Science.gov

Sample records for aerially applied glyphosate

  1. Ground-based spectral reflectance measurements for efficacy evaluation of aerially applied glyphosate treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerial application of herbicides is a common tool in agricultural field management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of glyphosate herbicide applied aerially with both conventional and emerging aerial nozzle technologies. A Texas A&M University Plantation weed field was set u...

  2. Ground-based spectral reflectance measurements for evaluating the efficacy of aerially-applied glyphosate treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerial application of herbicides is a common tool in agricultural field management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of glyphosate herbicide applied aerially with both conventional and emerging aerial nozzle technologies. A Texas A&M University Plantation weed field was set...

  3. Coca and poppy eradication in Colombia: environmental and human health assessment of aerially applied glyphosate.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Keith R; Anadón, Arturo; Carrasquilla, Gabriel; Cerdeira, Antonio L; Marshall, Jon; Sanin, Luz-Helena

    2007-01-01

    The production of coca and poppy as well as the processing and production of cocaine and heroin involve significant environmental impacts. Both coca and poppy are grown intensively in a process that involves the clearing of land in remote areas, the planting of the crop, and protection against pests such as weeds, insects, and pathogens. The aerial spray program to control coca and poppy production in Colombia with the herbicide glyphosate is conducted with modern state-of-the-art aircraft and spray equipment. As a result of the use of best available spray and navigation technology, the likelihood of accidental off-target spraying is small and is estimated to be less than 1% of the total area sprayed. Estimated exposures in humans resulting from direct overspray, contact with treated foliage after reentry to fields, inhalation, diet, and drinking water were small and infrequent. Analyses of surface waters in five watersheds showed that, on most occasions, glyphosate was not present at measurable concentrations; only two samples had residues just above the method detection limit of 25 microg/L. Concentrations of glyphosate in air were predicted to be very small because of negligible volatility. Glyphosate in soils that are directly sprayed will be tightly bound and biologically unavailable and have no residual activity. Concentrations of glyphosate plus Cosmo-Flux will be relatively large in shallow surface waters that are directly oversprayed (maximum instantaneous concentration of 1,229microgAE/L in water 30cm deep); however, no information was available on the number of fields in close proximity to surface waters, and thus it was not possible to estimate the likelihood of such contamination. The formulation used in Colombia, a mixture of glyphosate and Cosmo-Flux, has low toxicity to mammals by all routes of exposure, although some temporary eye irritation may occur. Published epidemiological studies have not suggested a strong or consistent linkage between

  4. Effects of aerially applied glyphosate and hexazinone on hardwoods and pines in a loblolly pine plantation. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Haywood, J.D.

    1993-09-01

    Areas in a 4-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation were treated with aerially applied Roundup (glyphosate), Pronone 10G (hexazinone), and Velpar L (hexazinone) plus Lo Drift (a spray additive). All herbicides were applied with appropriate helicopter-mounted equipment. The proportion of free-to-grow pine trees increased over a 2-year period in both the treated and untreated areas, but the increase was slightly greater in the treated areas. Final loblolly pine height, d.b.h., and volume per tree did not differ significantly among the four treatments. About 1,200 hardwood trees and 4,700 shrubs over 3 ft tall per acre were present at the beginning of the study.

  5. Spray droplet size, drift potential, and risks to nontarget organisms from aerially applied glyphosate for coca control in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Andrew J; Solomon, Keith R; Marshall, E J P

    2009-01-01

    A wind tunnel atomization study was conducted to measure the emission droplet size spectra for water and Glyphos (a glyphosate formulation sold in Colombia) + Cosmo-flux sprays for aerial application to control coca and poppy crops in Colombia. The droplet size spectra were measured in a wind tunnel for an Accu-Flo nozzle (with 16 size 0.085 [2.16 mm] orifices), under appropriate simulated aircraft speeds (up to 333 km/h), using a laser diffraction instrument covering a dynamic size range for droplets of 0.5 to 3,500 microm. The spray drift potential of the glyphosate was modeled using the AGDISP spray application and drift model, using input parameters representative of those occurring in Colombia for typical aerial application operations. The droplet size spectra for tank mixes containing glyphosate and Cosmo-Flux were considerably finer than water and became finer with higher aircraft speeds. The tank mix with 44% glyphosate had a D(v0.5) of 128 microm, while the value at the 4.9% glyphosate rate was 140 microm. These are classified as very fine to fine sprays. Despite being relatively fine, modeling showed that the droplets would not evaporate as rapidly as most similarly sized agricultural sprays because the nonvolatile proportion of the tank mix (active and inert adjuvant ingredients) was large. Thus, longer range drift is small and most drift that does occur will deposit relatively close to the application area. Drift will only occur downwind and, with winds of velocity less than the modeled maximum of 9 km/h, the drift distance would be substantially reduced. Spray drift potential might be additionally reduced through various practices such as the selection of nozzles, tank mix adjuvants, aircraft speeds, and spray pressures that would produce coarser sprays. Species sensitivity distributions to glyphosate were constructed for plants and amphibians. Based on modeled drift and 5th centile concentrations, appropriate no-spray buffer zones (distance from the

  6. Determination of differences in crop injury from aerial application of glyphosate using vegetation indices and geostatistics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Injury to crops caused by off-target drift of glyphosate can seriously reduce growth and yield, and is of great concern to farmers and aerial applicators. Determining an indirect method for assessing the levels and extent of crop injury could support management decisions. The objectives of this stud...

  7. Glyphosate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Glyphosate ; CASRN 1071 - 83 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effec

  8. Mineralization and degradation of glyphosate and atrazine applied in combination in a Brazilian Oxisol.

    PubMed

    Bonfleur, Eloana J; Lavorenti, Arquimedes; Tornisielo, Valdemar L

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the behavior of the association between atrazine and glyphosate in the soil through mineralization and degradation tests. Soil treatments consisted of the combination of a field dose of glyphosate (2.88 kg ha⁻¹) with 0, ½, 1 and 2 times a field dose of atrazine (3.00 kg ha⁻¹) and a field dose of atrazine with 0, ½, 1 and 2 times a field dose of glyphosate. The herbicide mineralization rates were measured after 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56 and 63 days of soil application, and degradation rates after 0, 7, 28 and 63 days. Although glyphosate mineralization rate was higher in the presence of 1 (one) dose of atrazine when compared with glyphosate alone, no significant differences were found when half or twice the atrazine dose was applied, meaning that differences in glyphosate mineralization rates cannot be attributed to the presence of atrazine. On the other hand, the influence of glyphosate on atrazine mineralization was evident, since increasing doses of glyphosate increased the atrazine mineralization rate and the lowest dose of glyphosate accelerated atrazine degradation.

  9. Efficacy of Residual and Non-Residual Herbicides Used in Cotton Production Systems When Applied with Glyphosate, Glufosinate, or MSMA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field experiments were conducted to evaluate weed control provided by glyphosate, glufosinate, and MSMA applied alone or in mixture with residual and non-residual LAYBY herbicides. Herbicide treatments included glyphosate early postemergence (EPOST) alone or followed by: 1) glyphosate, 2) glufosin...

  10. Meteorological influences on mass accountability of aerially applied sprays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The deposition and drift of aerially applied crop protection materials is influenced by a number of factors including equpment setup and operational parameters, spray material characteristics, and meteorological effects. This work examines the meteorological influences that effect the ultimate fate...

  11. Baseline determination in social, health, and genetic areas in communities affected by glyphosate aerial spraying on the northeastern Ecuadorian border.

    PubMed

    Paz-y-Miño, César; Muñoz, María José; Maldonado, Adolfo; Valladares, Carolina; Cumbal, Nadia; Herrera, Catalina; Robles, Paulo; Sánchez, María Eugenia; López-Cortés, Andrés

    2011-01-01

    The northeastern Ecuadorian border has undergone aerial spraying with an herbicide mix that contains surfactants and adjuvants, executed by the Colombian Government. The purpose of this study was to diagnose social, health, and genetic aspects of the people affected by glyphosate. For this objective to be achieved, 144 people were interviewed, and 521 medical diagnoses and 182 peripheral blood samples were obtained. Genotyping of GSTP1 Ile105Val, GPX-1 Pro198Leu, and XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphisms were analyzed, using PCR-RFLP technique. The assessment of chromosomal aberrations was performed, obtaining 182 karyotypes. Malnutrition in children was 3%. Of the total population, 7.7% had children with malformations, and the percentage of abortions was 12.7%. Concerning genotyping, individuals with GSTP1 Val/Val obtained an odds ratio of 4.88 (p < 0.001), and Ile/Val individuals, together with Val/Val individuals, had an odds ratio of 2.6 (p < 0.05). In addition, GPX-1 Leu/Leu individuals presented an odds ratio (OR) of 8.5 (p < 0.05). Regarding karyotyping, the 182 individuals had normal karyotypes. In conclusion, the study population did not present significant chromosomal and DNA alterations. The most important social impact was fear. We recommend future prospective studies to assess the communities.

  12. Effects of Formulated Glyphosate and Adjuvant Tank Mixes on Atomization from Aerial Application Flat Fan Nozzles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    and Siddiqui, H. A., “Measurement of Drop Spectra from Rotary Cage Aerial Atomizers,” Crop Protect., Vol. 9, No. 1, 1990, pp. 33–38. [9] Teske , M. E...piled from Wind Tunnel Tests,” Report No. FPM 90-9, USDA Forest Service, Washington, D.C., 1991. [20] Teske , M. E., Skyler, P. J., and Barry, J. W., “A...International Conference, NIST Special Publication 813, National Institute of Standard and Tech- nology, Gaithersburg, MD, 1991, pp. 325–332. [21] Teske , M. E

  13. Glyphosate persistence in seawater.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Philip; Flores, Florita; Mueller, Jochen F; Carter, Steve; Negri, Andrew P

    2014-08-30

    Glyphosate is one of the most widely applied herbicides globally but its persistence in seawater has not been reported. Here we quantify the biodegradation of glyphosate using standard "simulation" flask tests with native bacterial populations and coastal seawater from the Great Barrier Reef. The half-life for glyphosate at 25 °C in low-light was 47 days, extending to 267 days in the dark at 25 °C and 315 days in the dark at 31 °C, which is the longest persistence reported for this herbicide. AMPA, the microbial transformation product of glyphosate, was detected under all conditions, confirming that degradation was mediated by the native microbial community. This study demonstrates glyphosate is moderately persistent in the marine water under low light conditions and is highly persistent in the dark. Little degradation would be expected during flood plumes in the tropics, which could potentially deliver dissolved and sediment-bound glyphosate far from shore.

  14. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Aerial Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the calibration of dry and liquid pesticide systems for aerial application. Additionally, dispersal equipment is discussed with considerations for environmental and safety factors. (CS)

  15. Delayed Monocular SLAM Approach Applied to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, many researchers have addressed the issue of making Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) more and more autonomous. In this context, the state estimation of the vehicle position is a fundamental necessity for any application involving autonomy. However, the problem of position estimation could not be solved in some scenarios, even when a GPS signal is available, for instance, an application requiring performing precision manoeuvres in a complex environment. Therefore, some additional sensory information should be integrated into the system in order to improve accuracy and robustness. In this work, a novel vision-based simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) method with application to unmanned aerial vehicles is proposed. One of the contributions of this work is to design and develop a novel technique for estimating features depth which is based on a stochastic technique of triangulation. In the proposed method the camera is mounted over a servo-controlled gimbal that counteracts the changes in attitude of the quadcopter. Due to the above assumption, the overall problem is simplified and it is focused on the position estimation of the aerial vehicle. Also, the tracking process of visual features is made easier due to the stabilized video. Another contribution of this work is to demonstrate that the integration of very noisy GPS measurements into the system for an initial short period of time is enough to initialize the metric scale. The performance of this proposed method is validated by means of experiments with real data carried out in unstructured outdoor environments. A comparative study shows that, when compared with related methods, the proposed approach performs better in terms of accuracy and computational time. PMID:28033385

  16. Delayed Monocular SLAM Approach Applied to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Munguia, Rodrigo; Urzua, Sarquis; Grau, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, many researchers have addressed the issue of making Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) more and more autonomous. In this context, the state estimation of the vehicle position is a fundamental necessity for any application involving autonomy. However, the problem of position estimation could not be solved in some scenarios, even when a GPS signal is available, for instance, an application requiring performing precision manoeuvres in a complex environment. Therefore, some additional sensory information should be integrated into the system in order to improve accuracy and robustness. In this work, a novel vision-based simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) method with application to unmanned aerial vehicles is proposed. One of the contributions of this work is to design and develop a novel technique for estimating features depth which is based on a stochastic technique of triangulation. In the proposed method the camera is mounted over a servo-controlled gimbal that counteracts the changes in attitude of the quadcopter. Due to the above assumption, the overall problem is simplified and it is focused on the position estimation of the aerial vehicle. Also, the tracking process of visual features is made easier due to the stabilized video. Another contribution of this work is to demonstrate that the integration of very noisy GPS measurements into the system for an initial short period of time is enough to initialize the metric scale. The performance of this proposed method is validated by means of experiments with real data carried out in unstructured outdoor environments. A comparative study shows that, when compared with related methods, the proposed approach performs better in terms of accuracy and computational time.

  17. Photovoltaic electric power applied to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geis, Jack; Arnold, Jack H.

    1994-01-01

    Photovoltaic electric-powered flight is receiving a great deal of attention in the context of the United States' Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) program. This paper addresses some of the enabling technical areas and their potential solutions. Of particular interest are the long-duration, high-altitude class of UAV's whose mission it is to achieve altitudes between 60,000 and 100,000 feet, and to remain at those altitudes for prolonged periods performing various mapping and surveillance activities. Addressed herein are studies which reveal the need for extremely light-weight and efficient solar cells, high-efficiency electric motor-driven propeller modules, and power management and distribution control elements. Since the potential payloads vary dramatically in their power consumption and duty cycles, a typical load profile has been selected to provide commonality for the propulsion power comparisons. Since missions vary widely with respect to ground coverage requirements, from repeated orbiting over a localized target to long-distance routes over irregular terrain, we have also averaged the power requirements for on-board guidance and control power, as well as ground control and communication link utilization. In the context of the national technology reinvestment program, wherever possible we modeled components and materials which have been qualified for space and defense applications, yet are compatible with civilian UAV activities. These include, but are not limited to, solar cell developments, electric storage technology for diurnal operation, local and ground communications, power management and distribution, and control servo design. And finally, the results of tests conducted by Wright Laboratory on ultralight, highly efficient MOCVD GaAs solar cells purchased from EPI Materials Ltd. (EML) of the UK are presented. These cells were also used for modeling the flight characteristics of UAV aircraft.

  18. Photovoltaic electric power applied to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geis, Jack; Arnold, Jack H.

    1994-09-01

    Photovoltaic electric-powered flight is receiving a great deal of attention in the context of the United States' Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) program. This paper addresses some of the enabling technical areas and their potential solutions. Of particular interest are the long-duration, high-altitude class of UAV's whose mission it is to achieve altitudes between 60,000 and 100,000 feet, and to remain at those altitudes for prolonged periods performing various mapping and surveillance activities. Addressed herein are studies which reveal the need for extremely light-weight and efficient solar cells, high-efficiency electric motor-driven propeller modules, and power management and distribution control elements. Since the potential payloads vary dramatically in their power consumption and duty cycles, a typical load profile has been selected to provide commonality for the propulsion power comparisons. Since missions vary widely with respect to ground coverage requirements, from repeated orbiting over a localized target to long-distance routes over irregular terrain, we have also averaged the power requirements for on-board guidance and control power, as well as ground control and communication link utilization. In the context of the national technology reinvestment program, wherever possible we modeled components and materials which have been qualified for space and defense applications, yet are compatible with civilian UAV activities. These include, but are not limited to, solar cell developments, electric storage technology for diurnal operation, local and ground communications, power management and distribution, and control servo design. And finally, the results of tests conducted by Wright Laboratory on ultralight, highly efficient MOCVD GaAs solar cells purchased from EPI Materials Ltd. (EML) of the UK are presented. These cells were also used for modeling the flight characteristics of UAV aircraft.

  19. Isoflavone, glyphosate, and aminomethylphosphonic acid levels in seeds of glyphosate-treated, glyphosate-resistant soybean.

    PubMed

    Duke, Stephen O; Rimando, Agnes M; Pace, Patrick F; Reddy, Krishna N; Smeda, Reid J

    2003-01-01

    The estrogenic isoflavones of soybeans and their glycosides are products of the shikimate pathway, the target pathway of glyphosate. This study tested the hypothesis that nonphytotoxic levels of glyphosate and other herbicides known to affect phenolic compound biosynthesis might influence levels of these nutraceutical compounds in glyphosate-resistant soybeans. The effects of glyphosate and other herbicides were determined on estrogenic isoflavones and shikimate in glyphosate-resistant soybeans from identical experiments conducted on different cultivars in Mississippi and Missouri. Four commonly used herbicide treatments were compared to a hand-weeded control. The herbicide treatments were (1) glyphosate at 1260 g/ha at 3 weeks after planting (WAP), followed by glyphosate at 840 g/ha at 6 WAP; (2) sulfentrazone at 168 g/ha plus chlorimuron at 34 g/ha applied preemergence (PRE), followed by glyphosate at 1260 g/ha at 6 WAP; (3) sulfentrazone at 168 g/ha plus chlorimuron at 34 g/ha applied PRE, followed by glyphosate at 1260 g/ha at full bloom; and (4) sulfentrazone at 168 g/ha plus chlorimuron at 34 g/ha applied PRE, followed by acifluorfen at 280 g/ha plus bentazon at 560 g/ha plus clethodim at 140 g/ha at 6 WAP. Soybeans were harvested at maturity, and seeds were analyzed for daidzein, daidzin, genistein, genistin, glycitin, glycitein, shikimate, glyphosate, and the glyphosate degradation product, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA). There were no remarkable effects of any treatment on the contents of any of the biosynthetic compounds in soybean seed from either test site, indicating that early and later season applications of glyphosate have no effects on phytoestrogen levels in glyphosate-resistant soybeans. Glyphosate and AMPA residues were higher in seeds from treatment 3 than from the other two treatments in which glyphosate was used earlier. Intermediate levels were found in treatments 1 and 2. Low levels of glyphosate and AMPA were found in treatment 4 and a

  20. Glyphosate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Bradberry, Sally M; Proudfoot, Alex T; Vale, J Allister

    2004-01-01

    Glyphosate is used extensively as a non-selective herbicide by both professional applicators and consumers and its use is likely to increase further as it is one of the first herbicides against which crops have been genetically modified to increase their tolerance. Commercial glyphosate-based formulations most commonly range from concentrates containing 41% or more glyphosate to 1% glyphosate formulations marketed for domestic use. They generally consist of an aqueous mixture of the isopropylamine (IPA) salt of glyphosate, a surfactant, and various minor components including anti-foaming and colour agents, biocides and inorganic ions to produce pH adjustment. The mechanisms of toxicity of glyphosate formulations are complicated. Not only is glyphosate used as five different salts but commercial formulations of it contain surfactants, which vary in nature and concentration. As a result, human poisoning with this herbicide is not with the active ingredient alone but with complex and variable mixtures. Therefore, It is difficult to separate the toxicity of glyphosate from that of the formulation as a whole or to determine the contribution of surfactants to overall toxicity. Experimental studies suggest that the toxicity of the surfactant, polyoxyethyleneamine (POEA), is greater than the toxicity of glyphosate alone and commercial formulations alone. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that glyphosate preparations containing POEA are more toxic than those containing alternative surfactants. Although surfactants probably contribute to the acute toxicity of glyphosate formulations, the weight of evidence is against surfactants potentiating the toxicity of glyphosate. Accidental ingestion of glyphosate formulations is generally associated with only mild, transient, gastrointestinal features. Most reported cases have followed the deliberate ingestion of the concentrated formulation of Roundup (The use of trade names is for product identification purposes only and

  1. Response of Ranger Russet potato to simulated glyphosate drift

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies were conducted in 2008 at Ontario, OR, Paterson, WA, and Aberdeen, ID to determine the effect of simulated glyphosate drift on potato. Glyphosate was applied at 10-15cm height, stolon-hooking, tuber-initiation, and bulking stage. Glyphosate was applied at 0, 8.5, 54, 107, 215, and 423g...

  2. Biomonitoring of genotoxic risk in agricultural workers from five colombian regions: association to occupational exposure to glyphosate.

    PubMed

    Bolognesi, C; Carrasquilla, G; Volpi, S; Solomon, K R; Marshall, E J P

    2009-01-01

    In order to assess possible human effects associated with glyphosate formulations used in the Colombian aerial spray program for control of illicit crops, a cytogenetic biomonitoring study was carried out in subjects from five Colombian regions, characterized by different exposure to glyphosate and other pesticides. Women of reproductive age (137 persons 15-49 yr old) and their spouses (137 persons) were interviewed to obtain data on current health status, history, lifestyle, including past and current occupational exposure to pesticides, and factors including those known to be associated with increased frequency of micronuclei (MN). In regions where glyphosate was being sprayed, blood samples were taken prior to spraying (indicative of baseline exposure), 5 d after spraying, and 4 mo after spraying. Lymphocytes were cultured and a cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay was applied to evaluate chromosomal damage and cytotoxicity. Compared with Santa Marta, where organic coffee is grown without pesticides, the baseline frequency of binucleated cells with micronuclei (BNMN) was significantly greater in subjects from the other four regions. The highest frequency of BNMN was in Boyaca, where no aerial eradication spraying of glyphosate was conducted, and in Valle del Cauca, where glyphosate was used for maturation of sugar cane. Region, gender, and older age (> or =35 yr) were the only variables associated with the frequency of BNMN measured before spraying. A significant increase in frequency of BNMN between first and second sampling was observed in Narino, Putumayo, and Valle immediately (<5 d) after spraying. In the post-spray sample, those who reported direct contact with the eradication spray showed a higher quantitative frequency of BNMN compared to those without glyphosate exposure. The increase in frequency of BNMN observed immediately after the glyphosate spraying was not consistent with the rates of application used in the regions and there was no

  3. Coca (Erythroxylum coca) Control is Affected by Glyphosate Formulations and Adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Marshall, E J P; Solomon, Keith R; Carrasquilla, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    The aerial spray program for the eradication of coca in Colombia uses Glyphos, a local formulation of glyphosate tank-mixed with an adjuvant product, Cosmo-Flux. There are some potential risks to amphibians from direct overspraying of shallow waters. In order to evaluate potential alternative mixtures, a field experiment was conducted at the Center of National Training of Police Operations in Tolima province, Colombia. Plants of coca were established with irrigation and grown to 75 cm tall. A randomized split-plot design experiment was laid out and sprayed with a range of glyphosate formulations and different adjuvants using an experimental ground sprayer. Assessments were made of plant vigor, height, and above-ground standing crop (fresh weight) 3 wk after application. Resprouting of plants was assessed at 9 wk after treatment. Unformulated glyphosate applied as the product Rodeo gave poorer control of coca than two formulated products, Roundup Biactive (from Europe) and Colombian Glyphos. In general, these products performed well without added adjuvants, giving control similar to that of the eradication mixture with Cosmo-Flux. There was some evidence that addition of the adjuvant Silwet L-77 and to a lesser extent Mixture B (from the United Kingdom) gave more rapid herbicide symptoms. There were also indications that glyphosate rates of less than 3.69 kg acid equivalents (a.e.)/ha could give control in the range of 95%. Depending on the environmental risk requirements, the experiment indicates that, should other spray mixtures be required, there are potential alternatives. These would require extensive field testing to cover different environmental conditions, different coca varieties, and particularly aerial application, prior to a recommendation. Should the glyphosate product require changing, Roundup Biactive may be considered. Should the adjuvant require changing, then on the basis of this research, Silwet L-77 and Mixture B would be good candidates for

  4. Detecting lost persons using the k-mean method applied to aerial photographs taken by unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedzielski, Tomasz; Stec, Magdalena; Wieczorek, Malgorzata; Slopek, Jacek; Jurecka, Miroslawa

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this work is to discuss the usefulness of the k-mean method in the process of detecting persons on oblique aerial photographs acquired by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The detection based on the k-mean procedure belongs to one of the modules of a larger Search and Rescue (SAR) system which is being developed at the University of Wroclaw, Poland (research project no. IP2014 032773 financed by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of Poland). The module automatically processes individual geotagged visual-light UAV-taken photographs or their orthorectified versions. Firstly, we separate red (R), green (G) and blue (B) channels, express raster data as numeric matrices and acquire coordinates of centres of images using the exchangeable image file format (EXIF). Subsequently, we divide the matrices into matrices of smaller dimensions, the latter being associated with the size of spatial window which is suitable for discriminating between human and terrain. Each triplet of the smaller matrices (R, G and B) serves as input spatial data for the k-mean classification. We found that, in several configurations of the k-mean parameters, it is possible to distinguish a separate class which characterizes a person. We compare the skills of this approach by performing two experiments, based on UAV-taken RGB photographs and their orthorectified versions. This allows us to verify the hypothesis that the two exercises lead to similar classifications. In addition, we discuss the performance of the approach for dissimilar spatial windows, hence various dimensions of the above-mentioned matrices, and we do so in order to find the one which offers the most adequate classification. The numerical experiment is carried out using the data acquired during a dedicated observational UAV campaign carried out in the Izerskie Mountains (SW Poland).

  5. Glyphosate-Resistant and Conventional Canola (Brassica napus L.) Responses to Glyphosate and Aminomethylphosphonic Acid (AMPA) Treatment.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Elza Alves; Dayan, Franck E; Owens, Daniel K; Rimando, Agnes M; Duke, Stephen O

    2016-05-11

    Glyphosate-resistant (GR) canola contains two transgenes that impart resistance to the herbicide glyphosate: (1) the microbial glyphosate oxidase gene (gox) encoding the glyphosate oxidase enzyme (GOX) that metabolizes glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and (2) cp4 that encodes a GR form of the glyphosate target enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimic acid-3-phosphate synthase. The objectives of this research were to determine the phytotoxicity of AMPA to canola, the relative metabolism of glyphosate to AMPA in GR and conventional non-GR (NGR) canola, and AMPA pool sizes in glyphosate-treated GR canola. AMPA applied at 1.0 kg ha(-1) was not phytotoxic to GR or NGR. At this AMPA application rate, NGR canola accumulated a higher concentration of AMPA in its tissues than GR canola. At rates of 1 and 3.33 kg ae ha(-1) of glyphosate, GR canola growth was stimulated. This stimulatory effect is similar to that of much lower doses of glyphosate on NGR canola. Both shikimate and AMPA accumulated in tissues of these glyphosate-treated plants. In a separate experiment in which young GR and NGR canola plants were treated with non-phytotoxic levels of [(14)C]-glyphosate, very little glyphosate was metabolized in NGR plants, whereas most of the glyphosate was metabolized to AMPA in GR plants at 7 days after application. Untreated leaves of GR plants accumulated only metabolites (mostly AMPA) of glyphosate, indicating that GOX activity is very high in the youngest leaves. These data indicate that more glyphosate is transformed to AMPA rapidly in GR canola and that the accumulated AMPA is not toxic to the canola plant.

  6. The toxicity of glyphosate alone and glyphosate-surfactant mixtures to western toad (Anaxyrus boreas) tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Kim; Davidson, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Pesticide choice based on toxicity to nontarget wildlife is reliant on available toxicity data. Despite a number of recent studies examining the effects of glyphosate on amphibians, very few have aimed to understand the toxicological effects of glyphosate in combination with surfactants as it is commonly applied in the field. Land managers interested in making pesticide choices based on minimizing impacts to nontarget wildlife are hindered by a lack of published toxicity data. Short-term acute toxicity trials were conducted for glyphosate in the form of isopropylamine salt (IPA) alone and mixed with 2 surfactants: Agri-dex and Competitor with western toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] boreas) tadpoles. Glyphosate IPA mixed with Competitor was 6 times more toxic than glyphosate IPA mixed with Agri-dex, and both mixtures were more toxic than glyphosate IPA alone. The median lethal concentrations reported for 24-h and 48-h exposures were 8279 mg/L (24 h) and 6392 mg/L (48 h) for glyphosate IPA alone; 5092 mg/L (24 h) and 4254 mg/L (48 h) for glyphosate IPA mixed with Agri-dex; and 853 mg/L (24 h) and 711 mg/L (48 h) for glyphosate IPA mixed with Competitor. The present study indicates that the toxicity of a tank mix may be greatly increased by the addition of surfactants and may vary widely depending on the specific surfactant.

  7. The Smart Aerial Release Machine, a Universal System for Applying the Sterile Insect Technique

    PubMed Central

    Mubarqui, Ruben Leal; Perez, Rene Cano; Kladt, Roberto Angulo; Lopez, Jose Luis Zavala; Parker, Andrew; Seck, Momar Talla; Sall, Baba; Bouyer, Jérémy

    2014-01-01

    Background Beyond insecticides, alternative methods to control insect pests for agriculture and vectors of diseases are needed. Management strategies involving the mass-release of living control agents have been developed, including genetic control with sterile insects and biological control with parasitoids, for which aerial release of insects is often required. Aerial release in genetic control programmes often involves the use of chilled sterile insects, which can improve dispersal, survival and competitiveness of sterile males. Currently available means of aerially releasing chilled fruit flies are however insufficiently precise to ensure homogeneous distribution at low release rates and no device is available for tsetse. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we present the smart aerial release machine, a new design by the Mubarqui Company, based on the use of vibrating conveyors. The machine is controlled through Bluetooth by a tablet with Android Operating System including a completely automatic guidance and navigation system (MaxNav software). The tablet is also connected to an online relational database facilitating the preparation of flight schedules and automatic storage of flight reports. The new machine was compared with a conveyor release machine in Mexico using two fruit flies species (Anastrepha ludens and Ceratitis capitata) and we obtained better dispersal homogeneity (% of positive traps, p<0.001) for both species and better recapture rates for Anastrepha ludens (p<0.001), especially at low release densities (<1500 per ha). We also demonstrated that the machine can replace paper boxes for aerial release of tsetse in Senegal. Conclusions/Significance This technology limits damages to insects and allows a large range of release rates from 10 flies/km2 for tsetse flies up to 600 000 flies/km2 for fruit flies. The potential of this machine to release other species like mosquitoes is discussed. Plans and operating of the machine are provided to allow its

  8. Hormesis with glyphosate depends on coffee growth stage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed management systems in almost all Brazilian coffee plantations allow herbicide spray to drift on crop plants. In order to evaluate if there is any effect of the most commonly used herbicide in coffee production, glyphosate, on coffee plants, a range of glyphosate doses were applied directly on ...

  9. Electrochemical degradation and mineralization of glyphosate herbicide.

    PubMed

    Tran, Nam; Drogui, Patrick; Doan, Tuan Linh; Le, Thanh Son; Nguyen, Hoai Chau

    2017-01-23

    The presence of herbicide is a concern for both human and ecological health. Glyphosate is occasionally detected as water contaminants in agriculture areas where the herbicide is used extensively. The removal of glyphosate in synthetic solution using advanced oxidation process is a possible approach for remediation of contaminated waters. The ability of electrochemical oxidation for the degradation and mineralization of glyphosate herbicide was investigated using Ti/PbO2 anode. The current intensity, treatment time, initial concentration and pH of solution are the influent parameters on the degradation efficiency. An experimental design methodology was applied to determine the optimal condition (in terms of cost/effectiveness) based on response surface methodology. Glyphosate concentration (C0 = 16.9 mg L(-1)) decreased up to 0.6 mg L(-1) when the optimal conditions were imposed (current intensity of 4.77A and treatment time of 173 min). The removal efficiencies of glyphosate and total organic carbon were 95 ±16% and 90.31%, respectively. This work demonstrates that electrochemical oxidation is a promising process for degradation and mineralization of glyphosate.

  10. Fate and availability of glyphosate and AMPA in agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Louise; Fomsgaard, Inge S; Svensmark, Bo; Spliid, Niels Henrik

    2008-06-01

    The fate of glyphosate and its degradation product aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) was studied in soil. Labeled glyphosate was used to be able to distinguish the measured quantities of glyphosate and AMPA from the background values since the soil was sampled in a field where glyphosate had been used formerly. After addition of labeled glyphosate, the disappearance of glyphosate and the formation and disappearance of AMPA were monitored. The resulting curves were fitted according to a new EU guideline. The best fit of the glyphosate degradation data was obtained using a first-order multi compartment (FOMC) model. DT(50) values of 9 days (glyphosate) and 32 days (AMPA) indicated relatively rapid degradation. After an aging period of 6 months, the leaching risk of each residue was determined by treating the soil with pure water or a phosphate solution (pH 6), to simulate rain over a non-fertilized or fertilized field, respectively. Significantly larger (p < 0.05) amounts of aged glyphosate and AMPA were extracted from the soil when phosphate solution was used as an extraction agent, compared with pure water. This indicates that the risk of leaching of aged glyphosate and AMPA residues from soil is greater in fertilized soil. The blank soil, to which 252 g glyphosate/ha was applied 21 months before this study, contained 0.81 ng glyphosate/g dry soil and 10.46 ng AMPA/g dry soil at the start of the study. Blank soil samples were used as controls without glyphosate addition. After incubation of the blank soil samples for 6 months, a significantly larger amount of AMPA was extracted from the soil treated with phosphate solution than from that treated with pure water. To determine the degree of uptake of aged glyphosate residues by crops growing in the soil, (14)C-labeled glyphosate was applied to soil 6.5 months prior to sowing rape and barley seeds. After 41 days, 0.006 +/- 0.002% and 0.005 +/- 0.001% of the applied radioactivity was measured in rape and barley

  11. Regional differences in time to pregnancy among fertile women from five Colombian regions with different use of glyphosate.

    PubMed

    Sanin, Luz-Helena; Carrasquilla, Gabriel; Solomon, Keith R; Cole, Donald C; Marshall, E J P

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test whether there was an association between the use of glyphosate when applied by aerial spray for the eradication of illicit crops (cocaine and poppy) and time to pregnancy (TTP) among fertile women. A retrospective cohort study (with an ecological exposure index) of first pregnancies was undertaken in 2592 fertile Colombian women from 5 regions with different uses of glyphosate. Women were interviewed regarding potential reproductive, lifestyle, and work history predictors of TTP, which was measured in months. Fecundability odds ratios (fOR) were estimated using a discrete time analogue of Cox's proportional hazard model. There were differences in TTP between regions. In the final multivariate model, the main predictor was the region adjusted by irregular relationship with partner, maternal age at first pregnancy, and, marginally, coffee consumption and self-perception of water pollution. Boyaca, a region with traditional crops and. recently, illicit crops without glyphosate eradication spraying (manual eradication), displayed minimal risk and was the reference region. Other regions, including Sierra Nevada (control area, organic agriculture), Putumayo and Narino (illicit crops and intensive eradication spray program), and Valle del Cauca, demonstrated greater risk of longer TTP, with the highest risk for Valle del Cauca (fOR 0.15, 95% CI 0.12, 0.18), a sugar-cane region with a history of use of glyphosate and others chemicals for more than 30 yr. The reduced fecundability in some regions was not associated with the use of glyphosate for eradication spraying. The observed ecological differences remain unexplained and may be produced by varying exposures to environmental factors, history of contraceptive programs in the region, or psychological distress. Future studies examining these or other possible causes are needed.

  12. Effects of phosphate on the adsorption of glyphosate on three different types of Chinese soils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Jun; Zhou, Dong-mei; Sun, Rui-juan

    2005-01-01

    Glyphosate (GPS) is a non-selective, post-mergence herbicide that is widely used throughout the world. Due to the similar molecular structures of glyphosate and phosphate, adsorption of glyphosate on soil is easily affected by coexisting phosphate, especially when phosphate is applied at a significant rate in farmland. This paper studied the effects of phosphate on the adsorption of glyphosate on three different types of Chinese soils including two variable charge soils and one permanent charge soil. The results indicated that Freundlich equations used to simulate glyphosate adsorption isotherms gave high correlation coefficients (0.990-0.998) with K values of 2751, 2451 and 166 for the zhuanhong soil(ZH soil, Laterite), red soil(RS, Udic Ferrisol) and Wushan paddy soil (WS soil, Anthrosol), respectively. The more the soil iron and aluminum oxides and clay contained, the more glyphosate adsorbed. The presence of phosphate significantly decreased the adsorption of glyphosate to the soils by competing with glyphosate for adsorption sites of soils. Meanwhile, the effects of phosphate on adsorption of glyphosate on the two variable charge soils were more significant than that on the permanent charge soil. When phosphate and glyphosate were added in the soils in different orders, the adsorption quantities of glyphosate on the soils were different, which followed GPS-soil > GPS-P-soil = GPS-soil-P > P-soil-GPS, meaning a complex interaction occurred among glyphosate, phosphate and the soils.

  13. The herbicide glyphosate.

    PubMed

    Malik, J; Barry, G; Kishore, G

    1989-03-01

    Glyphosate has broad spectrum herbicidal activity against a wide range of annual and perennial weeds. The environmental properties of this herbicide such as its soil immobility, rapid soil inactivation and soil biodegradation are outstanding. This herbicide is practically non-toxic to non-plant life forms such as aquatic and avian species, animals and man. Metabolism studies with pure bacterial cultures indicate that glyphosate is metabolized to either aminomethylphosphonate and glyoxylate or sarcosine and phosphate in most bacteria. The enzyme C-P lyase, which catalyzes the cleavage of the carbon-phosphorus bond of phosphonates including glyphosate, appears to be complex, containing multiple subunits. Mode of action studies have demonstrated that glyphosate kills plants by inhibiting the enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase, involved in the biosynthesis of aromatic compounds. The status of our understanding of these aspects of glyphosate is reviewed.

  14. Glyphosate in northern ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Helander, Marjo; Saloniemi, Irma; Saikkonen, Kari

    2012-10-01

    Glyphosate is the main nonselective, systemic herbicide used against a wide range of weeds. Its worldwide use has expanded because of extensive use of certain agricultural practices such as no-till cropping, and widespread application of glyphosate-resistant genetically modified crops. Glyphosate has a reputation of being nontoxic to animals and rapidly inactivated in soils. However, recent evidence has cast doubts on its safety. Glyphosate may be retained and transported in soils, and there may be cascading effects on nontarget organisms. These processes may be especially detrimental in northern ecosystems because they are characterized by long biologically inactive winters and short growing seasons. In this opinion article, we discuss the potential ecological, environmental and agricultural risks of intensive glyphosate use in boreal regions.

  15. Deposition of aerially applied BT in an oak forest and its prediction with the FSCBG model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Dean E.; Miller, David R.; Wang, Yansen; Yendol, William G.; Mierzejewski, Karl; McManus, Michael L.

    1992-01-01

    Data are provided from 17 single-swath aerial spray trials that were conducted over a fully leafed, 16-m tall, mixed oak forest. The distribution of cross-swath spray deposits was sampled at the top of the canopy and below the canopy. Micrometeorological conditions were measured above and within the canopy during the spray trials. The USDA Forest Service FSCBG (Forest Service-Cramer-Barry-Grim) model was run to predict the target sampler catch for each trial using forest stand, airplane-application-equipment configuration, and micrometeorological conditions as inputs. Observations showed an average cross-swath deposition of 100 IU cm−2 with large run-to-run variability in deposition patterns, magnitudes, and drift. Eleven percent of the spray material that reached the top of the canopy penetrated through the tree canopy to the forest floor.The FSCBG predictions of the ensemble-averaged deposition were within 17% of the measured deposition at the canopy top and within 8% on the ground beneath the canopy. Run-to-run deposit predictions by FSCBG were considerably less variable than the measured deposits. Individual run predictions were much less accurate than the ensemble-averaged predictions as demonstrated by an average root-mean-square-error (rmse) of 27.9 IU CM−2 at the top of the canopy. Comparisons of the differences between predicted and observed deposits indicated that the model accuracy was sensitive to atmospheric stability conditions. In neutral and stable conditions, a regular pattern of error was indicated by overprediction of the canopy-top deposit at distances from 0 to 20 m downwind from the flight line and underprediction of the deposit both farther downwind than 20 m and upwind of the flight line. In unstable conditions the model generally underpredicted the deposit downwind from the flight line, but showed no regular pattern of error.

  16. Glyphosate applications on arable fields considerably coincide with migrating amphibians.

    PubMed

    Berger, Gert; Graef, Frieder; Pfeffer, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Glyphosate usage is increasing worldwide and the application schemes of this herbicide are currently changing. Amphibians migrating through arable fields may be harmed by Glyphosate applied to field crops. We investigated the population-based temporal coincidence of four amphibian species with Glyphosate from 2006 to 2008. Depending on a) age- and species-specific main migration periods, b) crop species, c) Glyphosate application mode for crops, and d) the presumed DT50 value (12 days or 47 days) of Glyphosate, we calculated up to 100% coincidence with Glyphosate. The amphibians regularly co-occur with pre-sowing/pre-emerging Glyphosate applications to maize in spring and with stubble management prior to crop sowing in late summer and autumn. Siccation treatment in summer coincides only with early pond-leaving juveniles. We suggest in-depth investigations of both acute and long-term effects of Glyphosate applications on amphibian populations not only focussed on exposure during aquatic periods but also terrestrial life stages.

  17. Glyphosate effects on soil rhizosphere-associated bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Newman, Molli M; Hoilett, Nigel; Lorenz, Nicola; Dick, Richard P; Liles, Mark R; Ramsier, Cliff; Kloepper, Joseph W

    2016-02-01

    Glyphosate is one of the most widely used herbicides in agriculture with predictions that 1.35 million metric tons will be used annually by 2017. With the advent of glyphosate tolerant (GT) cropping more than 10 years ago, there is now concern for non-target effects on soil microbial communities that has potential to negatively affect soil functions, plant health, and crop productivity. Although extensive research has been done on short-term response to glyphosate, relatively little information is available on long-term effects. Therefore, the overall objective was to investigate shifts in the rhizosphere bacterial community following long-term glyphosate application on GT corn and soybean in the greenhouse. In this study, rhizosphere soil was sampled from rhizoboxes following 4 growth periods, and bacterial community composition was compared between glyphosate treated and untreated rhizospheres using next-generation barcoded sequencing. In the presence or absence of glyphosate, corn and soybean rhizospheres were dominated by members of the phyla Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria. Proteobacteria (particularly gammaproteobacteria) increased in relative abundance for both crops following glyphosate exposure, and the relative abundance of Acidobacteria decreased in response to glyphosate exposure. Given that some members of the Acidobacteria are involved in biogeochemical processes, a decrease in their abundance could lead to significant changes in nutrient status of the rhizosphere. Our results also highlight the need for applying culture-independent approaches in studying the effects of pesticides on the soil and rhizosphere microbial community.

  18. Effects of glyphosate on the mineral content of glyphosate-resistant soybeans (Glycine max).

    PubMed

    Duke, Stephen O; Reddy, Krishna N; Bu, Kaixuan; Cizdziel, James V

    2012-07-11

    There are conflicting claims as to whether treatment with glyphosate adversely affects mineral nutrition of glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops. Those who have made claims of adverse effects have argued links between reduced Mn and diseases in these crops. This article describes experiments designed to determine the effects of a recommended rate (0.86 kg ha(-1)) of glyphosate applied once or twice on the mineral content of young and mature leaves, as well as in seeds produced by GR soybeans (Glycine max) in both the greenhouse and field using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In the greenhouse, there were no effects of either one application (at 3 weeks after planting, WAP) or two applications (at 3 and 6 WAP) of glyphosate on Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Sr, Ba, Al, Cd, Cr, Co, or Ni content of young or old leaves sampled at 6, 9, and 12 WAP and in harvested seed. Se concentrations were too low for accurate detection in leaves, but there was also no effect of glyphosate applications on Se in the seeds. In the field study, there were no effects of two applications (at 3 and 6 WAP) of glyphosate on Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Sr, Ba, Al, Cd, Cr, Co, or Ni content of young or old leaves at either 9 or 12 WAP. There was also no effect on Se in the seeds. There was no difference in yield between control and glyphosate-treated GR soybeans in the field. The results indicate that glyphosate does not influence mineral nutrition of GR soybean at recommended rates for weed management in the field. Furthermore, the field studies confirm the results of greenhouse studies.

  19. The use of BMED for glyphosate recovery from glyphosate neutralization liquor in view of zero discharge.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jiangnan; Huang, Jie; Liu, Lifen; Ye, Wenyuan; Lin, Jiuyang; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2013-09-15

    Alkaline glyphosate neutralization liquors containing a high salinity pose a severe environmental pollution problem by the pesticide industry. However, there is a high potential for glyphosate recovery due to the high concentration of glyphosate in the neutralization liquors. In the study, a three-compartment bipolar membrane electrodialysis (BMED) process was applied on pilot scale for the recovery of glyphosate and the production of base/acid with high concentration in view of zero discharge of wastewater. The experimental results demonstrate that BMED can remove 99.0% of NaCl from the feed solution and transform this fraction into HCl and NaOH with high concentration and purity. This is recycled for the hydrolysis reaction of the intermediate product generated by the means of the Mannich reaction of paraformaldehyde, glycine and dimethylphosphite catalyzed by triethylamine in the presence of HCl and reclamation of the triethylamine catalyst during the production process of glyphosate. The recovery of glyphosate in the feed solution was over 96%, which is acceptable for industrial production. The current efficiency for producing NaOH with a concentration of 2.0 mol L(-1) is above 67% and the corresponding energy consumption is 2.97 kWh kg(-1) at a current density of 60 mA cm(-2). The current efficiency increases and energy consumption decreases as the current density decreases, to 87.13% and 2.37 kWh kg(-1), respectively, at a current density of 30 mA cm(-2). Thus, BMED has a high potential for desalination of glyphosate neutralization liquor and glyphosate recovery, aiming at zero discharge and resource recycling in industrial application.

  20. Comparative toxicity of two glyphosate-based formulations to Eisenia andrei under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Piola, Lucas; Fuchs, Julio; Oneto, María Luisa; Basack, Silvana; Kesten, Eva; Casabé, Norma

    2013-04-01

    Glyphosate-based products are the leading post-emergent agricultural herbicides in the world, particularly in association with glyphosate tolerant crops. However, studies on the effects of glyphosate-based formulations on terrestrial receptors are scarce. This study was conducted to evaluate the comparative toxicity of two glyphosate-based products: Roundup FG (monoammonium salt, 72% acid equivalent, glyphosate-A) and Mon 8750 (monoammonium salt, 85.4% acid equivalent, glyphosate-B), towards the earthworm Eisenia andrei. Median lethal concentration (LC50) showed that glyphosate-A was 4.5-fold more toxic than glyphosate-B. Sublethal concentrations caused a concentration-dependent weight loss, consistent with the reported effect of glyphosate as uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation. Glyphosate-A showed deleterious effects on DNA and lysosomal damage at concentrations close to the applied environmental concentrations (14.4 μg ae cm(-2)). With glyphosate-B toxic effects were observed at higher doses, close to its LC50, suggesting that the higher toxicity of formulate A could be attributed to the effects of some of the so-called "inert ingredients", either due to a direct intrinsic toxicity, or to an enhancement in the bioavailability and/or bioaccumulation of the active ingredient. Our results highlight the importance of ecotoxicological assessment not only of the active ingredients, but also of the different formulations usually employed in agricultural practices.

  1. What have the mechanisms of resistance to glyphosate taught us?

    PubMed

    Shaner, Dale L; Lindenmeyer, Richard Bradley; Ostlie, Michael H

    2012-01-01

    The intensive use of glyphosate alone to manage weeds has selected populations that are glyphosate resistant. The three mechanisms of glyphosate resistance that have been elucidated are (1) target-site mutations, (2) gene amplification and (3) altered translocation due to sequestration. What have we learned from the selection of these mechanisms, and how can we apply those lessons to future herbicide-resistant crops and new mechanisms of action? First, the diversity of glyphosate resistance mechanisms has helped further our understanding of the mechanism of action of glyphosate and advanced our knowledge of plant physiology. Second, the relatively rapid evolution of glyphosate-resistant weed populations provides further evidence that no herbicide is invulnerable to resistance. Third, as new herbicide-resistant crops are developed and new mechanisms of action are discovered, the weed science community needs to ensure that we apply the lessons we have learned on resistance management from the experience with glyphosate. Every new weed management system must be evaluated during development for its potential to select for resistance, and stewardship programs should be in place when the new program is introduced.

  2. Applying aerial digital photography as a spectral remote sensing technique for macrophytic cover assessment in small rural streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anker, Y.; Hershkovitz, Y.; Gasith, A.; Ben-Dor, E.

    2011-12-01

    Although remote sensing of fluvial ecosystems is well developed, the tradeoff between spectral and spatial resolutions prevents its application in small streams (<3m width). In the current study, a remote sensing approach for monitoring and research of small ecosystem was developed. The method is based on differentiation between two indicative vegetation species out of the ecosystem flora. Since when studied, the channel was covered mostly by a filamentous green alga (Cladophora glomerata) and watercress (Nasturtium officinale), these species were chosen as indicative; nonetheless, common reed (Phragmites australis) was also classified in order to exclude it from the stream ROI. The procedure included: A. For both section and habitat scales classifications, acquisition of aerial digital RGB datasets. B. For section scale classification, hyperspectral (HSR) dataset acquisition. C. For calibration, HSR reflectance measurements of specific ground targets, in close proximity to each dataset acquisition swath. D. For habitat scale classification, manual, in-stream flora grid transects classification. The digital RGB datasets were converted to reflectance units by spectral calibration against colored reference plates. These red, green, blue, white, and black EVA foam reference plates were measured by an ASD field spectrometer and each was given a spectral value. Each spectral value was later applied to the spectral calibration and radiometric correction of spectral RGB (SRGB) cube. Spectral calibration of the HSR dataset was done using the empirical line method, based on reference values of progressive grey scale targets. Differentiation between the vegetation species was done by supervised classification both for the HSR and for the SRGB datasets. This procedure was done using the Spectral Angle Mapper function with the spectral pattern of each vegetation species as a spectral end member. Comparison between the two remote sensing techniques and between the SRGB

  3. The herbicide Glyphosate affects nitrification in the Elbe estuary, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Tina; Lassen, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    The Elbe River is one of the biggest European rivers discharging into the North Sea. It also transports high amounts of nutrients and pollutants like pesticides. Important source regions of both nutrients and pollutants are located within the river catchment, which is dominated by agricultural land-use. From these agricultural soils, pesticides can be carried via the river and estuary into the North Sea. Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine) is the most commonly used herbicide worldwide and mainly used to regulate unwanted plant growth and for the expedition of crop ripening. In Germany, ~ 6000 tons of glyphosate are applied yearly in agriculture and private use. Glyphosate is degradable by microorganisms and has a half-life in water of 35 to 60 days. This herbicide specifically inhibits 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), an enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of essential aromatic amino acids in plants, fungi, and bacteria. Nitrifying bacteria, which play an important role in the internal nitrogen cycling in the Elbe estuary, also possess this enzyme. The aim of our study was to quantify the concentration of glyphosate in water and sediment samples of the Elbe to get an overview about relevant environmental levels and to assess the impact of glyphosate on inhibition of nitrifying activities. To quantify the effect of glyphosate on nitrification activity, natural samples as well as pure cultures of Nitrosomonas europea (strain Nm50) were incubated with different concentrations of glyphosate over a period of some weeks. The nitrifying activity was determined according to changes of the nitrite and nitrate concentration as well as the cell number. Glyphosate was detectable in water and sediment samples in the Elbe estuary with up to 5 ppb mainly in the Port of Hamburg region. In both incubation experiments an inhibiting effect of glyphosate on nitrification could be shown. The incubated natural water sample was affected by a glyphosate

  4. Secondary effects of glyphosate on plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glyphosate is a unique herbicide with interesting secondary effects. Unfortunately, some have assumed that the secondary effects that occur in glyphosate-susceptible plants treated with glyphosate, such as altered mineral nutrition, reduced phenolic compound production and pathogen resistance, also ...

  5. 76 FR 27268 - Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... pursuant to 40 CFR part 2 may be disclosed publicly by EPA without prior notice. Submit a copy of your non... glyphosate and its metabolite N-acetyl glyphosate. N-acetyl glyphosate is found in genetically modified...

  6. Researches regarding extractable glyphosate residues from different soils.

    PubMed

    Alexa, Ersilia; Lazureanu, Aurel; Alda, Simion; Negrea, Monica; Iordanescu, Olimpia

    2008-01-01

    GLyphosate (N-phosphonomethyl-glycine) is a systemic, broad spectrum herbicide effective against most plant species, including annual and perennial species and is one of the world's most widely used herbicide. To glyphosate applied treatments, a part of active agent comes in contact with soil surface, adsorbing to soil compounds, while another part remains in soil solution. The adsorbing to soil compounds represents a feat importance conditioning the herbicide presence in soil solution and so, his availability to degradation and dispersion in the environment. In this paper work, the extractable glyphosate residues from soil solution have been determined through HPLC-FLD. Substrates used were Black Chernozem, Typical Gleysoil, Slight Vertisol, with moderate carbonatation. The experimental results indicated that the extractable glyphosate residue fractions from soil diminish (<20%), depending of soil parameters and decrease in this order: Gleysoil, Black Chernozem, Slight Vertisol.

  7. Effects of the herbicide glyphosate on avian community structure in the Oregon coast range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, M.L.; Meslow, E.C.

    1984-01-01

    A study was conducted on vegetative changes induced by the herbicide glyphosate, and the resultant habitat use of birds nesting on two clearcuts in western Oregon. About 23 percent of total plant cover was initially damaged by aerial application of glyphosate. Most measures of vegetation on the treated site decreased relative to the untreated site 1 year after glyphosate application. By 2 years post-spray, vegetation on the treated site had recovered to near pre-spray status. No difference in density of the bird community was evident between treated and untreated sites during all years of study although individual species densities were modified. Several bird species decreased their use of shrub cover, and increased their use of deciduous trees 1 year after treatment. By 2 years post-spray, many species had returned to pre-spray use of most measured habitat components. Results indicated that application of glyphosate can modify the density and habitat use of birds.

  8. Glyphosate effect on shikimate, nitrate reductase activity, yield, and seed composition in corn.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Krishna N; Bellaloui, Nacer; Zablotowicz, Robert M

    2010-03-24

    When glyphosate is applied to glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops, drift to nonglyphosate-resistant (non-GR) crops may cause significant injury and reduce yields. Tools are needed to quantify injury and predict crop losses. In this study, glyphosate drift was simulated by direct application at 12.5% of the recommended label rate to non-GR corn (Zea mays L.) at 3 or 6 weeks after planting (WAP) during two field seasons in the Mississippi delta region of the southeastern USA. Visual plant injury, shikimate accumulation, nitrate reductase activity, leaf nitrogen, yield, and seed composition were evaluated. Effects were also evaluated in GR corn and GR corn with stacked glufosinate-resistant gene at the recommended label rate at 3 and 6 WAP. Glyphosate at 105 g ae/ha was applied once at 3 or 6 weeks after planting to non-GR corn. Glyphosate at 840 (lower label limit) or 1260 (upper label limit) g ae/ha was applied twice at 3 and 6 WAP to transgenic corn. Glyphosate caused injury (45-55%) and increased shikimate levels (24-86%) in non-GR compared to nontreated corn. In non-GR corn, glyphosate drift did not affect starch content but increased seed protein 8-21% while reducing leaf nitrogen reductase activity 46-64%, leaf nitrogen 7-16%, grain yield 49-54%, and seed oil 18-23%. In GR and GR stacked with glufosinate-resistant corn, glyphosate applied at label rates did not affect corn yield, leaf and seed nitrogen, or seed composition (protein, oil, and starch content). Yet, nitrate reductase activity was reduced 5-19% with glyphosate at 840 + 840 g/ha rate and 8-42% with glyphosate at 1260 + 1260 g/ha rate in both GR and GR stacked corn. These results demonstrate the potential for severe yield loss in non-GR corn exposed to glyphosate drift.

  9. EFFECTS OF AERIALLY APPLIED FENTHION ON SURVIVAL AND REPRODUCTION OF THE PANACEA SAND FIDDLER, UCA PANACEA, IN LABORATORY HABITATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sand fiddler crabs, Uca panacea, were exposed in laboratory habitats to measured concentrations of ULV-grade fenthion via simulated aerial spray at 5% and 50% of field-rate application of 6-12 mg fenthion/m2 (0.05-0.10 lbs fenthion/acre). Two habitats served as controls and two h...

  10. Glyphosate affects seed composition in glyphosate-resistant soybean.

    PubMed

    Zobiole, Luiz H S; Oliveira, Rubem S; Visentainer, Jesui V; Kremer, Robert J; Bellaloui, Nacer; Yamada, Tsuioshi

    2010-04-14

    The cultivation of glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybeans has continuously increased worldwide in recent years mainly due to the importance of glyphosate in current weed management systems. However, not much has been done to understand eventual effects of glyphosate application on GR soybean physiology, especially those related to seed composition with potential effects on human health. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of glyphosate application on GR soybeans compared with its near-isogenic non-GR parental lines. Results of the first experiment showed that glyphosate application resulted in significant decreases in shoot nutrient concentrations, photosynthetic parameters, and biomass production. Similar trends were observed for the second experiment, although glyphosate application significantly altered seed nutrient concentrations and polyunsaturated fatty acid percentages. Glyphosate resulted in significant decreases in polyunsaturated linoleic acid (18:2n-6) (2.3% decrease) and linolenic acid (18:3n-3) (9.6% decrease) and a significant increase in monounsaturated fatty acids 17:1n-7 (30.3% increase) and 18:1n-7 (25% increase). The combined observations of decreased photosynthetic parameters and low nutrient availability in glyphosate-treated plants may explain potential adverse effects of glyphosate in GR soybeans.

  11. Glyphosate and AMPA distribution in wind-eroded sediment derived from loess soil.

    PubMed

    Bento, Célia P M; Goossens, Dirk; Rezaei, Mahrooz; Riksen, Michel; Mol, Hans G J; Ritsema, Coen J; Geissen, Violette

    2017-01-01

    Glyphosate is one of the most used herbicides in agricultural lands worldwide. Wind-eroded sediment and dust, as an environmental transport pathway of glyphosate and of its main metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), can result in environmental- and human exposure far beyond the agricultural areas where it has been applied. Therefore, special attention is required to the airborne transport of glyphosate and AMPA. In this study, we investigated the behavior of glyphosate and AMPA in wind-eroded sediment by measuring their content in different size fractions (median diameters between 715 and 8 μm) of a loess soil, during a period of 28 days after glyphosate application. Granulometrical extraction was done using a wind tunnel and a Soil Fine Particle Extractor. Extractions were conducted on days 0, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 after glyphosate application. Results indicated that glyphosate and AMPA contents were significantly higher in the finest particle fractions (median diameters between 8 and 18 μm), and lowered significantly with the increase in particle size. However, their content remained constant when aggregates were present in the sample. Glyphosate and AMPA contents correlated positively with clay, organic matter, and silt content. The dissipation of glyphosate over time was very low, which was most probably due to the low soil moisture content of the sediment. Consequently, the formation of AMPA was also very low. The low dissipation of glyphosate in our study indicates that the risk of glyphosate transport in dry sediment to off-target areas by wind can be very high. The highest glyphosate and AMPA contents were found in the smallest soil fractions (PM10 and less), which are easily inhaled and, therefore, contribute to human exposure.

  12. The Fate and Transport of Glyphosate and AMPA into Surface Waters of Agricultural Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coupe, R.; Kalkhoff, S.; Capel, P.; Gregoire, C.

    2010-12-01

    Glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] is a herbicide used widely throughout the world in the production of many crops, but is particularly heavily used on crops which are genetically modified to be glyphosate tolerant: predominately soybeans, corn, potatoes, and cotton. Glyphosate is used extensively in almost all agricultural areas of the United States, and annual application has increased from less than 10,000 Mg in 1992 to more than 80,000 Mg in 2007. The greatest areal use is in the Midwest where glyphosate is applied on genetically modified corn and soybeans. Although use is increasing, the characterization of glyphosate transport on the watershed scale is lacking. Glyphosate, and its degradate AMPA [aminomethylphosphoric acid], was frequently detected in the surface waters of four agricultural watersheds. The load as a percent of use of glyphosate ranged from 0.009 to 0.86 percent and can be related to three factors: source strength, hydrology, and flowpath. Glyphosate use within a watershed results in some occurrence in surface water at the part per billion level; however watersheds most at risk for the offsite transport of glyphosate are those with high application rates, rainfall that results in overland runoff, and a flowpath that does not include transport through the soil.

  13. Urban contributions of glyphosate and its degradate AMPA to streams in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolpin, D.W.; Thurman, E.M.; Lee, E.A.; Meyer, M.T.; Furlong, E.T.; Glassmeyer, S.T.

    2006-01-01

    Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide in the world, being routinely applied to control weeds in both agricultural and urban settings. Microbial degradation of glyphosate produces aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA). The high polarity and water-solubility of glyphosate and AMPA has, until recently, made their analysis in water samples problematic. Thus, compared to other herbicides (e.g. atrazine) there are relatively few studies on the environmental occurrence of glyphosate and AMPA. In 2002, treated effluent samples were collected from 10 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to study the occurrence of glyphosate and AMPA. Stream samples were collected upstream and downstream of the 10 WWTPs. Two reference streams were also sampled. The results document the apparent contribution of WWTP effluent to stream concentrations of glyphosate and AMPA, with roughly a two-fold increase in their frequencies of detection between stream samples collected upstream and those collected downstream of the WWTPs. Thus, urban use of glyphosate contributes to glyphosate and AMPA concentrations in streams in the United States. Overall, AMPA was detected much more frequently (67.5%) compared to glyphosate (17.5%).

  14. Glyphosate carryover in seed potato: effects on mother crop and daughter tubers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies were conducted in 2008 and 2009 in Aberdeen, ID, Ontario, OR, and Paterson, WA to determine the effect of simulated glyphosate drift on ‘Ranger Russet’ potato during the application year and the crop growing the next year from the daughter tubers. Glyphosate was applied at 8.5, 54, 107...

  15. Assessing the risk of Glyphosate to native plants and weedy Brassicaceae species of North Dakota

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to determine the ecological risk to native plants and weedy Brassicaceae species which may be growing in areas affected by off target movement of glyphosate applied to glyphosate-resistant canola (Brassica napus). Ten native grass and forb species were ...

  16. Root-Zone Glyphosate Exposure Adversely Affects Two Ditch Species

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Lyndsay E.; Koontz, Melissa B.; Pezeshki, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Glyphosate, one of the most applied herbicides globally, has been extensively studied for its effects on non-target organisms. In the field, following precipitation, glyphosate runs off into agricultural ditches where it infiltrates into the soil and thus may encounter the roots of vegetation. These edge-of-field ditches share many characteristics with wetlands, including the ability to reduce loads of anthropogenic chemicals through uptake, transformation, and retention. Different species within the ditches may have a differential sensitivity to exposure of the root zone to glyphosate, contributing to patterns of abundance of ruderal species. The present laboratory experiment investigated whether two species commonly found in agricultural ditches in southcentral United States were affected by root zone glyphosate in a dose-dependent manner, with the objective of identifying a sublethal concentration threshold. The root zone of individuals of Polygonum hydropiperoides and Panicum hemitomon were exposed to four concentrations of glyphosate. Leaf chlorophyll content was measured, and the ratio of aboveground biomass to belowground biomass and survival were quantified. The findings from this study showed that root zone glyphosate exposure negatively affected both species including dose-dependent reductions in chlorophyll content. P. hydropiperdoides showed the greatest negative response, with decreased belowground biomass allocation and total mortality at the highest concentrations tested. PMID:24833234

  17. Influence of soil tillage and erosion on the dispersion of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todorovic, Gorana Rampazzo; Rampazzo, Nicola; Mentler, Axel; Blum, Winfried E. H.; Eder, Alexander; Strauss, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Erosion processes can strongly influence the dissipation of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid applied with Roundup Max® in agricultural soils; in addition, the soil structure state shortly before erosive precipitations fall can be a key parameter for the distribution of glyphosate and its metabolite. Field rain simulation experiments showed that severe erosion processes immediately after application of Roundup Max® can lead to serious unexpected glyphosate loss even in soils with a high presumed adsorption like the Cambisols, if their structure is unfavourable. In one of the no-tillage-plot of the Cambisol, up to 47% of the applied glyphosate amount was dissipated with surface run-off. Moreover, at the Chernozem site with high erosion risk and lower adsorption potential, glyphosate could be found in collected percolation water transported far outside the 2x2 m experimental plots. Traces of glyphosate were found also outside the treated agricultural fields.

  18. Geomatics techniques applied to time series of aerial images for multitemporal geomorphological analysis of the Miage Glacier (Mont Blanc).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perotti, Luigi; Carletti, Roberto; Giardino, Marco; Mortara, Giovanni

    2010-05-01

    The Miage glacier is the major one in the Italian side of the Mont Blanc Massif, the third by area and the first by longitudinal extent among Italian glaciers. It is a typical debris covered glacier, since the end of the L.I.A. The debris coverage reduces ablation, allowing a relative stability of the glacier terminus, which is characterized by a wide and articulated moraine apparatus. For its conservative landforms, the Miage Glacier has a great importance for the analysis of the geomorphological response to recent climatic changes. Thanks to an organized existing archive of multitemporal aerial images (1935 to present) a photogrammetric approach has been applied to detect recent geomorphological changes in the Miage glacial basin. The research team provided: a) to digitize all the available images (still in analogic form) through photogrammetric scanners (very low image distortions devices) taking care of correctly defining the resolution of the acquisition compared to the scale mapping images are suitable for; b) to import digitized images into an appropriate digital photogrammetry software environment; c) to manage images in order, where possible, to carried out the stereo models orientation necessary for 3D navigation and plotting of critical geometric features of the glacier. Recognized geometric feature, referring to different periods, can be transferred to vector layers and imported in a GIS for further comparisons and investigations; d) to produce multi-temporal Digital Elevation Models for glacier volume changes; e) to perform orthoprojection of such images to obtain multitemporal orthoimages useful for areal an planar terrain evaluation and thematic analysis; f) to evaluate both planimetric positioning and height determination accuracies reachable through the photogrammetric process. Users have to known reliability of the measures they can do over such products. This can drive them to define the applicable field of this approach and this can help them to

  19. Mode of Action of Glyphosate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although glyphosate is the most used and studied herbicide in the world, the available information is not enough to fully understand its mode of action. The molecular site of action of glyphosate is the enzyme 5-enolpyruvlyshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). It is the only known compound that ...

