoSi on glass (OMOG), has been introduced to overcome the shortcomings of the well-established phase shift masks (PSM). This paper reviews the fundamental aerial imaging differences between identically designed PSM and thin OMOG masks. The masks were designed for scanner qualification tests and therefore contain large selections of 1D and 2D features, including various biases and OPCs. Aerial critical dimension uniformity (CDU) performance for various features on both masks are reported. Furthermore, special efforts have been made to emphasize the advantages of aerial imaging metrology versus wafer metrology in terms of shortening scanner qualification cycle time.

  18. Radiological Disaster Simulators for Field and Aerial Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    H. W. Clark, Jr

    2002-11-01

    Simulators have been developed to dramatically improve the fidelity of play for field monitors and aircraft participating in radiological disaster drills and exercises. Simulated radiological measurements for the current Global Positioning System (GPS) location are derived from realistic models of radiological consequences for accidents and malicious acts. The aerial version outputs analog pulses corresponding to the signal that would be produced by various NaI (Tl) detectors at that location. The field monitor version reports the reading for any make/model of survey instrument selected. Position simulation modes are included in the aerial and field versions. The aerial version can generate a flight path based on input parameters or import an externally generated sequence of latitude and longitude coordinates. The field version utilizes a map-based point and click/drag interface to generate individual or a sequence of evenly spaced instrument measurements.

  19. Aerial Observation Needs Workshop, May 13-14, 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Nasiri, Shaima; Serbin, Shawn; Lesmes, David; Petty, Rick; Schmid, Beat; Vogelmann, Andrew; de Boer, Gijs; Dafflon, Baptiste; Guenther, Alex; Moore, David

    2015-10-01

    The mission of the Climate and Environmental Sciences Division (CESD) of the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) within the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science is "to advance a robust, predictive understanding of Earth's climate and environmental systems and to inform the development of sustainable solutions to the nation's energy and environmental challenges." Accomplishing this mission requires aerial observations of the atmospheric and terrestrial components of the climate system. CESD is assessing its current and future aerial observation needs to develop a strategy and roadmap of capability requirements for the next decade. To facilitate this process, a workshop was convened that consisted of invited experts in the atmospheric and terrestrial sciences, airborne observations, and modeling. This workshop report summarizes the community input prior to and during the workshop on research challenges and opportunities, as well as specific science questions and observational needs that require aerial observations to address.

  20. The Photo-Mosaic Assistant: Incorporating Historic Aerial Imagery into Modern Research Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flathers, E.

    2013-12-01

    One challenge that researchers face as data organization and analysis shift into the digital realm is the incorporation of 'dirty' data from analog back-catalogs into current projects. Geospatial data collections in university libraries, government data repositories, and private industry contain historic data such as aerial photographs that may be stored as negatives, prints, and as scanned digital image files. A typical aerial imagery series is created by taking photos of the ground from an aircraft along a series of parallel flight lines. The raw photos can be assembled into a mosaic that represents the full geographic area of the collection, but each photo suffers from individual distortion according to the attitude and altitude of the collecting aircraft at the moment of acquisition, so there is a process of orthorectification needed in order to produce a planimetric composite image that can be used to accurately refer to locations on the ground. Historic aerial photo collections often need significant preparation for consumption by a GIS: they may need to be digitized, often lack any explicit spatial coordinates, and may not include information about flight line patterns. Many collections lack even such basic information as index numbers for the photos, so it may be unclear in what order the photos were acquired. When collections contain large areas of, for example, forest or agricultural land, any given photo may have few visual cues to assist in relating it to the other photos or to an area on the ground. The Photo-Mosaic Assistant (PMA) is a collection of tools designed to assist in the organization of historic aerial photo collections and the preparation of collections for orthorectification and use in modern research applications. The first tool is a light table application that allows a user to take advantage of visual cues within photos to organize and explore the collection, potentially building a rough image mosaic by hand. The second tool is a set of