  20. Glyphosate resistance: state of knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Sammons, Robert Douglas; Gaines, Todd A

    2014-01-01

    Studies of mechanisms of resistance to glyphosate have increased current understanding of herbicide resistance mechanisms. Thus far, single-codon non-synonymous mutations of EPSPS (5-enolypyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) have been rare and, relative to other herbicide mode of action target-site mutations, unconventionally weak in magnitude for resistance to glyphosate. However, it is possible that weeds will emerge with non-synonymous mutations of two codons of EPSPS to produce an enzyme endowing greater resistance to glyphosate. Today, target-gene duplication is a common glyphosate resistance mechanism and could become a fundamental process for developing any resistance trait. Based on competition and substrate selectivity studies in several species, rapid vacuole sequestration of glyphosate occurs via a transporter mechanism. Conversely, as the chloroplast requires transporters for uptake of important metabolites, transporters associated with the two plastid membranes may separately, or together, successfully block glyphosate delivery. A model based on finite glyphosate dose and limiting time required for chloroplast loading sets the stage for understanding how uniquely different mechanisms can contribute to overall glyphosate resistance. PMID:25180399

  1. Development of Novel Glyphosate-Tolerant Japonica Rice Lines: A Step Toward Commercial Release

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ying; Huang, Shuqing; Liu, Ziduo; Yi, Shuyuan; Zhou, Fei; Chen, Hao; Lin, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide for its low cost and high efficiency. However, it is rarely applied directly in rice field due to its toxicity to rice. Therefore, glyphosate-tolerant rice can greatly decrease the cost of rice production and provide a more effective weed management strategy. Although, several approaches to develop transgenic rice with glyphosate tolerance have been reported, the agronomic performances of these plants have not been well evaluated, and the feasibility of commercial production has not been confirmed yet. Here, a novel glyphosate-tolerant gene cloned from the bacterium Isoptericola variabilis was identified, codon optimized (designated as I. variabilis-EPSPS*), and transferred into Zhonghua11, a widely used japonica rice cultivar. After systematic analysis of the transgene integration via PCR, Southern blot and flanking sequence isolation, three transgenic lines with only one intact I. variabilis-EPSPS* expression cassette integrated into intergenic regions were identified. Seed test results showed that the glyphosate tolerance of the transgenic rice was about 240 times that of wild type on plant medium. The glyphosate tolerance of transgenic rice lines was further evaluated based on comprehensive agronomic performances in the field with T3 and T5generations in a 2-year assay, which showed that they were rarely affected by glyphosate even when the dosage was 8400 g ha−1. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the development of glyphosate-tolerant rice lines based on a comprehensive analysis of agronomic performances in the field. Taken together, the results suggest that the selected glyphosate-tolerant rice lines are highly tolerant to glyphosate and have the possibility of commercial release. I. variabilis-EPSPS* also can be a promising candidate gene in other species for developing glyphosate-tolerant crops. PMID:27625652

  2. Development of Novel Glyphosate-Tolerant Japonica Rice Lines: A Step Toward Commercial Release.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ying; Huang, Shuqing; Liu, Ziduo; Yi, Shuyuan; Zhou, Fei; Chen, Hao; Lin, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide for its low cost and high efficiency. However, it is rarely applied directly in rice field due to its toxicity to rice. Therefore, glyphosate-tolerant rice can greatly decrease the cost of rice production and provide a more effective weed management strategy. Although, several approaches to develop transgenic rice with glyphosate tolerance have been reported, the agronomic performances of these plants have not been well evaluated, and the feasibility of commercial production has not been confirmed yet. Here, a novel glyphosate-tolerant gene cloned from the bacterium Isoptericola variabilis was identified, codon optimized (designated as I. variabilis-EPSPS (*)), and transferred into Zhonghua11, a widely used japonica rice cultivar. After systematic analysis of the transgene integration via PCR, Southern blot and flanking sequence isolation, three transgenic lines with only one intact I. variabilis-EPSPS (*) expression cassette integrated into intergenic regions were identified. Seed test results showed that the glyphosate tolerance of the transgenic rice was about 240 times that of wild type on plant medium. The glyphosate tolerance of transgenic rice lines was further evaluated based on comprehensive agronomic performances in the field with T3 and T5generations in a 2-year assay, which showed that they were rarely affected by glyphosate even when the dosage was 8400 g ha(-1). To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the development of glyphosate-tolerant rice lines based on a comprehensive analysis of agronomic performances in the field. Taken together, the results suggest that the selected glyphosate-tolerant rice lines are highly tolerant to glyphosate and have the possibility of commercial release. I. variabilis-EPSPS (*) also can be a promising candidate gene in other species for developing glyphosate-tolerant crops.

  3. Degradation and Isotope Source Tracking of Glyphosate and Aminomethylphosphonic Acid.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Joshi, Sunendra R; Jaisi, Deb P

    2016-01-27

    Glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine], an active ingredient of the herbicide Roundup, and its main metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), have been frequently reported to be present in soils and other environments and thus have heightened public concerns on their potential adverse effects. Understanding the fate of these compounds and differentiating them from other naturally occurring compounds require a toolbox of methods that can go beyond conventional methods. Here, we applied individual isotope labeling technique whereby each compound or mineral involved in the glyphosate and AMPA degradation reaction was either synthesized or chosen to have distinct (18)O/(16)O ratios so that the source of incorporated oxygen in the orthophosphate generated and corresponding isotope effect during C-P bond cleavage could be identified. Furthermore, we measured original isotope signatures of a few commercial glyphosate sources to identify their source-specific isotope signatures. Our degradation kinetics results showed that the rate of glyphosate degradation was higher than that of AMPA in all experimental conditions, and both the rate and extent of degradation were lowest under anoxic conditions. Oxygen isotope ratios (δ(18)OP) of orthophosphate generated from glyphosate and AMPA degradation suggested that one external oxygen atom from ambient water, not from dissolved oxygen or mineral, was incorporated into orthophosphate with the other three oxygen atoms inherited from the parent molecule. Interestingly, δ(18)OP values of all commercial glyphosate products studied were found to be the lightest among all orthophosphates known so far. Furthermore, isotope composition was found to be unaffected due to variable degradation kinetics, light/dark, and oxic/anoxic conditions. These results highlight the importance of phosphate oxygen isotope ratios as a nonconventional tool to potentially distinguish glyphosate sources and products from other organophosphorus compounds

  4. Glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid chronic risk assessment for soil biota.

    PubMed

    von Mérey, Georg; Manson, Philip S; Mehrsheikh, Akbar; Sutton, Peter; Levine, Steven L

    2016-11-01

    Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide used widely in agriculture, horticulture, private gardens, and public infrastructure, where it is applied to areas such as roadsides, railway tracks, and parks to control the growth of weeds. The exposure risk from glyphosate and the primary soil metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) on representative species of earthworms, springtails, and predatory soil mites and the effects on nitrogen-transformation processes by soil microorganisms were assessed under laboratory conditions based on internationally recognized guidelines. For earthworms, the reproductive no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) was 472.8 mg glyphosate acid equivalent (a.e.)/kg dry soil, which was the highest concentration tested, and 198.1 mg/kg dry soil for AMPA. For predatory mites, the reproductive NOEC was 472.8 mg a.e./kg dry soil for glyphosate and 320 mg/kg dry soil for AMPA, the highest concentrations tested. For springtails, the reproductive NOEC was 472.8 mg a.e./kg dry soil for glyphosate and 315 mg/kg dry soil for AMPA, the highest concentrations tested. Soil nitrogen-transformation processes were unaffected by glyphosate and AMPA at 33.1 mg a.e./kg soil and 160 mg/kg soil, respectively. Comparison of these endpoints with worst-case soil concentrations expected for glyphosate (6.62 mg a.e./kg dry soil) and AMPA (6.18 mg/kg dry soil) for annual applications at the highest annual rate of 4.32 kg a.e./ha indicate very low likelihood of adverse effects on soil biota. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2742-2752. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.

  5. Studies on degradation of glyphosate by several oxidative chemical processes: ozonation, photolysis and heterogeneous photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Assalin, Marcia R; De Moraes, Sandra G; Queiroz, Sonia C N; Ferracini, Vera L; Duran, Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Several different Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) including ozonation at pH 6.5 and 10, photolysis and heterogeneous photocatalysis using TiO(2) as semiconductor and dissolved oxygen as electron acceptor were applied to study the degradation of glyphosate (N-phosphonomethyl glycine) in water. The degree of glyphosate degradation, the reactions kinetic and the formation of the major metabolite, aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA), were evaluated. Ozonation at pH 10 resulted in the maximum mineralization of glyphosate. It was observed that under the experimental conditions used in this study the degradation of glyphosate followed the first-order kinetics. The half-life obtained for glyphosate degradation in the O(3)/pH 10 process was 1.8 minutes.

  6. Glyphosate Can Decrease Germination of Glyphosate-Resistant Soybeans.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Marcelo Pedrosa; Bicalho, Elisa Monteze; Smedbol, Élise; Cruz, Fernanda Vieira da Silva; Lucotte, Marc; Garcia, Queila Souza

    2017-03-22

    We investigated the effects of different concentrations of glyphosate acid and one of its formulations (Roundup) on seed germination of two glyphosate-resistant (GR) and one non-GR variety of soybean. As expected, the herbicide affected the shikimate pathway in non-GR seeds but not in GR seeds. We observed that glyphosate can disturb the mitochondrial electron transport chain, leading to H2O2 accumulation in soybean seeds, which was, in turn, related to lower seed germination. In addition, GR seeds showed increased activity of antioxidant systems when compared to non-GR seeds, making them less vulnerable to oxidative stress induced by glyphosate. The differences in the responses of GR varieties to glyphosate exposure corresponded to their differences in enzymatic activity related to H2O2 scavenging and mitochondrial complex III (the proposed site of ROS induction by glyphosate). Our results showed that glyphosate ought to be used carefully as a pre-emergence herbicide in soybean field crop systems because this practice may reduce seed germination.

  7. Early detection of crop injury from herbicide glyphosate by leaf biochemical parameter inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Feng; Guo, Yiqing; Huang, Yanbo; Reddy, Krishna N.; Lee, Matthew A.; Fletcher, Reginald S.; Thomson, Steven J.

    2014-09-01

    Early detection of crop injury from herbicide glyphosate is of significant importance in crop management. In this paper, we attempt to detect glyphosate-induced crop injury by PROSPECT (leaf optical PROperty SPECTra model) inversion through leaf hyperspectral reflectance measurements for non-Glyphosate-Resistant (non-GR) soybean and non-GR cotton leaves. The PROSPECT model was inverted to retrieve chlorophyll content (Ca+b), equivalent water thickness (Cw), and leaf mass per area (Cm) from leaf hyperspectral reflectance spectra. The leaf stress conditions were then evaluated by examining the temporal variations of these biochemical constituents after glyphosate treatment. The approach was validated with greenhouse-measured datasets. Results indicated that the leaf injury caused by glyphosate treatments could be detected shortly after the spraying for both soybean and cotton by PROSPECT inversion, with Ca+b of the leaves treated with high dose solution decreasing more rapidly compared with leaves left untreated, whereas the Cw and Cm showed no obvious difference between treated and untreated leaves. For both non-GR soybean and non-GR cotton, the retrieved Ca+b values of the glyphosate treated plants from leaf hyperspectral data could be distinguished from that of the untreated plants within 48 h after the treatment, which could be employed as a useful indicator for glyphosate injury detection. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of applying the PROSPECT inversion technique for the early detection of leaf injury from glyphosate and its potential for agricultural plant status monitoring.

  8. Effects of Spray Mixtures on Droplet Size Under Aerial Application Conditions and Implications on Drift

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    PowerMax solution was selected due to several glyphosate ‐ based herbicide drift incidences. The Water + NIS and EC Blank solutions were selected based on...of downwind deposition at similar airspeeds from the different formulations. Downwind deposition modeling based on a simulated multi‐pass spray...Keywords. Aerial application, Glyphosate , Spray adjuvant, Droplet size, Spray drift, AGDISP. pray drift, which the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA

  9. Herbicide-resistant weed management: focus on glyphosate.

    PubMed

    Beckie, Hugh J

    2011-09-01

    This review focuses on proactive and reactive management of glyphosate-resistant (GR) weeds. Glyphosate resistance in weeds has evolved under recurrent glyphosate usage, with little or no diversity in weed management practices. The main herbicide strategy for proactively or reactively managing GR weeds is to supplement glyphosate with herbicides of alternative modes of action and with soil-residual activity. These herbicides can be applied in sequences or mixtures. Proactive or reactive GR weed management can be aided by crop cultivars with alternative single or stacked herbicide-resistance traits, which will become increasingly available to growers in the future. Many growers with GR weeds continue to use glyphosate because of its economical broad-spectrum weed control. Government farm policies, pesticide regulatory policies and industry actions should encourage growers to adopt a more proactive approach to GR weed management by providing the best information and training on management practices, information on the benefits of proactive management and voluntary incentives, as appropriate. Results from recent surveys in the United States indicate that such a change in grower attitudes may be occurring because of enhanced awareness of the benefits of proactive management and the relative cost of the reactive management of GR weeds.

  10. Yield of glyphosate-resistant sugar beets and efficiency of weed management systems with glyphosate and conventional herbicides under German and Polish crop production.

    PubMed

    Nichterlein, Henrike; Matzk, Anja; Kordas, Leszek; Kraus, Josef; Stibbe, Carsten

    2013-08-01

    In sugar beet production, weed control is one of the most important and most expensive practices to ensure yield. Since glyphosate-resistant sugar beets are not yet approved for cultivation in the EU, little commercial experience exists with these sugar beets in Europe. Experimental field trials were conducted at five environments (Germany, Poland, 2010, 2011) to compare the effects of glyphosate with the effects of conventional weed control programs on the development of weeds, weed control efficiency and yield. The results show that the glyphosate weed control programs compared to the conventional methods decreased not only the number of herbicide applications but equally in magnitude decreased the dosage of active ingredients. The results also showed effective weed control with glyphosate when the weed covering was greater and sugar beets had a later growth stage of four true leaves. Glyphosate-resistant sugar beets applied with the glyphosate herbicide two or three times had an increase in white sugar yield from 4 to 18 % in comparison to the high dosage conventional herbicide systems. In summary, under glyphosate management sugar beets can positively contribute to the increasingly demanding requirements regarding efficient sugar beet cultivation and to the demands by society and politics to reduce the use of chemical plant protection products in the environment.

  11. Effect of foliar treatments on distribution of /sup 14/C-glyphosate in Convolvulus arvensis L

    SciTech Connect

    Lauridson, T.C.

    1986-01-01

    Field bindweed is a perennial weed which produces shoots from buds on its roots. Herbicides, such as glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) used for control of field bindweed usually do not kill all shoot buds on the roots, thus field bindweed often reinfests areas within 3 to 6 weeks of treatment. This dissertation deals with the development of a technique to change glyphosate distribution in field bindweed roots and could result in less shoot regrowth after glyphosate application. In field studies eight plant growth regulators were applied in September, 3 days before 2.24 kg/ha of 2.4-D((2,4-dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid) or 1.68 kg/ha of glyphosate. Eight months later, regrowth of shoots was least where glyphosate was applied at 0.028 kg/ha as a pretreatment, followed by a standard rate of 1.68 kg/ha. In subsequent greenhouse studies, typical patterns of shoot growth and /sup 14/C-glyphosate distribution in isolated root sections taken from 15-week-old intact plants were determined. In subsequent growth chamber studies, plants were decapitated to observe the effect of shoot apical dominance on /sup 14/C-glyphosate translocation. After /sup 14/C-glyphosate was applied, intact plants had about twice as much /sup 14/C in distal root sections as in proximal or middle root sections. Decapitated plants had more /sup 14/C in proximal and middle root sections than in distal sections, and about twice as much /sup 14/C was translocated to roots of decapitated plants than intact plants. Eight concentrations of 2,4,-D or glyphosate from 1 to 5000 ppm were applied in logarithmic series to 6-week old plants.

  12. Glyphosate affects the spontaneous motoric activity of intestine at very low doses - in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Chłopecka, Magdalena; Mendel, Marta; Dziekan, Natalia; Karlik, Wojciech

    2014-07-01

    Glyphosate is an active substance of the most popular herbicides worldwide. Its common use results from the belief that it affects exclusively plants. However, studies on glyphosate and its trade formulations reveal that it causes numerous morphological, physiological and biochemical disturbances in cells and organisms of animals, including mammals. Due to the fact that shortly after oral exposure glyphosate is detected in the highest amount in small intestine, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of this compound on the spontaneous motoric activity of intestine under in vitro conditions. The experiments were conducted on rat jejunum strips under isotonic conditions. The strips were incubated in buffered (pH 7.35) and non-buffered (pH 5.2) glyphosate solutions ranged from 0.003 to 1.7 g/L. The results indicate that glyphosate applied in buffered solution affects significantly the spontaneous motoric activity of rat isolated jejunum strips. The muscle response is biphasic (miorelaxation accompanied by contraction). The contraction is observed already at a dose of 0.003 g/L and the first significant biphasic reaction at a dose of 0.014 g/L. The incubation of jejunum strips with glyphosate in non-buffered solution (pH 5.2) results in a different reaction. The smooth muscle undergoes only persistent relaxation, which is stronger than the response to glyphosate solution in pH 7.35. Motility disturbances are also observed after glyphosate removal from the incubation solution. The gathered data suggests that glyphosate impairs gastrointestinal strips' motility at concentration that are noticed in human exposed to non-toxic doses of glyphosate.

  13. Compositional analysis of glyphosate-tolerant soybeans treated with glyphosate.

    PubMed

    Taylor, N B; Fuchs, R L; MacDonald, J; Shariff, A R; Padgette, S R

    1999-10-01

    The compositional analyses and safety assessment of glyphosate-tolerant soybeans (GTS) were previously described. These analyses were extensive and included addressing the potential effects on seed composition from the genetic modification. Detailed compositional analyses established that GTS, which had not been treated with glyphosate, were comparable to the parental soybean line and to other conventional soybeans. In this study, two GTS lines, 40-3-2 and 61-67-1, were treated with commercial levels of glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup herbicide. The composition of the seed from soybeans sprayed with glyphosate was compared to that of a nonsprayed parental control cultivar, A5403. The nutrients measured in the seed included protein, oil, ash, fiber, carbohydrates, and amino acids. The concentration of isoflavones (also referred to as phytoestrogens) was also measured as these compounds are derived from the same biochemical pathway that was engineered for glyphosate tolerance. The analytical results from these studies demonstrate that the GTS soybeans treated with glyphosate were comparable to the parental soybean cultivar, A5403, and other conventional soybean varieties.

  14. Monitoring glyphosate residues in transgenic glyphosate-resistant soybean.

    PubMed

    Arregui, María C; Lenardón, Argelia; Sanchez, Daniel; Maitre, María I; Scotta, Roberto; Enrique, Susana

    2004-02-01

    The availability of Roundup Ready (RR) varieties of soybean has increased the use of glyphosate for weed control in Argentina. Glyphosate [(N-phosphonomethyl)glycine] is employed for the eradication of previous crop vegetation and for weed control during the soybean growing cycle. Its action is effective, and low environmental impact has been reported so far. No residues have been observed in soil or water, either of glyphosate or its metabolite, AMPA (aminomethylphosphonic acid). The objective of this work was to monitor glyphosate and AMPA residues in soybean plants and grains in field crops in Santa Fe Province, Argentina. Five sites were monitored in 1997, 1998 and 1999. Individual soybean plants were sampled from emergence to harvest, dried and ground. Analysis consisted in residue extraction with organic solvents and buffers, agitation, centrifugation, clean-up and HPLC with UV detection. In soybean leaves and stems, glyphosate residues ranged from 1.9 to 4.4 mg kg(-1) and from 0.1 to 1.8 mg kg(-1) in grains. Higher concentrations were detected when glyphosate was sprayed several times during the crop cycle, and when treatments approached the flowering stage. AMPA residues were also detected in leaves and in grains, indicating metabolism of the herbicide.

  15. Aerial Explorers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg; Ippolito, Corey

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents recent results from a mission architecture study of planetary aerial explorers. In this study, several mission scenarios were developed in simulation and evaluated on success in meeting mission goals. This aerial explorer mission architecture study is unique in comparison with previous Mars airplane research activities. The study examines how aerial vehicles can find and gain access to otherwise inaccessible terrain features of interest. The aerial explorer also engages in a high-level of (indirect) surface interaction, despite not typically being able to takeoff and land or to engage in multiple flights/sorties. To achieve this goal, a new mission paradigm is proposed: aerial explorers should be considered as an additional element in the overall Entry, Descent, Landing System (EDLS) process. Further, aerial vehicles should be considered primarily as carrier/utility platforms whose purpose is to deliver air-deployed sensors and robotic devices, or symbiotes, to those high-value terrain features of interest.

  16. Effects of glyphosate and foliar amendments on activity of microorganisms in the soybean rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Means, Nathan E; Kremer, Robert J; Ramsier, Clifford

    2007-02-01

    A field study was conducted to determine the effects of glyphosate on microbial activity in the rhizosphere of glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybean and to evaluate interactions with foliar amendments. Glyphosate at 0.84 kg ae ha(-1) was applied GR soybean at the V4-V5 development stages. Check treatments included a conventional herbicide tank mix (2003 study only) and no herbicides (hand-weeded). Ten days after herbicide application, a commercially available biostimulant and a urea solution (21.0% N) were applied to soybean foliage at 33.5 mL ha(-1) and 9.2 kg ha(-1), respectively. Soil and plant samples were taken 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days after herbicide application then assayed for enzyme and respiration activities. Soil respiration and enzyme activity increased with glyphosate and foliar amendment applications during the 2002 growing season; however, similar increases were not observed in 2003. Contrasting cumulative rainfall between 2002 and 2003 likely accounted for differences in soil microbial activities. Increases in soil microbial activity in 2002 suggest that adequate soil water and glyphosate application acted together to increase microbial activity. Our study suggests that general soil microbial properties including those involving C and N transformations are not sensitive enough to detect effects of glyphosate on rhizosphere microbial activity. Measurements of soil-plant-microbe relationships including specific microbial groups (i.e., root-associated Fusarium spp.) are likely better indicators of impacts of glyphosate on soil microbial ecology.

  17. 75 FR 24969 - Glyphosate From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Glyphosate From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of... gives notice that its antidumping investigation concerning glyphosate from China (investigation No....

  18. THE REMOVAL OF GLYPHOSATE FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effectiveness of granulated activated carbon (GAC), packed activated carbon (PAC), conventional treatment, membranes, and oxidation for removing glyphosate from natural waters is evaluated. Results indicate that GAC and PAC are not effective in removing glyphosate, while oxid...

  19. Short-term transport of glyphosate with erosion in Chinese loess soil--a flume experiment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaomei; Wang, Fei; Bento, Célia P M; Xue, Sha; Gai, Lingtong; van Dam, Ruud; Mol, Hans; Ritsema, Coen J; Geissen, Violette

    2015-04-15

    Repeated applications of glyphosate may contaminate the soil and water and threaten their quality both within the environmental system and beyond it through water erosion related processes and leaching. In this study, we focused on the transport of glyphosate and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) related to soil erosion at two slope gradients (10 and 20°), two rates of pesticide with a formulation of glyphosate (Roundup®) application (360 and 720 mg m(-2)), and a rain intensity of 1.0 mm min(-1) for 1 h on bare soil in hydraulic flumes. Runoff and erosion rate were significantly different within slope gradients (p<0.05) while suspended load concentration was relatively constant after 15 min of rainfall. The glyphosate and AMPA concentration in the runoff and suspended load gradually decreased. Significant power and exponent function relationship were observed between rainfall duration and the concentration of glyphosate and AMPA (p<0.01) in runoff and suspended load, respectively. Meanwhile, glyphosate and AMPA content in the eroded material depended more on the initial rate of application than on the slope gradients. The transport rate of glyphosate by runoff and suspended load was approximately 14% of the applied amount, and the chemicals were mainly transported in the suspended load. The glyphosate and AMPA content in the flume soil at the end of the experiment decreased significantly with depth (p<0.05), and approximately 72, 2, and 3% of the applied glyphosate (including AMPA) remained in the 0-2, 2-5, and 5-10 cm soil layers, respectively. The risk of contamination in deep soil and the groundwater was thus low, but 5% of the initial application did reach the 2-10 cm soil layer. The risk of contamination of surface water through runoff and sedimentation, however, can be considerable, especially in regions where rain-induced soil erosion is common.

  20. Cancer incidence among glyphosate-exposed pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.

    PubMed

    De Roos, Anneclaire J; Blair, Aaron; Rusiecki, Jennifer A; Hoppin, Jane A; Svec, Megan; Dosemeci, Mustafa; Sandler, Dale P; Alavanja, Michael C

    2005-01-01

    Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide that is one of the most frequently applied pesticides in the world. Although there has been little consistent evidence of genotoxicity or carcinogenicity from in vitro and animal studies, a few epidemiologic reports have indicated potential health effects of glyphosate. We evaluated associations between glyphosate exposure and cancer incidence in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort study of 57,311 licensed pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina. Detailed information on pesticide use and other factors was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire completed at time of enrollment (1993-1997). Among private and commercial applicators, 75.5% reported having ever used glyphosate, of which > 97% were men. In this analysis, glyphosate exposure was defined as a) ever personally mixed or applied products containing glyphosate; b) cumulative lifetime days of use, or "cumulative exposure days" (years of use times days/year); and c) intensity-weighted cumulative exposure days (years of use times days/year times estimated intensity level). Poisson regression was used to estimate exposure-response relations between glyphosate and incidence of all cancers combined and 12 relatively common cancer subtypes. Glyphosate exposure was not associated with cancer incidence overall or with most of the cancer subtypes we studied. There was a suggested association with multiple myeloma incidence that should be followed up as more cases occur in the AHS. Given the widespread use of glyphosate, future analyses of the AHS will allow further examination of long-term health effects, including less common cancers.

  1. Cancer Incidence among Glyphosate-Exposed Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Blair, Aaron; Rusiecki, Jennifer A.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Svec, Megan; Dosemeci, Mustafa; Sandler, Dale P.; Alavanja, Michael C.

    2005-01-01

    Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide that is one of the most frequently applied pesticides in the world. Although there has been little consistent evidence of genotoxicity or carcinogenicity from in vitro and animal studies, a few epidemiologic reports have indicated potential health effects of glyphosate. We evaluated associations between glyphosate exposure and cancer incidence in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort study of 57,311 licensed pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina. Detailed information on pesticide use and other factors was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire completed at time of enrollment (1993–1997). Among private and commercial applicators, 75.5% reported having ever used glyphosate, of which > 97% were men. In this analysis, glyphosate exposure was defined as a) ever personally mixed or applied products containing glyphosate; b) cumulative lifetime days of use, or “cumulative exposure days” (years of use × days/year); and c) intensity-weighted cumulative exposure days (years of use × days/year × estimated intensity level). Poisson regression was used to estimate exposure–response relations between glyphosate and incidence of all cancers combined and 12 relatively common cancer subtypes. Glyphosate exposure was not associated with cancer incidence overall or with most of the cancer subtypes we studied. There was a suggested association with multiple myeloma incidence that should be followed up as more cases occur in the AHS. Given the widespread use of glyphosate, future analyses of the AHS will allow further examination of long-term health effects, including less common cancers. PMID:15626647

  2. The Fate and Transport of Glyphosate and its Degradation Product, Aminomethylphosphonic Acid (AMPA), in Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scribner, E.; Meyer, M. T.

    2006-05-01

    Since 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has investigated the fate and transport of glyphosate and its degradation product, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), in surface water, and more recently in tile-drain flow, soil, and wet deposition. According to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sources, glyphosate is among the world's most widely used herbicides. In 2004, glyphosate usage estimates indicated that between 103 and 113 million pounds were applied annually to crops in the United States. The use of glyphosate over a wide geographic area suggests that this herbicide might be a potential concern for air, water, and soil quality as well as measured in high concentrations in streams; therefore, it is important to monitor its fate and transport in ground-water/surface-water systems. National, regional, and field-scale studies conducted by the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment and Toxic Substance Hydrology Programs have studied the fate and transport of glyphosate in overland flow, tile- drain flow, surface water, soil, and wet-deposition samples. The samples were analyzed for glyphosate and AMPA by using derivatization and online solid-phase extraction with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and LC/MS/MS methods developed by the USGS Organic Geochemistry Research Laboratory in Lawrence, Kansas. During spring, summer, and fall 2002 runoff periods in 50 Midwestern streams, glyphosate was detected at or above the 0.10 micrograms per liter detection limit in 35, 41, and 31 percent of samples, respectively. AMPA was detected in 53, 82, and 75 percent of samples, respectively. Results of 128 samples from a field study showed that glyphosate was transported as a narrow high- concentration pulse during the first period of runoff after application and that the concentration of glyphosate in runoff was greater than the concentration of AMPA. In tile-drain flow, glyphosate and AMPA were transported in a broad low-concentration pulse during these same

  3. 78 FR 60707 - Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... herbicide glyphosate in or on canola, seed at 20 parts per million (ppm) by changing the tolerance... be amended by changing the tolerance expression for residues of the herbicide glyphosate in or on... herbicide glyphosate in or on canola, seed at 20 ppm by redesignating it from 40 CFR 180.364(a)(1),...

  4. Ecological risk assessment for aquatic organisms from over-water uses of glyphosate.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Keith R; Thompson, Dean G

    2003-01-01

    this surfactant presents an insignificant acute risk to aquatic organisms. Assuming similar applications rates, significant ecological effects would not be expected from the use of some other surfactants such as Induce or X-77. Risks from the use of glyphosate +MON 0818 (Roundup) were slightly greater than those from glyphosate and surfactants such as LI 700; however, in over-water uses, risks were still considered small. Similar small risks were observed for measured concentrations of glyphosate in surface waters resulting from aerial application of Vision (a formulation equivalent to Roundup) to forestry areas in Canada. Concentrations measured after ground application presented a greater risk, but the data were sparse and the assessment is more uncertain.

  5. Occurrence and fate of the herbicide glyphosate and its degradate aminomethylphosphonic acid in the atmosphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chang, Feng-Chih; Simcik, M.F.; Capel, P.D.

    2011-01-01

    This is the first report on the ambient levels of glyphosate, the most widely used herbicide in the United States, and its major degradation product, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), in air and rain. Concurrent, weekly integrated air particle and rain samples were collected during two growing seasons in agricultural areas in Mississippi and Iowa. Rain was also collected in Indiana in a preliminary phase of the study. The frequency of glyphosate detection ranged from 60 to 100% in both air and rain. The concentrations of glyphosate ranged from 3 and from <0.1 to 2.5 µg/L in air and rain samples, respectively. The frequency of detection and median and maximum concentrations of glyphosate in air were similar or greater to those of the other high-use herbicides observed in the Mississippi River basin, whereas its concentration in rain was greater than the other herbicides. It is not known what percentage of the applied glyphosate is introduced into the air, but it was estimated that up to 0.7% of application is removed from the air in rainfall. Glyphosate is efficiently removed from the air; it is estimated that an average of 97% of the glyphosate in the air is removed by a weekly rainfall ≥30 mm.

  6. Occurrence and fate of the herbicide glyphosate and its degradate aminomethylphosphonic acid in the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Chang, Feng-chih; Simcik, Matt F; Capel, Paul D

    2011-03-01

    This is the first report on the ambient levels of glyphosate, the most widely used herbicide in the United States, and its major degradation product, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), in air and rain. Concurrent, weekly integrated air particle and rain samples were collected during two growing seasons in agricultural areas in Mississippi and Iowa. Rain was also collected in Indiana in a preliminary phase of the study. The frequency of glyphosate detection ranged from 60 to 100% in both air and rain. The concentrations of glyphosate ranged from <0.01 to 9.1 ng/m(3) and from <0.1 to 2.5 µg/L in air and rain samples, respectively. The frequency of detection and median and maximum concentrations of glyphosate in air were similar or greater to those of the other high-use herbicides observed in the Mississippi River basin, whereas its concentration in rain was greater than the other herbicides. It is not known what percentage of the applied glyphosate is introduced into the air, but it was estimated that up to 0.7% of application is removed from the air in rainfall. Glyphosate is efficiently removed from the air; it is estimated that an average of 97% of the glyphosate in the air is removed by a weekly rainfall ≥ 30 mm.

  7. Losses of glyphosate and AMPA via drainflow in a typical Belgian residential area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ting; Boënne, Wesley; van Griensven, Ann; Seuntjens, Piet; Bronders, Jan; Desmet, Nele

    2014-05-01

    Urban hard surfaces are considered as important facilitators for pesticide transport into urban streams. To obtain concurrent high-resolution data for a detailed investigation on the losses of pesticide runoff from hard surfaces, a monitoring campaign was performed in a typical Belgian residential area (9.5 ha) between 7 May and 7 August, 2013. The campaign yielded a concurrent dataset of rainfall (1-mm rainfall interval), discharge (1-min interval), glyphosate application by the residents and the occurrences of glyphosate and its major degradation product - aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in the separated storm drainage outflow during 12 rainfall events. In addition, detailed information was obtained on the spatial characteristics of the study area. The resulting dataset allows us to investigate the relevance of catchment hydrology, urban surface properties and pesticide application to the transport and losses of glyphosate in a residential environment. During the campaign, glyphosate was only applied by local residents, mainly on their private driveways. As a result of their continuous use, both glyphosate and AMPA were detected in all analysed outflow samples, with maximum concentrations of 6.1 μg/L and 5.8 μg/L, respectively. Overall, the storm drainage system collected 0.43% of the applied amount of glyphosate. However, this loss rate varied considerably among rainfall events, ranging from 0.04% to 23.36%. According to statistical analysis of the 12 rainfall events, the loss rate was significantly correlated with three factors: the application amount prior to a rainfall event (p < 0.005), rainfall amount during the event (p < 0.02) and the weighted lag time between glyphosate application and the start of the rainfall event (negatively, p < 0.05). A regression analysis showed that these three factors can explain more than 85% of the variation in the loss rate of glyphosate. Furthermore, three types of glyphosate runoff were classified by a clustering

  8. Glyphosate-resistant and conventional canola (Brassica napus L.) responses to glyphosate and Aminomethylphosphonic Acid (AMPA) treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glyphosate-resistant (GR) canola expresses two transgenes: 1) the microbial glyphosate oxidase gene (gox) encoding the glyphosate oxidase enzyme (GOX) that metabolizes glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and 2) cp4 that encodes a GR form of the glyphosate target enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshiki...

  9. Factors affecting the fate and transport of glyphosate and AMPA into surface waters of agricultural watersheds in the United States and Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coupe, R.; Kalkhoff, S.; Capel, P.; Gregoire, C.

    2012-04-01

    Glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] is a herbicide used extensively in almost all agricultural and urban areas of the United States and Europe. Although, glyphosate is used widely throughout the world in the production of many crops, it is predominately used in the United States on soybeans, corn, potatoes, and cotton that have been genetically modified to be tolerant to glyphosate. From 1992 to 2007, the agricultural use of glyphosate has increased from less than 10,000 Mg to more than 80,000 Mg, respectively. The greatest areal use is in the midwestern United States where glyphosate is applied on transgenic corn and soybeans. Because of the difficulty and expense in analyzing for glyphosate and AMPA (aminomethylphosphonic acid, a primary glyphosate degradate) in water, there have been only small scale studies on the fate and transport of glyphosate. The characterization of the transport of glyphosate and AMPA on a watershed scale is lacking. Glyphosate and AMPA were frequently detected in the surface waters of 4 agricultural watersheds in studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in the United States and at the Laboratory of Hydrology and Geochemistry of Strasbourg. Two of these basins were located in the midwestern United States where the major crops are corn and soybean, the third is located the lower Mississippi River Basin where the major crops are soybean, corn, rice, and cotton, and the fourth was located near Strasbourg, France where the use of glyphosate was on a vineyard. The load as a percent of use ranged from 0.009 to 0.86 percent and could be related to 3 factors: source strength, hydrology, and flowpath. Glyphosate use in a watershed results in some occurrence in surface water at the part per billion level; however, those watersheds most at risk for the offsite transport of glyphosate are those with high application rates, rainfall that results in overland runoff, and a flowpath that does not include transport through the soil.

  10. Changes in ultrastructure and expression of steroidogenic factor-1 in ovaries of zebrafish Danio rerio exposed to glyphosate.

    PubMed

    Armiliato, Neide; Ammar, Dib; Nezzi, Luciane; Straliotto, Marcos; Muller, Yara M R; Nazari, Evelise M

    2014-01-01

    Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum organophosphate (OP) herbicide, highly soluble in water, and when applied in terrestrial systems it penetrates into soil, eventually reaching the aquatic community and affecting nontarget organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of glyphosate on ovaries of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Ovaries (n = 18 per triplicate) were exposed to 65 μg/L of glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine] for 15 d. This concentration was determined according to Resolution 357/2005/CONAMA/Brazil, which establishes the permissible concentration of glyphosate in Brazilian inland waters. Nonexposed ovaries (n = 18 per triplicate) were used as control. Subsequently, morphology and expression of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) of exposed and nonexposed ovaries was determined. No apparent changes were noted in general morphology of exposed and nonexposed ovaries. However, a significant increase in diameter of oocytes was observed after exposure to glyphosate. When ovarian ultrastructure was examined the presence of concentric membranes, appearing as myelin-like structures, associated with the external membranes of mitochondria and with yolk granules was found. After glyphosate exposure, immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting revealed greater expression of SF-1 in the oocytes, which suggests a relationship between oocyte growth and SF-1 expression. These subtle adverse effects of glyphosate on oocytes raised a potential concern for fish reproduction. These results contribute to understanding glyphosate-induced toxicity to nontarget organisms, showing subcellular and molecular impairments that may affect reproduction in +female fish.

  11. Efficacy of glyphosate and five surfactants for controlling giant salvinia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fairchild, J.F.; Allert, A.L.; Riddle, J.S.; Gladwin, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    Giant salvinia (Salvinia molesta Mitchell) is a non-native, invasive aquatic fern that was recently introduced to the southern United States. The aggressive nature of the species has led to concerns over its potential adverse impacts to native plants, fish, and invertebrates. We conducted a study to determine the efficacy of glyphosate [isopropylamine salt of N-(phosphono-methyl)glycine] and several surfactants for control of giant salvinia. Studies were conducted over a 42-day period using static renewals (twice weekly) with 4% Hoagland's medium (10 mg/L N equivalent) in replicated 2-L containers. Five concentrations of glyphosate (0, 0.45, 0.91, 1.82, and 3.60% v:v) and five surfactants (0.25% concentration, v:v; Optima???, Kinetic???, Mon 0818???, Cygnet Plus???, and LI-700???) were applied with a pressurized sprayer as a single surface application in a fully nested experimental design. Untreated giant salvinia grew rapidly and exhibited an increase of 800% wet weight biomass over the 42-day test duration. Glyphosate, with and without surfactants, exhibited efficacy at concentrations as low as 0.45% of the commercial formulation. Glyphosate with Optima was the only mixture that resulted in complete mortality of plants with no regrowth.

  12. Glyphosate catabolism by Pseudomonas sp

    SciTech Connect

    Shinabarger, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The pathway for the degradation of glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 has been determined using metabolic radiolabeling experiments. Radiorespirometry experiments utilizing (3-/sup 14/C) glyphosate revealed that approximately 50-59% of the C3 carbon was oxidized to CO/sub 2/. Fractionation of stationary phase cells labeled with (3-/sup 14/C)glyphosate revealed that from 45-47% of the assimilated C3 carbon is distributed to proteins and that amino acids methionine and serine are highly labeled. The nucleic acid bases adenine and guanine received 90% of the C3 label that was incorporated into nucleic acids, and the only pyrimidine base labeled was thymine. Pulse labeling of PG2982 cells with (3-/sup 14/C)glyphosate revealed that (3-/sup 14/C)sarcosine is an intermediate in glyphosate degradation. Examination of crude extracts prepared from PG2982 cells revealed the presence of an enzyme that oxidizes sarcosine to glycine and formaldehyde. These results indicate that the first step in glyphosate degradation by PG2982 is cleavage of the carbon-phosphorus bond, resulting in the release of sarcosine and a phosphate group. The phosphate group is utilized as a source of phosphorus, and the sarcosine is degraded to glycine and formaldehyde. Phosphonate utilization by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 was investigated. Each of the ten phosphonates tested were utilized as a sole source of phosphorus by PG2982. Representative compounds tested included alkylphosphonates, 1-amino-substituted alkylphosphonates, amino-terminal phosphonates, and an arylphosphonate. PG2982 cultures degraded phenylphosphonate to benzene and produced methane from methylphosphonate. The data indicate that PG2982 is capable of cleaving the carbon-phosphorus bond of several structurally different phosphonates.

  13. Glyphosate distribution in loess soils as a result of dynamic sediment transport processes during a simulated rainstorm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Commelin, Meindert; Martins Bento, Celia; Baartman, Jantiene; Geissen, Violette

    2016-04-01

    Glyphosate is one of the most widely used herbicides in the world. The wide and extensive use of glyphosate makes it important to be certain about the safety of glyphosate to off-target environments and organisms. This research aims to create more detailed insight into the distribution processes of glyphosate, and the effect that dynamic sediment transport processes have on this distribution, during water erosion in agricultural fields. Glyphosate distribution characteristics are investigated for two different soil surfaces: a smooth surface, and a surface with seeding lines on the contour. The capacity to transport glyphosate for different sediment groups was investigated. These groups were water-eroded sediment and sedimentation areas found on the plot surface. The contribution of particle bonded and dissolved transport to total overland transportation of glyphosate was analysed with a mass balance study. The experiment was conducted in the Wageningen UR rainfall simulator. Plots of 0.5m2 were used, with a 5% slope, and a total of six experimental simulations were done. A rainfall event with an intensity of 30mm/h was simulated, applied in four showers of 15 minutes each with 30 minutes pause in between. Glyphosate (16mg/kg) was applied on the top 20cm of each plot, and in the downstream part, soil samples were taken. Glyphosate analysis was done using HPLC-MS/MS (High Performance Liquid Chromatography tandem Mass Spectrometry). Besides that, photo analysis with eCognition was used to derive the soil surface per sediment group. The results show that particle bonded transport of glyphosate contributes significantly (for at least 25%) to glyphosate transport during a rainstorm event. Particle size and organic matter have a large influence on the mobility of glyphosate and on the transported quantity to off-target areas. Moreover, seeding lines on the soil surface decreased total overland transport, both of sediment and glyphosate. Taking this into account, plots

  14. Effectiveness of aerial- and ground-applied Bacillus formulations against Anopheles quadrimaculatus larvae in Arkansas rice plots.

    PubMed

    Dennett, J A; Meisch, M V

    2000-09-01

    Experimental Bacillus larvicides designed to float on or near the water surface were compared to labeled standard Bacillus corn-cob-based larvicides using sentinel Anopheles quadrimaculatus larvae in Arkansas rice plots during the 1998 growing season. Experimental floating formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis applied at 5.58 and 11.18 kg/ha provided up to 100% control of 3rd- and 4th-stage Anopheles larvae within 24-48 h, whereas the water-dispersible granule formulations containing Bacillus sphaericus required 48-72 h to yield >75% mortality in 0.16-ha plots at 11.18 kg/ha. Detecting and targeting the smaller developmental stages (1st- and 2nd-stage larvae) could increase the effectiveness of the tested compounds against An. quadrimaculatus in Arkansas and other rice-growing regions.

  15. Behavioral responses of juvenile Daphnia magna after exposure to glyphosate and glyphosate-copper complexes.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Lone Rykær; Roslev, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) is the active ingredient in a range of popular broad-spectrum herbicide formulations. Glyphosate is a chelating agent that can form stable complexes with divalent metal ions including Cu(II). Little is known about the bioavailability and ecotoxicity of glyphosate-Cu(II) complexes to aquatic organisms. In this study, we used video tracking and behavior analysis to investigate sublethal effects of binary mixtures of glyphosate and Cu(II) to juvenile D. magna. Behavioral responses were quantified for individual D. magna after 24h and 48h exposure to glyphosate and glyhosate-Cu(II) mixtures. Sublethal concentrations resulted in decreases in swimming velocity, acceleration speed, and distance moved whereas inactive time of D. magna increased. Distance moved and inactive time were the most responsive parameters to glyphosate and glyphosate-Cu(II) exposure. On a molar basis, glyphosate-Cu(II) complexes appeared more toxic to D. magna than glyphosate alone. The 48h EC50 for glyphosate and glyphosate-Cu(II) determined from swimming distance were 75.2μM and 8.4μM, respectively. In comparison, traditional visual observation of mobility resulted in 48h EC50 values of 52.8μM and 25.5μM for glyphosate and glyphosate-Cu(II), respectively. The behavioral responses indicated that exposure of D. magna to mixtures of glyphosate and Cu(II) attenuated acute metal toxicity but increased apparent glyphosate toxicity due to complexation with Cu(II). The study suggests that glyphosate is a likely mediator of aquatic metal toxicity, and that video tracking provides an opportunity for quantitative studies of sublethal effects of pesticide complexes.

  16. GLYPHOSATE REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Activated-carbon, oxidation, conventional-treatment, filtration, and membrane studies are conducted to determine which process is best suited to remove the herbicide glyphosate from potable water. Both bench-scale and pilot-scale studies are completed. Computer models are used ...

  17. Glyphosate induces neurotoxicity in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Roy, Nicole M; Carneiro, Bruno; Ochs, Jeremy

    2016-03-01

    Glyphosate based herbicides (GBH) like Roundup(®) are used extensively in agriculture as well as in urban and rural settings as a broad spectrum herbicide. Its mechanism of action was thought to be specific only to plants and thus considered safe and non-toxic. However, mounting evidence suggests that GBHs may not be as safe as once thought as initial studies in frogs suggest that GBHs may be teratogenic. Here we utilize the zebrafish vertebrate model system to study early effects of glyphosate exposure using technical grade glyphosate and the Roundup(®) Classic formulation. We find morphological abnormalities including cephalic and eye reductions and a loss of delineated brain ventricles. Concomitant with structural changes in the developing brain, using in situ hybridization analysis, we detect decreases in genes expressed in the eye, fore and midbrain regions of the brain including pax2, pax6, otx2 and ephA4. However, we do not detect changes in hindbrain expression domains of ephA4 nor exclusive hindbrain markers krox-20 and hoxb1a. Additionally, using a Retinoic Acid (RA) mediated reporter transgenic, we detect no alterations in the RA expression domains in the hindbrain and spinal cord, but do detect a loss of expression in the retina. We conclude that glyphosate and the Roundup(®) formulation is developmentally toxic to the forebrain and midbrain but does not affect the hindbrain after 24 h exposure.

  18. Effect of glyphosate application on foliar diseases in glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup herbicide, inhibits 5-enol-pyruvyl shikimate 3-phophate synthase (EPSPS), an enzyme found in plants, fungi, and bacteria. Plants engineered for glyphosate tolerance with a glyphosate-insensitive EPSPS take up and translocate the herbicide throughout the p...

  19. Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    John Hill, a pilot and commercial aerial photographer, needed an information base. He consulted NERAC and requested a search of the latest developments in camera optics. NERAC provided information; Hill contacted the manufacturers of camera equipment and reduced his photographic costs significantly.

  20. Glyphosate degradation in glyphosate-resistant and -susceptible crops and weeds.

    PubMed

    Duke, Stephen O

    2011-06-08

    High levels of aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), the main glyphosate metabolite, have been found in glyphosate-treated, glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybean, apparently due to plant glyphosate oxidoreductase (GOX)-like activity. AMPA is mildly phytotoxic, and under some conditions the AMPA accumulating in GR soybean correlates with glyphosate-caused phytotoxicity. A bacterial GOX is used in GR canola, and an altered bacterial glyphosate N-acetyltransferase is planned for a new generation of GR crops. In some weed species, glyphosate degradation could contribute to natural resistance. Neither an isolated plant GOX enzyme nor a gene for it has yet been reported in plants. Gene mutation or amplification of plant genes for GOX-like enzyme activity or horizontal transfer of microbial genes from glyphosate-degrading enzymes could produce GR weeds. Yet, there is no evidence that metabolic degradation plays a significant role in evolved resistance to glyphosate. This is unexpected, considering the extreme selection pressure for evolution of glyphosate resistance in weeds and the difficulty in plants of evolving glyphosate resistance via other mechanisms.

  1. Glyphosate inhibits rust diseases in glyphosate-resistant wheat and soybean.

    PubMed

    Feng, Paul C C; Baley, G James; Clinton, William P; Bunkers, Greg J; Alibhai, Murtaza F; Paulitz, Timothy C; Kidwell, Kimberlee K

    2005-11-29

    Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide used for the control of weeds in glyphosate-resistant crops. Glyphosate inhibits 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate 3-phosphate synthase, a key enzyme in the synthesis of aromatic amino acids in plants, fungi, and bacteria. Studies with glyphosate-resistant wheat have shown that glyphosate provided both preventive and curative activities against Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici and Puccinia triticina, which cause stripe and leaf rusts, respectively, in wheat. Growth-chamber studies demonstrated wheat rust control at multiple plant growth stages with a glyphosate spray dose typically recommended for weed control. Rust control was absent in formulation controls without glyphosate, dependent on systemic glyphosate concentrations in leaf tissues, and not mediated through induction of four common systemic acquired resistance genes. A field test with endemic stripe rust inoculum confirmed the activities of glyphosate pre- and postinfestation. Preliminary greenhouse studies also demonstrated that application of glyphosate in glyphosate-resistant soybeans suppressed Asian soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi.

  2. Review of genotoxicity biomonitoring studies of glyphosate-based formulations.

    PubMed

    Kier, Larry D

    2015-03-01

    Abstract Human and environmental genotoxicity biomonitoring studies involving exposure to glyphosate-based formulations (GBFs) were reviewed to complement an earlier review of experimental genotoxicity studies of glyphosate and GBFs. The environmental and most of the human biomonitoring studies were not informative because there was either a very low frequency of GBF exposure or exposure to a large number of pesticides without analysis of specific pesticide effects. One pesticide sprayer biomonitoring study indicated there was not a statistically significant relationship between frequency of GBF exposure reported for the last spraying season and oxidative DNA damage. There were three studies of human populations in regions of GBF aerial spraying. One study found increases for the cytokinesis-block micronucleus endpoint but these increases did not show statistically significant associations with self-reported spray exposure and were not consistent with application rates. A second study found increases for the blood cell comet endpoint at high exposures causing toxicity. However, a follow-up to this study 2 years after spraying did not indicate chromosomal effects. The results of the biomonitoring studies do not contradict an earlier conclusion derived from experimental genotoxicity studies that typical GBFs do not appear to present significant genotoxic risk under normal conditions of human or environmental exposures.

  3. Review of genotoxicity biomonitoring studies of glyphosate-based formulations

    PubMed Central

    Kier, Larry D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Human and environmental genotoxicity biomonitoring studies involving exposure to glyphosate-based formulations (GBFs) were reviewed to complement an earlier review of experimental genotoxicity studies of glyphosate and GBFs. The environmental and most of the human biomonitoring studies were not informative because there was either a very low frequency of GBF exposure or exposure to a large number of pesticides without analysis of specific pesticide effects. One pesticide sprayer biomonitoring study indicated there was not a statistically significant relationship between frequency of GBF exposure reported for the last spraying season and oxidative DNA damage. There were three studies of human populations in regions of GBF aerial spraying. One study found increases for the cytokinesis-block micronucleus endpoint but these increases did not show statistically significant associations with self-reported spray exposure and were not consistent with application rates. A second study found increases for the blood cell comet endpoint at high exposures causing toxicity. However, a follow-up to this study 2 years after spraying did not indicate chromosomal effects. The results of the biomonitoring studies do not contradict an earlier conclusion derived from experimental genotoxicity studies that typical GBFs do not appear to present significant genotoxic risk under normal conditions of human or environmental exposures. PMID:25687244

  4. Toxic, cytotoxic, and genotoxic effects of a glyphosate formulation (Roundup®SL-Cosmoflux®411F) in the direct-developing frog Eleutherodactylus johnstonei.

    PubMed

    Meza-Joya, Fabio Leonardo; Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha Patricia; Fuentes-Lorenzo, Jorge Luis

    2013-06-01

    The aerial spraying of glyphosate formulations in Colombia to eradicate illegal crops has generated great concern about its possible impact on nontarget organisms, particularly amphibians. This study evaluated the toxic, cytotoxic, and genotoxic effects of a glyphosate formulation (Roundup®SL-Cosmoflux®411F) in the direct-developing frog Eleutherodactylus johnstonei by estimating the median lethal application rate (LC50 ), median hemolytic application rate (HD50 ), and extent of DNA damage using the in vitro and in vivo Comet assays. Toxicity results indicated that the application rate [37.4 µg acid equivalent (a.e.)/cm(2) ] equivalent to that used in aerial spraying (3.74 kg a.e./ha) is not lethal in male and female adult frogs, whereas neonates are highly sensitive. Glyphosate formulation at application rates above 5.4 µg a.e./cm(2) (in vivo) and concentrations above 95 µg a.e./mL (in vitro) showed clear evidence of cytotoxicity. In vivo and in vitro exposure of E. johnstonei erythrocytes to the glyphosate formulation induced DNA breaks in a dose-dependent manner with statistically significant values (P < 0.05) at all doses tested. DNA damage initially increased with the duration of exposure and then decreased, suggesting that DNA repair events were occurring during in vivo and in vitro exposures. These results are discussed from the perspective of possible ecotoxicological risks to anuran species from exposure to glyphosate formulation.

  5. Glyphosate and fungicide effects on Cercospora leaf spot in four glyphosate-resistant sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential for improved management of Cercospora leaf spot [CLS (Cercospora beticola)] using the herbicide glyphosate in glyphosate-resistant sugar beet varieties was investigated. Controlled field experiments were conducted in 2008 and 2009 to determine if glyphosate and glyphosate-fungicide co...

  6. Natural glyphosate tolerance in sweetvetch Hedysarum boreale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweetvetch (Hedysarum boreale Nutt.) a legume native to the western USA and Canada, is purported to have tolerance to glyphosate {N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine} herbide. Eight rates of glyphosate were tested for their effect on biomass yield (BMY) and survival of seedlings and mature plants. Treatme...

  7. Glyphosate-resistant goosegrass from Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A glyphosate resistant population of goosegrass (Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.) was documented near Stoneville, Mississippi, USA, in an area which had received multiple applications of glyphosate each year for the previous eleven years. Resistance ratios based on dose response growth reduction assays...

  8. Depth distribution of glyphosate and AMPA under diferent tillage system and soils in long-term experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparicio, Virginia; Costa, Jose Luis; De Geronimo, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl glycine) is a post-emergence, non-selective, foliar herbicide. Around 200 million liters of this herbicide are applied every year in Argentina, where the main agricultural practice is no-till (NT), accounting for 78 % of the cultivated land. In this work, we studied the depth distribution of glyphosate in long-term experiments (more than 15 years) at different locations under NT and conventional tillage (CT). Samples from 0-2, 2-5, 5-10, 10-15, and 15-20 cm depth with four replication and two treatments NT CT at three locations: Balcarce (BA) a loam soil, Bordenave (BO) a sandy loam soil y Marcos Juarez a silty loam soil (MJ). The glyphosate concentration in the first 2 cm of soil was, on the average, 70% greater than in the next 2-5 cm. The mass of glyphosate in CT was higher at 2 to 10 cm depth. The depth concentration of AMPA follows the same trend than glyphosate, although its average concentration at 0-2 cm depth is 28 times higher than the glyphosate concentration at 2-5 cm (glyphosate = 147 ppb and AMPA = 4100 ppb). Beside the AMPA concentration at 0-2 cm depth is greater in NT than in CT, the mass of AMPA is higher in CT only for the Balcarce location. To our knowledge, this study is the first dealing with the depth distribution of glyphosate concentration in soils under different soil managements. In the present study, it was demonstrated that glyphosate and AMPA are present in soils under agricultural activity with maximum concentration in the first two cm of soil and the AMPA concentration at this depth is greater in NT than in CT.

  9. Effect of glyphosate acid on biochemical markers of periphyton exposed in outdoor mesocosms in the presence and absence of the mussel Limnoperna fortunei.

    PubMed

    Iummato, María Mercedes; Pizarro, Haydée; Cataldo, Daniel; Di Fiori, Eugenia; Dos Santos Afonso, María; Ríos de Molina, María Del Carmen; Juárez, Ángela Beatriz

    2017-04-11

    Glyphosate is currently the most widely used herbicide in agricultural production. It generally enters aquatic ecosystems through surface water runoff and aerial drift. We evaluated the effect of glyphosate acid on biochemical parameters of periphyton exposed to concentrations of 1, 3 and 6 mg/L in outdoor mesocosms, in the presence and absence of the mussel Limnoperna fortunei. Periphyton ash-free dry weight (AFDW), chlorophyll a content, carotene/chlorophyll a ratio, lipid peroxidation levels and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were determined at day 0, 1, 7, 14 and 26 of the experimental period. AFDW was similar between control and glyphosate-treated periphyton in the absence of L. fortunei. The latter had significantly lower carotene/chlorophyll a ratio and enzyme activities and higher lipid peroxidation levels and chlorophyll a content than the former. These results show an adverse effect of glyphosate on the metabolism of periphyton community organisms, possibly inducing oxidative stress. On the contrary, no differences were observed in all these variables between control and glyphosate-treated periphyton in the presence of L. fortunei. Mussels probably attenuated the herbicide effects by contributing to glyphosate dissipation. The results of the present study also demonstrate that biochemical markers provide useful information that may warn of herbicide impact on periphyton communities. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Nitrogen metabolism and seed composition as influenced by glyphosate application in glyphosate-resistant soybean.

    PubMed

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Zablotowicz, Robert M; Reddy, Krishna N; Abel, Craig A

    2008-04-23

    Previous research has demonstrated that glyphosate can affect nitrogen fixation or nitrogen assimilation in soybean. This 2-year field study investigated the effects of glyphosate application of 1.12 and 3.36 kg of ae ha(-1) on nitrogen metabolism and seed composition in glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybean. There was no effect of glyphosate application on nitrogen fixation as measured by acetylene reduction assay, soybean yield, or seed nitrogen content. However, there were significant effects of glyphosate application on nitrogen assimilation, as measured by in vivo nitrate reductase activity (NRA) in leaves, roots, and nodules, especially at high rate. Transiently lower leaf nitrogen or (15)N natural abundance in high glyphosate application soybean supports the inhibition of NRA. With the higher glyphosate application level protein was significantly higher (10.3%) in treated soybean compared to untreated soybean. Inversely, total oil and linolenic acid were lowest at the high glyphosate application rate, but oleic acid was greatest (22%) in treated soybean. These results suggest that nitrate assimilation in GR soybean was more affected than nitrogen fixation by glyphosate application and that glyphosate application may alter nitrogen and carbon metabolism.

  11. Evolution of glyphosate resistance in a Lolium rigidum population by glyphosate selection at sublethal doses.

    PubMed

    Busi, R; Powles, S B

    2009-10-01

    The majority of the documented cases of field-evolved herbicide-resistant weed biotypes established that single major genes confer glyphosate resistance. However, the contribution of minor genes endowing substantial plant survival at sublethal herbicide doses may be a potential complementary path to herbicide resistance evolution in weed populations under selection. Here, we subjected a number of susceptible individuals of Lolium rigidum to recurrent glyphosate selection to test the potential for sublethal glyphosate doses to additively select for glyphosate resistance. After 3-4 cycles of glyphosate selection in two distinct environments, the progenies of the initially susceptible population were shifted toward glyphosate resistance. The results indicate progressive enrichment of minor gene trait(s) contributing toward plant survival in the glyphosate-selected progenies. After three generations of selection, the estimated LD(50) values were doubled compared with the original population and up to 33% plant survival was obtained in the glyphosate-selected progeny at the recommended glyphosate label rate. This level of resistance probably was the maximum shift achievable with sublethal glyphosate dose selection in this small population. Cross-pollination was a crucial factor enabling the rapid rate of accumulation of minor glyphosate resistance gene trait(s) that are likely to be present at a relatively high frequency in a small susceptible population. The mechanistic basis of the moderate glyphosate resistance level selected by sublethal glyphosate doses remains unknown and warrants future research. Studying the main factors influencing the evolution of resistant weed populations is crucial for understanding, predicting and managing herbicide resistance.

  12. Glyphosate degradation by immobilized bacteria: laboratory studies showing feasibility for glyphosate removal from waste water.

    PubMed

    Heitkamp, M A; Adams, W J; Hallas, L E

    1992-09-01

    To evaluate immobilized bacteria technology for the removal of low levels of glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) from aqueous industrial effluents, microorganisms with glyphosate-degrading activity obtained from a fill and draw enrichment reactor inoculated with activated sludge were first exposed to glyphosate production wastes containing 500-2000 mg glyphosate/L. The microorganisms were then immobilized by adsorption onto a diatomaceous earth biocarrier contained in upflow Plexiglas columns. The columns were aerated, maintained at pH 7.0-8.0, incubated at 25 degrees C, supplemented with NH4NO3 (50 mg/L), and exposed to glyphosate process wastes pumped upflow through the biocarrier. Glyphosate degradation to aminomethylphosphonic acid was initially > 96% for 21 days of operation at flows yielding hydraulic residence times (HRTs) as short as 42 min. Higher flow rate studies showed > 98% removal of 50 mg glyphosate/L from the waste stream could be achieved at a HRT of 23 min. Glyphosate removal of > 99% at a 37-min HRT was achieved under similar conditions with a column inoculated with a pure culture of Pseudomonas sp. strain LBr, a bacterium known to have high glyphosate-degrading activity. After acid shocking (pH 2.8 for 18 h) of a column of immobilized bacteria, glyphosate-degrading activity was regained within 4 days without reinoculation. Although microbial growth and glyphosate degradation were not maintained under low organic nutrient conditions in the laboratory, the low levels of degradable carbon (45-94 mg/L) in the industrial effluent were sufficient to support prolonged glyphosate-degrading activity. The results demonstrated that immobilized bacteria technology is effective in removing low levels of glyphosate in high-volume liquid waste streams.

  13. Concerns over use of glyphosate-based herbicides and risks associated with exposures: a consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Myers, John Peterson; Antoniou, Michael N; Blumberg, Bruce; Carroll, Lynn; Colborn, Theo; Everett, Lorne G; Hansen, Michael; Landrigan, Philip J; Lanphear, Bruce P; Mesnage, Robin; Vandenberg, Laura N; Vom Saal, Frederick S; Welshons, Wade V; Benbrook, Charles M

    2016-02-17

    The broad-spectrum herbicide glyphosate (common trade name "Roundup") was first sold to farmers in 1974. Since the late 1970s, the volume of glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) applied has increased approximately 100-fold. Further increases in the volume applied are likely due to more and higher rates of application in response to the widespread emergence of glyphosate-resistant weeds and new, pre-harvest, dessicant use patterns. GBHs were developed to replace or reduce reliance on herbicides causing well-documented problems associated with drift and crop damage, slipping efficacy, and human health risks. Initial industry toxicity testing suggested that GBHs posed relatively low risks to non-target species, including mammals, leading regulatory authorities worldwide to set high acceptable exposure limits. To accommodate changes in GBH use patterns associated with genetically engineered, herbicide-tolerant crops, regulators have dramatically increased tolerance levels in maize, oilseed (soybeans and canola), and alfalfa crops and related livestock feeds. Animal and epidemiology studies published in the last decade, however, point to the need for a fresh look at glyphosate toxicity. Furthermore, the World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer recently concluded that glyphosate is "probably carcinogenic to humans." In response to changing GBH use patterns and advances in scientific understanding of their potential hazards, we have produced a Statement of Concern drawing on emerging science relevant to the safety of GBHs. Our Statement of Concern considers current published literature describing GBH uses, mechanisms of action, toxicity in laboratory animals, and epidemiological studies. It also examines the derivation of current human safety standards. We conclude that: (1) GBHs are the most heavily applied herbicide in the world and usage continues to rise; (2) Worldwide, GBHs often contaminate drinking water sources, precipitation, and air

  14. Gene flow from glyphosate-resistant crops.

    PubMed

    Mallory-Smith, Carol; Zapiola, Maria

    2008-04-01

    Gene flow from transgenic glyphosate-resistant crops can result in the adventitious presence of the transgene, which may negatively impact markets. Gene flow can also produce glyphosate-resistant plants that may interfere with weed management systems. The objective of this article is to review the gene flow literature as it pertains to glyphosate-resistant crops. Gene flow is a natural phenomenon not unique to transgenic crops and can occur via pollen, seed and, in some cases, vegetative propagules. Gene flow via pollen can occur in all crops, even those that are considered to be self-pollinated, because all have low levels of outcrossing. Gene flow via seed or vegetative propagules occurs when they are moved naturally or by humans during crop production and commercialization. There are many factors that influence gene flow; therefore, it is difficult to prevent or predict. Gene flow via pollen and seed from glyphosate-resistant canola and creeping bentgrass fields has been documented. The adventitious presence of the transgene responsible for glyphosate resistance has been found in commercial seed lots of canola, corn and soybeans. In general, the glyphosate-resistant trait is not considered to provide an ecological advantage. However, regulators should consider the examples of gene flow from glyphosate-resistant crops when formulating rules for the release of crops with traits that could negatively impact the environment or human health.

  15. Glyphosate sustainability in South American cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Christoffoleti, Pedro J; Galli, Antonio J B; Carvalho, Saul J P; Moreira, Murilo S; Nicolai, Marcelo; Foloni, Luiz L; Martins, Bianca A B; Ribeiro, Daniela N

    2008-04-01

    South America represents about 12% of the global land area, and Brazil roughly corresponds to 47% of that. The major sustainable agricultural system in South America is based on a no-tillage cropping system, which is a worldwide adopted agricultural conservation system. Societal benefits of conservation systems in agriculture include greater use of conservation tillage, which reduces soil erosion and associated loading of pesticides, nutrients and sediments into the environment. However, overreliance on glyphosate and simpler cropping systems has resulted in the selection of tolerant weed species through weed shifts (WSs) and evolution of herbicide-resistant weed (HRW) biotypes to glyphosate. It is a challenge in South America to design herbicide- and non-herbicide-based strategies that effectively delay and/or manage evolution of HRWs and WSs to weeds tolerant to glyphosate in cropping systems based on recurrent glyphosate application, such as those used with glyphosate-resistant soybeans. The objectives of this paper are (i) to provide an overview of some factors that influence WSs and HRWs to glyphosate in South America, especially in Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay soybean cropped areas; (ii) to discuss the viability of using crop rotation and/or cover crops that might be integrated with forage crops in an economically and environmentally sustainable system; and (iii) to summarize the results of a survey of the perceptions of Brazilian farmers to problems with WSs and HRWs to glyphosate, and the level of adoption of good agricultural practices in order to prevent or manage it.

  16. Toxicity of formulated glyphosate (glyphos) and cosmo-flux to larval Colombian frogs 1. Laboratory acute toxicity.

    PubMed

    Bernal, M H; Solomon, K R; Carrasquilla, G

    2009-01-01

    The spraying of coca (Erythroxylum coca) with glyphosate in Colombia has raised concerns about possible impacts on amphibians. There are few toxicity data for species other than those from temperate regions, and these have not been generated with the combination of formulated glyphosate (Glyphos) and the adjuvant, Cosmo-Flux (coca mix) as used in coca control in Colombia. In order to characterize toxicity of the spray mixture to frogs from Colombia, Gosner stage-25 tadpoles of Scinax ruber, Dendropophus microcephalus, Hypsiboas crepitans, Rhinella granulosa, Rhinella marina, Rhinella typhonius, Centrolene prosoblepon, and Engystomops pustulosus were exposed to the coca mix at concentrations of glyphosate ranging from 1 to 4.2 mg a.e./L diluted in dechlorinated tap water in glass containers. Cosmo-Flux was added to Glyphos in the proportion of 2.3% v/v, as used in aerial application for coca control. Exposures were for 96 h at 23 +/- 1.5 degrees C with 12:12-h light/dark cycle. Test solutions were renewed every 24 h. Concentrations, measured within the first hour and at 24 and 96 h using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Abraxis, LLC), ranged from 70 to 130% of nominal values. LC50 values ranged from 1200 to 2780 microg glyphosate acid equivalents (a.e.)/L for the 8 species tested. Data suggest that sensitivity to Roundup-type formulations of glyphosate in these species is similar to that observed in other tropical and temperate species. In addition, sensitivity of larval amphibians to Roundup-type formulations spans a relatively narrow range. Finally, toxicity of the mixture as used to spray coca was likely driven by the surfactant in the glyphosate formulation, as the addition of Cosmo-Flux did not enhance toxicity above those reported for Vision = Roundup.

  17. Influence of glyphosate on the copper dissolution in phosphate buffer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutinho, C. F. B.; Silva, M. O.; Machado, S. A. S.; Mazo, L. H.

    2007-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of copper microelectrode in phosphate buffer in the presence of glyphosate was investigated by electrochemical techniques. It was observed that the additions of glyphosate in the phosphate buffer increased the anodic current of copper microelectrode and the electrochemical dissolution was observed. This phenomenon could be associated with the Cu(II) complexation by glyphosate forming a soluble complex. Physical characterization of the surface showed that, in absence of glyphosate, an insoluble layer covered the copper surface; on the other hand, in presence of glyphosate, it was observed a corroded copper surface with the formation of glyphosate complex in solution.

  18. Evaluating exposure and potential effects on honeybee brood (Apis mellifera) development using glyphosate as an example.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Helen M; Levine, Steven L; Doering, Janine; Norman, Steve; Manson, Philip; Sutton, Peter; von Mérey, Georg

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to develop an approach to evaluate potential effects of plant protection products on honeybee brood with colonies at realistic worst-case exposure rates. The approach comprised 2 stages. In the first stage, honeybee colonies were exposed to a commercial formulation of glyphosate applied to flowering Phacelia tanacetifolia with glyphosate residues quantified in relevant matrices (pollen and nectar) collected by foraging bees on days 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7 postapplication and glyphosate levels in larvae were measured on days 4 and 7. Glyphosate levels in pollen were approximately 10 times higher than in nectar and glyphosate demonstrated rapid decline in both matrices. Residue data along with foraging rates and food requirements of the colony were then used to set dose rates in the effects study. In the second stage, the toxicity of technical glyphosate to developing honeybee larvae and pupae, and residues in larvae, were then determined by feeding treated sucrose directly to honeybee colonies at dose rates that reflect worst-case exposure scenarios. There were no significant effects from glyphosate observed in brood survival, development, and mean pupal weight. Additionally, there were no biologically significant levels of adult mortality observed in any glyphosate treatment group. Significant effects were observed only in the fenoxycarb toxic reference group and included increased brood mortality and a decline in the numbers of bees and brood. Mean glyphosate residues in larvae were comparable at 4 days after spray application in the exposure study and also following dosing at a level calculated from the mean measured levels in pollen and nectar, showing the applicability and robustness of the approach for dose setting with honeybee brood studies. This study has developed a versatile and predictive approach for use in higher tier honeybee toxicity studies. It can be used to realistically quantify exposure of colonies to pesticides to allow the

  19. Impact of phosphate on glyphosate uptake and toxicity in willow.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Marcelo Pedrosa; Le Manac'h, Sarah Gingras; Moingt, Matthieu; Smedbol, Elise; Paquet, Serge; Labrecque, Michel; Lucotte, Marc; Juneau, Philippe

    2016-03-05

    Phosphate (PO4(3-)) has been shown to increase glyphosate uptake by willow, a plant species known for its phytoremediation potential. However, it remains unclear if this stimulation of glyphosate uptake can result in an elevated glyphosate toxicity to plants (which could prevent the use of willows in glyphosate-remediation programs). Consequently, we studied the effects of PO4(3-) on glyphosate uptake and toxicity in a fast growing willow cultivar (Salix miyabeana SX64). Plants were grown in hydroponic solution with a combination of glyphosate (0, 0.001, 0.065 and 1 mg l(-1)) and PO4(3-) (0, 200 and 400 mg l(-1)). We demonstrated that PO4(3-) fertilization greatly increased glyphosate uptake by roots and its translocation to leaves, which resulted in increased shikimate concentration in leaves. In addition to its deleterious effects in photosynthesis, glyphosate induced oxidative stress through hydrogen peroxide accumulation. Although it has increased glyphosate accumulation, PO4(3-) fertilization attenuated the herbicide's deleterious effects by increasing the activity of antioxidant systems and alleviating glyphosate-induced oxidative stress. Our results indicate that in addition to the glyphosate uptake, PO4(3-) is involved in glyphosate toxicity in willow by preventing glyphosate induced oxidative stress.

  20. 75 FR 20862 - Glyphosate From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Glyphosate From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject investigation. DATES: Effective Date: April 16, 2010. FOR FURTHER...

  1. Effect of Glyphosate on Symbiotic N2 Fixation and Nickel Concentration in Glyphosate-Resistant Soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of widespread cultivation of glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybean and the use of one herbicide class on biological processes has received considerable attention. Decreased biological nitrogen fixation in GR soybean has been attributed directly to toxicity of glyphosate or its metabolites to ...

  2. Review of genotoxicity studies of glyphosate and glyphosate-based formulations.

    PubMed

    Kier, Larry D; Kirkland, David J

    2013-04-01

    An earlier review of the toxicity of glyphosate and the original Roundup™-branded formulation concluded that neither glyphosate nor the formulation poses a risk for the production of heritable/somatic mutations in humans. The present review of subsequent genotoxicity publications and regulatory studies of glyphosate and glyphosate-based formulations (GBFs) incorporates all of the findings into a weight of evidence for genotoxicity. An overwhelming preponderance of negative results in well-conducted bacterial reversion and in vivo mammalian micronucleus and chromosomal aberration assays indicates that glyphosate and typical GBFs are not genotoxic in these core assays. Negative results for in vitro gene mutation and a majority of negative results for chromosomal effect assays in mammalian cells add to the weight of evidence that glyphosate is not typically genotoxic for these endpoints in mammalian systems. Mixed results were observed for micronucleus assays of GBFs in non-mammalian systems. Reports of positive results for DNA damage endpoints indicate that glyphosate and GBFs tend to elicit DNA damage effects at high or toxic dose levels, but the data suggest that this is due to cytotoxicity rather than DNA interaction with GBF activity perhaps associated with the surfactants present in many GBFs. Glyphosate and typical GBFs do not appear to present significant genotoxic risk under normal conditions of human or environmental exposures.

  3. Glyphosate-resistant Palmer Amaranth in the U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops were commercialized, glyphosate has been extensively used to effectively and economically manage weeds. The adoption of GR technology also provided growers with the capabilities needed to rapidly adopt conservation tillage production systems. Selection pressure ...

  4. Mapping Proteome-wide Targets of Glyphosate in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ford, Breanna; Bateman, Leslie A; Gutierrez-Palominos, Leilani; Park, Robin; Nomura, Daniel K

    2017-02-16

    Glyphosate, the active ingredient in the herbicide Roundup, is one of the most widely used pesticides in agriculture and home garden use. Whether glyphosate causes any mammalian toxicity remains highly controversial. While many studies have associated glyphosate with numerous adverse health effects, the mechanisms underlying glyphosate toxicity in mammals remain poorly understood. Here, we used activity-based protein profiling to map glyphosate targets in mice. We show that glyphosate at high doses can be metabolized in vivo to reactive metabolites such as glyoxylate and react with cysteines across many proteins in mouse liver. We show that glyoxylate inhibits liver fatty acid oxidation enzymes and glyphosate treatment in mice increases the levels of triglycerides and cholesteryl esters, likely resulting from diversion of fatty acids away from oxidation and toward other lipid pathways. Our study highlights the utility of using chemoproteomics to identify novel toxicological mechanisms of environmental chemicals such as glyphosate.

  5. Quantification and characterization of glyphosate use and loss in a residential area.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ting; Boënne, Wesley; Desmet, Nele; Seuntjens, Piet; Bronders, Jan; van Griensven, Ann

    2015-06-01

    Urban runoff can be a significant source of pesticides in urban streams. However, quantification of this source has been difficult because pesticide use by urban residents (e.g., on pavements or in gardens) is often unknown, particularly at the scale of a residential catchment. Proper quantification and characterization of pesticide loss via urban runoff require sound information on the use and occurrence of pesticides at hydrologically-relevant spatial scales, involving various hydrological conditions. We conducted a monitoring study in a residential area (9.5 ha, Flanders, Belgium) to investigate the use and loss of a widely-used herbicide (glyphosate) and its major degradation product (aminomethylphosphonic acid, AMPA). The study covered 13 rainfall events over 67 days. Overall, less than 0.5% of glyphosate applied was recovered from the storm drain outflow in the catchment. Maximum detected concentrations were 6.1 μg/L and 5.8 μg/L for glyphosate and AMPA, respectively, both of which are below the predicted no-effect concentration for surface water proposed by the Flemish environmental agency (10 μg/L), but are above the EU drinking water standard (0.1 μg/L). The measured concentrations and percentage loss rates can be attributed partially to the strong sorption capacity of glyphosate and low runoff potential in the study area. However, glyphosate loss varied considerably among rainfall events and event load of glyphosate mass was mainly controlled by rainfall amount, according to further statistical analyses. To obtain urban pesticide management insights, robust tools are required to investigate the loss and occurrence of pesticides influenced by various factors, particularly the hydrological and spatial factors.

  6. What have the mechanisms of resistance to glyphosate taught us?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The intensive use of glyphosate alone to manage weeds has selected populations that are glyphosate resistant. The three mechanisms of glyphosate resistance that have been elucidated are 1) target site mutations; 2) gene amplification; and 3) altered translocation due to sequestration. What have we...

  7. Possible glyphosate tolerance mechanism in pitted morningglory (Ipomoea lacunosa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glyphosate is the most historic herbicide ever developed. Aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) is the most frequently detected metabolite of glyphosate in higher plants. The natural tolerance of Ipomoea lacunosa to glyphosate has made these plants among the most common and troublesome weeds in the sou...

  8. Impact of glyphosate-resistant sugar beet.

    PubMed

    Morishita, Don W

    2016-12-19

    Glyphosate-resistant (GR) sugar beet became commercially available to US sugar beet growers in 2008 and was rapidly adopted. Prior to the availability of GR sugar beet, growers would commonly make 3-5 herbicide applications. This often resulted in some crop injury, but was accepted to reduce the impact of weeds. In addition, non-GR sugar beet was cultivated 1-3 times and often followed by hand weeding. The introduction of GR sugar beet drastically reduced the complexity of weed management. Concerns about GR weeds in the United States also apply to sugar beet growers. Changes in weed management strategies will be required to keep this technology. Sugar beet is arguably one of the most suitable crops for GR technology because: (1) none of the herbicides registered for use in this crop was very effective without risking crop injury; (2) sugar beet cannot be grown in the same field year after year owing to disease concerns and thus requires a 3-4 year rotation; (3) pollen-mediated gene flow is negligible from the sugar beet crop because it is a biennial and harvested before it flowers; (4) the processing of harvested roots to extract the sucrose rapidly degrades the DNA in the extracted raw juice and subsequent refining so that no DNA is present in the finished sugar; (5) studies have shown that processed GR beet sugar is identical to non-GR beet sugar, as well as cane sugar. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Co-expression of G2-EPSPS and glyphosate acetyltransferase GAT genes conferring high tolerance to glyphosate in soybean

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Bingfu; Guo, Yong; Hong, Huilong; Jin, Longguo; Zhang, Lijuan; Chang, Ru-Zhen; Lu, Wei; Lin, Min; Qiu, Li-Juan

    2015-01-01

    Glyphosate is a widely used non-selective herbicide with broad spectrum of weed control around the world. At present, most of the commercial glyphosate tolerant soybeans utilize glyphosate tolerant gene CP4-EPSPS or glyphosate acetyltransferase gene GAT separately. In this study, both glyphosate tolerant gene G2-EPSPS and glyphosate degraded gene GAT were co-transferred into soybean and transgenic plants showed high tolerance to glyphosate. Molecular analysis including PCR, Sothern blot, qRT-PCR, and Western blot revealed that target genes have been integrated into genome and expressed effectively at both mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, the glyphosate tolerance analysis showed that no typical symptom was observed when compared with a glyphosate tolerant line HJ06-698 derived from GR1 transgenic soybean even at fourfold labeled rate of Roundup. Chlorophyll and shikimic acid content analysis of transgenic plant also revealed that these two indexes were not significantly altered after glyphosate application. These results indicated that co-expression of G2-EPSPS and GAT conferred high tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate in soybean. Therefore, combination of tolerant and degraded genes provides a new strategy for developing glyphosate tolerant transgenic crops. PMID:26528311

  10. Co-expression of G2-EPSPS and glyphosate acetyltransferase GAT genes conferring high tolerance to glyphosate in soybean.

    PubMed

    Guo, Bingfu; Guo, Yong; Hong, Huilong; Jin, Longguo; Zhang, Lijuan; Chang, Ru-Zhen; Lu, Wei; Lin, Min; Qiu, Li-Juan

    2015-01-01

    Glyphosate is a widely used non-selective herbicide with broad spectrum of weed control around the world. At present, most of the commercial glyphosate tolerant soybeans utilize glyphosate tolerant gene CP4-EPSPS or glyphosate acetyltransferase gene GAT separately. In this study, both glyphosate tolerant gene G2-EPSPS and glyphosate degraded gene GAT were co-transferred into soybean and transgenic plants showed high tolerance to glyphosate. Molecular analysis including PCR, Sothern blot, qRT-PCR, and Western blot revealed that target genes have been integrated into genome and expressed effectively at both mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, the glyphosate tolerance analysis showed that no typical symptom was observed when compared with a glyphosate tolerant line HJ06-698 derived from GR1 transgenic soybean even at fourfold labeled rate of Roundup. Chlorophyll and shikimic acid content analysis of transgenic plant also revealed that these two indexes were not significantly altered after glyphosate application. These results indicated that co-expression of G2-EPSPS and GAT conferred high tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate in soybean. Therefore, combination of tolerant and degraded genes provides a new strategy for developing glyphosate tolerant transgenic crops.

  11. Glyphosate induces cardiovascular toxicity in Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Roy, Nicole M; Ochs, Jeremy; Zambrzycka, Ewelina; Anderson, Ariann

    2016-09-01

    Glyphosate is a broad spectrum herbicide used aggressively in agricultural practices as well as home garden care. Although labeled "safe" by the chemical industry, doses tested by industry do not mimic chronic exposures to sublethal doses that organisms in the environment are exposed to over long periods of time. Given the widespread uses of and exposure to glyphosate, studies on developmental toxicity are needed. Here we utilize the zebrafish vertebrate model system to study early effects of glyphosate on the developing heart. Treatment by embryo soaking with 50μg/ml glyphosate starting at gastrulation results in structural abnormalities in the atrium and ventricle, irregular heart looping, situs inversus as well as decreased heartbeats by 48h as determined by live imaging and immunohistochemistry. Vasculature in the body was also affected as determined using fli-1 transgenic embryos. To determine if the effects noted at 48h post fertilization are due to early stage alterations in myocardial precursors, we also investigate cardiomyocyte development with a Mef2 antibody and by mef2ca in situ hybridization and find alterations in the Mef2/mef2ca staining patterns during early cardiac patterning stages. We conclude that glyphosate is developmentally toxic to the zebrafish heart.

  12. Possible glyphosate tolerance mechanism in pitted morningglory (Ipomoea lacunosa L.).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Daniela N; Nandula, Vijay K; Dayan, Franck E; Rimando, Agnes M; Duke, Stephen O; Reddy, Krishna N; Shaw, David R

    2015-02-18

    Natural tolerance of Ipomoea lacunosa to glyphosate has made it problematic in the southeastern U.S. since the adoption of glyphosate-resistant crops. Experiments were conducted to determine (i) the variability in tolerance to glyphosate among accessions, (ii) if there is any correlation between metabolism of glyphosate to aminomethylphosponic acid (AMPA) or sarcosine and the level of tolerance, and (iii) the involvement of differential translocation in tolerance to glyphosate. Fourteen I. lacunosa accessions had GR50 values ranging from 58 to 151 grams of acid equivalent per hectare (ae/ha) glyphosate, a 2.6-fold variability in tolerance to glyphosate. There was no evidence of the most tolerant (MT) accession metabolizing glyphosate to AMPA more rapidly than the least tolerant (LT) accession. Metabolism to sarcosine was not found. (14)C-glyphosate absorption was similar in the two accessions. LT accession translocated more (14)C-glyphosate than MT accession at 24 and 48 h after treatment. Differential translocation partly explains glyphosate tolerance in MT accession.

  13. Characterization of glyphosate resistance in Amaranthus tuberculatus populations.

    PubMed

    Lorentz, Lothar; Gaines, Todd A; Nissen, Scott J; Westra, Philip; Strek, Harry J; Dehne, Heinz W; Ruiz-Santaella, Juan Pedro; Beffa, Roland

    2014-08-13

    The evolution of glyphosate-resistant weeds has recently increased dramatically. Six suspected glyphosate-resistant Amaranthus tuberculatus populations were studied to confirm resistance and determine the resistance mechanism. Resistance was confirmed in greenhouse for all six populations with glyphosate resistance factors (R/S) between 5.2 and 7.5. No difference in glyphosate absorption or translocation was observed between resistant and susceptible individuals. No mutation at amino acid positions G101, T102, or P106 was detected in the EPSPS gene coding sequence, the target enzyme of glyphosate. Analysis of EPSPS gene copy number revealed that all glyphosate-resistant populations possessed increased EPSPS gene copy number, and this correlated with increased expression at both RNA and protein levels. EPSPS Vmax and Kcat values were more than doubled in resistant plants, indicating higher levels of catalytically active expressed EPSPS protein. EPSPS gene amplification is the main mechanism contributing to glyphosate resistance in the A. tuberculatus populations analyzed.

  14. Effect of glyphosate on reproductive organs in male rat.

    PubMed

    Dai, Pengyuan; Hu, Ping; Tang, Juan; Li, Yansen; Li, Chunmei

    2016-06-01

    Glyphosate as an active ingredient of Roundup(®) which is thought to be one of the most popular herbicide was used worldwide. Many studies have focused on reproductive toxicity on glyphosate-based herbicide, but few evidence exists to imply the male reproductive toxicity of glyphosate alone in vivo. In this study SD rats were Lavaged with glyphosate at doses of 5, 50, 500mg/kg to detect the toxicity of glyphosate on rat testis. Glyphosate significantly decreased the average daily feed intake at dose of 50mg/kg, and the weight of seminal vesicle gland, coagulating gland as well as the total sperm count at dose of 500mg/kg. Immunohistochemistry of androgen receptor (AR) has no difference among all groups. As to testosterone, estradiol, progesterone and oxidative stress parameters, the level of them has no differences amidst all doses. Taken together, we conclude that glyphosate alone has low toxicity on male rats reproductive system.

  15. Aminomethylphosphonic acid accumulation in plant species treated with glyphosate.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Krishna N; Rimando, Agnes M; Duke, Stephen O; Nandula, Vijay K

    2008-03-26

    Aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) is the most frequently detected metabolite of glyphosate in plants. The objective of this study was to determine if there is any correlation of metabolism of glyphosate to AMPA in different plant species and their natural level of resistance to glyphosate. Greenhouse studies were conducted to determine the glyphosate I 50 values (rate required to cause a 50% reduction in plant growth) and to quantify AMPA and shikimate concentrations in selected leguminous and nonleguminous species treated with glyphosate at respective I 50 rates. Coffee senna [ Cassia occidentalis (L.) Link] was the most sensitive ( I 50 = 75 g/ha) and hemp sesbania [ Sesbania herbacea (P.Mill.) McVaugh] was the most resistant ( I 50 = 456 g/ha) to glyphosate. Hemp sesbania was 6-fold and Illinois bundleflower [ Desmanthus illinoensis (Michx.) MacM. ex B.L.Robins. & Fern.] was 4-fold more resistant to glyphosate than coffee senna. Glyphosate was present in all plant species, and its concentration ranged from 0.308 to 38.7 microg/g of tissue. AMPA was present in all leguminous species studied except hemp sesbania. AMPA concentration ranged from 0.119 to 4.77 microg/g of tissue. Shikimate was present in all plant species treated with glyphosate, and levels ranged from 0.053 to 16.5 mg/g of tissue. Non-glyphosate-resistant (non-GR) soybean accumulated much higher shikimate than glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybean. Although some leguminous species were found to be more resistant to glyphosate than others, and there was considerable variation between species in the glyphosate to AMPA levels found, metabolism of glyphosate to AMPA did not appear to be a common factor in explaining natural resistance levels.

  16. A comparison of multicopter and fixed-wing unmanned aerial systems (UAS) applied to mapping debris flows in small alpine catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotier, Bernadette; Lechner, Veronika

    2016-04-01

    The use of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) for documenting natural hazard events (e.g. debris flows) is becoming increasingly popular, as UAS allow on-demand, flexible and cost-efficient data acquisition. In this paper, we present the results of a comparison of multicopter and fixed-wing UAS. They were employed in the summer of 2015 to map two small alpine catchments located in Western Austria, where debris flows had occurred recently: The first event took place in the Seigesbach (Tyrol), the second occurred in the Plojergraben (Salzburg). For the Seigesbach mission, a fixed-wing UAS (Multiplex Mentor), equipped with a Sony NEX5 (50 mm prime lens, 14 MP sensor resolution) was employed to acquire approximately 4,000 images. In the Plojergraben an AustroDrones X18 octocopter was used, carrying a Sony ILCE-7R (35 mm prime lens, 36 MP sensor resolution) to record 1,700 images. Both sites had a size of approximately 2km². 20 ground control points (GCP) were distributed within both catchments, and their location was measured (Trimble GeoXT, expected accuracy 0.15 m). Using standard structure-from-motion photogrammetry software (AgiSoft PhotoScan Pro, v. 1.1.6), orthophotos (5 cm ground sampling distance - GSD) and digital surface models (DSM) (20 cm GSD) were calculated. Volume differences caused by the debris flow (i.e. deposition heights and erosion depths) computed by subtracting post-event from pre-event DSMs. Even though the terrain conditions in the two catchments were comparable, the challenges during the field campaign and the evaluation of the aerial images were very different. The main difference between the two campaigns was the number of flights required to cover the catchment: only four were needed by the fixed-wing UAS, while the multicopter required eleven in the Plojergraben. The fixed-wing UAS is specially designed for missions in hardly accessible regions, requiring only two people to carry the whole equipment, while in this case a car was needed for the

  17. The effect of metabolites and impurities of glyphosate on human erythrocytes (in vitro).

    PubMed

    Kwiatkowska, Marta; Huras, Bogumiła; Bukowska, Bożena

    2014-02-01

    The toxicity of herbicides to animals and human is an issue of worldwide concern. The present study was undertaken to evaluate toxic potential of widely used pesticide - glyphosate, its metabolites: aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA); methylphosphonic acid and its impurities: N-(phosphonomethyl)iminodiacetic acid (PMIDA), N-methylglyphosate, hydroxymethylphosphonic acid and bis-(phosphonomethyl)amine. We evaluated the effect of those compounds on hemolysis, hemoglobin oxidation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and changes in morphology of human erythrocytes. The erythrocytes were exposed to different concentrations of glyphosate and its metabolites and impurities (0.01-5mM) for 1, 4 and 24h. Glyphosate, its metabolites and impurities induced a little hemolysis and hemoglobin oxidation. All changes were very low, even after 24h incubation. Most of the investigated compounds induced reactive oxygen species formation from 0.25mM, except the N-methylglyphosate which caused an increase in ROS formation from 0.5mM. Moreover, the investigated xenobiotics did not change the size and shape (except bis-(phosphonomethyl)amine) of the human erythrocytes. Changes in human erythrocytes were observed only when high concentrations of the compounds were applied. Some investigated metabolites and impurities caused a slight stronger damage to human erythrocytes than a glyphosate. The results clearly show that the changes induced in the erythrocytes can occur only as a result of poisoning with these compounds.

  18. Effect of glyphosate-based herbicide on acetylcholinesterase activity in tadpoles, Hoplobatrachus rugulosus.

    PubMed

    Ruamthum, W; Visetson, S; Milne, J R; Bullangpoti, V

    2011-01-01

    This study focused on the effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on activity of the neuron enzyme, acetylcholinesterase (AchE), in the tadpole stage (stage 35-39) of the East Asian Bullfrog, Hoplobatrachus rugulosus. There were 4 herbicide concentration treatments consisting of glyphosate-based herbicide added at 21, 24, 27 and 30 microl to 1L de-chlorinated water in glass containers (10x15x20 cm). There were 4 replicates per treatment, each replicate using 20 tadpoles. The toxicity results were compared with tadpoles in distilled water as a control treatment. After 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours exposure to glyphosate-based herbicide concentrations, LC50 values of 25.21, 24.66, 24.16 and 23.63 microl/L, respectively, were recorded. AChE activities decreased significantly and markedly with herbicide concentration. Such inhibition of AChE activity by this glyphosate-based herbicide indicates the potential of such herbicides to disrupt ecological communities in water near where the herbicides are applied.

  19. Determination of glyphosate and AMPA on polyester-toner electrophoresis microchip with contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Eduardo R; Segato, Thiago P; Coltro, Wendell K T; Lima, Renato S; Carrilho, Emanuel; Mazo, Luiz H

    2013-07-01

    This paper reports a method for rapid, simple, direct, and reproducible determination of glyphosate and its major metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA). The platform described herein uses polyester-toner microchips incorporating capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection and electrophoresis separation of the analytes. The polyester-toner microchip presented 150 μm-wide and 12 μm-deep microchannels, with injection and separation lengths of 10 and 40 mm long, respectively. The best results were obtained with 320 kHz frequency, 4.5 Vpp excitation voltage, 80 mmol/L CHES/Tris buffer at pH 8.8, injection in -1.0 kV for 7 s, and separation in -1.5 kV. RSD values related to the peak areas for glyphosate and AMPA were 1.5 and 3.3% and 10.1 and 8.6% for intra- and interchip assays, respectively. The detection limits were 45.1 and 70.5 μmol/L, respectively, without any attempt of preconcentration of the analytes. Finally, the method was applied to river water samples in which glyphosate and AMPA (1.0 mmol/L each) were added. The recovery results were 87.4 and 83.7% for glyphosate and AMPA, respectively. The recovery percentages and LOD values obtained here were similar to others reported in the literature.

  20. Identifying priority zones in an agricultural catchment to mitigate glyphosate runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joris, Ingeborg; Desmet, Nele; Wilczek, Daniel; Boënne, Wesley; Seuntjens, Piet; Koopmans, Kim; Bylemans, Dany; Wouters, Katrien; Vandaele, Karel

    2015-04-01

    Pesticide concentrations in rivers generally have a very dynamic signature and are strongly dependent on time and space. The dynamic time course is due to the time- and space-variant input conditions resulting from fast overland (runoff and erosion, direct losses) and subsurface flow (artificial drainage), directly connecting surfaces and/or agricultural fields where pesticides are applied, to receiving rivers. A thorough understanding of pesticide behavior at the watershed scale is needed to increase the effectiveness of mitigation measures. We developed a method to derive priority zones for applying mitigation measures for erosion control and mitigation of glyphosate runoff in an agricultural catchment. The study catchment was selected based on results from geospatial pesticide emission modeling, historical glyphosate concentrations, and crop cover. Priority zones were derived based on a risk map which includes information about the topography, crop cover, the estimated glyphosate use, the potential erosion risk, and the connectivity of the agricultural parcels to the river. The theoretical risk map was then validated in the field using field observations of runoff during stormflow events, and observations of roads short-circuiting the runoff to the river. The validated risk map was used to define priority zones for measures related to erosion control. Suggestions for specific measures such as grass buffer strips and small dams at the field scale were made. The information will be used to target farmers that may have a significant impact on the glyphosate load to surface water. Those farmers will be encouraged to participate in a voluntary erosion control program supported by the local government. The effect of mitigation measures on the glyphosate concentrations in the river will be assessed by monitoring two years before and three years after implementation of the measures. We will present the general setup of the study and the selection methodology of the

  1. Aerial radiation surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Jobst, J.

    1980-01-01

    A recent aerial radiation survey of the surroundings of the Vitro mill in Salt Lake City shows that uranium mill tailings have been removed to many locations outside their original boundary. To date, 52 remote sites have been discovered within a 100 square kilometer aerial survey perimeter surrounding the mill; 9 of these were discovered with the recent aerial survey map. Five additional sites, also discovered by aerial survey, contained uranium ore, milling equipment, or radioactive slag. Because of the success of this survey, plans are being made to extend the aerial survey program to other parts of the Salt Lake valley where diversions of Vitro tailings are also known to exist.

  2. Scenario approach for assessing the utility of dispersal information in decision support for aerially spread plant pathogens, applied to Phytophthora infestans.

    PubMed

    Skelsey, P; Rossing, W A H; Kessel, G J T; van der Werf, W

    2009-07-01

    to "folk wisdom," spore loads of a few hundred spores per square meter do not lead to appreciable crop loss in resistant cultivars and are therefore acceptable. We conclude that scope exists for including dispersal information in decision making for potato late blight with resistant potato cultivars but not for susceptible cultivars. The modeling framework used in this study can be extended to investigate the scope for inclusion of dispersal information in decision support for other aerially transmitted pathogens.

  3. Environmental Conditions Influence Induction of Key ABC-Transporter Genes Affecting Glyphosate Resistance Mechanism in Conyza canadensis

    PubMed Central

    Tani, Eleni; Chachalis, Demosthenis; Travlos, Ilias S.; Bilalis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Conyza canadensis has been reported to be the most frequent weed species that evolved resistance to glyphosate in various parts of the world. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of environmental conditions (temperature and light) on the expression levels of the EPSPS gene and two major ABC-transporter genes (M10 and M11) on glyphosate susceptible (GS) and glyphosate resistant (GR) horseweed populations, collected from several regions across Greece. Real-time PCR was conducted to determine the expression level of the aforementioned genes when glyphosate was applied at normal (1×; 533 g·a.e.·ha−1) and high rates (4×, 8×), measured at an early one day after treatment (DAT) and a later stage (four DAT) of expression. Plants were exposed to light or dark conditions, at three temperature regimes (8, 25, 35 °C). GR plants were made sensitive when exposed to 8 °C with light; those sensitized plants behaved biochemically (shikimate accumulation) and molecularly (expression of EPSPS and ABC-genes) like the GS plants. Results from the current study show the direct link between the environmental conditions and the induction level of the above key genes that likely affect the efficiency of the proposed mechanism of glyphosate resistance. PMID:27104532

  4. A simple and green analytical method for determination of glyphosate in commercial formulations and water by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Aline Santana; Fernandes, Flávio Cesar Bedatty; Tognolli, João Olímpio; Pezza, Leonardo; Pezza, Helena Redigolo

    2011-09-01

    This article describes a simple, inexpensive, and environmentally friendly method for the monitoring of glyphosate using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The proposed method is based on reflectance measurements of the colored compound produced from the spot test reaction between glyphosate and p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (p-DAC) in acid medium, using a filter paper as solid support. Experimental designs were used to optimize the analytical conditions. All reflectance measurements were carried out at 495 nm. Under optimal conditions, the glyphosate calibration graphs obtained by plotting the optical density of the reflectance signal (AR) against the concentration were linear in the range 50-500 μg mL(-1), with a correlation coefficient of 0.9987. The limit of detection (LOD) for glyphosate was 7.28 μg mL(-1). The technique was successfully applied to the direct determination of glyphosate in commercial formulations, as well as in water samples (river water, pure water and mineral drinking water) after a previous clean-up or pre-concentration step. Recoveries were in the ranges 93.2-102.6% and 91.3-102.9% for the commercial formulations and water samples, respectively.

  5. Environmental Conditions Influence Induction of Key ABC-Transporter Genes Affecting Glyphosate Resistance Mechanism in Conyza canadensis.

    PubMed

    Tani, Eleni; Chachalis, Demosthenis; Travlos, Ilias S; Bilalis, Dimitrios

    2016-04-20

    Conyza canadensis has been reported to be the most frequent weed species that evolved resistance to glyphosate in various parts of the world. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of environmental conditions (temperature and light) on the expression levels of the EPSPS gene and two major ABC-transporter genes (M10 and M11) on glyphosate susceptible (GS) and glyphosate resistant (GR) horseweed populations, collected from several regions across Greece. Real-time PCR was conducted to determine the expression level of the aforementioned genes when glyphosate was applied at normal (1×; 533 g·a.e.·ha(-1)) and high rates (4×, 8×), measured at an early one day after treatment (DAT) and a later stage (four DAT) of expression. Plants were exposed to light or dark conditions, at three temperature regimes (8, 25, 35 °C). GR plants were made sensitive when exposed to 8 °C with light; those sensitized plants behaved biochemically (shikimate accumulation) and molecularly (expression of EPSPS and ABC-genes) like the GS plants. Results from the current study show the direct link between the environmental conditions and the induction level of the above key genes that likely affect the efficiency of the proposed mechanism of glyphosate resistance.

  6. A simple and green analytical method for determination of glyphosate in commercial formulations and water by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Aline Santana; Fernandes, Flávio Cesar Bedatty; Tognolli, João Olímpio; Pezza, Leonardo; Pezza, Helena Redigolo

    2011-09-01

    This article describes a simple, inexpensive, and environmentally friendly method for the monitoring of glyphosate using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The proposed method is based on reflectance measurements of the colored compound produced from the spot test reaction between glyphosate and p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde ( p-DAC) in acid medium, using a filter paper as solid support. Experimental designs were used to optimize the analytical conditions. All reflectance measurements were carried out at 495 nm. Under optimal conditions, the glyphosate calibration graphs obtained by plotting the optical density of the reflectance signal (A R) against the concentration were linear in the range 50-500 μg mL -1, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9987. The limit of detection (LOD) for glyphosate was 7.28 μg mL -1. The technique was successfully applied to the direct determination of glyphosate in commercial formulations, as well as in water samples (river water, pure water and mineral drinking water) after a previous clean-up or pre-concentration step. Recoveries were in the ranges 93.2-102.6% and 91.3-102.9% for the commercial formulations and water samples, respectively.

  7. Glyphosate fate in soils when arriving in plant residues.

    PubMed

    Mamy, Laure; Barriuso, Enrique; Gabrielle, Benoît

    2016-07-01

    A significant fraction of pesticides sprayed on crops may be returned to soils via plant residues, but its fate has been little documented. The objective of this work was to study the fate of glyphosate associated to plants residues. Oilseed rape was used as model plant using two lines: a glyphosate-tolerant (GT) line and a non-GT one, considered as a crucifer weed. The effects of different fragmentation degrees and placements in soil of plant residues were tested. A control was set up by spraying glyphosate directly on the soil. The mineralization of glyphosate in soil was slower when incorporated into plant residues, and the amounts of extractable and non-extractable glyphosate residues increased. Glyphosate availability for mineralization increased when the size of plant residues decreased, and as the distribution of plant residues in soil was more homogeneous. After 80 days of soil incubation, extractable (14)C-residues mostly involved one metabolite of glyphosate (AMPA) but up to 2.6% of initial (14)C was still extracted from undecayed leaves as glyphosate. Thus, the trapping of herbicides in plant materials provided a protection against degradation, and crops residues returns may increase the persistence of glyphosate in soils. This pattern appeared more pronounced for GT crops, which accumulated more non-degraded glyphosate in their tissues.

  8. Glyphosate induces human breast cancer cells growth via estrogen receptors.

    PubMed

    Thongprakaisang, Siriporn; Thiantanawat, Apinya; Rangkadilok, Nuchanart; Suriyo, Tawit; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2013-09-01

    Glyphosate is an active ingredient of the most widely used herbicide and it is believed to be less toxic than other pesticides. However, several recent studies showed its potential adverse health effects to humans as it may be an endocrine disruptor. This study focuses on the effects of pure glyphosate on estrogen receptors (ERs) mediated transcriptional activity and their expressions. Glyphosate exerted proliferative effects only in human hormone-dependent breast cancer, T47D cells, but not in hormone-independent breast cancer, MDA-MB231 cells, at 10⁻¹² to 10⁻⁶M in estrogen withdrawal condition. The proliferative concentrations of glyphosate that induced the activation of estrogen response element (ERE) transcription activity were 5-13 fold of control in T47D-KBluc cells and this activation was inhibited by an estrogen antagonist, ICI 182780, indicating that the estrogenic activity of glyphosate was mediated via ERs. Furthermore, glyphosate also altered both ERα and β expression. These results indicated that low and environmentally relevant concentrations of glyphosate possessed estrogenic activity. Glyphosate-based herbicides are widely used for soybean cultivation, and our results also found that there was an additive estrogenic effect between glyphosate and genistein, a phytoestrogen in soybeans. However, these additive effects of glyphosate contamination in soybeans need further animal study.

  9. Effect of glyphosate on fungal population, respiration and the decay of some organic matters in Egyptian soil.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Mallek, A Y; Abdel-Kader, M I; Shonkeir, A M

    1994-04-01

    Glyphosate (Roundup), when applied to the soil usually did not exert any significant effect on the total count of soil fungi after all periods of the experiment except after 6 and 10 weeks where the count was inhibited by the two doses used (1.84, 9.2 mg active ingredient/kg dry soil). When the herbicide was incorporated into the agar medium the count of total fungi, Acremonium strictum and Aspergillus fumigatus was significantly increased by the two doses used and of Penicillium glabrum by the high dose only. However, P. funiculosum was completely eliminated by the high dose. Oxygen consumption in soil treated with glyphosate was significantly inhibited by the high dose after 2 weeks and by the two doses after 6, 8 and 10 weeks. Glyphosate exerted two significant effects of stimulation and inhibition on the rate of the decay of stem segments of three plants at certain treatments of dose and time.

  10. Environmental fate and non-target impact of glyphosate-based herbicide (Roundup) in a subtropical wetland.

    PubMed

    Tsui, M T K; Chu, L M

    2008-03-01

    Mai Po Nature Reserve (Hong Kong) is an internationally important wetland for waterbirds. Roundup, a formulation based on glyphosate, has been used to control the widespread weeds within the reserve for many years but the fate and non-target impact of the herbicide is unknown. To fill this knowledge gap, we applied Roundup by hand-held sprayer to an estuarine and a freshwater pond in the dry season of year 2002. The surface water and sediment were sampled routinely for glyphosate concentrations following one month of application. In situ bioassays using local edible fish species were performed along with the herbicide application. Up to 52% of glyphosate in the surface water was transported to the unapplied regions by wind-driven current in the estuarine pond at 1 DPT (day post treatment). For both ponds, glyphosate concentrations in the water decreased rapidly after 1-3 DPT, but then decreased gradually over time. Both physical adsorption to the bottom sediments and microbial degradation are thought to contribute to these decreases. Interestingly, the persistence of glyphosate in the freshwater pond was longer than in the estuarine system, which is likely due to the considerably higher concentrations of chelating metals (i.e. Cu and Fe) present in the sediment (4.5 and 11-fold higher, respectively) which potentially reduced the bioavailability of glyphosate to the microbial decomposers. Lastly, fishes used in the in situ bioassays (both in applied and unapplied areas) showed similar survival rates, indicating that the use of Roundup at the provided application rate posed no serious hazard.

  11. Analysis of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in leaves from Coffea arabica using high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole mass spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Schrübbers, Lars C; Masís-Mora, Mario; Rojas, Elizabeth Carazo; Valverde, Bernal E; Christensen, Jan H; Cedergreen, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate is a commonly applied herbicide in coffee plantations. Because of its non-selective mode of action it can damage the crop exposed through spray drift. Therefore, it is of interest to study glyphosate fate in coffee plants. The aim of this study was to develop an analytical method for accurate and precise quantification of glyphosate and its main metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) at trace levels in coffee leaves using liquid chromatography with single-quadrupole mass spectrometry detection. The method is based on a two-step solid phase extraction (SPE) with an intermediate derivatization reaction using 9-fluorenylmethylchloroformate (FMOC). An isotope dilution method was used to account for matrix effects and to enhance the confidence in analyte identification. The limit of quantification (LOQ) for glyphosate and AMPA in coffee leaves was 41 and 111 μg kg(-1) dry weight, respectively. For the method optimization a design of experiments (DOE) approach was used. The sample clean-up procedure can be simplified for the analysis of less challenging matrices, for laboratories having a tandem mass spectrometry detector and for cases in which quantification limits above 0.1 mg kg(-1) are acceptable, which is often the case for glyphosate. The method is robust, possesses high identification confidence, while being suitable for most commercial and academic laboratories. All leaf samples from five coffee fields analyzed (n=21) contained glyphosate, while AMPA was absent. The simplified clean-up procedure was successfully validated for coffee leaves, rice, black beans and river water.

  12. Impact of glyphosate and glyphosate-based herbicides on the freshwater environment.

    PubMed

    Annett, Robert; Habibi, Hamid R; Hontela, Alice

    2014-05-01

    Glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine] is a broad spectrum, post emergent herbicide and is among the most widely used agricultural chemicals globally. Initially developed to control the growth of weed species in agriculture, this herbicide also plays an important role in both modern silviculture and domestic weed control. The creation of glyphosate tolerant crop species has significantly increased the demand and use of this herbicide and has also increased the risk of exposure to non-target species. Commercially available glyphosate-based herbicides are comprised of multiple, often proprietary, constituents, each with a unique level of toxicity. Surfactants used to increase herbicide efficacy have been identified in some studies as the chemicals responsible for toxicity of glyphosate-based herbicides to non-target species, yet they are often difficult to chemically identify. Most glyphosate-based herbicides are not approved for use in the aquatic environment; however, measurable quantities of the active ingredient and surfactants are detected in surface waters, giving them the potential to alter the physiology of aquatic organisms. Acute toxicity is highly species dependant across all taxa, with toxicity depending on the timing, magnitude, and route of exposure. The toxicity of glyphosate to amphibians has been a major focus of recent research, which has suggested increased sensitivity compared with other vertebrates due to their life history traits and reliance on both the aquatic and terrestrial environments. This review is designed to update previous reviews of glyphosate-based herbicide toxicity, with a focus on recent studies of the aquatic toxicity of this class of chemicals.

  13. Aerial Image Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, Robert E.

    1987-09-01

    Aerial images produce the best stereoscopic images of the viewed world. Despite the fact that every optic in existence produces an aerial image, few persons are aware of their existence and possible uses. Constant reference to the eye and other optical systems have produced a psychosis of design that only considers "focal planes" in the design and analysis of optical systems. All objects in the field of view of the optical device are imaged by the device as an aerial image. Use of aerial images in vision and visual display systems can provide a true stereoscopic representation of the viewed world. This paper discusses aerial image systems - their applications and designs and presents designs and design concepts that utilize aerial images to obtain superior visual displays, particularly with application to visual simulation.

  14. Sustainable use of glyphosate in North American cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, David I

    2008-04-01

    Roundup Ready (glyphosate-resistant) cropping systems enable the use of glyphosate, a non-selective herbicide that offers growers several benefits, including superior weed control, flexibility in weed control timing and economic advantages. The rapid adoption of such crops in North America has resulted in greater glyphosate use and concern over the potential for weed resistance to erode the sustainability of its efficacy. Computer modeling is one method that can be used to explore the sustainability of glyphosate when used in glyphosate-resistant cropping systems. Field tests should help strengthen the assumptions on which the models are based, and have been initiated for this purpose. Empirical evaluations of published data show that glyphosate-resistant weeds have an appearance rate of 0.007, defined as the number of newly resistant species per million acres treated, which ranks low among herbicides used in North America. Modeling calculations and ongoing field tests support a practical recommendation for growers occasionally to include other herbicides in glyphosate-resistant cropping systems, to lower further the potential for new resistance to occur. The presented data suggest that the sustainability of glyphosate in North America would be enhanced by prudent use of additional herbicides in glyphosate-resistant cropping systems.

  15. Transfer of hexazinone and glyphosate through undisturbed soil columns in soils under Christmas tree cultivation.

    PubMed

    Dousset, S; Chauvin, C; Durlet, P; Thévenot, M

    2004-10-01

    Field studies monitoring pesticide pollution in the Morvan region (France) have revealed surface water contamination by some herbicides. The purpose of this study was to investigate in greater detail the transport of two herbicides, used in Christmas tree production in the Morvan, under controlled laboratory conditions. Thus, the leaching of hexazinone (3-cyclohexyl-6-dimethyl-amino-1-methyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4 (1H,3H) dione) and glyphosate (N-(phosphono-methyl-glycine)) through structured soil columns was studied using one loamy sand and two sandy loams from sites currently under Christmas tree cultivation in the Morvan. The three soils were cultivated sandy brunisol [Sound reference base for soils, D. Baize, M.C. Girard (Coord.), INRA, Versailles, 1998, 322 p] or, according to the FAO [FAO, World reference base for soil resources, ISSS-ISRIC-FAO, FAO, Rome, Italy, 1998], the La Garenne was an arenosol and the two other soils were cambisols. The clay contents of the soils ranged from 86 to 156 g kg(-1) and the organic carbon ranged from 98 to 347 g kg(-1). After 160 mm of simulated rainfall applied over 12 days, 2-11% of the applied hexazinone was recovered in the leachate. The recovery was much higher than that of glyphosate, which was less than 0.01%. The greater mobility of hexazinone might be related to its much lower adsorption coefficient, K(oc), 19-300 l kg(-1), compared with 8.5-10231 l kg(-1) for glyphosate (literature values). Another factor that may explain the higher amounts of hexazinone recovered in the leachates of the three soil columns is its greater persistence (19.7-91 days) relative to that of glyphosate (7.9-14.4 days). The mobility of both herbicides was greater in the soils with higher gravel contents, coarser textures, and lower organic carbon contents. Moreover, glyphosate migration seems negatively correlated not only to soil organic carbon, but also to aluminium and iron contents of soils. This soil column study suggests that at the

  16. Using vegetative index and modified derivative for early detection of soybean plant injury from glyphosate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glyphosate is a non-selective, systemic herbicide highly toxic to sensitive plant species, and its use has seen a significant increase due to the increased adoption of genetically modified glyphosate-resistant crops since the mid-1990s. Glyphosate application for weed control in glyphosate-resistant...

  17. Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis and Acute Kidney Injury due to Glyphosate Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Indirakshi, J.; Sunnesh, A.; Aruna, M.; Reddy, M. Hari Krishna; Kumar, Anil C. V.; Chandra, V. Sarat; Sangeetha, B.; Katyarmal, D. T.; Ram, R.; Kumar, V. Siva

    2017-01-01

    The literature, particularly from India, is scarce on the renal effects of glyphosate poisoning. Glyphosate causes toxicity not only after its ingestion but also after dermal exposure by inhalation route and on eye exposure. We present a patient report of glyphosate consumption which resulted in toxic epidermal necrolysis – the first report after glyphosate consumption and acute kidney injury.

  18. Differential Growth Responses of Marine Phytoplankton to Herbicide Glyphosate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cong; Lin, Xin; Li, Ling; Lin, Senjie

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate is a globally popular herbicide to kill weeds and its wide applications may lead to accumulation in coastal oceans as a source of phosphorus (P) nutrient or growth inhibitor of phytoplankton. We studied the physiological effects of glyphosate on fourteen species representing five major coastal phytoplankton phyla (haptophyta, bacillariophyta, dinoflagellata, raphidophyta, and chlorophyta). Based on growth responses to different concentrations of glyphosate under contrasting dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) conditions, we found that phytoplankton species could be classified into five groups. Group I (Emiliania huxleyi, Skeletonema costatum, Phaeodactylum tricornutum) could utilize glyphosate as sole P-source to support growth in axenic culture, but in the presence of DIP, they were inhibited by both 36-μM and 360-μM glyphosate. Group II (Karenia mikimotoi, Prorocentrum minimum, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Symbiodinium sp., Heterosigma akashiwo and Alexandrium catenella) could not utilize glyphosate as sole P-source to support growth, and in the presence of DIP growth was not affected by 36-μM but inhibited by 360-μM glyphosate. Glyphosate consistently enhanced growth of Group III (Isochrysis galbana) and inhibited Group IV (Thalassiosira weissflogii, Thalassiosira pseudonana and Chattonella marina) regardless of DIP condition. Group V (Amphidinium carterae) exhibited no measurable response to glyphosate regardless of DIP condition. This grouping is not congruent with the phylogenetic relationships of the phytoplankton species suggesting functional differentiation driven by environmental pressure. We conclude that glyphosate could be used as P-source by some species while is toxic to some other species and yet has no effects on others. The observed differential effects suggest that the continued use of glyphosate and increasing concentration of this herbicide in the coastal waters will likely exert significant impact on coastal marine phytoplankton

  19. Differential Growth Responses of Marine Phytoplankton to Herbicide Glyphosate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cong; Lin, Xin; Li, Ling; Lin, Senjie

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate is a globally popular herbicide to kill weeds and its wide applications may lead to accumulation in coastal oceans as a source of phosphorus (P) nutrient or growth inhibitor of phytoplankton. We studied the physiological effects of glyphosate on fourteen species representing five major coastal phytoplankton phyla (haptophyta, bacillariophyta, dinoflagellata, raphidophyta, and chlorophyta). Based on growth responses to different concentrations of glyphosate under contrasting dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) conditions, we found that phytoplankton species could be classified into five groups. Group I (Emiliania huxleyi, Skeletonema costatum, Phaeodactylum tricornutum) could utilize glyphosate as sole P-source to support growth in axenic culture, but in the presence of DIP, they were inhibited by both 36-μM and 360-μM glyphosate. Group II (Karenia mikimotoi, Prorocentrum minimum, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Symbiodinium sp., Heterosigma akashiwo and Alexandrium catenella) could not utilize glyphosate as sole P-source to support growth, and in the presence of DIP growth was not affected by 36-μM but inhibited by 360-μM glyphosate. Glyphosate consistently enhanced growth of Group III (Isochrysis galbana) and inhibited Group IV (Thalassiosira weissflogii, Thalassiosira pseudonana and Chattonella marina) regardless of DIP condition. Group V (Amphidinium carterae) exhibited no measurable response to glyphosate regardless of DIP condition. This grouping is not congruent with the phylogenetic relationships of the phytoplankton species suggesting functional differentiation driven by environmental pressure. We conclude that glyphosate could be used as P-source by some species while is toxic to some other species and yet has no effects on others. The observed differential effects suggest that the continued use of glyphosate and increasing concentration of this herbicide in the coastal waters will likely exert significant impact on coastal marine phytoplankton

  20. Phosphate fertilizer impacts on glyphosate sorption by soil.

    PubMed

    Munira, Sirajum; Farenhorst, Annemieke; Flaten, Don; Grant, Cynthia

    2016-06-01

    This research examined the impact of field-aged phosphate and cadmium (Cd) concentrations, and fresh phosphate co-applications, on glyphosate sorption by soil. Soil samples were collected in 2013 from research plots that had received, from 2002 to 2009, annual applications of mono ammonium phosphate (MAP) at 20, 40 and 80 kg P ha(-1) and from products containing 0.4, 70 or 210 mg Cd kg(-1) as an impurity. A series of batch equilibrium experiments were carried out to quantify the glyphosate sorption distribution constant, Kd. Extractable Cd concentrations in soil had no significant effect on glyphosate sorption. Glyphosate Kd values significantly decreased with increasing Olsen-P concentrations in soil, regardless of the pH conditions studied. Experiments repeated with a commercially available glyphosate formulation showed statistically similar results as the experiments performed with analytical-grade glyphosate. Co-applications of MAP with glyphosate also reduced the available sorption sites to retain glyphosate, but less so when soils already contain large amounts of phosphate. Glyphosate Kd values in soils ranged from 173 to 939 L kg(-1) under very strong to strongly acidic condition but the Kd was always <100 L kg(-1) under moderately acidic to slightly alkaline conditions. The highest Olsen-P concentrations in soil reduced Kd values by 25-44% relative to control soils suggesting that, under moderately acidic to slightly alkaline conditions, glyphosate may become mobile by water in soils with high phosphate levels. Otherwise, glyphosate residues in agricultural soils are more likely to be transported off-site by wind and water-eroded sediments than by leaching or runoff.

  1. Evaluating exposure and potential effects on honeybee brood (Apis mellifera) development using glyphosate as an example

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Helen M; Levine, Steven L; Doering, Janine; Norman, Steve; Manson, Philip; Sutton, Peter; von Mérey, Georg

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to develop an approach to evaluate potential effects of plant protection products on honeybee brood with colonies at realistic worst-case exposure rates. The approach comprised 2 stages. In the first stage, honeybee colonies were exposed to a commercial formulation of glyphosate applied to flowering Phacelia tanacetifolia with glyphosate residues quantified in relevant matrices (pollen and nectar) collected by foraging bees on days 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7 postapplication and glyphosate levels in larvae were measured on days 4 and 7. Glyphosate levels in pollen were approximately 10 times higher than in nectar and glyphosate demonstrated rapid decline in both matrices. Residue data along with foraging rates and food requirements of the colony were then used to set dose rates in the effects study. In the second stage, the toxicity of technical glyphosate to developing honeybee larvae and pupae, and residues in larvae, were then determined by feeding treated sucrose directly to honeybee colonies at dose rates that reflect worst-case exposure scenarios. There were no significant effects from glyphosate observed in brood survival, development, and mean pupal weight. Additionally, there were no biologically significant levels of adult mortality observed in any glyphosate treatment group. Significant effects were observed only in the fenoxycarb toxic reference group and included increased brood mortality and a decline in the numbers of bees and brood. Mean glyphosate residues in larvae were comparable at 4 days after spray application in the exposure study and also following dosing at a level calculated from the mean measured levels in pollen and nectar, showing the applicability and robustness of the approach for dose setting with honeybee brood studies. This study has developed a versatile and predictive approach for use in higher tier honeybee toxicity studies. It can be used to realistically quantify exposure of colonies to pesticides to allow the

  2. Differentiating glyphosate-resistant and glyphosate-sensitive Italian ryegrass using hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Matthew A.; Huang, Yanbo; Nandula, Vijay K.; Reddy, Krishna N.

    2014-05-01

    Glyphosate based herbicide programs are most preferred in current row crop weed control practices. With the increased use of glyphosate, weeds, including Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), have developed resistance to glyphosate. The identification of glyphosate resistant weeds in crop fields is critical because they must be controlled before they reduce the crop yield. Conventionally, the method for the identification with whole plant or leaf segment/disc shikimate assays is tedious and labor-intensive. In this research, we investigated the use of high spatial resolution hyperspectral imagery to extract spectral curves derived from the whole plant of Italian ryegrass to determine if the plant is glyphosate resistant (GR) or glyphosate sensitive (GS), which provides a way for rapid, non-contact measurement for differentiation between GR and GS weeds for effective site-specific weed management. The data set consists of 226 greenhouse grown plants (119 GR, 107 GS), which were imaged at three and four weeks after emergence. In image preprocessing, the spectral curves are normalized to remove lighting artifacts caused by height variation in the plants. In image analysis, a subset of hyperspectral bands is chosen using a forward selection algorithm to optimize the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) between GR and GS plants. Then, the dimensionality of selected bands is reduced using linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Finally, the maximum likelihood classification was conducted for plant sample differentiation. The results show that the overall classification accuracy is between 75% and 80% depending on the age of the plants. Further refinement of the described methodology is needed to correlate better with plant age.

  3. Residue determination of glyphosate in environmental water samples with high-performance liquid chromatography and UV detection after derivatization with 4-chloro-3,5-dinitrobenzotrifluoride.

    PubMed

    Qian, Kun; Tang, Tao; Shi, Tianyu; Wang, Fang; Li, Jianqiang; Cao, Yongsong

    2009-03-09

    A pre-column derivatization high-performance liquid chromatographic method for glyphosate analysis has been developed. Derivatization of glyphosate was performed with 4-chloro-3,5-dinitrobenzotrifluoride (CNBF). In pH 9.5 H(3)BO(3)-Na(2)B(4)O(7) media, the reaction of glyphosate with CNBF completed at 60 degrees C for 30min. The labeled glyphosate was separated on a Kromasil C18 column (250mmx4.6mm, 5microm) at room temperature and UV detection was applied at 360nm. The separation of labeled glyphosate was achieved within 15min by gradient elution mode. Compared to other pre-column derivatization, this derivatization was performed more mildly, the derivative was more stable, and the detection limits of a few reagents were higher than CNBF, except 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-Cl) using fluorescence and mass spectrometry, however, this reagent avoid to be removed after derivatization like FMOC-Cl. The detection limit of glyphosate was 0.009mgL(-1) (S/N=3) without preconcentration and reach MRL, which is set at the level of 0.1mgL(-1) in China. The method linearity correlation coefficient was 0.9999, in concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 48.5mgL(-1). The proposed method has been applied to the quantitative determination of glyphosate in environmental water with recoveries of 91.80-100.20% and R.S.D. of 2.27-6.80, depending on the sample investigated.

  4. Glyphosate rodent carcinogenicity bioassay expert panel review.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gary M; Berry, Colin; Burns, Michele; de Camargo, Joao Lauro Viana; Greim, Helmut

    2016-09-01

    Glyphosate has been rigorously and extensively tested for carcinogenicity by administration to mice (five studies) and to rats (nine studies). Most authorities have concluded that the evidence does not indicate a cancer risk to humans. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), however, evaluated some of the available data and concluded that glyphosate probably is carcinogenic to humans. The expert panel convened by Intertek assessed the findings used by IARC, as well as the full body of evidence and found the following: (1) the renal neoplastic effects in males of one mouse study are not associated with glyphosate exposure, because they lack statistical significance, strength, consistency, specificity, lack a dose-response pattern, plausibility, and coherence; (2) the strength of association of liver hemangiosarcomas in a different mouse study is absent, lacking consistency, and a dose-response effect and having in high dose males only a significant incidence increase which is within the historical control range; (3) pancreatic islet-cell adenomas (non-significant incidence increase), in two studies of male SD rats did not progress to carcinomas and lacked a dose-response pattern (the highest incidence is in the low dose followed by the high dose); (4) in one of two studies, a non-significant positive trend in the incidence of hepatocellular adenomas in male rats did not lead to progression to carcinomas; (5) in one of two studies, the non-significant positive trend in the incidence of thyroid C-cell adenomas in female rats was not present and there was no progression of adenomas to carcinomas at the end of the study. Application of criteria for causality considerations to the above mentioned tumor types and given the overall weight-of-evidence (WoE), the expert panel concluded that glyphosate is not a carcinogen in laboratory animals.

  5. Transcriptome response to glyphosate in sensitive and resistant soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The majority of soybeans planted in the United States are resistant to glyphosate due to introduction of a gene encoding for a glyphosate-insensitive 5-enolypyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). Gene expression profiling was conducted using cDNA microarrays to address questions related to p...

  6. Characterization of glyphosate resistance in cloned Amaranthus palmeri plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glyphosate resistant Palmer amaranth from Georgia (GA) possesses multiple copies of the target site, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) of this herbicide. Cloned plants of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth biotypes from Mississippi (MS) were compared with GA populations using le...

  7. Gene amplification confers glyphosate resistance in Amaranthus palmeri

    PubMed Central

    Gaines, Todd A.; Zhang, Wenli; Wang, Dafu; Bukun, Bekir; Chisholm, Stephen T.; Shaner, Dale L.; Nissen, Scott J.; Patzoldt, William L.; Tranel, Patrick J.; Culpepper, A. Stanley; Grey, Timothy L.; Webster, Theodore M.; Vencill, William K.; Sammons, R. Douglas; Jiang, Jiming; Preston, Christopher; Leach, Jan E.; Westra, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The herbicide glyphosate became widely used in the United States and other parts of the world after the commercialization of glyphosate-resistant crops. These crops have constitutive overexpression of a glyphosate-insensitive form of the herbicide target site gene, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). Increased use of glyphosate over multiple years imposes selective genetic pressure on weed populations. We investigated recently discovered glyphosate-resistant Amaranthus palmeri populations from Georgia, in comparison with normally sensitive populations. EPSPS enzyme activity from resistant and susceptible plants was equally inhibited by glyphosate, which led us to use quantitative PCR to measure relative copy numbers of the EPSPS gene. Genomes of resistant plants contained from 5-fold to more than 160-fold more copies of the EPSPS gene than did genomes of susceptible plants. Quantitative RT-PCR on cDNA revealed that EPSPS expression was positively correlated with genomic EPSPS relative copy number. Immunoblot analyses showed that increased EPSPS protein level also correlated with EPSPS genomic copy number. EPSPS gene amplification was heritable, correlated with resistance in pseudo-F2 populations, and is proposed to be the molecular basis of glyphosate resistance. FISH revealed that EPSPS genes were present on every chromosome and, therefore, gene amplification was likely not caused by unequal chromosome crossing over. This occurrence of gene amplification as an herbicide resistance mechanism in a naturally occurring weed population is particularly significant because it could threaten the sustainable use of glyphosate-resistant crop technology. PMID:20018685

  8. Metabolism of glyphosate in Pseudomonas sp. strain LBr.

    PubMed

    Jacob, G S; Garbow, J R; Hallas, L E; Kimack, N M; Kishore, G M; Schaefer, J

    1988-12-01

    Metabolism of glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) by Pseudomonas sp. strain LBr, a bacterium isolated from a glyphosate process waste stream, was examined by a combination of solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance experiments and analysis of the phosphonate composition of the growth medium. Pseudomonas sp. strain LBr was capable of eliminating 20 mM glyphosate from the growth medium, an amount approximately 20-fold greater than that reported for any other microorganism to date. The bacterium degraded high levels of glyphosate, primarily by converting it to aminomethylphosphonate, followed by release into the growth medium. Only a small amount of aminomethylphosphonate (about 0.5 to 0.7 mM), which is needed to supply phosphorus for growth, could be metabolized by the microorganism. Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of strain LBr grown on 1 mM [2-13C,15N]glyphosate showed that about 5% of the glyphosate was degraded by a separate pathway involving breakdown of glyphosate to glycine, a pathway first observed in Pseudomonas sp. strain PG2982. Thus, Pseudomonas sp. strain LBr appears to possess two distinct routes for glyphosate detoxification.

  9. Effects of Transgenic Glyphosate-Resistant Crops on Water Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glyphosate (N-[phosphonomethyl] glycine) is a highly effective, non-selective herbicide. Herbicide-resistant crop (HRC) has been the most successful trait used in transgenic crops throughout the world. Transgenic glyphosate-resistant crops (GRCs) have been commercialized and grown extensively in the...

  10. Study of glyphosate transport through suspended particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiot, Audrey; Landry, David; Jadas-Hécart, Alain; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Sourice, Stéphane; Ballouche, Aziz

    2014-05-01

    The results have been produced in a project aiming to improve the water quality of the Layon localy supported by stakeholders involved in the implementation of the Water Framework Directive as the SAGE-Layon Aubance. The study site is a small vineyard catchment (2.2 ha) of the Loire Valley. The slopes of the study site are between 8 and 40% resulting in strong erosive episodes during rainy event. The main objective is to understand the transfer of pesticide residues to stream. Preliminary results have shown glyphosate can be found with high concentrations during runoff. However this study was realized only in the dissolved phase. The objective is now to understand the glyphosate transport driven by SPM. The methodology developed has been (i) characterization and production of the erodible water fraction from soils aggregates; (ii) achievement of the adsorption of glyphosate on these erodible materials to compare this results with adsorption on soil sieved to 2 mm, (iii) achievement of the desorption of glyphosate on these erodible materials. Measurements have been performed on soil samples distinguishing weed or grassed soils. Soils are sieved to 2 mm or between 2 and 5 mm (to produce the erodible water fraction). Both fractions are then used to glyphosate sorption and desorption. The erodible fraction was produce with a wet sieving machine (eijkelkampt Method Kemper and Rosenau, 1986), using sieve porosity of 250 microns. The fraction obtained at 250 microns is considered to be the erodible water fraction and is used to study the adsorption and desorption of glyphosate. Kinetics has been first carried out then the isotherm to obtain the value of Kd. A ratio soil/solution of 1/5 was used. Successive desorption's method was chosen with a stirring time of 20 min, centrifugation at 6000 g and the supernatant in each desorption of 20 min is analyzed. This step is repeated 25 times. The main results of the study are: (i) adsorption of glyphosate is rapid and almost

  11. Molecular basis of glyphosate resistance: Different approaches through protein engineering

    PubMed Central

    Pollegioni, Loredano; Schonbrunn, Ernst; Siehl, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Glyphosate (N-phosphonomethyl-glycine) is the most-used herbicide in the world: glyphosate-based formulations exhibit broad-spectrum herbicidal activity with minimal human and environmental toxicity. The extraordinary success of this simple small molecule is mainly due to the high specificity of glyphosate towards the plant enzyme enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase in the shikimate pathway leading to biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids. Starting in 1996, transgenic glyphosate-resistant plants were introduced thus allowing the application of the herbicide to the crop (post-emergence) to remove emerged weeds without crop damage. This review focuses on the evolution of mechanisms of resistance to glyphosate as obtained through natural diversity, the gene shuffling approach to molecular evolution, and a rational, structure-based approach to protein engineering. In addition, we offer rationale for the means by which the modifications made have had their intended effect. PMID:21668647

  12. Studies on synthesis esterified zirconium glyphosates and their hydrophobic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yaqing; Li, Minglei; Ji, Xuemei; Xu, Qinghong

    2010-03-01

    A series of new organic-modified zirconium glyphosate compounds were synthesized based on the reactions between esterified glyphosates and ZrOCl 2. FT-IR spectra, solid-state 31P MAS NMR and elementary analysis proved the formation of these new compounds. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) patterns and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images proved these compounds had lamellar structures. Scanning electronic microscope (SEM) images showed that solvents used in synthesis had great influence on the morphologies of products. Water contact angle measurements showed that the hydrophobic property of the products was a function of the number of carbon in esterified glyphosates, increased from 0° of zirconium glyphosate to 133° of dodecyl zirconium glyphosate. The present study offered a new route to synthesize organic-modified α-Zr(HPO 4) 2·H 2O (α-ZrP) materials with various morphology and controllable hydrophobic property.

  13. Glyphosate and fungicide effects on Cercospora leaf spot in four glyphosate-resistant sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glyphosate has been shown to reduce foliar diseases in soybean and wheat. In fact, currently there is a patent application for a synergistic combination of glyphosate and a fungicide for disease management. Cercospora leaf spot (Cercospora beticola) is one of the most significant foliar disease prob...

  14. Genotoxicity Expert Panel review: weight of evidence evaluation of the genotoxicity of glyphosate, glyphosate-based formulations, and aminomethylphosphonic acid.

    PubMed

    Brusick, David; Aardema, Marilyn; Kier, Larry; Kirkland, David; Williams, Gary

    2016-09-01

    In 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) published a monograph concluding there was strong evidence for genotoxicity of glyphosate and glyphosate formulations and moderate evidence for genotoxicity of the metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA). These conclusions contradicted earlier extensive reviews supporting the lack of genotoxicity of glyphosate and glyphosate formulations. The IARC Monograph concluded there was strong evidence of induction of oxidative stress by glyphosate, glyphosate formulations, and AMPA. The Expert Panel reviewed the genotoxicity and oxidative stress data considered in the IARC Monograph, together with other available data not considered by IARC. The Expert Panel defined and used a weight of evidence (WoE) approach that included ranking of studies and endpoints by the strength of their linkage to events associated with carcinogenic mechanisms. Importantly, the Expert Panel concluded that there was sufficient information available from a very large number of regulatory genotoxicity studies that should have been considered by IARC. The WoE approach, the inclusion of all relevant regulatory studies, and some differences in interpretation of individual studies led to significantly different conclusions by the Expert Panel compared with the IARC Monograph. The Expert Panel concluded that glyphosate, glyphosate formulations, and AMPA do not pose a genotoxic hazard and the data do not support the IARC Monograph genotoxicity evaluation. With respect to carcinogenicity classification and mechanism, the Expert Panel concluded that evidence relating to an oxidative stress mechanism of carcinogenicity was largely unconvincing and that the data profiles were not consistent with the characteristics of genotoxic carcinogens.

  15. Impact of glyphosate resistant corn, glyphosate applications, and tillage on soil nutrient ratios, exoenzyme activities, and nutrient acquisition ratios

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report results of the last two years of a 7-year (2008-2014) field experiment designed to test the null hypothesis that applications of glyphosate on glyphosate resistant corn (Zea mays L.) as a routine weed control practice under both conventional and reduced tillage practices would have no effe...

  16. Changes in rhizosphere bacterial gene expression following glyphosate treatment.

    PubMed

    Newman, Molli M; Lorenz, Nicola; Hoilett, Nigel; Lee, Nathan R; Dick, Richard P; Liles, Mark R; Ramsier, Cliff; Kloepper, Joseph W

    2016-05-15

    In commercial agriculture, populations and interactions of rhizosphere microflora are potentially affected by the use of specific agrichemicals, possibly by affecting gene expression in these organisms. To investigate this, we examined changes in bacterial gene expression within the rhizosphere of glyphosate-tolerant corn (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) in response to long-term glyphosate (PowerMAX™, Monsanto Company, MO, USA) treatment. A long-term glyphosate application study was carried out using rhizoboxes under greenhouse conditions with soil previously having no history of glyphosate exposure. Rhizosphere soil was collected from the rhizoboxes after four growing periods. Soil microbial community composition was analyzed using microbial phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Total RNA was extracted from rhizosphere soil, and samples were analyzed using RNA-Seq analysis. A total of 20-28 million bacterial sequences were obtained for each sample. Transcript abundance was compared between control and glyphosate-treated samples using edgeR. Overall rhizosphere bacterial metatranscriptomes were dominated by transcripts related to RNA and carbohydrate metabolism. We identified 67 differentially expressed bacterial transcripts from the rhizosphere. Transcripts downregulated following glyphosate treatment involved carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, and upregulated transcripts involved protein metabolism and respiration. Additionally, bacterial transcripts involving nutrients, including iron, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, were also affected by long-term glyphosate application. Overall, most bacterial and all fungal PLFA biomarkers decreased after glyphosate treatment compared to the control. These results demonstrate that long-term glyphosate use can affect rhizosphere bacterial activities and potentially shift bacterial community composition favoring more glyphosate-tolerant bacteria.

  17. Low doses of glyphosate change the response of soybean to later glyphosate exposures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stimulatory effect of low doses of toxic substances is known as hormesis. Many herbicides that cause severe injury to plants at recommended rates, promote growth or have other stimulatory effects at very low doses. The objective of this study was to evaluate glyphosate-induced hormesis in soyb...

  18. Determination of Glyphosate Levels in Breast Milk Samples from Germany by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Steinborn, Angelika; Alder, Lutz; Michalski, Britta; Zomer, Paul; Bendig, Paul; Martinez, Sandra Aleson; Mol, Hans G J; Class, Thomas J; Pinheiro, Nathalie Costa

    2016-02-17

    This study describes the validation and application of two independent analytical methods for the determination of glyphosate in breast milk. They are based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), respectively. For LC-MS/MS, sample preparation involved an ultrafiltration followed by chromatography on an anion exchange column. The analysis by GC-MS/MS involved an extraction step, cleanup on a cation exchange column, and derivatization with heptafluorobutanol and trifluoroacetic acid anhydride. Both methods were newly developed for breast milk and are able to quantify glyphosate residues at concentrations as low as 1 ng/mL. The methods were applied to quantify glyphosate levels in 114 breast milk samples, which had been collected from August to September of 2015 in Germany. The mothers participated at their own request and thus do not form a representative sample. In none of the investigated samples were glyphosate residues above the limit of detection found.