  1. Wafer weak point detection based on aerial images or WLCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Guoxiang; Philipp, Peter; Litt, Lloyd C.; Ackmann, Paul; Crell, Christian; Chen, Norman

    2015-10-01

    Aerial image measurement is a key technique for model based optical proximity correction (OPC) verification. Actual aerial images obtained by AIMS (aerial image measurement system) or WLCD (wafer level critical dimension) can detect printed wafer weak point structures in advance of wafer exposure and defect inspection. Normally, the potential wafer weak points are determined based on optical rule check (ORC) simulation in advance. However, the correlation to real wafer weak points is often not perfect due to the contribution of mask three dimension (M3D) effects, actual mask errors, and scanner lens effects. If the design weak points can accurately be detected in advance, it will reduce the wafer fab cost and improve cycle time. WLCD or AIMS tools are able to measure the aerial images CD and bossung curve through focus window. However, it is difficult to detect the wafer weak point in advance without defining selection criteria. In this study, wafer weak points sensitive to mask mean-to-nominal values are characterized for a process with very high MEEF (normally more than 4). Aerial image CD uses fixed threshold to detect the wafer weak points. By using WLCD through threshold and focus window, the efficiency of wafer weak point detection is also demonstrated. A novel method using contrast range evaluation is shown in the paper. Use of the slope of aerial images for more accurate detection of the wafer weak points using WLCD is also discussed. The contrast range can also be used to detect the wafer weak points in advance. Further, since the mean to nominal of the reticle contributes to the effective contrast range in a high MEEF area this work shows that control of the mask error is critical for high MEEF layers such as poly, active and metal layers. Wafer process based weak points that cannot be detected by wafer lithography CD or WLCD will be discussed.

  2. Aerospace toxicology overview: aerial application and cabin air quality.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K

    2011-01-01

    Aerospace toxicology is a rather recent development and is closely related to aerospace medicine. Aerospace toxicology can be defined as a field of study designed to address the adverse effects of medications, chemicals, and contaminants on humans who fly within or outside the atmosphere in aviation or on space flights. The environment extending above and beyond the surface of the Earth is referred to as aerospace. The term aviation is frequently used interchangeably with aerospace. The focus of the literature review performed to prepare this paper was on aerospace toxicology-related subject matters, aerial application and aircraft cabin air quality. Among the important topics addressed are the following: · Aerial applications of agricultural chemicals, pesticidal toxicity, and exposures to aerially applied mixtures of chemicals and their associated formulating solvents/surfactants The safety of aerially encountered chemicals and the bioanalytical methods used to monitor exposures to some of them · The presence of fumes and smoke, as well as other contaminants that may generally be present in aircraft/space vehicle cabin air · And importantly, the toxic effects of aerially encountered contaminants, with emphasis on the degradation products of oils, fluids, and lubricants used in aircraft, and finally · Analytical methods used for monitoring human exposure to CO and HCN are addressed in the review, as are the signs and symptoms associated with exposures to these combustion gases. Although many agricultural chemical monitoring studies have been published, few have dealt with the occurrence of such chemicals in aircraft cabin air. However, agricultural chemicals do appear in cabin air; indeed, attempts have been made to establish maximum allowable concentrations for several of the more potentially toxic ones that are found in aircraft cabin air. In this article, I emphasize the need for precautionary measures to be taken to minimize exposures to aerially

  3. Spectral anomaly methods for aerial detection using KUT nuisance rejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detwiler, R. S.; Pfund, D. M.; Myjak, M. J.; Kulisek, J. A.; Seifert, C. E.