  19. AERIAL METHODS OF EXPLORATION

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The development of photointerpretation techniques for identifying kimberlite pipes on aerial photographs is discussed. The geographic area considered is the Daldyn region, which lies in the zone of Northern Taiga of Yakutiya.

  20. Efficacy and fate of glyphosate on Swedish railway embankments.

    PubMed

    Torstensson, Lennart; Börjesson, Elisabet; Stenström, John

    2005-09-01

    The herbicide glyphosate, N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine, as Spectra (240 g AI litre(-1) SL; Monsanto Europe AB), RoundUp (360 g AI litre(-1) SL; Monsanto) and RoundUp Bio (360 g AI litre(-1) SL; Monsanto), have been used for weed control on Swedish railway embankments since 1986. This article summarizes results from studies of the weed effect and behaviour of glyphosate for the period 1984-2003. Studies on a railway embankment with a range of application rates showed excellent weed control at 5 litre ha(-1) of RoundUp Bio. The appearance of glyphosate and its metabolite AMPA [(aminomethyl)phosphonic acid] in the embankment, eg mobility and persistence, was also studied. Mobility was low in most cases, the main proportion of both glyphosate and AMPA being found in the upper 30-cm layer although minor amounts penetrated to lower depths. The 50% disappearance time of glyphosate was generally <5 months in railway embankments but cases with longer persistence were found. Transport to the groundwater was observed for glyphosate and AMPA in groundwater pipes along tracks. Downward transport appears to be dependent on the application rate, which should not exceed 3 litre ha(-1) of RoundUp Bio to avoid groundwater contamination. A lower rate of glyphosate mixed with a low rate of another herbicide may achieve acceptable weed control and be environmentally safer.

  1. Technical performance of some commercial glyphosate-resistant crops.

    PubMed

    Pline-Srnic, Wendy

    2005-03-01

    Glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops have been sold commercially in the USA since 1996. The use of glyphosate alone or with conventional pre- and post-emergence herbicides with different modes of action gives growers many options for affordable, safe, easy, effective wide-spectrum weed control. Despite the overwhelming popularity of this technology, technical issues have surfaced from time to time as US growers adopt these crops for use on their farms. The types of concern raised by growers vary from year to year depending on the crop and the environment, but include perceptions of increased sensitivity to diseases, increased fruit abortion, reduced pollination efficiency, increased sensitivity to environmental stress, and differences in yield and agronomic characteristics between transgenic and sister conventional varieties. Although several glyphosate-resistant crops are commercially available, maize, soybean and cotton constitute the largest cultivated acreage and have likewise been associated with the highest number of technical concerns. Because glyphosate is rapidly translocated to and accumulates in metabolic sink tissues, reproductive tissues and roots are particularly vulnerable. Increased sensitivity to glyphosate in reproductive tissues has been documented in both glyphosate-resistant cotton and maize, and results in reduced pollen production and viability, or increased fruit abortion. Glyphosate treatments have the potential to affect relationships between the GR crop, plant pathogens, plant pests and symbiotic micro-organisms, although management practices can also have a large impact. Despite these potential technical concerns, this technology remains popular, and is a highly useful tool for weed control in modern crop production.

  2. EPSPS amplification in glyphosate-resistant spiny amaranth (Amaranthus spinosus): a case of gene transfer via interspecific hybridization from glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amaranthus spinosus, a common weed of pastures, is a close relative of Amaranthus palmeri, a problematic agricultural weed with widespread glyphosate resistance. These two species have been known to hybridize, allowing for transfer of glyphosate resistance. Glyphosate-resistant A. spinosus was rec...

  3. Glyphosate-resistant and glyphosate-susceptible Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S Wats.): hyperspectral reflectance properties of plants and potential for classification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.) is a troublesome agronomic weed in the southern United States, and several populations have evolved resistance to glyphosate. This paper reports spectral signatures of glyphosate-resistant (GR) and glyphosate-sensitive (GS) plants, and explor...

  4. Adsorption of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampazzo, N.; Rampazzo Todorovic, G.; Mentler, A.; Blum, W. E. H.

    2013-03-01

    The results showed that glyphosate is initially adsorbed mostly in the upper 2 cm. It is than transported and adsorbed after few days in deeper soil horizons with concomitant increasing content of its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid. Moreover, Fe-oxides seem to be a key parameter for glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic adsorption in soils. This study confirmed previous studies: the analysis showed lower contents of dithionite-soluble and Fe-oxides for the Chernozem, with consequently lower adsorption of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic as compared with the Cambisol and the Stagnosol.

  5. Soil microbial activity is affected by Roundup WeatherMax and pesticides applied to cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Sarah H; Haney, Richard L; Senseman, Scott A; Hons, Frank M; Chandler, James M

    2006-09-20

    Adoption of glyphosate-based weed control systems has led to increased use of the herbicide with continued use of additional pesticides. Combinations of pesticides may affect soil microbial activity differently than pesticides applied alone. Research was conducted to evaluate the influence of glyphosate-based cotton pest management systems on soil microbial activity. Soil was treated with commercial formulations of trifluralin, aldicarb, and mefenoxam + pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) with or without glyphosate (applied as Roundup WeatherMax). The soil microbial activity was measured by quantifying C and N mineralization. Soil microbial biomass was determined using the chloroform fumigation-incubation method. Soils treated with glyphosate alone exhibited greater cumulative C mineralization 30 days after treatment than all other treatments, which were similar to the untreated control. The addition of Roundup WeatherMax reduced C mineralization in soils treated with fluometuron, aldicarb, or mefenoxam + PCNB formulations. These results indicate that glyphosate-based herbicides alter the soil microbial response to other pesticides.

  6. Aerial Photography Summary Record System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1998-01-01

    The Aerial Photography Summary Record System (APSRS) describes aerial photography projects that meet specified criteria over a given geographic area of the United States and its territories. Aerial photographs are an important tool in cartography and a number of other professions. Land use planners, real estate developers, lawyers, environmental specialists, and many other professionals rely on detailed and timely aerial photographs. Until 1975, there was no systematic approach to locate an aerial photograph, or series of photographs, quickly and easily. In that year, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) inaugurated the APSRS, which has become a standard reference for users of aerial photographs.

  7. Evolved glyphosate-resistant weeds around the world: lessons to be learnt.

    PubMed

    Powles, Stephen B

    2008-04-01

    Glyphosate is the world's most important herbicide, with many uses that deliver effective and sustained control of a wide spectrum of unwanted (weedy) plant species. Until recently there were relatively few reports of weedy plant species evolving resistance to glyphosate. Since 1996, the advent and subsequent high adoption of transgenic glyphosate-resistant crops in the Americas has meant unprecedented and often exclusive use of glyphosate for weed control over very large areas. Consequently, in regions of the USA where transgenic glyphosate-resistant crops dominate, there are now evolved glyphosate-resistant populations of the economically damaging weed species Ambrosia artemissifolia L., Ambrosia trifida L., Amaranthus palmeri S Watson, Amaranthus rudis JD Sauer, Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq) JD Sauer and various Conyza and Lolium spp. Likewise, in areas of transgenic glyphosate-resistant crops in Argentina and Brazil, there are now evolved glyphosate-resistant populations of Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers and Euphorbia heterophylla L. respectively. As transgenic glyphosate-resistant crops will remain very popular with producers, it is anticipated that glyphosate-resistant biotypes of other prominent weed species will evolve over the next few years. Therefore, evolved glyphosate-resistant weeds are a major risk for the continued success of glyphosate and transgenic glyphosate-resistant crops. However, glyphosate-resistant weeds are not yet a problem in many parts of the world, and lessons can be learnt and actions taken to achieve glyphosate sustainability. A major lesson is that maintenance of diversity in weed management systems is crucial for glyphosate to be sustainable. Glyphosate is essential for present and future world food production, and action to secure its sustainability for future generations is a global imperative.

  8. Glyphosate-resistant weeds of South American cropping systems: an overview.

    PubMed

    Vila-Aiub, Martin M; Vidal, Ribas A; Balbi, Maria C; Gundel, Pedro E; Trucco, Frederico; Ghersa, Claudio M

    2008-04-01

    Herbicide resistance is an evolutionary event resulting from intense herbicide selection over genetically diverse weed populations. In South America, orchard, cereal and legume cropping systems show a strong dependence on glyphosate to control weeds. The goal of this report is to review the current knowledge on cases of evolved glyphosate-resistant weeds in South American agriculture. The first reports of glyphosate resistance include populations of highly diverse taxa (Lolium multiflorum Lam., Conyza bonariensis L., C. canadensis L.). In all instances, resistance evolution followed intense glyphosate use in fruit fields of Chile and Brazil. In fruit orchards from Colombia, Parthenium hysterophorus L. has shown the ability to withstand high glyphosate rates. The recent appearance of glyphosate-resistant Sorghum halepense L. and Euphorbia heterophylla L. in glyphosate-resistant soybean fields of Argentina and Brazil, respectively, is of major concern. The evolution of glyphosate resistance has clearly taken place in those agroecosystems where glyphosate exerts a strong and continuous selection pressure on weeds. The massive adoption of no-till practices together with the utilization of glyphosate-resistant soybean crops are factors encouraging increase in glyphosate use. This phenomenon has been more evident in Argentina and Brazil. The exclusive reliance on glyphosate as the main tool for weed management results in agroecosystems biologically more prone to glyphosate resistance evolution.

  9. [Effect of glyphosate on the energy exchange in carp organs].

    PubMed

    Zhidenko, A A; Bibchuk, E V; Barbukho, E V

    2013-01-01

    The use of glyphosate as a herbicide in agriculture can lead to the presence of its residues and metabolites (aminomethylphosphonic acid) in food for human consumption and pose a threat to health. The effect of these herbicides on the fish organism at the biochemical level has been insufficiently studied. We studied changes in the content of adenine nucleotides, enzyme activity, quantitative indexes of energy metabolism substrates in carp under the action of glyphosate. It has been found that proteins are the major energy substrate under the influence of glyphosate in the liver, brain, white muscle of carp yearlings. Glyphosphate decreases energy metabolism in the brain of carp and increases it in the white muscles. The growth of activity of catabolic enzymes in the liver under the influence of glyphosate can be attributed to the adaptive remodelling of metabolic pathways for homeostasis and enantiostasis in response to herbicides.

  10. Modeling biodegradation and kinetics of glyphosate by artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Nourouzi, Mohsen M; Chuah, Teong G; Choong, Thomas S Y; Rabiei, F

    2012-01-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed to simulate the biodegradation of herbicide glyphosate [2-(Phosphonomethylamino) acetic acid] in a solution with varying parameters pH, inoculum size and initial glyphosate concentration. The predictive ability of ANN model was also compared with Monod model. The result showed that ANN model was able to accurately predict the experimental results. A low ratio of self-inhibition and half saturation constants of Haldane equations (< 8) exhibited the inhibitory effect of glyphosate on bacteria growth. The value of K(i)/K(s) increased when the mixed inoculum size was increased from 10(4) to 10(6) bacteria/mL. It was found that the percentage of glyphosate degradation reached a maximum value of 99% at an optimum pH 6-7 while for pH values higher than 9 or lower than 4, no degradation was observed.

  11. Partial desalination and concentration of glyphosate liquor by nanofiltration.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ming; Xu, Yanhua

    2011-02-15

    Partial desalination and concentration of glyphosate liquor by nanofiltration under different operation modes were investigated experimentally in this study. These operation modes were direct nanofiltration, diafiltration, dilute-diafiltration and interval washing-nanofiltration. The four different operation modes were evaluated and compared in terms of glyphosate recovery and NaCl removal. Diafiltration and dilute-diafiltration performed better than direct nanofiltration. The glyphosate loss was between 11.5% and 18.8% when the dilution factor varied from 0.4 to 0.8. Interval washing-nanofiltration alleviated the concentration polarization and membrane fouling to a certain extent. Dilute-diafiltration may be the best operation mode in terms of glyphosate recovery, salt removal and cost.

  12. Removal of glyphosate herbicide from water using biopolymer membranes.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Rafael T A; Taketa, Thiago B; Gomes Neto, Reginaldo J; Oliveira, Jhones L; Campos, Estefânia V R; de Moraes, Mariana A; da Silva, Camila M G; Beppu, Marisa M; Fraceto, Leonardo F

    2015-03-15

    Enormous amounts of pesticides are manufactured and used worldwide, some of which reach soils and aquatic systems. Glyphosate is a non-selective herbicide that is effective against all types of weeds and has been used for many years. It can therefore be found as a contaminant in water, and procedures are required for its removal. This work investigates the use of biopolymeric membranes prepared with chitosan (CS), alginate (AG), and a chitosan/alginate combination (CS/AG) for the adsorption of glyphosate present in water samples. The adsorption of glyphosate by the different membranes was investigated using the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic models, as well as the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The membranes were characterized regarding membrane solubility, swelling, mechanical, chemical and morphological properties. The results of kinetics experiments showed that adsorption equilibrium was reached within 4 h and that the CS membrane presented the best adsorption (10.88 mg of glyphosate/g of membrane), followed by the CS/AG bilayer (8.70 mg of glyphosate/g of membrane). The AG membrane did not show any adsorption capacity for this herbicide. The pseudo-second order model provided good fits to the glyphosate adsorption data on CS and CS/AG membranes, with high correlation coefficient values. Glyphosate adsorption by the membranes could be fitted by the Freundlich isotherm model. There was a high affinity between glyphosate and the CS membrane and moderate affinity in the case of the CS/AG membrane. Physico-chemical characterization of the membranes showed low values of solubility in water, indicating that the membranes are stable and not soluble in water. The SEM and AFM analysis showed evidence of the presence of glyphosate on CS membranes and on chitosan face on CS/AG membranes. The results showed that the glyphosate herbicide can be adsorbed by chitosan membranes and the proposed membrane-based methodology was successfully used to

  13. Transgenic tobacco simultaneously overexpressing glyphosate N-acetyltransferase and 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase are more resistant to glyphosate than those containing one gene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunjun; Cao, Gaoyi; Chen, Rongrong; Zhang, Shengxue; Ren, Yuan; Lu, Wei; Wang, Jianhua; Wang, Guoying

    2015-08-01

    5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) and glyphosate N-acetyltransferase (GAT) can detoxify glyphosate by alleviating the suppression of shikimate pathway. In this study, we obtained transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing AM79 aroA, GAT, and both of them, respectively, to evaluate whether overexpression of both genes could confer transgenic plants with higher glyphosate resistance. The transgenic plants harboring GAT or AM79 aroA, respectively, showed good glyphosate resistance. As expected, the hybrid plants containing both GAT and AM79 aroA exhibited improved glyphosate resistance than the transgenic plants overexpressing only a single gene. When grown on media with high concentration of glyphosate, seedlings containing a single gene were severely inhibited, whereas plants expressing both genes were affected less. When transgenic plants grown in the greenhouse were sprayed with glyphosate, less damage was observed for the plants containing both genes. Metabolomics analysis showed that transgenic plants containing two genes could maintain the metabolism balance better than those containing one gene after glyphosate treatment. Glyphosate treatment did not lead to a huge increase of shikimate contents of tobacco leaves in transgenic plants overexpressing two genes, whereas significant increase of shikimate contents in transgenic plants containing only a single gene was observed. These results demonstrated that pyramiding both aroA and GAT in transgenic plants can enhance glyphosate resistance, and this strategy can be used for the development of transgenic glyphosate-resistant crops.

  14. First Resistance Mechanisms Characterization in Glyphosate-Resistant Leptochloa virgata

    PubMed Central

    Alcántara-de la Cruz, Ricardo; Rojano-Delgado, Antonia M.; Giménez, María J.; Cruz-Hipolito, Hugo E.; Domínguez-Valenzuela, José A.; Barro, Francisco; De Prado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Leptochloa virgata (L.) P. Beauv. is an annual weed common in citrus groves in the states of Puebla and Veracruz, Mexico limiting their production. Since 2010, several L. virgata populations were identified as being resistant to glyphosate, but studies of their resistance mechanisms developed by this species have been conducted. In this work, three glyphosate-resistant populations (R8, R14, and R15) collected in citrus orchards from Mexico, were used to study their resistance mechanisms comparing them to one susceptible population (S). Dose-response and shikimic acid accumulation assays confirmed the glyphosate resistance of the three resistant populations. Higher doses of up to 720 g ae ha-1 (field dose) were needed to control by 50% plants of resistant populations. The S population absorbed between 7 and 13% more 14C-glyphosate than resistant ones, and translocated up to 32.2% of 14C-glyphosate to the roots at 96 h after treatment (HAT). The R8, R14, and R15 populations translocated only 24.5, 26.5, and 21.9%, respectively. The enzyme activity of 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) was not different in the S, R8 and R14 populations. The R15 Population exhibited 165.9 times greater EPSPS activity. Additionally, this population showed a higher EPSPS basal activity and a substitution in the codon 106 from Proline to Serine in the EPSPS protein sequence. EPSPS gene expression in the R15 population was similar to that of S population. In conclusion, the three resistant L. virgata populations show reduced absorption and translocation of 14C-glyphosate. Moreover, a mutation and an enhanced EPSPS basal activity at target-site level confers higher resistance to glyphosate. These results describe for the first time the glyphosate resistance mechanisms developed by resistant L. virgata populations of citrus orchards from Mexico. PMID:27917189

  15. Aerial Explorers and Robotic Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg

    2004-01-01

    A unique bio-inspired approach to autonomous aerial vehicle, a.k.a. aerial explorer technology is discussed. The work is focused on defining and studying aerial explorer mission concepts, both as an individual robotic system and as a member of a small robotic "ecosystem." Members of this robotic ecosystem include the aerial explorer, air-deployed sensors and robotic symbiotes, and other assets such as rovers, landers, and orbiters.

  16. Epidemiologic studies of glyphosate and cancer: a review.

    PubMed

    Mink, Pamela J; Mandel, Jack S; Sceurman, Bonnielin K; Lundin, Jessica I

    2012-08-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency and other regulatory agencies around the world have registered glyphosate as a broad-spectrum herbicide for use on multiple food and non-food use crops. Glyphosate is widely considered by regulatory authorities and scientific bodies to have no carcinogenic potential, based primarily on results of carcinogenicity studies of rats and mice. To examine potential cancer risks in humans, we reviewed the epidemiologic literature to evaluate whether exposure to glyphosate is associated causally with cancer risk in humans. We also reviewed relevant methodological and biomonitoring studies of glyphosate. Seven cohort studies and fourteen case-control studies examined the association between glyphosate and one or more cancer outcomes. Our review found no consistent pattern of positive associations indicating a causal relationship between total cancer (in adults or children) or any site-specific cancer and exposure to glyphosate. Data from biomonitoring studies underscore the importance of exposure assessment in epidemiologic studies, and indicate that studies should incorporate not only duration and frequency of pesticide use, but also type of pesticide formulation. Because generic exposure assessments likely lead to exposure misclassification, it is recommended that exposure algorithms be validated with biomonitoring data.

  17. A glyphosate-based pesticide impinges on transcription.

    PubMed

    Marc, Julie; Le Breton, Magali; Cormier, Patrick; Morales, Julia; Bellé, Robert; Mulner-Lorillon, Odile

    2005-02-15

    Widely spread chemicals used for human benefits may exert adverse effects on health or the environment, the identification of which are a major challenge. The early development of the sea urchin constitutes an appropriate model for the identification of undesirable cellular and molecular targets of pollutants. The widespread glyphosate-based pesticide affected sea urchin development by impeding the hatching process at millimolar range concentration of glyphosate. Glyphosate, the active herbicide ingredient of Roundup, by itself delayed hatching as judged from the comparable effect of different commercial glyphosate-based pesticides and from the effect of pure glyphosate addition to a threshold concentration of Roundup. The surfactant polyoxyethylene amine (POEA), the major component of commercial Roundup, was found to be highly toxic to the embryos when tested alone and therefore could contribute to the inhibition of hatching. Hatching, a landmark of early development, is a transcription-dependent process. Correlatively, the herbicide inhibited the global transcription, which follows fertilization at the 16-cell stage. Transcription inhibition was dose-dependent in the millimolar glyphosate range concentration. A 1257-bp fragment of the hatching enzyme transcript from Sphaerechinus granularis was cloned and sequenced; its transcription was delayed by 2 h in the pesticide-treated embryos. Because transcription is a fundamental basic biological process, the pesticide may be of health concern by inhalation near herbicide spraying at a concentration 25 times the adverse transcription concentration in the sprayed microdroplets.

  18. Glyphosate Effects on Plant Mineral Nutrition, Crop Rhizosphere Microbiota, and Plant Disease in Glyphosate-Resistant Crops

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Claims have been made recently that glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops sometimes have mineral deficiencies and increased plant disease. This review evaluates the literature that is germane to these claims. Our conclusions are: (1) although there is conflicting literature on the effects of glyphosate on mineral nutrition on GR crops, most of the literature indicates that mineral nutrition in GR crops is not affected by either the GR trait or by application of glyphosate; (2) most of the available data support the view that neither the GR transgenes nor glyphosate use in GR crops increases crop disease; and (3) yield data on GR crops do not support the hypotheses that there are substantive mineral nutrition or disease problems that are specific to GR crops. PMID:23013354

  19. Loss of glyphosate efficacy: a changing weed spectrum in Georgia cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction of glyphosate resistance into crops through genetic modification has revolutionized crop protection. Glyphosate, the proverbial silver bullet, is a broad spectrum herbicide with favorable environmental characteristics and effective broad-spectrum weed control that has greatly improved ...

  20. Alteration of plant physiology by glyphosate and its by-product aminomethylphosphonic acid: an overview.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Marcelo P; Smedbol, Elise; Chalifour, Annie; Hénault-Ethier, Louise; Labrecque, Michel; Lepage, Laurent; Lucotte, Marc; Juneau, Philippe

    2014-09-01

    It is generally claimed that glyphosate kills undesired plants by affecting the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) enzyme, disturbing the shikimate pathway. However, the mechanisms leading to plant death may also be related to secondary or indirect effects of glyphosate on plant physiology. Moreover, some plants can metabolize glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) or be exposed to AMPA from different environmental matrices. AMPA is a recognized phytotoxin, and its co-occurrence with glyphosate could modify the effects of glyphosate on plant physiology. The present review provides an overall picture of alterations of plant physiology caused by environmental exposure to glyphosate and its metabolite AMPA, and summarizes their effects on several physiological processes. It particularly focuses on photosynthesis, from photochemical events to C assimilation and translocation, as well as oxidative stress. The effects of glyphosate and AMPA on several plant physiological processes have been linked, with the aim of better understanding their phytotoxicity and glyphosate herbicidal effects.

  1. Aerial of the VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Even in this aerial view at KSC, the Vehicle Assembly Building is imposing. In front of it is the Launch Control Center. In the background is the Rotation/Processing Facility, next to the Banana Creek. In the foreground is the Saturn Causeway that leads to Launch Pads 39A and 39B.

  2. Aerial photographic reproductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1971-01-01

    Geological Survey vertical aerial photography is obtained primarily for topographic and geologic mapping. Reproductions from this photography are usually satisfactory for general use. Because reproductions are not stocked, but are custom processed for each order, they cannot be returned for credit or refund.

  3. Impact of seven years of glyphosate resistant corn and glyphosate applications under conventional and reduced tillage on bulk and rhizosphere soil exoenzyme activities and corn root endophytic microbial community structure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Conservation tillage practices across the country have been implementing genetically engineered glyphosate resistant corn crops along with applications of the herbicide glyphosate. We tested the hypothesis that seven years of glyphosate applications to both glyphosate resistant and non-r...

  4. New approaches for determination of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid from different tea samples--prospects and limits of cleanup with molecularly imprinted polymer and titanium dioxide.

    PubMed

    Kittlaus, Stefan; Lipinski, Jürgen; Speer, Karl

    2009-01-01

    Glyphosate is the most commonly used herbicide worldwide. To identify glyphosate and its metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), in the difficult-to-analyze matrix of tea, new methods were developed. The main emphasis was placed on the cleanup procedure. Two different solid-phase extraction methods were tested and evaluated: one with molecularly imprinted polymers, and the other with immobilized titanium dioxide. The optimization was carried out on the basis of aqueous standard solutions and spiked tea extracts. Validated results were presented for pipet tips that contained immobilized titanium dioxide. After the extraction of glyphosate from tea samples using hydrochloric acid (0.1%), glyphosate and AMPA were concentrated on the adsorbent by pipetting up and down several times without changing the tip. The elution was carried out subsequent to a washing step with 5% ammonia. The extract was derivatized with 2,2,2-trifluoroacetic acid and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol and then analyzed by GC with MS detection in the negative chemical ionization mode. Quantification was carried out in the selected-ion monitoring mode based on the m/z ratio of characteristic ions due to the ionization process. For glyphosate m/z = 370 was applied, and m/z = 351 for AMPA. The detection limit was 0.03 mg/kg tea for glyphosate and 0.006 mg/kg tea for AMPA. The recoveries for the tested working range (0.1 to 2.8 mg/kg tea) were low but constant at 14 and 12%, respectively. Altogether, the method presented here can be carried out easily and quickly, and it gives reliable information on the presence of the analytes in a sample. Quantification is also possible using standard addition.

  5. Changes in constructed Brassica communities treated with glyphosate drift.

    PubMed

    Watrud, Lidia S; King, George; Londo, Jason P; Colasanti, Ricardo; Smith, Bonnie M; Waschmann, Ronald S; Lee, E Henry

    2011-03-01

    We constructed a mixed-species community designed to simulate roadside and field edge plant communities and exposed it to glyphosate drift in order to test three hypotheses: (1) higher fitness in transgenic Brassica carrying the CP4 EPSPS transgene that confers resistance to glyphosate will result in significant changes in the plant community relative to control communities; (2) given repeated years of glyphosate drift selective pressure, the increased fitness of the transgenic Brassica with CP4 EPSPS will contribute to an increase in the proportion of transgenic progeny produced in plant communities; and (3) the increased fitness of Brassica carrying the CP4 EPSPS transgene will contribute to decreased levels of mycorrhizal infection and biomass in a host species (Trifolium incarnatum). Due to regulatory constraints that prevented the use of outdoor plots for our studies, in 2005 we established multispecies communities in five large cylindrical outdoor sunlit mesocosms (plastic greenhouses) designed for pollen confinement. Three of the community members were sexually compatible Brassica spp.: transgenic glyphosate-resistant canola (B. napus) cultivar (cv.) RaideRR, glyphosate-sensitive non-transgenic B. napus cv. Sponsor, and a weedy B. rapa (GRIN Accession 21735). Additional plant community members were the broadly distributed annual weeds Digitaria sanguinalis, Panicum capillare, and Lapsana communis. Once annually in 2006 and 2007, two mesocosms were sprayed with glyphosate at 10% of the field application rate to simulate glyphosate drift as a selective pressure. After two years, changes were observed in community composition, plant density, and biomass in both control and treatment mesocosms. In control mesocosms, the weed D. sanguinalis (crabgrass) began to dominate. In glyphosate drift-treated mesocosms, Brassica remained the dominant genus and the incidence of the CP4 EPSPS transgene increased in the community. Shoot biomass and mycorrhizal infection in

  6. Varying tolerance to glyphosate in a population of Palmer amaranth with low epsps copy number

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Palmer amaranth population (seeds collected in the year 2000; Washington Co., MS) suspected to be susceptible to glyphosate was examined as a population and as individual plants and found to exhibit varying tolerance or resistance to glyphosate. Whole plant spraying of glyphosate (0.84 kg ha-1) t...

  7. Early detection of crop injury from herbicide glyphosate by leaf biochemical parameter inversion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early detection of crop injury from glyphosate is of significant importance in crop management. In this paper, we attempt to detect glyphosate-induced crop injury by PROSPECT (leaf optical PROperty SPECTra model) inversion through leaf hyperspectral reflectance measurements for non-Glyphosate-Resist...

  8. Glyphosate resistance in giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida L.) from Mississippi is partly due to reduced translocation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A giant ragweed population from a glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybean field in Mississippi was suspected to be resistant to glyphosate. Greenhouse and laboratory studies were conducted to confirm and quantify the magnitude of glyphosate resistance in the giant ragweed population and to elucidate the p...

  9. Weed escapes and delayed weed emergence in glyphosate-resistant soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During 2001 and 2002, field experiments were conducted in soybean crops at four Minnesota locations with the aim of studying the effects of different glyphosate treatments (one-pass glyphosate, two-pass glyphosate) on weed control and weed community composition by focusing on the identity and abunda...

  10. ESPS gene amplification endows resistance to glyphosate in Italian ryegrass (Lolium perene ssp multiflorum) from Arkansas, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance to glyphosate in weed species is a major challenge for the sustainability of glyphosate use in crop and non-crop systems, and especially in glyphosate-resistant crops. A glyphosate-resistant Italian ryegrass population has been identified in Arkansas. This research was conducted to elucid...

  11. Genotoxic effects of glyphosate or paraquat on earthworm coelomocytes.

    PubMed

    Muangphra, Ptumporn; Kwankua, Wimon; Gooneratne, Ravi

    2014-06-01

    The potential genotoxicity (nuclear anomalies, damage to single-strand DNA) and pinocytic adherence activity of two (glyphosate-based and paraquat-based) commercial herbicides to earthworm coelomocytes (immune cells in the coelomic cavity) were assessed. Coelomocytes were extracted from earthworms (Pheretima peguana) exposed to concentrations glyphosate-based or paraquat-based herbicides on filter paper for 48 h. Three assays were performed: Micronucleus (light microscopy count of micronuclei, binuclei, and trinuclei), Comet (epifluorescent microscope and LUCIA image analyzer measure of tail DNA %, tail length, and tail moment), and Neutral Red (to detect phagocytic or pinocytic activity). The LC50 value for paraquat was 65-fold lower than for glyphosate indicating that paraquat was far more acutely toxic to P. peguana. There were significant (P < 0.05) differences from the control group in total coelomocyte micronuclei, binuclei, and trinuclei frequencies of earthworms exposed to glyphosate at 25 × 10(-1) (10(-3) LC50) and paraquat at 39 × 10(-5) (10(-4) LC50) μg cm(-2) filter paper. In earthworms exposed to glyphosate, no differences in tail DNA%, tail length, and tail moment of coelomocytes were detected. In contrast, for paraquat at 10(-1) LC50 concentration, there were significant (P < 0.05) differences between tail DNA % and tail length, and at LC50 concentration, tail moment was also significantly different when compared with controls. A decline in pinocytic adherence activity in coelomocytes occurred on exposure to glyphosate or paraquat at 10(-3) LC50 concentration. This study showed that, at concentrations well below field application rates, paraquat induces both clastogenic and aneugenic effects on earthworm coelomocytes whereas glyphosate causes only aneugenic effects and therefore does not pose a risk of gene mutation in this earthworm.

  12. Degradation of the Phosphonate Herbicide Glyphosate by Arthrobacter atrocyaneus ATCC 13752

    PubMed Central

    Pipke, Rüdiger; Amrhein, Nikolaus

    1988-01-01

    Of nine authentic Arthrobacter strains tested, only A. atrocyaneus ATCC 13752 was capable of using the herbicide glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] as its sole source of phosphorus. Contrary to the previously isolated Arthrobacter sp. strain GLP-1, which degrades glyphosate via sarcosine, A. atrocyaneus metabolized glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid. The carbon of aminomethylphosphonic acid was entirely converted to CO2. This is the first report on glyphosate degradation by a bacterial strain without previous selection for glyphosate utilization as a source of phosphorus. PMID:16347639

  13. Aerial Scene Recognition using Efficient Sparse Representation

    SciTech Connect

    Cheriyadat, Anil M

    2012-01-01

    Advanced scene recognition systems for processing large volumes of high-resolution aerial image data are in great demand today. However, automated scene recognition remains a challenging problem. Efficient encoding and representation of spatial and structural patterns in the imagery are key in developing automated scene recognition algorithms. We describe an image representation approach that uses simple and computationally efficient sparse code computation to generate accurate features capable of producing excellent classification performance using linear SVM kernels. Our method exploits unlabeled low-level image feature measurements to learn a set of basis vectors. We project the low-level features onto the basis vectors and use simple soft threshold activation function to derive the sparse features. The proposed technique generates sparse features at a significantly lower computational cost than other methods~\\cite{Yang10, newsam11}, yet it produces comparable or better classification accuracy. We apply our technique to high-resolution aerial image datasets to quantify the aerial scene classification performance. We demonstrate that the dense feature extraction and representation methods are highly effective for automatic large-facility detection on wide area high-resolution aerial imagery.

  14. Comparative Analysis of the Tour Jete and Aerial with Detailed Analysis of Aerial Takeoff Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierson, Mimi; Coplin, Kim

    2006-10-01

    Whether internally as muscle tension or from external sources, forces are necessary for all motion. This research focused on athletic rotations where conditions of flight are established during takeoff. By studying reaction forces that produce torques, moments of inertia, and linear and angular differences between distinct rotations around different principle axes of the body (tour jete in ballet - longitudinal axis; aerial in gymnastics - anteroposterior axis), and by looking at the values of angular momentum in the specific mechanics of aerial takeoff, we can gain insight into possible causes of injury, flaws in technique and limitations of athletes. Results showed significant differences in the horizontal and vertical components of takeoff between the tour jete and the aerial, and a realization that torque was produced in different biomechanical planes. Both rotations showed braking forces before takeoff to counteract forward momentum and increase vertical lift, but the angle of applied force varied, and the horizontal components of velocity and force and vertical velocity as well as moment of inertia throughout flight were consistently greater for the aerial. Breakdown of aerial takeoff highlighted the relative importance of the takeoff phases, showing that completion depends fundamentally upon the rotation of the rear foot and torso twisting during takeoff rather than the last foot in contact with the ground.

  15. Putative porin of Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) bacteroids induced by glyphosate.

    PubMed

    de María, Nuria; Guevara, Angeles; Serra, M Teresa; García-Luque, Isabel; González-Sama, Alfonso; García de Lacoba, Mario; de Felipe, M Rosario; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes

    2007-08-01

    Application of glyphosate (N-[phosphonomethyl] glycine) to Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus)-nodulated lupin plants caused modifications in the protein pattern of bacteroids. The most significant change was the presence of a 44-kDa polypeptide in bacteroids from plants treated with the higher doses of glyphosate employed (5 and 10 mM). The polypeptide has been characterized by the amino acid sequencing of its N terminus and the isolation and nucleic acid sequencing of its encoding gene. It is putatively encoded by a single gene, and the protein has been identified as a putative porin. Protein modeling revealed the existence of several domains sharing similarity to different porins, such as a transmembrane beta-barrel. The protein has been designated BLpp, for Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) putative porin, and would be the first porin described in Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus). In addition, a putative conserved domain of porins has been identified which consists of 87 amino acids, located in the BLpp sequence 30 amino acids downstream of the N-terminal region. In bacteroids, mRNA of the BLpp gene shows a basal constitutive expression that increases under glyphosate treatment, and the expression of the gene is seemingly regulated at the transcriptional level. By contrast, in free-living bacteria glyphosate treatment leads to an inhibition of BLpp mRNA accumulation, indicating a different effect of glyphosate on BLpp gene expression in bacteroids and free-living bacteria. The possible role of BLpp in a metabolite interchange between Bradyrhizobium and lupin is discussed.

  16. Bioremediation potential of glyphosate-degrading Pseudomonas spp. strains isolated from contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haoyu; Tao, Ke; Zhu, Jianyi; Liu, Shengnan; Gao, Han; Zhou, Xiaogang

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial strains capable of utilizing glyphosate as the sole carbon source were isolated from contaminated soil by the enrichment culture method and identified based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Pseudomonas spp. strains GA07, GA09 and GC04 demonstrated the best degradation capabilities towards glyphosate and were used for the laboratory experiments of glyphosate bioremediation. Inoculating glyphosate-treated soil samples with these three strains resulted in a 2-3 times higher rate of glyphosate removal than that in non-inoculated soil. The degradation kinetics was found to follow a first-order model with regression values greater than 0.96. Cell numbers of the introduced bacteria decreased from 4.4 × 10(6) CFU/g to 3.4-6.7 × 10(5) CFU/g dry soil within 18 days of inoculation. Due to the intense degradation of glyphosate, the total dehydrogenase activity of the soil microbial community increased by 21.2-25.6%. Analysis of glyphosate degradation products in cell-free extracts showed that glyphosate breakdown in strain GA09 was catalyzed both by C-P lyase and glyphosate oxidoreductase. Strains GA07 and GC04 degraded glyphosate only via glyphosate oxidoreductase, but no further metabolite was detected. These results highlight the potential of the isolated bacteria to be used in the bioremediation of GP-contaminated soils.

  17. Comparative proteomic analysis of horseweed (Conyza canadensis) biotypes identifies candidate proteins for glyphosate resistance

    PubMed Central

    González-Torralva, Fidel; Brown, Adrian P.; Chivasa, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Emergence of glyphosate-resistant horseweed (Conyza canadensis) biotypes is an example of how unrelenting use of a single mode of action herbicide in agricultural weed control drives genetic adaptation in targeted species. While in other weeds glyphosate resistance arose from target site mutation or target gene amplification, the resistance mechanism in horseweed uses neither of these, being instead linked to reduced herbicide uptake and/or translocation. The molecular components underpinning horseweed glyphosate-resistance remain unknown. Here, we used an in vitro leaf disc system for comparative analysis of proteins extracted from control and glyphosate-treated tissues of glyphosate-resistant and glyphosate-susceptible biotypes. Analysis of shikimic acid accumulation, ABC-transporter gene expression, and cell death were used to select a suitable glyphosate concentration and sampling time for enriching proteins pivotal to glyphosate resistance. Protein gel analysis and mass spectrometry identified mainly chloroplast proteins differentially expressed between the biotypes before and after glyphosate treatment. Chloroplasts are the organelles in which the shikimate pathway, which is targeted by glyphosate, is located. Calvin cycle enzymes and proteins of unknown function were among the proteins identified. Our study provides candidate proteins that could be pivotal in engendering resistance and implicates chloroplasts as the primary sites driving glyphosate-resistance in horseweed. PMID:28198407

  18. Bacterial glyphosate resistance conferred by overexpression of an E. coli membrane efflux transporter.

    PubMed

    Staub, Jeffrey M; Brand, Leslie; Tran, Minhtien; Kong, Yifei; Rogers, Stephen G

    2012-04-01

    Glyphosate herbicide-resistant crop plants, introduced commercially in 1994, now represent approximately 85% of the land area devoted to transgenic crops. Herbicide resistance in commercial glyphosate-resistant crops is due to expression of a variant form of a bacterial 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase with a significantly decreased binding affinity for glyphosate at the target site of the enzyme. As a result of widespread and recurrent glyphosate use, often as the only herbicide used for weed management, increasing numbers of weedy species have evolved resistance to glyphosate. Weed resistance is most often due to changes in herbicide translocation patterns, presumed to be through the activity of an as yet unidentified membrane transporter in plants. To provide insight into glyphosate resistance mechanisms and identify a potential glyphosate transporter, we screened Escherichia coli genomic DNA for alternate sources of glyphosate resistance genes. Our search identified a single non-target gene that, when overexpressed in E. coli and Pseudomonas, confers high-level glyphosate resistance. The gene, yhhS, encodes a predicted membrane transporter of the major facilitator superfamily involved in drug efflux. We report here that an alternative mode of glyphosate resistance in E. coli is due to reduced accumulation of glyphosate in cells that overexpress this membrane transporter and discuss the implications for potential alternative resistance mechanisms in other organisms such as plants.

  19. Developmental and reproductive outcomes in humans and animals after glyphosate exposure: a critical analysis.

    PubMed

    Williams, Amy Lavin; Watson, Rebecca E; DeSesso, John M

    2012-01-01

    Glyphosate is the active ingredient of several widely used herbicide formulations. Glyphosate targets the shikimate metabolic pathway, which is found in plants but not in animals. Despite the relative safety of glyphosate, various adverse developmental and reproductive problems have been alleged as a result of exposure in humans and animals. To assess the developmental and reproductive safety of glyphosate, an analysis of the available literature was conducted. Epidemiological and animal reports, as well as studies on mechanisms of action related to possible developmental and reproductive effects of glyphosate, were reviewed. An evaluation of this database found no consistent effects of glyphosate exposure on reproductive health or the developing offspring. Furthermore, no plausible mechanisms of action for such effects were elucidated. Although toxicity was observed in studies that used glyphosate-based formulations, the data strongly suggest that such effects were due to surfactants present in the formulations and not the direct result of glyphosate exposure. To estimate potential human exposure concentrations to glyphosate as a result of working directly with the herbicide, available biomonitoring data were examined. These data demonstrated extremely low human exposures as a result of normal application practices. Furthermore, the estimated exposure concentrations in humans are >500-fold less than the oral reference dose for glyphosate of 2 mg/kg/d set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA 1993). In conclusion, the available literature shows no solid evidence linking glyphosate exposure to adverse developmental or reproductive effects at environmentally realistic exposure concentrations.

  20. How glyphosate affects plant disease development: it is more than enhanced susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Hammerschmidt, Ray

    2017-01-09

    Glyphosate has been shown to affect the development of plant disease in several ways. Plants utilize phenolic and other shikimic acid pathway-derived compounds as part of their defense against pathogens, and glyphosate inhibits the biosynthesis of these compounds via its mode of action. Several studies have shown a correlation between enhanced disease and suppression of phenolic compound production after glyphosate. Glyphosate-resistant crop plants have also been studied for changes in resistance as a result of carrying the glyphosate resistance trait. The evidence indicates that neither the resistance trait nor application of glyphosate to glyphosate-resistant plants increases susceptibility to disease. The only exceptions to this are cases where glyphosate has been shown to reduce rust diseases on glyphosate-resistant crops, supporting a fungicidal role for this chemical. Finally, glyphosate treatment of weeds or volunteer crops can cause a temporary increase in soil-borne pathogens that may result in disease development if crops are planted too soon after glyphosate application. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. [Capillary electrophoresis analysis for glyphosate, glufosinate and aminomethylphosphonic acid with laser-induced fluorescence detection].

    PubMed

    Cao, Liwei; Liang, Siliu; Tan, Xiaofang; Meng, Jianxin

    2012-12-01

    A sensitive analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of glyphosate, glufosinate and aminomethylphosphonic acid by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF). 5-(4,6-Dichlorotriazinyl) amino fluorescein (DTAF) was successfully applied to label the herbicides. The optimal derivatization reaction was carried out in boric acid buffer of pH 9.5 at 30 degrees C for 40 min. The baseline separation of the three derivatives could be accomplished using 30 mmol/L boric acid, 15 mmol/L Brij-35 (pH 9.5) as the running buffer. The detection limits (S/N = 3) for the glyphosate, glufosinate and aminomethylphosphonic acid were 3.21, 6.14, 1.99 ng/kg, respectively. Finally, the method was successfully applied to the analysis of environmental samples, and the three compounds were measured without any interference from real samples. The recoveries of the compounds in these samples were 91.3% - 106.0%. The method has the advantages of easiness and sensitivity, and can meet the requirement of the determination of the herbicide and metabolite residues in the environmental samples.

  2. Foliar nickel application alleviates detrimental effects of glyphosate drift on yield and seed quality of wheat.

    PubMed

    Kutman, Bahar Yildiz; Kutman, Umit Baris; Cakmak, Ismail

    2013-09-04

    Glyphosate drift to nontarget crops causes growth aberrations and yield losses. This herbicide can also interact with divalent nutrients and form poorly soluble complexes. The possibility of using nickel (Ni), an essential divalent metal, for alleviating glyphosate drift damage to wheat was investigated in this study. Effects of Ni applications on various growth parameters, seed yield, and quality of durum wheat ( Triticum durum ) treated with sublethal glyphosate at different developmental stages were investigated in greenhouse experiments. Nickel concentrations of various plant parts and glyphosate-induced shikimate accumulation were measured. Foliar but not soil Ni applications significantly reduced glyphosate injuries including yield losses, stunting, and excessive tillering. Both shoot and grain Ni concentrations were enhanced by foliar Ni treatment. Seed germination and seedling vigor were impaired by glyphosate and improved by foliar Ni application to parental plants. Foliar Ni application appears to have a great potential to ameliorate glyphosate drift injury to wheat.

  3. Cardiogenic shock in a patient with glyphosate-surfactant poisoning.

    PubMed

    Lin, C M; Lai, C P; Fang, T C; Lin, C L

    1999-10-01

    We present a case of glyphosate-induced cardiogenic shock in a young man. The patient a 26-year-old man, presented with nausea and vomiting 4 hours after attempting suicide by drinking 150 mL of glyphosate surfactant. Cardiogenic shock with accelerated idio-ventricular rhythm on electrocardiography developed after admission. Intravenous injection of epinephrine, atropine, and calcium failed to improve the condition. Over the next 16 hours, the QRS complex gradually narrowed, sinus rhythm returned, and the hemodynamic status improved. Echocardiograms revealed diffuse left ventricular hypokinesis with markedly reduced ejection fraction while the patient was in shock; normal left ventricular function resumed the next day. In this case, the glyphosate surfactant poisoning-induced shock may have been due to transient suppression of the cardiac conduction system and contractility, rather than intravascular hypovolemia.

  4. Glyphosate-resistant crops: history, status and future.

    PubMed

    Dill, Gerald M

    2005-03-01

    The commercial launch of glyphosate-resistant soybeans in 1996 signaled the beginning of a new era in weed management in row crops. Today, over 80% of the soybeans grown in the USA are glyphosate resistant. Since that time, many crops have been transformed that have allowed crop applications of many classes of herbicide chemistries. Crops currently under production include maize, soybean, cotton and canola. Transformation technology and selection methods have improved and the rate of development as well as the breadth of crops being considered as commercial targets has increased. On the basis of recent adoption rates by growers around the world, it appears that glyphosate-resistant crops will continue to grow in number and in hectares planted. However, global public acceptance of biotechnology-derived products will continue to impact the rate of adoption of this and other new innovations derived from transformation technology.

  5. Genotoxic potential of glyphosate formulations: mode-of-action investigations.

    PubMed

    Heydens, William F; Healy, Charles E; Hotz, Kathy J; Kier, Larry D; Martens, Mark A; Wilson, Alan G E; Farmer, Donna R

    2008-02-27

    A broad array of in vitro and in vivo assays has consistently demonstrated that glyphosate and glyphosate-containing herbicide formulations (GCHF) are not genotoxic. Occasionally, however, related and contradictory data are reported, including findings of mouse liver and kidney DNA adducts and damage following intraperitoneal (ip) injection. Mode-of-action investigations were therefore undertaken to determine the significance of these contradictory data while concurrently comparing results from ip and oral exposures. Exposure by ip injection indeed produced marked hepatic and renal toxicity, but oral administration did not. The results suggest that ip injection of GCHF may induce secondary effects mediated by local toxicity rather than genotoxicity. Furthermore, these results continue to support the conclusion that glyphosate and GCHF are not genotoxic under exposure conditions that are relevant to animals and humans.

  6. Modelling fate and transport of glyphosate and AMPA in the Meuse catchment to assess the contribution of different pollution sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmet, Nele; Seuntjens, Piet

    2013-04-01

    Large river basins have multiple sources of pesticides and usually the pollution sources are spread over the entire catchment. The cumulative effect of pesticides entering the river system in upstream areas and the formation of persistent degradation products can compromise downstream water use e.g. raw water quality for drinking water abstractions. For assessments at catchment scale pesticide fluxes coming from different sources and sub basins need to be taken into account. To improve management strategies, a sound understanding of the sources, emission routes, transport, environmental fate and conversion of pesticides is needed. In the Netherlands, the Meuse river basin is an important source for drinking water production. The river suffers from elevated concentrations of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA). For AMPA it is rather unclear to what extent the pollution is related to glyphosate degradation and what is the contribution of other sources, especial phosphonates in domestic and industrial waste water. Based on the available monitoring data only it is difficult to distinguish between AMPA sources in such a large river basin. This hampers interpretation and decision making for water quality management in the Meuse catchment. Here, application of water quality models is very useful to obtain complementary information and insights. Modelling allows accounting for temporal and spatial variability in discharge and concentrations as well as distinguishing the contribution from conversion processes. In this study, a model for the river Meuse was developed and applied to assess the contribution of tributary and transnational influxes, glyphosate degradation and other sources to the AMPA pollution.

  7. Effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on mate location in a wolf spider that inhabits agroecosystems.

    PubMed

    Griesinger, Laurie M; Evans, Samuel C; Rypstra, Ann L

    2011-09-01

    Chemical communication is important to many arthropod species but the potential exists for anthropogenic chemicals to disrupt information flow. Although glyphosate-based herbicides are not acutely toxic to arthropods, little is known regarding their effects on natural chemical communication pathways. The wolf spider, Pardosamilvina, is abundant in agroecosystems where herbicides are regularly applied and uses air- and substrate-borne chemical signals extensively during mating. The aim of this study was to examine effects of a commercial formulation of a glyphosate-based herbicide on the ability of males to find females. In the field, virgin females, when hidden inside pitfall traps with herbicide, attracted fewer males than females with water. Likewise females in traps with a ring of herbicide surrounding the opening were less likely to attract males than those in traps surrounded by water. We explored the reaction of males to any airborne component of the herbicide in a laboratory two-choice olfactometer experiment. When no female pheromones were present, males were equally likely to select herbicide or water treated corridors and they all moved through the apparatus at similar speeds. When female pheromones were present, the males that selected control corridors moved more slowly than those that selected herbicide and, if we control for the initial decision time, more males selected the control corridors over the herbicide. These data suggest that glyphosate-based herbicides are "info-disruptors" that alter the ability of males to detect and/or react fully to female signals.

  8. Defense Science Board Study on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-02-01

    Defense Science Board Study on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicles February 2004 Office...COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defense Science Board Study on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicles 5a. CONTRACT...the Defense Science Board Task Force on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicles I am pleased to forward the final report of

  9. Effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on the development of Common toads (Bufo bufo L.; Amphibia) at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baier, Fabian; Gruber, Edith; Spangl, Bernhard; Zaller, Johann G.

    2016-04-01

    Herbicides based on the active ingredient glyphosate are frequently applied in agriculture, horticulture and private gardens all over the world. Recently, leaching of glyphosate or its metabolite (AMPA) into water bodies inhabited by amphibians has been reported. However, very little is known about non-target effects of these herbicides on amphibians and even less is known to what extent different temperatures might alter these effects. Using climate chambers, we investigated the effects of the glyphosate-based herbicide Roundup PowerFlex® (480 g L-1 glyphosate, formulated as 588 g L-1 potassium salt) on the larval development of Common toads (Bufo bufo L.; Amphibia: Anura) under different temperature regimes (15°C vs. 20°C). We established five herbicide concentrations: 0, 1.5, 3, 4 mg acid equivalent L-1 and a 4 mg a.e. L-1 pulse treatment (totally three applications of 1.5, 1.5 and another 1 mg a.e. L-1) at each temperature in a full-factorial design. Each treatment combination was replicated five times, the experiment ran for 24 days. Results showed a highly significant effect of temperature on body length and body width but no effect of herbicide concentration on these growth parameters. Moreover, highly significant interactions between herbicide and temperature on body length and body width were observed suggesting that herbicides had different effects on different temperatures. In conclusion, although Roundup PowerFlex® at the tested concentrations appeared to have no acute toxicity to larvae of Common toads, the observed effects on tadpole morphology will potentially affect competitive interactions in spawning ponds of amphibia. Our findings of herbicide x temperature interactions might become more prevalent when human-induced climate change will lead to more extreme temperatures.

  10. Glyphosate-drift but not herbivory alters the rate of transgene flow from single and stacked trait transgenic canola (Brassica napus) to nontransgenic B. napus and B. rapa.

    PubMed

    Londo, Jason P; Bollman, Michael A; Sagers, Cynthia L; Lee, E Henry; Watrud, Lidia S

    2011-08-01

    • Transgenic plants can offer agricultural benefits, but the escape of transgenes is an environmental concern. In this study we tested the hypothesis that glyphosate drift and herbivory selective pressures can change the rate of transgene flow between the crop Brassica napus (canola), and weedy species and contribute to the potential for increased transgene escape risk and persistence outside of cultivation. • We constructed plant communities containing single transgenic B. napus genotypes expressing glyphosate herbicide resistance (CP4 EPSPS), lepidopteran insect resistance (Cry1Ac), or both traits ('stacked'), plus nontransgenic B. napus, Brassica rapa and Brassica nigra. Two different selective pressures, a sublethal glyphosate dose and lepidopteran herbivores (Plutella xylostella), were applied and rates of transgene flow and transgenic seed production were measured. • Selective treatments differed in the degree in which they affected gene flow and production of transgenic hybrid seed. Most notably, glyphosate-drift increased the incidence of transgenic seeds on nontransgenic B. napus by altering flowering phenology and reproductive function. • The findings of this study indicate that transgenic traits may be transmitted to wild populations and may increase in frequency in weedy populations through the direct and indirect effects of selection pressures on gene flow.

  11. An evaluation of the genotoxic potential of glyphosate.

    PubMed

    Li, A P; Long, T J

    1988-04-01

    The potential genotoxicity of glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup herbicide, was tested in a variety of well-established in vitro and in vivo assays including the Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli WP-2 reversion assays, recombination (rec-assay) with Bacillus subtilis. Chinese hamster ovary cell gene mutation assay at the hypoxanthine/guanine phosphoribosyl transferase gene locus, hepatocyte primary culture/DNA repair assay, and in vivo cytogenetics assay in rat bone marrow. No genotoxic activity was observed in the assays performed. The data suggest that glyphosate should not pose a genetic risk to man.

  12. 2. AERIAL VIEW OF MINUTEMAN SILOS. Low oblique aerial view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW OF MINUTEMAN SILOS. Low oblique aerial view (original in color) of the two launch silos, covered. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Missile Silo Type, Test Area 1-100, northeast end of Test Area 1-100 Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  13. Aerial Video Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    When Michael Henry wanted to start an aerial video service, he turned to Johnson Space Center for assistance. Two NASA engineers - one had designed and developed TV systems in Apollo, Skylab, Apollo- Soyuz and Space Shuttle programs - designed a wing-mounted fiberglass camera pod. Camera head and angles are adjustable, and the pod is shaped to reduce vibration. The controls are located so a solo pilot can operate the system. A microprocessor displays latitude, longitude, and bearing, and a GPS receiver provides position data for possible legal references. The service has been successfully utilized by railroads, oil companies, real estate companies, etc.

  14. An activated carbon fiber cathode for the degradation of glyphosate in aqueous solutions by the Electro-Fenton mode: Optimal operational conditions and the deposition of iron on cathode on electrode reusability.

    PubMed

    Lan, Huachun; He, Wenjing; Wang, Aimin; Liu, Ruiping; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui; Huang, C P

    2016-11-15

    An activated carbon fiber (ACF) cathode was fabricated and used to treat glyphosate containing wastewater by the Electro-Fenton (EF) process. The results showed that glyphosate was rapidly and efficiently degraded and the BOD5/COD ratio was increased to >0.3 implying the feasibility of subsequent treatment of the treated wastewater by biological methods. The results of ion chromatography and HPLC measurements indicated that glyphosate was completely decomposed. Effective OH generation and rapid recycling/recovery of the Fe(2+) ions at the cathode were responsible primarily for the high performance of the ACF-EF process. Factors such as inlet oxygen gas flow rate, Fe(2+) dosage, initial glyphosate concentration, applied current intensity, and solution pH that may affect the efficiency of the ACF-EF process were further studied and the optimum operation condition was established. Results of SEM/EDX, BET and XPS analysis showed the deposition of highly dispersed fine Fe2O3 particles on the ACF surface during the EF reaction. The possibility of using the Fe2O3-ACF as iron source in the EF process was assessed. Results showed that the Fe2O3-ACF electrode was effective in degrading glyphosate in the EF process. The deposition of Fe2O3 particles on the ACF electrode had no adverse effect on the reusability of the ACF cathode.

  15. Combining glyphosate with burning or mowing improves control of Yellow Bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, S.; Hickman, Karen R.; Harmoney, Keith R.; Leslie,, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The invasive yellow bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum [L.] Keng) threatens native biodiversity, and its control is of interest to land managers involved in restoration of invaded grasslands. We used single, double, and triple applications of glyphosate (2.125 kg ai.ha-1.application-1) over the course of one growing season in combinations at different timings (early, middle, late season) with and without a mechanical treatment of mowing or burning to determine the most effective control method. One year after treatment, burning and mowing prior to a mid-season single or double early, middle, and/or late season herbicide application resulted in a similar level of control of yellow bluestem relative to a triple herbicide application, all of which had greater control relative to herbicide treatment alone. Reproductive tiller density and visual obstruction increased 2 yr after treatment with two herbicide treatments applied either early and middle season or early and late season, but it was prevented with burning and mowing prior to herbicide application. With the exception of three herbicide applications, combining burning or mowing with herbicide applications provided more effective control of yellow bluestem than any individual herbicide applications. Burning or mowing likely improves glyphosate effectiveness by altering the invasive grass structure so that plants are clear of standing dead and have shorter, active regrowth to enhance herbicide effectiveness. During restoration projects requiring control of invasive yellow bluestem, an effective management option is a combination of mechanical and chemical control.

  16. Differential impact of Limnoperna fortunei-herbicide interaction between Roundup Max® and glyphosate on freshwater microscopic communities.

    PubMed

    Gattás, F; Vinocur, A; Graziano, M; Dos Santos Afonso, M; Pizarro, H; Cataldo, D

    2016-09-01

    Multiple anthropogenic stressors act simultaneously on the environment, with consequences different from those caused by single-stressor exposure. We investigated how the combination of the invasive mussel Limnoperna fortunei and a widely applied herbicide, Roundup Max®, affected freshwater microscopic communities and water quality. Further, we compared these results with those induced by the combination of the mussel and technical-grade glyphosate. We carried out a 34-day experiment in outdoor mesocosms, applying the following six treatments: 6 mg L(-1) of technical-grade glyphosate (G), the equivalent concentration of glyphosate in Roundup Max® (R), 100 mussels (M), the combination of mussels and herbicide either in the technical-grade or formulated form (MG and MR, respectively), and control (C). Herbicides significantly increased total phosphorus in water; R and MR showed greater initial total nitrogen and ammonium. R increased picoplankton abundance and caused an eightfold increase in phytoplankton, with high turbidity values; G had a lower effect on these variables. Herbicide-mussel combination induced an accelerated dissipation of glyphosate in water (MG 6.36 ± 0.83 mg G g DW(-1) day(-1) and MR 5.16 ± 1.26 mg G g DW(-1) day(-1)). A synergistic effect on ammonium was observed in MR but not in MG. MR and MG had an antagonistic effect on phytoplankton, which showed a drastic reduction due to grazing, as revealed by M. We provide evidence of differential effects of Roundup Max® and technical-grade glyphosate over water quality and microscopic communities, and in combination with mussels. However, in the combination of mussels and herbicides, mussels seem to play a leading role. In the presence of L. fortunei, the effects of higher nutrient availability provided by herbicides addition were counteracted by the filtration activity of mussels, which released nutrients, grazed on picoplankton and phytoplankton, and boosted the development of other

  17. Investigation of the mechanism of chlorination of glyphosate and glycine in water.

    PubMed

    Mehrsheikh, Akbar; Bleeke, Marian; Brosillon, Stephan; Laplanche, Alain; Roche, Pascal

    2006-09-01

    The chlorination reactions of glyphosate and glycine in water were thoroughly studied. Utilizing isotopically enriched (13C and 15N) samples of glycine and glyphosate and 1H, 13C, 31P, and 15N NMR spectroscopy we were able to identify all significant terminal chlorination products of glycine and glyphosate, and show that glyphosate degradation closely parallels that of glycine. We have determined that the C1 carboxylic acid carbon of glycine/glyphosate is quantitatively converted to CO2 upon chlorination. The C2 methylene carbon of glycine/glyphosate is converted to CO2 and methanediol. The relative abundance of these two products is a function of the pH of the chlorination reactions. Under near neutral to basic reaction conditions (pH 6-9), CO2 is the predominant product, whereas, under acidic reaction conditions (pH < 6) the formation of methanediol is favored. The C3 phosphonomethylene carbon of glyphosate is quantitatively converted to methanediol under all conditions tested. The nitrogen atom of glycine/glyphosate is transformed into nitrogen gas and nitrate, and the phosphorus moiety of glyphosate produces phosphoric acid upon chlorination. In addition to these terminal chlorination products, a number of labile intermediates were also identified including N-chloromethanimine, N-chloroaminomethanol, and cyanogen chloride. The chlorination products identified in this study are not unique to glyphosate and are similar to those expected from chlorination of amino acids, proteins, peptides, and many other natural organic matters present in drinking water.

  18. Import of a precursor protein into chloroplasts is inhibited by the herbicide glyphosate.

    PubMed

    Della-Cioppa, G; Kishore, G M

    1988-05-01

    Import of the precursor to 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (pEPSPS) into chloroplasts is inhibited by the herbicide glyphosate. Inhibition of import is maximal at glyphosate concentrations of >/=10 mum and occurs only when pEPSPS is present as a ternary complex of enzyme-shikimate-3-phosphate-glyphosate. Glyphosate alone had no effect on the import of pEPSPS since it is not known to interact with the enzyme in the absence of shikimate-3-phosphate. Experiments with wild-type and glyphosate-resistant mutant forms of pEPSPS show that inhibition of import is directly proportional to the binding constants for glyphosate. Inhibition of import is thus a direct consequence of glyphosate binding to the enzyme-shikimate-3-phosphate complex. The potential for non-specific effects of glyphosate on the chloroplast transport mechanism has been discounted by showing that import of another chloroplast-designated protein was unaffected by high concentrations of glyphosate and shikimate-3-phosphate. The mechanism of import inhibition by glyphosate is consistent with a precursor unfolding/refolding model.

  19. Aldo-keto reductase enzymes detoxify glyphosate and improve herbicide resistance in plants.

    PubMed

    Vemanna, Ramu S; Vennapusa, Amaranatha Reddy; Easwaran, Murugesh; Chandrashekar, Babitha K; Rao, Hanumantha; Ghanti, Kirankumar; Sudhakar, Chinta; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Udayakumar, M

    2016-09-09

    In recent years, concerns about the use of glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops have increased because of glyphosate residual levels in plants and development of herbicide-resistant weeds. In spite of identifying glyphosate detoxifying genes from microorganisms, the plant mechanism to detoxify glyphosate has not been studied. We characterized an Aldo-keto reductase gene from Pseudomonas (PsAKR1) and rice (OsAKR1) and showed, by docking studies, both PsAKR1 and OsAKR1 can efficiently bind to glyphosate. Silencing AKR1 homologs in rice and Nicotiana benthamiana or mutation of AKR1 in yeast and Arabidopsis showed increased sensitivity to glyphosate. External application of AKR proteins rescued glyphosate-mediated cucumber seedlings growth inhibition. Regeneration of tobacco transgenic lines expressing PsAKR1 or OsAKRI on glyphosate suggests that AKR can be used as selectable marker to develop transgenic crops. PsAKR1 or OsAKRI expressing tobacco and rice transgenic plants showed improved tolerance to glyphosate with reduced accumulation of shikimic acid without affecting the normal photosynthetic rates. These results suggested that AKR1 when overexpressed detoxifies glyphosate in planta. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of two glyphosate formulations on a small, diurnal lizard (Oligosoma polychroma).

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Joanna K; Monks, Joanne M; Nelson, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    Formulations of glyphosate-based herbicides continue to dominate the global herbicide market, while there continue to be concerns regarding the impact of this herbicide on non-target organisms. Research also indicates that the additives within certain glyphosate formulations, such as surfactants, are actually more toxic than the glyphosate active ingredient alone. Concerns arise in particular when glyphosate formulations are proposed for vegetation control in areas inhabited by rare or threatened species. Although the effect of glyphosate on birds and mammals is well studied, reptiles remain neglected in ecotoxicological studies. We investigated whether dermal exposure to two different commercial glyphosate formulations affected performance measures in the New Zealand common skink (Oligosoma polychroma). Fifty-eight skinks were each placed in a box of straw to simulate field conditions and sprayed once with Agpro Glyphosate 360, Yates Roundup Weedkiller (both at the label-specified concentrations of 144 mg glyphosate per 1 L water), or water (control). Agpro Glyphosate 360 contained ethoxylated tallow amine at a concentration of <200 g/L, while the surfactant within Yates Roundup Weedkiller was unknown. Following treatment skinks were kept in captivity and sampled for selected temperature and mass over a four-week period. Neither glyphosate formulation had a significant impact on mass. However, skinks treated with Yates Roundup Weedkiller selected significantly higher temperatures across 3 weeks following exposure. This heat-seeking behaviour could be a fever response to increase metabolism and thereby counteract physiological stress.

  1. Toxicity of glyphosate-based pesticides to four North American frog species.

    PubMed

    Howe, Christina M; Berrill, Michael; Pauli, Bruce D; Helbing, Caren C; Werry, Kate; Veldhoen, Nik

    2004-08-01

    Glyphosate-based herbicides are among the most widely used pesticides in the world. We compared the acute toxicity of the glyphosate end-use formulation Roundup Original to four North American amphibian species (Rana clamitans, R. pipiens, R. sylvatica, and Bufo americanus) and the toxicity of glyphosate technical, the polyethoxylated tallowamine surfactant (POEA) commonly used in glyphosate-based herbicides, and five newer glyphosate formulations to R. clamitans. For R. clamitans, acute toxicity values in order of decreasing toxicity were POEA > Roundup Original > Roundup Transorb > Glyfos AU; no significant acute toxicity was observed with glyphosate technical material or the glyphosate formulations Roundup Biactive, Touchdown, or Glyfos BIO. Comparisons between the four amphibian species showed that the toxicity of Roundup Original varied with species and developmental stage. Rana pipiens tadpoles chronically exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of POEA or glyphosate formulations containing POEA showed decreased snout-vent length at metamorphosis and increased time to metamorphosis, tail damage, and gonadal abnormalities. These effects may be caused, in some part, by disruption of hormone signaling, because thyroid hormone receptor beta mRNA transcript levels were elevated by exposure to formulations containing glyphosate and POEA. Taken together, the data suggest that surfactant composition must be considered in the evaluation of toxicity of glyphosate-based herbicides.

  2. Dissipation of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in water and sediment of two Canadian prairie wetlands.

    PubMed

    Degenhardt, Dani; Humphries, David; Cessna, Allan J; Messing, Paul; Badiou, Pascal H; Raina, Renata; Farenhorst, Annemieke; Pennock, Dan J

    2012-01-01

    Glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] is the active ingredient of several herbicide products first registered for use in 1974 under the tradename Roundup. The use of glyphosate-based herbicides has increased dramatically over the last two decades particularly in association with the adoption of glyphosate-tolerant crops. Glyphosate has been detected in a range of surface waters but this is the first study to monitor its fate in prairie wetlands situated in agricultural fields. An ephemeral wetland (E) and a semi-permanent wetland (SP) were each divided into halves using a polyvinyl curtain. One half of each wetland was fortified with glyphosate with the added mass simulating an accidental direct overspray. Glyphosate dissipated rapidly in the water column of the two prairie wetlands studied (DT(50) values of 1.3 and 4.8 d) which may effectively reduce the impact of exposure of aquatic biota to the herbicide. Degradation of glyphosate to its major metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and sorption of the herbicide to bottom sediment were more important pathways for the dissipation of glyphosate from the water column than movement of the herbicide with infiltrating water. Presently, we are not aware of any Canadian guidelines for glyphosate residues in sediment of aquatic ecosystems. Since a substantial portion of glyphosate entering prairie wetlands will become associated with bottom sediments, particularly in ephemeral wetlands, guidelines would need to be developed to assess the protection of organisms that spend all or part of their lifecycle in sediment.

  3. Differential response of Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq ex DC) JD Sauer to glyphosate.

    PubMed

    Zelaya, Ian A; Owen, Micheal D K

    2005-10-01

    Midwest USA farmers have reported inconsistent control of Amaranthus tuberculatus (= rudis) (Moq ex DC) JD Sauer by glyphosate in glyphosate-resistant crops. The potential of selection for decreased A tuberculatus sensitivity to glyphosate was therefore investigated in a reportedly resistant Everly, IA population (P0-EV). Evaluation of six A tuberculatus populations from the Midwest USA estimated a seedling baseline sensitivity of 2.15 mM glyphosate. Based on these results, three generations of divergent recurrent selection were implemented on P0-EV to isolate resistant and susceptible populations. A seedling assay was developed to screen large amounts of seeds and thus expedite the selection process. Whole-plant and seedling rate responses of P0-EV and a known pristine A tuberculatus population from Paint Creek, OH (P0-WT) identified no significant difference in response to glyphosate; however, greater phenotypic variance was ostensibly evident in P0-EV. The first recurrent generation selected for resistance at 3.2 mM glyphosate (RS1-R) had a 5.9- and 1.7-fold resistance increase at the seedling and whole-plant levels, respectively, compared with the susceptible generation selected at 32 microM glyphosate. After three cycles of recurrent selection, 14.6-fold difference in resistance at the seedling level and 3.1-fold difference at the whole-plant level were observed when comparing the populations selected for resistance (RS3-R) and susceptibility (RS3-S). Overall, recurrent selection increased the frequency of resistant individuals and decreased the variability to glyphosate at the population level. Nevertheless, variability for glyphosate resistance was still evident in RS3-R. Results herein suggested that A tuberculatus is inherently variable to glyphosate and that selection decreased the sensitivity to glyphosate. We purport that evolved glyphosate resistance in A tuberculatus may require multiple cycles of selection under field conditions. Historic estimated

  4. Glyphosate-rich air samples induce IL-33, TSLP and generate IL-13 dependent airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sudhir; Khodoun, Marat; Kettleson, Eric M; McKnight, Christopher; Reponen, Tiina; Grinshpun, Sergey A; Adhikari, Atin

    2014-11-05

    Several low weight molecules have often been implicated in the induction of occupational asthma. Glyphosate, a small molecule herbicide, is widely used in the world. There is a controversy regarding a role of glyphosate in developing asthma and rhinitis among farmers, the mechanism of which is unexplored. The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms of glyphosate induced pulmonary pathology by utilizing murine models and real environmental samples. C57BL/6, TLR4-/-, and IL-13-/- mice inhaled extracts of glyphosate-rich air samples collected on farms during spraying of herbicides or inhaled different doses of glyphosate and ovalbumin. The cellular response, humoral response, and lung function of exposed mice were evaluated. Exposure to glyphosate-rich air samples as well as glyphosate alone to the lungs increased: eosinophil and neutrophil counts, mast cell degranulation, and production of IL-33, TSLP, IL-13, and IL-5. In contrast, in vivo systemic IL-4 production was not increased. Co-administration of ovalbumin with glyphosate did not substantially change the inflammatory immune response. However, IL-13-deficiency resulted in diminished inflammatory response but did not have a significant effect on airway resistance upon methacholine challenge after 7 or 21 days of glyphosate exposure. Glyphosate-rich farm air samples as well as glyphosate alone were found to induce pulmonary IL-13-dependent inflammation and promote Th2 type cytokines, but not IL-4 for glyphosate alone. This study, for the first time, provides evidence for the mechanism of glyphosate-induced occupational lung disease.

  5. Effectiveness evaluation of glyphosate oxidation employing the H(2)O(2)/UVC process: toxicity assays with Vibrio fischeri and Rhinella arenarum tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Junges, Celina M; Vidal, Eduardo E; Attademo, Andrés M; Mariani, Melisa L; Cardell, Leandro; Negro, Antonio C; Cassano, Alberto; Peltzer, Paola M; Lajmanovich, Rafael C; Zalazar, Cristina S

    2013-01-01

    The H(2)O(2)/UVC process was applied to the photodegradation of a commercial formulation of glyphosate in water. Two organisms (Vibrio fischeri bacteria and Rhinella arenarum tadpoles) were used to investigate the toxicity of glyphosate in samples M(1,) M(2), and M(3) following different photodegradation reaction times (120, 240 and 360 min, respectively) that had differing amounts of residual H(2)O(2). Subsamples of M(1), M(2), and M(3) were then used to create samples M(1,E), M(2,E) and M(3,E) in which the H(2)O(2) had been removed. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities were measured in tadpoles to determine possible sub-lethal effects. In V. fischeri, M(1,E), which was collected early in the photodegradation process, caused 52% inhibition, while M(3,E), which was collected at the end of the photodegradation process, caused only 17% inhibition. Survival of tadpoles was 100% in samples M(2), M(3), and in M(1,E), M(2,E) and M(3,E). The lowest percentages of enzymatic inhibition were observed in samples without removal of H(2)O(2): 13.96% (AChE) and 16% (BChE) for M(2), and 24.12% (AChE) and 13.83% (BChE) for M(3). These results show the efficiency of the H(2)O(2)/UVC process in reducing the toxicity of water or wastewater polluted by commercial formulations of glyphosate. According to the ecotoxicity assays, the conditions corresponding to M(2) (11 ± 1 mg a.e. L(-1) glyphosate and 11 ± 1 mg L(-1) H(2)O(2)) could be used as a final point for glyphosate treatment with the H(2)O(2)/UV process.

  6. Impact of agricultural practices on runoff and glyphosate peaks in a small vineyard catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiot, Audrey; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Jadas-Hécart, Alain; Landry, David; Sourice, Stéphane; Communal, Pierre-Yves; Ballouche, Aziz

    2013-04-01

    The Layon River, a tributary of the Loire River, does frequently not comply with water quality standards because of pesticides. Vineyard is generally denounced. The aim of this project is to explain the transfer of pesticides during runoff events and its interaction with erosion. Pesticides and suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations are monitored at the outlet of the vineyards catchment each 2 minutes during floods to follow peaks. The results of three different hydrological years (2009, 2011, 2012) are exposed. The 2.2ha catchment is composed of two main vineyards plots managed by two independent farmers. Mean slopes are of 8% and can reach 40% in terraces. A gauging station has been installed at the end of the slope with a calibrated Venturi channel. The measurement station is composed of (a) an approach channel of 10 meters long for the establishment of a stable water surface, (b) a trapezoidal long-throated flume to assess the flow rate with the water level measured with (c) a bubbler sensor, (d) an automatic rain gauge, (e) an automatic sampler, (f) a modem and (g) a logosens OTT® data logger. 2009 was an average year, 2011 was particularly dry and 2012 particularly wet. Quantities of glyphosate applied were respectively 1087, 645 and 720g. Maximum discharges in the gauging station were 5, 12 and 25L.s-1. Minimum and maximum concentrations of glyphosate in runoff waters were 1-449.1 µg.L-1 in 2009, 0.62-13.6 µg.L-1 in 2011 and 0.1-3.7 µg.L-1 in 2012. Minimum and maximum concentrations of SPM were 14-1261mg.L-1 in 2009, 108- 6454 mg.L-1 in 2011 and 9-1541 mg.L-1 in 2012. While flows, quantities of glyphosate applied and peaks of concentrations observed in 2011 are more important in 2009, SPM generated in the runoff waters are lower than 2011 and 2012, even though 2012 has particularly been a wet year. Also, maximum runoff coefficients are 7% in 2009 and 2011 and 57% in 2012. In fact, this latest explains differences between years better than

  7. Interactions between glyphosate, Fusarium infection of waterhemp, and soil microorganisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse and laboratory experiments were conducted on waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis Sauer) and soil collected from 144 soybean fields in Missouri that contained late-season waterhemp escapes. The objectives of these experiments were to: 1) determine the frequency and distribution of glyphosate res...

  8. Glyphosate resistant weeds - a threat to conservation agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glyphosate-resistant weeds are now present throughout the Southeast. Hundreds of thousands of conservation tillage cotton acres, some currently under USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) conservation program contracts, are at risk of being converted to higher-intensity tillage systems....

  9. Weed Community and Glyphosate Management in Soybean Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A concern to some conservationists is the loss of biodiversity of weedy plant species in the face of wide-spread adoption by farmers of transgenic crops that are resistant to broad-spectrum herbicides such as glyphosate. We studied weed biodiversity in both Argentina and the USA, the two countries w...

  10. Weed species shifts in glyphosate-resistant crops.

    PubMed

    Owen, Micheal D K

    2008-04-01

    The adoption of glyphosate-based crop production systems has been one of the most important revolutions in the history of agriculture. Changes in weed communities owing to species that do not respond to current glyphosate-based management tactics are rapidly increasing. Clearly, glyphosate-resistant crops (GRCs) do not influence weeds any more than non-transgenic crops. For most crops, the trait itself is essentially benign in the environment. Rather, the weed control tactics imposed by growers create the ecological selection pressure that ultimately changes the weed communities. This is seen in the adoption of conservation tillage and weed management programs that focus on one herbicide mode of action and have hastened several important weed population shifts. Tillage (disturbance) is one of the primary factors that affect changes in weed communities. The intense selection pressure from herbicide use will result in the evolution of herbicide-resistant weed biotypes or shifts in the relative prominence of one weed species in the weed community. Changes in weed communities are inevitable and an intrinsic consequence of growing crops over time. The glyphosate-based weed management tactics used in GRCs impose the selection pressure that supports weed population shifts. Examples of weed population shifts in GRCs include common waterhemp [Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq ex DC) JD Sauer], horseweed (Conyza canadensis L), giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida L) and other relatively new weed problems. Growers have handled these weed population shifts with varying success depending on the crop.

  11. In Vivo 31P-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies of Glyphosate Uptake, Vacuolar Sequestration, and Tonoplast Pump Activity in Glyphosate-Resistant Horseweed1[W

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Xia; d’Avignon, D. André; Ackerman, Joseph J.H.; Sammons, R. Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Horseweed (Conyza canadensis) is considered a significant glyphosate-resistant (GR) weed in agriculture, spreading to 21 states in the United States and now found globally on five continents. This laboratory previously reported rapid vacuolar sequestration of glyphosate as the mechanism of resistance in GR horseweed. The observation of vacuole sequestration is consistent with the existence of a tonoplast-bound transporter. 31P-Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments performed in vivo with GR horseweed leaf tissue show that glyphosate entry into the plant cell (cytosolic compartment) is (1) first order in extracellular glyphosate concentration, independent of pH and dependent upon ATP; (2) competitively inhibited by alternative substrates (aminomethyl phosphonate [AMPA] and N-methyl glyphosate [NMG]), which themselves enter the plant cell; and (3) blocked by vanadate, a known inhibitor/blocker of ATP-dependent transporters. Vacuole sequestration of glyphosate is (1) first order in cytosolic glyphosate concentration and dependent upon ATP; (2) competitively inhibited by alternative substrates (AMPA and NMG), which themselves enter the plant vacuole; and (3) saturable. 31P-Nuclear magnetic resonance findings with GR horseweed are consistent with the active transport of glyphosate and alternative substrates (AMPA and NMG) across the plasma membrane and tonoplast in a manner characteristic of ATP-binding cassette transporters, similar to those that have been identified in mammalian cells. PMID:25185124

  12. Effects of glyphosate acid and the glyphosate-commercial formulation (Roundup) on Dimorphandra wilsonii seed germination: Interference of seed respiratory metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Marcelo Pedrosa; da Silva Cruz, Fernanda Vieira; Bicalho, Elisa Monteze; Borges, Felipe Viègas; Fonseca, Marcia Bacelar; Juneau, Philippe; Garcia, Queila Souza

    2017-01-01

    Glyphosate-formulations are widely used in the Brazilian Cerrado (neotropical savanna) with little or no control, threatening population of the endangered species Dimorphandra wilsonii. We investigated the toxicity of different concentrations (0, 5, 25 and 50 mg l(-1)) of glyphosate acid and one of its formulations (Roundup(®)) on seed germination in D. wilsonii. Glyphosate acid and Roundup drastically decreased seed germination by decreasing seed respiration rates. The activation of antioxidant enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase and catalase assure no hydrogen peroxide accumulation in exposed seeds. Glyphosate acid and the Roundup-formulation negatively affected the activities of enzymes associated with the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC), with Complex III as its precise target. The toxicity of Roundup-formulation was greater than that of glyphosate acid due to its greater effects on respiration. The herbicide glyphosate must impair D. wilsonii seed germination by disrupting the mitochondrial ETC, resulting in decreased energy (ATP) production. Our results therefore indicate the importance of avoiding (or closely regulating) the use of glyphosate-based herbicides in natural Cerrado habitats of D. wilsonni as they are toxic to seed germination and therefore threaten conservation efforts. It will likewise be important to investigate the effects of glyphosate on the seeds of other species and to investigate the impacts of these pesticides elsewhere in the world.

  13. Glyphosate spray drift in Coffea arabica - sensitivity of coffee plants and possible use of shikimic acid as a biomarker for glyphosate exposure.

    PubMed

    Schrübbers, Lars C; Valverde, Bernal E; Sørensen, Jens C; Cedergreen, Nina

    2014-10-01

    Glyphosate is widely used in coffee plantations to control weeds. Lacking selectivity, glyphosate spray drift is suspected to cause adverse effects in coffee plants. Symptoms caused by glyphosate can be similar to those produced by other stress factors. However, shikimic acid accumulation should be a useful biomarker for glyphosate exposure as shown for other crops. The aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity of coffee plants towards glyphosate on different biological response variables and to evaluate the use of shikimic acid as biomarker. Dose-response experiments yielded ED50 values (50% effect dose) in the range of 38-550 ga.e.ha(-1) depending on the quantitative or qualitative variable monitored. The frequency of plants showing symptoms was the most sensitive variable. The best sampling time for shikimic acid accumulation was 1-2 weeks after glyphosate application, depending on experimental conditions. The highest shikimic acid accumulation was observed in young leaves. Shikimic acid is a suitable biomarker for a glyphosate exposure in coffee, using only young leaves for the analysis. Young coffee plants are susceptible to glyphosate damage. If symptoms are absent the risk of severe crop damage or yield loss is low.

  14. Glyphosate, other herbicides, and transformation products in Midwestern streams, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battaglin, W.A.; Kolpin, D.W.; Scribner, E.A.; Kuivila, K.M.; Sandstrom, M.W.

    2005-01-01

    The use of glyphosate has increased rapidly, and there is limited understanding of its environmental fate. The objective of this study was to document the occurrence of glyphosate and the transformation product aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in Midwestern streams and to compare their occurrence with that of more commonly measured herbicides such as acetochlor, atrazine, and metolachlor. Water samples were collected at sites on 51 streams in nine Midwestern states in 2002 during three runoff events: after the application of pre-emergence herbicides, after the application of post-emergence herbicides, and during harvest season. All samples were analyzed for glyphosate and 20 other herbicides using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry or high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The frequency of glyphosate and AMPA detection, range of concentrations in runoff samples, and ratios of AMPA to glyphosate concentrations did not vary throughout the growing season as substantially as for other herbicides like atrazine, probably because of different seasonal use patterns. Glyphosate was detected at or above 0.1 μg/1 in 35 percent of pre-emergence, 40 percent of post-emergence, and 31 percent of harvest season samples, with a maximum concentration of 8.7 μg/1. AMPA was detected at or above 0.1 μg/1 in 53 percent of pre-emergence, 83 percent of post-emergence, and 73 percent of harvest season samples, with a maximum concentration of 3.6 μg/1. Glyphosate was not detected at a concentration at or above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contamination level (MCL) of 700 μg/1 in any sample. Atrazine was detected at or above 0.1 μg/1 in 94 percent of pre-emergence, 96 percent of post-emergence, and 57 percent of harvest season samples, with a maximum concentration of 55 μg/1. Atrazine was detected at or above its MCL (3 μg/1) in 57 percent of pre-emergence and 33 percent of post-emergence samples

  15. Civility in scientific publishing: The glyphosate paper.

    PubMed

    Blaylock, Russell Lane

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, we have witnessed a decline in civility in the public arena when various socially sensitive issues are being presented. Those of us engaged in the publishing of scientific papers and in our comments on these papers, need to be cognizant of the social graces, courteous demeanor, and chivalry. Debates are essential to our learning and in being able to ferret out the essentials of various scientific issues that are of value. Because of the amount of time and effort connected with analyzing the complex problems and the years invested in such endeavors, we often resort to the behavior, that is, contentious and at times even quite insulting to our opponents during our defense. This is the part of human nature but as civilized human beings, we must strive to maintain the courtesy and a calm demeanor during such discussions and debates. I have yielded to such temptations myself but am striving to repent of my sins. The medical and scientific history should have taught us that in defending our ideas we learn and sometimes come to the realization that our paradigm or hypothesis is wrong, either in part or whole. Such debates allow us to fine tune our ideas and correct our errors in thinking, which are easily, consciously, or subconsciously sublimated by our enthusiasm. The glyphosate papers presented ideas that, while well supported by the scientific studies and logical conclusions, also contained some possible errors in its suppositions. Dr. Miguel Faria challenged some of these concepts and was met with some degree of derision by one of the authors. This editorial comment is in response to these issues.

  16. Civility in scientific publishing: The glyphosate paper

    PubMed Central

    Blaylock, Russell Lane

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, we have witnessed a decline in civility in the public arena when various socially sensitive issues are being presented. Those of us engaged in the publishing of scientific papers and in our comments on these papers, need to be cognizant of the social graces, courteous demeanor, and chivalry. Debates are essential to our learning and in being able to ferret out the essentials of various scientific issues that are of value. Because of the amount of time and effort connected with analyzing the complex problems and the years invested in such endeavors, we often resort to the behavior, that is, contentious and at times even quite insulting to our opponents during our defense. This is the part of human nature but as civilized human beings, we must strive to maintain the courtesy and a calm demeanor during such discussions and debates. I have yielded to such temptations myself but am striving to repent of my sins. The medical and scientific history should have taught us that in defending our ideas we learn and sometimes come to the realization that our paradigm or hypothesis is wrong, either in part or whole. Such debates allow us to fine tune our ideas and correct our errors in thinking, which are easily, consciously, or subconsciously sublimated by our enthusiasm. The glyphosate papers presented ideas that, while well supported by the scientific studies and logical conclusions, also contained some possible errors in its suppositions. Dr. Miguel Faria challenged some of these concepts and was met with some degree of derision by one of the authors. This editorial comment is in response to these issues. PMID:26543672

  17. Effects of glyphosate-resistant crop cultivation on soil and water quality.

    PubMed

    Cerdeira, Antonio L; Duke, Stephen O

    2010-01-01

    Transgenic glyphosate-resistant crops (GRCs) have been commercialized and grown extensively in the Western Hemisphere and, to a lesser extent, elsewhere. GRCs have generally become dominant in those countries where they have been approved for growing. Potential effects of glyphosate on soil and water are minimal, compared the effects of the herbicides that are replaced when GRCs are adopted. Perhaps the most important indirect effect is that GRCs crops promote the adoption of reduced- or no-tillage agriculture, resulting in a significant reduction in soil erosion and water contamination. Glyphosate and its degradation product, aminomethylphosphonate (AMPA), residues are not usually detected in high levels in ground or surface water in areas where glyphosate is used extensively.  Furthermore, both glyphosate and AMPA are considered to be much more toxicologically and environmentally benign than most of the herbicides replaced by glyphosate.

  18. Functional characterization of aroA from Rhizobium leguminosarum with significant glyphosate tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Han, Jing; Tian, Yong-Sheng; Xu, Jing; Wang, Li-Juan; Wang, Bo; Peng, Ri-He; Yao, Quan-Hong

    2014-09-01

    Glyphosate is the active component of the top-selling herbicide, the phytotoxicity of which is due to its inhibition of the shikimic acid pathway. 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) is a key enzyme in the shikimic acid pathway. Glyphosate tolerance in plants can be achieved by the expression of a glyphosate-insensitive aroA gene (EPSPS). In this study, we used a PCR-based two-step DNA synthesis method to synthesize a new aroA gene (aroAR. leguminosarum) from Rhizobium leguminosarum. In vitro glyphosate sensitivity assays showed that aroAR. leguminosarum is glyphosate tolerant. The new gene was then expressed in E. coli and key kinetic values of the purified enzyme were determined. Furthermore, we transformed the aroA gene into Arabidopsis thaliana by the floral dip method. Transgenic Arabidopsis with the aroAR. leguminosarum gene was obtained to prove its potential use in developing glyphosate-resistant crops.

  19. The effect of glyphosate on potential pathogens and beneficial members of poultry microbiota in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Awad A; Schrödl, Wieland; Aldin, Alaa A; Hafez, Hafez M; Krüger, Monika

    2013-04-01

    The use of glyphosate modifies the environment which stresses the living microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to determine the real impact of glyphosate on potential pathogens and beneficial members of poultry microbiota in vitro. The presented results evidence that the highly pathogenic bacteria as Salmonella Entritidis, Salmonella Gallinarum, Salmonella Typhimurium, Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium botulinum are highly resistant to glyphosate. However, most of beneficial bacteria as Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Bacillus badius, Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Lactobacillus spp. were found to be moderate to highly susceptible. Also Campylobacter spp. were found to be susceptible to glyphosate. A reduction of beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract microbiota by ingestion of glyphosate could disturb the normal gut bacterial community. Also, the toxicity of glyphosate to the most prevalent Enterococcus spp. could be a significant predisposing factor that is associated with the increase in C. botulinum-mediated diseases by suppressing the antagonistic effect of these bacteria on clostridia.

  20. Inhibition effect of glyphosate on the acute and subacute toxicity of cadmium to earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chui-Fan; Wang, Yu-Jun; Sun, Rui-Juan; Liu, Cun; Fan, Guang-Ping; Qin, Wen-Xiu; Li, Cheng-Cheng; Zhou, Dong-Mei

    2014-10-01

    The acute and subacute toxicities of cadmium (Cd) to earthworm Eisenia fetida in the presence and absence of glyphosate were studied. Although Cd is highly toxic to E. fetida, the presence of glyphosate markedly reduced the acute toxicity of Cd to earthworm; both the mortality rate of the earthworms and the accumulation of Cd decreased with the increase of the glyphosate/Cd molar ratio. The subcellular distribution of Cd in E. fetida tissues showed that internal Cd was dominant in the intact cells fraction and the heat-stable proteins fraction. The presence of glyphosate reduced the concentration of Cd in all fractions, especially the intact cells. During a longer period of exposure, the weight loss of earthworm and the total Cd absorption was alleviated by glyphosate. Thus, the herbicide glyphosate can reduce the toxicity and bioavailability of Cd in the soil ecosystems at both short- and long-term exposures.

  1. Changes in chlorophyll a fluorescence of glyphosate-tolerant soybean plants induced by glyphosate: in vivo analysis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Joelson; Falco, William Ferreira; Oliveira, Samuel Leite; Caires, Anderson Rodrigues Lima

    2013-05-01

    A significant increase in the use of the herbicide glyphosate has generated many questions about its residual accumulation in the environment and possible damage to crops. In this study, changes in chlorophyll a (chl-a) fluorescence induced by glyphosate in three varieties of glyphosate-resistant soybean plants were determined with an in vivo analysis based on a portable laser-induced fluorescence system. Strong suppression of chl-a fluorescence was observed for all plants treated with the herbicide. Moreover, the ratio of the emission bands in the red and far-red regions (685 nm/735 nm) indicates that the application of glyphosate led to chlorophyll degradation. The results also indicated that the use of glyphosate, even at concentrations recommended by the manufacturer, suppressed chl-a fluorescence. In summary, this study shows that fluorescence spectroscopy can detect, in vivo, very early changes in the photosynthetic status of transgenic soybeans treated with this herbicide.

  2. Glyphosate effects on plant mineral nutrition, crop rhizosphere microbiota, and plant disease in glyphosate-resistant crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There have been recent claims that glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops sometimes have mineral deficiencies. Claimed deficiencies, such as with Mn, have been linked to alleged increases in plant disease in GR crops. This review evaluates the literature that is germane to these claims. Our conclusions a...

  3. Reevaluating glyphosate as a transition-state inhibitor of EPSP synthase: identification of an EPSP synthase.EPSP.glyphosate ternary complex.

    PubMed

    Sammons, R D; Gruys, K J; Anderson, K S; Johnson, K A; Sikorski, J A

    1995-05-16

    Numerous studies have confirmed that glyphosate forms a tight ternary complex with EPSP synthase and shikimate 3-phosphate. It has been proposed [Anton, D., Hedstrom, L., Fish, S., & Abeles, R. (1983) Biochemistry 22, 5903-5908; Steinrücken, H. C., & Amrhein, N. (1984) Eur. J. Biochem. 143, 351-357] that in this complex glyphosate functions as a transition-state analog of the putative phosphoenolpyruvoyl oxonium ion. For this to be true, glyphosate must occupy the space in the enzyme active site that is normally associated with PEP and, through turnover, the carboxyvinyl group of the product EPSP. According to this model, one would predict that, in the reverse EPSP synthase reaction with EPSP and phosphate as substrates, there should be little if any interaction of glyphosate with enzyme or enzyme.substrate complexes. In contrast to this expectation, rapid gel filtration experiments provided direct evidence that glyphosate could be trapped on the enzyme in the presence of EPSP to form a ternary complex of EPSPS.EPSP.glyphosate. The experimentally determined stoichiometry for this complex, 0.62 equiv of glyphosate/mole of EPSPS, is similar to that found for the EPSPS.S3P.glyphosate ternary complex (0.66). This direct binding result was corroborated and quantitated by fluorescence titration experiments which demonstrated that glyphosate forms a reasonably tight (Kd = 56 +/- 1 microM) ternary complex with enzyme and EPSP. This finding was further verified, and its impact on substrate turnover analyzed, by steady-state kinetics. Glyphosate was found to be an uncompetitive inhibitor versus EPSP with Kii(app) = 54 +/- 2 microM.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Mask degradation monitoring with aerial mask inspector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Wen-Jui; Fu, Yung-Ying; Lu, Shih-Ping; Jiang, Ming-Sian; Lin, Jeffrey; Wu, Clare; Lifschitz, Sivan; Tam, Aviram

    2013-06-01

    As design rule continues to shrink, microlithography is becoming more challenging and the photomasks need to comply with high scanner laser energy, low CDU, and ever more aggressive RETs. This give rise to numerous challenges in the semiconductor wafer fabrication plants. Some of these challenges being contamination (mainly haze and particles), mask pattern degradation (MoSi oxidation, chrome migration, etc.) and pellicle degradation. Fabs are constantly working to establish an efficient methodology to manage these challenges mainly using mask inspection, wafer inspection, SEM review and CD SEMs. Aerial technology offers a unique opportunity to address the above mask related challenges using one tool. The Applied Materials Aera3TM system has the inherent ability to inspect for defects (haze, particles, etc.), and track mask degradation (e.g. CDU). This paper focuses on haze monitoring, which is still a significant challenge in semiconductor manufacturing, and mask degradation effects that are starting to emerge as the next challenge for high volume semiconductor manufacturers. The paper describes Aerial inspector (Aera3) early haze methodology and mask degradation tracking related to high volume manufacturing. These will be demonstrated on memory products. At the end of the paper we take a brief look on subsequent work currently conducted on the more general issue of photo mask degradation monitoring by means of an Aerial inspector.

  5. Aerial thermography for energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Thermal infrared scanning from an aircraft is a convenient and commercially available means for determining relative rates of energy loss from building roofs. The need to conserve energy as fuel costs makes the mass survey capability of aerial thermography an attractive adjunct to community energy awareness programs. Background information on principles of aerial thermography is presented. Thermal infrared scanning systems, flight and environmental requirements for data acquisition, preparation of thermographs for display, major users and suppliers of thermography, and suggested specifications for obtaining aerial scanning services were reviewed.

  6. Development and prospect of unmanned aerial vehicles for agricultural production management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles have been developed and applied to support agricultural production management. Compared to piloted aircrafts, an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) can focus on small crop fields in lower flight altitude than regular airplanes to perform site-specific management with high precisi...

  7. Development of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Site-Specific Crop Production Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) have been developed and applied to support the practice of precision agriculture. Compared to piloted aircrafts, an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle can focus on much smaller crop fields with much lower flight altitude than regular airplanes to perform site-specific management ...

  8. Differential effects of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) on photosynthesis and chlorophyll metabolism in willow plants.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Marcelo Pedrosa; Le Manac'h, Sarah Gingras; Maccario, Sophie; Labrecque, Michel; Lucotte, Marc; Juneau, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    We used a willow species (Salix miyabeana cultivar SX64) to examine the differential secondary-effects of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), the principal glyphosate by-product, on chlorophyll metabolism and photosynthesis. Willow plants were treated with different concentrations of glyphosate (equivalent to 0, 1.4, 2.1 and 2.8kgha(-1)) and AMPA (equivalent to 0, 0.28, 1.4 and 2.8kgha(-1)) and evaluations of pigment contents, chlorophyll fluorescence, and oxidative stress markers (hydrogen peroxide content and antioxidant enzyme activities) in leaves were performed after 12h of exposure. We observed that AMPA and glyphosate trigger different mechanisms leading to decreases in chlorophyll content and photosynthesis rates in willow plants. Both chemicals induced ROS accumulation in willow leaves although only glyphosate-induced oxidative damage through lipid peroxidation. By disturbing chlorophyll biosynthesis, AMPA induced decreases in chlorophyll contents, with consequent effects on photosynthesis. With glyphosate, ROS increases were higher than the ROS-sensitive threshold, provoking chlorophyll degradation (as seen by pheophytin accumulation) and invariable decreases in photosynthesis. Peroxide accumulation in both AMPA and glyphosate-treated plants was due to the inhibition of antioxidant enzyme activities. The different effects of glyphosate on chlorophyll contents and photosynthesis as described in the literature may be due to various glyphosate:AMPA ratios in those plants.

  9. Residues of the herbicide glyphosate in riparian groundwater in urban catchments.

    PubMed

    Van Stempvoort, D R; Roy, J W; Brown, S J; Bickerton, G

    2014-01-01

    The herbicide glyphosate and its putative metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) have been found in urban streams, but limited information is available on their presence in urban riparian groundwater. Information is also lacking regarding the source of AMPA in these urban settings (glyphosate metabolite or wastewater), and whether, if present, glyphosate residues in urban riparian groundwater contribute significantly to urban streams. Glyphosate and AMPA were detected in shallow riparian groundwater at 4 of 5 stream sites in urban catchments in Canada and each were found in approximately 1 in 10 of the samples overall. Frequency of observations of glyphosate and AMPA varied substantially between sites, from no observations in a National Park near the Town of Jasper Alberta, to observations of both glyphosate and AMPA in more than half of the samples along two short reaches of streams in Burlington, Ontario. In these two catchments, AMPA was correlated with glyphosate, rather than the artificial sweetener acesulfame, suggesting that the AMPA is derived mainly from glyphosate degradation rather than from wastewater sources. Land use, localized dosage history, depth below ground and other factors likely control the occurrence of detectable glyphosate residues in groundwater.

  10. Differential Effects of Glyphosate and Roundup on Human Placental Cells and Aromatase

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Sophie; Moslemi, Safa; Sipahutar, Herbert; Benachour, Nora; Seralini, Gilles-Eric

    2005-01-01

    Roundup is a glyphosate-based herbicide used worldwide, including on most genetically modified plants that have been designed to tolerate it. Its residues may thus enter the food chain, and glyphosate is found as a contaminant in rivers. Some agricultural workers using glyphosate have pregnancy problems, but its mechanism of action in mammals is questioned. Here we show that glyphosate is toxic to human placental JEG3 cells within 18 hr with concentrations lower than those found with agricultural use, and this effect increases with concentration and time or in the presence of Roundup adjuvants. Surprisingly, Roundup is always more toxic than its active ingredient. We tested the effects of glyphosate and Roundup at lower nontoxic concentrations on aromatase, the enzyme responsible for estrogen synthesis. The glyphosate-based herbicide disrupts aromatase activity and mRNA levels and interacts with the active site of the purified enzyme, but the effects of glyphosate are facilitated by the Roundup formulation in microsomes or in cell culture. We conclude that endocrine and toxic effects of Roundup, not just glyphosate, can be observed in mammals. We suggest that the presence of Roundup adjuvants enhances glyphosate bioavailability and/or bioaccumulation. PMID:15929894

  11. Differential effects of glyphosate and roundup on human placental cells and aromatase.

    PubMed

    Richard, Sophie; Moslemi, Safa; Sipahutar, Herbert; Benachour, Nora; Seralini, Gilles-Eric

    2005-06-01

    Roundup is a glyphosate-based herbicide used worldwide, including on most genetically modified plants that have been designed to tolerate it. Its residues may thus enter the food chain, and glyphosate is found as a contaminant in rivers. Some agricultural workers using glyphosate have pregnancy problems, but its mechanism of action in mammals is questioned. Here we show that glyphosate is toxic to human placental JEG3 cells within 18 hr with concentrations lower than those found with agricultural use, and this effect increases with concentration and time or in the presence of Roundup adjuvants. Surprisingly, Roundup is always more toxic than its active ingredient. We tested the effects of glyphosate and Roundup at lower nontoxic concentrations on aromatase, the enzyme responsible for estrogen synthesis. The glyphosate-based herbicide disrupts aromatase activity and mRNA levels and interacts with the active site of the purified enzyme, but the effects of glyphosate are facilitated by the Roundup formulation in microsomes or in cell culture. We conclude that endocrine and toxic effects of Roundup, not just glyphosate, can be observed in mammals. We suggest that the presence of Roundup adjuvants enhances glyphosate bioavailability and/or bioaccumulation.

  12. Glyphosate contaminated soil remediation by atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma and its residual toxicity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tiecheng; Ren, Jingyu; Qu, Guangzhou; Liang, Dongli; Hu, Shibin

    2016-12-15

    Glyphosate was one of the most widely used herbicides in the world. Remediation of glyphosate-contaminated soil was conducted using atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma. The feasibility of glyphosate degradation in soil was explored, and the soil leachate toxicity after remediation was assessed via a seed germination test. The experimental results showed that approximately 93.9% of glyphosate was degraded within 45min of DBD plasma treatment with an energy yield of 0.47gkWh(-1), and the degradation process fitted the first-order kinetic model. Increasing the discharge voltage and decreasing the organic matter content of the soil were both found to facilitate glyphosate degradation. There existed appropriate soil moisture to realize high glyphosate degradation efficiency. Glyphosate mineralization was confirmed by changes of total organic carbon (TOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD), PO4(3-) and NO3(-). The degradation intermediates including glycine, aminomethylphosphonic acid, acetic acid, formic acid, PO4(3-) and NO3(-), CO2 and CO were observed. A possible pathway for glyphosate degradation in the soil using this system was proposed. Based on the soil leachate toxicity test using wheat seed germination, the soil did not exhibit any hazardous effects following high-efficiency glyphosate degradation.

  13. The effects of glyphosate and aminopyralid on a multi-species plant field trial.

    PubMed

    Pfleeger, Thomas; Blakeley-Smith, Matthew; King, George; Henry Lee, E; Plocher, Milton; Olszyk, David

    2012-10-01

    In the United States, the US EPA has the responsibility for the registration of pesticides. For the protection of nontarget terrestrial plants this requires two simple greenhouse tests (seedling emergence and vegetative vigor), each done with ten species grown individually. Indications of unacceptable effects levels equivalent to environmental exposure can lead to field testing which is not well-defined. Our objective was to develop a regional field test that is simple, economical, geographically flexible and with endpoints of ecological significance and compare the results with the standard greenhouse tests. Three native Oregon plant species were grown together with an introduced species. The experiment was replicated at two locations and repeated for 3 years with glyphosate applied at 0, 0.01 (8.3 g/ha), 0.1 (83.2 g/ha), and 0.2 (166.4 g/ha) × FAR (Field Application Rate of 832 gm/ha acid equivalent) and 2 years with aminopyralid applied at 0, 0.037 (4.6 g/ha), 0.136 (16.7 g/ha), and 0.5 (61.5 g/ha) × FAR (123 g/ha acid equivalent). With glyphosate, plant height and volume decreased with increasing herbicide concentration for all species, and for nearly all farm × year combinations. With aminopyralid, one species died at nearly all concentrations, sites and years, while the effects on the other three species were less pronounced and variable. The relative rank in glyphosate sensitivity among species in the field studies differed from the ranking from greenhouse studies, with Cynososurs echinatus the most sensitive in the field but Prunella vulgaris the most sensitive in the greenhouse. With aminopyralid, sensitivity generally was similar for all species in the greenhouse as in the field. The results suggest that a simple field test can be successfully designed to investigate the ecological effects of herbicides on plant communities and supplement information gained from greenhouse tests performed in controlled environments.

  14. Aerial Refueling Clearance Process Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-21

    08-2014 2. REPORT TYPE Guidance Document 3. DATES COVERED 2008-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Aerial Refueling Clearance Process Guide Attachment: Aerial...ATP-3.3.4.2 covers general operational procedures for AR and national/organizational SRDs cover data and procedures specific to their AR platforms...Receptacle, Probe/Drogue, and BDA Kit. 3.1.3 The items for assessment consideration cover several areas of interface for both the tanker and the

  15. 40 CFR 174.524 - Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247 in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or... REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.524 Glyphosate... Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247 enzyme in all plants are exempt from the requirement of a...

  16. 40 CFR 174.524 - Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247 in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or... REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.524 Glyphosate... Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247 enzyme in all plants are exempt from the requirement of a...

  17. 40 CFR 174.524 - Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247 in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or... REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.524 Glyphosate... Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247 enzyme in all plants are exempt from the requirement of a...

  18. 40 CFR 174.524 - Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247 in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or... REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.524 Glyphosate... Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247 enzyme in all plants are exempt from the requirement of a...

  19. 40 CFR 174.524 - Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247 in all plants; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or... REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.524 Glyphosate... Glyphosate Oxidoreductase GOX or GOXv247 enzyme in all plants are exempt from the requirement of a...

  20. Cropping practices modulate the impact of glyphosate on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizosphere bacteria in agroecosystems of the semiarid prairie.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Min; Hamel, Chantal; Fernandez, Myriam R

    2012-08-01

    A growing body of evidence obtained from studies performed under controlled conditions suggests that glyphosate use can modify microbial community assemblages. However, few studies have examined the influence of glyphosate in agroecosystems. We examined 4 wheat-based production systems typical of the Canadian prairie over 2 years to answer the following question: Does preseeding of glyphosate impact soil rhizosphere microorganisms? If so, do cropping practices influence this impact? Glyphosate caused a shift in the species dominating the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community in the rhizosphere, possibly through the modification of host plant physiology. Glyphosate stimulated rhizobacterial growth while having no influence on saprotrophic fungi, suggesting a greater abundance of glyphosate-tolerant 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) in bacteria than in fungi. Glyphosate stimulated rhizosphere bacteria in pea but not in urea-fertilized durum wheat, which is consistent with inhibition of EPSPS tolerance to residual glyphosate through high ammonium levels. Mitigation of the effects of glyphosate on rhizosphere bacteria through tillage suggests a reduction in residual glyphosate activity through increased adsorption to soil binding sites upon soil mixing. The influence of glyphosate on Gram-negative bacteria was mitigated under drought conditions in 2007. Our experiment suggests that interactions between soil fertility, tillage, and cropping practices shape the influence of glyphosate use on rhizosphere microorganisms.

  1. Glyphosate resistance in tall waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus) from Mississippi is due to both altered target-site and nontarget-site mechanisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A tall waterhemp population in a glyphosate-resistant soybean field, Washington County, Missisippi, was suspected to be resistant to glyphosate. Glyphosate dose response experiments resulted in GR50 (glyphosate dose required to cause a 50% reduction in growth of treated plants) values of 1.28 and 0....

  2. Impact of the invasive mussel Limnoperna fortunei on glyphosate concentration in water.

    PubMed

    Di Fiori, Eugenia; Pizarro, Haydée; dos Santos Afonso, María; Cataldo, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    The use of glyphosate has increased dramatically during the past years around the world. Microbial communities are altered when glyphosate reaches water bodies. The freshwater golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei is an invasive species that has rapidly dispersed since it was introduced in Argentina two decades ago. Mussels alter aquatic conditions through their filtrating activity by increasing water clarity and nutrient recycling. We aim to evaluate the potential capacity of the golden mussel to reduce glyphosate concentration in water, in laboratory conditions. Firstly, the evasive response of mussels to glyphosate (10, 20, and 40 mg l⁻¹) was evaluated and a toxicity test was carried out for these concentrations. A three-week experiment was then performed to assess glyphosate variation under mussel presence for two mussel sizes. Finally, mussels' role on glyphosate concentration was evaluated considering different mussel parts (living organisms and empty shells) through another three-week experiment. Laboratory experiments were performed in triplicate using 2-l microcosms. An initial glyphosate concentration between 16 and 19 mg l⁻¹ was used, and when mussels or valvae were added, 20 organisms per aquaria were used. Samples were obtained at days 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 14, and 21. Glyphosate decreased by 40% under large mussel presence in both experiments, and was reduced by 25% in empty shell treatments. We believe that part of the herbicide that disappears from the water column is adsorbed in valvae surface, while another proportion is being mineralized by microbial communities in shells' biofilm. The mechanisms by which living mussels increase glyphosate dissipation would be degradation, possibly mediated by bacteria associated to mussel's metabolism. Glyphosate half-life depended on mussel and valvae presence and varied with mussel size. L. fortunei presence (either alive or as empty valvae) alters glyphosate concentration in water. We provide preliminary

  3. Glyphosate biodegradation and potential soil bioremediation by Bacillus subtilis strain Bs-15.

    PubMed

    Yu, X M; Yu, T; Yin, G H; Dong, Q L; An, M; Wang, H R; Ai, C X

    2015-11-23

    Glyphosate and glyphosate-containing herbicides have an adverse effect on mammals, humans, and soil microbial ecosystems. Therefore, it is important to develop methods for enhancing glyphosate degradation in soil through bioremediation. We investigated the potential of glyphosate degradation and bioremediation in soil by Bacillus subtilis Bs-15. Bs-15 grew well at high concentrations of glyphosate; the maximum concentration tolerated by Bs-15 reached 40,000 mg/L. The optimal conditions for bacterial growth and glyphosate degradation were less than 10,000 mg/L glyphosate, with a temperature of 35°C and a pH of 8.0. Optimal fermentation occurred at 180 rpm for 60 h with an inoculum ratio of 4%. Bs-15 degraded 17.65% (12 h) to 66.97% (96 h) of glyphosate in sterile soil and 19.01% (12 h) to 71.57% (96 h) in unsterilized soil. Using a BIOLOG ECO plate test, we observed no significant difference in average well color development values between the soil inoculated with Bs-15 and the control soil before 72 h, although there was a significant difference (P < 0.01) after 72 h. In the presence of Bs-15, the 5 functional diversity indices (Shannon index, Shannon uniformity, Simpson index, McIntosh index, and McIntosh uniformity) were greater (P < 0.01) compared with the control soil. These results indicate that Bs-15 could be used to alleviate contamination from glyphosate-containing herbicides, increasing the microbial functional diversity in glyphosate-contaminated soils and thus enhancing the bioremediation of glyphosate-contaminated soils.

  4. Glyphosate, pathways to modern diseases II: Celiac sprue and gluten intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Samsel, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Celiac disease, and, more generally, gluten intolerance, is a growing problem worldwide, but especially in North America and Europe, where an estimated 5% of the population now suffers from it. Symptoms include nausea, diarrhea, skin rashes, macrocytic anemia and depression. It is a multifactorial disease associated with numerous nutritional deficiencies as well as reproductive issues and increased risk to thyroid disease, kidney failure and cancer. Here, we propose that glyphosate, the active ingredient in the herbicide, Roundup®, is the most important causal factor in this epidemic. Fish exposed to glyphosate develop digestive problems that are reminiscent of celiac disease. Celiac disease is associated with imbalances in gut bacteria that can be fully explained by the known effects of glyphosate on gut bacteria. Characteristics of celiac disease point to impairment in many cytochrome P450 enzymes, which are involved with detoxifying environmental toxins, activating vitamin D3, catabolizing vitamin A, and maintaining bile acid production and sulfate supplies to the gut. Glyphosate is known to inhibit cytochrome P450 enzymes. Deficiencies in iron, cobalt, molybdenum, copper and other rare metals associated with celiac disease can be attributed to glyphosate's strong ability to chelate these elements. Deficiencies in tryptophan, tyrosine, methionine and selenomethionine associated with celiac disease match glyphosate's known depletion of these amino acids. Celiac disease patients have an increased risk to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, which has also been implicated in glyphosate exposure. Reproductive issues associated with celiac disease, such as infertility, miscarriages, and birth defects, can also be explained by glyphosate. Glyphosate residues in wheat and other crops are likely increasing recently due to the growing practice of crop desiccation just prior to the harvest. We argue that the practice of “ripening” sugar cane with glyphosate may explain the recent

  5. Selection and characterization of glyphosate tolerance in birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus)

    SciTech Connect

    Boerboom, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    If birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) was tolerant to glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine), Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.) and other dicot weeds could be selectively controlled in certified seed production fields. Glyphosate tolerance in birdsfoot trefoil was identified in plants from the cultivar Leo, plants regenerated from tolerant callus, and selfed progeny of plants regenerated from callus. Plants from the three sources were evaluated in field studies for tolerance to glyphosate at rates up to 1.6 kg ae/ha. Plants of Leo selected for tolerance exhibited a twofold range in the rate required to reduce shoot weight 50% (I{sub 50}s from 0.6 to 1.2 kg/ha glyphosate). Plants regenerated from tolerant callus had tolerance up to 66% greater than plants regenerated from unselected callus. Transgressive segregation for glyphosate tolerance was observed in the selfed progeny of two regenerated plants that both had I{sub 50}s of 0.7 kg/ha glyphosate. The selfed progeny ranged from highly tolerant (I{sub 50} of 1.5 kg/ha) to susceptible (I{sub 50} of 0.5 kg/ha). Spray retention, {sup 14}C-glyphosate absorption and translocation did not account for the differential tolerance of nine plants that were evaluated from the three sources. The specific activity of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase ranged from 1.3 to 3.5 nmol/min{sm bullet}mg among the nine plants and was positively correlated with glyphosate tolerance. Leo birdsfoot trefoil was found to have significant variation in glyphosate tolerance which made it possible to initiate a recurrent selection program to select for glyphosate tolerance in birdsfoot trefoil. Two cycles of selection for glyphosate tolerance were practiced in three birdsfoot trefoil populations, Leo, Norcen, and MU-81.

  6. Estimating maternal and prenatal exposure to glyphosate in the community setting.

    PubMed

    McQueen, Heather; Callan, Anna C; Hinwood, Andrea L

    2012-11-01

    Glyphosate is a herbicide in common use, in both agricultural and residential settings. Controlled residue studies show that glyphosate persists in food crops, allowing for the potential of a large number of people to be exposed. Glyphosate is generally considered safe however there are a number of studies suggesting formulations or additives that may have adverse health effects. To assess the degree of exposure of pregnant women, this study measured glyphosate in composite food samples and estimated exposure based on food frequency questionnaire. 43 pregnant women were recruited and completed a self administered questionnaire with a food frequency component and provided a composite food sample. Twenty food samples were analysed with very low glyphosate concentrations (mean 0.08 mg/kg, range 0.002-0.5 mg/kg) with residues detected in more than 75% of the samples. Maternal dietary exposure was very low (0.001 mg/kg bw/day) and was considerably lower than the predicted National Estimated Daily Intake of glyphosate (0.02 mg/kg bw/day). The estimated exposure based on measured glyphosate in composite food samples corresponded to 0.4% of the acceptable daily intake for glyphosate, and the predicted concentration from dietary information was 4% which is comparable to the National Estimated Daily Intake of 5.5% of the Acceptable Daily Intake of glyphosate. Prenatal exposures were estimated to be significantly lower. While residues of glyphosate are present in food, this study demonstrates that exposure concentrations are low and confirms the current models used to estimate glyphosate exposure.

  7. Glyphosate, pathways to modern diseases II: Celiac sprue and gluten intolerance.

    PubMed

    Samsel, Anthony; Seneff, Stephanie

    2013-12-01

    Celiac disease, and, more generally, gluten intolerance, is a growing problem worldwide, but especially in North America and Europe, where an estimated 5% of the population now suffers from it. Symptoms include nausea, diarrhea, skin rashes, macrocytic anemia and depression. It is a multifactorial disease associated with numerous nutritional deficiencies as well as reproductive issues and increased risk to thyroid disease, kidney failure and cancer. Here, we propose that glyphosate, the active ingredient in the herbicide, Roundup(®), is the most important causal factor in this epidemic. Fish exposed to glyphosate develop digestive problems that are reminiscent of celiac disease. Celiac disease is associated with imbalances in gut bacteria that can be fully explained by the known effects of glyphosate on gut bacteria. Characteristics of celiac disease point to impairment in many cytochrome P450 enzymes, which are involved with detoxifying environmental toxins, activating vitamin D3, catabolizing vitamin A, and maintaining bile acid production and sulfate supplies to the gut. Glyphosate is known to inhibit cytochrome P450 enzymes. Deficiencies in iron, cobalt, molybdenum, copper and other rare metals associated with celiac disease can be attributed to glyphosate's strong ability to chelate these elements. Deficiencies in tryptophan, tyrosine, methionine and selenomethionine associated with celiac disease match glyphosate's known depletion of these amino acids. Celiac disease patients have an increased risk to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, which has also been implicated in glyphosate exposure. Reproductive issues associated with celiac disease, such as infertility, miscarriages, and birth defects, can also be explained by glyphosate. Glyphosate residues in wheat and other crops are likely increasing recently due to the growing practice of crop desiccation just prior to the harvest. We argue that the practice of "ripening" sugar cane with glyphosate may explain the recent

  8. Consequences of phosphate application on glyphosate uptake by roots: Impacts for environmental management practices.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Marcelo Pedrosa; Maccario, Sophie; Lucotte, Marc; Labrecque, Michel; Juneau, Philippe

    2015-12-15

    Phosphate (PO4(3-)) fertilization is a common practice in agricultural fields also targets for glyphosate application. Due to their chemical similarities, PO4(3-) and glyphosate compete for soil adsorbing sites, with PO4(3-) fertilization increasing glyphosate bioavailability in the soil solution. After PO4(3-) fertilization, its concentration will be elevated in the soil solution and both PO4(3-) and glyphosate will be readily available for runoff into aquatic ecosystems. In this context, man-made riparian buffer strips (RBS) at the interface of agricultural lands and waterways can be used as a green technology to mitigate water contamination. The plants used in RBS form a barrier to agricultural wastes that can limit runoff, and the ability of these plants to take up these compounds through their roots plays an important role in RBS efficacy. However, the implications of PO4(3-) for glyphosate uptake by roots are not yet clearly demonstrated. Here, we addressed this problem by hydroponically cultivating willow plants in nutrient solutions amended with glyphosate and different concentrations of PO4(3-), assuring full availability of both chemicals to the roots. Using a phosphate carrier inhibitor (phosphonophormic acid-PFA), we found that part of the glyphosate uptake is mediated by PO4(3-) transporters. We observed, however, that PO4(3-) increased glyphosate uptake by roots, an effect that was related to increased root cell membrane stability. Our results indicate that PO4(3-) has an important role in glyphosate physiological effects. Under agricultural conditions, PO4(3-) fertilization can amplify glyphosate efficiency by increasing its uptake by the roots of undesired plants. On the other hand, since simultaneous phosphate and glyphosate runoffs are common, non-target species found near agricultural fields can be affected.

  9. Glyphosate-surfactant herbicide-induced reversible encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, R C; Ghia, D K; Cordato, D J; Beran, R G

    2010-11-01

    Glyphosate-surfactant (GlySH) is a commonly used herbicide that has been used in attempted suicide. Most reports of GlySH toxicity in patients have followed ingestion of the commercial product "Round-up" (Monsanto Ltd; Melbourne, Victoria, Australia), which consists of a mixture of glyphosate (as a isopropylanine salt) and a surfactant (polyoxyethyleneamine). Ingestion of Round-up is reported to cause significant toxicity including nausea, vomiting, oral and abdominal pain. Renal and hepatic impairment and pulmonary oedema may also occur. Impaired consciousness and encephalopathy have been reported as sequelae but there are limited data on the central nervous system (CNS) effects of Round-up toxicity. We report a 71-year-old male who attempted suicide with GlySH and developed a prolonged but reversible encephalopathy suggestive of acute CNS toxicity.

  10. D Surface Generation from Aerial Thermal Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodaei, B.; Samadzadegan, F.; Dadras Javan, F.; Hasani, H.

    2015-12-01

    Aerial thermal imagery has been recently applied to quantitative analysis of several scenes. For the mapping purpose based on aerial thermal imagery, high accuracy photogrammetric process is necessary. However, due to low geometric resolution and low contrast of thermal imaging sensors, there are some challenges in precise 3D measurement of objects. In this paper the potential of thermal video in 3D surface generation is evaluated. In the pre-processing step, thermal camera is geometrically calibrated using a calibration grid based on emissivity differences between the background and the targets. Then, Digital Surface Model (DSM) generation from thermal video imagery is performed in four steps. Initially, frames are extracted from video, then tie points are generated by Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) algorithm. Bundle adjustment is then applied and the camera position and orientation parameters are determined. Finally, multi-resolution dense image matching algorithm is used to create 3D point cloud of the scene. Potential of the proposed method is evaluated based on thermal imaging cover an industrial area. The thermal camera has 640×480 Uncooled Focal Plane Array (UFPA) sensor, equipped with a 25 mm lens which mounted in the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The obtained results show the comparable accuracy of 3D model generated based on thermal images with respect to DSM generated from visible images, however thermal based DSM is somehow smoother with lower level of texture. Comparing the generated DSM with the 9 measured GCPs in the area shows the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) value is smaller than 5 decimetres in both X and Y directions and 1.6 meters for the Z direction.

  11. Genotoxicity induced by Roundup® (Glyphosate) in tegu lizard (Salvator merianae) embryos.

    PubMed

    Schaumburg, Laura G; Siroski, Pablo A; Poletta, Gisela L; Mudry, Marta D

    2016-06-01

    Environmental contaminants produce multiple adverse consequences at individual, population and ecosystem levels. High volumes of agrochemicals applied to great variety of crops, together with agricultural expansion, generate great concerns due to the impact for the environment and large risk implicated for wildlife. The lack of data on these threats is striking. The tegu lizard (Salvator merianae) is one of the species that live in environments under contaminant effects. Several characteristics allow proposing this species as a potential sentinel organism for the monitoring of pesticides in their habitat. The present study is the first report about genotoxicity in tegu lizard neonates after embryonic exposure to Roundup® (glyphosate 66.2%). The micronucleus test (MN), nuclear abnormalities (NAs) assay and comet assay (CA) were used as biomarkers of genotoxic effects induced in erythrocytes by topical exposure of the eggs to the glyphosate commercial formulation Roundup® (RU), in laboratory controlled conditions. A total of 96 eggs were distributed in six groups exposed to RU (50, 100, 200, 400, 800, 1600μg/egg), one positive control (PC; 200μg cyclophosphamide/egg) and one negative control (NC; distilled water). No teratogenic effects were observed in any of the exposed or control neonates. A significant increase in DNA damage was observed in all concentrations higher than 100μg/egg with respect to NC (p<0.05). However, no statistical differences were found in the frequencies of MN and NAs in any group exposed to RU compared to the NC. No statistically significant differences were found in the size of the lizards at birth or after six months post-exposure (p>0.05). Our results provide new information about the undesirable effects of the glyphosate-based herbicide formulations RU on this lizard species that inhabits areas permanently exposed to several pesticide formulations. We consider of utmost necessity a strict regulation of the agrochemical application

  12. Dynamics and environmental risk assessment of the herbicide glyphosate and its metabolite AMPA in a small vineyard river of the Lake Geneva catchment.

    PubMed

    Daouk, Silwan; Copin, Pierre-Jean; Rossi, Luca; Chèvre, Nathalie; Pfeifer, Hans-Rudolf

    2013-09-01

    The use of pesticides may lead to environmental problems, such as surface water pollution, with a risk for aquatic organisms. In the present study, a typical vineyard river of western Switzerland was first monitored to measure discharged loads, identify sources, and assess the dynamic of the herbicide glyphosate and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA). Second, based on river concentrations, an associated environmental risk was calculated using laboratory tests and ecotoxicity data from the literature. Measured concentrations confirmed the mobility of these molecules with elevated peaks during flood events, up to 4970 ng/L. From April 2011 to September 2011, a total load of 7.1 kg was calculated, with 85% coming from vineyards and minor urban sources and 15% from arable crops. Compared with the existing literature, this load represents an important fraction (6-12%) of the estimated amount applied because of the steep vineyard slopes (∼10%). The associated risk of these compounds toward aquatic species was found to be negligible in the present study, as well as for other rivers in Switzerland. A growth stimulation was nevertheless observed for the algae Scenedesmus vacuolatus with low concentrations of glyphosate, which could indicate a risk of perturbation in aquatic ecosystems, such as eutrophication. The combination of field and ecotoxicity data allowed the performance of a realistic risk assessment for glyphosate and AMPA, which should be applied to other pesticide molecules.

  13. Ecotoxicological assessment of soil microbial community tolerance to glyphosate.

    PubMed

    Allegrini, Marco; Zabaloy, María Celina; Gómez, Elena del V

    2015-11-15

    Glyphosate is the most used herbicide worldwide. While contrasting results have been observed related with its impact on soil microbial communities, more studies are necessary to elucidate the potential effects of the herbicide. Differences in tolerance detected by Pollution Induced Community Tolerance (PICT) approach could reflect these effects. The objective of the present study was to assess the tolerance to glyphosate (the active ingredient and a commercial formulation) of contrasting soils with (H) and without (NH) history of exposure. The hypothesis of a higher tolerance in H soils due to a sustained selection pressure on community structure was tested through the PICT approach. Results indicated that tolerance to glyphosate is not consistent with previous history of exposure to the herbicide either for the active ingredient or for a commercial formulation. Soils of H and NH sites were also characterized in order to determine to what extent they differ in their functional diversity and structure of microbial communities. Denaturant Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) and Quantitative Real Time PCR (Q-PCR) indicated high similarity of Eubacteria profiles as well as no significant differences in abundance, respectively, between H and NH sites. Community level physiological profiling (CLPP) indicated some differences in respiration of specific sources but functional diversity was very similar as reflected by catabolic evenness (E). These results support PICT assay, which ideally requires soils with differences in their exposure to the contaminant but minor differences in other characteristics. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of PICT approach with glyphosate examining tolerance at soil microbial community level.

  14. Plant growth responses of apple and pear trees to doses of glyphosate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glyphosate is commonly used for intra-row weed management in perennial plantations, where unintended crop exposure to this herbicide can cause growth reduction. The objective of this research was to analyze the initial plant growth behavior of young apple and pear plants exposed to glyphosate. Glyph...

  15. Involvement of facultative apomixis in inheritance of EPSPS gene amplification in glyphosate-resistant Amaranthus palmeri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The inheritance of glyphosate resistance in two Amaranthus palmeri populations (R1 and R2) was examined in reciprocal crosses (RC) and second reciprocal crosses (2RC) between glyphosate-resistant (R) and -susceptible (S) parents of this dioecious species. R populations and Female-R × Male-S crosses...

  16. Goss’s wilt incidence in sweet corn is independent of transgenic traits and glyphosate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently claims have been made that the use of glyphosate and transgenic crop traits increases the risk of plant diseases. Transgenic traits used widely for years in dent corn are now available in commercial sweet corn cultivars, specifically, the combination of glyphosate resistance (GR) and Lepid...

  17. Glyphosate detection with ammonium nitrate and humic acids as potential interfering substances by pulsed voltammetry technique.

    PubMed

    Martínez Gil, Pablo; Laguarda-Miro, Nicolas; Camino, Juan Soto; Peris, Rafael Masot

    2013-10-15

    Pulsed voltammetry has been used to detect and quantify glyphosate on buffered water in presence of ammonium nitrate and humic substances. Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide active ingredient in the world. It is a non-selective broad spectrum herbicide but some of its health and environmental effects are still being discussed. Nowadays, glyphosate pollution in water is being monitored but quantification techniques are slow and expensive. Glyphosate wastes are often detected in countryside water bodies where organic substances and fertilizers (commonly based on ammonium nitrate) may also be present. Glyphosate also forms complexes with humic acids so these compounds have also been taken into consideration. The objective of this research is to study the interference of these common pollutants in glyphosate measurements by pulsed voltammetry. The statistical treatment of the voltammetric data obtained lets us discriminate glyphosate from the other studied compounds and a mathematical model has been built to quantify glyphosate concentrations in a buffer despite the presence of humic substances and ammonium nitrate. In this model, the coefficient of determination (R(2)) is 0.977 and the RMSEP value is 2.96 × 10(-5) so the model is considered statistically valid.

  18. Mechanism of resistance of evolved glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri).

    PubMed

    Gaines, Todd A; Shaner, Dale L; Ward, Sarah M; Leach, Jan E; Preston, Christopher; Westra, Philip

    2011-06-08

    Evolved glyphosate resistance in weedy species represents a challenge for the continued success and utility of glyphosate-resistant crops. Glyphosate functions by inhibiting the plant enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). The resistance mechanism was determined in a population of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth from Georgia (U.S.). Within this population, glyphosate resistance correlates with increases in (a) genomic copy number of EPSPS, (b) expression of the EPSPS transcript, (c) EPSPS protein level, and (d) EPSPS enzymatic activity. Dose response results from the resistant and an F(2) population suggest that between 30 and 50 EPSPS genomic copies are necessary to survive glyphosate rates between 0.5 and 1.0 kg ha(-1). These results further confirm the role of EPSPS gene amplification in conferring glyphosate resistance in this population of Palmer amaranth. Questions remain related to how the EPSPS amplification initially occurred and the occurrence of this mechanism in other Palmer amaranth populations and other glyphosate-resistant species.

  19. Shikimic Acid Monitoring by HPLC with Diode Array Detector in Citrus sinensis Orchard with Glyphosate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of weed control with glyphosate on shikimic acid levels in citrus, “Pêra” cultivar. The experimental plots were set in Santo Antônio de Posse county, Sao Paulo State, Brazil with the following treatments: glyphosate at 1,440 g.ha-1 a.e. between citrus ...

  20. Weed control and yield comparisons of glyphosate- and glufosinate-resistant corn grown in rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 6-yr field study was conducted from 2004 to 2009 at Stoneville, MS to examine the effects of rotating glyphosate-resistant and glufosinate-resistant corn (Zea mays L.) under reduced tillage conditions on weed control, soil weed seedbank, and yield. The four rotation systems were glyphosate-resista...

  1. Early detection of crop injury from glyphosate on soybean and cotton using plant leaf hyperspectral data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper, we describe early detection of crop injury from glyphosate using traditionally used spectral indices and newly extracted features from leaf hyperspectral reflectance data in non-glyphosate-resistant (non-GR) soybean and non-GR cotton. Spectral bands used in the new features are select...

  2. Glyphosate: environmental contamination, toxicity and potential risks to human health via food contamination.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shahla Hosseini; Ogbourne, Steven M

    2016-10-01

    Glyphosate has been the most widely used herbicide during the past three decades. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classifies glyphosate as 'practically non-toxic and not an irritant' under the acute toxicity classification system. This classification is based primarily on toxicity data and due to its unique mode of action via a biochemical pathway that only exists in a small number of organisms that utilise the shikimic acid pathway to produce amino acids, most of which are green plants. This classification is supported by the majority of scientific literature on the toxic effects of glyphosate. However, in 2005, the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) reported that glyphosate and its major metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), are of potential toxicological concern, mainly as a result of accumulation of residues in the food chain. The FAO further states that the dietary risk of glyphosate and AMPA is unlikely if the maximum daily intake of 1 mg kg(-1) body weight (bw) is not exceeded. Research has now established that glyphosate can persist in the environment, and therefore, assessments of the health risks associated with glyphosate are more complicated than suggested by acute toxicity data that relate primarily to accidental high-rate exposure. We have used recent literature to assess the possible risks associated with the presence of glyphosate residues in food and the environment.

  3. Glyphosate sorption/desorption on biochars – Interactions of physical and chemical processes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Biochar, a carbon-rich product of biomass pyrolysis, could limit glyphosate transport in soil and remediate contaminated water. The present study investigates the sorption/desorption behavior of glyphosate on biochars prepared from different hardwoods at temperatures ranging from 350°C t...

  4. Evaluation of glyphosate application on transgenic soybean and its relationship with shikimic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine]-resistant crops (GRC) are the transgenic crops most extensively grown worldwide, with soybean being the major GRC. It is important to evaluate the impact of glyphosate on the shikimate pathway, growth and yield of GR soybean in the field. Furthermore, whether...

  5. Fate and transport of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in surface waters of agricultural basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gregoire, Caroline; Capel, Paul D.; Coupe, Richard H.; Kalkhoff, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Glyphosate use in a watershed results in some occurrence in surface water; however, the watersheds most at risk for the offsite transport of glyphosate are those with high application rates, rainfall that results in overland runoff and a flow route that does not include transport through the soil.

  6. Response of Pennsylvania native plant species to dicamba and/or glyphosate

    EPA Science Inventory

    Weeds may become resistant to intensive and extensive use of specific herbicides associated with the growth of herbicide tolerant crops, e.g., the use of glyphosate for weed control with glyphosate tolerant soybeans. To counter this resistance, crops modified to contain genes for...

  7. Fate and transport of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in surface waters of agricultural basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coupe, R.H.; Kalkhoff, S.J.; Capel, P.D.; Gregoire, C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] is a herbicide used widely throughout the world in the production of many crops and is heavily used on soybeans, corn and cotton. Glyphosate is used in almost all agricultural areas of the United States, and the agricultural use of glyphosate has increased from less than 10 000 Mg in 1992 to more than 80 000 Mg in 2007. The greatest intensity of glyphosate use is in the midwestern United States, where applications are predominantly to genetically modified corn and soybeans. In spite of the increase in usage across the United States, the characterization of the transport of glyphosate and its degradate aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) on a watershed scale is lacking. Results: Glyphosate and AMPA were frequently detected in the surface waters of four agricultural basins. The frequency and magnitude of detections varied across basins, and the load, as a percentage of use, ranged from 0.009 to 0.86% and could be related to three general characteristics: source strength, rainfall runoff and flow route. Conclusions: Glyphosate use in a watershed results in some occurrence in surface water; however, the watersheds most at risk for the offsite transport of glyphosate are those with high application rates, rainfall that results in overland runoff and a flow route that does not include transport through the soil. ?? 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Annual Glyphosate Treatments Alter Growth of Unaffected Bentgrass (Agrostis) Weeds and Plant Community Composition

    PubMed Central

    Ahrens, Collin W.; Auer, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Herbicide resistance is becoming more common in weed ecotypes and crop species including turfgrasses, but current gaps in knowledge limit predictive ecological risk assessments and risk management plans. This project examined the effect of annual glyphosate applications on the vegetative growth and reproductive potential of two weedy bentgrasses, creeping bentgrass (CB) and redtop (RT), where the glyphosate resistance (GR) trait was mimicked by covering the bentgrass plants during glyphosate application. Five field plots were studied in habitats commonly inhabited by weedy bentgrasses including an agricultural hayfield, natural meadow, and wasteland. Results showed that annual glyphosate treatment improved bentgrass survivorship, vegetative growth, and reproductive potential compared with bentgrass in unsprayed subplots. In the second year of growth, RT plants had an 86-fold increase in flower number in glyphosate-treated subplots versus controls, while CB plants had a 20-fold increase. At the end of the three year study, plant community composition had changed in glyphosate-treated subplots in hayfield and meadow plots compared to controls. Soils in subplots receiving glyphosate had higher nitrate concentrations than controls. This is the first study to mimic the GR trait in bentgrass plants with the goal of quantifying bentgrass response to glyphosate selection pressure and understanding the impacts on surrounding plant communities. PMID:23226530

  9. Glyphosate-resistant horseweed (conyza canadensis) control with dicamba in Alabama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Widespread horseweed resistance to glyphosate has resulted in the use of dicamba as an alternative treatment. Horseweed populations in Cherokee and DeKalb counties in northern Alabama were not well controlled following glyphosate and dicamba treatments. This research evaluates horseweed populations ...

  10. Interaction of Glyphosate and Pelargonic acid in Ready-To-Use Weed Control Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glyphosate-based, ready-to-use weed control products often contain pelargonic acid (PA) in addition to glyphosate. However it remains unclear what benefit (if any) this combination provides. Greenhouse experiments using longstalked phyllanthus, large crabgrass, prostrate spurge and yellow nutsedge...

  11. Evaluation of Glyphosate-Resistant Soybean Cultivars for Resistance to Bacterial Pustule

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines causes bacterial pustule of soybean, which is a common disease in many soybean-growing areas of the world and is controlled by a single recessive gene that was commonly found in many conventional glyphosate-sensitive soybean cultivars. Since glyphosate-resistant c...