    2015-06-01

    This work discusses the application and optimization of a spectral anomaly method for the real-time detection of gamma radiation sources from an aerial helicopter platform. Aerial detection presents several key challenges over ground-based detection. For one, larger and more rapid background fluctuations are typical due to higher speeds, larger field of view, and geographically induced background changes. As well, the possible large altitude or stand-off distance variations cause significant steps in background count rate as well as spectral changes due to increased gamma-ray scatter with detection at higher altitudes. The work here details the adaptation and optimization of the PNNL-developed algorithm Nuisance-Rejecting Spectral Comparison Ratios for Anomaly Detection (NSCRAD), a spectral anomaly method previously developed for ground-based applications, for an aerial platform. The algorithm has been optimized for two multi-detector systems; a NaI(Tl)-detector-based system and a CsI detector array. The optimization here details the adaptation of the spectral windows for a particular set of target sources to aerial detection and the tailoring for the specific detectors. As well, the methodology and results for background rejection methods optimized for the aerial gamma-ray detection using Potassium, Uranium and Thorium (KUT) nuisance rejection are shown. Results indicate that use of a realistic KUT nuisance rejection may eliminate metric rises due to background magnitude and spectral steps encountered in aerial detection due to altitude changes and geographically induced steps such as at land-water interfaces.

  4. Aerospace toxicology overview: aerial application and cabin air quality.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K

    2011-01-01

    Aerospace toxicology is a rather recent development and is closely related to aerospace medicine. Aerospace toxicology can be defined as a field of study designed to address the adverse effects of medications, chemicals, and contaminants on humans who fly within or outside the atmosphere in aviation or on space flights. The environment extending above and beyond the surface of the Earth is referred to as aerospace. The term aviation is frequently used interchangeably with aerospace. The focus of the literature review performed to prepare this paper was on aerospace toxicology-related subject matters, aerial application and aircraft cabin air quality. Among the important topics addressed are the following: · Aerial applications of agricultural chemicals, pesticidal toxicity, and exposures to aerially applied mixtures of chemicals and their associated formulating solvents/surfactants The safety of aerially encountered chemicals and the bioanalytical methods used to monitor exposures to some of them · The presence of fumes and smoke, as well as other contaminants that may generally be present in aircraft/space vehicle cabin air · And importantly, the toxic effects of aerially encountered contaminants, with emphasis on the degradation products of oils, fluids, and lubricants used in aircraft, and finally · Analytical methods used for monitoring human exposure to CO and HCN are addressed in the review, as are the signs and symptoms associated with exposures to these combustion gases. Although many agricultural chemical monitoring studies have been published, few have dealt with the occurrence of such chemicals in aircraft cabin air. However, agricultural chemicals do appear in cabin air; indeed, attempts have been made to establish maximum allowable concentrations for several of the more potentially toxic ones that are found in aircraft cabin air. In this article, I emphasize the need for precautionary measures to be taken to minimize exposures to aerially

  5. Preliminary assessment of aerial photography techniques for canvasback population analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munro, R.E.; Trauger, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    Recent intensive research on the canvasback has focused attention on the need for more precise estimates of population parameters. During the 1972-75 period, various types of aerial photographing equipment were evaluated to determine the problems and potentials for employing these techniques in appraisals of canvasback populations. The equipment and procedures available for automated analysis of aerial photographic imagery were also investigated. Serious technical problems remain to be resolved, but some promising results were obtained. Final conclusions about the feasibility of operational implementation await a more rigorous analysis of the data collected.

  6. Review of the SAFARI 2000 RC-10 Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Jeff; Shelton, Gary; Annegarn, Harrold; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This presentation will review the aerial photography collected by the NASA ER-2 aircraft during the SAFARI (Southern African Regional Science Initiative) year 2000 campaign. It will include specifications on the camera and film, and will show examples of the imagery. It will also detail the extent of coverage, and the procedures to obtain film products from the South African government. Also included will be some sample applications of aerial photography for various environmental applications, and its use in augmenting other SAFARI data sets.

  7. A review of the meteorological parameters which affect aerial application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, L. S.; Frost, W.