  12. Glyphosate-resistant hairy fleabane (Conyza bonariensis) Documented in the Central Valley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years poor control of hairy fleabane (Conyza bonariensis) with glyphosate has been reported by growers and pest consultants in some areas of the Central Valley. Since glyphosate-resistance in a related species horseweed (Conyza canadensis) was recently documented in similar locations, we ...

  13. Investigating the Mechanism of Glyphosate Resistance in Rigid Ryegrass (Lolium rigidum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide that has been used extensively for more than 20 yr. The first glyphosate-resistant weed biotype appeared in 1996; it involved a rigid ryegrass population from Australia that exhibited an LD50 value approximately 10-fold higher than that of sensitive biotypes....

  14. [Mutual Effect on Determination of Gibberellins and Glyphosate in Groundwater by Spectrophotometry].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Chen, Liang; Liu, Fei

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, a spectrophotometry method for the simultaneous determination of gibberellins (GA3) and glyphosate in groundwater was established and optimized. In addition, the mutual effect on simultaneous determination of GA3 and glyphosate was studied. Based on the experiment, good linearity (R2 > 0.99) was obtained for GA3 in the range of 0-20 and 0-100 µg and for glyphosate in the range of 0-8 and 5-15 µg. The method's detection limit (MDL) of GA3 and glyphosate was 0.48 and 0.82 µg, respectively; and the recovery rates of 15 to 150 µg GA3 and 3 to 10 µg glyphosate in all samples at a spiked level were 71.3% ± 1.9% and 98.4% ± 8.1%, respectively. No obvious influence of glyphosate (0-100 mg · L(-1)) on the recovery rates of GA3 was observed, but the presence of glyphosate could cause slight determination precision decrease of GA3. Meanwhile, adding 2 mg · L(-1) GA3 can increase the recovery rate of glyphosate.

  15. Pollen-mediated dispersal of glyphosate-resistance in Palmer amaranth under field conditions.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In addition to being a strong competitor with cotton and other row crops, Palmer amaranth has developed resistance to numerous important agricultural herbicides, including glyphosate. The objective of this study was to determine if the glyphosate-resistance trait can be transferred via pollen moveme...

  16. An Interlaboratory Comparative Study on the Quantitative Determination of Glyphosate at Low Levels in Wheat Flour.

    PubMed

    Simonetti, Emanuela; Cartaud, Gérald; Quinn, Robert M; Marotti, Ilaria; Dinelli, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the use of glyphosate has dramatically increased worldwide, and there is growing concern about contamination of organic products caused by its heavy use on neighboring fields. Glyphosate is found as a residue not only in soil, plants, and groundwater but also in humans and animals. Considering the controversy on glyphosate maximum residue level in foodstuff and the difficulties in its analytical determination, the main purpose of the present paper was to investigate the competence and accuracy of 13 accredited European laboratories in determining glyphosate in wheat flour at a level close to their reporting limit of 10 μg/kg. According to the results of this performance assessment, the laboratories were not able to quantify glyphosate at trace levels. Therefore, their specified reporting limits of 10 μg/kg were not supported by their results, and a reporting limit of around 50 μg/kg of glyphosate in flour seems to be more appropriate to guarantee reliable and robust results. The widespread use of glyphosate and its harmfulness to humans make its detection at trace levels a primary goal for analytical laboratories. This is achievable through the improvement of QA and/or the optimization of the method of analysis used for glyphosate detection.

  17. A review of the meteorological parameters which affect aerial application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, L. S.; Frost, W.

    1979-01-01

    The ambient wind field and temperature gradient were found to be the most important parameters. Investigation results indicated that the majority of meteorological parameters affecting dispersion were interdependent and the exact mechanism by which these factors influence the particle dispersion was largely unknown. The types and approximately ranges of instrumented capabilities for a systematic study of the significant meteorological parameters influencing aerial applications were defined. Current mathematical dispersion models were also briefly reviewed. Unfortunately, a rigorous dispersion model which could be applied to aerial application was not available.

  18. Toxicity of the herbicide glyphosate to Chordodes nobilii (Gordiida, Nematomorpha).

    PubMed

    Achiorno, Cecilia L; Villalobos, Cristina de; Ferrari, Lucrecia

    2008-05-01

    Nematomorpha (horsehair worms) is a poorly known group of worm-like animals similar to nematodes. Adults are free-living and reproduction takes place in freshwater environments, where preparasitic larvae undergo development. All species have a parasitic juvenil stage and infection may result in the host's death, insects being the most frequent host. Most of the life cycle occurs in freshwater environments, which are often contaminated by different pollutants. Based on the lack of information on the toxicity of herbicides to horsehair worms, the objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of glyphosate (technical grade and formulated product) on Chordodes nobilii (Gordiida, Nematomorpha). Bioassays were performed with embryos and larvae (preparasitic stages), and adults (postparasitic stage). Test organisms were exposed for a short period of time to concentrations ranging between 0.1 and 8 mga.e.l(-1) of glyphosate (technical and formulated). Although embryo development was not inhibited, there was a significant decrease in the infective capacity of larvae derived from eggs that had been exposed to >or= 0.1mg/l. Similar results were obtained for directly exposed larvae. No differences in toxicity were detected between the active ingredient and formulated product. Adult exposed for 96 h to 1.76 mgl(-1) formulated Gly shown a mortality of 50%. Results indicate that C. nobilii is affected at glyphosate concentrations lower than those expected to be found in freshwater environments and those specified in the legislation.

  19. Glyphosate-Dependent Inhibition of Photosynthesis in Willow.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Marcelo P; Le Manac'h, Sarah G; Hénault-Ethier, Louise; Labrecque, Michel; Lucotte, Marc; Juneau, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    We studied the physiological mechanisms involved in the deleterious effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide (Factor(®) 540) on photosynthesis and related physiological processes of willow (Salix miyabeana cultivar SX64) plants. Sixty-day-old plants grown under greenhouse conditions were sprayed with different rates (0, 1.4, 2.1, and 2.8 kg a.e ha(-1)) of the commercial glyphosate formulated salt Factor(®) 540. Evaluations were performed at 0, 6, 24, 48, and 72 h after herbicide exposure. We established that the herbicide decreases chlorophyll, carotenoid and plastoquinone contents, and promotes changes in the photosynthetic apparatus leading to decreased photochemistry which results in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation. H2O2 accumulation triggers proline production which can be associated with oxidative protection, NADP(+) recovery and shikimate pathway stimulation. Ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione peroxidase appeared to be the main peroxidases involved in the H2O2 scavenging. In addition to promoting decreases of the activity of the antioxidant enzymes, the herbicide induced decreases in ascorbate pool. For the first time, a glyphosate-based herbicide mode of action interconnecting its effects on shikimate pathway, photosynthetic process and oxidative events in plants were presented.

  20. Glyphosate-Dependent Inhibition of Photosynthesis in Willow

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Marcelo P.; Le Manac’h, Sarah G.; Hénault-Ethier, Louise; Labrecque, Michel; Lucotte, Marc; Juneau, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    We studied the physiological mechanisms involved in the deleterious effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide (Factor® 540) on photosynthesis and related physiological processes of willow (Salix miyabeana cultivar SX64) plants. Sixty-day-old plants grown under greenhouse conditions were sprayed with different rates (0, 1.4, 2.1, and 2.8 kg a.e ha-1) of the commercial glyphosate formulated salt Factor® 540. Evaluations were performed at 0, 6, 24, 48, and 72 h after herbicide exposure. We established that the herbicide decreases chlorophyll, carotenoid and plastoquinone contents, and promotes changes in the photosynthetic apparatus leading to decreased photochemistry which results in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation. H2O2 accumulation triggers proline production which can be associated with oxidative protection, NADP+ recovery and shikimate pathway stimulation. Ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione peroxidase appeared to be the main peroxidases involved in the H2O2 scavenging. In addition to promoting decreases of the activity of the antioxidant enzymes, the herbicide induced decreases in ascorbate pool. For the first time, a glyphosate-based herbicide mode of action interconnecting its effects on shikimate pathway, photosynthetic process and oxidative events in plants were presented. PMID:28261257

  1. Interactions of tillage and cover crop on water, sediment, and pre-emergence herbicide loss in glyphosate-resistant cotton: implications for the control of glyphosate-resistant weed biotypes.

    PubMed

    Krutz, L Jason; Locke, Martin A; Steinriede, R Wade

    2009-01-01

    The need to control glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine]-resistant weed biotypes with tillage and preemergence herbicides in glyphosate-resistant crops (GRCs) is causing a reduction in no-tillage hectarage thereby threatening the advances made in water quality over the past decade. Consequently, if environmental gains afforded by GRCs are to be maintained, then an in-field best management practice (BMP) compatible with tillage is required for hectarage infested with glyphosate-resistant weed biotypes. Thus, 1 d after a preemergent application of fluometuron [N,N-dimethyl-N'-(3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)urea] (1.02 kg ha(-1)) and metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide] (1.18 kg ha(-1)) to a Dundee silt loam (fine-silty, mixed, active, thermic Typic Endoaqualf), simulated rainfall (60 mm h(-1)) was applied to 0.0002-ha microplots for approximately 1.25 h to elucidate tillage (no tillage [NT] and reduced tillage [RT])and cover crop (no cover [NC] and rye cover [RC]) effects on water, sediment, and herbicide loss in surface runoff. Regardless of tillage, RC delayed time-to-runoff 1.3-fold, reduced cumulative runoff volume 1.4-fold, and decreased cumulative sediment loss 4.7-fold. Cumulative fluometuron loss was not affected by tillage or cover crop. Conversely, total metolachlor loss was 1.3-fold lower in NT than RT and 1.4-fold lower in RC than NC. These data indicate that RC can be established in hectarage requiring tillage and potentially curtail water, sediment, and preemergence herbicide losses in the spring to levels equivalent to or better than that of NT, thereby protecting environmental gains provided by GRCs.

  2. Determination of glyphosate and its metabolite in emergency room in Korea.

    PubMed

    Han, Joseph; Moon, Hantae; Hong, Youngki; Yang, Songhee; Jeong, Won-Joon; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Chung, Heesun

    2016-08-01

    The number of glyphosate intoxication cases has been increased after the regulation of paraquat. Unfortunately, there are no reports on the potential concentration of glyphosate for those acute intoxicated patients admitted to emergency rooms and the correlation between the concentration of glyphosate and clinical symptoms in Korea up to our knowledge. As a nonselective herbicide, analysis of glyphosate requires derivatization because of its amphoteric and strongly polar nature. In order to develop a method to determine the concentration of glyphosate and its metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in blood samples without derivatization, liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was utilized with a hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) column. The validation of this method showed that the limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantitation (LOQs) for glyphosate and AMPA were 50 and 100ng/mL, respectively. In addition, matrix effect, recovery rate, and accuracy and precision in intra and inter-day were evaluated during the validation study of this method. Blood samples acquired from five glyphosate intoxicated patients were analyzed to investigate the correlation between the concentration of glyphosate and clinical symptoms. These patients were previously admitted to the emergency room at a University Hospital in Korea after glyphosate was self-administered in suicide attempts or by accident. As results of blood sample study, the concentration of glyphosate and AMPA were found in the range of 1.0-171.1 and 0.2-2.6μg/mL, respectively. The concentration ratio of glyphosate to AMPA was 55-71. According to the clinical reports for those patients, they were in the age between 47 and 82 years old and administered about 50-400mL. The blood samples were collected within 2-5h after administration of glyphosate. Among the intoxicated patients, the most common clinical symptom was metabolic acidosis, identified in four patients

  3. EPSPS Gene Copy Number and Whole-Plant Glyphosate Resistance Level in Kochia scoparia.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Todd A; Barker, Abigail L; Patterson, Eric L; Westra, Philip; Westra, Eric P; Wilson, Robert G; Jha, Prashant; Kumar, Vipan; Kniss, Andrew R

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate-resistant (GR) Kochia scoparia has evolved in dryland chemical fallow systems throughout North America and the mechanism of resistance involves 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene duplication. Agricultural fields in four states were surveyed for K. scoparia in 2013 and tested for glyphosate-resistance level and EPSPS gene copy number. Glyphosate resistance was confirmed in K. scoparia populations collected from sugarbeet fields in Colorado, Wyoming, and Nebraska, and Montana. Glyphosate resistance was also confirmed in K. scoparia accessions collected from wheat-fallow fields in Montana. All GR samples had increased EPSPS gene copy number, with median population values up to 11 from sugarbeet fields and up to 13 in Montana wheat-fallow fields. The results indicate that glyphosate susceptibility can be accurately diagnosed using EPSPS gene copy number.

  4. EPSPS Gene Copy Number and Whole-Plant Glyphosate Resistance Level in Kochia scoparia

    PubMed Central

    Gaines, Todd A.; Barker, Abigail L.; Patterson, Eric L.; Westra, Philip; Westra, Eric P.; Wilson, Robert G.; Jha, Prashant; Kumar, Vipan

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate-resistant (GR) Kochia scoparia has evolved in dryland chemical fallow systems throughout North America and the mechanism of resistance involves 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene duplication. Agricultural fields in four states were surveyed for K. scoparia in 2013 and tested for glyphosate-resistance level and EPSPS gene copy number. Glyphosate resistance was confirmed in K. scoparia populations collected from sugarbeet fields in Colorado, Wyoming, and Nebraska, and Montana. Glyphosate resistance was also confirmed in K. scoparia accessions collected from wheat-fallow fields in Montana. All GR samples had increased EPSPS gene copy number, with median population values up to 11 from sugarbeet fields and up to 13 in Montana wheat-fallow fields. The results indicate that glyphosate susceptibility can be accurately diagnosed using EPSPS gene copy number. PMID:27992501

  5. Effects of Glyphosate-Based Herbicide Sub-Lethal Concentrations on Fish Feeding Behavior.

    PubMed

    Giaquinto, Percilia Cardoso; de Sá, Marina Borges; Sugihara, Vanessa Seiko; Gonçalves, Bruno Bastos; Delício, Helton Carlos; Barki, Assaf

    2017-04-01

    Glyphosate-based herbicides are widely used in agricultural systems. Although the target organism are particularly plant organisms, there are numerous studies showing adverse effects in aquatic animals, such as inhibition of acetyl cholinesterase, effects on kidney, liver, and gill and stressors effects. This study analyzed the effects of commercial formulation of glyphosate on feeding behavior in Pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus). Fish were exposed to three glyphosate concentrations (0.2, 0.6, and 1.8 ppm) for 15 days. At concentrations of 0.2 and 0.6 ppm, food intake decreased on day 13 and then returned to normal on day 15. At the highest glyphosate-based herbicide concentration, 1.8 ppm, food consumption decreased dramatically and did not recover on day 15. This study showed that glyphosate-based herbicide at sub-lethal concentrations can affect feed intake in pacu and consequently inhibits its growth.

  6. New bacterial strain of the genus Ochrobactrum with glyphosate-degrading activity.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Faranak; Mousavi, Amir; Noghabi, Kambiz Akbari; Tabar, Hadi Ghaderi; Salmanian, Ali Hatef

    2013-01-01

    Thirty bacterial strains with various abilities to utilize glyphosate as the sole phosphorus source were isolated from farm soils using the glyphosate enrichment cultivation technique. Among them, a strain showing a remarkable glyphosate-degrading activity was identified by biochemical features and 16S rRNA sequence analysis as Ochrobactrum sp. (GDOS). Herbicide (3 mM) degradation was induced by phosphate starvation, and was completed within 60 h. Aminomethylphosphonic acid was detected in the exhausted medium, suggesting glyphosate oxidoreductase as the enzyme responsible for herbicide breakdown. As it grew even in the presence of glyphosate concentrations as high as 200 mM, Ochrobactrum sp. could be used for bioremediation purposes and treatment of heavily contaminated soils.

  7. Effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide and predation threat on the behaviour of agile frog tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Mikó, Zsanett; Ujszegi, János; Gál, Zoltán; Hettyey, Attila

    2017-06-01

    The widespread application of pesticides emphasises the importance of understanding the impacts of these chemicals on natural communities. The most commonly applied broad-spectrum herbicides in the world are glyphosate-based herbicides, which have been suggested to induce significant behavioural changes in non-target organisms even at low environmental concentrations. To scrutinize the behavioural effects of herbicide-exposure we exposed agile frog (Rana dalmatina) tadpoles in an outdoor mesocosm experiment to three concentrations of a glyphosate-based herbicide (0, 2 and 6.5mg acid equivalent (a.e.) / L). To assess whether anti-predator behaviour is affected by the pesticide, we combined all levels of herbicide-exposure with three predator treatments (no predator, caged Aeshna cyanea dragonfly larvae or Lissotriton vulgaris newt adults) in a full factorial design. We observed hiding, activity, proximity to the predator cage and vertical position of tadpoles. We found that at the higher herbicide concentration tadpoles decreased their activity and more tadpoles were hiding, and at least at the lower concentration their vertical position was closer to the water surface than in tadpoles of the control treatment. Tadpoles also decreased their activity in the presence of dragonfly larvae, but did not hide more in response to either predator, nor did tadpoles avoid predators spatially. Further, exposure to the herbicide did not significantly influence behavioural responses to predation threat. Our study documents a definite influence of glyphosate-based herbicides on the behaviour of agile frog tadpoles and indicates that some of these changes are similar to those induced by dangerous predators. This may suggest that the underlying physiological mechanisms or the adaptive value of behavioural changes may similar.

  8. Exposure to a glyphosate-based herbicide affects agrobiont predatory arthropod behaviour and long-term survival.

    PubMed

    Evans, Samuel C; Shaw, Emma M; Rypstra, Ann L

    2010-10-01

    Humans commonly apply chemicals to manage agroecosystems. If those chemicals influence the behaviour or survival of non-target arthropods, the food web could be altered in unintended ways. Glyphosate-based herbicides are among the most ubiquitous pesticides used around the world, yet little is known about if and how they might affect the success of terrestrial predatory arthropods in agroecosystems. In this study, we quantified the effects of a commercial formulation of a glyphosate-based herbicide on the activity of three predatory arthropod species that inhabit agricultural fields in the eastern United States. We also measured the survival of the most common species. We tested the reactions of the wolf spider, Pardosa milvina, to either direct application (topical) or contact with a treated substrate (residual). We quantified the reactions of a larger wolf spider, Hogna helluo, and a ground beetle, Scarites quadriceps, to a compound (topical plus residual) exposure. Pardosa milvina reduced locomotion time and distance under topical herbicide exposure, but increased speed and non-locomotory activity time on exposed substrate. Both H. helluo and S. quadriceps increased non-locomotory activity time under compound herbicide exposure. Over a period of 60 days post-exposure, residually exposed P. milvina exhibited lower survivorship compared to topically exposed and control groups. Thus, exposure of terrestrial arthropods to glyphosate-based herbicides affects their behaviour and long-term survival. These results suggest that herbicides can affect arthropod community dynamics separate from their impact on the plant community and may influence biological control in agroecosystems.

  9. Growth and Reproduction of Glyphosate-Resistant and Susceptible Populations of Kochia scoparia

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vipan; Jha, Prashant

    2015-01-01

    Evolution of glyphosate-resistant kochia is a threat to no-till wheat-fallow and glyphosate-resistant (GR) cropping systems of the US Great Plains. The EPSPS (5-enol-pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) gene amplification confers glyphosate resistance in the tested Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad populations from Montana. Experiments were conducted in spring to fall 2014 (run 1) and summer 2014 to spring 2015 (run 2) to investigate the growth and reproductive traits of the GR vs. glyphosate-susceptible (SUS) populations of K. scoparia and to determine the relationship of EPSPS gene amplification with the level of glyphosate resistance. GR K. scoparia inbred lines (CHES01 and JOP01) exhibited 2 to 14 relative copies of the EPSPS gene compared with the SUS inbred line with only one copy. In the absence of glyphosate, no differences in growth and reproductive parameters were evident between the tested GR and SUS inbred lines, across an intraspecific competition gradient (1 to 170 plants m-2). GR K. scoparia plants with 2 to 4 copies of the EPSPS gene survived the field-use rate (870 g ha-1) of glyphosate, but failed to survive the 4,350 g ha-1 rate of glyphosate (five-times the field-use rate). In contrast, GR plants with 5 to 14 EPSPS gene copies survived the 4,350 g ha-1 of glyphosate. The results from this research indicate that GR K. scoparia with 5 or more EPSPS gene copies will most likely persist in field populations, irrespective of glyphosate selection pressure. PMID:26580558

  10. Non-target Site Tolerance Mechanisms Describe Tolerance to Glyphosate in Avena sterilis

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Moreno, Pablo T.; Alcantara-de la Cruz, Ricardo; Cruz-Hipólito, Hugo E.; Rojano-Delgado, Antonia M.; Travlos, Ilias; De Prado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Sterile wild oat (Avena sterilis L.) is an autogamous grass established in warm climate regions. This species has been used as a cover crop in Mediterranean perennial crops during the spring period prior to initiating competition with the main crop for water and nutrients. However, such cover crops need to be controlled (by glyphosate or tillage) before the beginning of summer period (due to the possibility of intense drought stress). In 2011, the olive grove farmers of southern Spain expressed dissatisfaction because of the ineffective control with glyphosate on A. sterilis. Experiments were conducted to determine whether the continued use of glyphosate over a 5 year period had selected a new resistant or tolerant species. The GR50 values obtained for A. sterilis were 297.12 and 245.23 g ae ha−1 for exposed (E) and un-exposed (UE) glyphosate accessions, respectively. The spray retention and shikimic acid accumulation exhibited a non-significant difference between the two accessions. The results of 14C- glyphosate absorption was the same in the two accessions (E and UE), while the translocation from the treated leaf to the rest of the shoots and roots was similar in A. sterilis accessions. Glyphosate metabolism to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and glyoxylate was similar in both accessions, but increased after treatment with glyphosate, indicating that metabolism plays an important role in tolerance. Both A. sterilis accessions, present similarity in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity enzyme with different glyphosate concentrations and without glyphosate, confirming that both accessions present the same genomic characteristics. The above-mentioned results indicate that innate tolerance to glyphosate in A. sterilis is probably and partly due to reduced herbicide absorption and translocation and metabolism compared to the susceptibility of other grasses weeds like Chloris inflata, Eleusine indica, and Lolium rigidum. PMID:27570531

  11. Glyphosate inhibition of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate synthease from suspension-cultured cells of Nicotiana silvestris

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, J.L.; Gaines, C.G.; Jensen, R.A.

    1984-07-01

    Treatment of isogenic suspension-cultured cells of Nicotiana silvestris Speg, et Comes with glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) led to elevated levels of intracellular shikimate (364-fold increase by 1.0 millimolar glyphosate). In the presence of glyphosate, it is likely that most molecules of shikimate originate from the action of 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate (DAHP) synthase-Mn since this isozyme, in contrast to the DAHP synthase-Co isozyme, is insensitive to inhibition by glyphosate. 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase (EC 2.5.1.19) from N. silvestris was sensitive to micromolar concentrations of glyphosate and possessed a single inhibitor binding site. Rigorous kinetic studies of EPSP synthase required resolution from the multiple phosphatase activities present in crude extracts, a result achieved by ion-exchange column chromatography. Although EPSP synthase exhibited a broad pH profile (50% of maximal activity between pH 6.2 and 8.5), sensitivity to glyphosate increased dramatically with increasing pH within this range. In accordance with these data and the pK/sub a/ values of glyphosate, it is likely that the ionic form of glyphosate inhibiting EPSP synthase is COO/sup -/CH/sub 2/NH/sub 2//sup +/CH/sub 2/PO/sub 3//sup 2 -/, and that a completely ionized phosphono group is essential for inhibition. At pH 7.0, inhibition was competitive with respect to phosphoenolpyruvate (K/sub i/ = 1.25 micromolar) and uncompetitive with respect to shikimate-3-P (K/sub i/ = 18.3 micromolar). All data were consistent with a mechanism of inhibition in which glyphosate competes with PEP for binding to an (enzyme:shikimate-3-P) complex and ultimately forms the dead-end complex of (enzyme:shikimate-3-P:glyphosate). 36 references, 8 figures, 1 table.

  12. Physiological, morphological and biochemical studies of glyphosate tolerance in Mexican Cologania (Cologania broussonetii (Balb.) DC.).

    PubMed

    Alcántara de la Cruz, Ricardo; Barro, Francisco; Domínguez-Valenzuela, José Alfredo; De Prado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, glyphosate-tolerant legumes have been used as cover crops for weed management in tropical areas of Mexico. Mexican cologania (Cologania broussonetii (Balb.) DC.) is an innate glyphosate-tolerant legume with a potential as a cover crop in temperate areas of the country. In this work, glyphosate tolerance was characterized in two Mexican cologania (a treated (T) and an untreated (UT)) populations as being representatives of the species, compared in turn to a glyphosate-susceptible hairy fleabane (S) (Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronq.) population. Experiments revealed that T and UT Mexican cologania populations had a higher tolerance index (TI), and a lower shikimic acid accumulation and foliar retention than the hairy fleabane S population. Absorption and translocation, leaf morphology and metabolism studies were only carried out in the Mexican cologania T population and the hairy fleabane S population. The latter absorbed 37% more (14)C-glyphosate compared to the Mexican cologania T at 96 h after treatment (HAT). Mexican cologania T translocated less herbicide from the treated leaf to the remainder of the plant than hairy fleabane S. The Mexican cologania T presented a greater epicuticular wax coverage percentage than the hairy fleabane S. This morphological characteristic contributed to the low glyphosate absorption observed in the Mexican cologania. In addition, the Mexican cologania T metabolized glyphosate mainly into AMPA, formaldehyde and sarcosine. These results indicate that the high glyphosate tolerance observed in Mexican cologania is mainly due to the poor penetration and translocation of glyphosate into the active site, and the high glyphosate degradation into non-toxic substances.

  13. Growth and Reproduction of Glyphosate-Resistant and Susceptible Populations of Kochia scoparia.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vipan; Jha, Prashant

    2015-01-01

    Evolution of glyphosate-resistant kochia is a threat to no-till wheat-fallow and glyphosate-resistant (GR) cropping systems of the US Great Plains. The EPSPS (5-enol-pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) gene amplification confers glyphosate resistance in the tested Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad populations from Montana. Experiments were conducted in spring to fall 2014 (run 1) and summer 2014 to spring 2015 (run 2) to investigate the growth and reproductive traits of the GR vs. glyphosate-susceptible (SUS) populations of K. scoparia and to determine the relationship of EPSPS gene amplification with the level of glyphosate resistance. GR K. scoparia inbred lines (CHES01 and JOP01) exhibited 2 to 14 relative copies of the EPSPS gene compared with the SUS inbred line with only one copy. In the absence of glyphosate, no differences in growth and reproductive parameters were evident between the tested GR and SUS inbred lines, across an intraspecific competition gradient (1 to 170 plants m-2). GR K. scoparia plants with 2 to 4 copies of the EPSPS gene survived the field-use rate (870 g ha-1) of glyphosate, but failed to survive the 4,350 g ha-1 rate of glyphosate (five-times the field-use rate). In contrast, GR plants with 5 to 14 EPSPS gene copies survived the 4,350 g ha-1 of glyphosate. The results from this research indicate that GR K. scoparia with 5 or more EPSPS gene copies will most likely persist in field populations, irrespective of glyphosate selection pressure.

  14. Non-target Site Tolerance Mechanisms Describe Tolerance to Glyphosate in Avena sterilis.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Moreno, Pablo T; Alcantara-de la Cruz, Ricardo; Cruz-Hipólito, Hugo E; Rojano-Delgado, Antonia M; Travlos, Ilias; De Prado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Sterile wild oat (Avena sterilis L.) is an autogamous grass established in warm climate regions. This species has been used as a cover crop in Mediterranean perennial crops during the spring period prior to initiating competition with the main crop for water and nutrients. However, such cover crops need to be controlled (by glyphosate or tillage) before the beginning of summer period (due to the possibility of intense drought stress). In 2011, the olive grove farmers of southern Spain expressed dissatisfaction because of the ineffective control with glyphosate on A. sterilis. Experiments were conducted to determine whether the continued use of glyphosate over a 5 year period had selected a new resistant or tolerant species. The GR50 values obtained for A. sterilis were 297.12 and 245.23 g ae ha(-1) for exposed (E) and un-exposed (UE) glyphosate accessions, respectively. The spray retention and shikimic acid accumulation exhibited a non-significant difference between the two accessions. The results of (14)C- glyphosate absorption was the same in the two accessions (E and UE), while the translocation from the treated leaf to the rest of the shoots and roots was similar in A. sterilis accessions. Glyphosate metabolism to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and glyoxylate was similar in both accessions, but increased after treatment with glyphosate, indicating that metabolism plays an important role in tolerance. Both A. sterilis accessions, present similarity in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity enzyme with different glyphosate concentrations and without glyphosate, confirming that both accessions present the same genomic characteristics. The above-mentioned results indicate that innate tolerance to glyphosate in A. sterilis is probably and partly due to reduced herbicide absorption and translocation and metabolism compared to the susceptibility of other grasses weeds like Chloris inflata, Eleusine indica, and Lolium rigidum.

  15. Dynamics of aerial target pursuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, S.

    2015-12-01

    During pursuit and predation, aerial species engage in multitasking behavior that involve simultaneous target detection, tracking, decision-making, approach and capture. The mobility of the pursuer and the target in a three dimensional environment during predation makes the capture task highly complex. Many researchers have studied and analyzed prey capture dynamics in different aerial species such as insects and bats. This article focuses on reviewing the capture strategies adopted by these species while relying on different sensory variables (vision and acoustics) for navigation. In conclusion, the neural basis of these capture strategies and some applications of these strategies in bio-inspired navigation and control of engineered systems are discussed.

  16. Natural herbicide resistance (HR) to broad-spectrum herbicide, glyphosate among traditional and inbred-cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Weerakoon, S R; Somaratne, S; Wijeratne, R G D; Ekanyaka, E M S I

    2013-08-15

    Weeds along with insect pests and plant diseases are sources of biotic stress in crop systems. Weeds are responsible for serious problems in rice worldwide affecting growth and causing a considerable reduction in quality and quantity in yield. High concentrations of pre-emergent-broad-spectrum systemic herbicide, Glyphosate is prevalently applied to control rice weeds which intern causes severe damages to cultivated rice varieties, susceptible to Glyphosate. However, there may be rice varieties with natural Herbicide Resistance (HR) which are so far, has not been evaluated. In this study Six traditional and eighteen developed-cultivated rice varieties (Bg, Bw, At and Ld series developed by Rice Research Development Institute, Sri Lanka) were used to screen their natural HR. RCBD with five replicates and three blocks in each treatment-combination was used as the experimental design. As observations, time taken-to seed germination, time taken to flowering; plant height and number of leaves at 12-weeks after sawing, leaf-length, breadth, panicle-length, number of seeds/panicle of resistant plants and controls were recorded. Plants with > or = 40% resistance were considered as resistant to Glyphosate. Ten inbred-cultivated rice varieties (Bg250, Bg94-1, Bg304, Bg359, Bg406, Bg379-2, Bg366, Bg300, Bw364, At362) and three traditional rice varieties ("Kalu Heenati", "Sudu Heenati", "Pachchaperumal") were naturally resistant to 0.25 g L(-1) Glyphosate concentration and when increased the concentration (0.5 g L(-1)) resistance was reduced. This study showed the usefulness of modern statistical method, classification and regression tree analysis (CART) in exploring and visualizing the patterns reflected by a large number of rice varieties (larger experimental database) on herbicide resistance in future.

  17. Determination of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in aqueous soil matrices: a critical analysis of the 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate derivatization reaction and application to adsorption studies.

    PubMed

    Báez, María E; Fuentes, Edwar; Espina, María José; Espinoza, Jeannette

    2014-11-01

    The assessment of the environmental fate of glyphosate and its degradation product (aminomethylphosphonic acid) is of great interest given the widespread use of the herbicide. Studies of adsorption-desorption and transport processes in soils require analytical methods with sensitivity, accuracy, and precision suitable for determining the analytes in aqueous equilibrium solutions of varied complexity. In this work, the effect of factors on the yield of the derivatization of both compounds with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate for applying in aqueous solutions derived from soils was evaluated through factorial experimental designs. Interference effects coming from background electrolytes and soil matrices were established. The whole method had a linear response up to 640 ng/mL (R(2) > 0.999) under optimized conditions for high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Limits of detection were 0.6 and 0.4 ng/mL for glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid, respectively. The relative standard deviation was 4.4% for glyphosate (20 ng/mL) and 5.9% for aminomethylphosphonic acid (10 ng/mL). Adsorption of compounds on four different soils was assessed. Isotherm data fitted well the Freundlich model (R(2) > 0.97). Kf constants varied between 93 ± 3.1 and 2045 ± 157 for glyphosate and between 99 ± 4.1 and 1517 ± 56 (μg(1-1/) (n)  mL(1/) (n) ( ) g(-1) ) for aminomethylphosphonic acid, showing the broad range of applicability of the proposed method.

  18. Aerial Refueling Clearance Initiation Request

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-14

    and receiver agencies. The AR Clearance Initiation Request document recognizes the requirement for definitive aerial refueling agreements between...include directions for the development or content of these contractual agreements. 15. –SUBJECT TERMS See Document Terms and Definitions , Page 8 16...7 Terms and Definitions

  19. Reconnaissance mapping from aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeden, H. A.; Bolling, N. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Engineering soil and geology maps were successfully made from Pennsylvania aerial photographs taken at scales from 1:4,800 to 1:60,000. The procedure involved a detailed study of a stereoscopic model while evaluating landform, drainage, erosion, color or gray tones, tone and texture patterns, vegetation, and cultural or land use patterns.

  20. Control of a Quadcopter Aerial Robot Using Optic Flow Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurd, Michael Brandon

    This thesis focuses on the motion control of a custom-built quadcopter aerial robot using optic flow sensing. Optic flow sensing is a vision-based approach that can provide a robot the ability to fly in global positioning system (GPS) denied environments, such as indoor environments. In this work, optic flow sensors are used to stabilize the motion of quadcopter robot, where an optic flow algorithm is applied to provide odometry measurements to the quadcopter's central processing unit to monitor the flight heading. The optic-flow sensor and algorithm are capable of gathering and processing the images at 250 frames/sec, and the sensor package weighs 2.5 g and has a footprint of 6 cm2 in area. The odometry value from the optic flow sensor is then used a feedback information in a simple proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller on the quadcopter. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of using optic flow for controlling the motion of the quadcopter aerial robot. The technique presented herein can be applied to different types of aerial robotic systems or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), as well as unmanned ground vehicles (UGV).

  1. Transfer of glyphosate and its degradate AMPA to surface waters through urban sewerage systems.

    PubMed

    Botta, Fabrizio; Lavison, Gwenaëlle; Couturier, Guillaume; Alliot, Fabrice; Moreau-Guigon, Elodie; Fauchon, Nils; Guery, Bénédicte; Chevreuil, Marc; Blanchoud, Hélène

    2009-09-01

    A study of glyphosate and aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA) transfer in the Orge watershed (France) was carried out during 2007 and 2008. Water samples were collected in surface water, wastewater sewer, storm sewer and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). These two molecules appeared to be the most frequently detected ones in the rivers and usually exceeded the European quality standard concentrations of 0.1microg L(-1) for drinking water. The annual glyphosate estimated load was 1.9 kg year(-1) upstream (agricultural zone) and 179.5 kg year(-1) at the catchment outlet (urban zone). This result suggests that the contamination of this basin by glyphosate is essentially from urban origin (road and railway applications). Glyphosate reached surface water prevalently through storm sewer during rainfall event. Maximum concentrations were detected in storm sewer just after a rainfall event (75-90 microg L(-1)). High concentrations of glyphosate in surface water during rainfall events reflected urban runoff impact. AMPA was always detected in the sewerage system. This molecule reached surface water mainly via WWTP effluent and also through storm sewer. Variations in concentrations of AMPA during hydrological episodes were minor compared to glyphosate variations. Our study highlights that AMPA and glyphosate origins in urban area are different. During dry period, detergent degradation seemed to be the major AMPA source in wastewater.

  2. Transport of Glyphosate and Aminomethylphosphonic Acid under Two Soil Management Practices in an Italian Vineyard.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Marco; Marta, Anna Dalla; Zanchi, Camillo A; Orlandini, Simone

    2016-09-01

    Worldwide, glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide in controlling the growth of annual and perennial weeds. An increasing number of studies have highlighted the environmental risk resulting from the use of this molecule in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The objective of the study was to determine the transport of glyphosate and its degradation product, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), through runoff and transported sediment from a vineyard under two different soil management systems: harrowed inter-row (HR) and permanent grass covered inter-row (GR). The study was performed over a period of 4 yr. Glyphosate and AMPA concentrations were found to be higher in runoff and in transported sediment from HR compared with GR, regardless of the amount of runoff and transported sediment. The mean annual percentages of glyphosate loss, via runoff and transported sediment, were about 1.37 and 0.73% for HR and GR, respectively. Aminomethylphosphonic acid represented approximately 30.9 and 40.0% of the total glyphosate losses in GR and HR, respectively. Moreover, results suggested that rains occurring within 4 wk after treatment could cause the transport of glyphosate and AMPA in high concentrations. Soil analyses indicated that glyphosate content was below detection within 1 yr, whereas AMPA remained in the soil profiles along the vine row and in the inter-row. Results indicated that GR can reduce soil and herbicide loss by runoff in vineyard cropping system.

  3. Atrazine and glyphosate dynamics in a lotic ecosystem: the common snapping turtle as a sentinel species.

    PubMed

    Douros, Derrick L; Gaines, Karen F; Novak, James M

    2015-03-01

    Atrazine and glyphosate are two of the most common pesticides used in the US Midwest that impact water quality via runoff, and the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) is an excellent indicator species to monitor these pesticides especially in lotic systems. The goals of this study were to (1) quantify atrazine, the atrazine metabolite diaminochlorotriazine (DACT), and glyphosate burdens in common snapping turtle tissue from individuals collected within the Embarras River in Illinois; (2) quantify atrazine, DACT, and glyphosate loads in water from the aquatic habitats in which common snapping turtles reside; and (3) investigate tissue loads based on turtle morphology and habitat choice. Concentrations of atrazine, DACT, and glyphosate in tissue did not show any relationship with lake habitat, carapace length, width, or mass. Both atrazine and glyphosate tissue samples varied as a function of site (river vs. lake), but DACT did not. Atrazine and glyphosate concentrations in water samples showed a linear effect on distance from the reservoir spillway and a deviation from linearity. Water column concentrations of all three contaminants varied across capture sites, but atrazine water concentration did not influence DACT water concentration nor did it exhibit a site interaction. Water atrazine and glyphosate concentrations were greater than tissue concentrations, whereas DACT water and tissue concentrations did not differ. This study showed that turtles are useful in long-term pesticide monitoring, and because DACT as a metabolite is less sensitive to variation, it should be considered as a preferred biomarker for pesticide runoff.

  4. An analysis of glyphosate data from the California Environmental Protection Agency Pesticide Illness Surveillance Program.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Daniel A; Acquavella, John F; Mannion, Rhonda M; Farmer, Donna R

    2002-01-01

    Glyphosate is among the pesticides most frequently reported to the California EPA Pesticide Illness Surveillance Program. We analyzed glyphosate-related calls to the Pesticide Illness Surveillance Program in order to assess the number of reports involving systemic symptoms and to better understand the nature and severity of reported cases. Data on glyphosate and other pesticides are available for the years 1982-1997 including: type of exposure (agricultural/other); target organ(s) affected (skin/eye/respiratory/systemic); exposure(s); an assessment of causal relationship (possible, probable, or definite); and limited medical text. Of 815 total glyphosate calls, most involved topical irritation of the eye (n = 399), skin (n = 250), upper airway (n = 7), or combinations of these sites (n = 32) without systemic symptoms. Of the 187 systemic cases, only 22 had symptoms recorded as probably or definitely related to glyphosate exposure alone. The reported symptoms were not severe, expected to be limited in duration, and frequently inconsistent with the route of exposure and/or previous experience with glyphosate. We conclude that call volume is not a reliable indicator of the actual incidence or severity of glyphosate-related incidents in California.

  5. Thermodynamic Study on the Protonation Reactions of Glyphosate in Aqueous Solution: Potentiometry, Calorimetry and NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bijun; Dong, Lan; Yu, Qianhong; Li, Xingliang; Wu, Fengchang; Tan, Zhaoyi; Luo, Shunzhong

    2016-03-10

    Glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] has been described as the ideal herbicide because of its unique properties. There is some conflicting information concerning the structures and conformations involved in the protonation process of glyphosate. Protonation may influence the chemical and physical properties of glyphosate, modifying its structure and the chemical processes in which it is involved. To better understand the species in solution associated with changes in pH, thermodynamic study (potentiometry, calorimetry and NMR spectroscopy) about the protonation pathway of glyphosate is performed. Experimental results confirmed that the order of successive protonation sites of totally deprotonated glyphosate is phosphonate oxygen, amino nitrogen, and finally carboxylate oxygen. This trend is in agreement with the most recent theoretical work in the literature on the subject (J. Phys. Chem. A 2015, 119, 5241-5249). The result is important because it confirms that the protonated site of glyphosate in pH range 7-8, is not on the amino but on the phosphonate group instead. This corrected information can improve the understanding of the glyphosate chemical and biochemical action.

  6. Is it time to reassess current safety standards for glyphosate-based herbicides?

    PubMed

    Vandenberg, Laura N; Blumberg, Bruce; Antoniou, Michael N; Benbrook, Charles M; Carroll, Lynn; Colborn, Theo; Everett, Lorne G; Hansen, Michael; Landrigan, Philip J; Lanphear, Bruce P; Mesnage, Robin; Vom Saal, Frederick S; Welshons, Wade V; Myers, John Peterson

    2017-03-20

    Use of glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) increased ∼100-fold from 1974 to 2014. Additional increases are expected due to widespread emergence of glyphosate-resistant weeds, increased application of GBHs, and preharvest uses of GBHs as desiccants. Current safety assessments rely heavily on studies conducted over 30 years ago. We have considered information on GBH use, exposures, mechanisms of action, toxicity and epidemiology. Human exposures to glyphosate are rising, and a number of in vitro and in vivo studies challenge the basis for the current safety assessment of glyphosate and GBHs. We conclude that current safety standards for GBHs are outdated and may fail to protect public health or the environment. To improve safety standards, the following are urgently needed: (1) human biomonitoring for glyphosate and its metabolites; (2) prioritisation of glyphosate and GBHs for hazard assessments, including toxicological studies that use state-of-the-art approaches; (3) epidemiological studies, especially of occupationally exposed agricultural workers, pregnant women and their children and (4) evaluations of GBHs in commercially used formulations, recognising that herbicide mixtures likely have effects that are not predicted by studying glyphosate alone.

  7. Questions concerning the potential impact of glyphosate-based herbicides on amphibians.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Norman; Reichenbecher, Wolfram; Teichmann, Hanka; Tappeser, Beatrix; Lötters, Stefan

    2013-08-01

    Use of glyphosate-based herbicides is increasing worldwide. The authors review the available data related to potential impacts of these herbicides on amphibians and conduct a qualitative meta-analysis. Because little is known about environmental concentrations of glyphosate in amphibian habitats and virtually nothing is known about environmental concentrations of the substances added to the herbicide formulations that mainly contribute to adverse effects, glyphosate levels can only be seen as approximations for contamination with glyphosate-based herbicides. The impact on amphibians depends on the herbicide formulation, with different sensitivity of taxa and life stages. Effects on development of larvae apparently are the most sensitive endpoints to study. As with other contaminants, costressors mainly increase adverse effects. If and how glyphosate-based herbicides and other pesticides contribute to amphibian decline is not answerable yet due to missing data on how natural populations are affected. Amphibian risk assessment can only be conducted case-specifically, with consideration of the particular herbicide formulation. The authors recommend better monitoring of both amphibian populations and contamination of habitats with glyphosate-based herbicides, not just glyphosate, and suggest including amphibians in standardized test batteries to study at least dermal administration.

  8. Role of physiological mechanisms and EPSPS gene expression in glyphosate resistance in wild soybeans (Glycine soja).

    PubMed

    Gao, Yue; Tao, Bo; Qiu, Lijuan; Jin, Longguo; Wu, Jing

    2014-02-01

    The physiological mechanisms underlying glyphosate resistance in wild soybean germplasm and relevant EPSPS gene expression were evaluated. These germplasms were selected by gradually increasing glyphosate selection pressure started from 2010. As indicated by a whole-plant dose response bioassay, ZYD-254 plants were resistant to glyphosate at concentrations of 1230gaeha(-1), but the susceptible plants (ZYD-16) were unable to survive in the presence of 300gaeha(-1) glyphosate. The ED50 values of resistant germplasm were approximately 8.8 times of the susceptible germplasm. Chlorophyll content was significantly decreased in ZYD-16 plants in comparison with ZYD-254 plants. ZYD-16 plants accumulated 10.1 times more shikimate in leaves at 5days after glyphosate treatment at 1230gaeha(-1) than ZYD-254 did. GST activity differed between ZYD-254 and ZYD-16 in three tissues. It was highest in leaves. There were no significant differences in EPSPS1 or EPSPS3 expression between two germplasms before exposure to glyphosate treatment. After glyphosate treatment, there was a 2- to 4-fold increase in EPSPS1 mRNA levels in ZYD-254, but there was no change in EPSPS3 mRNA levels in ZYD-254 or ZYD-16.

  9. Physiological effects of the herbicide glyphosate on the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liang; Qiu, Zhihao; Zhou, Ya; Du, Yuping; Liu, Chaonan; Ye, Jing; Hu, Xiaojun

    2016-09-01

    Glyphosate has been used extensively for weed control in agriculture in many countries. However, glyphosate can be transported into the aquatic environment and might cause adverse effects on aquatic life. This study investigated the physiological characteristics of cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa) after exposure to glyphosate, and the results showed that changes in cell density production, chlorophyll a and protein content are consistent. In M. aeruginosa, oxidative stress caused by glyphosate indicated that 48h of exposure increased the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD). To further investigate the toxicity of glyphosate on M. aeruginosa, the viability of treated cells was monitored and the toxin release was determined. The results indicated that glyphosate induced apoptosis of and triggered toxin release in M. aeruginosa. These results are helpful for understanding the toxic effects of glyphosate on cyanobacteria, which is important for environmental assessment and protection. These results are also useful for guidance on the application of this type of herbicide in agricultural settings.

  10. Functionalized iron oxide/SBA-15 sorbent: investigation of adsorption performance towards glyphosate herbicide.

    PubMed

    Rivoira, Luca; Appendini, Marta; Fiorilli, Sonia; Onida, Barbara; Del Bubba, Massimo; Bruzzoniti, Maria Concetta

    2016-11-01

    Glyphosate is a worldwide-used herbicide occurring in many monitoring campaigns. Efficient technologies are currently unavailable for glyphosate removal from waters. In this work, a SBA-15 mesoporous silica-based material (Fe-NH2-SBA-15) was synthesized and studied for the adsorption of glyphosate from waters. In order to promote specific interactions between the sorbent and glyphosate via phosphoric group, iron oxide nanoparticles were encapsulated and a surface functionalization with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane was accomplished. The adsorption of glyphosate on Fe-NH2-SBA-15 was investigated as a function of (i) pH, (ii) ionic strength (I), and (iii) adsorbate to adsorbent ratio (C), using a two-level, three-factor experimental design. The experimental design allowed for understanding the effect of the abovementioned variables and for proposing experimental conditions for quantitative removal (pH = 2.1, I = 1⋅10(-2) M and C = 0.35) under both batch and dynamic conditions. Interaction mechanism between glyphosate and Fe-NH2-SBA-15 sorbent was elucidated by studying the adsorption behavior of sorbents derived from the intermediate stages of synthesis and by desorption tests. Fe-NH2-SBA-15 sorbent can be quantitatively regenerated by 12.5 mM NaOH, and can be reused at least for five adsorption/desorption cycles. Quantitative removal of glyphosate from inlet and effluent wastewaters from a wastewater treatment plant is shown.

  11. Aerospace toxicology overview: aerial application and cabin air quality.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K

    2011-01-01

    Aerospace toxicology is a rather recent development and is closely related to aerospace medicine. Aerospace toxicology can be defined as a field of study designed to address the adverse effects of medications, chemicals, and contaminants on humans who fly within or outside the atmosphere in aviation or on space flights. The environment extending above and beyond the surface of the Earth is referred to as aerospace. The term aviation is frequently used interchangeably with aerospace. The focus of the literature review performed to prepare this paper was on aerospace toxicology-related subject matters, aerial application and aircraft cabin air quality. Among the important topics addressed are the following: · Aerial applications of agricultural chemicals, pesticidal toxicity, and exposures to aerially applied mixtures of chemicals and their associated formulating solvents/surfactants The safety of aerially encountered chemicals and the bioanalytical methods used to monitor exposures to some of them · The presence of fumes and smoke, as well as other contaminants that may generally be present in aircraft/space vehicle cabin air · And importantly, the toxic effects of aerially encountered contaminants, with emphasis on the degradation products of oils, fluids, and lubricants used in aircraft, and finally · Analytical methods used for monitoring human exposure to CO and HCN are addressed in the review, as are the signs and symptoms associated with exposures to these combustion gases. Although many agricultural chemical monitoring studies have been published, few have dealt with the occurrence of such chemicals in aircraft cabin air. However, agricultural chemicals do appear in cabin air; indeed, attempts have been made to establish maximum allowable concentrations for several of the more potentially toxic ones that are found in aircraft cabin air. In this article, I emphasize the need for precautionary measures to be taken to minimize exposures to aerially

  12. Alteration in the cytokine levels and histopathological damage in common carp induced by glyphosate.

    PubMed

    Ma, Junguo; Li, Xiaoyu

    2015-06-01

    Glyphosate is one of the most frequently used herbicides, and it has been demonstrated to generate a series of toxicological problems in animals and humans. However, relatively little is known about the effects of glyphosate on the immune system of fish. In the present study, the acute toxicity of glyphosate on common carp was first determined; then, the contents of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor -α (TNF-α) and histopathological alterations in the liver, kidneys, and spleen of common carp exposed to 52.08 or 104.15 mg L(-1) of glyphosate for 168 h were also determined and evaluated. The results of the acute toxicity tests showed that the 96 h LC50 of glyphosate for common carp was 520.77 mg L(-1). Moreover, sub-acute exposure of glyphosate altered the contents of IFN-γ, IL-1β, and TNF-α in fish immune organs. For example, there was a remarkable increase in the IFN-γ content in the kidneys, while there was a decrease in the liver and spleen. The IL-1β content increased in liver and kidneys, but it decreased in the spleen, and TNF-α mainly increased in the fish liver, kidneys, and spleen. In addition, glyphosate-exposure also caused remarkable histopathological damage in the fish liver, kidneys, and spleen. These results suggest that glyphosate-caused cytokine alterations may result in an immune suppression or excessive activation in the treated common carp as well as may cause immune dysfunction or reduced immunity. In conclusion, glyphosate has immunotoxic effects on common carp.

  13. Rapid and direct determination of glyphosate, glufosinate, and aminophosphonic acid by online preconcentration CE with contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    See, Hong Heng; Hauser, Peter C; Ibrahim, Wan Aini Wan; Sanagi, Mohd Marsin

    2010-01-01

    Rapid and direct online preconcentration followed by CE with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (CE-C(4)D) is evaluated as a new approach for the determination of glyphosate, glufosinate (GLUF), and aminophosphonic acid (AMPA) in drinking water. Two online preconcentration techniques, namely large volume sample stacking without polarity switching and field-enhanced sample injection, coupled with CE-C(4)D were successfully developed and optimized. Under optimized conditions, LODs in the range of 0.01-0.1 microM (1.7-11.1 microg/L) and sensitivity enhancements of 48- to 53-fold were achieved with the large volume sample stacking-CE-C(4)D method. By performing the field-enhanced sample injection-CE-C(4)D procedure, excellent LODs down to 0.0005-0.02 microM (0.1-2.2 microg/L) as well as sensitivity enhancements of up to 245- to 1002-fold were obtained. Both techniques showed satisfactory reproducibility with RSDs of peak height of better than 10%. The newly established approaches were successfully applied to the analysis of glyphosate, glufosinate, and aminophosphonic acid in spiked tap drinking water.

  14. Long-term sub-lethal effects of low concentration commercial herbicide (glyphosate/pelargonic acid) formulation in Bryophyllum pinnatum.

    PubMed

    Pokhrel, Lok R; Karsai, Istvan

    2015-12-15

    Potential long-term (~7months) sub-lethal impacts of soil-applied low levels of Roundup herbicide formulation were investigated in a greenhouse environment using the vegetative clones of succulent non-crop plant model, Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Oken. An eleven day LC50 (concentration that killed 50% of the plants) was found to be 6.25% (~1.25mg glyphosate/mL and 1.25mg pelargonic acid/mL combined), and complete mortality occurred at 12.5%, of the field application rate (i.e., ~20mg glyphosate/mL and 20mg pelargonic acid/mL as active ingredients). While sub-lethal Roundup (1-5%) exposures led to hormesis-characterized by a significant increase in biomass and vegetative reproduction, higher concentrations (≥6.25%) were toxic. A significant interaction between Roundup concentrations and leaf biomass was found to influence the F1 plantlets' biomass. Biomass asymmetry generally increased with increasing Roundup concentrations, indicating that plants were more stressed at higher Roundup treatments but within the low-dose regime (≤5% of the as-supplied formulation). While leaf apex region demonstrated higher reproduction with lower biomass increase, leaf basal area showed lower reproduction with greater biomass increase, in plantlets. The results suggest long-term exposures to drifted low levels of Roundup in soil may promote biomass and reproduction in B. pinnatum.

  15. Use of Fe/Al drinking water treatment residuals as amendments for enhancing the retention capacity of glyphosate in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuanyuan; Wendling, Laura A; Wang, Changhui; Pei, Yuansheng

    2015-08-01

    Fe/Al drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs), ubiquitous and non-hazardous by-products of drinking water purification, are cost-effective adsorbents for glyphosate. Given that repeated glyphosate applications could significantly decrease glyphosate retention by soils and that the adsorbed glyphosate is potentially mobile, high sorption capacity and stability of glyphosate in agricultural soils are needed to prevent pollution of water by glyphosate. Therefore, we investigated the feasibility of reusing Fe/Al WTR as a soil amendment to enhance the retention capacity of glyphosate in two agricultural soils. The results of batch experiments showed that the Fe/Al WTR amendment significantly enhanced the glyphosate sorption capacity of both soils (p<0.001). Up to 30% of the previously adsorbed glyphosate desorbed from the non-amended soils, and the Fe/Al WTR amendment effectively decreased the proportion of glyphosate desorbed. Fractionation analyses further demonstrated that glyphosate adsorbed to non-amended soils was primarily retained in the readily labile fraction (NaHCO3-glyphosate). The WTR amendment significantly increased the relative proportion of the moderately labile fraction (HCl-glyphosate) and concomitantly reduced that of the NaHCO3-glyphosate, hence reducing the potential for the release of soil-adsorbed glyphosate into the aqueous phase. Furthermore, Fe/Al WTR amendment minimized the inhibitory effect of increasing solution pH on glyphosate sorption by soils and mitigated the effects of increasing solution ionic strength. The present results indicate that Fe/Al WTR is suitable for use as a soil amendment to prevent glyphosate pollution of aquatic ecosystems by enhancing the glyphosate retention capacity in soils.

  16. Genotoxicity of diuron and glyphosate in oyster spermatozoa and embryos.

    PubMed

    Akcha, F; Spagnol, C; Rouxel, J

    2012-01-15

    We investigated the effects of genotoxicant exposure in gametes and embryos to find a possible link between genotoxicity and reproduction/developmental impairment, and explore the impact of chemical genotoxicity on population dynamics. Our study focused on the genotoxic effects of two herbicides on oyster gametes and embryos: glyphosate (both as an active substance and in the Roundup formulation) and diuron. France is Europe's leading consumer of agrochemical substances and as such, contamination of France's coastal waters by pesticides is a major concern. Glyphosate and diuron are among the most frequently detected herbicides in oyster production areas; as oyster is a specie with external reproduction, its gametes and embryos are in direct contact with the surrounding waters and are hence particularly exposed to these potentially dangerous substances. In the course of this study, differences in genotoxic and embryotoxic responses were observed in the various experiments, possibly due to differences in pollutant sensitivity between the tested genitor lots. Glyphosate and Roundup had no effect on oyster development at the concentrations tested, whereas diuron significantly affected embryo-larval development from the lowest tested concentration of 0.05 μg L⁻¹, i.e. an environmentally realistic concentration. Diuron may therefore have a significant impact on oyster recruitment rates in the natural environment. Our spermiotoxicity study revealed none of the tested herbicides to be cytotoxic for oyster spermatozoa. However, the alkaline comet assay showed diuron to have a significant genotoxic effect on oyster spermatozoa at concentrations of 0.05 μg L⁻¹ upwards. Conversely, no effects due to diuron exposure were observed on sperm mitochondrial function or acrosomal membrane integrity. Although our initial results showed no negative effect on sperm function, the possible impact on fertilization rate and the consequences of the transmission of damaged DNA for

  17. Detection of Aspens Using High Resolution Aerial Laser Scanning Data and Digital Aerial Images

    PubMed Central

    Säynäjoki, Raita; Packalén, Petteri; Maltamo, Matti; Vehmas, Mikko; Eerikäinen, Kalle

    2008-01-01

    The aim was to use high resolution Aerial Laser Scanning (ALS) data and aerial images to detect European aspen (Populus tremula L.) from among other deciduous trees. The field data consisted of 14 sample plots of 30 m × 30 m size located in the Koli National Park in the North Karelia, Eastern Finland. A Canopy Height Model (CHM) was interpolated from the ALS data with a pulse density of 3.86/m2, low-pass filtered using Height-Based Filtering (HBF) and binarized to create the mask needed to separate the ground pixels from the canopy pixels within individual areas. Watershed segmentation was applied to the low-pass filtered CHM in order to create preliminary canopy segments, from which the non-canopy elements were extracted to obtain the final canopy segmentation, i.e. the ground mask was analysed against the canopy mask. A manual classification of aerial images was employed to separate the canopy segments of deciduous trees from those of coniferous trees. Finally, linear discriminant analysis was applied to the correctly classified canopy segments of deciduous trees to classify them into segments belonging to aspen and those belonging to other deciduous trees. The independent variables used in the classification were obtained from the first pulse ALS point data. The accuracy of discrimination between aspen and other deciduous trees was 78.6%. The independent variables in the classification function were the proportion of vegetation hits, the standard deviation of in pulse heights, accumulated intensity at the 90th percentile and the proportion of laser points reflected at the 60th height percentile. The accuracy of classification corresponded to the validation results of earlier ALS-based studies on the classification of individual deciduous trees to tree species. PMID:27873799

  18. Precision wildlife monitoring using unmanned aerial vehicles.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Jarrod C; Baylis, Shane M; Mott, Rowan; Herrod, Ashley; Clarke, Rohan H

    2016-03-17

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a new frontier in environmental research. Their use has the potential to revolutionise the field if they prove capable of improving data quality or the ease with which data are collected beyond traditional methods. We apply UAV technology to wildlife monitoring in tropical and polar environments and demonstrate that UAV-derived counts of colony nesting birds are an order of magnitude more precise than traditional ground counts. The increased count precision afforded by UAVs, along with their ability to survey hard-to-reach populations and places, will likely drive many wildlife monitoring projects that rely on population counts to transition from traditional methods to UAV technology. Careful consideration will be required to ensure the coherence of historic data sets with new UAV-derived data and we propose a method for determining the number of duplicated (concurrent UAV and ground counts) sampling points needed to achieve data compatibility.

  19. Precision wildlife monitoring using unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgson, Jarrod C.; Baylis, Shane M.; Mott, Rowan; Herrod, Ashley; Clarke, Rohan H.

    2016-03-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a new frontier in environmental research. Their use has the potential to revolutionise the field if they prove capable of improving data quality or the ease with which data are collected beyond traditional methods. We apply UAV technology to wildlife monitoring in tropical and polar environments and demonstrate that UAV-derived counts of colony nesting birds are an order of magnitude more precise than traditional ground counts. The increased count precision afforded by UAVs, along with their ability to survey hard-to-reach populations and places, will likely drive many wildlife monitoring projects that rely on population counts to transition from traditional methods to UAV technology. Careful consideration will be required to ensure the coherence of historic data sets with new UAV-derived data and we propose a method for determining the number of duplicated (concurrent UAV and ground counts) sampling points needed to achieve data compatibility.

  20. Precision wildlife monitoring using unmanned aerial vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Jarrod C.; Baylis, Shane M.; Mott, Rowan; Herrod, Ashley; Clarke, Rohan H.

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a new frontier in environmental research. Their use has the potential to revolutionise the field if they prove capable of improving data quality or the ease with which data are collected beyond traditional methods. We apply UAV technology to wildlife monitoring in tropical and polar environments and demonstrate that UAV-derived counts of colony nesting birds are an order of magnitude more precise than traditional ground counts. The increased count precision afforded by UAVs, along with their ability to survey hard-to-reach populations and places, will likely drive many wildlife monitoring projects that rely on population counts to transition from traditional methods to UAV technology. Careful consideration will be required to ensure the coherence of historic data sets with new UAV-derived data and we propose a method for determining the number of duplicated (concurrent UAV and ground counts) sampling points needed to achieve data compatibility. PMID:26986721

  1. Aerial Photographs and Satellite Images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    Photographs and other images of the Earth taken from the air and from space show a great deal about the planet's landforms, vegetation, and resources. Aerial and satellite images, known as remotely sensed images, permit accurate mapping of land cover and make landscape features understandable on regional, continental, and even global scales. Transient phenomena, such as seasonal vegetation vigor and contaminant discharges, can be studied by comparing images acquired at different times. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), which began using aerial photographs for mapping in the 1930's, archives photographs from its mapping projects and from those of some other Federal agencies. In addition, many images from such space programs as Landsat, begun in 1972, are held by the USGS. Most satellite scenes can be obtained only in digital form for use in computer-based image processing and geographic information systems, but in some cases are also available as photographic products.

  2. Deep person re-identification in aerial images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, Arne; Schuchert, Tobias

    2016-10-01

    Person re-identification is the problem of matching multiple occurrences of a person in large amounts of image or video data. In this work we propose an approach specifically tailored to re-identify people across different camera views in aerial video recordings. New challenges that arise in aerial data include unusual and more varied view angles, a moving camera and potentially large changes in environment and other in uences between recordings (i.e. between flights). Our approach addresses these new challenges. Due to their recent successes, we apply deep learning to automatically learn features for person re-identification on a number of public datasets. We evaluate these features on aerial data and propose a method to automatically select suitable pretrained features without requiring person id labels on the aerial data. We further show that tailored data augmentation methods are well suited to better cope with the larger variety in view angles. Finally, we combine our model with a metric learning approach to allow for interactive improvement of re-identification results through user feedback. We evaluate the approach on our own video dataset which contains 12 persons recorded from a UAV.

  3. Predator foraging altitudes reveal the structure of aerial insect communities.

    PubMed

    Helms, Jackson A; Godfrey, Aaron P; Ames, Tayna; Bridge, Eli S

    2016-06-29

    The atmosphere is populated by a diverse array of dispersing insects and their predators. We studied aerial insect communities by tracking the foraging altitudes of an avian insectivore, the Purple Martin (Progne subis). By attaching altitude loggers to nesting Purple Martins and collecting prey delivered to their nestlings, we determined the flight altitudes of ants and other insects. We then tested hypotheses relating ant body size and reproductive ecology to flight altitude. Purple Martins flew up to 1,889 meters above ground, and nestling provisioning trips ranged up to 922 meters. Insect communities were structured by body size such that species of all sizes flew near the ground but only light insects flew to the highest altitudes. Ant maximum flight altitudes decreased by 60% from the lightest to the heaviest species. Winged sexuals of social insects (ants, honey bees, and termites) dominated the Purple Martin diet, making up 88% of prey individuals and 45% of prey biomass. By transferring energy from terrestrial to aerial food webs, mating swarms of social insects play a substantial role in aerial ecosystems. Although we focus on Purple Martins and ants, our combined logger and diet method could be applied to a range of aerial organisms.

  4. FlyAR: augmented reality supported micro aerial vehicle navigation.

    PubMed

    Zollmann, Stefanie; Hoppe, Christof; Langlotz, Tobias; Reitmayr, Gerhard

    2014-04-01

    Micro aerial vehicles equipped with high-resolution cameras can be used to create aerial reconstructions of an area of interest. In that context automatic flight path planning and autonomous flying is often applied but so far cannot fully replace the human in the loop, supervising the flight on-site to assure that there are no collisions with obstacles. Unfortunately, this workflow yields several issues, such as the need to mentally transfer the aerial vehicle’s position between 2D map positions and the physical environment, and the complicated depth perception of objects flying in the distance. Augmented Reality can address these issues by bringing the flight planning process on-site and visualizing the spatial relationship between the planned or current positions of the vehicle and the physical environment. In this paper, we present Augmented Reality supported navigation and flight planning of micro aerial vehicles by augmenting the user’s view with relevant information for flight planning and live feedback for flight supervision. Furthermore, we introduce additional depth hints supporting the user in understanding the spatial relationship of virtual waypoints in the physical world and investigate the effect of these visualization techniques on the spatial understanding.

  5. Predator foraging altitudes reveal the structure of aerial insect communities

    PubMed Central

    Helms, Jackson A.; Godfrey, Aaron P.; Ames, Tayna; Bridge, Eli S.

    2016-01-01

    The atmosphere is populated by a diverse array of dispersing insects and their predators. We studied aerial insect communities by tracking the foraging altitudes of an avian insectivore, the Purple Martin (Progne subis). By attaching altitude loggers to nesting Purple Martins and collecting prey delivered to their nestlings, we determined the flight altitudes of ants and other insects. We then tested hypotheses relating ant body size and reproductive ecology to flight altitude. Purple Martins flew up to 1,889 meters above ground, and nestling provisioning trips ranged up to 922 meters. Insect communities were structured by body size such that species of all sizes flew near the ground but only light insects flew to the highest altitudes. Ant maximum flight altitudes decreased by 60% from the lightest to the heaviest species. Winged sexuals of social insects (ants, honey bees, and termites) dominated the Purple Martin diet, making up 88% of prey individuals and 45% of prey biomass. By transferring energy from terrestrial to aerial food webs, mating swarms of social insects play a substantial role in aerial ecosystems. Although we focus on Purple Martins and ants, our combined logger and diet method could be applied to a range of aerial organisms. PMID:27352817

  6. Aerial robotic data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Hayes, D.W.; Pendergast, M.M.; Corban, J.E.

    1993-12-31

    A small, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), equipped with sensors for physical and chemical measurements of remote environments, is described. A miniature helicopter airframe is used as a platform for sensor testing and development. The sensor output is integrated with the flight control system for real-time, interactive, data acquisition and analysis. Pre-programmed flight missions will be flown with several sensors to demonstrate the cost-effective surveillance capabilities of this new technology.

  7. Glyphosate-based pesticides affect cell cycle regulation.

    PubMed

    Marc, Julie; Mulner-Lorillon, Odile; Bellé, Robert

    2004-04-01

    Cell-cycle dysregulation is a hallmark of tumor cells and human cancers. Failure in the cell-cycle checkpoints leads to genomic instability and subsequent development of cancers from the initial affected cell. A worldwide used product Roundup 3plus, based on glyphosate as the active herbicide, was suggested to be of human health concern since it induced cell cycle dysfunction as judged from analysis of the first cell division of sea urchin embryos, a recognized model for cell cycle studies. Several glyphosate-based pesticides from different manufacturers were assayed in comparison with Roundup 3plus for their ability to interfere with the cell cycle regulation. All the tested products, Amega, Cargly, Cosmic, and Roundup Biovert induced cell cycle dysfunction. The threshold concentration for induction of cell cycle dysfunction was evaluated for each product and suggests high risk by inhalation for people in the vicinity of the pesticide handling sprayed at 500 to 4000 times higher dose than the cell-cycle adverse concentration.