    1979-01-01

    The ambient wind field and temperature gradient were found to be the most important parameters. Investigation results indicated that the majority of meteorological parameters affecting dispersion were interdependent and the exact mechanism by which these factors influence the particle dispersion was largely unknown. The types and approximately ranges of instrumented capabilities for a systematic study of the significant meteorological parameters influencing aerial applications were defined. Current mathematical dispersion models were also briefly reviewed. Unfortunately, a rigorous dispersion model which could be applied to aerial application was not available.

  8. Application of Adaptive Autopilot Designs for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Yoonghyun; Calise, Anthony J.; Motter, Mark A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes the application of two adaptive approaches to autopilot design, and presents an evaluation and comparison of the two approaches in simulation for an unmanned aerial vehicle. One approach employs two-stage dynamic inversion and the other employs feedback dynamic inversions based on a command augmentation system. Both are augmented with neural network based adaptive elements. The approaches permit adaptation to both parametric uncertainty and unmodeled dynamics, and incorporate a method that permits adaptation during periods of control saturation. Simulation results for an FQM-117B radio controlled miniature aerial vehicle are presented to illustrate the performance of the neural network based adaptation.

  9. A study of methods for lowering aerial environmental survey cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansberry, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The results are presented of a study of methods for lowering the cost of environmental aerial surveys. A wide range of low cost techniques were investigated for possible application to current pressing urban and rural problems. The objective of the study is to establish a definition of the technical problems associated with conducting aerial surveys using various low cost techniques, to conduct a survey of equipment which may be used in low cost systems, and to establish preliminary estimates of cost. A set of candidate systems were selected and described for the environmental survey tasks.

  10. Aeronautic Instruments. Section VI : Aerial Navigation and Navigating Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, H N

    1923-01-01

    This report outlines briefly the methods of aerial navigation which have been developed during the past few years, with a description of the different instruments used. Dead reckoning, the most universal method of aerial navigation, is first discussed. Then follows an outline of the principles of navigation by astronomical observation; a discussion of the practical use of natural horizons, such as sea, land, and cloud, in making extant observations; the use of artificial horizons, including the bubble, pendulum, and gyroscopic types. A description is given of the recent development of the radio direction finder and its application to navigation.

  11. Towards aerial natural gas leak detection system based on TDLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuyang; Zhou, Tao; Jia, Xiaodong

    2014-11-01

    Pipeline leakage is a complex scenario for sensing system due to the traditional high cost, low efficient and labor intensive detection scheme. TDLAS has been widely accepted as industrial trace gas detection method and, thanks to its high accuracy and reasonable size, it has the potential to meet pipeline gas leakage detection requirements if it combines with the aerial platform. Based on literature study, this paper discussed the possibility of applying aerial TDLAS principle in pipeline gas leak detection and the key technical foundation of implementing it. Such system is able to result in a high efficiency and accuracy measurement which will provide sufficient data in time for the pipeline leakage detection.

  12. The Role of Unmanned Aerial Systems-Sensors in Air Quality Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of unmanned aerial systems (UASs) and miniaturized sensors for a variety of scientific and security purposes has rapidly increased. UASs include aerostats (tethered balloons) and remotely controlled, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) including lighter-than-air vessels, fix...

  13. An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and surrounding area, West Valley, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, H.A.

    1991-09-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and the surrounding area was conducted from mid-August through early September 1984 by EG G Energy Measurements, Inc. for the United States Department of Energy. The radiological survey was part of the United States Department of Energy Comprehensive Integrated Remote Sensing (CIRS) program, which provides state-of-the-art remote sensing to support the needs of the various DOE facilities. The survey consisted of airborne measurements of both natural and man-made gamma radiation emanating from the terrestrial surface. These measurements allowed an estimate of the distribution of isotopic concentrations in the area surrounding the project site. Results are reported as isopleths superimposed on aerial photographs of the area. Gamma ray energy spectra are also presented for the net man-made radionuclides. 8 refs., 16 figs., 9 tabs.

  14. Autonomous Aerial Sensors for Wind Power Meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giebel, Gregor; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Reuder, Joachim; La Cour-Harbo, Anders; Thomsen, Carsten; Bange, Jens; Buschmann, Marco

    2010-05-01

    This poster describes a new approach for measurements in wind power meteorology using small unmanned flying platforms. During a week of flying a lighter-than-air vehicle, two small electrically powered aeroplanes and a larger helicopter at the Risø test station at Høvsøre, we will compare wind speed measurements with fixed mast and LIDAR measurements, investigate optimal flight patterns for each measurement task, and measure other interesting meteorological features like the air-sea boundary in the vicinity of the wind farm. In order to prepare the measurement campaign, a workshop is held, soliciting input from various communities. Large-scale wind farms, especially offshore, need an optimisation between installed wind power density and the losses in the wind farm due to wake effects between the turbines. While the wake structure behind single wind turbines onshore is fairly well understood, there are different problems offshore, thought to be due mainly to the low turbulence. Good measurements of the wake and wake structure are not easy to come by, as the use of a met mast is static and expensive, while the use of remote sensing instruments either needs significant access to the turbine to mount an instrument, or is complicated to use on a ship due to the ship's own movement. In any case, a good LIDAR or SODAR will cost many tens of thousands of euros. Another current problem in wind energy is the coming generation of wind turbines in the 10-12 MW class, with tip heights of over 200 m. Very few measurement masts exist to verify our knowledge of atmospheric physics - all that is known is that the boundary layer description we used so far is not valid any more. Here, automated Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) could be used as either an extension of current high masts or to build a network of very high ‘masts' in a region of complex terrain or coastal flow conditions. In comparison to a multitude of high masts, UAVs could be quite cost-effective. In order to test

  15. Aerial robot navigation in cluttered urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Dongqing

    Autonomous navigation systems for mobile robots have been successfully deployed for a wide range of planar ground-based tasks. However, very few counterparts of the previous planar navigation systems were developed for three-dimensional (3-D) motion, which is needed for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Safe maneuvering in complex environments is a major challenge for UAVs. Future urban reconnaissance and search missions will require UAVs to autonomously navigate through cluttered urban spaces. This research proposes two approaches for unmanned helicopter navigation in cluttered urban environments: a 3-D fuzzy behavioral approach and a 3-D vector field histogram (VFH) approach. Behavior-based control has been very successful for planar mobile robots navigation in unknown environments. A novel fuzzy behavioral scheme for navigating an unmanned helicopter in cluttered 3-D spaces is developed. The 3-D navigation problem is decomposed into several identical two-dimensional (2-D) navigation sub-problems, each of which is solved by using preference-based fuzzy behaviors. Due to the shortcomings of vector summation during the fusion of the 2-D sub-problems, instead of directly outputting steering subdirections by their own defuzzification processes, the undefuzzified intermediate results of the sub-problems are fused to a 3-D solution region, representing degrees of preference for the robot movement. A new defuzzification algorithm that steers the robot by finding the centroid of a 3-D convex region of maximum volume in the 3-D solution region is developed. A fuzzy speed control system is also developed to ensure the efficiency and safety of the navigation. The VFH approach is very popular for planar mobile robots. A 3-D VFH approach to UAV navigation in cluttered urban environments is developed. A 3-D laser measurement system is used to obtain the obstacle distribution in this method. Instead of a 2-D Cartesian histogram grid as a world model, a 3-D spherical histogram

  16. Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM): Enabling Low-Altitude Airspace and UAS Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2014-01-01

    Many civilian applications of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) have been imagined ranging from remote to congested urban areas, including goods delivery, infrastructure surveillance, agricultural support, and medical services delivery. Further, these UAS will have different equipage and capabilities based on considerations such as affordability, and mission needs applications. Such heterogeneous UAS mix, along with operations such as general aviation, helicopters, gliders must be safely accommodated at lower altitudes. However, key infrastructure to enable and safely manage widespread use of low-altitude airspace and UAS operations therein does not exist. Therefore, NASA is exploring functional design, concept and technology development, and a prototype UAS Traffic Management (UTM) system. UTM will support safe and efficient UAS operations for the delivery of goods and services