  8. Glyphosate herbicide poisoning: use of a routine aminoacid analyzer appears to be a rapid method for determining glyphosate and its metabolite in biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Parrot, F; Bedry, R; Favarel-Garrigues, J C

    1995-01-01

    Glyphosate containing herbicides are an alternative to paraquat and are widely used throughout the world. Despite animal studies showing a low mammalian toxicity, human fatalities are reported after suicidal ingestions of glyphosate. Among the numerous analytical methods proposed, the reference method is the HPLC Monsanto procedure which is available in very few laboratories. The Monsanto procedure consists of a pre-column derivatization with detection of the resulting chromophore by HPLC with a variable wavelength UV/VIS detector. We propose a simple and rapid method for the diagnosis and monitoring of glyphosate poisoning. This method uses an aminoacid analyzer (Beckman 6300) with the program for biological fluids. With this procedure the glyphosate and amino methyl phosphoric acid retention times are respectively 1.75 and 3.54 min. This method gives a rapid result. The time between collecting the sample and completing the result is 45 min. This method may be useful for the diagnosis and monitoring of glyphosate poisoning and is easy to perform with an apparatus usually available in every laboratory involved in aminoacid analysis.

  9. Telemetry of Aerial Radiological Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    H. W. Clark, Jr.

    2002-10-01

    Telemetry has been added to National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA's) Aerial Measuring System (AMS) Incident Response aircraft to accelerate availability of aerial radiological mapping data. Rapid aerial radiological mapping is promptly performed by AMS Incident Response aircraft in the event of a major radiological dispersal. The AMS airplane flies the entire potentially affected area, plus a generous margin, to provide a quick look at the extent and severity of the event. The primary result of the AMS Incident Response over flight is a map of estimated exposure rate on the ground along the flight path. Formerly, it was necessary to wait for the airplane to land before the map could be seen. Now, while the flight is still in progress, data are relayed via satellite directly from the aircraft to an operations center, where they are displayed and disseminated. This permits more timely utilization of results by decision makers and redirection of the mission to optimize its value. The current telemetry capability can cover all of North America. Extension to a global capability is under consideration.

  10. Glyphosate and AMPA in the estuaries of the Baltic Sea method optimization and field study.

    PubMed

    Skeff, Wael; Neumann, Christine; Schulz-Bull, Detlef E

    2015-11-15

    Water samples from ten German Baltic estuaries were collected in 2012 in order to study the presence of the herbicide glyphosate, its primary metabolite AMPA and their potential transport to the marine environment. For the analyses an LC-MS/MS based analytical method after derivatization with FMOC-Cl was optimized and validated for marine water samples. All investigated estuarine stations were contaminated with AMPA and nine of them also with glyphosate. Concentration ranges observed were 28 to 1690ng/L and 45 to 4156ng/L for glyphosate and AMPA, respectively with strong spatial and temporal fluctuations. Both contaminants were found at inbound sampling sites in the stream Muehlenfliess and concentrations decreased along the salinity gradient to the estuaries of the Baltic Sea. The data obtained in this study clearly depict the transport of glyphosate and AMPA to the Baltic Sea. Hence, detailed fate and risk assessment for both contaminants in marine environments are required.

  11. How-To-Do-It: Glyphosate: Herbicidal Effects, Mode of Action and Degradation in Soil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafarski, Pawel; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes the usefulness of glyphosate for a demonstration of its herbicidal properties. Includes a list of the materials, preparation of solutions, procedures, data collection and analysis for three activities involving this chemical. (CW)

  12. Glyphosate herbicide affects belowground interactions between earthworms and symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi in a model ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaller, Johann G.; Heigl, Florian; Ruess, Liliane; Grabmaier, Andrea

    2014-07-01

    Herbicides containing glyphosate are widely used in agriculture and private gardens, however, surprisingly little is known on potential side effects on non-target soil organisms. In a greenhouse experiment with white clover we investigated, to what extent a globally-used glyphosate herbicide affects interactions between essential soil organisms such as earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). We found that herbicides significantly decreased root mycorrhization, soil AMF spore biomass, vesicles and propagules. Herbicide application and earthworms increased soil hyphal biomass and tended to reduce soil water infiltration after a simulated heavy rainfall. Herbicide application in interaction with AMF led to slightly heavier but less active earthworms. Leaching of glyphosate after a simulated rainfall was substantial and altered by earthworms and AMF. These sizeable changes provide impetus for more general attention to side-effects of glyphosate-based herbicides on key soil organisms and their associated ecosystem services.

  13. Glyphosate herbicide affects belowground interactions between earthworms and symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi in a model ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Zaller, Johann G.; Heigl, Florian; Ruess, Liliane; Grabmaier, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Herbicides containing glyphosate are widely used in agriculture and private gardens, however, surprisingly little is known on potential side effects on non-target soil organisms. In a greenhouse experiment with white clover we investigated, to what extent a globally-used glyphosate herbicide affects interactions between essential soil organisms such as earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). We found that herbicides significantly decreased root mycorrhization, soil AMF spore biomass, vesicles and propagules. Herbicide application and earthworms increased soil hyphal biomass and tended to reduce soil water infiltration after a simulated heavy rainfall. Herbicide application in interaction with AMF led to slightly heavier but less active earthworms. Leaching of glyphosate after a simulated rainfall was substantial and altered by earthworms and AMF. These sizeable changes provide impetus for more general attention to side-effects of glyphosate-based herbicides on key soil organisms and their associated ecosystem services. PMID:25005713

  14. Uptake and toxicity of glyphosate in the lichen Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr.

    PubMed

    Vannini, Andrea; Guarnieri, Massimo; Bačkor, Martin; Bilová, Ivana; Loppi, Stefano

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated if treatment of the lichen Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr. with glyphosate caused uptake of this herbicide as well as physiological alterations. Samples were treated with Glifene SL®, a common commercial glyphosate-based herbicide, at the lowest recommended doses (3.6g/L) as well as with doses slightly higher than the highest suggested (36 g/L). The results clearly showed glyphosate uptake in X. parietina proportionally to the dose provided. Adverse physiological effects were evident on the photosynthetic apparatus (photosynthetic efficiency, chlorophyll a content, chlorophyll degradation) as well as on the fungal respiration rates and cell membrane integrity (ergosterol content, dehydrogenase activity) already after 24h from treatment, also at the low application dose. It is concluded that lichens are suitable organisms for monitoring unwanted biological effects from the application of glyphosate-based herbicides, as well as for detecting the accumulation of this compound in the biota, thus screening for its environmental fate.

  15. Glyphosate herbicide affects belowground interactions between earthworms and symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi in a model ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Zaller, Johann G; Heigl, Florian; Ruess, Liliane; Grabmaier, Andrea

    2014-07-09

    Herbicides containing glyphosate are widely used in agriculture and private gardens, however, surprisingly little is known on potential side effects on non-target soil organisms. In a greenhouse experiment with white clover we investigated, to what extent a globally-used glyphosate herbicide affects interactions between essential soil organisms such as earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). We found that herbicides significantly decreased root mycorrhization, soil AMF spore biomass, vesicles and propagules. Herbicide application and earthworms increased soil hyphal biomass and tended to reduce soil water infiltration after a simulated heavy rainfall. Herbicide application in interaction with AMF led to slightly heavier but less active earthworms. Leaching of glyphosate after a simulated rainfall was substantial and altered by earthworms and AMF. These sizeable changes provide impetus for more general attention to side-effects of glyphosate-based herbicides on key soil organisms and their associated ecosystem services.

  16. Preliminary statistical studies concerning the Campos RJ sugar cane area, using LANDSAT imagery and aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Costa, S. R. X.; Paiao, L. B. F.; Mendonca, F. J.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Duarte, V.

    1983-01-01

    The two phase sampling technique was applied to estimate the area cultivated with sugar cane in an approximately 984 sq km pilot region of Campos. Correlation between existing aerial photography and LANDSAT data was used. The two phase sampling technique corresponded to 99.6% of the results obtained by aerial photography, taken as ground truth. This estimate has a standard deviation of 225 ha, which constitutes a coefficient of variation of 0.6%.

  17. Glyphosate and AMPA in U.S. streams, groundwater, precipitation and soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battaglin, William A.; Meyer, Michael T.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Dietze, Julie E.

    2014-01-01

    Herbicides containing glyphosate are used in more than 130 countries on more than 100 crops. In the United States (U.S.), agricultural use of glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] has increased from less than 10,000 metric tons per year (active ingredient) in 1993 to more than 70,000 metric tons per year in 2006. In 2006, glyphosate accounted for about 20 percent of all herbicide use (by weight of active ingredient). Glyphosate formulations such as Roundup® are used in homes and in agriculture. Part of the reason for the popularity of glyphosate is the perception that it is an “environmentally benign” herbicide that has low toxicity and little mobility or persistence in the environment. The U.S. Geological Survey developed an analytical method using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry that can detect small amounts of glyphosate and its primary degradation product aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in water and sediment. Results from more than 2,000 samples collected from locations distributed across the U.S. indicate that glyphosate is more mobile and occurs more widely in the environment than was previously thought. Glyphosate and AMPA were detected (reporting limits between 0.1 and 0.02 micrograms per liter) in samples collected from surface water, groundwater, rainfall, soil water, and soil, at concentrations from less than 0.1 to more than 100 micrograms per liter. Glyphosate was detected more frequently in rain (86%), ditches and drains (71%), and soil (63%); and less frequently in groundwater (3%) and large rivers (18%). AMPA was detected more frequently in rain (86%), soil (82%), and large rivers (78%); and less frequently in groundwater (8%) and wetlands or vernal pools (37%). Most observed concentrations of glyphosate were well below levels of concern for humans or wildlife, and none exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Maximum Contaminant Level of 700 micrograms per liter. However, the ecosystem effects of chronic low

  18. (Bio)degradation of glyphosate in water-sediment microcosms - A stable isotope co-labeling approach.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shizong; Seiwert, Bettina; Kästner, Matthias; Miltner, Anja; Schäffer, Andreas; Reemtsma, Thorsten; Yang, Qi; Nowak, Karolina M

    2016-08-01

    Glyphosate and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) are frequently detected in water and sediments. Up to date, there are no comprehensive studies on the fate of glyphosate in water-sediment microcosms according to OECD 308 guideline. Stable isotope co-labeled (13)C3(15)N-glyphosate was used to determine the turnover mass balance, formation of metabolites, and formation of residues over a period of 80 days. In the water-sediment system, 56% of the initial (13)C3-glyphosate equivalents was ultimately mineralized, whereas the mineralization in the water system (without sediment) was low, reaching only 2% of (13)C-glyphosate equivalents. This finding demonstrates the key role of sediments in its degradation. Glyphosate was detected below detection limit in the water compartment on day 40, but could still be detected in the sediments, ultimately reaching 5% of (13)C3(15)N-glyphosate equivalents. A rapid increase in (13)C(15)N-AMPA was noted after 10 days, and these transformation products ultimately constituted 26% of the (13)C3-glyphosate equivalents and 79% of the (15)N-glyphosate equivalents. In total, 10% of the (13)C label and 12% of the (15)N label were incorporated into amino acids, indicating no risk bearing biogenic residue formation from (13)C3(15)N-glyphosate. Initially, glyphosate was biodegraded via the sarcosine pathway related to microbial growth, as shown by co-labeled (13)C(15)N-glycine and biogenic residue formation. Later, degradation via AMPA dominated under starvation conditions, as shown by the contents of (13)C-glycine. The presented data provide the first evidence of the speciation of the non-extractable residues as well as the utilization of glyphosate as a carbon and nitrogen source in the water-sediment system. This study also highlights the contribution of both the sarcosine and the AMPA degradation pathways under these conditions.

  19. Agricultural impacts of glyphosate-resistant soybean cultivation in South America.

    PubMed

    Cerdeira, Antonio L; Gazziero, Dionsio L P; Duke, Stephen O; Matallo, Marcus B

    2011-06-08

    In the 2009/2010 growing season, Brazil was the second largest world soybean producer, followed by Argentina. Glyphosate-resistant soybeans (GRS) are being cultivated in most of the soybean area in South America. Overall, the GRS system is beneficial to the environment when compared to conventional soybean. GRS resulted in a significant shift toward no-tillage practices in Brazil and Argentina, but weed resistance may reduce this trend. Probably the highest agricultural risk in adopting GRS in Brazil and South America is related to weed resistance due to use of glyphosate. Weed species in GRS fields have shifted in Brazil to those that can more successfully withstand glyphosate or to those that avoid the time of its application. Five weed species, in order of importance, Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronquist, Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist, Lolium multiflorum Lam., Digitaria insularis (L.) Mez ex Ekman, and Euphorbia heterophylla L., have evolved resistance to glyphosate in GRS in Brazil. Conyza spp. are the most difficult to control. A glyphosate-resistant biotype of Sorghum halepense L. has evolved in GRS in Argentina and one of D. insularis in Paraguay. The following actions are proposed to minimize weed resistance problem: (a) rotation of GRS with conventional soybeans in order to rotate herbicide modes of action; (b) avoidance of lower than recommended glyphosate rates; (c) keeping soil covered with a crop or legume at intercrop intervals; (d) keeping machinery free of weed seeds; and (d) use of a preplant nonselective herbicide plus residuals to eliminate early weed interference with the crop and to minimize escapes from later applications of glyphosate due to natural resistance of older weeds and/or incomplete glyphosate coverage.

  20. Ethoxylated adjuvants of glyphosate-based herbicides are active principles of human cell toxicity.

    PubMed

    Mesnage, R; Bernay, B; Séralini, G-E

    2013-11-16

    Pesticides are always used in formulations as mixtures of an active principle with adjuvants. Glyphosate, the active ingredient of the major pesticide in the world, is an herbicide supposed to be specific on plant metabolism. Its adjuvants are generally considered as inert diluents. Since side effects for all these compounds have been claimed, we studied potential active principles for toxicity on human cells for 9 glyphosate-based formulations. For this we detailed their compositions and toxicities, and as controls we used a major adjuvant (the polyethoxylated tallowamine POE-15), glyphosate alone, and a total formulation without glyphosate. This was performed after 24h exposures on hepatic (HepG2), embryonic (HEK293) and placental (JEG3) cell lines. We measured mitochondrial activities, membrane degradations, and caspases 3/7 activities. The compositions in adjuvants were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Here we demonstrate that all formulations are more toxic than glyphosate, and we separated experimentally three groups of formulations differentially toxic according to their concentrations in ethoxylated adjuvants. Among them, POE-15 clearly appears to be the most toxic principle against human cells, even if others are not excluded. It begins to be active with negative dose-dependent effects on cellular respiration and membrane integrity between 1 and 3ppm, at environmental/occupational doses. We demonstrate in addition that POE-15 induces necrosis when its first micellization process occurs, by contrast to glyphosate which is known to promote endocrine disrupting effects after entering cells. Altogether, these results challenge the establishment of guidance values such as the acceptable daily intake of glyphosate, when these are mostly based on a long term in vivo test of glyphosate alone. Since pesticides are always used with adjuvants that could change their toxicity, the necessity to assess their whole formulations as mixtures becomes obvious. This challenges

  1. Isolation and characterization of a glyphosate-degrading rhizosphere strain, Enterobacter cloacae K7.

    PubMed

    Kryuchkova, Yelena V; Burygin, Gennady L; Gogoleva, Natalia E; Gogolev, Yuri V; Chernyshova, Marina P; Makarov, Oleg E; Fedorov, Evgenii E; Turkovskaya, Olga V

    2014-01-20

    Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria exert beneficial effects on plants through their capacity for nitrogen fixation, phytohormone production, phosphate solubilization, and improvement of the water and mineral status of plants. We suggested that these bacteria may also have the potential to express degradative activity toward glyphosate, a commonly used organophosphorus herbicide. In this study, 10 strains resistant to a 10 mM concentration of glyphosate were isolated from the rhizoplane of various plants. Five of these strains--Alcaligenes sp. K1, Comamonas sp. K4, Azomonas sp. K5, Pseudomonas sp. K3, and Enterobacter cloacae K7--possessed a number of associative traits, including fixation of atmospheric nitrogen, solubilization of phosphates, and synthesis of the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid. One strain, E. cloacae K7, could utilize glyphosate as a source of P. Gas-liquid chromatography showed that E. cloacae growth correlated with a decline in herbicide content in the culture medium (40% of the initial 5mM content), with no glyphosate accumulating inside the cells. Thin-layer chromatography analysis of the intermediate metabolites of glyphosate degradation found that E. cloacae K7 had a C-P lyase activity and degraded glyphosate to give sarcosine, which was then oxidized to glycine. In addition, strain K7 colonized the roots of common sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and sugar sorghum (Sorghum saccharatum Pers.), promoting the growth and development of sunflower seedlings. Our findings extend current knowledge of glyphosate-degrading rhizosphere bacteria and may be useful for developing a biotechnology for the cleanup and restoration of glyphosate-polluted soils.

  2. Dormancy regulation by morphactin in aerial tubers of Begonia evansiana.

    PubMed

    Okagami, N; Esashi, Y

    1972-09-01

    The sprouting of aerial tubers of Begonia evansiana was promoted by treatment with morphactin. As with cytokinins, the promotion of sprouting occurred in both the immature and mature tubers. Unlike cytokinins, however, morphactin did not stimulate tuber enlargement. The sprout-inhibiting action of applied gibberellin (GA) was overcome by morphactin. The possible mechanism of the inhibitory action of GA is diseussed in relation to apical dominance.

  3. Spatial Feature Evaluation for Aerial Scene Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Swearingen, Thomas S; Cheriyadat, Anil M

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution aerial images are becoming more readily available, which drives the demand for robust, intelligent and efficient systems to process increasingly large amounts of image data. However, automated image interpretation still remains a challenging problem. Robust techniques to extract and represent features to uniquely characterize various aerial scene categories is key for automated image analysis. In this paper we examined the role of spatial features to uniquely characterize various aerial scene categories. We studied low-level features such as colors, edge orientations, and textures, and examined their local spatial arrangements. We computed correlograms representing the spatial correlation of features at various distances, then measured the distance between correlograms to identify similar scenes. We evaluated the proposed technique on several aerial image databases containing challenging aerial scene categories. We report detailed evaluation of various low-level features by quantitatively measuring accuracy and parameter sensitivity. To demonstrate the feature performance, we present a simple query-based aerial scene retrieval system.

  4. Amine-functionalized, multi-arm star polymers: A novel platform for removing glyphosate from aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Lianna; Wang, Ran; Dubois, Geraud; Allen, Robert; Wojtecki, Rudy; La, Young-Hye

    2017-02-01

    We describe a novel method for efficiently removing glyphosate from aqueous media via adsorption onto highly functionalized star-shaped polymeric particles. These particles have a polystyrene core with more than 35 attached methacrylate polymer arms, each containing a plurality of pendant amines (poly(dimethylamino ethyl methacrylate): PDMAEMA) that are partially protonated in water. Kinetic studies demonstrate that these star-polymers successfully remove up to 93% of glyphosate present in aqueous solution (feed concentration: 5 ppm), within 10 min contact time, outperforming activated carbon, which removed 33% after 20 min. On these star-polymers, glyphosate adsorption closely follows the Langmuir model indicating monolayer coverage at most. Ionic interaction between the protonated amines and glyphosate's dissociated carboxylic and phosphoric acid groups lead to effective glyphosate capture even at feed concentrations below 1 ppm. Surface charge of these star polymers and dissociation of glyphosate are both influenced by pH, thus glyphosate removal efficiency increases from 63% to 93% when pH increases from 4.2 to 7.7. NMR studies conducted with butylamine as a proxy for these polymeric particles confirm that the amine group binds with both glyphosate's carboxylic and phosphoric acid groups when its concentrations are in a 2:1 or higher molar ratio with glyphosate.

  5. Expression of the hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene confers tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate.

    PubMed

    Peñaloza-Vázquez, A; Oropeza, A; Mena, G L; Bailey, A M

    1995-05-01

    Escherichia coli cells and tobacco (cv. Xanthi) plants transformed with the hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene were able to grow in culture medium containing glyphosate at 2.0 mM. The growth of tobacco calli in media containing increasing glyphosate concentrations was measured. The ID50 for glyphosate was 1.70±0.03 mM for hygromycin-B resistant plants, and 0.45±0.02 mM for control plants. Regenerated plants and progeny selected for resistance to hygromycin B were tested for glyphosate tolerance by spraying them with Faena herbicide (formulated glyphosate with surfactant) at a dose equal to 0.24 kg/ha. This was two times the dose required to kill 100 percent of the control plants. Phosphotransferase activity was measured in the extracts of the transformed leaves by the incorporation of (32)P from [γ(-32)P]ATP and it was observed that hygromycin B phosphotransferase was able to recognize the molecule of glyphosate as substrate.

  6. Pathological and toxicological findings in glyphosate-surfactant herbicide fatality: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sribanditmongkol, Pongruk; Jutavijittum, Prapan; Pongraveevongsa, Pattaravadee; Wunnapuk, Klintean; Durongkadech, Piya

    2012-09-01

    Glyphosate herbicide is promoted by the manufacturer as having no risks to human health, with acute toxicity being very low in normal use. In Thailand, however, poisoning from glyphosate agricultural herbicides has been increasing. A case of rapid lethal intoxication from glyphosate-surfactant herbicide involved a 37-year-old woman, who deliberately ingested approximately 500 mL of concentrated Roundup formulation (41% glyphosate as the isopropylamine salt and 15% polyoxyethylene amine; Mosanto Company). The postmortem examination revealed that the stomach contained 550 mL of yellow fluid. The gastric mucosa of anterior fundus revealed hemorrhage and the small intestines had marked dilatation and thin walls. We used the high-performance liquid chromatography method for determination of serum and gastric content levels of glyphosate. The glyphosate levels of serum and gastric content were 3.05 and 59.72 mg/mL, respectively. Toxic effects of polyoxyethylene amine and Roundup were caused by their ability to erode tissues including mucous membranes and linings of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. A mild degree of pulmonary congestion and edema was observed in both lungs. We proposed that the characteristic picture of microvesicular steatosis of the hepatocytes, seen predominantly in centrilobular zones of the liver, resembled drug-induced hepatic toxicity or secondary hypoxic stress.

  7. Clastogenic Effects of Glyphosate in Bone Marrow Cells of Swiss Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Sahdeo; Srivastava, Smita; Singh, Madhulika; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2009-01-01

    Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine, C3H8NO5P), a herbicide, used to control unwanted annual and perennial plants all over the world. Nevertheless, occupational and environmental exposure to pesticides can pose a threat to nontarget species including human beings. Therefore, in the present study, genotoxic effects of the herbicide glyphosate were analyzed by measuring chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and micronuclei (MN) in bone marrow cells of Swiss albino mice. A single dose of glyphosate was given intraperitoneally (i.p) to the animals at a concentration of 25 and 50 mg/kg b.wt. Animals of positive control group were injected i.p. benzo(a)pyrene (100 mg/kg b.wt., once only), whereas, animals of control (vehicle) group were injected i.p. dimethyl sulfoxide (0.2 mL). Animals from all the groups were sacrificed at sampling times of 24, 48, and 72 hours and their bone marrow was analyzed for cytogenetic and chromosomal damage. Glyphosate treatment significantly increases CAs and MN induction at both treatments and time compared with the vehicle control (P < .05). The cytotoxic effects of glyphosate were also evident, as observed by significant decrease in mitotic index (MI). The present results indicate that glyphosate is clastogenic and cytotoxic to mouse bone marrow. PMID:20107585

  8. Stable isotope resolved metabolomics revealed the role of anabolic and catabolic processes in glyphosate-induced amino acid accumulation in Amaranthus palmeri biotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using stable isotope resolved metabolomics (SIRM), we characterized the role of anabolic (de novo synthesis) vs catabolic (protein catalysis) processes contributing to free amino acid pools in glyphosate susceptible (S) and resistant (R) Amaranthus palmeri biotypes. Following exposure to glyphosate ...

  9. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Master Plan, 1993.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    PHOTOGRAPH THIS SHEET AND RETURN To DTIC-FDAC DTIC 70A DOCUMENT PROCESSMING I~ SlEW -, mmllamm LOAN DOCUMENT DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES (UAV...11 B. Program Executive Officer for Cruise Missiles 3 and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (PEO[CU...69 I ! I I ivI -- UAV 1993 MASTER PLAN U I EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 3 A. OVERVIEW Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)* can make significant

  10. Observing snow cover using unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spallek, Waldemar; Witek, Matylda; Niedzielski, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    Snow cover is a key environmental variable that influences high flow events driven by snow-melt episodes. Estimates of snow extent (SE), snow depth (SD) and snow water equivalent (SWE) allow to approximate runoff caused by snow-melt episodes. These variables are purely spatial characteristics, and hence their pointwise measurements using terrestrial monitoring systems do not offer the comprehensive and fully-spatial information on water storage in snow. Existing satellite observations of snow reveal moderate spatial resolution which, not uncommonly, is not fine enough to estimate the above-mentioned snow-related variables for small catchments. High-resolution aerial photographs and the resulting orthophotomaps and digital surface models (DSMs), obtained using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), may offer spatial resolution of 3 cm/px. The UAV-based observation of snow cover may be done using the near-infrared (NIR) cameras and visible-light cameras. Since the beginning of 2015, in frame of the research project no. LIDER/012/223/L-5/13/NCBR/2014 financed by the National Centre for Research and Development of Poland, we have performed a series of the UAV flights targeted at four sites in the Kwisa catchment in the Izerskie Mts. (part of the Sudetes, SW Poland). Observations are carried out with the ultralight UAV swinglet CAM (produced by senseFly, lightweight 0.5 kg, wingspan 80 cm) which enables on-demand sampling at low costs. The aim of the field work is to acquire aerial photographs taken using the visible-light and NIR cameras for a purpose of producing time series of DSMs and orthophotomaps with snow cover for all sites. The DSMs are used to calculate SD as difference between observational (with snow) and reference (without snow) models. In order to verify such an approach to compute SD we apply several procedures, one of which is the estimation of SE using the corresponding orthophotomaps generated on a basis of visual-light and NIR images. The objective of this

  11. Sources and Input Pathways of Glyphosate and its Degradation Product AMPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischofberger, S.; Hanke, I.; Wittmer, I.; Singer, H.; Stamm, C.

    2009-04-01

    Despite being the pesticide used in the largest quantities worldwide, the environmental relevance of glyphosate has been considered low for many years. Reasons for this assessment were the observations that glyphosate degrades quickly into its degradation product AMPA and that it sorbs strongly to soil particles. Hence, little losses to water bodies had been expected. Research during the last few years however contradicts this expectation. Although glyphosate is a dominant pesticide used in agriculture, recent studies on other pesticides revealed that urban sources may play a significant role for water quality. Therefore this study compares glyphosate input into streams from agricultural and urban sources. For that purpose, a catchment of an area of 25 km2 was selected. It has by about 12'000 inhabitants and about 15 % of the area is used as arable land. Four sampling sites were selected in the river system in order to reflect different urban and agricultural sources. Additionally, we sampled a combined sewer overflow, a rain sewer and the outflow of a waste water treatment plant. At each site discharge was measured continuously from March to November 2007. During 16 rain events samples were taken by automatic devices at a high temporal resolution. To analyze the concentration of glyphosate and its degradation product AMPA, the samples were derivatized with FMOC-Cl at low pH conditions and then filtrated. The solid phase extraction was conducted with Strata-X sorbent cartridge. Glyphosate and AMPA were detected with API 4000 after the chromatography with X bridge column C18. To assure the data quality, interne standards of Glyphosate and AMPA were added to every sample. The limit of detection and quantification for glyphosate and AMPA are bellow 1ng/l. We analyzed two rain events at a high resolution for all stations and several events at the outlet of the catchment. We measured high glyphosate concentration in urban and agriculture dominated catchments with up to

  12. Metabolism of glyphosate in Sprague-Dawley rats: tissue distribution, identification, and quantitation of glyphosate-derived materials following a single oral dose.

    PubMed

    Brewster, D W; Warren, J; Hopkins, W E

    1991-07-01

    Five groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered a mixture of [14C]- and [12C]-glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) at a dose level of 10 mg/kg body weight. The majority of radioactivity 2 hr after administration was associated with the gastrointestinal contents and small intestinal tissue. Approximately 35-40% of the administered dose was absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, and urine and feces were equally important routes of elimination. The total body burden 7 days after administration was approximately 1% of the administered dose and was primarily associated with the bone. Total recovery for this study ranged from 95 to 102% of the administered dose. Metabolic profiles of tissues containing greater than 1% of the administered dose at various times after administration indicated that nearly 100% of the body burden of radioactivity was present as unmetabolized parent glyphosate. A minor component constituting less than 0.1% of the administered dose (less than 0.4 ppm) was observed in colon tissue from animals 2 hr after the administration of glyphosate and was also present in the GI contents of one animal 28 hr after administration of the radiolabel. The retention time for this metabolite was similar, but not identical, to the retention time for AMPA (aminomethylphosphonic acid), the major bacterial metabolite of glyphosate found in soil. Tissue extraction efficiency was always greater than 90% and stability assays indicated no significant effect of storage on either parent glyphosate or AMPA. The results from this study indicate that virtually no toxic metabolites of glyphosate were produced since there was little evidence of metabolism and essentially 100% of the body burden was parent compound with no significant persistence of material.

  13. No observable effect of a glyphosate-based herbicide on two top predators of temporal water bodies.

    PubMed

    Ujszegi, János; Gál, Zoltán; Mikó, Zsanett; Hettyey, Attila

    2015-02-01

    It has been implied that the application of pesticides is involved in the world-wide decline of biodiversity, but little is known about the influence of these chemicals on key predators of temporary wetlands. The direct impacts were examined of a frequently applied glyphosate-based herbicide on larval Aeshna cyanea (Müller, 1764; Odonata, Insecta) and adult male Lissotriton vulgaris (Linnaeus, 1758; Caudata, Amphibia), 2 top predators of Central European ephemeral ponds. The effects of herbicide exposure were measured on survival, behavior, body mass change, and predatory activity in an outdoor mesocosm experiment lasting for 17 d. No significant effects of exposure were observed in either predator species. The results suggest that the herbicide has no immediate effect on the predators studied at environmentally relevant concentrations and that these predators can also fulfill their top-down regulatory role in contaminated ecosystems.

  14. A Spherical Aerial Terrestrial Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, Christopher J.

    This thesis focuses on the design of a novel, ultra-lightweight spherical aerial terrestrial robot (ATR). The ATR has the ability to fly through the air or roll on the ground, for applications that include search and rescue, mapping, surveillance, environmental sensing, and entertainment. The design centers around a micro-quadcopter encased in a lightweight spherical exoskeleton that can rotate about the quadcopter. The spherical exoskeleton offers agile ground locomotion while maintaining characteristics of a basic aerial robot in flying mode. A model of the system dynamics for both modes of locomotion is presented and utilized in simulations to generate potential trajectories for aerial and terrestrial locomotion. Details of the quadcopter and exoskeleton design and fabrication are discussed, including the robot's turning characteristic over ground and the spring-steel exoskeleton with carbon fiber axle. The capabilities of the ATR are experimentally tested and are in good agreement with model-simulated performance. An energy analysis is presented to validate the overall efficiency of the robot in both modes of locomotion. Experimentally-supported estimates show that the ATR can roll along the ground for over 12 minutes and cover the distance of 1.7 km, or it can fly for 4.82 minutes and travel 469 m, on a single 350 mAh battery. Compared to a traditional flying-only robot, the ATR traveling over the same distance in rolling mode is 2.63-times more efficient, and in flying mode the system is only 39 percent less efficient. Experimental results also demonstrate the ATR's transition from rolling to flying mode.

  15. Unmanned aerial vehicles in astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biondi, Federico; Magrin, Demetrio; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Farinato, Jacopo; Greggio, Davide; Dima, Marco; Gullieuszik, Marco; Bergomi, Maria; Carolo, Elena; Marafatto, Luca; Portaluri, Elisa

    2016-07-01

    In this work we discuss some options for using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for daylight alignment activities and maintenance of optical telescopes, relating them to a small numbers of parameters, and tracing which could be the schemes, requirements and benefits for employing them both at the stage of erection and maintenance. UAVs can easily reach the auto-collimation points of optical components of the next class of Extremely Large Telescopes. They can be equipped with tools for the measurement of the co-phasing, scattering, and reflectivity of segmented mirrors or environmental parameters like C2n and C2T to characterize the seeing during both the day and the night.

  16. The fate of glyphosate in water hyacinth and its physiological and biochemical influences on growth of algae

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Baolong.

    1989-01-01

    Absorption, translocation, distribution, exudation, and guttation of {sup 14}C-glyphosate in water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) were studied. Glyphosphate entered the plant by foliage and solution treatment. Plants were harvested and separated into the following parts: treated leaf blade, treated leaf petiole, young leaf blade, young leaf petiole, old leak blade, old leaf petiole, and root. Each part was extracted with methanol. Treated leaves, which exist only in foliage treatment, were washed with water and chloroform to remove the glyphosate residues. All {sup 14}C counting was made by liquid scintillation spectrometry. Autoradiography was used to locate {sup 14}C-glyphosate after foliage treatment. Results indicated that glyphosate can be absorbed from the leaf surface and translocated rapidly through phloem tissues into the whole plant body. The roots of water hyacinth absorbed glyphosate without vertical transport. Guttation of glyphosate occurred in treated leaf tips. Exudation of glyphosate from roots of water hyacinth occurred within 8 hr after foliage treatment. Chlorella vulgaris, Chlamydomonas reihardii, Anabaena cylindrica, and Chroococcus turgidus were used to explore the physiological and biochemical effects of glyphosate on algae. Spectrophotometric assays were performed for algal growth, chlorophyll, carotenoids, phycobiliprotein, carbohydrate, and protein. TLC procedures and an image analyzer were used to detect the metabolites of glyphosate inside algal cells. The common visible symptom of glyphosate toxicity in all algal cells were bleaching effect and reduction of contents of carbohydrate, protein, and pigments. The results highly suggested that glyphosate injured the algal cells by destruction of photosynthetic pigments and resulted in lowering the contents of carbohydrate and protein in algal cells.

  17. Studies on adsorption of formaldehyde in zirconium phosphate-glyphosates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuejuan; Yi, Jianjun; Xu, Qinghong

    2011-01-01

    In our previous work [22], a kind of layered compound of zirconium phosphate-glyphosate (ZrGP) was synthesized. Its large surface area (445 m 2/g) indicates this compound has possible application in adsorptions. In this paper, adsorption to formaldehyde in ZrGP and mechanisms of the adsorption were studied carefully. Balance time of adsorption (about 6 h) and largest adsorbed amount (7.8%) were found when adsorption temperature was at 40 °C and pH value of adsorption environment was about 3.0. H-bonds were found existing between molecules of formaldehyde and ZrGP, and formaldehyde molecules could exist in ZrGP stably.

  18. Synthesis of the unmanned aerial vehicle remote control augmentation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczyk, Andrzej

    2014-12-01

    Medium size Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) usually flies as an autonomous aircraft including automatic take-off and landing phases. However in the case of the on-board control system failure, the remote steering is using as an emergency procedure. In this reason, remote manual control of unmanned aerial vehicle is used more often during take-of and landing phases. Depends on UAV take-off mass and speed (total energy) the potential crash can be very danger for airplane and environment. So, handling qualities of UAV is important from pilot-operator point of view. In many cases the dynamic properties of remote controlling UAV are not suitable for obtaining the desired properties of the handling qualities. In this case the control augmentation system (CAS) should be applied. Because the potential failure of the on-board control system, the better solution is that the CAS algorithms are placed on the ground station computers. The method of UAV handling qualities shaping in the case of basic control system failure is presented in this paper. The main idea of this method is that UAV reaction on the operator steering signals should be similar - almost the same - as reaction of the "ideal" remote control aircraft. The model following method was used for controller parameters calculations. The numerical example concerns the medium size MP-02A UAV applied as an aerial observer system.

  19. Synthesis of the unmanned aerial vehicle remote control augmentation system

    SciTech Connect

    Tomczyk, Andrzej

    2014-12-10

    Medium size Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) usually flies as an autonomous aircraft including automatic take-off and landing phases. However in the case of the on-board control system failure, the remote steering is using as an emergency procedure. In this reason, remote manual control of unmanned aerial vehicle is used more often during take-of and landing phases. Depends on UAV take-off mass and speed (total energy) the potential crash can be very danger for airplane and environment. So, handling qualities of UAV is important from pilot-operator point of view. In many cases the dynamic properties of remote controlling UAV are not suitable for obtaining the desired properties of the handling qualities. In this case the control augmentation system (CAS) should be applied. Because the potential failure of the on-board control system, the better solution is that the CAS algorithms are placed on the ground station computers. The method of UAV handling qualities shaping in the case of basic control system failure is presented in this paper. The main idea of this method is that UAV reaction on the operator steering signals should be similar - almost the same - as reaction of the 'ideal' remote control aircraft. The model following method was used for controller parameters calculations. The numerical example concerns the medium size MP-02A UAV applied as an aerial observer system.

  20. Feature extraction with LIDAR data and aerial images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Jianhua; Liu, Yanjing; Cheng, Penggen; Li, Xianhua; Zeng, Qihong; Xia, Jing

    2006-10-01

    Raw LIDAR data is a irregular spacing 3D point cloud including reflections from bare ground, buildings, vegetation and vehicles etc., and the first task of the data analyses of point cloud is feature extraction. However, the interpretability of LIDAR point cloud is often limited due to the fact that no object information is provided, and the complex earth topography and object morphology make it impossible for a single operator to classify all the point cloud precisely 100%. In this paper, a hierarchy method for feature extraction with LIDAR data and aerial images is discussed. The aerial images provide us information of objects figuration and spatial distribution, and hierarchic classification of features makes it easy to apply automatic filters progressively. And the experiment results show that, using this method, it was possible to detect more object information and get a better result of feature extraction than using automatic filters alone.

  1. Glyphosate Adversely Affects Danio rerio Males: Acetylcholinesterase Modulation and Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Fernanda Moreira; Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Primel, Ednei Gilberto; da Rosa, Carlos Eduardo

    2017-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that glyphosate-based herbicides are toxic to animals. In the present study, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP), and lipid peroxidation (LPO), as well as the activity and expression of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme, were evaluated in Danio rerio males exposed to 5 or 10 mg/L of glyphosate for 24 and 96 h. An increase in ACAP in gills after 24 h was observed in the animals exposed to 5 mg/L of glyphosate. A decrease in LPO was observed in brain tissue of animals exposed to 10 mg/L after 24 h, while an increase was observed in muscle after 96 h. No significant alterations were observed in ROS generation. AChE activity was not altered in muscles or brains of animals exposed to either glyphosate concentration for 24 or 96 h. However, gene expression of this enzyme in the brain was reduced after 24 h and was enhanced in both brain and muscle tissues after 96 h. Thus, contrary to previous findings that had attributed the imbalance in the oxidative state of animals exposed to glyphosate-based herbicides to surfactants and other inert compounds, the present study demonstrated that glyphosate per se promotes this same effect in zebrafish males. Although glyphosate concentrations did not alter AChE activity, this study demonstrated for the first time that this molecule affects ache expression in male zebrafish D. rerio.

  2. Linker-assisted immunoassay and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for the analysis of glyphosate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, E.A.; Zimmerman, L.R.; Bhullar, B.S.; Thurman, E.M.

    2002-01-01

    A novel, sensitive, linker-assisted enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (L'ELISA) was compared to on-line solidphase extraction (SPE) with high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) for the analysis of glyphosate in surface water and groundwater samples. The L'ELISA used succinic anhydride to derivatize glyphosate, which mimics the epitotic attachment of glyphosate to horseradish peroxidase hapten. Thus, L'ELISA recognized the derivatized glyphosate more effectively (detection limit of 0.1 μg/L) and with increased sensitivity (10-100 times) over conventional ELISA and showed the potential for other applications. The precision and accuracy of L'ELISA then was compared with on-line SPE/HPLC/MS, which detected glyphosate and its degradate derivatized with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate using negative-ion electrospray (detection limit 0.1 μg/L, relative standard deviation ±15%). Derivatization efficiency and matrix effects were minimized by adding an isotope-labeled glyphosate (2-13C15N). The accuracy of L'ELISA gave a false positive rate of 18% between 0.1 and 1.0 μg/L and a false positive rate of only 1% above 1.0 μg/L. The relative standard deviation was ±20%. The correlation of L'ELISA and HPLC/MS for 66 surface water and groundwater samples was 0.97 with a slope of 1.28, with many detections of glyphosate and its degradate in surface water but not in groundwater.

  3. Glyphosate Detection by Means of a Voltammetric Electronic Tongue and Discrimination of Potential Interferents

    PubMed Central

    Bataller, Román; Campos, Inmaculada; Laguarda-Miro, Nicolas; Alcañiz, Miguel; Soto, Juan; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; Gil, Luís; García-Breijo, Eduardo; Ibáñez-Civera, Javier

    2012-01-01

    A new electronic tongue to monitor the presence of glyphosate (a non-selective systemic herbicide) has been developed. It is based on pulse voltammetry and consists in an array of three working electrodes (Pt, Co and Cu) encapsulated on a methacrylate cylinder. The electrochemical response of the sensing array was characteristic of the presence of glyphosate in buffered water (phosphate buffer 0.1 mol·dm−3, pH 6.7). Rotating disc electrode (RDE) studies were carried out with Pt, Co and Cu electrodes in water at room temperature and at pH 6.7 using 0.1 mol·dm−3 of phosphate as a buffer. In the presence of glyphosate, the corrosion current of the Cu and Co electrodes increased significantly, probably due to the formation of Cu2+ or Co2+ complexes. The pulse array waveform for the voltammetric tongue was designed by taking into account some of the redox processes observed in the electrochemical studies. The PCA statistical analysis required four dimensions to explain 95% of variance. Moreover, a two-dimensional representation of the two principal components differentiated the water mixtures containing glyphosate. Furthermore, the PLS statistical analyses allowed the creation of a model to correlate the electrochemical response of the electrodes with glyphosate concentrations, even in the presence of potential interferents such as humic acids and Ca2+. The system offers a PLS prediction model for glyphosate detection with values of 098, −2.3 × 10−5 and 0.94 for the slope, the intercept and the regression coefficient, respectively, which is in agreement with the good fit between the predicted and measured concentrations. The results suggest the feasibility of this system to help develop electronic tongues for glyphosate detection. PMID:23250277

  4. Glyphosate-based herbicides produce teratogenic effects on vertebrates by impairing retinoic acid signaling.

    PubMed

    Paganelli, Alejandra; Gnazzo, Victoria; Acosta, Helena; López, Silvia L; Carrasco, Andrés E

    2010-10-18

    The broad spectrum herbicide glyphosate is widely used in agriculture worldwide. There has been ongoing controversy regarding the possible adverse effects of glyphosate on the environment and on human health. Reports of neural defects and craniofacial malformations from regions where glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH) are used led us to undertake an embryological approach to explore the effects of low doses of glyphosate in development. Xenopus laevis embryos were incubated with 1/5000 dilutions of a commercial GBH. The treated embryos were highly abnormal with marked alterations in cephalic and neural crest development and shortening of the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis. Alterations on neural crest markers were later correlated with deformities in the cranial cartilages at tadpole stages. Embryos injected with pure glyphosate showed very similar phenotypes. Moreover, GBH produced similar effects in chicken embryos, showing a gradual loss of rhombomere domains, reduction of the optic vesicles, and microcephaly. This suggests that glyphosate itself was responsible for the phenotypes observed, rather than a surfactant or other component of the commercial formulation. A reporter gene assay revealed that GBH treatment increased endogenous retinoic acid (RA) activity in Xenopus embryos and cotreatment with a RA antagonist rescued the teratogenic effects of the GBH. Therefore, we conclude that the phenotypes produced by GBH are mainly a consequence of the increase of endogenous retinoid activity. This is consistent with the decrease of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling from the embryonic dorsal midline, with the inhibition of otx2 expression and with the disruption of cephalic neural crest development. The direct effect of glyphosate on early mechanisms of morphogenesis in vertebrate embryos opens concerns about the clinical findings from human offspring in populations exposed to GBH in agricultural fields.

  5. Approximate Dynamic Programming and Aerial Refueling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    were values derived from “AFPAM 10-1403, AIR MOBILITY PLANNING FACTORS” used by the US Air Force when making gross calculations of aerial refueling...Aerial Refueling. U.S. Centennial of Flight Commision. centennialofflight.gov/essay/EvolutionofT echnology /refueling?Tech22.htm. 20003. 5 [6] DOD Needs

  6. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire. (a) This account shall include the original cost of bare line wire and other material used in...

  7. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire. (a) This account shall include the original cost of bare line wire and other material used in...

  8. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire. (a) This account shall include the original cost of bare line wire and other material used in...

  9. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire. (a) This account shall include the original cost of bare line wire and other material used in...

  10. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire. (a) This account shall include the original cost of bare line wire and other material used in...

  11. BOREAS Level-0 ER-2 Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominquez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), the ER-2 and other aerial photography was collected to provide finely detailed and spatially extensive documentation of the condition of the primary study sites. The ER-2 aerial photography consists of color-IR transparencies collected during flights in 1994 and 1996 over the study areas.

  12. Astronomical Methods in Aerial Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beij, K Hilding

    1925-01-01

    The astronomical method of determining position is universally used in marine navigation and may also be of service in aerial navigation. The practical application of the method, however, must be modified and adapted to conform to the requirements of aviation. Much of this work of adaptation has already been accomplished, but being scattered through various technical journals in a number of languages, is not readily available. This report is for the purpose of collecting under one cover such previous work as appears to be of value to the aerial navigator, comparing instruments and methods, indicating the best practice, and suggesting future developments. The various methods of determining position and their application and value are outlined, and a brief resume of the theory of the astronomical method is given. Observation instruments are described in detail. A complete discussion of the reduction of observations follows, including a rapid method of finding position from the altitudes of two stars. Maps and map cases are briefly considered. A bibliography of the subject is appended.

  13. A line transect model for aerial surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quang, Pham Xuan; Lanctot, Richard B.

    1991-01-01

    We employ a line transect method to estimate the density of the common and Pacific loon in the Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge from aerial survey data. Line transect methods have the advantage of automatically taking into account “visibility bias” due to detectability difference of animals at different distances from the transect line. However, line transect methods must overcome two difficulties when applied to inaccurate recording of sighting distances due to high travel speeds, so that in fact only a few reliable distance class counts are available. We propose a unimodal detection function that provides an estimate of the effective area lost due to the blind strip, under the assumption that a line of perfect detection exists parallel to the transect line. The unimodal detection function can also be applied when a blind strip is absent, and in certain instances when the maximum probability of detection is less than 100%. A simple bootstrap procedure to estimate standard error is illustrated. Finally, we present results from a small set of Monte Carlo experiments.

  14. A practical interpretation and use of the USDA aerial fixed-wing nozzle models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper selection and operation of spray nozzles associated with aerial applications is critical to insuring efficacy while mitigating off-target movement. Labels for most agrochemical products applied in the U.S. specifically define the droplet size or spray classification that can be used to apply...

  15. Concerted action of target-site mutations and high EPSPS activity in glyphosate-resistant junglerice (Echinochloa colona) from California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glyphosate is the most widely used non-selective herbicide and Echinochloa colona is an annual weed affecting field crops and orchards in California. A population carrying a glyphosate-resistance-endowing mutation in the EPSPS gene was found in the Northern Sacramento Valley. We used selfed lines ...

  16. Detection of the onset of glyphosate-induced soybean plant injury through chlorophyll fluorescence signal extraction and measurement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, Chlorophyll Fluorescence (ChlF) was used to detect the onset of soybean plant injury from glyphosate, the most widely used herbicide. Thirty-six pots of non-glyphosate-resistant soybean (cultivar FM955LL) were randomly divided into three groups and treated with different doses of glyp...

  17. Glyphosate-resistant goosegrass. Identification of a mutation in the target enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase.

    PubMed

    Baerson, Scott R; Rodriguez, Damian J; Tran, Minhtien; Feng, Yongmei; Biest, Nancy A; Dill, Gerald M

    2002-07-01

    The spontaneous occurrence of resistance to the herbicide glyphosate in weed species has been an extremely infrequent event, despite over 20 years of extensive use. Recently, a glyphosate-resistant biotype of goosegrass (Eleusine indica) was identified in Malaysia exhibiting an LD(50) value approximately 2- to 4-fold greater than the sensitive biotype collected from the same region. A comparison of the inhibition of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity by glyphosate in extracts prepared from the resistant (R) and sensitive (S) biotypes revealed an approximately 5-fold higher IC(50)(glyphosate) for the (R) biotype. Sequence comparisons of the predicted EPSPS mature protein coding regions from both biotypes revealed four single-nucleotide differences, two of which result in amino acid changes. One of these changes, a proline to serine substitution at position 106 in the (R) biotype, corresponds to a substitution previously identified in a glyphosate-insensitive EPSPS enzyme from Salmonella typhimurium. Kinetic data generated for the recombinant enzymes suggests that the second substitution identified in the (R) EPSPS does not contribute significantly to its reduced glyphosate sensitivity. Escherichia coli aroA- (EPSPS deficient) strains expressing the mature EPSPS enzyme from the (R) biotype exhibited an approximately 3-fold increase in glyphosate tolerance relative to strains expressing the mature EPSPS from the (S) biotype. These results provide the first evidence for an altered EPSPS enzyme as an underlying component of evolved glyphosate resistance in any plant species.

  18. Glyphosate and dicamba herbicide tank mixture effects on native plant and non-genetically engineered soybean seedlings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Weed species are becoming resistant to intensive and extensive use of specific herbicides associated with the production of herbicide resistant crops, e.g., the use of glyphosate for weed management with glyphosate resistant soybeans. To counter this resistance, crops engineered ...

  19. Effects of glyphosate on Macrophomina phaseolina in vitro and its effects on disease severity of soybean in the field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory and field studies were conducted to assess the effects of glyphosate on Macrophomina phaseolina culture growth in vitro and the disease severity of charcoal rot in soybean at Stoneville, MS and Jackson, TN. Glyphosate inhibited M. phaseolina growth in a linear dose dependent manner when ...

  20. Glyphosate-Resistant Goosegrass. Identification of a Mutation in the Target Enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate Synthase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spontaneous occurrence of resistance to the herbicide glyphosate in weed species has been an extremely infrequent event, despite over 20 years of extensive use. Recently, a glyphosate-resistant biotype of goosegrass (Eleusine indica) was identified in Malaysia exhibiting an LD50 value approxima...

  1. Inhibition mechanisms of Zn precipitation on aluminum oxide by glyphosate: a 31P NMR and Zn EXAFS study.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Wang, Yu-Jun; Zhu, Mengqiang; Fan, Ting-Ting; Zhou, Dong-Mei; Phillips, Brian L; Sparks, Donald L

    2013-05-07

    In this research, the effects of glyphosate (GPS) on Zn sorption/precipitation on γ-alumina were investigated using a batch technique, Zn K-edge EXAFS, and (31)P NMR spectroscopy. The EXAFS analysis revealed that, in the absence of glyphosate, Zn adsorbed on the aluminum oxide surface mainly as bidentate mononuclear surface complexes at pH 5.5, whereas Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) precipitates formed at pH 8.0. In the presence of glyphosate, the EXAFS spectra of Zn sorption samples at pH 5.5 and 8.0 were very similar, both of which demonstrated that Zn did not directly bind to the mineral surface but bonded with the carboxyl group of glyphosate. Formation of γ-alumina-GPS-Zn ternary surface complexes was further suggested by (31)P solid state NMR data which indicated the glyphosate binds to γ-alumina via a phosphonate group, bridging the mineral surface and Zn. Additionally, we showed the sequence of additional glyphosate and Zn can influence the sorption mechanism. At pH 8, Zn-Al LDH precipitates formed if Zn was added first, and no precipitates formed if glyphosate was added first or simultaneously with Zn. In contrast, at pH 5.5, only γ-alumina-GPS-Zn ternary surface complexes formed regardless of whether glyphosate or Zn was added first or both were added simultaneously.

  2. Effects of glyphosate at environmentally relevant concentrations on the growth of and microcystin production by Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quan; Zhou, Hang; Li, Zhe; Zhu, Jianqiang; Zhou, Cong; Zhao, Meirong

    2016-11-01

    The use of glyphosate, which is a well-known sterilant herbicide, has been growing rapidly because the area under the cultivation of genetically modified crops that are tolerant to this herbicide has increased. Glyphosate can enter into aquatic systems through many different ways. However, information on the potential risks of glyphosate at environmentally relevant levels to aquatic systems is still limited. In this study, we selected the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB-905 (M. aeruginosa) as a model organism to evaluate the effects of glyphosate at environmentally relevant concentrations on the former's growth and microcystin (MC) production. Our results show that low levels of glyphosate stimulate the growth of M. aeruginosa. Subsequently, there was significant increase in the total MC-LR and intracellular MC-LR, but not in extracellular MC-LR, after exposure to 0.1-2 mg/L of glyphosate. The increase in total MC-LR is mainly due to the effects of glyphosate on the cell density of M. aeruginosa. The data provided here show that low level of glyphosate in a water body is a potential environmental risk factor that stimulates the growth and enhances MC production in M. aeruginosa, which should arouse great concern.

  3. Neuronal development and axon growth are altered by glyphosate through a WNT non-canonical signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Coullery, Romina P; Ferrari, María E; Rosso, Silvana B

    2016-01-01

    The growth and morphological differentiation of neurons are critical events in the establishment of proper neuronal connectivity and functioning. The developing nervous system is highly susceptible to damage caused by exposure to environmental contaminants. Glyphosate-containing herbicides are the most used agrochemicals in the world, particularly on genetically modified plants. Previous studies have demonstrated that glyphosate induces neurotoxicity in mammals. Therefore, its action mechanism on the nervous system needs to be determined. In this study, we report about impaired neuronal development caused by glyphosate exposure. Particularly, we observed that the initial axonal differentiation and growth of cultured neurons is affected by glyphosate since most treated cells remained undifferentiated after 1 day in culture. Although they polarized at 2 days in vitro, they elicited shorter and unbranched axons and they also developed less complex dendritic arbors compared to controls. To go further, we attempted to identify the cellular mechanism by which glyphosate affected neuronal morphology. Biochemical approaches revealed that glyphosate led to a decrease in Wnt5a level, a key factor for the initial neurite development and maturation, as well as inducing a down-regulation of CaMKII activity. This data suggests that the morphological defects would likely be a consequence of the decrease in both Wnt5a expression and CaMKII activity induced by glyphosate. Additionally, these changes might be reflected in a subsequent neuronal dysfunction. Therefore, our findings highlight the importance of establishing rigorous control on the use of glyphosate-based herbicides in order to protect mammals' health.

  4. Weed Management and Crop Response with Glyphosate, S-metolachlor, Trifloxysulfuron, Prometryn, and MSMA in Glyphosate-Resistant Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies were conducted in five states at six locations from 2002 through 2003 to evaluate weed control and cotton response to EPOST, POST, and LAYBY systems utilizing glyphosate-TM (trimethylsulfonium salt), s-metolachlor, trifloxysulfuron, prometryn, and MSMA. Early-season cotton injury and ...

  5. Interactions of calcium ions with weakly acidic active ingredients slow cuticular penetration: a case study with glyphosate.

    PubMed

    Schönherr, Jörg; Schreiber, Lukas

    2004-10-20

    Potassium and calcium salts of glyphosate were obtained by titrating glyphosate acid with the respective bases to pH 4.0, and rates of penetration of these salts across isolated astomatous cuticular membranes (CMs) were measured at 20 degrees C and 70, 80, 90, and 100% humidity. K-glyphosate exhibited first-order penetration kinetics, and rate constants (k) increased with increasing humidity. Ca-glyphosate penetrated only when the humidity above the salt residue was 100%. At 90% humidity and below, Ca-glyphosate formed a solid residue on the CMs and penetration was not measurable. With Ca-glyphosate, the k value at 100% humidity decreased with time and the initial rates were lower than for K-glyphosate by a factor of 3.68. After equimolar concentrations of ammonium oxalate were added to Ca-glyphosate, high penetration rates close to those measured with K-glyphosate were measured at all humidities. Adding ammonium sulfate or potassium carbonate also increased rates between 70 and 100% humidity, but they were not as high as with ammonium oxalate. The data indicate that at pH 4.0 one Ca2+ ion is bound to two glyphosate anions. This salt has its deliquescence point near 100% humidity. Therefore, it is a solid at lower humidity and does not penetrate. Its molecular weight is 1.82 times larger than that of K-glyphosate, and this greatly slows down rates of penetration, even at 100% humidity. The additives tested have low solubility products and form insoluble precipitates with Ca2+ ions, but only ammonium oxalate binds Ca2+ quantitatively. The resulting ammonium salt of glyphosate penetrates at 70-100% humidity and at rates comparable to K-glyphosate. The results contribute to a better understanding of the hard water antagonism observed with glyphosate. It is argued that other pesticides and hormones with carboxyl functions are likely to respond to Ca2+ ions in a similar fashion. In all of these cases, ammonium oxalate is expected to overcome hard water antagonism.

  6. Protective effect of Ginkgo biloba L. leaf extract against glyphosate toxicity in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Cavuşoğlu, Kültiğin; Yapar, Kürşad; Oruç, Ertan; Yalçın, Emine

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective role of Ginkgo biloba L. leaf extract against the active agent of Roundup® herbicide (Monsanto, Creve Coeur, MO, USA). The Swiss Albino mice were randomly divided into six groups, with each group consisting of six animals: Group I (control) received an intraperitoneal injection of dimethyl sulfoxide (0.2 mL, once only), Group II received glyphosate at a dose of 50 mg/kg of body weight, Group III received G. biloba at a dose of 50 mg/kg of body weight, Group IV received G. biloba at a dose of 150 mg/kg of body weight, Group V received G. biloba (50 mg/kg of body weight) and glyphosate (50 mg/kg of body weight), and Group VI received G. biloba (150 mg/kg of body weight) and glyphosate (50 mg/kg of body weight). The single dose of glyphosate was given intraperitoneally. Animals from all the groups were sacrificed at the end of 72 hours, and their blood, bone marrow, and liver and kidney tissues were analyzed for aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH) levels and the presence of micronucleus (MN), chromosomal aberrations (CAs), and pathological damages. The results indicated that serum AST, ALT, BUN, and creatinine levels significantly increased in mice treated with glyphosate alone compared with the other groups (P<.05). Besides, glyphosate-induced oxidative damage caused a significant decrease in GSH levels and a significant increase in MDA levels of the liver and kidney tissues. Moreover, glyphosate alone-treated mice presented higher frequencies of CAs, MNs, and abnormal metaphases compared with the controls (P<.05). These mice also displayed a lower mean mitotic index than the controls (P<.05). Treatment with G. biloba produced amelioration in indices of hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, lipid peroxidation, and genotoxicity relative to Group II. Each dose of G. biloba provided significant

  7. Aerial surveys adjusted by ground surveys to estimate area occupied by black-tailed prairie dog colonies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sidle, John G.; Augustine, David J.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Miller, Sterling D.; Cully, Jack F.; Reading, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    Aerial surveys using line-intercept methods are one approach to estimate the extent of prairie dog colonies in a large geographic area. Although black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) construct conspicuous mounds at burrow openings, aerial observers have difficulty discriminating between areas with burrows occupied by prairie dogs (colonies) versus areas of uninhabited burrows (uninhabited colony sites). Consequently, aerial line-intercept surveys may overestimate prairie dog colony extent unless adjusted by an on-the-ground inspection of a sample of intercepts. We compared aerial line-intercept surveys conducted over 2 National Grasslands in Colorado, USA, with independent ground-mapping of known black-tailed prairie dog colonies. Aerial line-intercepts adjusted by ground surveys using a single activity category adjustment overestimated colonies by ≥94% on the Comanche National Grassland and ≥58% on the Pawnee National Grassland. We present a ground-survey technique that involves 1) visiting on the ground a subset of aerial intercepts classified as occupied colonies plus a subset of intercepts classified as uninhabited colony sites, and 2) based on these ground observations, recording the proportion of each aerial intercept that intersects a colony and the proportion that intersects an uninhabited colony site. Where line-intercept techniques are applied to aerial surveys or remotely sensed imagery, this method can provide more accurate estimates of black-tailed prairie dog abundance and trends

  8. Utilization of glyphosate as phosphate source: biochemistry and genetics of bacterial carbon-phosphorus lyase.

    PubMed

    Hove-Jensen, Bjarne; Zechel, David L; Jochimsen, Bjarne

    2014-03-01

    After several decades of use of glyphosate, the active ingredient in weed killers such as Roundup, in fields, forests, and gardens, the biochemical pathway of transformation of glyphosate phosphorus to a useful phosphorus source for microorganisms has been disclosed. Glyphosate is a member of a large group of chemicals, phosphonic acids or phosphonates, which are characterized by a carbon-phosphorus bond. This is in contrast to the general phosphorus compounds utilized and metabolized by microorganisms. Here phosphorus is found as phosphoric acid or phosphate ion, phosphoric acid esters, or phosphoric acid anhydrides. The latter compounds contain phosphorus that is bound only to oxygen. Hydrolytic, oxidative, and radical-based mechanisms for carbon-phosphorus bond cleavage have been described. This review deals with the radical-based mechanism employed by the carbon-phosphorus lyase of the carbon-phosphorus lyase pathway, which involves reactions for activation of phosphonate, carbon-phosphorus bond cleavage, and further chemical transformation before a useful phosphate ion is generated in a series of seven or eight enzyme-catalyzed reactions. The phn genes, encoding the enzymes for this pathway, are widespread among bacterial species. The processes are described with emphasis on glyphosate as a substrate. Additionally, the catabolism of glyphosate is intimately connected with that of aminomethylphosphonate, which is also treated in this review. Results of physiological and genetic analyses are combined with those of bioinformatics analyses.

  9. Glyphosate degradation by immobilized bacteria: field studies with industrial wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    Hallas, L E; Adams, W J; Heitkamp, M A

    1992-04-01

    Immobilized bacteria have been shown in the laboratory to effectively remove glyphosate from wastewater effluent discharged from an activated sludge treatment system. Bacterial consortia in lab columns maintained a 99% glyphosate-degrading activity (GDA) at a hydraulic residence time of less than 20 min. In this study, a pilot plant (capacity, 45 liters/min) was used for a field demonstration. Initially, activated sludge was enriched for microbes with GDA during a 3-week biocarrier activation period. Wastewater effluent was then spiked with glyphosate and NH4Cl and recycled through the pilot plant column during start-up. Microbes with GDA were enhanced by maintaining the pH at less than 8 and adding yeast extract (less than 10 mg/liter). Once the consortia were stabilized, the column capacity for glyphosate removal was determined in a 60-day continuous-flow study. Waste containing 50 mg of glyphosate per liter was pumped at increasing flow rates until a steady state was reached. A microbial GDA of greater than 90% was achieved at a 10-min hydraulic residence time (144 hydraulic turnovers per day). Additional studies showed that microbes with GDA were recoverable within (i) 5 days of an acid shock and (ii) 3 days after a 21-day dormancy (low-flow, low-maintenance) mode. These results suggest that full-scale use of immobilized bacteria can be a cost-effective and dependable technique for the biotreatment of industrial wastewater.

  10. Utilization of Glyphosate as Phosphate Source: Biochemistry and Genetics of Bacterial Carbon-Phosphorus Lyase

    PubMed Central

    Zechel, David L.; Jochimsen, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY After several decades of use of glyphosate, the active ingredient in weed killers such as Roundup, in fields, forests, and gardens, the biochemical pathway of transformation of glyphosate phosphorus to a useful phosphorus source for microorganisms has been disclosed. Glyphosate is a member of a large group of chemicals, phosphonic acids or phosphonates, which are characterized by a carbon-phosphorus bond. This is in contrast to the general phosphorus compounds utilized and metabolized by microorganisms. Here phosphorus is found as phosphoric acid or phosphate ion, phosphoric acid esters, or phosphoric acid anhydrides. The latter compounds contain phosphorus that is bound only to oxygen. Hydrolytic, oxidative, and radical-based mechanisms for carbon-phosphorus bond cleavage have been described. This review deals with the radical-based mechanism employed by the carbon-phosphorus lyase of the carbon-phosphorus lyase pathway, which involves reactions for activation of phosphonate, carbon-phosphorus bond cleavage, and further chemical transformation before a useful phosphate ion is generated in a series of seven or eight enzyme-catalyzed reactions. The phn genes, encoding the enzymes for this pathway, are widespread among bacterial species. The processes are described with emphasis on glyphosate as a substrate. Additionally, the catabolism of glyphosate is intimately connected with that of aminomethylphosphonate, which is also treated in this review. Results of physiological and genetic analyses are combined with those of bioinformatics analyses. PMID:24600043

  11. Effects of subchronic exposure to glyphosate in juvenile oysters (Crassostrea gigas): From molecular to individual levels.

    PubMed

    Mottier, Antoine; Séguin, Alexis; Devos, Alexandre; Pabic, Charles Le; Voiseux, Claire; Lebel, Jean Marc; Serpentini, Antoine; Fievet, Bruno; Costil, Katherine

    2015-06-30

    Glyphosate-based herbicides are extensively used and can be measured in aquatic ecosystems, including coastal waters. The effect of glyphosate on non-target organisms is an issue of worldwide concern. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of subchronic exposure to glyphosate in juvenile oysters, Crassostrea gigas. Yearling oysters were exposed to three concentrations of glyphosate (0.1, 1 and 100μgL(-1)) for 56days. Various endpoints were studied, from the individual level (e.g., gametogenesis and tissue alterations) to the molecular level (mRNA quantification), including biochemical endpoints such as glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase activities and malondialdehyde content. No mortality and growth occurred during the experiment, and individual biomarkers revealed only slight effects. The levels of gene expression significantly increased in oysters exposed to the highest glyphosate concentration (GST and metallothioneins) or to all concentrations (multi-xenobiotic resistance). These results suggested an activation of defence mechanisms at the molecular level.

  12. Influence of glyphosate in planktonic and biofilm growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Ilana Schneider; Baumeier, Nicole Carmo; Rosa, Rosimeire Takaki; Campelo, Patrícia Maria Stuelp; Rosa, Edvaldo Antonio Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of different concentrations of glyphosate (Rondup®) on planktonic and biofilm growth of P. aeruginosa. Aerobic and anaerobic cultures of P. aeruginosa ATCC®15442 inoculated in MHB + glyphosate (0.845 ppm, 1.690 ppm, 8.45 ppm, 16.90 ppm, 84.50 ppm, 169 ppm, 845 ppm, and 1690 ppm) and cultured in normoxia and anoxia, following their OD560nm every hour for 24 h. Biofilms of adapted cells were formed in the presence of glyphosate (0.845 to 1690 ppm) in normoxia and anoxia for 36 h. Glyphosate at concentrations higher than 84.5 ppm reduces the cell density of planktonic aerobic cultures (p < 0.05). However, these same concentrations favor the planktonic anaerobic growth (p < 0.05). On the other hand, the herbicide favors a slight growth of biofilms in a concentration-dependent manner up to 84.5 ppm (p > 0.05), and more pronounced over 169 ppm. Anaerobic biofilms have their growth more readily favored (p < 0.05), regardless of concentration. In a concentration-dependent manner, glyphosate interferes with the growth ability of P. aeruginosa ATCC®15442. PMID:25477933

  13. Assessment of toxicity of a glyphosate-based formulation using bacterial systems in lake water.

    PubMed

    Amorós, I; Alonso, J L; Romaguera, S; Carrasco, J M

    2007-05-01

    A new Aeromonas bioassay is described to assess the potential harmful effects of the glyphosate-based herbicide, Roundup, in the Albufera lake, a protected area near Valencia. Viability markers as membrane integrity, culturability and beta-galactosidase production of Aeromonas caviae were studied to determine the influence of the herbicide in the bacterial cells. Data from the multifactor analysis of variance test showed no significant differences (P>0.05) between A. caviae counts of viability markers at the studied concentrations (0, 50 and 100 mg l-1 of glyphosate). The effects of Roundup on microbial biota present in the lake were assessed by measuring the number of indigenous mesophilic Aeromonas in presence of different amounts of the herbicide at 0, 50 and 100 mg l-1 of glyphosate. In samples containing 50 and 100 mg l-1 of glyphosate a significant (P<0.05) increase in Aeromonas spp. counts and accompanying flora was observed. The acute toxicity of Roundup and of Roundup diluted with Albufera lake water to Microtox luminescent bacterium (Vibrio fischeri) also was determined. The EC50 values obtained were 36.4 mg l-1 and 64.0 mgl-1 of glyphosate respectively. The acidity (pH 4.5) of the herbicide formulation was the responsible of the observed toxicity.

  14. Prepubertal subchronic exposure to soy milk and glyphosate leads to endocrine disruption.

    PubMed

    Nardi, Jessica; Moras, Patricia Bonamigo; Koeppe, Carina; Dallegrave, Eliane; Leal, Mirna Bainy; Rossato-Grando, Luciana Grazziotin

    2017-02-01

    Lactose intolerance is characterized by low or inexistent levels of lactase, and the main treatment consists of dietary changes, especially replacing dairy milk by soy milk. Soy contains phytoestrogens, substances with known estrogenic activity, besides, glyphosate-based herbicides are extensively used in soy crops, being frequently a residue in soy beans, bringing to a concern regarding the consumption of soy-based products, especially for children in breastfeeding period with lactose intolerance. This study evaluated the pubertal toxicity of a soy milk rich feeding (supplemented or not with glyphosate, doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg) during prepubertal period in male rats. Endocrine disruption was observed through decrease in testosterone levels, decrease in Sertoli cell number and increase in the percentage of degenerated Sertoli and Leydig cells in animals receiving soy milk supplemented with glyphosate (both doses) and in animals treated only with soy milk. Animals treated with soy milk with glyphosate (both doses) showed decrease spermatids number and increase of epididymal tail mass compared to control, and decrease in the diameter of seminiferous tubules compared to soy milk control group. Animals receiving soy milk supplemented with 100 mg/kg glyphosate showed decrease in round spermatids and increase in abnormal sperm morphology, compared to control.

  15. Epidemiologic studies of glyphosate and non-cancer health outcomes: a review.

    PubMed

    Mink, Pamela J; Mandel, Jack S; Lundin, Jessica I; Sceurman, Bonnielin K

    2011-11-01

    The United States (US) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other regulatory agencies around the world have registered glyphosate as a broad-spectrum herbicide for use on multiple food and non-food use crops. To examine potential health risks in humans, we searched and reviewed the literature to evaluate whether exposure to glyphosate is associated causally with non-cancer health risks in humans. We also reviewed biomonitoring studies of glyphosate to allow for a more comprehensive discussion of issues related to exposure assessment and misclassification. Cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies on glyphosate and non-cancer outcomes evaluated a variety of endpoints, including non-cancer respiratory conditions, diabetes, myocardial infarction, reproductive and developmental outcomes, rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid disease, and Parkinson's disease. Our review found no evidence of a consistent pattern of positive associations indicating a causal relationship between any disease and exposure to glyphosate. Most reported associations were weak and not significantly different from 1.0. Because accurate exposure measurement is crucial for valid results, it is recommended that pesticide-specific exposure algorithms be developed and validated.

  16. Glyphosate acetylation as a specific trait of Achromobacter sp. Kg 16 physiology.

    PubMed

    Shushkova, Tatyana V; Vinokurova, Natalya G; Baskunov, Boris P; Zelenkova, Nina F; Sviridov, Alexey V; Ermakova, Inna T; Leontievsky, Alexey A

    2016-01-01

    The growth parameters of Achromobacter sp. Kg 16 (VKM B-2534 D), such as biomass and maximum specific growth rate, depended only on the source of phosphorus in the medium, but not on the carbon source or the presence of growth factors. With glyphosate as a sole phosphorus source, they were still 40-50 % lower than in media supplemented with orthophosphate or other organophosphonate-methylphosphonic acid. At the first time process of glyphosate acetylation and accumulation of acetylglyphosate in culture medium were revealed in this strain. Acetylglyphosate isolated from cultural liquid was identified by mass spectroscopy; its mass spectrum fully corresponded with that of chemically synthesized acetylglyphosate. Even poorer growth was observed in media with acetylglyphosate: although the strain was able to utilize this compound as a sole source of phosphorus, the maximum biomass was still 58-70 % lower than with glyphosate. The presence of acetylglyphosate in culture medium could also hinder the utilization of glyphosate as a phosphorus source. Therefore, the acetylation of glyphosate may be a specific feature of Achromobacter sp. Kg 16 responsible for its poor growth on this compound.

  17. Compositional analysis of grain and forage from MON 87427, an inducible male sterile and tissue selective glyphosate-tolerant maize product for hybrid seed production.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Tyamagondlu V; Breeze, Matthew L; Liu, Kang; Harrigan, George G; Culler, Angela H

    2014-02-26

    Conventional maize hybrid seed production has historically relied upon detasseling using either manual methods or semiautomated processes to ensure the purity of the hybrid cross. Monsanto Co. has developed biotechnology-derived MON 87427 maize with tissue-selective glyphosate tolerance to facilitate the production of hybrid maize seed. MON 87427 utilizes a specific promoter and intron combination to drive expression of CP4 EPSPS protein in vegetative and female reproductive tissues, conferring tolerance to glyphosate. This specific combination of regulatory elements also results in limited or no production of CP4 EPSPS protein in two key male reproductive tissues: pollen microspores, which develop into pollen grains, and tapetum cells that supply nutrients to the pollen. Thus, MON 87427 induces a male sterile phenotype after appropriately timed glyphosate applications. To confer additional benefits of herbicide tolerance and/or insect resistance, MON 87427 was combined with MON 89034 and NK603 by conventional breeding to develop MON 87427 × MON 89034 × NK603. The work described here is an assessment of the nutrient, antinutrient, and secondary metabolite levels in grain and forage tissues of MON 87427 and MON 87427 × MON 89034 × NK603. Results demonstrated that MON 87427 is compositionally equivalent to a near-isogenic conventional comparator. Results from this analysis established that the compositional equivalence observed for the single-event product MON 87427 is extendable to the combined-trait product, MON 87427 × MON 89034 × NK603. With increasing global demand for food production, the development of more efficient seed production strategies is important to sustainable agriculture. The study reported here demonstrated that biotechnology can be applied to simplify hybrid maize seed production without affecting crop composition.

  18. The role of L-type amino acid transporters in the uptake of glyphosate across mammalian epithelial tissues.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiaqiang; Li, Gao; Wang, Zhuoyi; Si, Luqin; He, Sijie; Cai, Jialing; Huang, Jiangeng; Donovan, Maureen D

    2016-02-01

    Glyphosate is one of the most commonly used herbicides worldwide due to its broad spectrum of activity and reported low toxicity to humans. Glyphosate has an amino acid-like structure that is highly polar and shows low bioavailability following oral ingestion and low systemic toxicity following intravenous exposures. Spray applications of glyphosate in agricultural or residential settings can result in topical or inhalation exposures to the herbicide. Limited systemic exposure to glyphosate occurs following skin contact, and pulmonary exposure has also been reported to be low. The results of nasal inhalation exposures, however, have not been evaluated. To investigate the mechanisms of glyphosate absorption across epithelial tissues, the permeation of glyphosate across Caco-2 cells, a gastrointestinal epithelium model, was compared with permeation across nasal respiratory and olfactory tissues excised from cows. Saturable glyphosate uptake was seen in all three tissues, indicating the activity of epithelial transporters. The uptake was shown to be ATP and Na(+) independent, and glyphosate permeability could be significantly reduced by the inclusion of competitive amino acids or specific LAT1/LAT2 transporter inhibitors. The pattern of inhibition of glyphosate permeability across Caco-2 and nasal mucosal tissues suggests that LAT1/2 play major roles in the transport of this amino-acid-like herbicide. Enhanced uptake into the epithelial cells at barrier mucosae, including the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, may result in more significant local and systemic effects than predicted from glyphosate's passive permeability, and enhanced uptake by the olfactory mucosa may result in further CNS disposition, potentially increasing the risk for brain-related toxicities.

  19. MEMS Based Micro Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Niranjan; Köhler, Elof; Enoksson, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Designing a flapping wing insect robot requires understanding of insect flight mechanisms, wing kinematics and aerodynamic forces. These subsystems are interconnected and their dependence on one another affects the overall performance. Additionally it requires an artificial muscle like actuator and transmission to power the wings. Several kinds of actuators and mechanisms are candidates for this application with their own strengths and weaknesses. This article provides an overview of the insect scaled flight mechanism along with discussion of various methods to achieve the Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) flight. Ongoing projects in Chalmers is aimed at developing a low cost and low manufacturing time MAV. The MAV design considerations and design specifications are mentioned. The wings are manufactured using 3D printed carbon fiber and are under experimental study.

  20. COCOA: tracking in aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Saad; Shah, Mubarak

    2006-05-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are becoming a core intelligence asset for reconnaissance, surveillance and target tracking in urban and battlefield settings. In order to achieve the goal of automated tracking of objects in UAV videos we have developed a system called COCOA. It processes the video stream through number of stages. At first stage platform motion compensation is performed. Moving object detection is performed to detect the regions of interest from which object contours are extracted by performing a level set based segmentation. Finally blob based tracking is performed for each detected object. Global tracks are generated which are used for higher level processing. COCOA is customizable to different sensor resolutions and is capable of tracking targets as small as 100 pixels. It works seamlessly for both visible and thermal imaging modes. The system is implemented in Matlab and works in a batch mode.

  1. How To Obtain Aerial Photographs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) maintains an informational data base of aerial photographic coverage of the United States and its territories that dates back to the 1940?s. This information describes photographic projects from the USGS, other Federal, State, and local government agencies, and commercial firms. The pictures on this page show a part of a standard 9- by 9-inch photograph and the results obtained by enlarging the original photograph two and four times. Compare the size of the Qualcomm Stadium, Jack Murphy Field, in San Diego, Calif, and the adjacent parking lot and freeways shown at the different scales. USGS Earth Science Information Center (ESIC) representatives will assist you in locating and ordering photographs. Please submit the completed checklist and a marked map showing your area of interest to any ESIC.

  2. Comparison of herbicide regimes and the associated potential environmental effects of glyphosate-resistant crops versus what they replace in Europe.

    PubMed

    Kleter, Gijs A; Harris, Caroline; Stephenson, Gerry; Unsworth, John

    2008-04-01

    While cultivation of transgenic crops takes place in seven of the EU member states, this constitutes a relatively limited part of the total acreage planted to these crops worldwide. The only glyphosate-resistant (GR) crop grown commercially until recently has been soybean in Romania. In addition, large-scale experimental European data exist for GR sugar and fodder beets, and, to a lesser extent, GR oilseed rape. These GR crops are likely to have an impact both on the use of herbicides and on the environmental impact of the latter. From the data on these GR crops, it appears that quantities of herbicides applied to GR beets are decreased while those on GR soybean are slightly increased compared with their conventional counterparts. Depending on the parameters used for prediction or measurement of environmental impacts of GR crops, generally similar or less negative impacts were observed compared with conventional crops. Favourable environmental effects of the glyphosate-containing herbicide regimes on GR crops appear feasible, provided appropriate measures for maintaining biodiversity and prevention of volunteers and gene flow are applied.

  3. Unmanned aerial survey of elephants.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Cédric; Lejeune, Philippe; Lisein, Jonathan; Sawadogo, Prosper; Bouché, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The use of a UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System) was tested to survey large mammals in the Nazinga Game Ranch in the south of Burkina Faso. The Gatewing ×100™ equipped with a Ricoh GR III camera was used to test animal reaction as the UAS passed, and visibility on the images. No reaction was recorded as the UAS passed at a height of 100 m. Observations, made on a set of more than 7000 images, revealed that only elephants (Loxodonta africana) were easily visible while medium and small sized mammals were not. The easy observation of elephants allows experts to enumerate them on images acquired at a height of 100 m. We, therefore, implemented an aerial strip sample count along transects used for the annual wildlife foot count. A total of 34 elephants were recorded on 4 transects, each overflown twice. The elephant density was estimated at 2.47 elephants/km(2) with a coefficient of variation (CV%) of 36.10%. The main drawback of our UAS was its low autonomy (45 min). Increased endurance of small UAS is required to replace manned aircraft survey of large areas (about 1000 km of transect per day vs 40 km for our UAS). The monitoring strategy should be adapted according to the sampling plan. Also, the UAS is as expensive as a second-hand light aircraft. However the logistic and flight implementation are easier, the running costs are lower and its use is safer. Technological evolution will make civil UAS more efficient, allowing them to compete with light aircraft for aerial wildlife surveys.

  4. Unmanned Aerial Survey of Elephants

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Cédric; Lejeune, Philippe; Lisein, Jonathan; Sawadogo, Prosper; Bouché, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The use of a UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System) was tested to survey large mammals in the Nazinga Game Ranch in the south of Burkina Faso. The Gatewing ×100™ equipped with a Ricoh GR III camera was used to test animal reaction as the UAS passed, and visibility on the images. No reaction was recorded as the UAS passed at a height of 100 m. Observations, made on a set of more than 7000 images, revealed that only elephants (Loxodonta africana) were easily visible while medium and small sized mammals were not. The easy observation of elephants allows experts to enumerate them on images acquired at a height of 100 m. We, therefore, implemented an aerial strip sample count along transects used for the annual wildlife foot count. A total of 34 elephants were recorded on 4 transects, each overflown twice. The elephant density was estimated at 2.47 elephants/km2 with a coefficient of variation (CV%) of 36.10%. The main drawback of our UAS was its low autonomy (45 min). Increased endurance of small UAS is required to replace manned aircraft survey of large areas (about 1000 km of transect per day vs 40 km for our UAS). The monitoring strategy should be adapted according to the sampling plan. Also, the UAS is as expensive as a second-hand light aircraft. However the logistic and flight implementation are easier, the running costs are lower and its use is safer. Technological evolution will make civil UAS more efficient, allowing them to compete with light aircraft for aerial wildlife surveys. PMID:23405088

  5. The DOE ARM Aerial Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Hubbe, John M.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Mei, Fan; Chand, Duli; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Andrews, Elisabeth; Biraud, S.; McFarquhar, Greg

    2014-05-01

    The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a climate research user facility operating stationary ground sites that provide long-term measurements of climate relevant properties, mobile ground- and ship-based facilities to conduct shorter field campaigns (6-12 months), and the ARM Aerial Facility (AAF). The airborne observations acquired by the AAF enhance the surface-based ARM measurements by providing high-resolution in-situ measurements for process understanding, retrieval-algorithm development, and model evaluation that are not possible using ground- or satellite-based techniques. Several ARM aerial efforts were consolidated into the AAF in 2006. With the exception of a small aircraft used for routine measurements of aerosols and carbon cycle gases, AAF at the time had no dedicated aircraft and only a small number of instruments at its disposal. In this "virtual hangar" mode, AAF successfully carried out several missions contracting with organizations and investigators who provided their research aircraft and instrumentation. In 2009, AAF started managing operations of the Battelle-owned Gulfstream I (G-1) large twin-turboprop research aircraft. Furthermore, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided funding for the procurement of over twenty new instruments to be used aboard the G-1 and other AAF virtual-hangar aircraft. AAF now executes missions in the virtual- and real-hangar mode producing freely available datasets for studying aerosol, cloud, and radiative processes in the atmosphere. AAF is also engaged in the maturation and testing of newly developed airborne sensors to help foster the next generation of airborne instruments.

  6. Application of Digital Image Correlation Method to Improve the Accuracy of Aerial Photo Stitching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Shih-Heng; Jhou, You-Liang; Shih, Ming-Hsiang; Hsiao, Han-Wei; Sung, Wen-Pei

    2016-04-01

    Satellite images and traditional aerial photos have been used in remote sensing for a long time. However, there are some problems with these images. For example, the resolution of satellite image is insufficient, the cost to obtain traditional images is relatively high and there is also human safety risk in traditional flight. These result in the application limitation of these images. In recent years, the control technology of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is rapidly developed. This makes unmanned aerial vehicle widely used in obtaining aerial photos. Compared to satellite images and traditional aerial photos, these aerial photos obtained using UAV have the advantages of higher resolution, low cost. Because there is no crew in UAV, it is still possible to take aerial photos using UAV under unstable weather conditions. Images have to be orthorectified and their distortion must be corrected at first. Then, with the help of image matching technique and control points, these images can be stitched or used to establish DEM of ground surface. These images or DEM data can be used to monitor the landslide or estimate the volume of landslide. For the image matching, we can use such as Harris corner method, SIFT or SURF to extract and match feature points. However, the accuracy of these methods for matching is about pixel or sub-pixel level. The accuracy of digital image correlation method (DIC) during image matching can reach about 0.01pixel. Therefore, this study applies digital image correlation method to match extracted feature points. Then the stitched images are observed to judge the improvement situation. This study takes the aerial photos of a reservoir area. These images are stitched under the situations with and without the help of DIC. The results show that the misplacement situation in the stitched image using DIC to match feature points has been significantly improved. This shows that the use of DIC to match feature points can actually improve the accuracy of

  7. Gibberellin-induced inhibition and promotion of sprouting in aerial tubers of Begonia evansiana Andr. in relation to photoperiodic treatment and tuber stage.

    PubMed

    Okagami, N; Esashi, Y; Nagao, M

    1977-01-01

    Gibberellic-acid (GA3) treatment, when applied within a period ranging from the start of short-day (SD) treatment until about 10 SD, GA3 strongly inhibited formation of aerial tubers in response to SD and brought about sprouting of developing aerial tubers. In contrast, when applied after about 10 SD or more, GA3 hastened the completion of the dormant state in the tubers and prolonged their dormancy. The dormancy-promoting effect of GA3 on detached tubers increased with their degree of maturation. Application of growth retardants N-dimethylaminosuccinamic acid (B-9), 2-isopropyl-4-dimethylamino-5-methylphenyl-1-piperidine carboxylate methyl chloride (AMO-1618) and 2-chloroethyltrimethylammonium chloride (CCC) to the cuttings delayed the onset of dormancy in the aerial tuber. When the retardants were applied to detached aerial tubers, however, such a delay of dormancy was not observed, and GA3 application did not inhibit sprouting in aerial tubers detached from CCC-treated cuttings.

  8. Overview of NASA aerial applications research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, B. J.

    1978-01-01

    Aerial applications research conducted by NASA seeks improvements in environmental safety, fuel efficiency, and aircraft productivity and safety. From 1976 to 1978, NASA studied the technology needs of the aerial applications industry and developed in-house research capabilities for meeting those needs. This paper presents the research plans developed by NASA. High potential appears to exist for near term contributions to the industry from existing NASA research capabilities in drift reduction, stall departure safety, and dry materials dispersal system technology. A brief, annotated bibliography is included listing documents recently produced as a result of NASA aerial applications research efforts.

  9. 7 CFR 611.21 - Availability of aerial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611... § 611.21 Availability of aerial photography. The National Cartography and Geospatial Center obtains necessary clearance for all aerial photography for NRCS. New aerial photography of designated areas in...

  10. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Replacing the Army’s Comanche Helicopter?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This strategic research project explores the possibility of unmanned aerial vehicles replacing the Comanche Helicopter in its doctrinal missions...capabilities of unmanned aerial vehicles , and analyzes unmanned aerial vehicles capabilities against those aviation critical tasks. This research will...Army’s current helicopters, this analysis reveals that unmanned aerial vehicles can only perform 67% of the reconnaissance critical tasks, 50% of the

  11. Real-time quantification of wild-type contaminants in glyphosate tolerant soybean

    PubMed Central

    Battistini, Elena; Noli, Enrico

    2009-01-01

    Background Trait purity is a key factor for the successful utilization of biotech varieties and is currently assessed by analysis of individual seeds or plants. Here we propose a novel PCR-based approach to test trait purity that can be applied to bulk samples. To this aim the insertion site of a transgene is characterized and the corresponding sequence of the wild-type (wt) allele is used as diagnostic target for amplification. As a demonstration, we developed a real-time quantitative PCR method to test purity of glyphosate tolerant (Roundup Ready®, RR) soybean. Results The soybean wt sequence at the RR locus was characterized and found to be highly conserved among conventional genotypes, thus allowing the detection of possibly any soybean non-trait contaminant. On the other hand, no amplification product was obtained from RR soybean varieties, indicating that the wt sequence is single copy and represents a suitable marker of conventional soybean presence. In addition, results obtained from the analysis of wt-spiked RR samples demonstrate that it is possible to use the real-time PCR assay to quantify the non-trait contamination with an acceptable degree of accuracy. Conclusion In principle this approach could be successfully applied to any transgenic event, provided that the wild-type sequence is conserved and single copy. The main advantages of the assay here described derive from its applicability to bulk samples, which would allow to increase the number of single seeds or plants forming the analytical sample, thus improving accuracy and throughput while containing costs. For these reasons this application of quantitative PCR could represent a useful tool in agricultural biotechnology. PMID:19267904

  12. Combining Human Computing and Machine Learning to Make Sense of Big (Aerial) Data for Disaster Response.

    PubMed

    Ofli, Ferda; Meier, Patrick; Imran, Muhammad; Castillo, Carlos; Tuia, Devis; Rey, Nicolas; Briant, Julien; Millet, Pauline; Reinhard, Friedrich; Parkan, Matthew; Joost, Stéphane

    2016-03-01

    Aerial imagery captured via unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is playing an increasingly important role in disaster response. Unlike satellite imagery, aerial imagery can be captured and processed within hours rather than days. In addition, the spatial resolution of aerial imagery is an order of magnitude higher than the imagery produced by the most sophisticated commercial satellites today. Both the United States Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the European Commission's Joint Research Center (JRC) have noted that aerial imagery will inevitably present a big data challenge. The purpose of this article is to get ahead of this future challenge by proposing a hybrid crowdsourcing and real-time machine learning solution to rapidly process large volumes of aerial data for disaster response in a time-sensitive manner. Crowdsourcing can be used to annotate features of interest in aerial images (such as damaged shelters and roads blocked by debris). These human-annotated features can then be used to train a supervised machine learning system to learn to recognize such features in new unseen images. In this article, we describe how this hybrid solution for image analysis can be implemented as a module (i.e., Aerial Clicker) to extend an existing platform called Artificial Intelligence for Disaster Response (AIDR), which has already been deployed to classify microblog messages during disasters using its Text Clicker module and in response to Cyclone Pam, a category 5 cyclone that devastated Vanuatu in March 2015. The hybrid solution we present can be applied to both aerial and satellite imagery and has applications beyond disaster response such as wildlife protection, human rights, and archeological exploration. As a proof of concept, we recently piloted this solution using very high-resolution aerial photographs of a wildlife reserve in Namibia to support rangers with their wildlife conservation efforts (SAVMAP project, http://lasig.epfl.ch/savmap ). The

  13. Quality assessment of digitized aerial photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koelbl, O.

    1998-09-01

    Manufacturer of photogrammetric instruments have developed specific scanners for aerial photographs, in parallel to printing industry. Main objective of this specific scanners is to guarantee a high geometric precision of plus or minus 0.001 to 0.002 mm for a standard format of original film documents of 23 X 23 cm and to scope with the high image resolution of the original images. Within a study of OEEPE (European Organisation for Experimental Photogrammetric Research) the most important photogrammetric scanners used in practice have been tested. Standard procedures are in development to analyze the dynamic range of the scanners, the image noise, the image sharpness and the color fidelity. Practical all photogrammetric scanners are based on CCD technology. The article presents the techniques applied for the testing of the scanners concerning the determination of the MTF of the scanners, the image noise, the dynamic range and the color fidelity and gives typical results for various scanners. The scanners tested are manufactured by Intergraph, Zeiss, Agfa, Helava and Wehrli.

  14. Glyphosate input modifies microbial community structure in clear and turbid freshwater systems.

    PubMed

    Pizarro, H; Vera, M S; Vinocur, A; Pérez, G; Ferraro, M; Menéndez Helman, R J; Dos Santos Afonso, M

    2016-03-01

    Since it was commercially introduced in 1974, glyphosate has been one of the most commonly used herbicides in agriculture worldwide, and there is growing concern about its adverse effects on the environment. Assuming that glyphosate may increase the organic turbidity of water bodies, we evaluated the effect of a single application of 2.4 ± 0.1 mg l(-1) of glyphosate (technical grade) on freshwater bacterioplankton and phytoplankton (pico, micro, and nanophytoplankton) and on the physical and chemical properties of the water. We used outdoor experimental mesocosms under clear and oligotrophic (phytoplanktonic chlorophyll a = 2.04 μg l(-1); turbidity = 2.0 NTU) and organic turbid and eutrophic (phytoplanktonic chlorophyll a = 50.3 μg l(-1); turbidity = 16.0 NTU) scenarios. Samplings were conducted at the beginning of the experiment and at 1, 8, 19, and 33 days after glyphosate addition. For both typologies, the herbicide affected the abiotic water properties (with a marked increase in total phosphorus), but it did not affect the structure of micro and nanophytoplankton. In clear waters, glyphosate treatment induced a trend toward higher bacteria and picoeukaryotes abundances, while there was a 2 to 2.5-fold increase in picocyanobacteria number. In turbid waters, without picoeukaryotes at the beginning of the experiment, glyphosate decreased bacteria abundance but increased the number of picocyanobacteria, suggesting a direct favorable effect. Moreover, our results show that the impact of the herbicide was observed in microorganisms from both oligo and eutrophic conditions, indicating that the impact would be independent of the trophic status of the water body.

  15. Glyphosate biomonitoring for farmers and their families: results from the Farm Family Exposure Study.

    PubMed

    Acquavella, John F; Alexander, Bruce H; Mandel, Jack S; Gustin, Christophe; Baker, Beth; Chapman, Pamela; Bleeke, Marian

    2004-03-01

    Glyphosate is the active ingredient in Roundup agricultural herbicides and other herbicide formulations that are widely used for agricultural, forestry, and residential weed control. As part of the Farm Family Exposure Study, we evaluated urinary glyphosate concentrations for 48 farmers, their spouses, and their 79 children (4-18 years of age). We evaluated 24-hr composite urine samples for each family member the day before, the day of, and for 3 days after a glyphosate application. Sixty percent of farmers had detectable levels of glyphosate in their urine on the day of application. The geometric mean (GM) concentration was 3 ppb, the maximum value was 233 ppb, and the highest estimated systemic dose was 0.004 mg/kg. Farmers who did not use rubber gloves had higher GM urinary concentrations than did other farmers (10 ppb vs. 2.0 ppb). For spouses, 4% had detectable levels in their urine on the day of application. Their maximum value was 3 ppb. For children, 12% had detectable glyphosate in their urine on the day of application, with a maximum concentration of 29 ppb. All but one of the children with detectable concentrations had helped with the application or were present during herbicide mixing, loading, or application. None of the systemic doses estimated in this study approached the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reference dose for glyphosate of 2 mg/kg/day. Nonetheless, it is advisable to minimize exposure to pesticides, and this study did identify specific practices that could be modified to reduce the potential for exposure.

  16. Future Role of Aerial Platforms at Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutts, J. A.; Pauken, M.; Hall, J. L.; Baines, K. H.; Grimm, R.

    2017-02-01

    This paper reviews the brief experience with deploying aerial platforms at Venus, the various mission concepts that have been proposed over the last three decades, and a vision for their application through 2050.

  17. Rangeland monitoring with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have great potential for rangeland management applications, such as monitoring vegetation change, developing grazing strategies, determining rangeland health, and assessing remediation treatment effectiveness. UAVs have several advantages: they can be deployed quickly...

  18. Analysis of Moms Across America report suggesting bioaccumulation of glyphosate in U.S. mother's breast milk: Implausibility based on inconsistency with available body of glyphosate animal toxicokinetic, human biomonitoring, and physico-chemical data.

    PubMed

    Bus, James S

    2015-12-01

    The non-peer-reviewed biomonitoring report published online by Moms Across America (MAA; Honeycutt and Rowlands, 2014) does not support the conclusion that glyphosate concentrations detected in a limited number of urine samples from women, men and children, or breast milk from nursing mothers, pose a health risk to the public, including nursing children. Systemically absorbed doses of glyphosate estimated from the MAA urine biomonitoring data and from other published biomonitoring studies indicate that daily glyphosate doses are substantially below health protective reference standards (ADIs; RfDs) established by regulatory agencies. The MAA report also suggested that detection of relatively high glyphosate concentrations in breast milk in 3 of 10 sampled women raised a concern for bioaccumulation in breast milk. However, the breast milk concentrations reported by MAA are highly implausible when considered in context to low daily systemic doses of glyphosate estimated from human urine biomonitoring data, and also are inconsistent with animal toxicokinetic data demonstrating no evidence of retention in tissues or milk after single- or multiple-dose glyphosate treatment. In addition, toxicokinetic studies in lactating goats have shown that glyphosate does not partition into milk at concentrations greater than blood, and that only a very small percentage of the total administered dose (<0.03%) is ultimately excreted into milk. The toxicokinetic studies also indicate that human glyphosate exposures estimated from urine biomonitoring fall thousands-of-fold short of external doses capable of producing blood concentrations sufficient to result in the breast milk concentrations described in the MAA report. Finally, in contrast to highly lipophilic compounds with bioaccumulation potential in breast milk, the physico-chemical properties of glyphosate indicate that it is highly hydrophilic (ionized) at physiological pH and unlikely to preferentially distribute into breast

  19. Reliable aerial thermography for energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, J. R.; Bowman, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    A method for energy conservation, the aerial thermography survey, is discussed. It locates sources of energy losses and wasteful energy management practices. An operational map is presented for clear sky conditions. The map outlines the key environmental conditions conductive to obtaining reliable aerial thermography. The map is developed from defined visual and heat loss discrimination criteria which are quantized based on flat roof heat transfer calculations.

  20. Locating buildings in aerial photos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James S.

    1994-01-01

    Algorithms and techniques for use in the identification and location of large buildings in digitized copies of aerial photographs are developed and tested. The building data would be used in the simulation of objects located in the vicinity of an airport that may be detected by aircraft radar. Two distinct approaches are considered. Most building footprints are rectangular in form. The first approach studied is to search for right-angled corners that characterize rectangular objects and then to connect these corners to complete the building. This problem is difficult because many nonbuilding objects, such as street corners, parking lots, and ballparks often have well defined corners which are often difficult to distinguish from rooftops. Furthermore, rooftops come in a number of shapes, sizes, shadings, and textures which also limit the discrimination task. The strategy used linear sequences of different samples to detect straight edge segments at multiple angles and to determine when these segments meet at approximately right-angles with respect to each other. This technique is effective in locating corners. The test image used has a fairly rectangular block pattern oriented about thirty degrees clockwise from a vertical alignment, and the overall measurement data reflect this. However, this technique does not discriminate between buildings and other objects at an operationally suitable rate. In addition, since multiple paths are tested for each image pixel, this is a time consuming task. The process can be speeded up by preprocessing the image to locate the more optimal sampling paths. The second approach is to rely on a human operator to identify and select the building objects and then to have the computer determine the outline and location of the selected structures. When presented with a copy of a digitized aerial photograph, the operator uses a mouse and cursor to select a target building. After a button on the mouse is pressed, with the cursor fully within

  1. Evaluation of various glyphosate concentrations on DNA damage in human Raji cells and its impact on cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Michelle; Peck, Connor; Meng, Wei; Heaton, Matthew; Robison, Richard; O'Neill, Kim

    2017-04-01

    Glyphosate is a highly used active compound in agriculturally based pesticides. The literature regarding the toxicity of glyphosate to human cells has been highly inconsistent. We studied the resulting DNA damage and cytotoxicity of various glyphosate concentrations on human cells to evaluate DNA damaging potential. Utilizing human Raji cells, DNA damage was quantified using the comet assay, while cytotoxicity was further analyzed using MTT viability assays. Several glyphosate concentrations were assessed, ranging from 15 mM to 0.1 μM. We found that glyphosate treatment is lethal to Raji cells at concentrations above 10 mM, yet has no cytotoxic effects at concentrations at or below 100 μM. Treatment concentrations of 1 mM and 5 mM induce statistically significant DNA damage to Raji cells following 30-60 min of treatment, however, cells show a slow recovery from initial damage and cell viability is unaffected after 2 h. At these same concentrations, cells treated with additional compound did not recover and maintained high levels of DNA damage. While the cytotoxicity of glyphosate appears to be minimal for physiologically relevant concentrations, the compound has a definitive cytotoxic nature in human cells at high concentrations. Our data also suggests a mammalian metabolic pathway for the degradation of glyphosate may be present.

  2. Identification of regulated genes conferring resistance to high concentrations of glyphosate in a new strain of Enterobacter.

    PubMed

    Fei, Yun-Yan; Gai, Jun-Yi; Zhao, Tuan-Jie

    2013-12-01

    Glyphosate is a widely used herbicide that inhibits 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity. Most plants and microbes are sensitive to glyphosate. However, transgenic-resistant crops that contain a modified epsps obtained from the resistant microbes have been commercially successful and therefore, new resistance genes and their adaptive regulatory mechanisms are of great interest. In this study, a soil-borne, glyphosate-resistant bacterium was selected and identified as Enterobacter. The EPSPS in this strain was found to have been altered to a resistant one. A total of 42 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the glyphosate were screened using microarray techniques. Under treatment, argF, sdhA, ivbL, rrfA-H were downregulated, whereas the transcripts of speA, osmY, pflB, ahpC, fusA, deoA, uxaC, rpoD and a few ribosomal protein genes were upregulated. Data were verified by quantitative real-time PCR on selected genes. All transcriptional changes appeared to protect the bacteria from glyphosate and associated osmotic, acidic and oxidative stresses. Many DEGs may have the potential to confer resistance to glyphosate alone, and some may be closely related to the shikimate pathway, reflecting the complex gene interaction network for glyphosate resistance.

  3. Occurrence of glyphosate in water bodies derived from intensive agriculture in a tropical region of southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Toledo, Jovani; Castro, Ricardo; Rivero-Pérez, Norma; Bello-Mendoza, Ricardo; Sánchez, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Glyphosate is an agrochemical widely used to control weeds. However, glyphosate spreads to water bodies by spray-drift, run-off and leaching, potentially causing detrimental effects on non-target biota. There is no information on the occurrence of this herbicide in water bodies near crop fields in Mexico, although it is the most commonly used pesticide in this country. To fill this gap, we quantified glyphosate in water bodies from twenty-three locations, including natural protected areas and agricultural areas in southern Mexico, during the dry and the rainy seasons. We expected (1) higher concentrations during the dry season due to reduced dilution by precipitation and, (2) absence of glyphosate in the protected areas. In agreement with our expectation, concentration of glyphosate was higher during the dry season (up to 36.7 μg/L). Nonetheless, glyphosate was detected in all samples-including natural protected areas. These results emphasize the need for an evaluation of the impact of glyphosate on native species as well as regulate its use.

  4. A Novel Naturally Occurring Class I 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-Phosphate Synthase from Janibacter sp. Confers High Glyphosate Tolerance to Rice

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Shu-yuan; Cui, Ying; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Zi-duo; Lin, Yong-jun; Zhou, Fei

    2016-01-01

    As glyphosate is a broad spectrum herbicide extensively used in agriculture worldwide, identification of new aroA genes with high level of glyphosate tolerance is essential for the development and breeding of transgenic glyphosate-tolerant crops. In this study, an aroA gene was cloned from a Janibacter sp. strain isolated from marine sediment (designated as aroAJ. sp). The purified aroAJ. sp enzyme has a Km value of 30 μM for PEP and 83 μM for S3P, and a significantly higher Ki value for glyphosate (373 μM) than aroAE. coli. AroAJ. sp is characterized as a novel and naturally occurring class I aroA enzyme with glyphosate tolerance. Furthermore, we show that aroAJ. sp can be used as an effective selectable marker in both japonica and indica rice cultivar. Transgenic rice lines were tested by herbicide bioassay and it was confirmed that they could tolerate up to 3360 g/ha glyphosate, a dosage four-fold that of the recommended agricultural application level. To our knowledge, it is the first report of a naturally occurring novel class I aroA gene which can be efficiently utilized to study and develop transgenic glyphosate-tolerant crops, and can facilitate a more economical and simplified weed control system. PMID:26754957

  5. Mutation by DNA shuffling of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase from Malus domestica for improved glyphosate resistance.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yong-Sheng; Xu, Jing; Peng, Ri-He; Xiong, Ai-Sheng; Xu, Hu; Zhao, Wei; Fu, Xiao-Yan; Han, Hong-Juan; Yao, Quan-Hong

    2013-09-01

    A new 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene from Malus domestica (MdEPSPS) was cloned and characterized by rapid amplification of cDNA ends to identify an EPSPS gene appropriate for the development of transgenic glyphosate-tolerant plants. However, wild-type MdEPSPS is not suitable for the development of transgenic glyphosate-tolerant plants because of its poor glyphosate resistance. Thus, we performed DNA shuffling on MdEPSPS, and one highly glyphosate-resistant mutant with mutations in eight amino acids (N63D, N86S, T101A, A187T, D230G, H317R, Y399R and C413A.) was identified after five rounds of DNA shuffling and screening. Among the eight amino acid substitutions on this mutant, only two residue changes (T101A and A187T) were identified by site-directed mutagenesis as essential and additive in altering glyphosate resistance, which was further confirmed by kinetic analyses. The single-site A187T mutation has also never been previously reported as an important residue for glyphosate resistance. Furthermore, transgenic rice was used to confirm the potential of MdEPSPS mutant in developing glyphosate-resistant crops.

  6. The effect of glyphosate on the growth and competitive effect of perennial grass species in semi-natural grasslands.

    PubMed

    Damgaard, Christian; Strandberg, Beate; Mathiassen, Solvejg K; Kudsk, Per

    2014-01-01

    Biodiversity within European semi-natural biotopes in agro-ecosystem is declining, and herbicide drift from neighbouring fields is considered as an important factor for the decline. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the growth and competitive interactions in a model system of two perennial grass species, Festuca ovina and Agrostis capillaris, are affected by sub-lethal doses of glyphosate in field margins. In a glasshouse experiment with ample nitrogen, the interspecific competitive interactions were found to be significantly affected by glyphosate; the competitive effect of F. ovina on A. capillaris increased and the competitive effect of A. capillaris on F. ovina decreased with increasing doses of glyphosate. Furthermore, the importance of interspecific competition increased with the glyphosate dose. The results of the study of competitive interactions are in agreement with the observed plant community dynamics at the field site where F. ovina was found to be more dominant in plots treated with a relatively high dose of glyphosate. Importantly, the effects of glyphosate on the plant community dynamics critically depended on the effect of glyphosate on the plant competitive interactions. The study concludes that the current practice in the environmental risk assessment of non-target effects of herbicides, where single species are tested in the greenhouse, may be inadequate for assessing the effect of herbicides in semi-natural plant communities. The presented methods can be used for assessing the importance of competitive interactions for the sensitivity of non-target plants to herbicides in risk assessment.

  7. Bioaccumulation of glyphosate and its formulation Roundup Ultra in Lumbriculus variegatus and its effects on biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Contardo-Jara, Valeska; Klingelmann, Eva; Wiegand, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    The bioaccumulation potential of glyphosate and the formulation Roundup Ultra, as well as possible effects on biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes in Lumbriculus variegatus were compared by four days exposure to concentrations between 0.05 and 5 mg L(-1) pure glyphosate and its formulation. Bioaccumulation was determined using (14)C labeled glyphosate. The bioaccumulation factor (BCF) varied between 1.4 and 5.9 for the different concentrations, and was higher than estimated from logP(ow). Glyphosate and its surfactant POEA caused elevation of biotransformation enzyme soluble glutathione S-transferase at non-toxic concentrations. Membrane bound glutathione S-transferase activity was significantly elevated in Roundup Ultra exposed worms, compared to treatment with equal glyphosate concentrations, but did not significantly differ from the control. Antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase was significantly increased by glyphosate but in particular by Roundup Ultra exposure indicating oxidative stress. The results show that the formulation Roundup Ultra is of more ecotoxicological relevance than the glyphosate itself.

  8. Expression of an evolved engineered variant of a bacterial glycine oxidase leads to glyphosate resistance in alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Nicolia, A; Ferradini, N; Molla, G; Biagetti, E; Pollegioni, L; Veronesi, F; Rosellini, D

    2014-08-20

    The main strategy for resistance to the herbicide glyphosate in plants is the overexpression of an herbicide insensitive, bacterial 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). A glyphosate resistance strategy based on the ability to degrade the herbicide can be useful to reduce glyphosate phytotoxicity to the crops. Here we present the characterization of glyphosate resistance in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) expressing a plant-optimized variant of glycine oxidase (GO) from Bacillus subtilis, evolved in vitro by a protein engineering approach to efficiently degrade glyphosate. Two constructs were used, one with (GO(TP+)) and one without (GO(TP-)) the pea rbcS plastid transit peptide. Molecular and biochemical analyses confirmed the stable integration of the transgene and the correct localization of the plastid-imported GO protein. Transgenic alfalfa plants were tested for glyphosate resistance both in vitro and in vivo. Two GO(TP+) lines showed moderate resistance to the herbicide in both conditions. Optimization of expression of this GO variant may allow to attain sufficient field resistance to glyphosate herbicides, thus providing a resistance strategy based on herbicide degradation.

  9. EPSPS Gene Amplification in Glyphosate-Resistant Italian Ryegrass (Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum) Populations from Arkansas (United States).

    PubMed

    Salas, Reiofeli A; Scott, Robert C; Dayan, Franck E; Burgos, Nilda R

    2015-07-01

    Glyphosate-resistant Italian ryegrass was detected in Arkansas (United States) in 2007. In 2014, 45 populations were confirmed resistant in eight counties across the state. The level of resistance and resistance mechanisms in six populations were studied to assess the severity of the problem and identify alternative management approaches. Dose-response bioassays, glyphosate absorption and translocation experiments, herbicide target (EPSPS) gene sequence analysis, and gene amplification assays were conducted. The dose causing 50% growth reduction (GR50) was 7-19 times higher for the resistant population than for the susceptible standard. Uptake and translocation of (14)C-glyphosate were similar in resistant and susceptible plants, and no mutation in the EPSPS gene known to be associated with resistance to glyphosate was detected. Resistant plants contained from 11- to >100-fold more copies of the EPSPS gene than the susceptible plants, whereas the susceptible plants had only one copy of EPSPS. Plants surviving the recommended dose of glyphosate contained at least 10 copies. The EPSPS copy number was positively related to glyphosate resistance level (r = 80). Therefore, resistance to glyphosate in these populations is due to multiplication of the target site. Resistance mechanisms could be location-specific. Suppressing the mechanism for gene amplification may overcome resistance.

  10. A Novel Naturally Occurring Class I 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-Phosphate Synthase from Janibacter sp. Confers High Glyphosate Tolerance to Rice.

    PubMed

    Yi, Shu-yuan; Cui, Ying; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Zi-duo; Lin, Yong-jun; Zhou, Fei

    2016-01-12

    As glyphosate is a broad spectrum herbicide extensively used in agriculture worldwide, identification of new aroA genes with high level of glyphosate tolerance is essential for the development and breeding of transgenic glyphosate-tolerant crops. In this study, an aroA gene was cloned from a Janibacter sp. strain isolated from marine sediment (designated as aroAJ. sp). The purified aroAJ. sp enzyme has a Km value of 30 μM for PEP and 83 μM for S3P, and a significantly higher Ki value for glyphosate (373 μM) than aroAE. coli. AroAJ. sp is characterized as a novel and naturally occurring class I aroA enzyme with glyphosate tolerance. Furthermore, we show that aroAJ. sp can be used as an effective selectable marker in both japonica and indica rice cultivar. Transgenic rice lines were tested by herbicide bioassay and it was confirmed that they could tolerate up to 3360 g/ha glyphosate, a dosage four-fold that of the recommended agricultural application level. To our knowledge, it is the first report of a naturally occurring novel class I aroA gene which can be efficiently utilized to study and develop transgenic glyphosate-tolerant crops, and can facilitate a more economical and simplified weed control system.

  11. Evaluation of carcinogenic potential of the herbicide glyphosate, drawing on tumor incidence data from fourteen chronic/carcinogenicity rodent studies.

    PubMed

    Greim, Helmut; Saltmiras, David; Mostert, Volker; Strupp, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Abstract Glyphosate, an herbicidal derivative of the amino acid glycine, was introduced to agriculture in the 1970s. Glyphosate targets and blocks a plant metabolic pathway not found in animals, the shikimate pathway, required for the synthesis of aromatic amino acids in plants. After almost forty years of commercial use, and multiple regulatory approvals including toxicology evaluations, literature reviews, and numerous human health risk assessments, the clear and consistent conclusions are that glyphosate is of low toxicological concern, and no concerns exist with respect to glyphosate use and cancer in humans. This manuscript discusses the basis for these conclusions. Most toxicological studies informing regulatory evaluations are of commercial interest and are proprietary in nature. Given the widespread attention to this molecule, the authors gained access to carcinogenicity data submitted to regulatory agencies and present overviews of each study, followed by a weight of evidence evaluation of tumor incidence data. Fourteen carcinogenicity studies (nine rat and five mouse) are evaluated for their individual reliability, and select neoplasms are identified for further evaluation across the data base. The original tumor incidence data from study reports are presented in the online data supplement. There was no evidence of a carcinogenic effect related to glyphosate treatment. The lack of a plausible mechanism, along with published epidemiology studies, which fail to demonstrate clear, statistically significant, unbiased and non-confounded associations between glyphosate and cancer of any single etiology, and a compelling weight of evidence, support the conclusion that glyphosate does not present concern with respect to carcinogenic potential in humans.

  12. Observing river stages using unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedzielski, Tomasz; Witek, Matylda; Spallek, Waldemar

    2016-08-01

    We elaborated a new method for observing water surface areas and river stages using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). It is based on processing multitemporal five orthophotomaps produced from the UAV-taken visible light images of nine sites of the river, acquired with a sufficient overlap in each part. Water surface areas are calculated in the first place, and subsequently expressed as fractions of total areas of water-covered terrain at a given site of the river recorded on five dates. The logarithms of the fractions are later calculated, producing five samples, each consisted of nine elements. In order to detect statistically significant increments of water surface areas between two orthophotomaps, we apply the asymptotic and bootstrapped versions of the Student's t test, preceded by other tests that aim to check model assumptions. The procedure is applied to five orthophotomaps covering nine sites of the Ścinawka river (south-western (SW) Poland). The data have been acquired during the experimental campaign, at which flight settings were kept unchanged over nearly 3 years (2012-2014). We have found that it is possible to detect transitions between water surface areas associated with all characteristic water levels (low, mean, intermediate and high stages). In addition, we infer that the identified transitions hold for characteristic river stages as well. In the experiment we detected all increments of water level: (1) from low stages to mean, intermediate and high stages; (2) from mean stages to intermediate and high stages; and (3) from intermediate stages to high stages. Potential applications of the elaborated method include verification of hydrodynamic models and the associated predictions of high flows as well as monitoring water levels of rivers in ungauged basins.

  13. Acquisition and registration of aerial video imagery of urban traffic

    SciTech Connect

    Loveland, Rohan C

    2008-01-01

    The amount of information available about urban traffic from aerial video imagery is extremely high. Here we discuss the collection of such video imagery from a helicopter platform with a low-cost sensor, and the post-processing used to correct radial distortion in the data and register it. The radial distortion correction is accomplished using a Harris model. The registration is implemented in a two-step process, using a globally applied polyprojective correction model followed by a fine scale local displacement field adjustment. The resulting cleaned-up data is sufficiently well-registered to allow subsequent straight-forward vehicle tracking.

  14. Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) control. The project was done as part of the requirements for a class in AI at NOVA Southeastearn University and a beginning project at NASA Wallops Flight Facility for a resilient, robust, and intelligent UAV flight control system. A method is outlined which allows a base level application for applying an Artificial Intelligence method, Fuzzy Logic, to aspects of Control Logic for UAV flight. One element of UAV flight, automated altitude hold, has been implemented and preliminary results displayed.

  15. Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Uninhabitated Aerial Vehicle Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) control. The project was done as part of the requirements for a class in AI at NOVA southeastern University and a beginning project at NASA Wallops Flight Facility for a resilient, robust, and intelligent UAV flight control system. A method is outlined which allows a base level application for applying an Artificial Intelligence method, Fuzzy Logic, to aspects of Control Logic for UAV flight. One element of UAV flight, automated altitude hold, has been implemented and preliminary results displayed.

  16. CFD Simulation of Aerial Crop Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Zamri; Qiang, Kua Yong; Mohd, Sofian; Rosly, Nurhayati

    2016-11-01

    Aerial crop spraying, also known as crop dusting, is made for aerial application of pesticides or fertilizer. An agricultural aircraft which is converted from an aircraft has been built to combine with the aerial crop spraying for the purpose. In recent years, many studies on the aerial crop spraying were conducted because aerial application is the most economical, large and rapid treatment for the crops. The main objective of this research is to study the airflow of aerial crop spraying system using Computational Fluid Dynamics. This paper is focus on the effect of aircraft speed and nozzle orientation on the distribution of spray droplet at a certain height. Successful and accurate of CFD simulation will improve the quality of spray during the real situation and reduce the spray drift. The spray characteristics and efficiency are determined from the calculated results of CFD. Turbulence Model (k-ɛ Model) is used for the airflow in the fluid domain to achieve a more accurate simulation. Furthermore, spray simulation is done by setting the Flat-fan Atomizer Model of Discrete Phase Model (DPM) at the nozzle exit. The interaction of spray from each flat-fan atomizer can also be observed from the simulation. The evaluation of this study is validation and grid dependency study using field data from industry.

  17. Effects of sub-lethal glyphosate concentrations on growth and photosynthetic performance of non-target species Bolboschoenus maritimus.

    PubMed

    Mateos-Naranjo, E; Perez-Martin, A

    2013-11-01

    Glyphosate use has increased over the last decades for the control of invasive plant species in wetland ecosystems. Although glyphosate has been considered 'environmentally' safe, its repeated use could increase the toxicological risk derived from diffuse pollution of surface and groundwater on non-target vegetation. A glasshouse study was designed to determine the effect produced by the addition of different sub-lethal doses of glyphosate herbicides (5-30 mg L(-1)) to the nutrient solution on the growth and photosynthetic apparatus of Bolboschoenus maritimus. Although B. maritimus plants were able to grow and survive after 20 d of exposure to glyphosate, the presence of this herbicide affected their growth, through a direct interaction with the root system. Particularly, at 30 mg L(-1) glyphosate, B. maritimus showed ca. 30% of biomass decrease. The reduction in B. maritimus growth was due to a decrease in net photosynthetic rate (A), which ranged between values ca. 11.5 and 5.5 μmol m(-2)s(-1) CO2 for the control and the highest glyphosate treatment, respectively. The response of A to glyphosate could be largely accounted for by non-stomatal limitations, since stomatal conductance was similar in all glyphosate treatments. Thus, A decrease was prompted by the negative impact of herbicide on photochemical (PSII) apparatus, the reduction in the absorption of essential nutrients, the reduction of photosynthetic pigments and possibly the reduction in Rubisco carboxilation capacity. Moreover, glyphosate excess caused photoinhibitory damage. In conclusion, in this study we have shown that herbicide water pollution could be a source of indirect phytotoxicity for B. maritimus.

  18. A review of the carcinogenic potential of glyphosate by four independent expert panels and comparison to the IARC assessment.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gary M; Aardema, Marilyn; Acquavella, John; Berry, Sir Colin; Brusick, David; Burns, Michele M; de Camargo, Joao Lauro Viana; Garabrant, David; Greim, Helmut A; Kier, Larry D; Kirkland, David J; Marsh, Gary; Solomon, Keith R; Sorahan, Tom; Roberts, Ashley; Weed, Douglas L

    2016-09-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) published a monograph in 2015 concluding that glyphosate is "probably carcinogenic to humans" (Group 2A) based on limited evidence in humans and sufficient evidence in experimental animals. It was also concluded that there was strong evidence of genotoxicity and oxidative stress. Four Expert Panels have been convened for the purpose of conducting a detailed critique of the evidence in light of IARC's assessment and to review all relevant information pertaining to glyphosate exposure, animal carcinogenicity, genotoxicity, and epidemiologic studies. Two of the Panels (animal bioassay and genetic toxicology) also provided a critique of the IARC position with respect to conclusions made in these areas. The incidences of neoplasms in the animal bioassays were found not to be associated with glyphosate exposure on the basis that they lacked statistical strength, were inconsistent across studies, lacked dose-response relationships, were not associated with preneoplasia, and/or were not plausible from a mechanistic perspective. The overall weight of evidence from the genetic toxicology data supports a conclusion that glyphosate (including GBFs and AMPA) does not pose a genotoxic hazard and therefore, should not be considered support for the classification of glyphosate as a genotoxic carcinogen. The assessment of the epidemiological data found that the data do not support a causal relationship between glyphosate exposure and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma while the data were judged to be too sparse to assess a potential relationship between glyphosate exposure and multiple myeloma. As a result, following the review of the totality of the evidence, the Panels concluded that the data do not support IARC's conclusion that glyphosate is a "probable human carcinogen" and, consistent with previous regulatory assessments, further concluded that glyphosate is unlikely to pose a carcinogenic risk to humans.

  19. Evaluation of spectrophotometric and HPLC methods for shikimic acid determination in plants: models in glyphosate-resistant and -susceptible crops.

    PubMed

    Zelaya, Ian A; Anderson, Jennifer A H; Owen, Micheal D K; Landes, Reid D

    2011-03-23

    Endogenous shikimic acid determinations are routinely used to assess the efficacy of glyphosate in plants. Numerous analytical methods exist in the public domain for the detection of shikimic acid, yet the most commonly cited comprise spectrophotometric and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods. This paper compares an HPLC and two spectrophotometric methods (Spec 1 and Spec 2) and assesses the effectiveness in the detection of shikimic acid in the tissues of glyphosate-treated plants. Furthermore, the study evaluates the versatility of two acid-based shikimic acid extraction methods and assesses the longevity of plant extract samples under different storage conditions. Finally, Spec 1 and Spec 2 are further characterized with respect to (1) the capacity to discern between shikimic acid and chemically related alicyclic hydroxy acids, (2) the stability of the chromophore (t1/2), (3) the detection limits, and (4) the cost and simplicity of undertaking the analytical procedure. Overall, spectrophotometric methods were more cost-effective and simpler to execute yet provided a narrower detection limit compared to HPLC. All three methods were specific to shikimic acid and detected the compound in the tissues of glyphosate-susceptible crops, increasing exponentially in concentration within 24 h of glyphosate application and plateauing at approximately 72 h. Spec 1 estimated more shikimic acid in identical plant extract samples compared to Spec 2 and, likewise, HPLC detection was more effective than spectrophotometric determinations. Given the unprecedented global adoption of glyphosate-resistant crops and concomitant use of glyphosate, an effective and accurate assessment of glyphosate efficacy is important. Endogenous shikimic acid determinations are instrumental in corroborating the efficacy of glyphosate and therefore have numerous applications in herbicide research and related areas of science as well as resolving many commercial issues as a consequence of

  20. Characterization of polyoxyethylene tallow amine surfactants in technical mixtures and glyphosate formulations using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tush, Daniel; Loftin, Keith A; Meyer, Michael T

    2013-12-06

    Little is known about the occurrence, fate, and effects of the ancillary additives in pesticide formulations. Polyoxyethylene tallow amine (POEA) is a non-ionic surfactant used in many glyphosate formulations, a widely applied herbicide both in agricultural and urban environments. POEA has not been previously well characterized, but has been shown to be toxic to various aquatic organisms. Characterization of technical mixtures using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) and mass spectrometry shows POEA is a complex combination of homologs of different aliphatic moieties and ranges of ethoxylate units. Tandem mass spectrometry experiments indicate that POEA homologs generate no product ions readily suitable for quantitative analysis due to poor sensitivity. A comparison of multiple high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and UHPLC analytical columns indicates that the stationary phase is more important in column selection than other parameters for the separation of POEA. Analysis of several agricultural and household glyphosate formulations confirms that POEA is a common ingredient but ethoxylate distributions among formulations vary.

  1. Characterization of polyoxyethylene tallow amine surfactants in technical mixtures and glyphosate formulations using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tush, Daniel; Loftin, Keith A.; Meyer, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the occurrence, fate, and effects of the ancillary additives in pesticide formulations. Polyoxyethylene tallow amine (POEA) is a non-ionic surfactant used in many glyphosate formulations, a widely applied herbicide both in agricultural and urban environments. POEA has not been previously well characterized, but has been shown to be toxic to various aquatic organisms. Characterization of technical mixtures using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) and mass spectrometry shows POEA is a complex combination of homologs of different aliphatic moieties and ranges of ethoxylate units. Tandem mass spectrometry experiments indicate that POEA homologs generate no product ions readily suitable for quantitative analysis due to poor sensitivity. A comparison of multiple high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and UHPLC analytical columns indicates that the stationary phase is more important in column selection than other parameters for the separation of POEA. Analysis of several agricultural and household glyphosate formulations confirms that POEA is a common ingredient but ethoxylate distributions among formulations vary.

  2. Polyoxyethylene Tallow Amine, a Glyphosate Formulation Adjuvant: Soil Adsorption Characteristics, Degradation Profile, and Occurrence on Selected Soils from Agricultural Fields in Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Mississippi, and Missouri.

    PubMed

    Tush, Daniel; Meyer, Michael T

    2016-06-07

    Polyoxyethylene tallow amine (POEA) is an inert ingredient added to formulations of glyphosate, the most widely applied agricultural herbicide. POEA has been shown to have toxic effects to some aquatic organisms making the potential transport of POEA from the application site into the environment an important concern. This study characterized the adsorption of POEA to soils and assessed its occurrence and homologue distribution in agricultural soils from six states. Adsorption experiments of POEA to selected soils showed that POEA adsorbed much stronger than glyphosate; calcium chloride increased the binding of POEA; and the binding of POEA was stronger in low pH conditions. POEA was detected on a soil sample from an agricultural field near Lawrence, Kansas, but with a loss of homologues that contain alkenes. POEA was also detected on soil samples collected between February and early March from corn and soybean fields from ten different sites in five other states (Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, Mississippi). This is the first study to characterize the adsorption of POEA to soil, the potential widespread occurrence of POEA on agricultural soils, and the persistence of the POEA homologues on agricultural soils into the following growing season.

  3. Endurance bounds of aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Aaron M.; Kroninger, Christopher M.

    2014-06-01

    Within the past few years micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) have received much more attention and are starting to proliferate into military as well as civilian roles. However, one of the major drawbacks for this technology currently, has been their poor endurance, usually below 10 minutes. This is a direct result of the inefficiencies inherent in their design. Often times, designers do not consider the various components in the vehicle design and match their performance to the desired mission for the vehicle. These vehicles lack a prescribed set of design guidelines or empirically derived design equations which often limits their design to selection of commercial off-the-shelf components without proper consideration of their affect on vehicle performance. In the current study, the design space for different vehicle configurations has been examined including insect flapping, avian flapping, rotary wing, and fixed wing, and their performance bounds are established. The propulsion system typical of a rotary wing vehicle is analyzed to establish current baselines for efficiency of vehicles at this scale. The power draw from communications is analyzed to determine its impact on vehicle performance. Finally, a representative fixed wing MAV is examined and the effects of adaptive structures as a means for increasing vehicle endurance and range are examined. This paper seeks to establish the performance bounds for micro air vehicles and establish a path forward for future designs so that efficiency may be maximized.

  4. The endocrine disruptor effect of the herbicides atrazine and glyphosate on Biomphalaria alexandrina snails.

    PubMed

    Omran, Nahla Elsayed; Salama, Wesam Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Atrazine (AZ) and glyphosate (GL) are herbicides that are widely applied to cereal crops in Egypt. The present study was designed to investigate the response of the snailBiomphalaria alexandrina(Mollusca: Gastropoda) as a bioindicator for endocrine disrupters in terms of steroid levels (testosterone (T) and 17β-estradiol (E)), alteration of microsomal CYP4501B1-like immunoreactivity, total protein (TP) level, and gonadal structure after exposure to sublethal concentrations of AZ or GL for 3 weeks. In order to study the ability of the snails' recuperation, the exposed snails were subjected to a recovery period for 2 weeks. The results showed that the level of T, E, and TP contents were significantly decreased (p ≤ 0.05) in both AZ- and GL-exposed groups compared with control (unexposed) group. The level of microsomal CYP4501B1-like immunoreactivity increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) in GL- and AZ-exposed snails and reach nearly a 50% increase in AZ-exposed group. Histological investigation of the ovotestis showed that AZ and GL caused degenerative changes including azoospermia and oocytes deformation. Interestingly, all the recovered groups did not return back to their normal state. It can be concluded that both herbicides are endocrine disrupters and cause cellular toxicity indicated by the decrease of protein content and the increase in CYP4501B1-like immunoreactivity. This toxicity is irreversible and the snail is not able to recover its normal state. The fluctuation of CYP4501B1 suggests that this vertebrate-like enzyme may be functional also in the snail and may be used as a biomarker for insecticide toxicity.

  5. Aerial photo SBVC1962". Photo no. 360. Low oblique aerial view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial photo -SBVC-1962". Photo no. 360. Low oblique aerial view of the campus, looking southeast. Stamped on the rear: "Ron Wilhite, Sun-Telegram photo, file, 10/22/62/ - San Bernardino Valley College, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  6. Integration of aerial imaging and variable-rate technology for site-specific aerial herbicide application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As remote sensing and variable rate technology are becoming more available for aerial applicators, practical methodologies on effective integration of these technologies are needed for site-specific aerial applications of crop production and protection materials. The objectives of this study were to...

  7. Generating object proposals for improved object detection in aerial images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, Lars W.; Schuchert, Tobias; Beyerer, Jürgen

    2016-10-01

    Screening of aerial images covering large areas is important for many applications such as surveillance, tracing or rescue tasks. To reduce the workload of image analysts, an automatic detection of candidate objects is required. In general, object detection is performed by applying classifiers or a cascade of classifiers within a sliding window algorithm. However, the huge number of windows to classify, especially in case of multiple object scales, makes these approaches computationally expensive. To overcome this challenge, we reduce the number of candidate windows by generating so called object proposals. Object proposals are a set of candidate regions in an image that are likely to contain an object. We apply the Selective Search approach that has been broadly used as proposals method for detectors like R-CNN or Fast R-CNN. Therefore, a set of small regions is generated by initial segmentation followed by hierarchical grouping of the initial regions to generate proposals at different scales. To reduce the computational costs of the original approach, which consists of 80 combinations of segmentation settings and grouping strategies, we only apply the most appropriate combination. Therefore, we analyze the impact of varying segmentation settings, different merging strategies, and various colour spaces by calculating the recall with regard to the number of object proposals and the intersection over union between generated proposals and ground truth annotations. As aerial images differ considerably from datasets that are typically used for exploring object proposals methods, in particular in object size and the image fraction occupied by an object, we further adapt the Selective Search algorithm to aerial images by replacing the random order of generated proposals by a weighted order based on the object proposal size and integrate a termination criterion for the merging strategies. Finally, the adapted approach is compared to the original Selective Search algorithm

  8. EVALUATION OF THE AGDISP AERIAL SPRAY ALGORITHMS IN THE AGDRIFT MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A systematic evaluation of the AgDISP algorithms, which simulate off-site drift and deposition of aerially applied pesticides, contained in the AgDRIFT model was performed by comparing model simulations to field-trial data collected by the Spray Drift Task Force. Field-trial data...

  9. Detection of acoustic, electro-optical and RADAR signatures of small unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hommes, Alexander; Shoykhetbrod, Alex; Noetel, Denis; Stanko, Stephan; Laurenzis, Martin; Hengy, Sebastien; Christnacher, Frank

    2016-10-01

    We investigated signatures of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) with different sensor technologies ranging from acoustical antennas, passive and active optical imaging devices to small-size FMCW RADAR systems. These sensor technologies have different advantages and drawbacks and can be applied in a complementary sensor network to benefit from their different strengths.

  10. The role of absorption and translocation as a mechanism of resistance to glyphosate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The continuous use of glyphosate has resulted in the selection of resistant biotypes in 13 different species. Three different mechanisms of resistance have been proposed for these biotypes: 1) Decreased translocation to meristems; 2) Mutation of target site (EPSPS) and 3) Increased expression of EP...

  11. Concentrations of glyphosate and atrazine compounds in 100 Midwest United States streams in 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, Barbara J.; VanMetre, Peter; Burley, Thomas E.; Loftin, Keith A.; Meyer, Michael T.; Nowell, Lisa H.

    2016-01-01

    Temporal patterns in glyphosate and atrazine concentrations were measured weekly by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) during the 2013 growing season in 100 small streams in the Midwestern United States. Concentrations also were measured every 2 days at a subset of 8 of the sites, all located in Missouri. Glyphosate was detected more frequently in urban streams than in agricultural streams, and at concentrations similar to those in streams with high agricultural land use in the watershed. In contrast, atrazine was detected more frequently and at higher concentrations in agricultural streams than in urban streams. This data release provides watershed characteristics and 2013 glyphosate and atrazine compound concentrations used in the analysis presented in the journal article “Similarities and differences in temporal fluctuations in glyphosate and atrazine in small Midwestern streams (USA) during the 2013 growing season,” by BJ Mahler, PC Van Metre, TE Burley, KA Loftin, MT Meyer, and LH Nowell, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.10.236.

  12. [Determination of glyphosate in heart blood of corpse by ion chromatography].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Wu, Bo; Lian, Houbin; Shi, Chaoou

    2012-04-01

    A method for the determination of glyphosate in human blood by ion chromatography was established. The protein in heart blood from a corpse was precipitated with acetonitrile. The large molecules and Cl(-) in the supernatant were removed by a Dionex OnGuard II RP column and a Dionex OnGuard II Ag column, respectively. The filtrate was separated on an IonPac AS-19 column with KOH solution as eluent produced online by an eluent generator (EG). A suppressor with external water mode and a conductivity detector for the detection were used. The linear range of this method was 10 - 100 mg/L with a correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.9999. The limits of detection (LOD, S/N = 3) and quantification (LOQ, S/N = 10) of glyphosate in blood were 0.12 mg/L and 0.39 mg/L, respectively. The recoveries ranged between 95.2% -109.1% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 5) of 1.2% - 3.7%. The glyphosate content in a heart blood sample from a corpse in an actual case was 508 mg/L detected by this method. This method is simple, sensitive, accurate, and can rapidly provided reliable clues and evidences for glyphosate poisoning cases. This method can meet the needs of public security work.

  13. Interactions of tillage and cover crop on runoff water quality from glyphosate-resistant cotton systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation management systems need to be optimized for glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine]-resistant cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) (GRC) in the lower Mississippi River alluvial basin to balance production goals with environmental concerns. A rainfall simulation study was conducted in experim...

  14. Glyphosate transport through weathered granite soils under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions--Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Candela, Lucila; Caballero, Juan; Ronen, Daniel

    2010-05-15

    The transport of Glyphosate ([N-phosphonomethyl] glycine), AMPA (aminomethylphosphonic acid, CH(6)NO(3)P), and Bromide (Br(-)) has been studied, in the Mediterranean Maresme area of Spain, north of Barcelona, where groundwater is located at a depth of 5.5m. The unsaturated zone of weathered - granite soils was characterized in adjacent irrigated and non-irrigated experimental plots where 11 and 10 boreholes were drilled, respectively. At the non irrigated plot, the first half of the period was affected by a persistent and intense rainfall. After 69 days of application residues of Glyphosate up to 73.6 microgg(-1) were detected till a depth of 0.5m under irrigated conditions, AMPA, analyzed only in the irrigated plot was detected till a depth of 0.5m. According to the retardation coefficient of Glyphosate as compared to that of Br(-) for the topsoil and subsoil (80 and 83, respectively) and the maximum observed migration depth of Br(-) (2.9 m) Glyphosate and AMPA should have been detected till a depth of 0.05 m only. Such migration could be related to the low content of organic matter and clays in the soils; recharge generated by irrigation and heavy rain, and possible preferential solute transport and/or colloidal mediated transport.

  15. Assessment of soybean injury from glyphosate using airborne multispectral remote sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Glyphosate drift onto off-target sensitive crops can reduce growth and yield, and is of great concern to growers and pesticide applicators. Detection of herbicide injury using biological responses is tedious, so more convenient and rapid detection methods are needed. The objective of thi...

  16. The effect of glyphosate on import into a sink leaf of sugar beet

    SciTech Connect

    Shieh, Wenjang; Geiger, D.R. )

    1990-05-01

    The basis for glyphosate inducted limitation of carbon import into developing leaves was studied in sugar beet. To separate the effects of the herbicide on export from those on import, glyphosate was supplied to a developing leaf from two exporting source leaves which fed the sink leaf. Carbon import into the sink leaf was determined by supplying {sup 14}CO{sub 2} to a third source leaf which also supplies carbon to the monitored sink leaf. Import into the sink leaf decreased within 2 to 3 h after glyphosate application, even though photosynthesis and export in the source leaf supplying {sup 14}C were unaffected. Reduced import into the sink leaf was accompanied by increased import by the tap root. Elongation of the sink leaf was only slightly decreased following arrival of glyphosate. Photosynthesis by the sink leaf was not inhibited. The results to data support the view that import is slowed by the inhibiti