  17. Networked Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Teams (NUAVT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Jack; Hanson, Curt; Jacobson, Steve

    2006-01-01

    A partnership between the NASA Ames Research Center and the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) explored the ability of small unmanned aircraft to support forest fire fighting using teaming behavior. The Networked UAV Teams project flight tested mission planning algorithms for multi-UAV cooperative transit, area search, and waypoint time-of-arrival that might someday allow the early detection of developing forest fires and support the gathering of images and atmospheric samples to help improve predictions of the future behavior of established fires.

  18. 77 FR 35962 - Utilizing Rapidly Deployable Aerial Communications Architecture in Response to an Emergency

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... deployment of any special user devices include unmanned aerial vehicles, weather balloons, and suitcase based...- effectiveness of unmanned aerial vehicles, weather balloons, and high altitude platforms. How does the cost... COMMISSION Utilizing Rapidly Deployable Aerial Communications Architecture in Response to an Emergency...

  19. Unmanned aerial vehicles for rangeland mapping and monitoring: a comparison of two systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerial photography from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) bridges the gap between ground-based observations and remotely sensed imagery from aerial and satellite platforms. UAVs can be deployed quickly and repeatedly, are less costly and safer than piloted aircraft, and can obtain very high-resolution...

  20. Off-the-Wall Project Brings Aerial Mapping down to Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidhazy, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The technology of aerial photography, photogrametry, has widespread applications in mapping and aerial surveying. A multi-billion-dollar industry, aerial surveying and mapping is "big business" in both civilian and military sectors. While the industry has grown increasingly automated, employment opportunities still exist for people with a basic…

  1. Current status and future directions of precision agriculture for aerial application in the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision aerial application in the USA is less than a decade old since the development of the first variable-rate aerial application system. Many areas of the United States rely on readily available agricultural airplanes or helicopters for pest management. Variable-rate aerial application provides...

  2. The Ground Control Room as an Enabling Technology in the Unmanned Aerial System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gear, Gary; Mace, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the development of the ground control room as an required technology for the use of an Unmanned Aerial system. The Unmanned Aerial system is a strategic component of the Global Observing System, which will serve global science needs. The unmanned aerial system will use the same airspace as manned aircraft, therefore there will be unique telemetry needs.

  3. 60. Aerial view looking southeast; Dundee Dam and Passaic River ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. Aerial view looking southeast; Dundee Dam and Passaic River at center, Dundee Canal and headgates, guardlock, and former hydroelectric facility at right, Dundee Textile Mill between river and canal - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  4. 59. Aerial view looking west; Dundee Textile Mill at front ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. Aerial view looking west; Dundee Textile Mill at front center, Dundee Canal at center - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  5. Dead Slow: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Loitering in Battlespace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmore, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Unmanned (or Uninhabited) Aerial Vehicles are a key part of the American military's so-called revolution in military affairs (RMA) as practiced over Iraq. They are also part of the drive to shift agency away from humans and toward machines. This article considers the ways in which humans have, in calling on high technologies to distance them from…

  6. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Use for Wood Chips Pile Volume Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokroš, M.; Tabačák, M.; Lieskovský, M.; Fabrika, M.

    2016-06-01

    The rapid development of unmanned aerial vehicles is a challenge for applied research. Many technologies are developed and then researcher are looking up for their application in different sectors. Therefore, we decided to verify the use of the unmanned aerial vehicle for wood chips pile monitoring. We compared the use of GNSS device and unmanned aerial vehicle for volume estimation of four wood chips piles. We used DJI Phantom 3 Professional with the built-in camera and GNSS device (geoexplorer 6000). We used Agisoft photoscan for processing photos and ArcGIS for processing points. Volumes calculated from pictures were not statistically significantly different from amounts calculated from GNSS data and high correlation between them was found (p = 0.9993). We conclude that the use of unmanned aerial vehicle instead of the GNSS device does not lead to significantly different results. Tthe data collection consumed from almost 12 to 20 times less time with the use of UAV. Additionally, UAV provides documentation trough orthomosaic.

  7. Aerial view of the entire bridge crossing the Tennessee River ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view of the entire bridge crossing the Tennessee River looking up river. The swing bridge, when open, permits river navigational traffic to ply the river. Construction of a replacement bridge, to be located 93.27 feet down river, has now started. - Bridgeport Swing Span Bridge, Spanning Tennessee River, Bridgeport, Jackson County, AL

  8. 9. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT THE GEORGE C. MARSHALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT THE GEORGE C. MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER. DODD ROAD RUNS DOWN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTO. THE EAST TEST AREA IS TOWARDS THE BOTTOM OF THE PHOTO, FABRICATION, ENGINEERING AND ADMINISTRATION NEAR THE TOP OF THE PHOTO. 1961, MSFC PHOTO LAB. - Marshall Space Flight Center, East Test Area, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  9. A HIGHER ALTITUDE AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN IN 1970, LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A HIGHER ALTITUDE AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN IN 1970, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD THE HUACHUCA MOUNTAINS. THE 1916 STABLES ARE LOCATED IN THE RIGHT MIDDLE PORTION OF THE PICTURE (FORT HUACHUCA HISTORICAL MUSEUM, PHOTOGRAPH 1970.15.00.59, PHOTOGRAPHER UNIDENTIFIED, CREATED BY AND PROPERTY OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY) - Fort Huachuca, Cavalry Stables, Clarkson Road, Sierra Vista, Cochise County, AZ

  10. Maps--Map Reading and Aerial Photography. [2 Units].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haakonsen, Harry O., Ed.

    Included in this set of materials are two units: (1) Maps and Map Reading and (2) Aerial Photography. Each unit includes student guide sheets, reference material, and tape script. A set of 35mm slides and audiotapes are usually used with the materials. The unit on Maps and Map Reading is designed to develop map reading skills and the use of these…

  11. A scheduling model for the aerial relay system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ausrotas, R. A.; Liu, E. W.

    1980-01-01

    The ability of the Aerial Relay System to handle the U.S. transcontinental large hub passenger flow was analyzed with a flexible, interactive computer model. The model incorporated city pair time of day demand and a demand allocation function which assigned passengers to their preferred flights.

  12. Aerial view, view north with Walkers Mill left of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view, view north with Walkers Mill left of the creek, Henry Clay village right of creek, Tyler-Mcconnell Bridge in middleground, and Hagley area beyond the bridge - Charles I. Du Pont House, 162 Main Street, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  13. AERIAL VIEW, LAUREL HILL CEMETERY (LEFT) AND MOUNT PEACE CEMETERY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW, LAUREL HILL CEMETERY (LEFT) AND MOUNT PEACE CEMETERY (RIGHT). LOCATED ACROSS RIDGE AVENUE FROM LAUREL HILL CEMETERY, MOUNT PEACE CEMETERY WAS FOUNDED BY THE ODD FELLOWS CEMETERY COMPANY IN 1865. - Laurel Hill Cemetery, 3822 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. 6. AERIAL VIEW OF THE PATH TRANSIT SYSTEM BRIDGE LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. AERIAL VIEW OF THE PATH TRANSIT SYSTEM BRIDGE LOOKING SOUTHEAST. TO THE RIGHT ARE THE NEWARK TURNPIKE AND THE CONRAIL BRIDGE (HAER No. NJ-43). THE PULASKI SKYWAY (HAER No. NJ-34) IS IN THE BACKGROUND - Path Transit System Bridge, Spanning Hackensack River, Kearny, Hudson County, NJ

  15. 2. AERIAL VIEW OF THE VERTICAL LIFT BRIDGES SPANNING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW OF THE VERTICAL LIFT BRIDGES SPANNING THE HACKENSACK RIVER, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE PATH TRANSIT BRIDGE IS IN THE FOREGROUND, WITH THE CONRAIL (HAER No. NJ-43), NEWARK TURNPIKE, AND ERIE & LACKAWANNA RAILROAD (HAER No. NJ-42) BRIDGES BEHIND IT - Path Transit System Bridge, Spanning Hackensack River, Kearny, Hudson County, NJ

  16. 5. AERIAL VIEW OF THE PATH TRANSIT SYSTEM BRIDGE LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. AERIAL VIEW OF THE PATH TRANSIT SYSTEM BRIDGE LOOKING SOUTHEAST. TO THE RIGHT ARE THE NEWARK TURNPIKE AND THE CONRAIL BRIDGE (HAER No. NJ-43). THE PULASKI SKYWAY (HAER No. NJ-34) IS IN THE BACKGROUND - Path Transit System Bridge, Spanning Hackensack River, Kearny, Hudson County, NJ

  17. 4. AERIAL 'BARREL' SHOT OF THE PATH TRANSIT SYSTEM BRIDGE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. AERIAL 'BARREL' SHOT OF THE PATH TRANSIT SYSTEM BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST TOWARDS JERSEY CITY. TO THE RIGHT ARE THE NEWARK TURNPIKE AND THE CONRAIL BRIDGE (HAER No. NJ-43). THE PULASKI SKYWAY (HAER No. NJ-34) IS IN THE BACKGROUND TO THE RIGHT - Path Transit System Bridge, Spanning Hackensack River, Kearny, Hudson County, NJ

  18. A Spreadsheet-based GIS tool for planning aerial photography

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.EPA's Pacific Coastal Ecology Branch has developed a tool which facilitates planning aerial photography missions. This tool is an Excel spreadsheet which accepts various input parameters such as desired photo-scale and boundary coordinates of the study area and compiles ...

  19. Ocean surface winds drive dynamics of transoceanic aerial movements.

    PubMed

    Felicísimo, Angel M; Muñoz, Jesús; González-Solis, Jacob

    2008-08-13

    Global wind patterns influence dispersal and migration processes of aerial organisms, propagules and particles, which ultimately could determine the dynamics of colonizations, invasions or spread of pathogens. However, studying how wind-mediated movements actually happen has been hampered so far by the lack of high resolution global wind data as well as the impossibility to track aerial movements. Using concurrent data on winds and actual pathways of a tracked seabird, here we show that oceanic winds define spatiotemporal pathways and barriers for large-scale aerial movements. We obtained wind data from NASA SeaWinds scatterometer to calculate wind cost (impedance) models reflecting the resistance to the aerial movement near the ocean surface. We also tracked the movements of a model organism, the Cory's shearwater (Calonectris diomedea), a pelagic bird known to perform long distance migrations. Cost models revealed that distant areas can be connected through "wind highways" that do not match the shortest great circle routes. Bird routes closely followed the low-cost "wind-highways" linking breeding and wintering areas. In addition, we found that a potential barrier, the near surface westerlies in the Atlantic sector of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), temporally hindered meridional trans-equatorial movements. Once the westerlies vanished, birds crossed the ITCZ to their winter quarters. This study provides a novel approach to investigate wind-mediated movements in oceanic environments and shows that large-scale migration and dispersal processes over the oceans can be largely driven by spatiotemporal wind patterns.

  20. 1. AERIAL VIEW, NAVAL INACTIVE SHIPS MAINTENANCE FACILITY, SINCLAIR ISLET, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, NAVAL INACTIVE SHIPS MAINTENANCE FACILITY, SINCLAIR ISLET, BREMERTON, KITSAP COUNTY, WASHINGTON WITH EX-USS HORNET CVS-12, THREE MINECRAFT ALONGSIDE TO PORT. OTHER INACTIVE SHIPS IN BACKGROUND. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA